Engraffia, Margie; Graff, Nora; Jezuit, Sue; Schall, Leslie
This report describes a program for improving active and critical listening skills for elementary age students. The targeted population consists of middle school children located near a large midwestern city. The problems of poor listening skills are documented through data revealing the need for attending interventions that have been put in…
Weger, Harry, Jr.; Castle, Gina R.; Emmett, Melissa C.
Perhaps no communication skill is identified as regularly as active listening in training programs across a variety of disciplines and activities. Yet little empirical research has examined specific elements of active listening responses in terms of their effectiveness in achieving desired interpersonal outcomes. This study reports an experiment…
Truesdale, Susanne P.
"Whole-body" activities are presented to teach first grade students what they must do to listen. The lesson plan covers the differences between hearing and listening, the active nature of listening, poor listening behaviors, and how teachers can tell who is a good listener. (JDD)
Decatur Public Schools District 61, IL.
Defining listening as the active and conscious process of hearing, recognizing, and interpreting or comprehending language, this guide provides numerous activities to promote the listening skills of primary and intermediate grade students. Specifically, the activities described seek to develop (1) the ability of young students to listen…
Cheon, Jongpil; Grant, Michael
The website "Active Listening" was developed within a larger project--"Interactive Web-based training in the subtleties of communication and active listening skill development." The Active Listening site aims to provide beginning counseling psychology students with didactic and experimental learning activities and interactive tests so that…
Teachers confronted with the task of teaching or assessing listening skills should realize that competence in listening is acquired by knowing and doing and is evidenced by appropriate feedback or response. Various state curriculum and assessment projects have identified and grouped competencies in listening according to function, such as sensing,…
Mineyama, Sachiko; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Takao, Soshi; Nishiuchi, Kyoko; Kawakami, Norito
We investigated whether supervisors' listening attitudes and skills were related to working conditions and psychological stress reactions among their subordinates. The subjects included 41 male supervisors and their immediate subordinates (n=203). The supervisors completed a short version of the Active Listening Attitude Scale (ALAS) consisting of two subscales: Listening Attitude and Listening Skill for Active Listening. The subordinates rated working conditions and their psychological stress reactions using selected scales of the Job Content Questionnaire and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill reported a more favorable psychological stress reaction than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude and Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Skill reported higher worksite support than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Skill. Those subordinates who worked under supervisors with a higher score of Listening Attitude reported higher job control than those who worked under supervisors with a lower score of Listening Attitude. A supervisor's listening attitude and skill appeared to affect psychological stress reactions predominantly among male subordinates than among female subordinates. Psychological stress reactions were lower among younger subordinates who worked under supervisors with high listening skill, while no statistically difference was observed among older subordinates. These findings suggest that a supervisor's listening attitude and skill have an effect on working conditions and psychological stress reactions among subordinates and that the effects vary according to the subordinates' sex and age.
Geiss, Patricia A.; Mayer, Rose
This report describes a program for improving listening skills, lack of which interferes with second language acquisition. The targeted population was first- and second-year Spanish students in one middle school and one high school. Intervention over 15 weeks included changes in the classroom environment (desk arrangement, improved lighting,…
Gonzalez, Paul F.; Ochoa, Cesar A.; Cabrera, Paola A.; Castillo, Luz M.; Quinonez, Ana L.; Solano, Lida M.; Espinosa, Franklin O.; Ulehlova, Eva; Arias, Maria O.
Research on teaching listening and speaking skills has been conducted at many levels. The purpose of this study was to analyze the current implementation of classroom and extracurricular activities, as well as the use of educational resources for teaching both skills in public senior high schools in the Amazon region of Ecuador, particularly in…
Mittendorf, Isaac; Cox, James R.
An active-learning activity has been designed to improve communication and listening skills of students in an upper-level biochemistry course. The activity was modeled after "Around the Horn", a popular television show that features a moderator asking questions to various sports reporters and assessing their answers in scored sessions.…
This article deals with teaching listening in English for Specific Purposes and more specifically in Military English. There are presented different approaches on listening and ways on teaching it in ESP. Active listening it is seen as one of the most productive and applicable approach in teaching ESP students how to master the skill of listening.…
Thistle, Jennifer J.; McNaughton, David
Purpose: This study examined the effect of instruction in an active listening strategy on the communication skills of pre-service speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Method: Twenty-three pre-service SLPs in their 2nd year of graduate study received a brief strategy instruction in active listening skills. Participants were videotaped during a…
In this article, the author discusses how to improve a child's motor skills through listening by using three simple steps--recording the auditory model, determining when to use the auditory model, and considering where to use the auditory model. She points out the importance of using a demonstration technique that helps learners understand the…
Huerta-Wong, Juan Enrique; Schoech, Richard
Social work education research frequently has suggested an interaction between teaching techniques and learning environments. However, this interaction has never been tested. This study compared virtual and face-to-face learning environments and included active listening concepts to test whether the effectiveness of learning environments depends…
Topornycky, Joseph; Golparian, Shaya
Active listening is an important communication skill in a variety of disciplines and professions, including the profession of Educational Development. In our roles as educational developers, we engage in a variety of processes, all of which rely heavily on the practice of active listening. Emerging strategies of active listening praxis have…
Rogers, Anissa; Welch, Benjamin
This article describes the implementation of a module that utilizes drama students to teach social work students how to use active listening skills in an interview environment. The module was implemented during a semester-long micro skills practice course taught to 13 undergraduate social work seniors in a western liberal arts university. Four…
Soltow, Willow Ann
Presents an interdisciplinary approach for helping students develop listening skills through activities which involve anticipating and paying attention to what is heard, as well as responding to oral directions. Provides worksheets, answers, and directions. (RT)
Mohler, Stephen C.
A college-level introductory Spanish instructional system uses an interactive combination of microcomputer and program-stop tape recorder to enhance students' listening skills. The basic content is listening drills, adapted to the computer medium. Microcomputer use adds considerable versatility to instructional materials, including such features…
This survey of "listening, as a receptive communication skill," summarizes major research on listening in the following areas: (1) "Scope and Extent of Listening," (2) " Literature on Listening," (3) "Relationships to Listening"--the interrelationships between listening and such factors as reading skills, intelligence, school achievement, cultural…
Teachers who conduct ensembles of any ability level know that many skills are required for students to successfully participate. Often neglected or overlooked are the skills that students must have to interact musically with their peers. This article focuses on listening as a way to help make successful ensemble collaboration a reality. The method…
Al-Yami, Salwa Ahmed
The present study aims to investigate the effectiveness of scaffolding interactive activities in developing the English listening comprehension skills of sixth grade elementary schoolgirls in Jeddah. The subjects in this study were 50 sixth grade pupils at an elementary school in Jeddah. They were assigned to two groups--control and…
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study was undertaken to investigate the correlation between EFL students strategic listening and their listening comprehension skills. Eighty secondary school students participated in this study. Participants' strategic listening was measured by a Strategic Listening Interview (SLI), a Strategic Listening Questionnaire (SLQ) and a…
McNaughton, David; Hamlin, Dawn; McCarthy, John; Head-Reeves, Darlene; Schreiner, Mary
The importance of parent-teacher communication has been widely recognized; however, there is only limited research on teaching effective listening skills to education professionals. In this study, a pretest-posttest control group design was used to examine the effect of instruction on the active listening skills of preservice education…
In this article, the author examines the use of songs to improve the listening skills of young learners. He first provides a theoretical discussion about listening skills and YLs, and about songs and YLs in general; second, he provides a sample lesson for what can be called "Listen and Do" songs for YLs at the beginning level. These are the songs…
Chang, Anna C-S.; Millett, Sonia
This study investigates the effects on developing L2 listening fluency through doing extended listening-focused activities after reading and listening to audio graded readers. Seventy-six EFL university students read and listened to a total of 15 graded readers in a 15-week extensive listening programme. They were divided into three groups (Group…
Suggests rethinking purposes of the second-language listening lesson, and examines ways the skill can be taught, not just practiced. The approach is based on micro-listening exercises that practice individual subskills of listening. Implications of authentic materials are examined, a case is made for teaching recognition of features of spontaneous…
Kotzman, Mandy; Kotzman, Anne
This step-by-step guide is a companion to the popular "Listen to Me, Listen to You: A Practical Guide to Self-Awareness, Communication Skills and Conflict Management" (New Expanded Edition, Penguin Books, 2007). It is designed for use by anyone working in communication skills and personal development training. Resource material is grouped under…
Sandall, Nancy; Schramm, Kathy; Seibert, Ann
This research project described strategies to improve listening skills. The targeted population consisted of kindergarten and second grade students in a midsized midwestern city who exhibited inadequate listening skills, which interfered with comprehension accuracy. Current research addresses the problem indicating teachers have an incorrect…
Mercer County Community Coll., Trenton, NJ.
This document is one of a series of student workbooks developed for workplace skill development courses or workshops by Mercer County Community College (New Jersey) and its partners. Designed to help employees empathize with others' points of view, the course is intended to teach employees to listen effectively, ask the right questions, and give…
Rezaei, Amir; Hashim, Fatimah
It is common practice in the classes that teachers focus on the outcome of listening rather than the listening process itself. Based on the interventionist view of language teaching, one of the ways proposed for teaching listening is to break it into smaller micro-skills and give learners awareness about them. But before giving awareness, it is…
Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret
While surveys of the employers of accountancy graduates highlight the significance of listening skills, relatively little is known about how such skills are utilised in accounting practice. The present study attempts to address the above lacuna by utilising the findings of in-depth interviews with Australian public accountants about the nature of…
Vargas, Juan Pablo Zúñiga
In twenty-first-century language teaching, the class should be student-centered and provide learners with skills that empower them in real-life situations. In this regard, it is commonly said that practice makes perfect. It therefore makes sense for teachers to ask themselves how much their listening activities demand from students and to evaluate…
Jahromi, Vahid Kohpeima; Tabatabaee, Seyed Saeed; Abdar, Zahra Esmaeili; Rajabi, Mahboobeh
Introduction One of the important causes of medical errors and unintentional harm to patients is ineffective communication. The important part of this skill, in case it has been forgotten, is listening. The objective of this study was to determine whether managers in hospitals listen actively. Methods This study was conducted between May and June 2014 among three levels of managers at teaching hospitals in Kerman, Iran. Active Listening skill among hospital managers was measured by self-made Active Listening Skill Scale (ALSS), which consists of the key elements of active listening and has five subscales, i.e., Avoiding Interruption, Maintaining Interest, Postponing Evaluation, Organizing Information, and Showing Interest. The data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS software, version 20, and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient, the chi-squared test, and multiple linear regressions. Results The mean score of active listening in hospital managers was 2.32 out of 3.The highest score (2.27) was obtained by the first-level managers, and the top managers got the lowest score (2.16). Hospital mangers were best in showing interest and worst in avoiding interruptions. The area of employment was a significant predictor of avoiding interruption and the managers’ gender was a strong predictor of skill in maintaining interest (p < 0.05). The type of management and education can predict postponing evaluation, and the length of employment can predict showing interest (p < 0.05). Conclusion There is a necessity for the development of strategies to create more awareness among the hospital managers concerning their active listening skills. PMID:27123221
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Shih, Timothy K.; Ma, Zhao-Heng; Shadiev, Rustam; Chen, Shu-Yu
Game-based learning activities that facilitate students' listening and speaking skills were designed in this study. To participate in learning activities, students in the control group used traditional methods, while students in the experimental group used a mobile system. In our study, we looked into the feasibility of mobile game-based learning…
The purpose of this study was to determine the status of listening activities as part of middle and high school instrumental music instruction. Research questions addressed teachers' beliefs in the importance of listening, outcomes associated with listening, type and frequency of listening activities, presence of guided listening, and challenges…
To help students develop needed skills in listening, teachers need to (1) encourage improved listening through interesting learning activities, (2) involve students in presenting ideas as well as listening to content, (3) vary kinds of learning experiences, (4) provide direct training in listening skills, (5) recognize differences in students'…
In this unit, students will use active listening, repeating, or paraphrasing what has been said to confirm understanding and introductory phrases and rising intonation to ask for clarification. They will also follow one, two, or multi-step instructions or give instructions to another person. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education)…
Stone, Gerard; Lightbody, Margaret; Whait, Rob
Accountants and employers of accounting graduates consider listening to be among the most important communication skills that graduates possess. However, accounting education practices that develop students' listening skills are uncommon. Further, in the case of listening development, the current approach of prescribing that educators do more to…
Smith, Beverly J.
This guide is designed for use in providing English-as-a-second-language training to adults. The first part of the package describes the development of these materials during a project to provide training in conversational English to refugees and migrants. Outlined next are procedures and activities for assessing student needs, taping student…
In this paper I want to focus on the difficulty perceived by seventh grade students in connection to listening activities in the English class, at some public schools in San Juan, Argentina. This analysis will lead to the examination of contextual factors that might act as unforeseen constraints on the language learning situation. (Contains 5…
Devine, Thomas G.; And Others
Designed to assess listening ability and to indicate implications for listening instruction, this instrument comes in a full and an abbreviated form. The 45 multiple choice items on the full form measure 53 specific listening skills in five categories: (1) simple recall, (2) recognizing and following spoken directions, (3) recognizing a speaker's…
This sequenced activity encourages active engagement with the idea that listening and speaking are not inherently separate or one-way activities. Listening involves both verbal, and nonverbal responses and perceptions of effective listening are tied to these patterns of response. These patterns of response impact both the immediate communication…
Mayor, Maria Jesus Blasco
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) and L2 listening comprehension skill training are bound together for good. A neglected macroskill for decades, developing listening comprehension skill is now considered crucial for L2 acquisition. Thus this paper makes an attempt to offer latest information on processing theories and L2 listening…
This paper describes the development of the Probability Evaluation Game (PEG): an innovative teaching instrument that emphasises the sophistication of listening and highlights listening as a key skill for accounting practitioners. Whilst in a roundtable format, playing PEG involves participants individually evaluating a series of probability terms…
Hazouri, Sandra Peyser; Smith, Miriam Frey
This workbook presents activities for training middle school student peer listeners. The first of the workbook's 10 chapters contains an introduction to peer listening. Activities include a pretest on a series of true-false statements called the "Peer Listening Inventory," defining the meaning of the words that describe the qualities of a peer…
This article reports on a small-scale study of the effect of metacognitive instruction on listeners' comprehension. Twenty adult, Japanese, advanced level EFL learners participated in a task sequence, or "pedagogical cycle", of predicting, monitoring, problem identification, and evaluating in each of five listening lessons aimed at promoting their…
Haeder, Kristina; Imbery, Christina; Weber, Reinhard
Disturbing factors like reverberation or ambient noise can impair speech recognition and raise the listening effort needed for successful communication in daily life. Situations with high listening effort are thought to result in increased stress for the listener. The aim of this study was to explore possible measures to determine listening effort in situations with varying background noise and reverberation. For this purpose, subjective ratings of listening effort, speech recognition, and stress level, together with the electrodermal activity as a measure of the autonomic stress reaction, were investigated. It was expected that the electrodermal activity would show different stress levels in different acoustic situations and might serve as an alternative to subjective ratings. Ten young normal-hearing and 17 elderly hearing-impaired subjects listened to sentences from the Oldenburg sentence test either with stationary background noise or with reverberation. Four listening situations were generated, an easy and a hard one for each of the two disturbing factors, which were related to each other by the Speech Transmission Index. The easy situation resulted in 100% and the hard situation resulted in 30 to 80% speech recognition. The results of the subjective ratings showed significant differences between the easy and the hard listening situations in both subject groups. Two methods of analyzing the electrodermal activity values revealed similar, but nonsignificant trends. Significant correlations between subjective ratings and physiological electrodermal activity data were observed for normal-hearing subjects in the noise situation. PMID:27698257
Harper, Ruth; Wilson, Nona L.
Helping skills are an essential component of today's student affairs practice. On a day-to-day basis, it is student affairs professionals who often work directly with students in need of mental health support and monitoring. "More Than Listening: A Casebook for Using Counseling Skills in Student Affairs Work" is written for those student affairs…
Declared the year of YouTube, 2007 was hailed as bringing a technological revolution in relation to pedagogy, one that may provide more convenient access to materials for language input, such as auditory, visual, and other types of authentic resources in order to promote advancement in all four language learning skills--listening, speaking,…
Last, Ellen; DeMuth, Robert J.
This guide contains classroom activities designed to encourage effective listening and speaking instruction at all developmental levels. Called the Comprehensive Listening and Speaking Sequence (CLASS), the activities are developed in three parts. The pre-kindergarten through grade three sequence provides learning activities that may be used by…
This study investigated the impact of metacognitive instruction on the listening skill, and metacognitive knowledge of a group of male students (N = 30) who were learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) in Iran. The study participants spoke Persian as a first language and were high-intermediate EFL learners. The participants received a guided…
Heflin, Virginia A.; And Others
A 2-year study was conducted in 1965-67 for the following purposes: (1) to evaluate the materials and techniques of a new beginning reading program, Listen Look Learn (LLL) Multi-Media Communication Skills System, in order to make revisions where necessary and (2) to compare the LLL system in its formative stage with that of basal reader programs.…
Hassani, Kaveh; Nahvi, Ali; Ahmadi, Ali
In this paper, we present an intelligent architecture, called intelligent virtual environment for language learning, with embedded pedagogical agents for improving listening and speaking skills of non-native English language learners. The proposed architecture integrates virtual environments into the Intelligent Computer-Assisted Language…
Ampa, Andi Tenri
One of the factors that may affect the success of the learning process is the use of learning media. Therefore, this research aimed to implement and evaluate the interactive multimedia learning materials using Wondershare Quizcreator program and audio materials in teaching "English listening skills". The research problem was whether or…
Tekin, Inan; Parmaksiz, Ramazan Sükrü
The purpose of this research is to examine whether using feature films in video lessons has an effect on the development of listening skills of students or not. The research has been conducted at one of the state universities in Black Sea region of Turkey with 126 students. The students watched and listened to only the sentences taken from…
Acat, M. Bahaddin; Demiral, Hilmi; Kaya, Mehmet Fatih
The main purpose of this study is to measure listening comprehension skills of 5th grade school students with the help of web based system. This study was conducted on 5th grade students studying at the primary schools of Eskisehir. The scale used in the process of the study is "Web Based Listening Scale". In the process of the study,…
Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg; Carr, James E; Lechago, Sarah A; Almason, Season M
The effects of vocal intraverbal training and listener training on the emergence of untrained categorization skills were evaluated. Five typically developing preschool children initially learned to name a number of previously unfamiliar visual stimuli. Each child then received one of two types of training. Intraverbal training involved reinforcing vocally emitted category names by the child in the presence of a spoken exemplar name. Listener training involved reinforcing the selection of visual stimuli by the child in the presence of a spoken category name. A multiple baseline design was used to evaluate the effects of training on each child's intraverbal category naming and stimulus selection. Pre- and posttests were used to assess additional emergent relations. Four of 5 participants did not demonstrate the emergence of any untrained relations. The current findings suggest that additional research is needed to determine the optimal sequencing of conditions in programs designed to teach categorization skills. PMID:18468279
Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro
Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener.
This study was carried out with 2 students with mild mental deficiency, one in 5th grade and the other in 6th grade of Turgut Özal Secondary School in Bulanik County of Mus Province. It was done during the spring semester of the 2014-2015 school year in order to observe the effect of multimedia-assisted instruction on listening skills of…
Martin, Laurie T; Schonlau, Matthias; Haas, Ann; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Rosenfeld, Lindsay; Buka, Stephen L; Rudd, Rima
Attention to the effect of a patient's literacy skills on health care interactions is relatively new. So, too, are studies of either structural or personal factors that inhibit or support a patient's ability to navigate health services and systems and to advocate for their own needs within a service delivery system. Contributions of the structural environment, of interpersonal dynamics, and of a variety of psychological and sociological factors in the relationship between patients and providers have long been under study. Less frequently examined is the advocacy role expected of patients. However, the complex nature of health care in the United States increasingly requires a proactive stance. This study examined whether four literacy skills (reading, numeracy, speaking, and listening) were associated with patient self-advocacy--a component of health literacy itself--when faced with a hypothetical barrier to scheduling a medical appointment. Although all literacy skills were significantly associated with advocacy when examined in isolation, greater speaking and listening skills remained significantly associated with better patient advocacy when all four skills were examined simultaneously. These findings suggest that speaking and listening skills and support for such skills may be important factors to consider when developing patient activation and advocacy skills.
Amin, Iman Abdul-Reheem; Amin, Magdy Mohammad; Aly, Mahsoub Abdul-Sadeq
The present study aimed at exploring the effectiveness of using explicit language learning strategy-based instruction in developing secondary school students' EFL listening comprehension skills. It was hypothesized that using explicit strategy-based instruction would develop students' EFL listening comprehension skill and its sub-skills. The…
Garinis, Angela C.; Glattke, Theodore; Cone, Barbara K.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that active listening to speech would increase medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent activity for the right vs. the left ear. Method: Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were evoked by 60-dB p.e. SPL clicks in 13 normally hearing adults in 4 test conditions for each ear: (a) in…
The purpose of the present study is twofold. The first goal is to examine the effects of phonological input on students' vocabulary learning. The second is to discuss how different pre-listening activities affect students' second language listening comprehension. The participants were first-year students at a Japanese university. There were two…
LeLoup, Jean W.; Ponterio, Robert
Listening is arguably the most important skill required for obtaining comprehensible input in one's first and any subsequent languages. Given the importance of listening, the natural assumption is that listening skills are actively taught to both first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. However, this is not necessarily so in L1 instruction…
Watson, Kittie W.
Discusses how listening is now being tested as three separate abilities, how test validity is affected by administration factors, criticisms of listening skills tests currently available, and criteria for development of reliable and valid listening tests. (MBR)
Although listening is the skill mostly used by students in the classrooms, the desired success cannot be attained in teaching listening since this skill is shaped by multiple variables. In this research we focused on listening anxiety, listening comprehension and impact of authentic tasks on both listening anxiety and listening comprehension.…
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
We investigated component language and cognitive skills of oral language comprehension of narrative texts (i.e., listening comprehension). Using the construction-integration model of text comprehension as an overarching theoretical framework, we examined direct and mediated relations of foundational cognitive skills (working memory and attention), foundational language skills (vocabulary and grammatical knowledge), and higher-order cognitive skills (inference, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring) to listening comprehension. A total of 201 first grade children in South Korea participated in the study. Structural equation modeling results showed that listening comprehension is directly predicted by working memory, grammatical knowledge, inference, and theory of mind and is indirectly predicted by attention, vocabulary, and comprehension monitoring. The total effects were .46 for working memory, .07 for attention, .30 for vocabulary, .49 for grammatical knowledge, .31 for inference, .52 for theory of mind, and .18 for comprehension monitoring. These results suggest that multiple language and cognitive skills make contributions to listening comprehension, and their contributions are both direct and indirect.
Gonzales, Cynthia I.; Brinckmeyer, Lynn; Beckman, Amy A.
The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of singing and non-singing experiences when students develop harmonic listening skills. Participants were children and adolescents who participate in a community youth choir (N = 21). Ages ranged from 9-16 years. The subjects were organized into four separate groups. All subjects attended…
This quasi-experimental study compared a strategies approach to second language listening instruction with an interactive approach, one combining a roughly equal balance of strategies and bottom-up skills. The participants were lower-intermediate-level Taiwanese university EFL learners, who were taught for 22 hours over one and a half semesters.…
Nah, Ki Chune; White, Peter; Sussex, Roland
Interest in the use of a mobile phone to access the Internet for learning English in general, and listening skills in particular, has been increasing in Korea over the last few years. However, there has been only a small number of studies on this topic in Korea. The present paper investigates the potential of using a mobile phone to browse…
Kruse, Janice, Comp.
Intended as a resource for teachers of grades four and up who are eager to improve their students' thinking skills while teaching their regular curriculum, this booklet contains activities that can be used to teach a new concept or to review a previously taught skill. Following an introduction, the topics of the chapters of the resource guide and…
Yu, Zhonggen; Chen, Wentao; Kong, Yong; Sun, Xiao Ling; Zheng, Jing
Clickers might own a bright future in China if properly introduced although they have not been widely acknowledged as an effective tool to facilitate English learning and teaching in Chinese contexts. By randomly selecting participants from undergraduates in a university in China over four academic years, this study aims to identify the impact of clickers on college English listening and speaking skills, and differences in cognitive loads between clickers and traditional multimedia assisted instruction modes. It was concluded that in China's college English class, compared with multimedia assisted instruction, (1) clickers could improve college English listening skills; (2) clickers could improve college English speaking skills; and (3) clickers could reduce undergraduates' cognitive loads in College English Class. Reasons for the results and defects in this study were also explored and discussed, based on learning, teaching and cognitive load theories. Some Suggestions for future research were also raised.
Canpolat, Murat; Kuzu, Sekvan; Yildirim, Bilal; Canpolat, Sevilay
Problem Statement: In formal educational environments, the quality of student listening affects learning considerably. Students who are uninterested in a lesson listen reluctantly, wanting time to pass quickly and the class to end as soon as possible. In such situations, students become passive and, though appearing to be listening, will not use…
Saarela, Miiamaaria V; Hari, Riitta
Human footsteps carry a vast amount of social information, which is often unconsciously noted. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed brain networks activated by footstep sounds of one or two persons walking. Listening to two persons walking together activated brain areas previously associated with affective states and social interaction, such as the subcallosal gyrus bilaterally, the right temporal pole, and the right amygdala. These areas seem to be involved in the analysis of persons' identity and complex social stimuli on the basis of auditory cues. Single footsteps activated only the biological motion area in the posterior STS region. Thus, hearing two persons walking together involved a more widespread brain network than did hearing footsteps from a single person.
Activity theory signifies that activities are at the centre of human behaviour and it has been used to study cognitive process in many fields. Nowadays, college English listening learning is time-consuming but less effective in China, so enhancing the performance of listening instruction is a very hot topic. Theoretically, activity theory is able…
English education has been officially incorporated into elementary-level education in Taiwan since 2001, with the key objective of reinforcing pupils' oral communication in class. Although oral interaction involves a degree of listening input from interlocutors, listening has unfortunately remained a marginalized area in Taiwanese elementary…
Picard, Michelle; Velautham, Lalitha
This paper describes an action research project to develop online, self-access listening resources mirroring the authentic academic contexts experienced by graduate university students. Current listening materials for English as an Additional Language (EAL) students mainly use Standard American English or Standard British pronunciation, and far…
Remijn, Gerard B; Kojima, Haruyuki
We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess listeners' cortical responses to a 10-s series of pure tones separated in frequency. Listeners are instructed to either judge the rhythm of these "streaming" stimuli (active-response listening) or to listen to the stimuli passively. Experiment 1 shows that active-response listening causes increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) in response to all stimuli, generally over the (pre)motor cortices. The oxy-Hb increases are significantly larger over the right hemisphere than over the left for the final 5 s of the stimulus. Hemodynamic levels do not vary with changes in the frequency separation between the tones and corresponding changes in perceived rhythm ("gallop," "streaming," or "ambiguous"). Experiment 2 shows that hemodynamic levels are strongly influenced by listening mode. For the majority of time windows, active-response listening causes significantly larger oxy-Hb increases than passive listening, significantly over the left hemisphere during the stimulus and over both hemispheres after the stimulus. This difference cannot be attributed to physical motor activity and preparation related to button pressing after stimulus end, because this is required in both listening modes.
Remijn, Gerard B.; Kojima, Haruyuki
We use near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to assess listeners' cortical responses to a 10-s series of pure tones separated in frequency. Listeners are instructed to either judge the rhythm of these ``streaming'' stimuli (active-response listening) or to listen to the stimuli passively. Experiment 1 shows that active-response listening causes increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) in response to all stimuli, generally over the (pre)motor cortices. The oxy-Hb increases are significantly larger over the right hemisphere than over the left for the final 5 s of the stimulus. Hemodynamic levels do not vary with changes in the frequency separation between the tones and corresponding changes in perceived rhythm (``gallop,'' ``streaming,'' or ``ambiguous''). Experiment 2 shows that hemodynamic levels are strongly influenced by listening mode. For the majority of time windows, active-response listening causes significantly larger oxy-Hb increases than passive listening, significantly over the left hemisphere during the stimulus and over both hemispheres after the stimulus. This difference cannot be attributed to physical motor activity and preparation related to button pressing after stimulus end, because this is required in both listening modes.
Listening as a skills objective must be emphasized throughout the curriculum of school subjects. There are a variety of learning opportunities which stress the art and skills of listening. In conversation, it might be embarrassing if the sender of the message needs to repeat content due to faulty listening habits. Or, the responder in response…
Analyzes factors that affect listening as it relates to school band and orchestra rehearsal. Suggest that music selection, rehearsal atmosphere, and techniques that isolate specific sounds and musical elements best help students develop music listening skills. Urges conductors to promote students' active involvement in rehearsals by balancing…
Ronald, Katharine; Roskelly, Hephzibah
The fact that students have not learned to listen may be the reason some of them cannot write. Listening is an active process requiring the same skills of prediction, hypothesizing, checking, revising, and generalization that reading and writing demand. The following three exercises were designed to make students conscious of themselves as active…
Erway, Ella Anderson
Scholars agree that listening is an active rather than a passive process. The listening which makes people achieve higher scores on current listening tests is "second speaker" listening or active participation in the encoding of the message. Most of the instructional suggestions in listening curriculum guides are based on this concept. In terms of…
Bernstein, Bianca L.; Bekki, Jennifer M.; Wilkins, Kerrie G.; Harrison, Caroline J.
Strong interpersonal communication skills (ICS) are critical for educational and career success, but effective and widely accessible training systems are not available. This paper describes a 2 × 2 × 2 experimental study of an online, educational simulation for practice with the ICS of active listening. The simulation was customized for women…
Kresovich, Brant M.
Ten speaking and listening activities designed to improve the intercultural communication skills of intermediate and advanced learners of English are presented. The activities are based on seven goals of cultural instruction: (1) sense of culturally controlled behavior; (2) interaction of language and social variables such as gender, age, and…
Polly, Lyle R.; Buscaglia, Michael J.
Presents a unit of activities based on a reading of Albert Camus'""L'Etranger." The activities, which can be adapted to various levels and abilities in an intermediate French class, incorporate reading, writing, listening and speaking skills. Sample materials and a bibliography are appended. (AM)
Zoghbor, Wafa Shahada
Teachers' understanding of the process of speech perception could inform practice in listening classrooms. Catford (1950) developed a model for speech perception taking into account the influence of the acoustic features of the linguistic forms used by the speaker, whereby the listener "identifies" and "interprets" these…
Rahimirad, Maryam; Shams, Mohammad Reza
This study investigates the effect of activating metacognitive strategies on the listening performance of English as a foreign language (EFL) university students and explores the impact of such strategies on their metacognitive awareness of the listening task. The participants were N = 50 students of English literature at the state university of…
The first in a series of manuals designed for instructor/coordinators of Richland College's cooperative education seminars, this volume contains two learning modules focusing on basic communication and speaking and listening skills. First, the manual examines the growing emphasis on communication skills in business, emphasizing changes in…
Cappuccilli, Ralph M.
James Kinneavy's "Theory of Discourse," already being used as the model for the writing assignments in the curriculum at St. Joseph's College, can also be used as the model for listening and speaking assignments. This proposed project would incorporate the following four-step procedure: (1) determining what is necessary in preparing…
Communicating effectively is a skill that must be taught and practiced--and the act of listening is a large part of this skill. According to the "International Journal of Listening," listening skills are imperative to reading comprehension and are valuable enough for "38 out of the 51 government entities to include listening skills as part of…
Simmons, Nathaniel; Tenzek, Kelly E.
The importance of listening continues to be reinforced within professional, personal, and popular cultural contexts. Despite the attention employers, teachers, scholars, and various popular outlets attend to listening, engaging students in activities that practice such skills remain challenging. Understanding that interpersonal competence requires…
Kendeou, Panayiota; Lynch, Julie S.; van den Broek, Paul; Espin, Chris A.; White, Mary Jane; Kremer, Kathleen E.
Developing the ability to read is a complex process involving a variety of skills, including both basic language skills and language comprehension skills. Although a balanced reading program would include the development of basic language and comprehension skills, comprehension has often been overlooked in early reading instruction. In this…
O.A.T.S.: What the Real World Needs in Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening: Occupational Application of Tasks and Skills in Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening--A Communication Application Curriculum and Tech Prep Project.
Bradley, Gaylene K.; Winfield, Collette M.
Enabling teachers at both the secondary and post-secondary levels to show students the communication skills they need to be successful in particular careers, this paper presents the reading, writing, speaking, and listening tasks routinely performed by persons working in a variety of occupational tasks. Occupations listed in the paper are divided…
The present research reports the findings of three experiments which explore how subtitles and advance organizers affect EFL learners' listening comprehension of authentic videos. EFL learners are randomly assigned to one of two groups. The control group receives no treatment and the experimental group receives the experimental conditions of one…
Cubillos, Jorge H.; Chieffo, Lisa; Fan, Chunbo
This study investigates the impact of a five-week intermediate Spanish course on the listening comprehension ability of 48 participants in short-term study abroad programs, and compares these groups with 92 peers enrolled in a similar course on the home campus. While both on-campus and study abroad groups experienced similar gains in listening…
Ahmed, Mumtaz; Yaqoob, Humaira; Yaqoob, Maimoona
Textbook evaluation means development of textbook that is based on rigorous research. In Pakistan text books are designed on communicative language teaching which focuses on communication. Morley (1991) has asserted that listening has a critical role in communication and in language acquisition because the better the students understand, the…
Lovett, Rosemary Elizabeth Susan; Kitterick, Padraig Thomas; Huang, Shan; Summerfield, Arthur Quentin
Purpose: To establish the age at which children can complete tests of spatial listening and to measure the normative relationship between age and performance. Method: Fifty-six normal-hearing children, ages 1.5-7.9 years, attempted tests of the ability to discriminate a sound source on the left from one on the right, to localize a source, to track…
Wu, Chao; Zheng, Yingjun; Li, Juanhua; Zhang, Bei; Li, Ruikeng; Wu, Haibo; She, Shenglin; Liu, Sha; Peng, Hongjun; Ning, Yuping; Li, Liang
Under a “cocktail-party” listening condition with multiple-people talking, compared to healthy people, people with schizophrenia benefit less from the use of visual-speech (lipreading) priming (VSP) cues to improve speech recognition. The neural mechanisms underlying the unmasking effect of VSP remain unknown. This study investigated the brain substrates underlying the unmasking effect of VSP in healthy listeners and the schizophrenia-induced changes in the brain substrates. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation and functional connectivity for the contrasts of the VSP listening condition vs. the visual non-speech priming (VNSP) condition were examined in 16 healthy listeners (27.4 ± 8.6 years old, 9 females and 7 males) and 22 listeners with schizophrenia (29.0 ± 8.1 years old, 8 females and 14 males). The results showed that in healthy listeners, but not listeners with schizophrenia, the VSP-induced activation (against the VNSP condition) of the left posterior inferior temporal gyrus (pITG) was significantly correlated with the VSP-induced improvement in target-speech recognition against speech masking. Compared to healthy listeners, listeners with schizophrenia showed significantly lower VSP-induced activation of the left pITG and reduced functional connectivity of the left pITG with the bilateral Rolandic operculum, bilateral STG, and left insular. Thus, the left pITG and its functional connectivity may be the brain substrates related to the unmasking effect of VSP, assumedly through enhancing both the processing of target visual-speech signals and the inhibition of masking-speech signals. In people with schizophrenia, the reduced unmasking effect of VSP on speech recognition may be associated with a schizophrenia-related reduction of VSP-induced activation and functional connectivity of the left pITG. PMID:28360829
McDonald, Nan L.; Fisher, Douglas; Helzer, Rick
Describes a unit that is appropriate for upper elementary and middle school students that focuses on jazz music using biographies about jazz musicians. Discusses the five sections of the unit. Includes a list of "Suggested Jazz Listening Samples," jazz videos, and a bibliography of resources related to jazz music. (CMK)
Bunta, Ferenc; Douglas, Michael
Purpose: The present study investigated the effects of supporting both English and Spanish on language outcomes in bilingual children with hearing loss (HL) who used listening devices (cochlear implants and hearing aids). The English language skills of bilingual children with HL were compared to those of their monolingual English-speaking peers'…
The study examined the role of oral language skills in reading comprehension and listening comprehension levels of 125 monolingual (L1) and bilingual (L2) English-speaking learners (M = 121.5 months, SD = 4.65) in England. All testing was conducted in English. The L1 learners outperformed their L2 peers on the measures of oral language and text…
Flanders, Ned A.
This paper analyzes verbal interactions between teachers and students to determine the speaking and listening skills which a teacher must possess. A simple model of classroom verbal interaction presents four possibilities: a) teacher-initiated conversation, b) pupil-initiated conversation, c) teacher response to pupil, and d) pupil response to…
Fedesco, Heather Noel
On average, people spend between 45% and 70% of their day listening to others (Johnson, 1996). Despite the frequency with which people engage in this activity, its importance in interpersonal interactions may go overlooked. Individuals can typically identify that listening is a valued communication skill (Bambacas & Patrickson, 2008; Papa,…
Eastman, Mary Kay; Safran, Joan S.
Instructions and illustrations support this discussion of learning activities designed to remediate deficiences and build skills in balance and/or motor skills for mildly handicapped students who may not have access to physical therapy or adaptive physical education. Appropriate for both regular and special classes, activities include arm…
McGrew, Linda G.; Lewis, Stephen D.
Indicates the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace and suggests that the business curricula offers many opportunities for incorporation of group activities. Offers steps for planning student group activities. (JOW)
The Mem-ExSpan Accelerative Cognitive Training System (MESACTS) is described as a cognitive skills training program for schools, businesses, and industry. The program achieves extraordinary academic results in reading and mathematics with 1 semester of input 4 days a week for 30 minutes a day. Intensive versions of the program accelerate…
Bennetts, Lee K; Flynn, Mark C
Many children with Down syndrome have fluctuating conductive hearing losses further reducing their speech, language and academic development. It is within the school environment where access to auditory information is crucial that many children with Down syndrome are especially disadvantaged. Conductive hearing impairment which is often fluctuating and undetected reduces the child's ability to extract the important information from the auditory signal. Unfortunately, the design and acoustics of the classroom leads to problems in extracting the speech signal through reduced speech intensity due to the increased distance of the student from the teacher in addition to masking from excessive background noise. One potential solution is the use of sound-field amplification which provides a uniform amplification to the teacher's voice through the use of a microphone and loudspeakers. This investigation examined the efficacy of sound-field amplification for 4 children with Down syndrome. Measures of speech perception were taken with and without the sound-field system and found that the children perceived significantly more speech in all conditions where the sound-field system was used (p < .0001). Importantly, listening performance with the sound-field system was not affected by reducing the signal-to-noise ratio through increasing the level of background noise. In summary, sound-field amplification provides improved access to the speech signal for children with Down syndrome and as a consequence leads to improved classroom success.
The assumption that letters automatically activate corresponding keypresses in skilled typing was investigated. Participants responded to the color of letters (congruent condition: responding finger was the one usually used to type the letter). Participants skilled in typing showed a congruency effect: unskilled participants did not (Experiment…
Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.
This workbook contains laboratory exercises designed for use in a college introductory biology course. Each exercise helps the student develop a basic science skill. The exercises are arranged in a hierarchical sequence suggesting the scientific method. Each skill facilitates the development of succeeding ones. Activities include Use of the…
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
In this time of global awareness, music is an aural pathway for understanding the world in which people live. It is a means of social and self definition and a bridge that connects young people to the others in their neighborhoods, school groups, and wider world communities. When teachers lead children and youth into deep-listening experiences…
This resource for life skills activities for adolescents with special needs covers aspects of interpersonal relationships, communication skills, academic and school skills, practical living skills, vocational skills, problem-solving skills, and lifestyle choices. Included are 190 illustrated activity sheets with related exercises, discussion…
Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai
The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…
Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.
This guide, intended to assist school districts as they implement classroom activities and assessment procedures related to student learning objectives (for all grades) in the language arts areas of speaking and listening, reflects what students should know and be able to do in language arts as a consequence of their schooling. The guide is in…
Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.
Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…
This paper reviews the role of multimedia vocabulary annotation (MVA) in facilitating second language (L2) reading and listening activities. It examines the multimedia learning and multimedia language learning theories that underlie the MVA research, synthesizes the findings on MVA in the last decade, and identifies three underresearched areas on…
Adams, W. Clifton; Cox, E. Sam
This article presents the results of a content analysis of 10 current public-speaking textbooks to determine the nature and extent to which they teach listening in an integrated approach with public speaking as an oral activity. Lewis and Nichols (1965) predicted that listening would increasingly be taught especially in an integrated approach with…
Silverstone, David M.
This paper is the result of a lecture series given at the Institute for New Dimensions, Palm Beach Community College, Lake Worth, Florida. The main objective was to provide direction for development of better listening skills by senior citizens and challenge each listener to change personal habits, thereby establishing new patterns for individual…
While music triggers many physiological and psychological reactions, the underlying neural basis of perceived and experienced emotions during music listening remains poorly understood. Therefore, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), I conducted a comparative study of the different brain areas involved in perceiving and feeling emotions during music listening. I measured fMRI signals while participants assessed the emotional expression of music (perceived emotion) and their emotional responses to music (felt emotion). I found that cortical areas including the prefrontal, auditory, cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices were consistently activated by the perceived and felt emotional tasks. Moreover, activity in the inferior frontal gyrus increased more during the perceived emotion task than during a passive listening task. In addition, the precuneus showed greater activity during the felt emotion task than during a passive listening task. The findings reveal that the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and the precuneus are important areas for the perception of the emotional content of music as well as for the emotional response evoked in the listener. Furthermore, I propose that the precuneus, a brain region associated with self-representation, might be involved in assessing emotional responses.
Mandel, Anne; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta
Although the main function of speech is communication, the brain bases of speaking and listening are typically studied in single subjects, leaving unsettled how brain function supports interactive vocal exchange. Here we used whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor modulation of sensorimotor brain rhythms related to the speaker vs. listener roles during natural conversation. Nine dyads of healthy adults were recruited. The partners of a dyad were engaged in live conversations via an audio link while their brain activity was measured simultaneously in two separate MEG laboratories. The levels of ∼10-Hz and ∼20-Hz rolandic oscillations depended on the speaker vs. listener role. In the left rolandic cortex, these oscillations were consistently (by ∼20%) weaker during speaking than listening. At the turn changes in conversation, the level of the ∼10Hz oscillations enhanced transiently around 1.0 or 2.3s before the end of the partner's turn. Our findings indicate left-hemisphere-dominant involvement of the sensorimotor cortex during own speech in natural conversation. The ∼10-Hz modulations could be related to preparation for starting one's own turn, already before the partner's turn has finished.
Mandel, Anne; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Parkkonen, Lauri; Hari, Riitta
Although the main function of speech is communication, the brain bases of speaking and listening are typically studied in single subjects, leaving unsettled how brain function supports interactive vocal exchange. Here we used whole-scalp magnetoencephalography (MEG) to monitor modulation of sensorimotor brain rhythms related to the speaker vs. listener roles during natural conversation. Nine dyads of healthy adults were recruited. The partners of a dyad were engaged in live conversations via an audio link while their brain activity was measured simultaneously in two separate MEG laboratories. The levels of ∼10-Hz and ∼20-Hz rolandic oscillations depended on the speaker vs. listener role. In the left rolandic cortex, these oscillations were consistently (by ∼20%) weaker during speaking than listening. At the turn changes in conversation, the level of the ∼10 Hz oscillations enhanced transiently around 1.0 or 2.3 s before the end of the partner’s turn. Our findings indicate left-hemisphere-dominant involvement of the sensorimotor cortex during own speech in natural conversation. The ∼10-Hz modulations could be related to preparation for starting one’s own turn, already before the partner’s turn has finished. PMID:26742643
In recent decades the United States has experienced a dramatic increase in children entering school whose home language is not English. If they are to achieve to their full potential, these children need direct and frequent interaction with individuals who can provide English language learners with accurate feedback. Creative drama activities that…
REPORT Dynamics of electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...information about the sound intensity of music . ECoG activity in the high gamma band recorded from the posterior part of the superior temporal 1. REPORT...ECoG) activity in human temporal and frontal cortical areas during music listening Report Title ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that brain
Nah, Ki Chune
Using the Internet through a mobile phone for learning English as a foreign language (EFL) listening skills has significant potential, and language learners in South Korea hold clearly positive attitudes towards using this. However, the barriers discouraging language learners from using the Internet for EFL listening have not yet been thoroughly…
Beal, Deryk S; Cheyne, Douglas O; Gracco, Vincent L; Quraan, Maher A; Taylor, Margot J; De Nil, Luc F
We used magnetoencephalography to investigate auditory evoked responses to speech vocalizations and non-speech tones in adults who do and do not stutter. Neuromagnetic field patterns were recorded as participants listened to a 1 kHz tone, playback of their own productions of the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words, and actively generated the vowel /i/ and vowel-initial words. Activation of the auditory cortex at approximately 50 and 100 ms was observed during all tasks. A reduction in the peak amplitudes of the M50 and M100 components was observed during the active generation versus passive listening tasks dependent on the stimuli. Adults who stutter did not differ in the amount of speech-induced auditory suppression relative to fluent speakers. Adults who stutter had shorter M100 latencies for the actively generated speaking tasks in the right hemisphere relative to the left hemisphere but the fluent speakers showed similar latencies across hemispheres. During passive listening tasks, adults who stutter had longer M50 and M100 latencies than fluent speakers. The results suggest that there are timing, rather than amplitude, differences in auditory processing during speech in adults who stutter and are discussed in relation to hypotheses of auditory-motor integration breakdown in stuttering.
Studer, Jeannine R.
Parent-teacher conferences are an opportunity to communicate a belief in the value of a successful partnership between home and school. Productive parent-teacher conferences require effective communication techniques. Teachers can facilitate the process with active listening, positive use of attending skills, good questioning technique, and…
Green, Diana J.; Blaszczynski, Carol
Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Soft skills building activities…
The study explains the process of learners' listening comprehension within Halliday's information theory in functional grammar, including the skills of identifying focuses while listening in college English teaching. Identifying information focuses in listening is proved to improve the students' communicative listening ability by the means of a…
This paper reports on the findings of an investigation into the perceptions held by English students aged 16-18 years regarding listening comprehension in French and how they view the reasons behind their success or lack of it in this skill. The study suggests that listening comprehension is the skill in which students in the post-compulsory phase…
Al-Musalli, Alaa M.
Note taking (NT) in lectures is as active a skill as listening, which stimulates it, and as challenging as writing, which is the end product. Literature on lecture NT misses an integration of the processes involved in listening with those in NT. In this article, a taxonomy is proposed of lecture NT skills and subskills based on a similar list…
Pearce, C G
According to various studies, listening ranks as one of the most important communication skills. Yet studies also indicate that this is an area where most people--managers and staff members alike--are lacking. One way to improve listening effectiveness is through a formal listening training program. However, most medical institutions do not offer such programs. Because of the importance of listening, clinical laboratory managers cannot afford to wait for these formal programs. Fortunately, there is a two-dimensional action plan that managers can use to improve both their own listening skills and those of their staff members. This article describes the elements of this two-part action plan. The first part focuses on how managers can improve the speaker-listener exchange as speakers. This involves considering how and where the message is communicated. The second part of the plan examines how managers can assist effective listening as listeners. This involves creating an environment conducive to listening and learning how to give active feedback. Finally, the article examines how individual differences can affect a person's listening skills.
Berl, Madison M; Duke, Elizabeth S; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R; Moore, Erin N; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J; Gaillard, William Davis
Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task performance on fMRI activation and hemispheric laterality. Areas of supramodal language processing are identified, with the most robust region being left-lateralized activation along the superior temporal sulcus. Functionally, this conjunction has a role in semantic and syntactic processing, leading us to refer to this conjunction as "comprehension cortex." Different from adults, supramodal areas for children include less extensive inferior frontal gyrus but more extensive right cerebellum and right temporal pole. Broader neuroanatomical pathways are recruited for reading, reflecting the more active processing and larger set of cognitive demands needed for reading compared to listening to stories. ROI analyses reveal that reading is a less lateralized language task than listening in inferior frontal and superior temporal areas, which likely reflects the difficulty of the task as children in this study are still developing their reading skills. For listening to stories, temporal activation is stable by age four with no correlations with age, neuropsychological skills or post-task performance. In contrast, frontal activation during listening to stories occurs more often in older children, and frontal activation is positively correlated with better performance on comprehension questions, suggesting that the activation of frontal networks may reflect greater integration and depth of story processing.
Pellico, Linda Honan; Duffy, Thomas C; Fennie, Kristopher P; Swan, Katharine A
Inspection/observation and listening/auscultation are essential skills for health care providers. Given that observational and auditory skills take time to perfect, there is concern about accelerated students' ability to attain proficiency in a timely manner. This article describes the impact of music auditory training (MAT) for nursing students in an accelerated master's entry program on their competence in detecting heart, lung, and bowel sounds. During the first semester, a two-hour MAT session with focused attention on pitch, timbre, rhythm, and masking was held for the intervention group; a control group received traditional instruction only. Students in the music intervention group demonstrated significant improvement in hearing bowel, heart, and lung sounds (p < .0001). The ability to label normal and abnormal heart sounds doubled; interpretation of normal and abnormal lung sounds improved by 50 percent; and bowel sounds interpretation improved threefold, demonstrating the effect of an adult-oriented, creative, yet practical method for teaching auscultation.
Holland, Scott K.
Abstract Comprehension of narrative stories plays an important role in the development of language skills. In this study, we compared brain activity elicited by a passive-listening version and an active-response (AR) version of a narrative comprehension task by using independent component (IC) analysis on functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 21 adolescents (ages 14–18 years). Furthermore, we explored differences in functional network connectivity engaged by two versions of the task and investigated the relationship between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between each pair of ICs. Despite similar brain region involvements in auditory, temporoparietal, and frontoparietal language networks for both versions, the AR version engages some additional network elements including the left dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and sensorimotor networks. These additional involvements are likely associated with working memory and maintenance of attention, which can be attributed to the differences in cognitive strategic aspects of the two versions. We found significant positive correlation between the online response time and the strength of connectivity between an IC in left inferior frontal region and an IC in sensorimotor region. An explanation for this finding is that longer reaction time indicates stronger connection between the frontal and sensorimotor networks caused by increased activation in adolescents who require more effort to complete the task. PMID:24689887
Adults who are skilled in Empathic Listening are able to remove the barriers that often position elders and youth in opposing camps. The five components of Empathic Listening in the Nonviolent Crisis Intervention[R] program are highlighted.
Ferguson, Melanie A.; Hall, Rebecca L.; Riley, Alison; Moore, David R.
Purpose: Parental reports of communication, listening, and behavior in children receiving a clinical diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI) or auditory processing disorder (APD) were compared with direct tests of intelligence, memory, language, phonology, literacy, and speech intelligibility. The primary aim was to identify whether there…
Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.
Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…
Medical students deserve training in active listening and counseling before they encounter patients in distress. At the Alpert Medical School of Brown University we created and evaluated a workshop that trains first-year medical students to assess patients' emotional states and express empathy in an efficient and effective manner. Using second-year students as near-peer facilitators, we integrated the workshop into the existing preclinical first-year curriculum. We found that students' self-reported comfort in counseling a patient experiencing an emotionally challenging situation increased from 27% to 79% after the 90-minute workshop.
Seung, Yunhee; Kyong, Jeong-Sug; Woo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Taek; Lee, Kyoung-Min
The present study investigated activation during listening to music with and without a task in female musicians and non-musicians. Five subjects with long musical training for a mean period of 19+/-1 years (musician group) and five subjects with no training in musical instruments (non-musician group) were imaged in a 1.5T scanner, while they simply listened to short segments of piano pieces (LIS), and while they performed a distorted tune test, designed using the same pieces (DTT). A significant group effect with higher signals in the musician group was observed in the right superior and middle temporal gyri, the right inferior frontal gyrus, and the left supramarginal gyrus. A task effect with higher signals during DTT was observed in the left sensorimotor cortex, where the interaction between the task and group effects was also significant. Thus, the pattern of brain activation differed depending on tasks when identical music stimuli were used, and more importantly, comparable music tasks activated the brain differently depending on prior musical training of subjects.
This article details an activity intended for use in a course with a unit on effective listening, including listening courses, public speaking, and interpersonal communication. Students will explain the importance of effective and active listening for a target audience by producing an infomercial for a product or service which they design.
Spors, Sascha; Buchner, Herbert; Rabenstein, Rudolf; Herbordt, Wolfgang
The acoustic theory for multichannel sound reproduction systems usually assumes free-field conditions for the listening environment. However, their performance in real-world listening environments may be impaired by reflections at the walls. This impairment can be reduced by suitable compensation measures. For systems with many channels, active compensation is an option, since the compensating waves can be created by the reproduction loudspeakers. Due to the time-varying nature of room acoustics, the compensation signals have to be determined by an adaptive system. The problems associated with the successful operation of multichannel adaptive systems are addressed in this contribution. First, a method for decoupling the adaptation problem is introduced. It is based on a generalized singular value decomposition and is called eigenspace adaptive filtering. Unfortunately, it cannot be implemented in its pure form, since the continuous adaptation of the generalized singular value decomposition matrices to the variable room acoustics is numerically very demanding. However, a combination of this mathematical technique with the physical description of wave propagation yields a realizable multichannel adaptation method with good decoupling properties. It is called wave domain adaptive filtering and is discussed here in the context of wave field synthesis.
Research on HCI and multimedia systems for art and entertainment based on non-verbal, full-body, emotional and social interaction is the main topic of this paper. A short review of previous research projects in this area at our centre are presented, to introduce the main issues discussed in the paper. In particular, a case study based on novel paradigms of social active music listening is presented. Active music listening experience enables users to dynamically mould expressive performance of music and of audiovisual content. This research is partially supported by the 7FP EU-ICT Project SAME (Sound and Music for Everyone, Everyday, Everywhere, Every Way, www.sameproject.eu).
Many computer-assisted language learning (CALL) studies have found that teacher direction can help learners develop language skills at their own pace on computers. However, many teachers still do not know how to provide support for students to use computers to reinforce the development of their language skills. Hence, more examples of CALL…
Solak, Ekrem; Altay, Firat
Listening skill has been called as the "Cinderella Skill" which is overlooked by its elder sister speaking in language learning. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to reemphasize the importance of listening skill in ELT context and to determine prospective English teachers' perceptions of listening comprehension problems. The study…
Evidence is reviewed that demonstrates the importance of information derived from kinesic behavior to the activity of listening in the native language and the possible effects of an absence of this visual information. Implications are considered for the development of second-language listening skills. (76 references) (Author/LB)
Armstrong, William H.
Explains the importance of listening to the learner and why it is probably the most active work any learner is called upon to do. Also provides suggestions for the student in how to become a better listener in the classroom and in the lecture hall. (GR)
Burbules, Nicholas C.; Rice, Suzanne
Background/Context: This article is part of a series of studies carried out by the authors in this special issue on the general topic of listening and its specific relevance to teaching. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: We examine the common activity of pretending to listen and argue that thinking about it carefully reveals some…
Ekaterina Nemtchinova's book "Teaching Listening" explores different approaches to teaching listening in second language classrooms. Presenting up-to-date research and theoretical issues associated with second language listening, Nemtchinova explains how these new findings inform everyday teaching and offers practical suggestions…
Sangster, Pauline; Anderson, Charles
Previous research into listening has tended to focus on individual processing rather than on how sociocultural contexts mediate the nature and quality of listening. This article draws on a study involving observations of listening lessons conducted by ten English teachers regarded as skilled practitioners, interviews with these teachers and with…
Cox, Troy L.; Clifford, Ray
Because listening has received little attention and the validation of ability scales describing multidimensional skills is always challenging, this study applied a multistage, criterion-referenced approach that used a framework of aligned audio passages and listening tasks to explore the validity of the ACTFL and related listening proficiency…
Ashcraft, Nikki, Ed.; Tran, Anh, Ed.
Listening is the most important of the four language skills and is used most often in everyday communication. Teachers need innovative ways to address the particular listening problems emerging in their own contexts. "Teaching Listening: Voices From the Field" shares successful practices employed by teachers at different levels of education around…
This paper takes as its starting point the difficulties inherent in listening in a second language. It argues that self-efficacy, broadly defined as the belief in one's ability to carry out specific tasks successfully, is crucial to the development of effective listening skills, and that listening strategy instruction has the potential to boost…
Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Div. of Instructional Services.
Eight social studies skills and strategies for their implementation at the secondary level are outlined. Each skill is presented in a separate chapter which defines the skill, offers a rationale for its inclusion, and provides sample activities. Chapter I focuses on listening and speaking skills. Activities emphasize using a recording to develop…
Lee, Billy; Prior, Seamus
We present an experience-near account of the development of therapeutic listening in first year counselling students. A phenomenological approach was employed to articulate the trainees' lived experiences of their learning. Six students who had just completed a one-year postgraduate certificate in counselling skills were interviewed and the…
A study was conducted to examine the various mental processes that occur during listening. Fifteen volunteers at an eastern United States college listened to a 14-minute taped lecture. The participants pressed a button, connected to a light hidden from their view, each time their minds wandered from the specifics of the lecture. They were then…
This study investigates how inaccurate phoneme processing affects recognition of partially onset-overlapping pairs like "DAFFOdil-DEFIcit" and of minimal pairs like "flash-flesh" in second-language listening. Two cross-modal priming experiments examined differences between native (L1) and second-language (L2) listeners at two…
Hulteen, Ryan M; Johnson, Tara M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Mellecker, Robin R; Barnett, Lisa M
Active video games (AVGs) may be useful for movement skill practice. This study examined children's skill execution while playing Xbox Kinect™ and during movement skill assessment. Nineteen children (10 boys, 9 girls; M age=7.9 yr., SD=1.4) had their skills assessed before AVG play and then were observed once a week for 6 wk. while playing AVGs for 50 min. While AVG play showed evidence of correct skill performance (at least 30-50% of the time when playing table tennis, tennis, and baseball), nearly all skills were more correctly performed during skill assessment (generally more than 50% of the time). This study may help researchers to better understand the role AVGs could play in enhancing real life movement skills.
Katchen, Johanna E.
The transcript of a conference presentation describes, with audience activities, one college instructor's use of videotaped television broadcasts for English-as-a-Second-Language instruction in Taiwan. The method, intended primarily for developing listening skills, makes use of English-language satellite television now widely available. Students…
In a democratic society, critical listening should have top priority among the four language skills (speaking, reading, writing, and listening). This paper provides a history of critical listening and an application of critical listening in the classroom for the future citizen's involvement in a democratic society. Six critical listening…
Much research regarding listening strategies has focused on assembling lists of reported strategies and gaining better understanding of differences in strategy usage between less- and more-skilled listeners. Less attention has been given to how the accumulating knowledge based on listening strategies informs listening strategy instruction as…
Okuno, Hiroshi G.; Nakadai, Kazuhiro
The direction-pass filter (DPF) separates sounds originating from a particular direction by using a pair of microphones embedded in each ear of humanoid robot. DPF first extracts harmonic structures from each channel, finds a corresponding pair on right and left channels, and then calculates their interaural phase difference (IPD) and interaural intensity difference (IID). These IPD and IID are matched with reference data obtained by HRTF or by the geometrical relation to determine the sound source direction. The direction obtained by face detection may be used as a candidate for the direction. Finally, all subbands from the direction are collected to synthesize a wave form by inverse FFT. The allowance of collection depends on the direction; narrow (10 deg) at center, while wide (30 deg) at the periphery. This property is called ``auditory fovea'' and is exploited by DPF actively to improve performance of sound source separation. In addition, a humanoid actively turns its head toward the speaker to listen better. Real-time DPF is implemented by distributed processing with five PCs. Preliminary experiments of active audition in speech recognition of three simultaneous utterances of digits in a normal room is also reported. [Work supported by JSPS.
Mercadíe, Lolita; Mick, Gérard; Guétin, Stéphane; Bigand, Emmanuel
In fibromyalgia, pain symptoms such as hyperalgesia and allodynia are associated with fatigue. Mechanisms underlying such symptoms can be modulated by listening to pleasant music. We expected that listening to music, because of its emotional impact, would have a greater modulating effect on the perception of pain and fatigue in patients with fibromyalgia than listening to nonmusical sounds. To investigate this hypothesis, we carried out a 4-week study in which patients with fibromyalgia listened to either preselected musical pieces or environmental sounds when they experienced pain in active (while carrying out a physical activity) or passive (at rest) situations. Concomitant changes of pain and fatigue levels were evaluated. When patients listened to music or environmental sounds at rest, pain and fatigue levels were significantly reduced after 20 minutes of listening, with no difference of effect magnitude between the two stimuli. This improvement persisted 10 minutes after the end of the listening session. In active situations, pain did not increase in presence of the two stimuli. Contrary to our expectations, music and environmental sounds produced a similar relieving effect on pain and fatigue, with no benefit gained by listening to pleasant music over environmental sounds.
Ways in which pronunciation of English as a second language can be taught through listening are presented, involving such activities as: identification tasks; minimal pair sentence tasks; inference, word counting, and dictation tasks; and stress and intonation tasks. (CB)
Encourages teachers to listen more carefully to what students say. Discusses two modes of reasoning in an effort to understand more deeply what students hear and the styles of reasoning that they might use in mathematics. (Contains 12 references.) (ASK)
Analyzing the Effect of Technology-Based Intervention in Language Laboratory to Improve Listening Skills of First Year Engineering Students (El uso de la tecnología en el laboratorio de idiomas para el mejoramiento de las habilidades de escucha de estudiantes de ingeniería de primer año)
First year students pursuing engineering education face problems with their listening skills. Most of the Indian schools use a bilingual method for teaching subjects from primary school through high school. Nonetheless, students entering university education develop anxiety in listening to classroom lectures in English. This article reports an…
Black, Dan; Zeigler, Jodi
As educators, the authors believe in guiding students towards the life skills, knowledge, and expertise they need to succeed in life and in the workforce of the 21st century. With that in mind, they have created a project in which students drive their own learning through creativity and collaborative work to develop an efficient product. Through…
Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Brown, Ann L.
Listening and reading comprehension are seen as problem-solving activities, which require instruction in thinking skills. An instructional technique, reciprocal teaching, is conducted as a group problem-solving activity to teach remedial and special education students to predict, question, summarize, and clarify while reading and listening to…
McWalter, Kirsty M; Sdano, Mallory R; Dave, Gaurav; Powell, Karen P; Callanan, Nancy
Specialization within genetic counseling is apparent, with 29 primary specialties listed in the National Society of Genetic Counselors' 2012 Professional Status Survey (PSS). PSS results show a steady proportion of genetic counselors primarily involved in public health, yet do not identify all those performing public health activities. Little is known about the skills needed to perform activities outside of "traditional" genetic counselor roles and the expertise needed to execute those skills. This study aimed to identify genetic counselors engaging in public health activities, the skills used, and the most influential sources of learning for those skills. Participants (N = 155) reported involvement in several public health categories: (a) Education of Public and/or Health Care Providers (n = 80, 52 %), (b) Population-Based Screening Programs (n = 70, 45 %), (c) Lobbying/Public Policy (n = 62, 40 %), (d) Public Health Related Research (n = 47, 30 %), and (e) State Chronic Disease Programs (n = 12, 8 %). Regardless of category, "on the job" was the most common primary source of learning. Genetic counseling training program was the most common secondary source of learning. Results indicate that the number of genetic counselors performing public health activities is likely higher than PSS reports, and that those who may not consider themselves "public health genetic counselors" do participate in public health activities. Genetic counselors learn a diverse skill set in their training programs; some skills are directly applicable to public health genetics, while other public health skills require additional training and/or knowledge.
Gilakjani, Abbas Pourhosein; Sabouri, Narjes Banou
Listening is one of the most important skills in English language learning. When students listen to English language, they face a lot of listening difficulties. Students have critical difficulties in listening comprehension because universities and schools pay more attention to writing, reading, and vocabulary. Listening is not an important part…
Renandya, Willy A.; Farrell, Thomas S. C.
For many years, research effort has been devoted to understanding the nature of listening strategies and how listening strategies used by good listeners can be taught to so-called ineffective listeners. As a result of this line of research, strategy training activities have now become a standard feature of most modern listening coursebooks.…
Hopper, Joanne E.
Even though the importance of effective listening skills is well recognized and many K-12 language arts standards include listening skills, the amount of time devoted to the teaching of listening and the quality of instructional resources that will enable the effectiveness of teaching listening as a two-way communication process are in question.…
Baker, Michael O.
Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The 16 activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities expose…
Figueroa, Roger; An, Ruopeng
Objectives Preschoolers 3-5 years of age are in a crucial stage of motor skill competence. While preschoolers develop their motor skill competence through engagement in physical activity, a majority of them fail to meet guideline-recommended physical activity level. This study reviews scientific evidence on the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers. Methods This systematic review followed the PRISMA framework. Keyword and reference search were conducted in PubMed, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria included-age: 3-5 years of age; setting: preschool environment (e.g., preschool, childcare, head start); main outcomes: motor skill competence and physical activity; study design: cross-sectional study, case-control study, retrospective cohort study, prospective cohort study, or randomized controlled trial; language: English; and article type: peer-reviewed publication. Results Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria, including 6 randomized controlled trials and 5 cross-sectional studies. Studies were conducted in 5 countries: United States (5), United Kingdom (2), Australia (2), Switzerland (1), and Finland (1). Eight out of the 11 studies included in the review reported a significant relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity. The specific pattern and strength of the relationship tend to differ by gender, physical activity intensity, motor skill type, and day of the week (weekdays versus weekends). Conclusions An association has been consistently documented between motor skill competence and physical activity. Future research is warranted to elucidate the underlining causal link, examine potential heterogeneity, and determine the role of environment in the relationship between motor skill competence and physical activity among preschoolers.
Reynolds, Geoffrey A.
In the first part of this two-part article, the author described Dr. Patricia Shehan Campbell's (2004) exciting ideas for fully engaging students during listening lessons. He chose Everything But the Girl's song "Lullaby Of Clubland the Jay "Sinister" Sealee Remix" to model Dr. Campbell's pedagogical sequence. He also described the three-stage…
Reynolds, Geoffrey A.
This two-part article revisits the British group Everything But the Girl. In this first part, the author describes Dr. Patricia Shehan Campbell's (2004) exciting ideas for fully engaging students during listening lessons. The author uses Everything But the Girl's song "Lullaby Of Clubland (Jay "Sinister" Sealee Remix)" to model Dr. Campbell's…
Fercho, Kelene; Baugh, Lee A.; Hanson, Elizabeth K.
Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the neural mechanisms associated with increases in speech intelligibility brought about through alphabet supplementation. Method: Neurotypical participants listened to dysarthric speech while watching an accompanying video of a hand pointing to the 1st letter spoken of each word on an alphabet…
Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Huang, Yueh-Min; Shadiev, Rustam; Wu, Sheng-Yi; Chen, Shu-Lin
This study designed learning activities supported by a mobile learning system for students to develop listening and speaking skills in English as a foreign language (EFL). How students perceive learning activities and a mobile learning system were examined in this study. Additionally, how different practices relate to students' language…
O'Sullivan, James A; Shamma, Shihab A; Lalor, Edmund C
The human brain has evolved to operate effectively in highly complex acoustic environments, segregating multiple sound sources into perceptually distinct auditory objects. A recent theory seeks to explain this ability by arguing that stream segregation occurs primarily due to the temporal coherence of the neural populations that encode the various features of an individual acoustic source. This theory has received support from both psychoacoustic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that use stimuli which model complex acoustic environments. Termed stochastic figure-ground (SFG) stimuli, they are composed of a "figure" and background that overlap in spectrotemporal space, such that the only way to segregate the figure is by computing the coherence of its frequency components over time. Here, we extend these psychoacoustic and fMRI findings by using the greater temporal resolution of electroencephalography to investigate the neural computation of temporal coherence. We present subjects with modified SFG stimuli wherein the temporal coherence of the figure is modulated stochastically over time, which allows us to use linear regression methods to extract a signature of the neural processing of this temporal coherence. We do this under both active and passive listening conditions. Our findings show an early effect of coherence during passive listening, lasting from ∼115 to 185 ms post-stimulus. When subjects are actively listening to the stimuli, these responses are larger and last longer, up to ∼265 ms. These findings provide evidence for early and preattentive neural computations of temporal coherence that are enhanced by active analysis of an auditory scene.
Boldt, Robert; Malinen, Sanna; Seppä, Mika; Tikka, Pia; Savolainen, Petri; Hari, Riitta; Carlson, Synnöve
Earlier studies have shown considerable intersubject synchronization of brain activity when subjects watch the same movie or listen to the same story. Here we investigated the across-subjects similarity of brain responses to speech and non-speech sounds in a continuous audio drama designed for blind people. Thirteen healthy adults listened for ∼19 min to the audio drama while their brain activity was measured with 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An intersubject-correlation (ISC) map, computed across the whole experiment to assess the stimulus-driven extrinsic brain network, indicated statistically significant ISC in temporal, frontal and parietal cortices, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. Group-level independent component (IC) analysis was used to parcel out the brain signals into functionally coupled networks, and the dependence of the ICs on external stimuli was tested by comparing them with the ISC map. This procedure revealed four extrinsic ICs of which two–covering non-overlapping areas of the auditory cortex–were modulated by both speech and non-speech sounds. The two other extrinsic ICs, one left-hemisphere-lateralized and the other right-hemisphere-lateralized, were speech-related and comprised the superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal poles, and the left angular and inferior orbital gyri. In areas of low ISC four ICs that were defined intrinsic fluctuated similarly as the time-courses of either the speech-sound-related or all-sounds-related extrinsic ICs. These ICs included the superior temporal gyrus, the anterior insula, and the frontal, parietal and midline occipital cortices. Taken together, substantial intersubject synchronization of cortical activity was observed in subjects listening to an audio drama, with results suggesting that speech is processed in two separate networks, one dedicated to the processing of speech sounds and the other to both speech and non-speech sounds. PMID:23734202
Boldt, Robert; Malinen, Sanna; Seppä, Mika; Tikka, Pia; Savolainen, Petri; Hari, Riitta; Carlson, Synnöve
Earlier studies have shown considerable intersubject synchronization of brain activity when subjects watch the same movie or listen to the same story. Here we investigated the across-subjects similarity of brain responses to speech and non-speech sounds in a continuous audio drama designed for blind people. Thirteen healthy adults listened for ∼19 min to the audio drama while their brain activity was measured with 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). An intersubject-correlation (ISC) map, computed across the whole experiment to assess the stimulus-driven extrinsic brain network, indicated statistically significant ISC in temporal, frontal and parietal cortices, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. Group-level independent component (IC) analysis was used to parcel out the brain signals into functionally coupled networks, and the dependence of the ICs on external stimuli was tested by comparing them with the ISC map. This procedure revealed four extrinsic ICs of which two-covering non-overlapping areas of the auditory cortex-were modulated by both speech and non-speech sounds. The two other extrinsic ICs, one left-hemisphere-lateralized and the other right-hemisphere-lateralized, were speech-related and comprised the superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal poles, and the left angular and inferior orbital gyri. In areas of low ISC four ICs that were defined intrinsic fluctuated similarly as the time-courses of either the speech-sound-related or all-sounds-related extrinsic ICs. These ICs included the superior temporal gyrus, the anterior insula, and the frontal, parietal and midline occipital cortices. Taken together, substantial intersubject synchronization of cortical activity was observed in subjects listening to an audio drama, with results suggesting that speech is processed in two separate networks, one dedicated to the processing of speech sounds and the other to both speech and non-speech sounds.
Listening skill has been recently paid great attention comparing with the other three language skills since having communication is the first and most essential need. Language learners have been using the three different listening strategies (Cognitive, Meta-cognitive, and Socio-affective) to improve their listening skills in multimedia…
Wolvin, Andrew D.
Research supports the point that listening skills play an important role in 21st century personal, academic, and professional success. This article argues that educators should include listening, a critical communication competency, in the oral communication course in the general education curriculum. (Contains 1 table.)
Khuziakhmetov, Anvar N.; Porchesku, Galina V.
Improving listening comprehension skills is one of the urgent contemporary educational problems in the field of second language acquisition. Understanding how L2 listening comprehension works can have a serious influence on language pedagogy. The aim of the paper is to discuss the practical and methodological value of the notion of the perception…
Stodden, David F.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.
Although significant attention has been given to promoting physical activity among children, little attention has been given to the developmental process of how children learn to move or to the changing role that motor skill development plays in children's physical activity levels as they grow. In order to successfully address the obesity…
Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D.; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N.; Röhrig, Kimberley J.
Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow…
McAnally, Elizabeth Ann
Listening is an important skill for all, but it is critical for musicians and those who love music. National Standard 6 calls for students to listen to, analyze, and describe a wide variety of music. This listening, analysis, and description can pose challenges for older students who are familiar with a narrow repertoire and accustomed to music as…
Buchweitz, Augusto; Mason, Robert A.; Meschyan, Gayane; Keller, Timothy A.; Just, Marcel Adam
Brain activation associated with normal and speeded comprehension of expository texts on familiar and unfamiliar topics was investigated in reading and listening. The goal was to determine how brain activation and the comprehension processes it reflects are modulated by comprehension speed and topic familiarity. Passages on more familiar topics differentially activated a set of areas in the anterior temporal lobe and medial frontal gyrus, areas often associated with text-level integration processes, which we interpret to reflect integration of previous knowledge with the passage content. Passages presented at the faster presentation resulted in more activation of a network of frontal areas associated with strategic and working-memory processes (as well as visual or auditory sensory-related regions), which we interpret to reflect maintenance of local coherence among briefly available passage segments. The implications of this research is to demonstrate how the brain system for text comprehension adapts to varying perceptual and knowledge conditions. PMID:25463816
Mattox, Robert J.; Hurt, David J.
Listening is an extremely important dimension of a counselor's vocational life. The counselor is constantly involved in the process of listening. Verbal and nonverbal messages sent by clients must be received, interpreted, and organized. Counselors need to be active in listening to clients and critical in their analysis of the messages being…
Todd, Jennifer R.; Mishra, Jennifer
Listening to, analyzing, and describing music, is perhaps the most difficult standard to present effectively in allotted classroom time. The purpose of this literature review is to better understand what constitutes effective listening instruction by examining students' listening practices, receptiveness, attentiveness, and activities that lead to…
Japanese English education has focused mainly on teaching passive skills such as reading and listening, whereas actual business activities in society require active skills such as writing and speaking in addition to the passive skills. This educational situation is estimated to be a reason Japanese engineers are less confident in writing and speaking than in reading and listening. This paper focuses on details of the English Technical Writing Test provided by the Japan Society of Technical Communication and emphasizes the importance of the active skills, mainly focusing on what skills should be taught in the future and how to develop these skills. This paper also stresses the necessity of learning rhetoric-related skills, concept of information words, as well as paragraph reading and writing skills based on the concept of the 3Cs (Correct, Clear, and Concise) as a means to develop technical writing skills for engineers.
Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which cooperating teachers deem required student teaching skills and activities relevant to the agricultural education student teaching experience. The population for this descriptive study consisted of individuals who served as cooperating teachers in Iowa and South Dakota during the last 5…
The seasonal activities presented are: observing herbs to encourage use of the senses in writing; watching a jack-o'-lantern wither to learn skills in writing details; and building snowmen to learn to explain a string of events in writing. (SM)
Jay, Hilda L.; Jay, M. Ellen
Designed for use at school or at home, this book focuses on the development of seven types of literacy: linguistic, visual, mathematical, scientific, geographic, economic, and computer. The book's suggested activities are each introduced with a detailed discussion of the necessary prerequisite skills, the concepts to be mastered, the materials…
Carreker, Suzanne; Birsh, Judith R.
With the new edition of this activity book--the companion to Judith Birsh's bestselling text, "Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills"--students and practitioners will get the practice they need to use multisensory teaching effectively with students who have dyslexia and other learning disabilities. Ideal for both pre-service teacher…
Temple, Viviene A.; Crane, Jeff R.; Brown, Amy; Williams, Buffy-Lynne; Bell, Rick I.
Background: Developmental theorists suggest that physical activity during early childhood promotes fundamental motor skill (FMS) proficiency; and that differences in FMS proficiency are largely related to children's experiences. Aim: To examine associations between participation in different types of recreation/leisure and FMS proficiency of boys…
Hogan, Tiffany P.; Adlof, Suzanne M.; Alonzo, Crystle
The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills: poor comprehenders. Finally it discusses key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities. PMID:24833426
Hogan, Tiffany P; Adlof, Suzanne M; Alonzo, Crystle N
The simple view of reading highlights the importance of two primary components which account for individual differences in reading comprehension across development: word recognition (i.e., decoding) and listening comprehension. While assessments and interventions for decoding have been the focus of pedagogy in the past several decades, the importance of listening comprehension has received less attention. This paper reviews evidence showing that listening comprehension becomes the dominating influence on reading comprehension starting even in the elementary grades. It also highlights a growing number of children who fail to develop adequate reading comprehension skills, primarily due to deficient listening comprehension skills (i.e., poor comprehenders). Finally we discuss key language influences on listening comprehension for consideration during assessment and treatment of reading disabilities.
Gherri, Elena; Eimer, Martin
The ability to drive safely is disrupted by cell phone conversations, and this has been attributed to a diversion of attention from the visual environment. We employed behavioral and ERP measures to study whether the attentive processing of spoken messages is, in itself, sufficient to produce visual-attentional deficits. Participants searched for visual targets defined by a unique feature (Experiment 1) or feature conjunction (Experiment 2), and simultaneously listened to narrated text passages that had to be recalled later (encoding condition), or heard backward-played speech sounds that could be ignored (control condition). Responses to targets were slower in the encoding condition, and ERPs revealed that the visual processing of search arrays and the attentional selection of target stimuli were less efficient in the encoding relative to the control condition. Results demonstrate that the attentional processing of visual information is impaired when concurrent spoken messages are encoded and maintained, in line with cross-modal links in selective attention, but inconsistent with the view that attentional resources are modality-specific. The distraction of visual attention by active listening could contribute to the adverse effects of cell phone use on driving performance.
Treat, Carol Lou; Bormaster, Jeff
This workbook provides affective education activities in building human relations skills in elementary and secondary school students in small discussion groups. Goals of the talking-listening-communicating (TLC) groups are: to develop positive regard for individual differences; to build a sense of belonging; to foster horizontal, nonauthoritative…
Serraj, Samaneh; Noordin, Noreen Bt.
Anxiety is an influential factor in a foreign language learning domain and plays a crucial role in language learners' performance. The following study was conducted to explore the possible impact of Foreign Language Anxiety and Foreign Language Listening Anxiety on language learners' listening skill. The researcher was interested to know the…
Willmington, S. Clay; Steinbrecher, Milda M.
A "Fundamentals of Speech Communication" course is required of all college students, and upon completion of such a course students should possess those basic speaking and listening skills necessary to complete successfully their college educations. With a view toward developing a new, more effective listening test, a study examined…
de Jong, John H. A. L.
A study investigated the validity of an English listening skills test by comparing the results of native American and British English speakers with those of Dutch students of English as a second language. A hypothesis suggested that two-thirds of the items would test listening skills and the remaining third would test other knowledge. Test results…
Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Thomas J H; Chen, Amanda L H; Madigan, Margaret; Downs, B William; Waite, Roger L; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory; Bowirrat, Abdalla; Giordano, John; Henshaw, Harry; Gold, Mark S
Using fMRI, Menon and Levitin  clearly found for the first time that listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), as well as the hypothalamus, and insula, which are thought to be involved in regulating autonomic and physiological responses to rewarding and emotional stimuli. Importantly, responses in the NAc and VTA were strongly correlated pointing to an association between dopamine release and NAc response to music. Listing to pleasant music induced a strong response and significant activation of the VTA-mediated interaction of the NAc with the hypothalamus, insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. Blum et al.  provided the first evidence that the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) Taq 1 A1 allele significantly associated with severe alcoholism whereby the author's suggested that they found the first "reward gene" located in the mesolimbic system. The enhanced functional and effective connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic, and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. However, little is known about why some people have a more or less powerful mesolimbic experience when they are listening to music. It is well-known that music may induce an endorphinergic response that is blocked by naloxone, a known opioid antagonist (Goldstein ). Opioid transmission in the NAc is associated with dopamine release in the VTA. Moreover, dopamine release in the VTA is linked to polymorphisms of the DRD2 gene and even attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), whereby carriers of the DRD2 A1 allele show a reduced NAc release of dopamine (DA). Thus it is conjectured that similar mechanisms in terms of adequate dopamine release and subsequent activation of reward circuitry by listening to music might also be
The Effect of High Versus Low Teacher Affect and Passive Versus Active Student Activity During Music Listening on Preschool Children's Attention, Piece Preference, Time Spent Listening, and Piece Recognition.
Sims, Wendy L.
Small-group listening lessons and subsequent individual posttests were used to judge 94 three- through five-year-old subjects' attention, paired-comparison piece preference, time spent listening, and piece recognition. Research procedures included a modified multiple baseline design and split-screen video taping of instructional sessions.…
Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Winkler, István; Szalárdy, Orsolya; Bendixen, Alexandra
In two experiments, we assessed the effects of combining different cues of concurrent sound segregation on the object-related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potential components. Participants were presented with sequences of complex tones, half of which contained some manipulation: one or two harmonic partials were mistuned, delayed, or presented from a different location than the rest. In separate conditions, one, two, or three of these manipulations were combined. Participants watched a silent movie (passive listening) or reported after each tone whether they perceived one or two concurrent sounds (active listening). ORN was found in almost all conditions except for location difference alone during passive listening. Combining several cues or manipulating more than one partial consistently led to sub-additive effects on the ORN amplitude. These results support the view that ORN reflects a combined, feature-unspecific assessment of the auditory system regarding the contribution of two sources to the incoming sound.
Raiola, Edward O.
The most important skill for the transformational leader is building relationships through positive and effective communication. Provides guidelines for supporting and encouraging group members, setting the tone for the group, modeling communication behaviors, use of voice patterns, active listening, reflective communication (paraphrasing),…
Kumar, Prawin; Sanju, Himanshu Kumar; Nikhil, J
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF). All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0). Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower) active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.
Listening is one of the most crucial skills that leaders need to possess but is often the most difficult to master. It takes hard work, concentration, and specific skill sets to become an effective listener. Facilities leaders need to perfect the art of listening to their employees. Employees possess pertinent knowledge about day-to-day operations…
Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura
As educators, the authors know the importance of teaching reading and writing, but they often overlook speaking and listening skills. They believe that if they have class discussions on a regular basis, students are "naturally" learning to speak and to listen. However, that is not the case. On the contrary, speaking and listening skills are ones…
Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu
The current study reports on a group of Taiwanese college students' first-person diary accounts of their private, transactional listening activities outside the classroom. Issues related to students' material selection, listening problems, and perceived usefulness of keeping a listening diary were explored. It was found that most students chose…
Woods, Elizabeth A; Hernandez, Arturo E; Wagner, Victoria E; Beilock, Sian L
The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural response to familiar and unfamiliar, sport and non-sport environmental sounds in expert and novice athletes. Results revealed differential neural responses dependent on sports expertise. Experts had greater neural activation than novices in focal sensorimotor areas such as the supplementary motor area, and pre- and postcentral gyri. Novices showed greater activation than experts in widespread areas involved in perception (i.e. supramarginal, middle occipital, and calcarine gyri; precuneus; inferior and superior parietal lobules), and motor planning and processing (i.e. inferior frontal, middle frontal, and middle temporal gyri). These between-group neural differences also appeared as an expertise effect within specific conditions. Experts showed greater activation than novices during the sport familiar condition in regions responsible for auditory and motor planning, including the inferior frontal gyrus and the parietal operculum. Novices only showed greater activation than experts in the supramarginal gyrus and pons during the non-sport unfamiliar condition, and in the middle frontal gyrus during the sport unfamiliar condition. These results are consistent with the view that expert athletes are attuned to only the most familiar, highly relevant sounds and tune out unfamiliar, irrelevant sounds. Furthermore, these findings that athletes show activation in areas known to be involved in action planning when passively listening to sounds suggests that auditory perception of action can lead to the re-instantiation of neural areas involved in producing these actions, especially if someone has expertise performing the actions.
Sontheimer, Anna; Vassal, François; Jean, Betty; Feschet, Fabien; Lubrano, Vincent; Lemaire, Jean-Jacques
Detection of awareness in patients with consciousness disorders is a challenge that can be facilitated by functional neuroimaging. We elaborated a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to detect covert activity in altered states of consciousness. We hypothesized that passive listening to narratives with graduated emotional charge triggers graduated cerebral activations. The fMRI protocol was designed in healthy subjects for further clinical applications. The emotional charge was graduated using voice familiarity and long-term declarative memory content: low emotional charge, unknown person telling general semantic memory; mean emotional charge, relative telling the same narratives; high emotional charge, same relative telling autobiographical memory. Autobiographical memory was subdivided into semantic autobiographical memory and episodic autobiographical memory. The protocol proved efficient at triggering graduated cerebral activations: low emotional charge, superior temporal gyri and sulci; mean emotional charge, same as low emotional charge plus bilateral premotor cortices and left inferior frontal gyrus; high emotional charge, cingulate, temporal, frontal, prefrontal and angular areas, thalamus and cerebellum. Semantic autobiographical memory revealed larger activations than episodic autobiographical memory. Independent ROI analysis confirmed the preponderant contribution of narratives with autobiographical memory content in triggering cerebral activation, not only in autobiographical memory-sensitive areas, but also in voice-sensitive, language-sensitive and semantic memory-sensitive areas.
Apache, R R Goyakla
This study assessed the effectiveness of an activity-based intervention program and a direct instruction program for preschool children with disabilities. Two groups of preschool students (average age=4.1 yr.), classified as having developmental delays or at risk for such delays, were selected. They were provided 15 weeks of physical education through activity-based intervention and 15 weeks of physical education by direct instruction. Instruction was provided three times a week for 30-min. each session. In the fall semester the morning group received physical education through activity-based intervention, while the afternoon group received physical education through direct instruction. In the spring semester delivery of instruction was reversed for each group. The curriculum and activities provided to each group were identical with only the instructional delivery format altered. Two sets of pre- and post-tests using the Test of Gross Motor Development were administered before and after each 15-wk. instructional period. Group improvement in skills was compared between instructional methods. Significant improvement in both locomotor and object control skills through the activity-based intervention was found compared to direct instruction. Activity-based intervention was shown to be easily adapted to a naturalistic educational setting befitting that of preschool education.
A common element of the psychophysiological research on listening effort is the focus on listening demand as determinant of effort. The article discusses preceding studies and theorizing on effort to show that the link between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by various variables. Moreover, I will present a recent study that examined the joint effect of listening demand and success importance on effort-related cardiovascular reactivity in an auditory discrimination task. Results for pre-ejection period reactivity-an indicator of sympathetic activity-supported the hypothesis that the relationship between listening demand and listening effort is moderated by other variables: Pre-ejection period reactivity was higher in the high-demand-high-success-importance condition than in the other three conditions. This new finding as well as the findings of previous research on effort suggest that a broader perspective on the determinants of listening effort is warranted.
Seydell-Greenwald, Anna; Greenberg, Adam S; Rauschecker, Josef P
Neuroimaging studies investigating the voluntary (top-down) control of attention largely agree that this process recruits several frontal and parietal brain regions. Since most studies used attention tasks requiring several higher-order cognitive functions (e.g. working memory, semantic processing, temporal integration, spatial orienting) as well as different attentional mechanisms (attention shifting, distractor filtering), it is unclear what exactly the observed frontoparietal activations reflect. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated, within the same participants, signal changes in (1) a "Simple Attention" task in which participants attended to a single melody, (2) a "Selective Attention" task in which they simultaneously ignored another melody, and (3) a "Beep Monitoring" task in which participants listened in silence for a faint beep. Compared to resting conditions with identical stimulation, all tasks produced robust activation increases in auditory cortex, cross-modal inhibition in visual and somatosensory cortex, and decreases in the default mode network, indicating that participants were indeed focusing their attention on the auditory domain. However, signal increases in frontal and parietal brain areas were only observed for tasks 1 and 2, but completely absent for task 3. These results lead to the following conclusions: under most conditions, frontoparietal activations are crucial for attention since they subserve higher-order cognitive functions inherently related to attention. However, under circumstances that minimize other demands, nonspatial auditory attention in the absence of stimulation can be maintained without concurrent frontal or parietal activations.
Rud, A. G.; Garrison, Jim
The distinction between "apophatic" and "cataphatic" listening is defined and analyzed. "Apophatic" listening is more or less devoid of cognitivist claims, whereas "cataphatic" listening involves cognition and questioning. Many of the papers in this volume are discussed along the continuum determined by these two types of listening.…
Kalaja, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony
To assess whether subgroups based on children's fundamental movement skills, perceived competence, and self-determined motivation toward physical education vary with current self-reported physical activity, a sample of 316 Finnish Grade 7 students completed fundamental movement skills measures and self-report questionnaires assessing perceived competence, self-determined motivation toward physical education, and current physical activity. Cluster analysis indicated a three-cluster structure: "Low motivation/low skills profile," "High skills/low motivation profile," and "High skills/high motivation profile." Analysis of variance indicated that students in the third cluster engaged in significantly more physical activity than students of clusters one and two. These results provide support for previous claims regarding the importance of the relationship of fundamental movement skills with continuing engagement in physical activity. High fundamental movement skills, however, may represent only one element in maintaining adolescents' engagement in physical activity.
Chiarenza, G A; Hari, R K; Karhu, J J; Tessore, S
We recorded with a 24-channel SQUID magnetometer cerebral activity preceding and following self-paced voluntary 'skilled' movements in four healthy adults. The subject pressed buttons successively with the right index and middle fingers aiming at a time difference of 40-60 ms; on-line feedback on performance was given after each movement. Slow magnetic readiness fields (RFs) preceded the movements by 0.5 s and culminated about 20 ms after the electromyogram (EMG) onset. Movement-evoked fields, MEFs, opposite in polarity to RFs, were observed 90-120 ms after the EMG onset. They were followed by an additional 'skilled-performance field', SPF, 400-500 ms after the EMG onset. The source locations of RF, MEF, and SPF were within 2 cm from sources of the somatosensory evoked responses, which were situated in the posterior wall of the Rolandic fissure; the sources of MEF were closest to the midline. Neural generators of these deflections and of the corresponding electric potentials are discussed.
Both listening and transmitting may, on an existential level, be either dangerous or beneficial. So we should ignore our irrational fears and listen in the hope of detecting ETI and transmit on the basis of promoting SETI activity.
Spaulding, Jerry; Munch, Theodore W.
Describes a drug unit which uses videotape interviews to: (1) motivate adolescents to develop positive attitudes toward drug abuse; (2) increase student participation in classroom activities; (3) use appropriate science exercises to further understandings; and (4) permit students to work on things of personal interest. (Author/CJ)
Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo
This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…
McDonald, Robert E.; Derby, Joseph M.
Recruiters seek candidates with certain business skills that are not developed in the typical lecture-based classroom. Instead, active-learning techniques have been shown to be effective in honing these skills. One skill that is particularly important in sales careers is the ability to make a powerful and effective presentation. To help students…
In the traditional ELT in China, much emphasis has been put on the students' mastering vocabulary and grammar. Language form was regarded as the content of teaching. And listening skill has been ever neglected for a fairly long time in ELT in China. Recent years, more and more attention has been drawn to learners' listening ability. This paper…
THE PROJECT PURPOSES WERE TO IDENTIFY THE ELEMENTS IN MUSIC USED BY EXPERT LISTENERS IN DETERMINING THE ARTISTIC VALUE OF MUSIC, TO DISCOVER WHAT MUSICAL SKILLS AND KNOWLEDGES ARE NECESSARY FOR THE LISTENER TO RECOGNIZE THESE ELEMENTS, AND TO USE THESE FINDINGS IN A COMPARISON WITH A SPECIFIC AESTHETIC THEORY. ATTEMPTS WERE MADE TO DETERMINE…
Gilson, Cindy M.; Little, Catherine A.
Asking questions that invite students to access advanced thinking skills during classroom discourse is a key strategy for challenging and supporting high-ability middle school readers. This critical teaching practice requires careful teacher listening. However, empirical research around teachers' "listening orientations," or how teachers…
Flynn, Jan; Valikoski, Tuula-Riitta; Grau, Jennie
For more than 50 years, business professionals and some researchers have held that effective listening is a highly desirable workplace skill (Cooper, 1997; Husband, Cooper, & Monsour, 1988; Nichols & Stevens, 1957; Rogers & Rothlisberger, 1952; Sypher, 1984). However, listening as an organizational variable continues to be seen as a "soft" skill…
Carlisle, Joanne F.
This article discusses (1) assessment of discourse through listening and reading to evaluate comprehension problems; (2) developmental aspects of the relationship between listening and reading comprehension skills; (3) problems with selecting text passages and methods of testing comprehension; and (4) the development of a set of passages and a…
The orbits typically made by the Mir Space Station in range of the U.K. are indicated schematically. Particular attention is given to where, when, and how these cosmonauts can be heard. The first requirement of the monitoring procedure is to set up a simple dipole aerial and a VHF receiver or a converter to an FM, CB receiver and then listen and tape record the signals. Among the events which can be heard are icecold rescues, medical emergencies, EVA activities, and launch and docking.
Bowman, Becki J.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra; Cheah, Tsui Yi; Watson, W. Joe; Rubin, Rebecca B.
Considerable research has been conducted testing Rauscher, Shaw, and Ky's (1993) Mozart Effect (ME). This study attempts to replicate, in part, research that tested the ME on listening comprehension abilities. Also included in this study is an examination of control group issues in current day research. We hypothesized that students who listen to…
Fuller, Kathryn; Linden, Matthew D; Lee-Pullen, Tracey; Fragall, Clayton; Erber, Wendy N; Röhrig, Kimberley J
Advances in science education research have the potential to improve the way students learn to perform scientific interpretations and understand science concepts. We developed active, collaborative activities to teach skills in manipulating flow cytometry data using FlowJo software. Undergraduate students were given compensated clinical flow cytometry listmode output (FCS) files and asked to design a gating strategy to diagnose patients with different hematological malignancies on the basis of their immunophenotype. A separate cohort of research trainees was given uncompensated data files on which they performed their own compensation, calculated the antibody staining index, designed a sequential gating strategy, and quantified rare immune cell subsets. Student engagement, confidence, and perceptions of flow cytometry were assessed using a survey. Competency against the learning outcomes was assessed by asking students to undertake tasks that required understanding of flow cytometry dot plot data and gating sequences. The active, collaborative approach allowed students to achieve learning outcomes not previously possible with traditional teaching formats, for example, having students design their own gating strategy, without forgoing essential outcomes such as the interpretation of dot plots. In undergraduate students, favorable perceptions of flow cytometry as a field and as a potential career choice were correlated with student confidence but not the ability to perform flow cytometry data analysis. We demonstrate that this new pedagogical approach to teaching flow cytometry is beneficial for student understanding and interpretation of complex concepts. It should be considered as a useful new method for incorporating complex data analysis tasks such as flow cytometry into curricula.
In the article that follows, I take up a debate that has arisen over the past three years concerning the following issue: Does every act of listening involve the listener in questioning? I argue that the answer to the questions is yes. I give background on the question and then consider one instance of listening that may suggest no role for…
In the article, Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon asks, Did Plato have a philosophy of listening, and if so, what was it? Listening is the counterpart of speaking in a dialogue, and it is no less important. Indeed, learning from the dialogue is less likely to occur as people participate unless listening as well as speaking takes place. Haroutunian-Gordon…
Thomlison, T. Dean
Empathic listening is central to almost all human communication processes. "Feeling with" another is the heart of empathic listening: it includes a cognitive understanding of what the other is communicating plus a sensitivity to their state of emotion. One possible approach to utilize in the teaching of empathic listening is to begin a…
Concern over basic communication skills in the workplace has led to the development of corporate training programs to teach effective listening, and to improve the style and content of written communications. (SK)
Larkin, Robert P.; Grogger, Paul K.
Twenty activities are described that can be used to develop map and compass skills in elementary grades. The activities range from simple, beginners' projects to more complex tasks as students acquire more skills. Most can be carried out in the classroom, schoolyard, or local neighborhood. Map activities include drawing maps of the classroom,…
Dailey, Stephanie L.
Listening is a core component of developing effective communication skills. Thus, a common objective of many basic communication courses is to help students become better listeners (Johnson & Long, 2007). Often, the teacher's goal is to show students that there are different listening styles or preferences and that people decode messages…
Weinberg, Alysse; Knoerr, Helene; Vandergrift, Larry
This paper reports on the piloting of podcasts created to support Anglophone French Immersion (FI) students in academic listening. The authors developed a series of seven English language podcasts grounded in metacognitive and L2 listening theory to provide FI students with strategies to enhance L2 listening ability and note-taking skills for…
Eight commercially-available listening and note-taking courses are reviewed and a matrix for comparing their characteristics is presented. "Listening and Note-Taking" (Virginia Yates) was written for college-bound high school students and college students who need to improve listening and note-taking skills, while the "Sack-Yourman Study Skills…
Teach, Joan K.
The study explored the differences in the abilities of 20 learning disabled (LD) students (6-8 years old) and 19 normal Ss to perform on listening tasks. In phase I, performance levels were assessed on the Goldman Fristoe Woodcock Test of Auditory Discrimination and a listening comprehension skill battery (the Durrell Listening-Reading Series,…
Levant, Yves; Coulmont, Michel; Sandu, Raluca
Business simulations are innovative instruction models for active or cooperative learning. In this paper, we look at the social constructionist roots of these education models in light of the current efforts to enhance employability skills in undergraduate and graduate studies. More specifically, we analyse the role of business simulations in…
Huang, Vincent S; Shadmehr, Reza; Diedrichsen, Jörn
When we learn a new skill (e.g., golf) without a coach, we are "active learners": we have to choose the specific components of the task on which to train (e.g., iron, driver, putter, etc.). What guides our selection of the training sequence? How do choices that people make compare with choices made by machine learning algorithms that attempt to optimize performance? We asked subjects to learn the novel dynamics of a robotic tool while moving it in four directions. They were instructed to choose their practice directions to maximize their performance in subsequent tests. We found that their choices were strongly influenced by motor errors: subjects tended to immediately repeat an action if that action had produced a large error. This strategy was correlated with better performance on test trials. However, even when participants performed perfectly on a movement, they did not avoid repeating that movement. The probability of repeating an action did not drop below chance even when no errors were observed. This behavior led to suboptimal performance. It also violated a strong prediction of current machine learning algorithms, which solve the active learning problem by choosing a training sequence that will maximally reduce the learner's uncertainty about the task. While we show that these algorithms do not provide an adequate description of human behavior, our results suggest ways to improve human motor learning by helping people choose an optimal training sequence.
Background/Context: Listening is largely overlooked in cultures constituted on the basis of the freedom of speech, such as we find in the United States and elsewhere. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: The article explores compassionate listening as a creative spiritual activity. Such listening recognizes the suffering of others…
Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L
This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.
Kelley, Kevin J; Kelley, Mary F
Empathy plays an important role in comprehensive nursing care. Empathy outcome research shows that exposure to an empathetic person has a palliative and even healing effect on patients. Teaching nurses how to communicate with empathy is crucial to unleash the true potential that empathy has to transform and heal. Four active listening skills and six compassion-based skills are defined. A suggested training rubric appropriate for use in multiple training contexts is provided.
McLeod, Alan M.
The author relates his successful experiment with using old time radio programs to enhance listening and writing skills in his classroom. A list of companies that sell Old Time Radio (OTR) programs, and a list of projects which can be used with OTR, conclude the article. (KC)
Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy
Oral language development facilitates print literacy. In this article, we focus on the ways in which teachers can ensure students' speaking and listening skills are developed. We provide a review of some time-tests classroom routines as well as some that can be enhanced with technology.
Joiner, Elizabeth G.
Examines studies in brain research which are closely related to language learning. Discusses Asher's Total Physical Response and Lozanov's Suggestopedia as approaches which activate the right brain hemisphere and involve it in the language learning process. Discusses practical applications for what is currently known about listening. (SED)
Bressler, Jean; Howell, Helen
Describes oral activities that help middle and junior high school students develop decision-making skills. The activities, based on Gary Paulsen's novel "Hatchet," focus on struggling for survival. Recommends "Hatchet" as a vehicle for observing the maturing process and for teaching skills that students can apply to their own…
McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sallis, James F.; Broyles, Sheila L.; Zive, Michelle M.; Nader, Philip R.; Berry, Charles C.; Brennan, Jesse J.
Assessed the relationship between young children's movement skills and their physical activity in early adolescence. Balance, agility, eye-hand coordination, and skinfold thickness were measured in young Mexican and Anglo American. Habitual physical activity was assessed when they were 12 years old. Ethnic differences in movement skills were not…
Rowland, Paul; And Others
A science process skill project was developed to help elementary teachers meet competency standards in New Mexico for teaching the process approach in their science classes. An outline of the process skills along with recommended activities are presented in this document. Performance objectives are identified and a sample activity form is…
Edens, Kellah M.; Potter, Ellen F.
This study of a preschool classroom of 4 year old children examines underlying skills of number sense such as counting and spatial skills and Spontaneous Focusing on Numerosity. It also investigates children's patterns of engaging in spontaneous mathematical activities in free-play activity centers in relation to behaviors associated with…
Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Ackermann, Hermann
Blind people can learn to understand speech at ultra-high syllable rates (ca. 20 syllables/s), a capability associated with hemodynamic activation of the central-visual system. To further elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying this skill, magnetoencephalographic (MEG) measurements during listening to sentence utterances were cross-correlated…
El ensenar a escuchar, a hablar, a leer y a escribir. Cuadernos para el entrenamiento de maestros de educacion bilingue. Cuardernos 1, 2 y 3, Serie D. (Teaching Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. Training Packets for Bilingual Teachers. Packets 1, 2 and 3, Series D.)
Barrera, Maria; Rosenberg, Graciela
This teacher training guide includes three major units that deal with the teaching of listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in Spanish in the bilingual classroom. Each packet includes objectives, materials, and activities that help develop and promote students' receptive and productive skills. Other major topics covered include: the…
Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang
Many studies have shown that language anxiety is correlated negatively with language competence. This study tests the hypothesis that second language learners' listening anxiety might be reduced when listening skills improve. Building on previous research showing that extensive reading is as effective and efficient as formal instruction in acquiring English as a foreign language and is even more effective with longer treatment duration, changes in listening anxiety were explored under two different instructional approaches-extensive listening and formal instruction-over a 1-yr. period in a sample of 92 Chinese college students. Listening anxiety and listening comprehension tests were administered to the participants before and after the experiment. Analysis showed that the Extensive Listening group improved more compared to the Formal Instruction group in listening competence, but their mean anxiety score also rose significantly. Factors contributing to the unexpected outcome indicate that the increase in anxiety should be considered facilitative to learning.
Bidelman, Gavin M; Dexter, Lauren
We examined a consistent deficit observed in bilinguals: poorer speech-in-noise (SIN) comprehension for their nonnative language. We recorded neuroelectric mismatch potentials in mono- and bi-lingual listeners in response to contrastive speech sounds in noise. Behaviorally, late bilinguals required ∼10dB more favorable signal-to-noise ratios to match monolinguals' SIN abilities. Source analysis of cortical activity demonstrated monotonic increase in response latency with noise in superior temporal gyrus (STG) for both groups, suggesting parallel degradation of speech representations in auditory cortex. Contrastively, we found differential speech encoding between groups within inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)-adjacent to Broca's area-where noise delays observed in nonnative listeners were offset in monolinguals. Notably, brain-behavior correspondences double dissociated between language groups: STG activation predicted bilinguals' SIN, whereas IFG activation predicted monolinguals' performance. We infer higher-order brain areas act compensatorily to enhance impoverished sensory representations but only when degraded speech recruits linguistic brain mechanisms downstream from initial auditory-sensory inputs.
Larkin, Robert P.
This activity is one of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. The activity investigates the development of compass skills, map skills, and orienteering. It employs the educational-games approach. Given specific exercises and instructions, students become…
The problem: Poor listening skills may result in misinterpretation. Language teachers as well as researchers understand the need for improving listening skills, and the need to find the most effective way to accomplish this objective. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of feature films with subtitles can help improve Taiwan…
This study examines common claims associated with shadowing. Studies in Japan conclude that shadowing is effective for improving learners' listening skills. Two common claims are that shadowing is effective for lower-proficiency learners and that it enhances learners' phoneme perception, thus improving listening comprehension skills. The former…
Schlinger, Henry D
As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior, it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, Verbal Behavior was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as “behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons” (1957, p. 2) focused on the behavior of the listener. But because many of the behaviors of the listener are fundamentally no different than other discriminated operants, they may not appropriately be termed listening. Even Skinner noted that the behavior of the listener often goes beyond simply mediating consequences for the speaker's behavior, implying that the listener engages in a repertoire of behaviors that is itself verbal. In the present article I suggest that listening involves subvocal verbal behavior. I then describe some of the forms and functions of the listener's verbal behavior (including echoic and intraverbal behavior) and conclude that there may be no functional distinction between speaking and listening. PMID:22478508
This guide contains instructional activities intended to integrate a comprehensive program of instruction in employability skills into the local K-12 curriculum in Wisconsin. The nine employability skills taught are work ethic, commitment, communication, interpersonal relationships, responsibility, job-seeking and job-getting, reasoning and…
Leffert, James S.; Brady, Mary E.; Siperstein, Gary N.
Students participate in a "social community" of learners. For children with learning problems, mastering the skills needed to actively participate in this community can be a challenge. How can teachers find time to provide social skills instruction, given the pressures to teach academic subjects first and foremost? This article shows school…
Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita
This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…
Gan, Linda; Chong, Sylvia
Examined the effectiveness of a year-long integrated language and music program (the Expressive Language and Music Project) to enhance Singaporean kindergartners' English oral-language competency. Found that the natural communicative setting and creative use of resources and activities based on the Orff and Kodaly approaches facilitated language…
Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.
This handbook was created by 138 Colorado educators statewide to provide their colleagues with exciting ideas for infusing life skills into the school curriculum. This handbook offers a wide variety of practical learning experiences for elementary through high school level students in three broad categories: career development; independent living;…
Rice, Suzanne; Burbules, Nicholas C.
Background Context: Despite its significance for learning, listening has received very little attention in the philosophy of education literature. This article draws on the philosophy and educational thought of Aristotle to illuminate characteristics of good listening. The current project is exploratory and preliminary, seeking mainly to suggest…
This booklet looks at the role of learner feedback in the quality improvement process. It suggests how adult and community learning (ACL) providers can adapt and improve their practice to meet the needs of learners in the changed policy context. Chapter 1 explores why providers should listen to learners and finds that listening to learners…
twon.) A Verbal Skills Curriculum program, designed for recruits with deficiencies in English language listening and speaking , was field-tested at... Skills program and presents the results of a field test of the program with recruits who speak English as a second language. The reoort also presents... Skills Curriculum provides remedial instruction to recruits experiencing difficulty in English language speaking or listening skills . English language
Berl, Madison M.; Duke, Elizabeth S.; Mayo, Jessica; Rosenberger, Lisa R.; Moore, Erin N.; VanMeter, John; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Gaillard, William Davis
Listening and reading comprehension of paragraph-length material are considered higher-order language skills fundamental to social and academic functioning. Using ecologically relevant language stimuli that were matched for difficulty according to developmental level, we analyze the effects of task, age, neuropsychological skills, and post-task…
Cao, Dian Sheng; Schüz, Natalie; Xie, Guang Rong; Lippke, Sonia
Our objective is to examine the role of planning skills for translating intentions into physical activity via planning cognitions. A study with 534 adolescents was conducted. Over 4 weeks, intention, planning cognitions (prospective anticipation of when, where, and how to perform activities), planning skills (successful past planning experiences), and physical activity were assessed. The results were that skills correlated with intention, planning cognitions, and subsequent physical activity. Planning cognitions were found to mediate the intention-behavior relation, whereas skills moderated the mediating role of planning cognitions: If students reported high skills, they were more likely to translate their intentions into plans and behavior. We conclude that having more skills makes it more likely that adolescents successfully translate their intentions into plans. Promotion of physical activity should improve planning cognitions but also planning skills. Only with planning cognitions and skills might adolescents better be able to act in accordance with their intentions and perform physical activity.
Cross, Kara; Flores, Roberto; Butterfield, Jacyln; Blackman, Melinda; Lee, Stephanie
The study examined the effects of music therapy and dance/movement therapy on cognitively impaired and mild to moderately depressed older adults. Passive listening to music and active observation of dance accompanied by music were studied in relation to memory enhancement and relief of depressive symptoms in 100 elderly board and care residents. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Recognition Memory Test-Faces Inventory were administered to two groups (one group exposed to a live 30-min. session of musical dance observation, the other to 30 min. of pre-recorded music alone) before the intervention and measured again 3 and 10 days after the intervention. Scores improved for both groups on both measures following the interventions, but the group exposed to dance therapy had significantly lower Beck Depression scores that lasted longer. These findings suggest that active observation of Dance Movement Therapy could play a role in temporarily alleviating moderate depressive symptoms and some cognitive deficits in older adults.
Albertus, Karen; And Others
Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities are aimed at…
Albertus, Karen; And Others
Emphasizing real-life communication skills, this book offers cooperative activities to help teachers supplement their writing programs with easy-to-use critical thinking activities. The activities in the book are suitable for grades 4 through 8, for gifted younger students, or as a remediation tool for older students. The activities in the book…
McCallum, W. F.; Botly, D. H.
These activities are part of a series of 17 teacher-developed instructional activities for geography at the secondary-grade level described in SO 009 140. In the activities students develop map skills by learning about and using nautical charts. The first activity involves students in using parallel rulers and a compass rose to find their…
Stengel, James R; Dixon, Andrea L; Allen, Chris T
Procter & Gamble has long been regarded as a major power of the marketing world and a prime training ground for marketers. But in the summer of 2000, with half of P&G's top 15 brands losing market share and employee morale in ruins, company executives realized that the marketing organization was in trouble. Training programs had been dramatically downsized and in some cases eliminated, employees were being fast-tracked up the career ladder without sufficient time to develop and hone their skills, mentoring had all but disappeared, and the marketing career path had lost its prestige. In an attempt to rebuild P&G's marketing strength, James Stengel, the heir apparent to the chief marketing officer position, began working with University of Cincinnati professors Chris Allen and Andrea Dixon on a new training program to fix the weaknesses in the marketing organization. But when the two professors began interviewing P&G senior executives, they discovered that the plans in motion for mapping out the marketing group's recovery were based not on data but on the intuition of a few individuals at corporate headquarters. So began the most comprehensive internal research endeavor in P&G marketing's history. Using the company's existing process for consumer research, Allen and Dixon shadowed employees, conducted one-on-one interviews, held focus-group sessions, and surveyed 3,500 members of the marketing staff to learn what the company was doing right--and wrong--and what mattered most to its people. The results led to the most sweeping redesign of P&G's marketing organization in 60 years. In this article, the authors explore the value of listening to employees--and truly hearing them. One of their conclusions: A structured research process can show you what's really on employees' minds.
Morris, R; Bakker, D; Satz, P; Van der Vlugt, H
Dichotic listening research with children has continued to be prevalent although numerous authors have described both theoretical and methodological limitations with traditional dichotic listening free-recall paradigms. The present research adds to this growing skepticism by reanalyzing two major longitudinal studies of children's ear asymmetries. These two studies, based in different countries (United States, Holland), utilized highly similar paradigms (free-recall digits), subjects (males), and age levels (kindergarten and second and fifth grade). The questions of ear advantage development, patterns of ear advantages, and the relationship between dichotic listening performance and reading skills are addressed from the multiple statistical methodologies represented in the literature. From these analyses, support for all of the major hypotheses regarding the developmental patterns of dichotic listening performances could be obtained from the same data samples. The use of traditional free-recall dichotic listening paradigms are not recommended for use with children. The implications for future research are discussed.
Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Farah, Rola; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer
Story listening in children relies on brain regions supporting speech perception, auditory word recognition, syntax, semantics, and discourse abilities, along with the ability to attend and process information (part of executive functions). Speed-of-processing is an early-developed executive function. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate the relationship between story listening and speed-of-processing in preschool-age children. Eighteen participants performed story-listening tasks during MRI scans. Functional and structural connectivity analysis was performed using the speed-of-processing scores as regressors. Activation in the superior frontal gyrus during story listening positively correlated with speed-of-processing scores. This region was functionally connected with the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and hippocampus. Fractional anisotropy in the inferior frontooccipital fasciculus, which connects the superior frontal and temporal gyri, was positively correlated with speed-of-processing scores. Our results suggest that speed-of-processing skills in preschool-age children are reflected in functional activation and connectivity during story listening and may act as a biomarker for future academic abilities.
In this article, Anthony Schmidt presents results from his research on listening instruction in a second language. Schmidt reveals that throughout the history of English language teaching (ELT), most students have never been taught how to listen. It was not just listening, but the need to do this listening in conjunction with an approach that…
McConnell, Patrick A.; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L.; Ives, Jeffrey C.; Sforzo, Gary A.
Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18–29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats (‘wide-band’ theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation. PMID:25452734
McConnell, Patrick A; Froeliger, Brett; Garland, Eric L; Ives, Jeffrey C; Sforzo, Gary A
Binaural beats are an auditory illusion perceived when two or more pure tones of similar frequencies are presented dichotically through stereo headphones. Although this phenomenon is thought to facilitate state changes (e.g., relaxation), few empirical studies have reported on whether binaural beats produce changes in autonomic arousal. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of binaural beating on autonomic dynamics [heart rate variability (HRV)] during post-exercise relaxation. Subjects (n = 21; 18-29 years old) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study during which binaural beats and placebo were administered over two randomized and counterbalanced sessions (within-subjects repeated-measures design). At the onset of each visit, subjects exercised for 20-min; post-exercise, subjects listened to either binaural beats ('wide-band' theta-frequency binaural beats) or placebo (carrier tones) for 20-min while relaxing alone in a quiet, low-light environment. Dependent variables consisted of high-frequency (HF, reflecting parasympathetic activity), low-frequency (LF, reflecting sympathetic and parasympathetic activity), and LF/HF normalized powers, as well as self-reported relaxation. As compared to the placebo visit, the binaural-beat visit resulted in greater self-reported relaxation, increased parasympathetic activation and increased sympathetic withdrawal. By the end of the 20-min relaxation period there were no observable differences in HRV between binaural-beat and placebo visits, although binaural-beat associated HRV significantly predicted subsequent reported relaxation. Findings suggest that listening to binaural beats may exert an acute influence on both LF and HF components of HRV and may increase subjective feelings of relaxation.
Kalaja, Sami Pekka; Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Liukkonen, Jarmo Olavi; Digelidis, Nikolaos
Background: There is evidence showing that fundamental movement skills and physical activity are related with each other. The ability to perform a variety of fundamental movement skills increases the likelihood of children participating in different physical activities throughout their lives. However, no fundamental movement skill interventions…
The writer, serving as university supervisor of student teachers in the public schools for thirty years, assessed pupil listening quality in observational visits made. The art of listening definitely needs improvement and teachers, regardless of academic subject matter taught, must aid pupils in listening achievement. Good listening habits are…
A thematic teaching program and portfolio assessment were used to maintain basic academic language arts and mathematics skills during the summer for 21 elementary students placed in residential foster care settings as victims of physical and/or sexual abuse. All activities were designed around the selected theme of a safari. Students listened to…
Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.
The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…
Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.
Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…
Sabirova, Elvira G.; Zakirova, Venera G.; Masalimova, Alfiya R.
Actuality of the studied problem is stipulated by the fact that the learning activity is the leading one for pupils and it defines development of main cognitive particularities of evolving personality. As the result of this activity becomes formation of cognitive motives, research skills, subjectively new knowledge and ways of activity for pupils.…
While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…
Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian
Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…
Texas Child Care, 2003
Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)
Amorim, Rita M.
In the present context of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) or English as International Language (EIL), it has become extremely relevant to maximize speaking opportunities in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom which aim at developing fluency and real-life communication skills. University students in Portugal need to practice…
City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.
The kit contains instructional objectives and matching activities for working with severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. Activities are classified into three color coded skill areas - sensory stimulation, motor development, and language development. Each card includes the name of the activity, objectives, and step-by-step procedures.…
Gross, Daniel M.
Dismissed as a passive behavior that comes naturally, listening is, in fact, a complex and learned activity that can be perfected. Like reading, writing, and speaking, listening as a practical activity is critical for success in college life and beyond. But while rhetoric as the art of speaking has been a basic course in higher education for…
Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.
Hayden, Laura; Cook, Amy; Scherer, Alexandra; Greenspan, Scott; Silva, Meghan Ray; Cadet, Melanie; Maki, Erik
Given the social, emotional, and academic benefits of physical activity related to youth development (Hellison, 2011), coupled with the minimal research regarding how school counselors can use physical activity for life skill development, this article focuses on school counselors' beliefs about collaborating with coaches and using physical…
Roessger, Kevin M.
In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…
Modla, Virginia B.; Wake, Donna Glenn
The authors detail technology-based active literacy strategies that they employed with preservice teachers to enhance their skill and comfort level in providing appropriate technology-supported literacy instruction to future students. They examine four theoretical and pragmatic threads to include in course design: active learning, open-ended…
By means of a series of educational activities over 8 months, this practicum study sought to institute a prosocial curriculum for preschool children. The curriculum was meant to teach trust, autonomy, and skills for handling aggressive feelings. Subjects were 18 four- and five-year-old children. Activities exposed children to areas such as: (1)…
Trussell, Margaret Edith
Presents a unit on map and compass activities which introduces compass direction, magnetic declination and conversion of map measurement to familiar units. Requires four, one-hour class meetings and may be followed by a half-day orienteering activity. (Author/JDH)
Chang, Anna C-S; Wu, Bill Wen-Pin; Pang, Jerry C-L
The purpose was the develop a questionnaire to identify the specific listening difficulties of second language (L2) learners. Based on previous research, a questionnaire containing 31 items was developed and administered to 1,056 college freshmen. The whole sample was split randomly into two subsamples, each containing 528 cases. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyse the first subsample, and six factors were extracted, explaining a total of 57.1% of variance. To test the factor model, confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with the second subsample. Various fit indices were examined. The best fitting model for the data was a 23-item, six-factor model representing text, input channel and surroundings, relevance, listener, speaker, and task. Apart from the listener factor, all components are external ones and deemed to be uncontrollable by listeners. L2 learners must take an active role in listening practice to overcome L2 listening difficulties.
Schafer, Patrick J; Serman, Maja; Arnold, Mirko; Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Strauss, Daniel J; Seidler-Fallbohmer, Brigit; Seidler, Harald
Speaker recognition in a multi-speaker environment is a complex listening task that requires effort to be solved. Especially people with hearing loss show an increased listening effort in demanding listening situations compared to normal hearing people. However, a standardized method to quantify listening effort does not exist yet. Recently we have shown a possible way to determine listening effort objectively. The aim of this study was to validate the proposed objective measure in a challenging, true-to-life listening situation, and to get an insight on the influence of different hearing aid (HA) settings on the listening effort using the proposed measure. To achieve this we investigated the influence of four different HA settings and two different listening task difficulties (LTD) on the listening effort of people with hearing loss in a selective, real-speech listening task. HA setting A, B and C all had an adaptive compression with static characteristic, but differed in the gain and compression settings (more and less gain and more and less linear). Setting D had an adaptive compression whose characteristic was situation-dependent. To quantify the listening effort the ongoing oscillatory EEG activity was recorded as the basis to calculate the objective measure (OLEosc). By way of comparison a subjective listening effort score was determined on an individual basis (SLEscr). The results show that the OLEosc maps the SLEscr well in every of the tested conditions. Furthermore, the results also suggest that OLEosc might be more sensitive to small variances in listening effort than the employed subjective rating scale.
Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo
Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136
O' Brien, Wesley; Belton, Sarahjane; Issartel, Johann
The aim of this study was to determine if a potential relationship among physical activity (PA), fundamental movement skills and weight status exists amongst early adolescent youth. Participants were a sample of 85 students; 54 boys (mean age = 12.94 ± 0.33 years) and 31 girls (mean age = 12.75 ± 0.43 years). Data gathered during physical education class included PA (accelerometry), fundamental movement skills and anthropometric measurements. Standard multiple regression revealed that PA and total fundamental movement skill proficiency scores explained 16.5% (P < 0.001) of the variance in the prediction of body mass index. Chi-square tests for independence further indicated that compared with overweight or obese adolescents, a significantly higher proportion of adolescents classified as normal weight achieved mastery/near-mastery in fundamental movement skills. Results from the current investigation indicate that weight status is an important correlate of fundamental movement skill proficiency during adolescence. Aligned with most recent research, school- and community-based programmes that include developmentally structured learning experiences delivered by specialists can significantly improve fundamental movement skill proficiency in youth.
It goes almost without saying that physics doctorates do a lot more than just physics research or teaching at their jobs. But what exactly do they do? First, I will share basic data showing where physics doctorates are employed. Then I will present data from two of AIP's surveys about the employment of physicists. The first set of data comes from our survey of physics PhDs one year after doctorate. We will consider how often physics doctorates do a variety of activities on the job, including management, technical writing, teamwork, design and development, programming, and advanced mathematics. The second set of data comes from AIP's new survey of PhDs in physics 10 to 13 years after graduation. Data for many of the same activities will be shown for physics doctorates who have been in the workplace about a decade. Depending on the type of job, most industrially employed physics doctorates do some type of physics at work, but they are also very likely to report managing projects, writing for technical audiences, working on a team, and collaborating with non-physicists, among many other activities. This examination of the types of activities physics doctorates perform in the workplace will provide insight on the non-scientific training that would benefit graduate students the most.
Barlow Thurman, Kathy
This full-color, kid-pleasing collection of language-arts activities is ideal for K-2 children of all ability levels--and for English language learners too. The practical and easy-to-implement lessons also are convenient for substitute teachers, classroom assistants, and volunteers. Flexible and versatile, these unique cards can be used for guided…
Al Qasim, Nada; Al Fadda, Hind
Despite recognition that language can best be learned in an authentic context, and a growing emphasis on the importance of using technology to improve listening skills, only limited research in this area exists in a Saudi context. To add to this research, this quantitative study examines the influence of podcasting on the listening comprehension…
Woody, Robert H.
Music teachers who strive to provide a broad range of experiences for their students are usually careful to include music listening among them. Although students have many opportunities to hear music in their everyday lives, most teachers agree that music listening involves skills that must be taught to children. Some might even argue that…
Wolfgramm, Christine; Suter, Nicole; Göksel, Eva
Listening is regarded as a key requirement for successful communication and is fundamentally linked to other language skills. Unlike reading, it requires both hearing and processing information in real-time. We therefore propose that the ability to concentrate is a strong predictor of listening comprehension. Using structural equation modeling,…
Tian, Xingbin; Suppasetseree, Suksan
College English in China has shifted from cultivating reading ability to comprehensive communicative abilities with an emphasis on listening and speaking. For this reason, new teaching models should be built on modern information technology. However, little research on developing models for the online teaching of listening skills has been…
A vast number of news video listening materials are now easily accessible to English language learners (ELLs) due to developments in broadcast and multimedia technology. While little is known about how ELLs attempt to comprehend this challenging medium, researchers agree on the critical nature of listening skills, which researchers have placed at…
The article describes how the dictogloss method and cooperative learning can be combined to promote the development of listening and speaking skills of second language learners. The paper begins with an outline of the dictogloss procedure and the theoretical background behind it. The procedures for conducting a dictogloss-based listening class are…
Ockey, Gary J.; French, Robert
Concerns about the need for assessing multidialectal listening skills for global contexts are becoming increasingly prevalent. However, the inclusion of multiple accents on listening assessments may threaten test fairness because it is not practical to include every accent that may be encountered in the language use domain on these tests. Given…
Anderson, William Todd
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of mindful listening instruction on music listening sensitivity and music listening enjoyment. A pretest--posttest control group design was used. Participants, fourth-grade students (N = 42) from an elementary school in a large city in the Northeastern United States, were randomly assigned to two…
James, Charles J.
Six practical components of listening comprehension and sources of listening materials are considered. Listening comprehension depends on: (1) the sonic realization or actual physical hearing of language, (2) the segmental/suprasegmental form (phoneme distinction), (3) the musical pitch and rhythm, (4) lexical phrasing, (5) the purpose of the…
Cooper, Lynn O.; Buchanan, Trey
Primarily used in corporate and organizational contexts, this study evaluates the psychometric properties of the 30-item "Organizational Listening Survey" ("OLS") as a measure of listening behavior with a sample of undergraduate college students. The first study analyzed 1,475 students' self-reports of their listening behavior on campus,…
Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan
The purpose of this study was to compare 3 T and 1.5 T fMRI results during emotional music listening. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced instrumental musical pieces, with three different affective expressions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=32) were split into two groups, one subjected to fMRI scanning using 3 T and another group scanned using 1.5 T. Whole brain t-tests (corrected for multiple comparisons) compared joy and fear in each of the two groups. The 3 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral superficial amygdala, bilateral hippocampus and bilateral auditory cortex. The 1.5 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral auditory cortex and cuneus. This is the first study to compare results obtained under different field strengths with regard to affective processes elicited by means of auditory/musical stimulation. The findings raise concern over false negatives in the superficial amygdala and hippocampus in affective studies conducted under 1.5 T and caution that imaging improvements due to increasing magnetic field strength can be influenced by region-specific characteristics.
Emphasizes importance of adults listening to children and youth. Describes benefits of and barriers to active listening. Lists several "typical responses" by adults to youths' attempts at communication. Includes several camp scenarios among hypothetical examples illustrating ways adults might better communicate with children and youth.…
Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.
A continuing line of research indicates that focus of attention is perhaps the most important attribute of actively participating in meaningful music listening and a model accounting for these findings has been developed. Music teachers are especially concerned with meaningful listening when having students discern important elements or attributes…
Wright, David J.; Holmes, Paul; Di Russo, Francesco; Loporto, Michela; Smith, Dave
Experts in a skill produce movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) of smaller amplitude and later onset than novices. This may indicate that, following long-term training, experts require less effort to plan motor skill performance. However, no longitudinal evidence exists to support this claim. To address this, EEG was used to study the effect of motor skill training on cortical activity related to motor planning. Ten non-musicians took part in a 5-week training study learning to play guitar. At week 1, the MRCP was recorded from motor areas whilst participants played the G Major scale. Following a period of practice of the scale, the MRCP was recorded again at week 5. Results showed that the amplitude of the later pre-movement components were smaller at week 5 compared to week 1. This may indicate that, following training, less activity at motor cortex sites is involved in motor skill preparation. This supports claims for a more efficient motor preparation following motor skill training. PMID:23251647
Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah
In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.
Markham Elementary School, Pompano Beach, FL.
The communications program developed by Markham Elementary School personnel of Pompano Beach, Florida, is planned so as to utilize fully the diagnostic and team approach to learning. Instruction in communications skills (reading, listening, speaking, writing, handwriting, and spelling) is structured by sequential achievement phases which allow the…
Osei, Aboagye Michael; Liang, Qing Jing; Natalia, Ihnatushchenko; Stephen, Mensah Abrampah
Although wealth of empirical researches have covered the impact of crucial, indispensable role reading skills play in the development of individuals' mental faculties through the acquisition of knowledge in a particular language, scientific works on the assessment of the relationship(s) between pre-reading activities (consisting of games, puzzle…
The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…
Smalley, Scott W.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
The purpose of this descriptive survey study was to determine the extent to which student teachers deem traditional student teaching skills and activities relevant as part of the capstone student teaching experience. The study population consisted of all (N = 140) fall 2012 and spring 2013 agricultural education student teachers in the North…
Problem statement: Writing an essay is a most difficult creative work and consequently requires detailed instruction. There are in fact two types of instruction that contribute to the development of writing skills: Reading activities analysing texts in content and schematic structure to find out how they are composed and process writing…
McGeown, Sarah P.; Osborne, Cara; Warhurst, Amy; Norgate, Roger; Duncan, Lynne G.
This study examined the extent to which a range of child characteristics (sex, age, socioeconomic status, reading skill and intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation) predicted engagement (i.e., time spent) in different reading activities (fiction books, factual books, school textbooks, comics, magazines and digital texts). In total, 791 children…
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of progressive sentence development activities on 5th graders' description skills. The study was conducted based on the pretest-posttest quasi-experimental model with a control group. A total of 58 students participated in the study; 29 in the control group, and 29 in the experimental group. The…
Birol, Sefa Sahan
The aim of the study is to examine the problem solving skills of people who are doing sporty recreation activities in Karaman Province. A total of 143 people participated in this study (51 females and 92 males) Their age mean was 1.2168 ± 0.41350. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson, was used to measure the problem solving…
This paper investigates ESL learners' awareness of pragmatic skills utilizing an activity-theory driven approach to perform an inquiry task into problem-solving service call conversations (PSSCs) between native speakers (NS) and non-native speakers of English (NNSs). Eight high-intermediate ESL learners, from five different language backgrounds,…
The aim of this research is to determine the effect of creative writing activities on the skill of university students in writing story genre text. Unequaled control group model which is half experimental is used in this research. 1/A section (experimental group) of standard class and 1/B section (control group) of evening class from Turkish…
Los Angeles Community Coll. District, CA.
Detailed operational guidelines, training objectives, and learning activities are provided for the Los Angeles Community College District's Skill Training Improvement Programs (STIP II), which are designed to train students for immediate employment. The first of four reports covers Los Angeles Southwest College's computer programming trainee…
Latham, Lindsey; Rayfield, John; Moore, Lori L.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of FFA activities on critical thinking skills of Texas FFA members in three-star FFA chapters. This descriptive study was conducted in eight purposively selected three-star FFA chapters throughout Texas. Three-star chapters are those chapters who have emerged as outstanding programs…
Lu, Wei-Hsin; Deen, Darwin; Rothstein, Dan; Santana, Luz; Gold, Marthe R.
The authors developed and delivered a brief patient activation intervention (PAI) that sought to facilitate physician-patient communication. The intervention was designed to assist low-income, racial/ethnic minority users of community health centers in building skills and confidence asking questions. The PAI takes 8 to 10 minutes to deliver and…
Molinar, Soledad Marie
This dissertation involved a series of training sessions where parents from a Title I middle school participated in the learning and practice of Algebra Readiness skills. The project was based on a series of six weekly trainings for parents to learn home-based activities to increase their child's Algebra Readiness. I administered an initial…
Chandler, Lynette K.; Young, Robin Miller; Nylander, Donna; Shields, LuAnn; Ash, JoAnne; Bauman, Becky; Butts, Jill; Black, Kristine; Geraghty, Peggy; Hafer, Megan; Lay, Angie; Mitera, Brandie; Richardson, Debra; Steffen, Kara; Summers, Debra
Many teachers and other service providers struggle with trying to address the many skills that are important for young children to acquire during the preschool years. Early Literacy Initiative project (Project ELI) is a comprehensive, two-tiered, early language and literacy intervention model that includes activities for all children as well as…
Inan, Mehmet; Ozden, Bülent; Dervent, Fatih; Küçüktepe, Coskun
The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of the games in the "I am Playing Games" (IPG) compilation booklet that was used in the Games and Physical Activity (GPA) curriculum. 257 games in IPG compilation booklet were coded whether they had elements that would enable development of common basic skills or not. Common basic…
Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Safdari, Nastaran
The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of online mobile-assisted task-based activities on improving Iranian intermediate English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners' speaking skills. To achieve the purpose of the study, 90 intermediate language learners were selected ranging between 13 to 16 years old and divided into three…
Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle
The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…
Harvey, T. Edward
Reviews some technological advances and classroom games which may be used to increase listening comprehension skills in the foreign language classroom. These include the Random Access Memory (RAM), the Sens-it-Cell, and the SCUCHO game. (AM)
Diaz, Frank M.
Music educators often use guided listening strategies as a means of enhancing engagement during music listening activities. Although previous research suggests that these strategies are indeed helpful in facilitating some form of cognitive and emotional engagement, little is known about how these strategies might function for music of differing…
Rioult-Pedotti, Mengia-Seraina; Pekanovic, Ana; Atiemo, Clement Osei; Marshall, John; Luft, Andreas Rüdiger
Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area, the major midbrain nucleus projecting to the motor cortex, play a key role in motor skill learning and motor cortex synaptic plasticity. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists exert parallel effects in the motor system: they impair motor skill learning and reduce long-term potentiation. Traditionally, D1 and D2 receptor modulate adenylyl cyclase activity and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation in opposite directions via different G-proteins and bidirectionally modulate protein kinase A (PKA), leading to distinct physiological and behavioral effects. Here we show that D1 and D2 receptor activity influences motor skill acquisition and long term synaptic potentiation via phospholipase C (PLC) activation in rat primary motor cortex. Learning a new forelimb reaching task is severely impaired in the presence of PLC, but not PKA-inhibitor. Similarly, long term potentiation in motor cortex, a mechanism involved in motor skill learning, is reduced when PLC is inhibited but remains unaffected by the PKA inhibitor. Skill learning deficits and reduced synaptic plasticity caused by dopamine antagonists are prevented by co-administration of a PLC agonist. These results provide evidence for a role of intracellular PLC signaling in motor skill learning and associated cortical synaptic plasticity, challenging the traditional view of bidirectional modulation of PKA by D1 and D2 receptors. These findings reveal a novel and important action of dopamine in motor cortex that might be a future target for selective therapeutic interventions to support learning and recovery of movement resulting from injury and disease.
Story hour began with an invitation to faculty to listen to stories from colleagues about their teaching experiences. Three teachers volunteered to prepare stories that would soothe and entertain, stories that would serve as an antidote for the many stresses teachers were undergoing. In less than a year, this simple idea progressed from stories…
Schlinger, Henry D.
As we celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication of B. F. Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", it may be important to reconsider the role of the listener in the verbal episode. Although by Skinner's own admission, "Verbal Behavior" was primarily about the behavior of the speaker, his definition of verbal behavior as "behavior reinforced through the…
Berger, Charles R.
Interpersonal communication researchers have not only tended to ignore the role that listening plays in face-to-face interaction, they have also viewed message production and message processing as distinct processes. The message production-message processing bipolarity is belied by recent research suggesting that mirror neurons subserving speech…
To understand the demands and restrictions of human consciousness will allow teachers and students alike to actually "be" listeners. It is speculated (by K. Wilber, E. Neumann, J. Gebser and others) that human consciousness, in the course of human existence, has gone through several changes, different modes or structures, so to speak,…
Community Building Resources, Spruce Grove (Alberta).
Six community builders in Edmonton, Alberta, planned, developed, and implemented Listen and Learn II, a reflective research project in asset-based community building, over a 6-month period in 1998. They met regularly over 2 months to plan the research and design a method that was open to participation at any stage, encouraged exchange of…
This paper examines human phonosensitivity (the process by which an organism receives acoustic stimuli and integrates them into its behavior patterns), which is divided into two distinct but inseparable systems: hearing, which controls the reception, transmission, and perception of acoustic stimuli, and listening, which controls the discrimination…
English, Susan Lewis
Although nonverbal behaviors have been shown to be learned, meaningful, systematic, and sometimes culture bound, kinesics, the science of body behavioral communication, has been a neglected factor in second language instruction and research, particularly in the area of academic listening. This paper describes steps taken to develop materials,…
Flowerdew, John, Ed.
A collection of essays address a variety of issues in listening in the academic context, particularly in a foreign or second language. Articles include: "Research of Relevance to Second Language Lecture Comprehension--An Overview" (John Flowerdew); "Expectation-Driven Understanding in Information Systems Lecture Comprehension" (Steve Tauroza,…
"Listening for differences" describes one simple method by which we might reach out to each other. No two people, after all, experience the world in exactly the same way, and we need to hear everyone's story in order to weave the entire tapestry of humanness. To cut someone short or to exclude someone is to leave a hole in the fabric of our…
Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.
Ferguson, Sarah Hargus
It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.
Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer A.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the development of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness. Methods LISTEN was developed using the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for intervention development. Extensive literature review revealed that belonging, relating, placing in community, challenges, and meanings of coping were concepts significant to loneliness. Past interventions were limited but it was determined from a recent meta-analysis that enhanced effectiveness might result from interventions that targeted the poorly adapted cognitive processes of loneliness. These processes include social undesirability, stigma, and negative thoughts about self in relation to others. LISTEN is designed to be delivered in a determined logical sequence of 5 sessions, each focusing on the concepts relevant to loneliness as derived from the literature. For each session, intervention delivery is guided by the concepts from story theory (including intentional dialogue, nurse as listener, examination of self in relation to others and community, synthesizing concerns and patterns, and identifying messages) and the principles of cognitive restructuring (self-assessment of maladaptive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors, identifying challenges of changing, reconceptualization of self, new skill acquisition through group interaction, and identifying patterns of meaning in loneliness). Results LISTEN is developed and the first randomized trial is complete with a sample of 27 lonely, chronically ill, community dwelling, and older adults. LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver by the study team and acceptable for significantly diminishing loneliness by participants of the LISTEN groups who were compared to attention control groups (p < 0.5). Conclusions LISTEN has the potential to enhance health by diminishing loneliness which could result in improving the long-term negative known
Stewart, Mary Alice; Smith, Melanie
By helping students acquire deliberative skills, community colleges can help develop citizen leaders who can engage in public discussion about values that are commonly shared but differently applied. Moreover, deliberative skills, consisting of active listening, creative conflict, public dialogue, and public judgment, can provide a fresh approach…
Canale, Michael; And Others
Outlines the main testing needs, problems, and recommendations formulated by Michael Canale and by the four authors who reacted to his paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency." Discusses three major and interrelated needs and two key problems found in receptive skills testing and makes recommendations.…
An experiment combining listening comprehension training and error analysis was conducted with students at the English Language Institute, Queens College, the City University of New York. The purpose of the study was to investigate how to take learners who were primarily dependent on perceptive skills for comprehension and widen their…
Tijdens, Kea G.; De Ruijter, Judith; De Ruijter, Esther
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to evaluate a method for measuring work activities and skill requirements of 160 occupations in eight countries, used in EurOccupations, an EU-FP6 project. Additionally, it aims to explore how the internet can be used for measuring work activities and skill requirements. Design/methodology/approach: For the…
Yancy, Yuri G.
This study was conducted in a middle school math class and investigated the effects of project-based activities on the middle school math students' skill acquisition and intrinsic motivation. After math-related project activities were implemented and completed, an analysis of how the students were affected in the areas of math skills and…
Fencl, Heidi S.
Students in a general education science course made significant gains in scientific reasoning skills when they were taught using carefully designed hands-on activities and writing assignments. The activities required students to make use of scientific skills such as graphing, predicting outcomes under changing conditions, or designing experiments,…
Ishler, James Mitchell
Effective listening comprehension skills are important as the world becomes increasingly global and television, radio, and the Internet become forums for English communication. However, many countries, such as Tunisia, do not use English as a first or second language, but as a foreign language. Therefore, realizing the importance of English, the…
How to improve students' ability of speaking English? That is the key point we are concerned about. This paper discusses the possibility and necessity of improving students' ability by combining the four skills of speaking, listening, reading and writing.
Lonsdale, Adam J; North, Adrian C
Four 'uses and gratifications' studies investigated peoples' reasons for listening to music (Study 1); and whether these reasons differ significantly from those associated with other leisure activities (Study 2). In Study 3, an open-ended, qualitative research design was used to investigate why people listen to music. In Study 4, a cross-sectional design was used to investigate the possibility that people of different ages might listen to music for different reasons. Findings showed that there are a number of reasons why participants listen to music, comparison of which indicated that participants listen to music primarily to manage/regulate their moods. Comparison with other leisure activities indicated that for the most part, listening to music was rated better than other leisure activities at serving an individual's different needs. This versatility may explain why music is so important to people. Evidence was also found to suggest that the reasons for listening to music may change as people grow older.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the Scratch and Lego Mindstorms Ev3 programming activities on academic achievement with respect to computer programming, and on the problem-solving and logical-mathematical thinking skills of students. This study was a semi-experimental, pretest-posttest study with two experimental groups and…
Goh, Christine; Taib, Yusnita
This article outlines a small-scale study of metacognitive instruction for young second language listeners and discusses the value of lessons that highlight the listening process. Ten primary school pupils participated in eight specially designed listening lessons that included traditional listening exercises, individual post-listening reflections…
Berry, Jason; Abernethy, Bruce; Côté, Jean
The developmental histories of 32 players in the Australian Football League (AFL), independently classified as either expert or less skilled in their perceptual and decision-making skills, were collected through a structured interview process and their year-on-year involvement in structured and deliberate play activities retrospectively determined. Despite being drawn from the same elite level of competition, the expert decision-makers differed from the less skilled in having accrued, during their developing years, more hours of experience in structured activities of all types, in structured activities in invasion-type sports, in invasion-type deliberate play, and in invasion activities from sports other than Australian football. Accumulated hours invested in invasion-type activities differentiated between the groups, suggesting that it is the amount of invasion-type activity that is experienced and not necessarily intent (skill development or fun) or specificity that facilitates the development of perceptual and decision-making expertise in this team sport.
Iivonen, S.; Sääkslahti, A. K.; Mehtälä, A.; Villberg, J. J.; Soini, A.; Poskiparta, M.
Physical activity (PA), its location, social interactions and fundamental motor skills (FMS) were investigated in four-year-old Finnish children in day care. Six skills in the stability, locomotor and manipulative domains were assessed in 53 children (24 boys, 29 girls, normal anthropometry) with the APM-Inventory manual for assessing children's…
Feldman, Jean R.
Designed to be useful for teachers, students, and parents, this resource book contains skill-appropriate, easy-to-follow activities for emergent readers. Noting that helping children become successful readers by developing reading readiness skills and a love for literature requires careful planning and instruction, the book states that children…
Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.
Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…
Tortella, Patrizia; Haga, Monika; Loras, Håvard
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills. As control, motor skills were also assessed on 39 children from different kindergartens who did not come to the park. The results show that the experimental group who practiced gross-motor activities in the playground for 1 hour a week for 10 weeks improved significantly in 4 out of the 6 gross motor tasks and in none of the fine motor tasks. The data indicate that limited transfer occurred between tasks referring to different domains of motor competences while suggesting cross feeding for improvement of gross-motor skills between different exercises when domains related to physical fitness and strength of specific muscle groups are involved. These results are relevant to the issue of condition(s) appropriate for maintaining and developing motor skills in this age group as well as for the planning, organization and implementation of play and physical activities in kindergartens. PMID:27462985
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of leisure time activities program in individuals with intellectual disabilities in terms of developing social skills and reducing behavioral problems. Social skills assessment scale, behavioral assessment form for children and young adults, and teacher's report forms were used in the…
All nurses should have an understanding of heart sounds and be proficient in cardiac auscultation. Unfortunately, this skill is not part of many nursing school curricula, nor is it necessarily a required skillfor employment. Yet, being able to listen and accurately describe heart sounds has tangible benefits to the patient, as it is an integral part of a complete cardiac assessment. In this two-part article, I will review the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation, how cardiac anatomy and physiology relate to heart sounds, and describe the various heart sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned nurse, it is never too early or too late to add this important diagnostic skill to your assessment tool kit.
Carman, Priscilla; Van Horn, Barbara; Hamilton, KayLynn; Williams, Mary Kay
This guide contains activities and resources to help adult learners develop the work-based foundation skills and knowledge areas included on the Foundation Skills Framework wheel (Institute for the Study of Adult Literacy 2000). Its four sections (basic employability skills, basic workplace knowledge, basic workplace skills, and lifelong learning…
Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H
This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paired listening was originally developed as a research tool with the aim to understand the strategies used by L2 learners when listening to recorded speech in the target language. It offers researchers a useful combination of direct observation and verbal data, whilst avoiding the common drawbacks of subjective introspection. This paper examines…
Yamada, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Yamahara, K.; Hanasaki, N.; Koirala, S.; Yeh, P. J.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.
Improving subseasonal hydrometeorological forecast skill for continental drought events to achieve stable water resources management and agricultural activities is a challenging task. The 1988 U.S. drought was one of the most severe extreme weather events in the U.S. followed by the 2012 U.S. drought. In this study, we perform several sets of ensemble forecast simulations starting on July 15 between 1986 and 1995 by using an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), combined with several-human activity modules reflecting irrigation, domestic, industrial water demands associated with dam reservoir operation and groundwater pumping systems. Here, we find that the geographical distribution of subseasonal forecast skill for near surface hydrometeorological variables and precipitation over many regions in the Mississippi river basin is improved in the AGCM when these human activity modules are included in association with realistic land initializations. In addition, the use of the human activity modules contribute to decrease spreads for hydrometeorological variables among ensemble members in addition to smaller spread of surface soil moisture. This result suggests that keeping certain land surface wetness conditions for stable human activities is linking to decrease of freedom for atmospheric variables, and it could be called as the human induced land-atmosphere coupling.
This document presents one module in a set of training resources for trainers to use with parents and/or professionals serving children with disabilities; focus is on communication skills. The modules stress content and activities that build skills and offer resources to promote parent-professional collaboration. Each training module takes about 2…
Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael; Uchida, Naomi; Nakaya, Akitaka; Yanagihara, Masafumi
The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of a time-delay prompting procedure on the acquisition of skills for repairing multiple listener misunderstandings. A prelinguistic student with autism was taught to use picture cards as a strategy to repair listener misunderstandings in a setting where the student had to ask the listener…
Wang, Dean-Chuan; Lin, Yu-Yi; Chen, Tsan-Ju; Lin, Hwai-Ting
Motor skill learning is essential for environmental adaptations during everyday life. It has been shown that the cerebellum plays an important role in both the adaptation of eye movements and the motor skill learning. However, the neuronal substrates responsible for consolidation of complex motor skills rather than simple reflexes are still uncertain. Because the induction of immediate-early genes activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) and zinc finger binding protein clone 268 (Zif268) has been regarded as a marker for recent neuronal activity, therefore, in the present study, a rat paradigm of motor skill learning was used to investigate the protein expression of Arc and zif268 in the cerebellum after motor skill learning. Rats were trained to traverse the runway apparatus for 5 days. Protein samples were collected from the cerebellar cortices 1 hour after the training on days 1, 3, and 5, and analyzed by western blotting. The results showed that the expression of Arc, but not zif268, was significantly increased in the cerebellum following motor skill learning. These findings suggest that motor skill learning induces Arc expression in the cerebellum, which may play a role in acquiring complex motor skills.
Katchen, Johanna E.
Use of English-language mystery movies is recommended to teach English-as-a-Second-Language listening and speech skills outside an English-language environment. A variety of issues are discussed, including the following: presenting the film in segments for more effectiveness; presenting students with activities that develop specific aspects of the…
Martin, Markus; Nitschke, Kai; Beume, Lena; Dressing, Andrea; Bühler, Laura E; Ludwig, Vera M; Mader, Irina; Rijntjes, Michel; Kaller, Christoph P; Weiller, Cornelius
Apraxia is a debilitating cognitive motor disorder that frequently occurs after left hemisphere stroke and affects tool-associated and imitative skills. However, the severity of the apraxic deficits varies even across patients with similar lesions. This variability raises the question whether regions outside the left hemisphere network typically associated with cognitive motor tasks in healthy subjects are of additional functional relevance. To investigate this hypothesis, we explored regions where functional magnetic resonance imaging activity is associated with better cognitive motor performance in patients with left hemisphere ischaemic stroke. Thirty-six patients with chronic (>6 months) large left hemisphere infarcts (age ± standard deviation, 60 ± 12 years, 29 male) and 29 control subjects (age ± standard deviation, 72 ± 7, 15 male) were first assessed behaviourally outside the scanner with tests for actual tool use, pantomime and imitation of tool-use gestures, as well as for meaningless gesture imitation. Second, functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was registered during the passive observation of videos showing tool-associated actions. Voxel-wise linear regression analyses were used to identify areas where behavioural performance was correlated with functional magnetic resonance imaging activity. Furthermore, lesions were delineated on the magnetic resonance imaging scans for voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. The analyses revealed two sets of regions where functional magnetic resonance imaging activity was associated with better performance in the clinical tasks. First, activity in left hemisphere areas thought to mediate cognitive motor functions in healthy individuals (i.e. activity within the putative 'healthy' network) was correlated with better scores. Within this network, tool-associated tasks were mainly related to activity in supramarginal gyrus and ventral premotor cortex, while meaningless gesture imitation depended more on the
The process of acquiring language is often depicted as a tiered process of oral development: listening and speaking; and, literacy development: reading, and writing. As infants we first learn language by listening, then speaking. That is, regardless of culture, or dialect we are first immersed in language in this oral context. It is only after one…
Morrison, Charles D.
One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…
Phibbs, Mary E.
Presents a teachers search for solutions to the problem of students not listening in science class. The author discovered the sequential nature of aural Origami is an excellent method for getting students to listen. Used cassette tape recordings of the paper folding directions twice a week for a month. Students test scores improved as well as…
A LISTENING GROUP IS A GROUP OF ADULTS MEETING TOGETHER REGULARLY TO DISCUSS RADIO OR TELEVISION PROGRAMS, USUALLY UNDER LAY LEADERSHIP, SOMETIMES ASSISTED BY SUPPLEMENTAL PRINTED MATERIALS, WITH ARRANGEMENTS FOR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION (FEEDBACK) BETWEEN THE LISTENERS AND BROADCASTERS. GROUPS APPEAL TO CLIENTELE NOT ORDINARILY ATTRACTED TO ADULT…
Kim, Young-Suk; Phillips, Beth
In an effort to understand cognitive foundations of oral language comprehension (i.e., listening comprehension), we examined how inhibitory control, theory of mind, and comprehension monitoring are uniquely related to listening comprehension over and above vocabulary and age. A total of 156 children in kindergarten and first grade from…
This simple exercise, performed in teams, gives students practice in listening to instructions, particularly when there are restrictions for the communication. The teams compete in a limited amount of time to build a Lego[TM] structure based on the instructions of one team member. Which team listens the best and is most successful?
The present study quantified the magnitude of sex differences in perceptual asymmetries as measured with dichotic listening. This was achieved by means of a meta-analysis of the literature dating back from the initial use of dichotic listening as a measure of laterality. The meta-analysis included 249 effect sizes pertaining to sex differences and…
Saad, Inaam; Ahmed, Magdi
This paper investigates the effect of daily journal writing on enhancing the listening and reading comprehension skills in a fifty-week Modern Standard Arabic course taught at the Defense Language Institute (DLI) in Monterey, California. In the field of foreign language (FL) teaching, writing has long been considered a supporting skill for…
Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi
Questions concerning the role of input in the growth of syntactic skills have generated substantial debate within psychology and linguistics. The authors address these questions by investigating the effects of experimentally manipulated input on children's skill with the passive voice. The study involved 72 four-year-olds who listened to stories containing either a high proportion of passive voice sentences or a high proportion of active voice sentences. Following 10 story sessions, children's production and comprehension of passives were assessed. Intervention type affected performance--children who heard stories with passive sentences produced more passive constructions (and with fewer mistakes) and showed higher comprehension scores than children who heard stories with active sentences. Theoretical implications of these results for the understanding of the nature of syntactic skills and practical implications for the development of preschool materials are discussed.
Roney, R. Craig
Explains how storytelling can help preschoolers develop literacy skills and considers the instructional advantages over reading aloud of the give-and-take between audience and storyteller. Includes a description of a storytelling session. (DMM)
Zhang, Kaili Chen
This article concerns social skills interventions for children with emotional/behavioral disorders. Drawing on the author's teaching experience and the findings of research on social skills training in schools, and exploring effective ways to facilitate children's social skill development, the paper describes how social skills interventions can be…
Miller, Sandra W., Ed.; Tulloch, Charlotte R., Ed.
This publication is designed to help home economics teachers as they identify and teach basic skills in their programs. Part I, "Basic Skills Instruction in Home Economics" (Miller), discusses strategies for supplementing basic skills through home economics content. It addresses preparation of home economics teachers to incorporate basic skills in…
Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang
Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.
Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari
The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are shaped by such informal musical activities both at home and in playschool-type settings. Although more research is still needed, the evidence emerging from these studies suggests that, in addition to formal musical training, informal musical activities can also influence the maturation of auditory discrimination and attention in preschool-aged children. PMID:24009597
Background Although previous studies have demonstrated that children with high levels of fundamental movement skill competency are more active throughout the day, little is known regarding children’s fundamental movement skill competency and their physical activity during key time periods of the school day (i.e., lunchtime, recess and after-school). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between fundamental movement skill competency and objectively measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) throughout the school day among children attending primary schools in low-income communities. Methods Eight primary schools from low-income communities and 460 children (8.5 ± 0.6 years, 54% girls) were involved in the study. Children’s fundamental movement skill competency (TGMD-2; 6 locomotor and 6 object-control skills), objectively measured physical activity (ActiGraph GT3X and GT3X + accelerometers), height, weight and demographics were assessed. Multilevel linear mixed models were used to assess the cross-sectional associations between fundamental movement skills and MVPA. Results After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and socio-economic status, locomotor skill competency was positively associated with total (P = 0.002, r = 0.15) and after-school (P = 0.014, r = 0.13) MVPA. Object-control skill competency was positively associated with total (P < 0.001, r = 0.20), lunchtime (P = 0.03, r = 0.10), recess (P = 0.006, r = 0.11) and after-school (P = 0.022, r = 0.13) MVPA. Conclusions Object-control skill competency appears to be a better predictor of children’s MVPA during school-based physical activity opportunities than locomotor skill competency. Improving fundamental movement skill competency, particularly object-control skills, may contribute to increased levels of children’s MVPA throughout the day. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry No: ACTRN
Bradlow, Ann R.; Pisoni, David B.
In order to gain insight into the interplay between the talker-, listener-, and item-related factors that influence speech perception, a large multi-talker database of digitally recorded spoken words was developed, and was then submitted to intelligibility tests with multiple listeners. Ten talkers produced two lists of words at three speaking rates. One list contained lexically “easy” words (words with few phonetically similar sounding “neighbors” with which they could be confused), and the other list contained lexically “hard” (wordswords with many phonetically similar sounding “neighbors”). An analysis of the intelligibility data obtained with native speakers of English (experiment 1) showed a strong effect of lexical similarity. Easy words had higher intelligibility scores than hard words. A strong effect of speaking rate was also found whereby slow and medium rate words had higher intelligibility scores than fast rate words. Finally, a relationship was also observed between the various stimulus factors whereby the perceptual difficulties imposed by one factor, such as a hard word spoken at a fast rate, could be overcome by the advantage gained through the listener's experience and familiarity with the speech of a particular talker. In experiment 2, the investigation was extended to another listener population, namely, non-native listeners. Results showed that the ability to take advantage of surface phonetic information, such as a consistent talker across items, is a perceptual skill that transfers easily from first to second language perception. However, non-native listeners had particular difficulty with lexically hard words even when familiarity with the items was controlled, suggesting that non-native word recognition may be compromised when fine phonetic discrimination at the segmental level is required. Taken together, the results of this study provide insight into the signal-dependent and signal-independent factors that influence spoken
Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Ghazarian, Manneh; Roberts, Jasmin; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog
This pilot study examined the effects of a teacher-taught, locomotor skill (LMS)-based physical activity (PA) program on the LMS and PA levels of minority preschooler-aged children. Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into LMS-PA (LMS-oriented lesson plans) or control group (supervised free playtime). Interventions were delivered for 30 min/day, five days/week for six months. Changes in PA (accelerometer) and LMS variables were assessed with MANCOVA. LMS-PA group exhibited a significant reduction in during-preschool (F (1,16) = 6.34, p = .02, d = 0.02) and total daily (F (1,16) = 9.78, p = .01, d = 0.30) percent time spent in sedentary activity. LMS-PA group also exhibited significant improvement in leaping skills, F (1, 51) = 7.18, p = .01, d = 0.80). No other, significant changes were observed. The implementation of a teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program could potentially improve LMS and reduce sedentary time of minority preschoolers.
Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra
Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…
At the root of effective listening is appreciating the difference between hearing and listening. Hearing is merely a physiological process, whereas, listening is an interpretive process. Listener misunderstandings can be curbed by keeping a few ideas in mind. First, accurate meaning is not necessarily transmitted in each oral communication…
Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…
Analyzed the diaries of Chinese students of English as a Second Language to ascertain their beliefs and knowledge about their listening to English. Findings indicate that many retained clear ideas about their own role and performance as second-language listeners, the demands and procedures of this listening, as well as listening strategies. (13…
A pilot training program in communication skills, listening, conflict solving, and task orientation, for a small but growing commuter airline is discussed. The interactions between pilots and management, and communication among crew members are examined. Methods for improvement of cockpit behavior management personnel relations are investigated.
Most L2 instructors implement their curriculum with an eye to improving the four skills: speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Absent in this vision of language are notions of pragmatic, sociolinguistic, and multicultural competencies. Although current linguistic theories posit a more complex, interactive, and integrated model of language,…
Rosa, Rita L; Ridgers, Nicola D; Barnett, Lisa M
This article presents a direct observational tool for assessing children's body movements and movement skills during active video games. The Observation Tool of Active Gaming and Movement (OTGAM) was informed by the Test of Gross Motor Development-2. 18 elementary school children (12 boys, 6 girls; M age = 6.1 yr., SD = 0.9) were observed during Nintendo Wii game play. Using the OTAGM, researchers were able to capture and quantify the children's body movements and movement skills during active play of video games. Furthermore, the OTAGM captured specific components of object control skills: strike, throw, and roll. Game designers, health promotion practitioners, and researchers could use this information to enhance children's physical activity and movement skills.
Hanlon, Erin C.; Faraguna, Ugo; Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V.; Tononi, Giulio; Cirelli, Chiara
Study Objective: The best characterized marker of sleep homeostasis is the amount of slow wave activity (SWA, 0.5–4 Hz) during NREM sleep. SWA increases as a function of previous waking time and declines during sleep, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We have suggested that SWA homeostasis is linked to synaptic potentiation associated with learning during wakefulness. Indeed, studies in rodents and humans found that SWA increases after manipulations that presumably enhance synaptic strength, but the evidence remains indirect. Here we trained rats in skilled reaching, a task known to elicit long-term potentiation in the trained motor cortex, and immediately after learning measured SWA and cortical protein levels of c-fos and Arc, 2 activity-dependent genes involved in motor learning. Design: Intracortical local field potential recordings and training on reaching task. Setting: Basic sleep research laboratory. Patients or Participants: Long Evans adult male rats. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: SWA increased post-training in the trained cortex (the frontal cortex contralateral to the limb used to learn the task), with smaller or no increase in other cortical areas. This increase was reversible within 1 hour, specific to NREM sleep, and positively correlated with changes in performance during the prior training session, suggesting that it reflects plasticity and not just motor activity. Fos and Arc levels were higher in the trained relative to untrained motor cortex immediately after training, but this asymmetry was no longer present after 1 hour of sleep. Conclusion: Learning to reach specifically affects gene expression in the trained motor cortex and, in the same area, increases sleep need as measured by a local change in SWA. Citation: Hanlon EC; Faraguna U; Vyazovskiy VV; Tononi G; Cirelli C. Effects of skilled training on sleep slow wave activity and cortical gene expression in the rat. SLEEP 2009;32(6):719-729. PMID:19544747
Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity.
Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg
Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.
Krashen, Stephen D.
Discusses the use of a reading and listening library in foreign language programs, allowing students to freely choose nonacademic reading materials and audiotapes to promote student interest in the target language. (contains two references) (MDM)
... listening to you fully? Secondly, there is an issue of the relation- ship between the healthcare provider and the patient. Is it a relationship of “equality” or does one command more respect ...
Roberts, Terry; Billings, Laura
In the volatile, global environment of the 21st century, being able to communicate successfully is the key to employment, to citizenship, and to a quality life. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills--a coalition of American businesses with an international focus, funded in part by the U.S. Department of Education--recently released "A…
Mucek, A. E.; Langston, C. A.
A tripartite infrasound array was installed to listen to earthquakes occurring along the Guy-Greenbrier fault in Arkansas. The active earthquake swarm is believed to be caused by deep waste water injections and will allow us to explain the mechanisms causing earthquake "booms" that have been heard during an earthquake. The array has an aperture of 50 meters and is installed next to the X301 seismograph station run by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI). This arrangement allows simultaneous recording of seismic and acoustic changes from the arrival of an earthquake. Other acoustic and seismic sources that have been found include thunder from thunderstorms, gunshots, quarry explosions and hydraulic fracturing activity from the local gas wells. The duration of the experiment is from the last week of June to the last week of September 2011. During the first month and a half, seven local earthquakes were recorded, along with numerous occurrences of the other infrasound sources. Phase arrival times of the recorded waves allow us to estimate wave slowness and azimuth of infrasound events. Using these two properties, we can determine whether earthquake "booms" occur at a site from the arrival of the P-wave or whether the earthquake "booms" occur elsewhere and travel through the atmosphere. Preliminary results show that the infrasound correlates well to the ground motion during an earthquake for frequencies below 15 Hertz.
Bach, Silvia; Richardson, Ulla; Brandeis, Daniel; Martin, Ernst; Brem, Silvia
Children who are poor readers usually experience troublesome school careers and consequently often suffer from secondary emotional and behavioural problems. Early identification and prediction of later reading problems thus are critical in order to start targeted interventions for those children with an elevated risk for emerging reading problems. In this study, behavioural precursors of reading were assessed in nineteen (aged 6.4 ± 0.3 years) non-reading kindergarteners before training letter-speech sound associations with a computerized game (Graphogame) for eight weeks. The training aimed to introduce the basic principles of letter-speech sound correspondences and to initialize the sensitization of specific brain areas to print. Event-related potentials (ERP) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were recorded during an explicit word/symbol processing task after the training. Reading skills were assessed two years later in second grade. The focus of this study was on clarifying whether electrophysiological and fMRI data of kindergarten children significantly improve prediction of future reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Based on evidence from previous studies demonstrating the importance of initial print sensitivity in the left occipito-temporal visual word form system (VWFS) for learning to read, the first pronounced difference in processing words compared to symbols in the ERP, an occipito-temporal negativity (N1: 188-281 ms) along with the corresponding functional activation in the left occipito-temporal VWFS were defined as potential predictors. ERP and fMRI data in kindergarteners significantly improved the prediction of reading skills in 2nd grade over behavioural data alone. Together with the behavioural measures they explained up to 88% of the variance. An additional discriminant analysis revealed a remarkably high accuracy in classifying normal (n=11) and poor readers (n=6). Due to the key limitation of the study
Johnson-Frey, Scott H; Newman-Norlund, Roger; Grafton, Scott T
Determining the relationship between mechanisms involved in action planning and/or execution is critical to understanding the neural bases of skilled behaviors, including tool use. Here we report findings from two fMRI studies of healthy, right-handed adults in which an event-related design was used to distinguish regions involved in planning (i.e. identifying, retrieving and preparing actions associated with a familiar tools' uses) versus executing tool use gestures with the dominant right (experiment 1) and non-dominant left (experiment 2) hands. For either limb, planning tool use actions activates a distributed network in the left cerebral hemisphere consisting of: (i) posterior superior temporal sulcus, along with proximal regions of the middle and superior temporal gyri; (ii) inferior frontal and ventral premotor cortices; (iii) two distinct parietal areas, one located in the anterior supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and another in posterior SMG and angular gyrus; and (iv) dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC). With the exception of left DLFPC, adjacent and partially overlapping sub-regions of left parietal, frontal and temporal cortex are also engaged during action execution. We suggest that this left lateralized network constitutes a neural substrate for the interaction of semantic and motoric representations upon which meaningful skills depend.
Shera, Christopher Alan
Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics--termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models--that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus -frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical
Shera, Christopher A.
Otoacoustic emissions demonstrate that the ear creates sound while listening to sound, offering a promising acoustic window on the mechanics of hearing in awake, listening human beings. That window is clouded, however, by an incomplete knowledge of wave reflection and transmission, both forth and back within the cochlea and through the middle ear. This thesis "does windows," addressing wave propagation and scattering on both sides of the middle ear. A summary of highlights follows. Measurements of the cochlear input impedance in cat are used to identify a new symmetry in cochlear mechanics-termed "tapering symmetry" after its geometric interpretation in simple models-that guarantees that the wavelength of the traveling wave changes slowly with position near the stapes. Waves therefore propagate without reflection through the basal turns of the cochlea. Analytic methods for solving the cochlear wave equations using a perturbative scattering series are given and used to demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, conventional cochlear models exhibit negligible internal reflection whether or not they accurately represent the tapering symmetries of the inner ear. Frameworks for the systematic "deconstruction" of eardrum and middle-ear transduction characteristics are developed and applied to the analysis of noninvasive measurements of middle-ear and cochlear mechanics. A simple phenomenological model of inner-ear compressibility that correctly predicts hearing thresholds in patients with missing or disarticulated middle-ear ossicles is developed and used to establish an upper bound on cochlear compressibility several orders of magnitude smaller than that provided by direct measurements. Accurate measurements of stimulus frequency evoked otoacoustic emissions are performed and used to determine the form and frequency variation of the cochlear traveling-wave ratio noninvasively. Those measurements are inverted to obtain the spatial distribution of mechanical
Cilliers, Charmain B.
Employers of computing graduates have high expectations of graduates in terms of soft skills, the most desirable of these being communication skills. Not only must the graduates exhibit writing skills, but they are expected to be highly proficient therein. The consequence of this expectation is not only performance pressure exerted on the…
Berzins, Juris I.; And Others
The skill chance and Rotter's Locus of Control scales were administered to 97 male Ss. The two variables were unrelated, although the skill chance inventory showed an acceptable degree of internal consistency. The utility of the skill chance inventory with noncollegiate samples was questioned. (Author)
Sapsaglam, Ozkan; Bozdogan, Aykut Emre
Preschool children learn through their senses. Children learn language, daily life skills, concepts and many other things through their senses. Thus, preschool educational environments and preschool educational activities should stimulate children's senses. In this context, preschool science activities and experiments have positive effects upon…
Dindial, Myrna J.
This practicum was designed to increase higher level thinking skills of gifted students in primary school. The project sought to retrain students from recalling science information from the textbook to a more challenging and active form of learning through individual projects and small group and large group activities. Students were given…
This is the third in a series of five horse project activity guides for youth. Levels 1-3 focus on "horse-less" activities, while Levels 4 and 5 zero in on riding and horsemanship. Each guide has an achievement program to encourage youth to learn and develop life skills. The assistance of a horse project helper in completing the achievement…
Crean, Hugh F.
This study examines a cross-sectional structural equation model of participation in youth activities, neighborhood adult support, individual decision making skills, and delinquent behavior in urban middle school youths (n = 2611). Results indicate extracurricular activity participation had both direct and indirect associations with delinquent…
Jaakkola, Timo; Washington, Tracy
Background: Previous studies have shown that fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity are related. Specifically, earlier studies have demonstrated that the ability to perform a variety of FMS increases the likelihood of children participating in a range of physical activities throughout their lives. To date, however, there have not…
Welcome, Suzanne E.; Joanisse, Marc F.
We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior…
Roessger, Kevin M.
In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…
The activities in this collection are designed to help teachers bring the worlds of science and art into the classroom. Each activity is both a hands-on science investigation and an art experience. As students create satisfying art projects, they utilize science skills such as observing, predicting, investigating, and communicating. The projects…
Beginning in fall 1993, Golden West College, in California, began pilot testing an English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) course adapted from the Focal Skills approach, which features instruction in intensive modules in listening, reading, writing, and general immersion. The listening and reading skills modules were offered in the fall 1993 semester,…
Suzuki, Tomotaka; Higashi, Toshio; Takagi, Mineko; Sugawara, Kenichi
In this study, we investigated how ipsilateral motor cortex (M1) activation during unimanual hand movements and hemispheric asymmetry changed after motor skill learning. Eleven right-handed participants preformed a two-ball-rotation motor task with the right and the left hand, separately, in all experimental sessions. Before and after exercise sessions, the degree of ipsilateral M1 activation during brief execution of the motor task was measured as changes in the size of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of the thenar and the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the nontask hand using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Before exercise, MEPs of the nontask hand were significantly facilitated on both sides during the motor task. After exercise, facilitation of MEPs of the nontask hand during the motor task was significantly reduced for the right hand (thenar: P=0.014, first dorsal interosseous: P=0.022) but not for the left hand. We conclude that ipsilateral M1 activation, associated with a complex motor task, is first symmetrical in both hemispheres. However, on exercise, ipsilateral activation is reduced only in left M1, indicating a stronger learning-dependent modification of motor networks within the left hemisphere.
Barnett, Lisa M; Morgan, Philip J; van Beurden, Eric; Beard, John R
Background The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and subsequent adolescent physical activity and fitness. Methods In 2000, children's motor skill proficiency was assessed as part of a school-based physical activity intervention. In 2006/07, participants were followed up as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study and completed assessments for perceived sports competence (Physical Self-Perception Profile), physical activity (Adolescent Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Multistage Fitness Test). Structural equation modelling techniques were used to determine whether perceived sports competence mediated between childhood object control skill proficiency (composite score of kick, catch and overhand throw), and subsequent adolescent self-reported time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. Results Of 928 original intervention participants, 481 were located in 28 schools and 276 (57%) were assessed with at least one follow-up measure. Slightly more than half were female (52.4%) with a mean age of 16.4 years (range 14.2 to 18.3 yrs). Relevant assessments were completed by 250 (90.6%) students for the Physical Activity Model and 227 (82.3%) for the Fitness Model. Both hypothesised mediation models had a good fit to the observed data, with the Physical Activity Model accounting for 18% (R2 = 0.18) of physical activity variance and the Fitness Model accounting for 30% (R2 = 0.30) of fitness variance. Sex did not act as a moderator in either model. Conclusion Developing a high perceived sports competence through object control skill development in childhood is important for both boys and girls in determining adolescent physical activity participation and fitness. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to target and improve the perceived sports competence of youth. PMID:18687148
Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Radulescu, Anca; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.
The present study examined the social skills of previously institutionalized, 8-y-old Romanian children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project and the influence of attachment security and brain electrical activity (alpha power) on these skills. Participants included children randomized to an intervention involving foster care [Foster Care Group (FCG)], children randomized to remain in institutions [Care As Usual Group (CAUG)], and never-institutionalized children living with their families in the Bucharest community [Never-Institutionalized Group (NIG)]. A continuous rating of children’s attachment security to their primary caregiver was assessed at 42 mo of age. When children were 8 y old, teachers rated their social skills, and the children’s resting electroencephalogram alpha power was recorded. Teachers rated social skills of FCG children who were placed into foster care before 20 mo of age as no different from NIG children, and both of these groups were higher than CAUG children and FCG children placed after 20 mo. Electroencephalogram alpha power at age 8 significantly moderated the relations between attachment security and social skills. These findings characterize institutionalized children’s social skills in middle childhood within the context of a randomized intervention while highlighting the roles of both relational and biological factors in these developmental trajectories. PMID:23045660
Sendag, Serkan; Caner, Mustafa; Kafes, Hüseyin
Nowadays mobile technologies are widely employed in almost all fields of education for varying reasons. The present study intends to explore the role of mobile technologies in the development of students' listening skills in a higher education context. The aim of the present study is twofold; while it seeks for the feasibility of mobile…
Berteletti, I; Man, G; Booth, J R
The Number Line (NL) task requires judging the relative numerical magnitude of a number and estimating its value spatially on a continuous line. Children's skill on this task has been shown to correlate with and predict future mathematical competence. Neurofunctionally, this task has been shown to rely on brain regions involved in numerical processing. However, there is no direct evidence that performance on the NL task is related to brain areas recruited during arithmetical processing and that these areas are domain-specific to numerical processing. In this study, we test whether 8- to 14-year-old's behavioral performance on the NL task is related to fMRI activation during small and large single-digit subtraction problems. Domain-specific areas for numerical processing were independently localized through a numerosity judgment task. Results show a direct relation between NL estimation performance and the amount of the activation in key areas for arithmetical processing. Better NL estimators showed a larger problem size effect than poorer NL estimators in numerical magnitude (i.e., intraparietal sulcus) and visuospatial areas (i.e., posterior superior parietal lobules), marked by less activation for small problems. In addition, the direction of the activation with problem size within the IPS was associated with differences in accuracies for small subtraction problems. This study is the first to show that performance in the NL task, i.e. estimating the spatial position of a number on an interval, correlates with brain activity observed during single-digit subtraction problem in regions thought to be involved in numerical magnitude and spatial processes.
Ketcheson, Leah; Hauck, Janet; Ulrich, Dale
Despite evidence suggesting one of the earliest indicators of an eventual autism spectrum disorder diagnoses is an early motor delay, there remain very few interventions targeting motor behavior as the primary outcome for young children with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this pilot study was to measure the efficacy of an intensive motor skill intervention on motor skills (Test of Gross Motor Development-2), physical activity (accelerometers), and socialization (Playground Observation of Peer Engagement) in young children with autism spectrum disorder. A total of 20 children with autism spectrum disorder aged 4-6 years participated. The experimental group ( n = 11) participated in an 8-week intervention consisting of motor skill instruction for 4 h/day, 5 days/week. The control group ( n = 9) did not receive the intervention. A repeated-measures analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant differences between groups in all three motor outcomes, locomotor ( F(1, 14) = 10.07, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.42), object control ( F(1, 14) = 12.90, p < 0.001, partial η(2) = 0.48), and gross quotient ( F(1, 14) = 15.61, p < 0.01, partial η(2) = 0.53). Findings shed light on the importance of including motor programming as part of the early intervention services delivered to young children with autism spectrum disorder.
Schiltz, Holly Kristine
' modeled visualization artifacts had on students. No patterns emerged from the passive observation of visualization artifacts in lecture or recitation, but the need to elicit visual information from students was made clear. Deconstruction proved to be a valuable method for instruction and assessment of visual information. Three strategies for using deconstruction in teaching were distilled from the lessons and observations of the student focus groups: begin with observations of what is given in an image and what it's composed of, identify the relationships between components to find additional operations in different environments about the molecule, and deconstructing steps of challenging questions can reveal mistakes. An intervention was developed to teach students to use deconstruction and verbalization to analyze complex visualization tasks and employ the principles of the theoretical framework. The activities were scaffolded to introduce increasingly challenging concepts to students, but also support them as they learned visually demanding chemistry concepts. Several themes were observed in the analysis of the visualization activities. Students used deconstruction by documenting which parts of the images were useful for interpretation of the visual. Students identified valid patterns and rules within the images, which signified understanding of arrangement of information presented in the representation. Successful strategy communication was identified when students documented personal strategies that allowed them to complete the activity tasks. Finally, students demonstrated the ability to extend symmetry skills to advanced applications they had not previously seen. This work shows how the use of deconstruction and verbalization may have a great impact on how students master difficult topics and combined, they offer students a powerful strategy to approach visually demanding chemistry problems and to the instructor a unique insight to mentally constructed strategies.
Stegman, Sandra Frey
Focuses on creating warm-up exercises for use with choral groups, offering tips for developing the exercises. Explains that a warm-up is useful for teaching students to sing, listen, and learn specific music concepts and activities. Provides a list of additional resources and example activities. (CMK)
In recent years, researches had shown that the development of problem solving skill became important for education, and the educational robots are capable for promoting students not only understand the physical and mathematical concepts, but also have active and constructive learning. Meanwhile, the importance of situation in education is rising,…
Weiss, Maureen R.; Bolter, Nicole D.; Kipp, Lindsay E.
Purpose: A signature characteristic of positive youth development (PYD) programs is the opportunity to develop life skills, such as social, behavioral, and moral competencies, that can be generalized to domains beyond the immediate activity. Although context-specific instruments are available to assess developmental outcomes, a measure of…
Shiah, Yung-Jong; Huang, Ying; Chang, Frances; Chang, Chuan-Feng; Yeh, Lun-Chang
In the present study, we examined in Chinese society the association of school-based extracurricular activities (SBEAs) in both high school and college with students' career development skills in college, as well as with various personality characteristics and self-concept. Each of 281 college students administered the Lai Personality Inventory,…
Howie, LaJeana D.; Lukacs, Susan L.; Pastor, Patricia N.; Reuben, Cynthia A.; Mendola, Pauline
Background: Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (greater than 12 years). This analysis focuses on…
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat
In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…
Aydede Yalçin, Meryem Nur
It is important for people to be able to judge the nature while actually living in it to gain the scientific perspective which is an important skill nowadays. Within this importance, the general purpose of this study is to examine the effect of active learning based science camp activities on sixth, seventh and eighth grade students' opinions…
Dudley, Dean; Okely, Anthony; Pearson, Philip; Cotton, Wayne
This article presents a systematic review of published literature on the effectiveness of physical education in promoting participation in physical activity, enjoyment of physical activity and movement skill proficiency in children and adolescents. The review utilized a literature search, specifically publications listed in Ovid, A+ Education,…
Health professionals use critical thinking, a key problem solving skill, for clinical reasoning which is defined as the use of knowledge and reflective inquiry to diagnose a clinical problem. Teaching these skills in traditional settings with growing class sizes is challenging, and students increasingly expect learning that is flexible and…
Brooks, B. A.; Floyd, F.; Robins, D. L.; Chan, W. Y.
Background: Children with intellectual disability and specific learning disabilities often lack age-appropriate social skills, which disrupts their social functioning. Because of the limited effectiveness of classroom mainstreaming and social skills training for these children, it is important to explore alternative opportunities for social skill…
Whinnery, Stacie B.; Whinnery, Keith W.; Eddins, Daisy
This article addresses the challenges educators face when attempting to find a balance between both functional and academic skill instruction for students with severe, multiple disabilities including motor impairments. The authors describe a strategy that employs embedded instruction of early numeracy and functional motor skills during physical…
Woody, Robert H.
This exploratory study surveyed 118 music majors to investigate their music listening practices. The questionnaire specifically assessed musical tastes and examined the roles that listening plays in personal and professional activities. With regard to the amount of time spent in their daily lives, these music majors reported spending more than…
The Listening Circle is a learning activity that is designed to provide students with the opportunity to connect listening knowledge with observed behaviors and to strengthen student peer feedback. Not knowing how to give feedback can result in messages that are confusing, tactless, and counter-productive. Many feedback messages leave the receiver…
Al-Alwan, Ahmed; Asassfeh, Sahail; Al-Shboul, Yousef
Metacognitive strategies play an important role in many cognitive activities related to language use in oral communication. This study explored metacognitve listening strategies awareness and its relationship with listening comprehension on a convient sample of 386 tenth-grade EFL learners using two instruments: (a) Metacognition Awareness…
Lewis, Susan Edwina Bivins
The effects of an instructional program in active listening upon reading comprehension were investigated in a sample of 60 black, inner-city children in two Title I elementary schools. The Durrell Listening Reading Test and the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Achievement Test were administered before and after the experimental program. Comparisons with…
Finds that adult listeners to tape recordings of books are highly educated people who do a great deal of professional and recreational reading and who listen to books on tape for information and enjoyment while they are engaged in activities that require little concentration. (SR)
Cottam, Michael Evan
The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the effects of textual and visual annotations on Spanish listening comprehension and vocabulary acquisition in the context of an online multimedia listening activity. 95 students who were enrolled in different sections of first year Spanish classes at a community college and a large…
Linnemann, Alexandra; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M
Music listening is associated with stress-reducing effects. However, most of the results on music listening and stress were gathered in experimental settings. As music listening is a popular activity of daily life, it is of utmost importance to study the effects of music listening on psychobiological stress in an everyday, daily-life setting. Here, a study protocol is presented that allows the assessment of associations between music listening and psychobiological stress in daily life by noninvasively measuring salivary cortisol (as a marker of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis) and salivary alpha-amylase (as a marker of the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)). The protocol includes advice on the study design (e.g., sampling protocol), the materials and methods (e.g., the assessment of psychobiological stress in daily life, the assessment of music listening, and the manual), the selection of participants (e.g., the approval of the institutional review board and inclusion criteria), and the statistical analyses (e.g., the multilevel approach). The representative results provide evidence for a stress-reducing effect of music listening in daily life. Particularly, specific reasons for listening to music (especially relaxation), as well as the presence of others while doing so, increase this stress-reducing effect. At the same time, music listening in daily life differentially affects the HPA axis and ANS functioning, thus emphasizing the need for a multi-dimensional assessment of stress in daily life.
Researchers of learner and language use strategies have long suggested that appropriate application of strategies can facilitate second or foreign language learning. Listening is the most fundamental skill in language learning, but for decades this skill was not emphasized in secondary schools in Taiwan. However, in 2012 a new national English…
Watson, Kittie W
For many nurses, especially when workloads are high, it can be difficult to listen carefully to patients. In federally mandated Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) surveys that help determine insurance reimbursement are asking patients how carefully their nurses listened. For Christian nurses, effective listening demonstrates the compassion, understanding, and care modeled by Jesus. An exploration of Jesus' responses reveals five ways Christ effectively listened to people that can guide nurses.
In this essay Suzanne Rice examines Aristotle's ideas about virtue, character, and education as elements in an Aristotelian conception of good listening. Rice begins by surveying of several different contexts in which listening typically occurs, using this information to introduce the argument that what should count as "good listening" must be…
Background: A typical account of listening focuses on cognition, describing how a listener understands and reacts to the cognitive contents of a speaker's utterance. The articles in this issue move beyond a cognitive view, arguing that listening also involves moral, aesthetic, and political aspects. Focus of Study: This article attends to all four…
Hasan, Ali S.
Reports a study of listening problems encountered in the English-as-a-foreign-language classroom in the English for Specific Purposes Centre at Damascus University in Syria. Looks particularly at learner strategies, features of the listening text, characteristics of the speaker, attitudes of the listener, the task to be completed as a result of…
Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz
Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…
Kuhlen, Anna K.; Allefeld, Carsten; Haynes, John-Dylan
Cognitive neuroscience has recently begun to extend its focus from the isolated individual mind to two or more individuals coordinating with each other. In this study we uncover a coordination of neural activity between the ongoing electroencephalogram (EEG) of two people—a person speaking and a person listening. The EEG of one set of twelve participants (“speakers”) was recorded while they were narrating short stories. The EEG of another set of twelve participants (“listeners”) was recorded while watching audiovisual recordings of these stories. Specifically, listeners watched the superimposed videos of two speakers simultaneously and were instructed to attend either to one or the other speaker. This allowed us to isolate neural coordination due to processing the communicated content from the effects of sensory input. We find several neural signatures of communication: First, the EEG is more similar among listeners attending to the same speaker than among listeners attending to different speakers, indicating that listeners' EEG reflects content-specific information. Secondly, listeners' EEG activity correlates with the attended speakers' EEG, peaking at a time delay of about 12.5 s. This correlation takes place not only between homologous, but also between non-homologous brain areas in speakers and listeners. A semantic analysis of the stories suggests that listeners coordinate with speakers at the level of complex semantic representations, so-called “situation models”. With this study we link a coordination of neural activity between individuals directly to verbally communicated information. PMID:23060770
Waks, Leonard J.
Background/Context: Although the concept of listening had been neglected by philosophers of education, it has received focused attention since 2003, when Sophie Haroutunian-Gordon addressed it in her presidential address to the Philosophy of Education Society. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study: Haroutunian-Gordon offered a…
Stalinski, Stephanie M.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn
Emotions have important and powerful effects on cognitive processes. Although it is well established that memory influences liking, we sought to document whether liking influences memory. A series of 6 experiments examined whether liking is related to recognition memory for novel music excerpts. In the general method, participants listened to a…
Langus, Alan; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Uysal, Ertugrul; Pirmoradian, Sahar; Marino, Caterina; Asaadi, Sina; Eren, Ömer; Toro, Juan M.; Peña, Marcela; Bion, Ricardo A. H.; Nespor, Marina
Our native tongue influences the way we perceive other languages. But does it also determine the way we perceive nonlinguistic sounds? The authors investigated how speakers of Italian, Turkish, and Persian group sequences of syllables, tones, or visual shapes alternating in either frequency or duration. We found strong native listening effects…
Browne, Donald R.
It is difficult to obtain reliable data on the nature of the audience for international broadcast programs in Asia (e.g., those beamed by the Voice of America or Radio Japan). However, analysis of listener mail and some survey research have provided a fairly clear profile of the audience: young (ages 15-34), well educated, urban, male (but with a…
McKeown, Lisa; Shah, Gulzar H.
Objective: To describe the informatics activities performed by and for local health departments. Design: Analysis of data from the 2015 Informatics Capacity and Needs Assessment Survey of local health departments conducted by the Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health at Georgia Southern University in collaboration with the National Association of County & City Health Officials. Participants: 324 local health departments. Main Outcome Measure(s): Informatics activities performed at or for local health departments in use and analysis of data, system design, and routine use of information systems. Results: A majority of local health departments extract data from information systems (69.5%) and use and interpret quantitative (66.4%) and qualitative (55.1%) data. Almost half use geographic information systems (45.0%) or statistical or other analytical software (39.7%). Local health departments were less likely to perform project management (35.8%), business process analysis and redesign (24.0%), and developing requirements for informatics system development (19.7%). Local health departments were most likely to maintain or modify content of a Web site (72.1%). A third of local health departments (35.8%) reported acting as “super users” for their information systems. A significantly higher proportion of local health departments serving larger jurisdictions (500 000+) and those with shared governance reported conducting informatics activities. Conclusion: Most local health department informatics activities are completed by local health department staff within each department or a central department, but many state health departments also contribute to informatics at the local level. Larger local health departments and those with shared governance were more likely to perform informatics activities. Local health departments need effective leadership, a skilled workforce, strong partnerships, and policies that foster implementation of health information systems to
Kelly, Stephanie; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek; Belyea, Michael
Most adolescents do not meet national recommendations regarding physical activity and/or the intake of fruits and vegetables. The purpose of this study was to explore whether variables in the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model of health promotion predicted physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake in 404 adolescents from 2 high schools in the Southwest United States using structural equation modeling (SEM). The SEM models included theoretical constructs, contextual variables, and moderators. The theoretical relationships in the IMB model were confirmed and were moderated by gender and race. Interventions that incorporate cognitive-behavioral skills building may be a key factor for promoting physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable intake in adolescents.
Gianelli, Claudia; Dalla Volta, Riccardo
The neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of action-related language processing have been debated for long time. A precursor in this field was the study by Buccino et al. (2005) combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and behavioral measures (reaction times, RTs) to study the effect of listening to hand- and foot-related sentences. In the TMS experiment, the authors showed a decrease of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from hand muscles when processing hand-related verbs as compared to foot-related verbs. Similarly, MEPs recorded from leg muscles decreased when participants processed foot-related as compared to hand-related verbs. In the behavioral experiment, using the same stimuli and a semantic decision task the authors found slower RTs when the participants used the body effector (hand or foot) involved in the actual execution of the action expressed by the presented verb to give their motor responses. These findings were interpreted as an interference effect due to a simultaneous involvement of the motor system in both a language and a motor task. Our replication aimed to enlarge the sample size and replicate the findings with higher statistical power. The TMS experiment showed a significant modulation of hand MEPs, but in the sense of a motor facilitation when processing hand-related verbs. On the contrary, the behavioral experiment did not show significant results. The results are discussed within the general debate on the time-course of the modulation of motor cortex during implicit and explicit language processing and in relation to the studies on action observation/understanding. PMID:25601845
Edele, Aileen; Stanat, Petra
Although the simple view of reading and other theories suggest that listening comprehension is an important determinant of reading comprehension, previous research on linguistic transfer has mainly focused on the role of first language (L1) decoding skills in second language (L2) reading. The present study tested the assumption that listening…
Morray, Marjorie K.
Dictations are not sufficient as exercises for developing listening comprehension skills. Other techniques and exercises which have been used in English for Special Purposes classes include practice in note taking, cloze-testing on lectures, mock formal interviews and informal conversations, and discourse analyses of sample lectures. Such analyses…
Kratoville, Betty Lou
Designed to help children with auditory perceptual problems from fourth through sixth grade, the manual contains essays and exercises to develop listening skills, auditory memory, vocabulary, and imagination. The first section contains instructions to the teacher and the essays which are at three levels of difficulty and intended to be read to the…
Kratoville, Betty Lou
Designed to help children with auditory perceptual problems from preschool through grade 4, the manual contains stories and exercises to develop listening skills, auditory memory, vocabulary, and imagination. The first section contains instructions to the teacher as well as stories which are at three levels of difficulty and intended to be read to…
An 11-year longitudinal survey of patterns and preferences in music listening has revealed that a large majority of people would prefer to listen to music performed live but that only a small percentage of their exposure to music actually occurs at live performances. An initial analysis of the first few years of the survey suggests that choices concerning music can be influenced by cultural background, and that predominant music sources change as new technology becomes available. Reasons given by listeners for preferring to listen to a traditional, mechanical instrument rather than an electro-acoustic version of it indicate they are sensitive to an “originality” criterion. As a consequence, concert halls should be designed to operate as passive acoustics spaces. Further, listeners' reasons for electing to attend a live performance rather than listen to a recording or a live broadcast suggest that hall designers should try to maximize the sense of two-way communication between performers and listeners. An implication of this is that where active acoustics systems are to be incorporated in variable acoustics auditoria, those active systems which use a non-in-line approach are to be preferred over in-line schemes. However, listener evolution and new expectations may require a fundamental change in our approach to the acoustics of live performance venues.
Moore, David R.; Halliday, Lorna F.; Amitay, Sygal
This paper reviews recent studies that have used adaptive auditory training to address communication problems experienced by some children in their everyday life. It considers the auditory contribution to developmental listening and language problems and the underlying principles of auditory learning that may drive further refinement of auditory learning applications. Following strong claims that language and listening skills in children could be improved by auditory learning, researchers have debated what aspect of training contributed to the improvement and even whether the claimed improvements reflect primarily a retest effect on the skill measures. Key to understanding this research have been more circumscribed studies of the transfer of learning and the use of multiple control groups to examine auditory and non-auditory contributions to the learning. Significant auditory learning can occur during relatively brief periods of training. As children mature, their ability to train improves, but the relation between the duration of training, amount of learning and benefit remains unclear. Individual differences in initial performance and amount of subsequent learning advocate tailoring training to individual learners. The mechanisms of learning remain obscure, especially in children, but it appears that the development of cognitive skills is of at least equal importance to the refinement of sensory processing. Promotion of retention and transfer of learning are major goals for further research. PMID:18986969
Morra de de la Pena, Ana Maria; Soler, Lidia Rosa
Investigates effectiveness of three training programs for English as a Foreign Language university students in reading and listening comprehension. Finds that: students who learned rhetorical patterns of written expository texts and text mapping strategies demonstrated better comprehension of lectures than students who performed other activities;…
Boydell, Katherine; Caine, Vera
Shifting perspectives in childhood research have moved the authors away from the objectified status of the child to a view of children and young people as competent social actors who take an active role in sharing their experiences and pose challenges for rethinking the power relationships implicit in many research paradigms. They have listened to…
Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen
The measurement of brain activation during music listening is a topic that is attracting increased attention from many researchers. Because of their high spatial accuracy, functional MRI measurements are often used for measuring brain activation in the context of music listening. However, this technique faces the issues of contaminating scanner noise and an uncomfortable experimental environment. Electroencephalogram (EEG), however, is a neural registration technique that allows the measurement of neurophysiological activation in silent and more comfortable experimental environments. Thus, it is optimal for recording brain activations during pleasant music stimulation. Using a new mathematical approach to calculate intracortical independent components (sLORETA-IC) on the basis of scalp-recorded EEG, we identified specific intracortical independent components during listening of a musical piece and scales, which differ substantially from intracortical independent components calculated from the resting state EEG. Most intracortical independent components are located bilaterally in perisylvian brain areas known to be involved in auditory processing and specifically in music perception. Some intracortical independent components differ between the music and scale listening conditions. The most prominent difference is found in the anterior part of the perisylvian brain region, with stronger activations seen in the left-sided anterior perisylvian regions during music listening, most likely indicating semantic processing during music listening. A further finding is that the intracortical independent components obtained for the music and scale listening are most prominent in higher frequency bands (e.g. beta-2 and beta-3), whereas the resting state intracortical independent components are active in lower frequency bands (alpha-1 and theta). This new technique for calculating intracortical independent components is able to differentiate independent neural networks associated
Cendelín, Jan; Korelusová, Ivana; Vozeh, Frantisek
Lurcher mutant mice represent a model of olivocerebellar degeneration. They are used to investigate cerebellar functions, consequences of cerebellar degeneration and methods of therapy influencing them. The aim of the work was to assess the effect of foetal cerebellar graft transplantation, repeated enforced physical activity and the combination of both these types of treatment on motor skills, spontaneous motor activity and spatial learning ability in adult B6CBA Lurcher mice. Foetal cerebellar grafts were applied into the cerebellum of Lurchers in the form of solid tissue pieces. Enforced motor activity was realised through rotarod training. Motor functions were examined using bar, ladder and rotarod tests. Spatial learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Spontaneous motor activity in the open field was observed. The presence of the graft was examined histologically. Enforced physical activity led to moderate improvement of some motor skills and to a significant amelioration of spatial learning ability in Lurchers. The transplantation of cerebellar tissue did not influence motor functions significantly but led to an improvement of spatial learning ability. Mutual advancement of the effects of both types of treatment was not observed. Spontaneous motor activity was influenced neither by physical activity nor by the transplantation. Physical activity did not influence the graft survival and development. Because nerve sprouting and cell migration from the graft to the host cerebellum was poor, the functional effects of the graft should be explained with regard to its trophic influence rather than with any involvement of the grafted cells into neural circuitries.
Bidelman, Gavin M; Bhagat, Shaum P
The mammalian cochlea receives feedback from the brainstem medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, whose putative 'antimasking' function is to adjust cochlear amplification and enhance peripheral signal detection in adverse listening environments. Human studies have been inconsistent in demonstrating a clear connection between this corticofugal system and behavioral speech-in-noise (SIN) listening skills. To elucidate the role of brainstem efferent activity in SIN perception, we measured ear-specific contralateral suppression of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), a proxy measure of MOC activation linked to auditory learning in noisy environments. We show that suppression of cochlear emissions is stronger with a more basal cochlear bias in the right ear compared with the left ear. Moreover, a strong negative correlation was observed between behavioral SIN performance and right-ear OAE suppression magnitudes, such that lower speech reception thresholds in noise were predicted by larger amounts of MOC-related activity. This brain-behavioral relation was not observed for left ear SIN perception. The rightward bias in contralateral MOC suppression of OAEs, coupled with the stronger association between physiological and perceptual measures, is consistent with left-hemisphere cerebral dominance for speech-language processing. We posit that corticofugal feedback from the left cerebral cortex through descending MOC projections sensitizes the right cochlea to signal-in-noise detection, facilitating figure-ground contrast and improving degraded speech analysis. Our findings demonstrate that SIN listening is at least partly driven by subcortical brain mechanisms; primitive stages of cochlear processing and brainstem MOC modulation of (right) inner ear mechanics play a critical role in dictating SIN understanding.
Särkämö, Teppo; Pihko, Elina; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Mikkonen, Mikko; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Laine, Matti; Peretz, Isabelle; Hietanen, Marja; Tervaniemi, Mari
Our surrounding auditory environment has a dramatic influence on the development of basic auditory and cognitive skills, but little is known about how it influences the recovery of these skills after neural damage. Here, we studied the long-term effects of daily music and speech listening on auditory sensory memory after middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke. In the acute recovery phase, 60 patients who had middle cerebral artery stroke were randomly assigned to a music listening group, an audio book listening group, or a control group. Auditory sensory memory, as indexed by the magnetic MMN (MMNm) response to changes in sound frequency and duration, was measured 1 week (baseline), 3 months, and 6 months after the stroke with whole-head magnetoencephalography recordings. Fifty-four patients completed the study. Results showed that the amplitude of the frequency MMNm increased significantly more in both music and audio book groups than in the control group during the 6-month poststroke period. In contrast, the duration MMNm amplitude increased more in the audio book group than in the other groups. Moreover, changes in the frequency MMNm amplitude correlated significantly with the behavioral improvement of verbal memory and focused attention induced by music listening. These findings demonstrate that merely listening to music and speech after neural damage can induce long-term plastic changes in early sensory processing, which, in turn, may facilitate the recovery of higher cognitive functions. The neural mechanisms potentially underlying this effect are discussed.
This study analyzed how Taiwanese kindergarten teachers evaluated events of various classroom management skills used by early childhood student teachers in group activities. The kindergarten teachers evaluated effectiveness, appropriateness, frequency of practicing similar skills themselves, and the need to modify any of the above. A questionnaire…
Lawanto, Oenardi; Santoso, Harry B.; Lawanto, Kevin N.; Goodridge, Wade
The objective of this study was to evaluate students' self-regulated learning (SRL) skills used in a Web-intensive learning environment. The research question guiding the study was: How did the use of student SRL skills and student engagement in online activities compare between higher- and lower-performing students participating in a…
A great deal of ethnographic research describes different communicative styles in Asian and Western countries. Asian cultures emphasise the listener's role in assuring successful communication, whereas Western cultures place the responsibility primarily on the speaker. This pattern suggests that Asian children may develop higher-level receptive skills and Western children may develop higher-level expressive skills. However, the language of children in formal education may develop in certain ways regardless of cultural influences. The present study quantifies the cultural and school-grade differences in language abilities reflected in middle-class Korean and white American children's story-telling and story-listening activities. Thirty-two Korean first- and fourth-grade children and their American counterparts were individually asked to perform two tasks: one producing a story from a series of pictures, and one involving listening to and then retelling a story. The individual interview was transcribed in their native languages and analysed in terms of ambiguity of reference, the number of causal connectors, the amount of information, and the number of central and peripheral idea units that were included in the story retelling. The data provided some empirical evidence for the effects of culture and school education in children's language acquisition.
Simmons, Elizabeth H.
This talk will discuss how faculty can help graduate students (and even postdocs) improve non-technical professional skills required for success in scientific careers. Examples to be covered will include a) planning and delivering high-quality presentations b) listening critically to others' presentations c) writing grant proposals, cover letters, and CV's d) reviewing manuscripts and responding to referee reports. The faculty member(s) involved must be prepared to project a welcoming attitude, to convey the importance of these skills, and to make a consistent investment of time.
Platteaux, Hervé; Hoein, Sergio
This case illustrates the process of developing a learning module to support BA students in their use of ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools in their learning. At the university where this case occurred, the skill level of ICT use among students in a learning context was very heterogeneous. The E-learning Competency Centre, or…
Lewis, Richard L.; Vasishth, Shravan
We present a detailed process theory of the moment-by-moment working-memory retrievals and associated control structure that subserve sentence comprehension. The theory is derived from the application of independently motivated principles of memory and cognitive skill to the specialized task of sentence parsing. The resulting theory construes…
Bagarukayo, Emily; Ssentamu, Proscovia; Mayisela, Tabisa; Brown, Cheryl
Uganda's higher education system has generally been criticized for concentrating on theory leading to a mismatch between training received and practical skills required by employers. Studies have documented the inability of graduates from some programmes at Makerere University in applying knowledge in the work environment. This could partly be…
This article presents a framework for the elaboration of Foreign Language Teaching (FLT) grammar materials for adults based on the application to SLA of Skill Acquisition Theory (SAT). This theory is argued to compensate for the major drawbacks of FLT settings in comparison with second language contexts (lack of classroom learning time and limited…
Myers, Trina S.; Blackman, Anna; Andersen, Trevor; Hay, Rachel; Lee, Ickjai; Gray, Heather
Flexible online delivery of tertiary ICT programs is experiencing rapid growth. Creating an online environment that develops team building and interpersonal skills is difficult due to factors such as student isolation and the individual-centric model of online learning that encourages discrete study rather than teamwork. Incorporating teamwork…
California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.
This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…
The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a music education intervention on the receptive language skills of students in an at-risk early childhood program. The target population was nine students ages 3, 4, and 5 in an at-risk, inclusive classroom in a Chicago public school. The problem of language delay is indicated in…
MacGillivray, Ian K.
In democratic societies schools play a large role in helping students learn the values and skills necessary for adult participation in a free and open society. This article is a case study of a group of students who started a Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) at a private American school in Mexico City. The students' struggle to form and keep their GSA,…
There is persistent evidence over several decades that the UK lags behind its international competitors in terms of the skills and qualifications of its workforce, with a detrimental impact on overall economic performance. The most recent attempt by the UK government to address this includes a new strategy aimed at increasing the degree of…
Taylor, George R.; Watkins, Susan T.
Several games involving both motor behavior and practice with mathematical skills are described. These include adaptations of musical chairs (subtraction), call ball (multiplication), and ring toss (linear measurement); other games are designed to provide practice on identifying numerals, telling time, using money, and naming fractions. (SD)
Sze, Paul Man-Man
Since 2005, there have seen rapid advances in podcasting, a new technology for broadcasting audio programs on the Internet. Podcasting was originally for conveying information and entertainment. But soon educators saw the huge potential it has for teaching and learning. Many writers have pointed out the huge benefits that podcasting can offer…
Theeke, Laurie A.; Mallow, Jennifer A.; Barnes, Emily R.; Theeke, Elliott
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present the initial feasibility and acceptability of LISTEN (Loneliness Intervention using Story Theory to Enhance Nursing-sensitive outcomes), a new intervention for loneliness. Loneliness is a significant stressor and known contributor to multiple chronic health conditions in varied populations. In addition, loneliness is reported as predictive of functional decline and mortality in large samples of older adults from multiple cultures. Currently, there are no standard therapies recommended as effective treatments for loneliness. The paucity of interventions has limited the ability of healthcare providers to translate what we know about the problem of loneliness to active planning of clinical care that results in diminished loneliness. LISTEN was developed using the process for complex intervention development suggested by the Medical Research Council (MRC)  . Methods Feasibility and acceptability of LISTEN were evaluated as the first objective of a longitudinal randomized trial which was set in a university based family medicine center in a rural southeastern community in Appalachia. Twenty-seven older adults [(24 women and 3 men, mean age: 75 (SD 7.50)] who were lonely, community-dwelling, and experiencing chronic illness, participated. Feasibility was evaluated by tracking recruitment efforts, enrollment, attendance to intervention sessions, attrition, and with feedback evaluations from study personnel. Acceptability was assessed using quantitative and qualitative evaluation data from participants. Results LISTEN was evaluated as feasible to deliver with no attrition and near perfect attendance. Participants ranked LISTEN as highly acceptable for diminishing loneliness with participants requesting a continuation of the program or development of additional sessions. Conclusions LISTEN is feasible to deliver in a primary healthcare setting and has the potential to diminish loneliness which could result in improvement
Jones, Randall L.
Reacts to Michael Canale's paper, "Considerations in the Testing of Reading and Listening Proficiency," concentrating on three areas: (1) the nature of the receptive skills and the requirements of a valid instrument to measure them, (2) the design features that are consistent with his test design principles, and (3) adaptive testing…
According to Ur (1996, 120), "of all the four skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing), speaking seems intuitively the most important." Indeed, whether for business or pleasure, a primary motivation to learn a second language is to be able to converse with speakers of that language. However, in addition to being an important…
Eisner, Susan P.
This paper presents a set of three integrative exercises created to help college students develop workplace skills through simulation. Interviewing, listening, providing feedback, setting goals, empowering, coaching, managing change, handling conflict, and making decisions are clustered and modeled at intervals that synthesize course learning.
Babayigit, Selma; Stainthorp, Rhona
This study had three main aims. First, we examined to what extent listening comprehension, vocabulary, grammatical skills and verbal short-term memory (VSTM) assessed prior to formal reading instruction explained individual differences in early reading comprehension levels. Second, we examined to what extent the three common component skills,…
Lloyd, Julian; Lieven, Elena; Arnold, Paul
This paper focuses on the oral referential communication skills of hearing-impaired (HI) children. A task based on that used with language impaired children by Leinonen and Letts (1997) was used to assess the speaking and listening skills of 20 HI children (mean age=10;2 years; mean better ear average hearing loss=88.85 dBHL). Their performance…
Vasilyeva, Marina; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Waterfall, Heidi
Questions concerning the role of input in the growth of syntactic skills have generated substantial debate within psychology and linguistics. The authors address these questions by investigating the effects of experimentally manipulated input on children's skill with the passive voice. The study involved 72 four-year-olds who listened to stories…
Seven job-related basic skills identified as skills employers want are as follows: (1) learning to learn; (2) reading, writing, and computation; (3) oral communication and listening; (4) creative thinking and problem solving; (5) personal management, including self-esteem, goal setting, motivation, and personal and career development; (6) group…
Anderson, Robert; And Others
Red Deer College's (RDC) efforts to integrate learning skills into the college curriculum are described in three papers. First, Glynis Wilson Boultbee defines learning skills (e.g., listening, viewing, reading, memorizing, asking questions, preparing for and writing exams, taking notes, researching, problem solving, and writing); attitudinal…