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Sample records for active lithium ion

  1. High catalytic activity of anatase titanium dioxide for decomposition of electrolyte solution in lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; He, Yan-Bing; Lv, Wei; Zhang, Chen; Du, Hongda; Li, Baohua; Yang, Quan-Hong; Kang, Feiyu

    2014-12-01

    It has been indicated that anatase TiO2 is a promising anode material for lithium ion power battery from many previous researches. Whereas, in this work, we find that the anatase TiO2, when used as an anode for lithium ion battery, has high catalytic activity to initiate the decarboxylation reaction of electrolyte solution, resulting in the large generation of sole gaseous component, CO2. The ROLi species and the new phase of flake-like Li2TiF6 material are the main reaction products between anatase TiO2 and LiPF6 based electrolyte solution. This work provides important and urgent information that the surface chemistry of anatase TiO2 used as the anode material of lithium ion battery must be modified to suppress its catalytic activity for the decomposition of solvents.

  2. Lithium ions in nanomolar concentration modulate glycine-activated chloride current in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Bukanova, J V; Kondratenko, R V; Skrebitsky, V G

    2016-03-01

    Lithium salts are successfully used to treat bipolar disorder. At the same time, according to recent data lithium may be considered as a candidate medication for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. The mechanisms of therapeutic action of lithium have not been fully elucidated. In particular, in the literature there are no data on the effect of lithium on the glycine receptors. In the present study we investigated the effect of Li(+) on glycine-activated chloride current (IGly) in rat isolated pyramidal hippocampal neurons using patch-clamp technique. The effects of Li(+) were studied with two glycine concentrations: 100 μM (EC50) and 500 μM (nearly saturating). Li(+) was applied to the cell in two ways: first, by 600 ms co-application with glycine through micropipette (short application), and, second, by addition to an extracellular perfusate for 10 min (longer application). Li(+) was used in the range of concentrations of 1 nM-1 mM. Short application of Li(+) caused two effects: (1) an acceleration of desensitization (a decrease in the time of half-decay, or "τ") of IGly induced by both 100 μM and 500 μM glycine, and (2) a reduction of the peak amplitude of the IGly, induced by 100 μM, but not by 500 μM glycine. Both effects were not voltage-dependent. Dose-response curves for both effects were N-shaped with two maximums at 100 nM and 1 mM of Li(+) and a minimum at 1 μM of Li(+). This complex form of dose-response may indicate that the process activated by high concentrations of lithium inhibits the process that is sensitive to low concentrations of lithium. Longer application of Li(+)caused similar effects, but in this case 1 μM lithium was effective and the dose-effect curves were not N-shaped. The inhibitory effect of lithium ions on glycine-activated current suggests that lithium in low concentrations is able to modulate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus. This important property of lithium should be considered when using this drug as a

  3. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  4. Nanoscale visualization of redox activity at lithium-ion battery cathodes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasufumi; Kumatani, Akichika; Munakata, Hirokazu; Inomata, Hirotaka; Ito, Komachi; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Unwin, Patrick R; Korchev, Yuri E; Kanamura, Kiyoshi; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2014-11-17

    Intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions at electrode surfaces are central to the operation of lithium-ion batteries. Yet, on the most important composite cathode surfaces, this is a rather complex process involving spatially heterogeneous reactions that have proved difficult to resolve with existing techniques. Here we report a scanning electrochemical cell microscope based approach to define a mobile electrochemical cell that is used to quantitatively visualize electrochemical phenomena at the battery cathode material LiFePO4, with resolution of ~100 nm. The technique measures electrode topography and different electrochemical properties simultaneously, and the information can be combined with complementary microscopic techniques to reveal new perspectives on structure and activity. These electrodes exhibit highly spatially heterogeneous electrochemistry at the nanoscale, both within secondary particles and at individual primary nanoparticles, which is highly dependent on the local structure and composition.

  5. Biologically activated noble metal alloys at the nanoscale: for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Jung; Lee, Youjin; Oh, Dahyun; Chen, Tiffany; Ceder, Gerbrand; Belcher, Angela M

    2010-07-14

    We report the synthesis and electrochemical activity of gold and silver noble metals and their alloy nanowires using multiple virus clones as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. Using two clones, one for specificity (p8#9 virus) and one versatility (E4 virus), noble metal nanowires of high-aspect ratio with diameters below 50 nm were successfully synthesized with control over particle sizes, morphologies, and compositions. The biologically derived noble metal alloy nanowires showed electrochemical activities toward lithium even when the electrodes were prepared from bulk powder forms. The improvement in capacity retention was accomplished by alloy formation and surface stabilization. Although the cost of noble metals renders them a less ideal choice for lithium ion batteries, these noble metal/alloy nanowires serve as great model systems to study electrochemically induced transformation at the nanoscale. Given the demonstration of the electrochemical activity of noble metal alloy nanowires with various compositions, the M13 biological toolkit extended its utility for the study on the basic electrochemical property of materials.

  6. PVDF-HFP/ether-modified polysiloxane membranes obtained via airbrush spraying as active separators for application in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Seidel, S M; Jeschke, S; Vettikuzha, P; Wiemhöfer, H-D

    2015-08-04

    Improved hybrid polymer electrolyte membranes are introduced based on ether-modified polysiloxanes and poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) yielding a safe separator membrane, which is able to be sprayed directly onto lithium ion battery active materials, with an active role for enhanced ion transport.

  7. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  8. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

  9. Natural sisal fibers derived hierarchical porous activated carbon as capacitive material in lithium ion capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhewei; Guo, Huajun; Li, Xinhai; Wang, Zhixing; Yan, Zhiliang; Wang, Yansen

    2016-10-01

    Lithium-ion capacitor (LIC) is a novel advanced electrochemical energy storage (EES) system bridging gap between lithium ion battery (LIB) and electrochemical capacitor (ECC). In this work, we report that sisal fiber activated carbon (SFAC) was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment followed by KOH activation and served as capacitive material in LIC for the first time. Different particle structure, morphology, specific surface area and heteroatoms affected the electrochemical performance of as-prepared materials and corresponding LICs. When the mass ratio of KOH to char precursor was 2, hierarchical porous structured SFAC-2 was prepared and exhibited moderate specific capacitance (103 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1), superior rate capability and cyclic stability (88% capacity retention after 5000 cycles at 1 A g-1). The corresponding assembled LIC (LIC-SC2) with optimal comprehensive electrochemical performance, displayed the energy density of 83 Wh kg-1, the power density of 5718 W kg-1 and superior cyclic stability (92% energy density retention after 1000 cycles at 0.5 A g-1). It is worthwhile that the source for activated carbon is a natural and renewable one and the synthesis method is eco-friendly, which facilitate that hierarchical porous activated carbon has potential applications in the field of LIC and other energy storage systems.

  10. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  11. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  12. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  13. Theoretical investigation of pillar[4]quinone as a cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Huan, Long; Xie, Ju; Chen, Ming; Diao, Guowang; Zhao, Rongfang; Zuo, Tongfei

    2017-04-01

    The applicability of a novel macrocyclic multi-carbonyl compound, pillar[4]quinone (P4Q), as the cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) was assessed theoretically. The molecular geometry, electronic structure, Li-binding thermodynamic properties, and the redox potential of P4Q were obtained using density functional theory (DFT) at the M06-2X/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The results of the calculations indicated that P4Q interacts with Li atoms via three binding modes: Li-O ionic bonding, O-Li···O bridge bonding, and Li···phenyl noncovalent interactions. Calculations also indicated that, during the LIB discharging process, P4Q could yield a specific capacity of 446 mAh g(-1) through the utilization of its many carbonyl groups. Compared with pillar[5]quinone and pillar[6]quinone, the redox potential of P4Q is enhanced by its high structural stability as well as the effect of the solvent. These results should provide the theoretical foundations for the design, synthesis, and application of novel macrocyclic carbonyl compounds as electrode materials in LIBs in the future. Graphical Abstract Schematic representation of the proposed charge-discharge mechanism of Pillar[4]quinone as cathode for lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Nanoporous silicon flakes as anode active material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-You; Lee, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Nanoporous-silicon (np-Si) flakes were prepared using a combination of an electrochemical etching process and an ultra-sonication treatment and the electrochemical properties were studied as an anode active material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). This fabrication method is a simple, reproducible, and cost effective way to make high-performance Si-based anode active materials in LIBs. The anode based on np-Si flakes exhibited a higher performances (lower capacity fade rate, stability and excellent rate capability at high C-rate) than the anode based on Si nanowires. The excellent performance of the np-Si flake anode was attributed to the hollowness (nanoporous structure) of the anode active material, which allowed it to accommodate a large volume change during cycling.

  15. Hydrogen determination in chemically delithiated lithium ion battery cathodes by prompt gamma activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, Emilio, II

    2007-12-01

    Lithium ion batteries, due to their relatively high energy density, are now widely used as the power source for portable electronics. Commercial lithium ion cells currently employ layered LiCoO2 as a cathode but only 50% of its theoretical capacity can be utilized. The factors that cause the limitation are not fully established in the literature. With this perspective, prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has been employed to determine the hydrogen content in various oxide cathodes that have undergone chemical extraction of lithium (delithiation). The PGAA data is complemented by data obtained from atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), redox titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass spectroscopy to better understand the capacity limitations and failure mechanisms of lithium ion battery cathodes. As part of this work, the PGAA facility has been redesigned and reconstructed. The neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds have been reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Detection limits for elements have also been improved. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of hydrogen. Spectral interference with hydrogen arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. The data indicates that while delithiated layered Li1- xCoO2, Li1-xNi 1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, and Li1- xNi0.5Mn0.5O2 take significant amounts of hydrogen into the lattice during deep extraction, orthorhombic Li 1-xMnO2, spinel Li1- xMn2O4, and olivine Li1- xFePO4 do not. Layered LiCoO2, LiNi 0.5Mn0.5O2, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2 have been further analyzed to assess their relative chemical instabilities while undergoing stepped chemical delithiation. Each system takes increasing amounts of protons at lower lithium contents. The differences are attributed to the relative chemical instabilities of the various cathodes

  16. Processes for making dense, spherical active materials for lithium-ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Kang, Sun-Ho [Naperville, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2011-11-22

    Processes are provided for making dense, spherical mixed-metal carbonate or phosphate precursors that are particularly well suited for the production of active materials for electrochemical devices such as lithium ion secondary batteries. Exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal carbonates or metal phosphates from a combined aqueous solution using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate, or a mixture that includes sodium hydrogen carbonate. Other exemplified methods include precipitating dense, spherical particles of metal phosphates using a precipitating agent such as ammonium hydrogen phosphate, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, or a mixture of any two or more thereof. Further provided are compositions of and methods of making dense, spherical metal oxides and metal phosphates using the dense, spherical metal precursors. Still further provided are electrodes and batteries using the same.

  17. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  18. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-09-27

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes.

  19. Quantifying microstructural dynamics and electrochemical activity of graphite and silicon-graphite lithium ion battery anodes

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Patrick; Westhoff, Daniel; Feinauer, Julian; Eller, Jens; Marone, Federica; Stampanoni, Marco; Schmidt, Volker; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Despite numerous studies presenting advances in tomographic imaging and analysis of lithium ion batteries, graphite-based anodes have received little attention. Weak X-ray attenuation of graphite and, as a result, poor contrast between graphite and the other carbon-based components in an electrode pore space renders data analysis challenging. Here we demonstrate operando tomography of weakly attenuating electrodes during electrochemical (de)lithiation. We use propagation-based phase contrast tomography to facilitate the differentiation between weakly attenuating materials and apply digital volume correlation to capture the dynamics of the electrodes during operation. After validating that we can quantify the local electrochemical activity and microstructural changes throughout graphite electrodes, we apply our technique to graphite-silicon composite electrodes. We show that microstructural changes that occur during (de)lithiation of a pure graphite electrode are of the same order of magnitude as spatial inhomogeneities within it, while strain in composite electrodes is locally pronounced and introduces significant microstructural changes. PMID:27671269

  20. Engineering hybrid nanostructures of active materials: Applications as electrode materials in lithium ion rechargeable batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan

    Aiming to significantly improve the electrochemical properties of electroactive materials for lithium ion batteries, three novel hybrid nanostructures were developed in this thesis. These include nanostructure A: V2O 5 coated on polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon black, nanostructure B: electrode materials incorporated into an electronically conductive carbon web, and nanostructure C: electrode materials dispersed in a conductive porous carbon matrix. Nanocomposites possessing nanostructure A are fast electronic and ionic transport materials. The improved kinetic properties are due to the incorporated carbon core and the grafted polymer electrolyte in the unique structure. The V2O5 xerogel coated polymer electrolyte-grafted carbon blacks, or V2O5/C-PEG, can reach a capacity as high as 320 mAh/g, and exhibit outstanding rate sustainability (e.g. 190 mAh/g at 14C). This class of nanostructured composites is promising for high power/current applications. Nanostructure B was extremely successful when applied to very poorly conductive active materials, such as LiFePO4 and Li3V 2(PO4)3. In this nanostructure, the web-like carbon framework not only supplies a facile electron transport path, but also provides excellent electronic contact between carbon and the insulating active materials. At room temperature, the LiFePO4/C nanocomposite successfully reaches almost full capacity, along with greatly improved rate sustainability and excellent cycling stability. At elevated temperatures (e.g. 40°C and 60°C), the full capacity is readily accessible over a wide rate range, even at a very fast rate of 2C or 5C. The Li3V2(PO4) 3/C nanocomposite can extract all three lithium in the formula at a rate of 1C, resulting in a high capacity of 200 mAh/g. Therefore, through designing hybrid nanostructures with nanostructure B, we can make insulating active materials into good cathode materials. Nanostructure C was employed for Sn-based anode materials, in order to improve their cycling

  1. Lithium iron phosphates as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaojun; Chen, Linfeng; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Olivine-structured lithium iron phosphates are promising cathode materials in the development of high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles. However, the low electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity of lithium iron phosphates hinder their commercialization pace. This work aims to verify the approaches for improving the electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates. In this work, sol-gel method was used to synthesize carbon coated lithium iron phosphates and nickel doped lithium iron phosphates, and their particle sizes were controlled in the nanometer to sub-micrometer range. The crystalline structures of the synthesized lithium iron phosphates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and their morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To study their electrochemical properties, prototype lithium ion batteries were assembled with the synthesized lithium iron phosphates as cathode active materials, and with lithium metal discs as the anodes, and the discharge / charge properties and cycling behaviors of the prototype batteries were tested at different rates. The synthesized lithium iron phosphate materials exhibited high capacity and high cycling stability. It was confirmed that particle size reduction, carbon coating and metal doping are three effective approaches for increasing the conductivity of lithium iron phosphates, and thus improving their electrochemical properties. Experimental results show that by combing the three approaches for improving the electrochemical properties, lithium iron phosphate composites with characteristics favorable for their applications in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles can be developed, including high specific capacity, high rate capacity, flat discharge voltage plateau and high retention ratio.

  2. Enhanced lithium ion storage in nanoimprinted carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Li, Jiangyu; Xie, Shuhong; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2015-07-27

    Disordered carbons processed from polymers have much higher theoretical capacity as lithium ion battery anode than graphite, but they suffer from large irreversible capacity loss and have poor cyclic performance. Here, a simple process to obtain patterned carbon structure from polyvinylpyrrolidone was demonstrated, combining nanoimprint lithography for patterning and three-step heat treatment process for carbonization. The patterned carbon, without any additional binders or conductive fillers, shows remarkably improved cycling performance as Li-ion battery anode, twice as high as the theoretical value of graphite at 98 cycles. Localized electrochemical strain microscopy reveals the enhanced lithium ion activity at the nanoscale, and the control experiments suggest that the enhancement largely originates from the patterned structure, which improves surface reaction while it helps relieving the internal stress during lithium insertion and extraction. This study provides insight on fabricating patterned carbon architecture by rational design for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  3. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  4. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  5. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  7. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-02-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices.

  8. Silicon-based porous nanocomposite thin-films as an active anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaletskiy, L. A.; Rudy, A. S.; Metlitskaya, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of experimental studies of porous silicon nanocomposite materials for future usage as an anode material of lithium-ion batteries are presented. Comparison between original and porous structures in terms of their qualitative and quantitative characteristics is given.

  9. High-discharge-rate lithium ion battery

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-04-22

    The present invention provides for a lithium ion battery and process for creating such, comprising higher binder to carbon conductor ratios than presently used in the industry. The battery is characterized by much lower interfacial resistances at the anode and cathode as a result of initially mixing a carbon conductor with a binder, then with the active material. Further improvements in cycleability can also be realized by first mixing the carbon conductor with the active material first and then adding the binder.

  10. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  11. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  12. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  13. A chemically activated graphene-encapsulated LiFePO4 composite for high-performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeonghyun; Park, Seung-Keun; Yu, Seung-Ho; Jin, Aihua; Jang, Byungchul; Bong, Sungyool; Kim, In; Sung, Yung-Eun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2013-09-21

    A composite of modified graphene and LiFePO4 has been developed to improve the speed of charging-discharging and the cycling stability of lithium ion batteries using LiFePO4 as a cathode material. Chemically activated graphene (CA-graphene) has been successfully synthesized via activation by KOH. The as-prepared CA-graphene was mixed with LiFePO4 to prepare the composite. Microscopic observation and nitrogen sorption analysis have revealed the surface morphologies of CA-graphene and the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite. Electrochemical properties have also been investigated after assembling coin cells with the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite as a cathode active material. Interestingly, the CA-graphene/LiFePO4 composite has exhibited better electrochemical properties than the conventional graphene/LiFePO4 composite as well as bare LiFePO4, including exceptional speed of charging-discharging and excellent cycle stability. That is because the CA-graphene in the composite provides abundant porous channels for the diffusion of lithium ions. Moreover, it acts as a conducting network for easy charge transfer and as a divider, preventing the aggregation of LiFePO4 particles. Owing to these properties of CA-graphene, LiFePO4 could demonstrate enhanced and stably long-lasting electrochemical performance.

  14. Degradation diagnostics for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkl, Christoph R.; Roberts, Matthew R.; McTurk, Euan; Bruce, Peter G.; Howey, David A.

    2017-02-01

    Degradation in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery cells is the result of a complex interplay of a host of different physical and chemical mechanisms. The measurable, physical effects of these degradation mechanisms on the cell can be summarised in terms of three degradation modes, namely loss of lithium inventory, loss of active positive electrode material and loss of active negative electrode material. The different degradation modes are assumed to have unique and measurable effects on the open circuit voltage (OCV) of Li-ion cells and electrodes. The presumptive nature and extent of these effects has so far been based on logical arguments rather than experimental proof. This work presents, for the first time, experimental evidence supporting the widely reported degradation modes by means of tests conducted on coin cells, engineered to include different, known amounts of lithium inventory and active electrode material. Moreover, the general theory behind the effects of degradation modes on the OCV of cells and electrodes is refined and a diagnostic algorithm is devised, which allows the identification and quantification of the nature and extent of each degradation mode in Li-ion cells at any point in their service lives, by fitting the cells' OCV.

  15. Concentration gradient effects of sodium and lithium ions and deuterium isotope effects on the activities of H+-ATP synthase from chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Chen, M-F; Wang, J-D; Su, T-M

    2009-03-18

    We explored the concentration gradient effects of the sodium and lithium ions and the deuterium isotope's effects on the activities of H(+)-ATP synthase from chloroplasts (CF(0)F(1)). We found that the sodium concentration gradient can drive the ATP synthesis reaction of CF(0)F(1). In contrast, the lithium ion can be an efficient enzyme-inhibitor by blocking the entrance channel of the ion translocation pathway in CF(0). In the presence of sodium or lithium ions and with the application of a membrane potential, unexpected enzyme behaviors of CF(0)F(1) were evident. To account for these observations, we propose that both of the sodium and lithium ions could undergo localized hydrolysis reactions in the chemical environment of the ion channel of CF(0). The protons generated locally could proceed to complete the ion translocation process in the ATP synthesis reaction of CF(0)F(1). Experimental and theoretical deuterium isotope effects of the localized hydrolysis on the activities of CF(0)F(1), and the energetics of these related reactions, support this proposed mechanism. Our experimental observations could be understood in the framework of the well-established ion translocation models for the H(+)-ATP synthase from Escherichia coli, and the Na(+)-ATP synthase from Propionigenium modestum and Ilyobacter tartaricus.

  16. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  17. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, Charles Austen; Liu, Changle; Xu, Kang; Skotheim, Terje A.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to highly conductive alkali-metal ion non-crystalline electrolyte systems, and more particularly to novel and unique molten (liquid), rubbery, and solid electrolyte systems which are especially well suited for use with high current density electrolytic cells such as primary and secondary batteries.

  18. Collective capture of released lithium ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winske, D.; Wu, C. S.; Li, Y. Y.; Zhou, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The capture of newly ionized lithium ions in the solar wind by means of electromagnetic instabilities is investigated through linear analysis and computer simulation. Three instabilities, driven by a lithium velocity ring perpendicular to and drifting along the magnetic field, are considered. The capture time of the lithium by the solar wind is roughly 10 linear growth times, regardless of whether resonant or nonresonant modes dominate initially. Possible implications of the results for the Active Magnetosphere Particle Tracer Explorer (AMPTE) mission are discussed.

  19. Dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamics of lithium ions in lithium bismuthate glasses have been studied in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range from 323 to 543 K. The composition dependence of the dc (direct current) conductivity has been explained in terms of the structure of bismuthate glasses. The activation energy has been analyzed in the framework of the Anderson-Stuart model. An additional energy term arising from the Madelung constant of glasses and the polarizability of the bismuth ions has been suggested to explain the discrepancy between the calculated and experimentally obtained values. The relaxation mechanism of these glasses has been explored by employing the modulus and conductivity formalisms and the microscopic parameters obtained from the analysis have been compared. Furthermore, the stretched exponential relaxation parameter and the dc conductivity have been correlated with the decoupling index.

  20. Lithium Ion Battery Design and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, George; Locke, Laura

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation makes several recommendations to ensure the safe and effective design of Lithium ion cell batteries. Large lithium ion cells require pressure switches and small cells require pressure disconnects and other safety devices with the ability to instantly interrupt flow. Other suggestions include specifications for batteries and battery chargers.

  1. Advances in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, John B.

    2003-06-24

    The editors state in their introduction that this book is intended for lithium-ion scientists and engineers but they hope it may be of interest to scientists from other fields. Their main aim was to provide a snapshot of the state of the Lithium-ion art and in this they have largely succeeded. The book is comprised of a collection of very current reviews of the lithium ion battery literature by acknowledged experts that draw heavily on the authors' own research but are sufficiently general to provide the lithium ion researcher with enough guidance to the current literature and the current thinking in the field. Some of the literature references may be too current as there are numerous citations of conference proceedings which may be easily accessible to the lithium ion scientist or engineer but are not likely to be available to the interested chemist coming to the field for the first time. One author expresses the hope and expectation that properly peer-reviewed articles will appear in due course and the interested reader should look out for them in future. From the point of view of the lithium ion battery scientist and engineer, the book covers most of the topics that are of current interest. Two areas are treated by inference in the various chapters but are not specifically granted chapters of their own. One of these is safety and abuse tolerance and the other is cost. Since there are a number of groups active in the investigation of abuse tolerance of these batteries this is a curious omission and obviously the cost factor is a driver for commercial development. The book should be instructive to the chemical community provided the average chemist can obtain some guidance from an electrochemist or battery engineer. Many of the measurements and techniques referred to (e.g. impedance, capacities, etc.) may be somewhat unfamiliar and confusing in the context they are used. Chemists who persevere and can obtain some guidance will find some rich opportunities for the

  2. Electrochemically active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic frameworks on carbon nanotubes for synergistic lithium-ion battery energy storage

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Jin, Shangbin; Zhong, Hui; Wu, Dingcai; Yang, Xiaoqing; Chen, Xiong; Wei, Hao; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-01-01

    Organic batteries free of toxic metal species could lead to a new generation of consumer energy storage devices that are safe and environmentally benign. However, the conventional organic electrodes remain problematic because of their structural instability, slow ion-diffusion dynamics, and poor electrical conductivity. Here, we report on the development of a redox-active, crystalline, mesoporous covalent organic framework (COF) on carbon nanotubes for use as electrodes; the electrode stability is enhanced by the covalent network, the ion transport is facilitated by the open meso-channels, and the electron conductivity is boosted by the carbon nanotube wires. These effects work synergistically for the storage of energy and provide lithium-ion batteries with high efficiency, robust cycle stability, and high rate capability. Our results suggest that redox-active COFs on conducting carbons could serve as a unique platform for energy storage and may facilitate the design of new organic electrodes for high-performance and environmentally benign battery devices. PMID:25650133

  3. Recovery of valuable metals from cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries: Leaching and kinetic aspects.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2015-11-01

    This work is focussed on the processing of cathodic active material of spent lithium ion batteries (LIBs) to ensure resource recovery and minimize environmental degradation. The sulfuric acid leaching of metals was carried out for the recovery of all the valuable metals including nickel and manganese along with the frequently targeted metals like lithium and cobalt. The process parameters such as acid concentration, pulp density, time and temperature for the leaching of metals from the cathode powder containing 35.8% Co, 6.5% Li, 11.6% Mn and 10.06% Ni, were optimized. Results show the optimized leach recovery of 93.4% Li, 66.2% Co, 96.3% Ni and 50.2% Mn when the material was leached in 1M H2SO4 at 368 K and 50 g/L pulp density for 240 min. The need of a reductant for improved recovery of cobalt and manganese has been explained by the thermodynamic analysis (Eh-pH diagram) for these metals. Leaching of the valuable metals was found to follow the logarithmic rate law controlled by surface layer diffusion of the lixiviant reacting with the particles. The mode of leaching of the metals from the spent LIBs was further examined by chemical analysis of the samples at various stage of processing which was further corroborated by characterizing the untreated sample and the leach residues by XRD phase identification and the SEM-EDS studies.

  4. High capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Herman A.; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbon; Masarapu, Charan; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Suject

    2015-11-19

    High capacity silicon based anode active materials are described for lithium ion batteries. These materials are shown to be effective in combination with high capacity lithium rich cathode active materials. Supplemental lithium is shown to improve the cycling performance and reduce irreversible capacity loss for at least certain silicon based active materials. In particular silicon based active materials can be formed in composites with electrically conductive coatings, such as pyrolytic carbon coatings or metal coatings, and composites can also be formed with other electrically conductive carbon components, such as carbon nanofibers and carbon nanoparticles. Additional alloys with silicon are explored.

  5. Ionic Liquids in Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are among the most widespread energy storage devices in our society. In order to introduce these devices in new key applications such as transportation, however, their safety and their operative temperature range need to be significantly improved. These improvements can be obtained only by developing new electrolytes. Ionic liquids are presently considered among the most attractive electrolytes for the development of advanced and safer lithium-ion batteries. In this manuscript, the use of various types of ionic liquids, e.g. aprotic and protic, in lithium-ion batteries is considered. The advantages and the limits associated to the use of these innovative electrolytes are critically analysed.

  6. Material requirements for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, L.; Fouchard, D.; Megahed, S.

    1995-12-31

    Lithium-ion (or rocking-chair) batteries with lithiated oxide cathodes and carbon anodes are finding increasing acceptance in many electronic applications including low rates (e.g., memory backup, real time clock, bridge function) and high rates (e.g, laptop computers, cellular phones, camcorders, etc.). This technology offers significant improvements in safety relative to cells using lithium metal anodes, with only a modest reduction in energy density. In general, materials for lithium-ion cells are chosen to minimize the energy density penalties associated with replacing the lithium electrode with an intercalation electrode. In this review paper, the authors describe the properties of the cathode, anode and electrolyte, and discuss requirements for improved materials for advanced lithium-ion systems. Consideration is given to energy density, rate capability, cycleability and thermal stability.

  7. Lithium ion batteries based on nanoporous silicon

    DOEpatents

    Tolbert, Sarah H.; Nemanick, Eric J.; Kang, Chris Byung-Hwa

    2015-09-22

    A lithium ion battery that incorporates an anode formed from a Group IV semiconductor material such as porous silicon is disclosed. The battery includes a cathode, and an anode comprising porous silicon. In some embodiments, the anode is present in the form of a nanowire, a film, or a powder, the porous silicon having a pore diameters within the range between 2 nm and 100 nm and an average wall thickness of within the range between 1 nm and 100 nm. The lithium ion battery further includes, in some embodiments, a non-aqueous lithium containing electrolyte. Lithium ion batteries incorporating a porous silicon anode demonstrate have high, stable lithium alloying capacity over many cycles.

  8. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  9. Origami lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Ma, Teng; Tang, Rui; Cheng, Qian; Wang, Xu; Krishnaraju, Deepakshyam; Panat, Rahul; Chan, Candace K.; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2014-01-01

    There are significant challenges in developing deformable devices at the system level that contain integrated, deformable energy storage devices. Here we demonstrate an origami lithium-ion battery that can be deformed at an unprecedented high level, including folding, bending and twisting. Deformability at the system level is enabled using rigid origami, which prescribes a crease pattern such that the materials making the origami pattern do not experience large strain. The origami battery is fabricated through slurry coating of electrodes onto paper current collectors and packaging in standard materials, followed by folding using the Miura pattern. The resulting origami battery achieves significant linear and areal deformability, large twistability and bendability. The strategy described here represents the fusion of the art of origami, materials science and functional energy storage devices, and could provide a paradigm shift for architecture and design of flexible and curvilinear electronics with exceptional mechanical characteristics and functionalities.

  10. Rechargeable lithium-ion cell

    DOEpatents

    Bechtold, Dieter; Bartke, Dietrich; Kramer, Peter; Kretzschmar, Reiner; Vollbert, Jurgen

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a rechargeable lithium-ion cell, a method for its manufacture, and its application. The cell is distinguished by the fact that it has a metallic housing (21) which is electrically insulated internally by two half shells (15), which cover electrode plates (8) and main output tabs (7) and are composed of a non-conductive material, where the metallic housing is electrically insulated externally by means of an insulation coating. The cell also has a bursting membrane (4) which, in its normal position, is located above the electrolyte level of the cell (1). In addition, the cell has a twisting protection (6) which extends over the entire surface of the cover (2) and provides centering and assembly functions for the electrode package, which comprises the electrode plates (8).

  11. Meso-scale characterization of lithium distribution in lithium-ion batteries using ion beam analysis techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Arrabal, R.; Panizo-Laiz, M.; Fujita, K.; Mima, K.; Yamazaki, A.; Kamiya, T.; Orikasa, Y.; Uchimoto, Y.; Sawada, H.; Okuda, C.; Kato, Y.; Perlado, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a Li-ion battery (LIB) is mainly governed by the diffusion capabilities of lithium in the electrodes. Thus, for LIB improvement it is essential to characterize the lithium distribution. Most of the traditionally used techniques for lithium characterization give information about the local scale or in the macroscopic scale. However, the lithium behavior at the local scale is not mirrored at the macroscopic scale. Therefore, the lithium characterization in the mesoscopic scale would be of help to understand and to connect the mechanisms taking place in the two spatial scales. In this paper, we show a general description of the capabilities and limitations of ion beam analysis techniques to study the distributions of lithium and other elements present in the electrodes in the mesoscopic scale. The potential of the 7Li(p,α0)4He nuclear reaction to non-invasively examine the lithium distribution as a function of depth is illustrated. The lithium spatial distribution is characterized using particle induced γ-ray (μ-PIGE) spectroscopy. This technique allows estimating the density of the active particles in the electrode effectively contributing to the Li intercalation and/or de-intercalation. The advantages of the use of ion beam analysis techniques in comparison to more traditional techniques for electrode characterization are discussed.

  12. Effect of lithium ions on cementoblasts in the presence of lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shang; Wang, Yuzhuo; Wang, Xiaolong; Lin, Peng; Hu, Min

    2015-04-01

    The applications of lithium ions as an agent to facilitate bone formation have been widely documented; however, the effect of lithium ions in the periodontitis model has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to investigate the effect of single lithium ions in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A periodontitis model was induced in cementoblasts using LPS. The cytotoxic effect of the lithium ions on the cementoblasts was studied through the MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase analysis and alizarin red staining were performed to investigate the effect of the lithium ions on differentiation. To examine the effect of lithium ions on osteoclastogenesis, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and protein expression levels were assessed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis and ELISA, respectively. Compared with the effect induced by lithium ions on normal cementoblasts, proliferation and differentiation were downregulated following the co-incubation of the cementoblasts with LPS and lithium ions. Furthermore, the lithium ions appeared to alter osteoclastogenesis by regulating the OPG/RANKL ratio. In conclusion, the present findings suggest that lithium ions can downregulate proliferation and differentiation in a periodontitis model. Further studies should be undertaken prior to the acceptance of lithium ions for use in the clinic.

  13. Octahedral core–shell cuprous oxide/carbon with enhanced electrochemical activity and stability as anode for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Chen, Zhewei; Wang, Jianming

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Core–shell octahedral Cu{sub 2}O/C is prepared by a one-step method. • Carbon shell is amorphous and uniformly decorated at the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core. • Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C exhibits markedly enhanced capability and reversibility. • Carbon shell provides fast ion/electron transfer channel. • Core–shell structure is stable during cycling. - Abstract: Core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C octahedrons are synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method with the help of carbonization of glucose, which reduces Cu(II) to Cu(I) at low temperature and further forms carbon shell coating at high temperature. SEM and TEM images indicate that the carbon shell is amorphous with thickness of ∼20 nm wrapping the Cu{sub 2}O octahedral core perfectly. As anode of lithium ion batteries, the core–shell Cu{sub 2}O/C composite exhibits high and stable columbic efficiency (98%) as well as a reversible capacity of 400 mAh g{sup −1} after 80 cycles. The improved electrochemical performance is attributed to the novel core–shell structure, in which the carbon shell reduces the electrode polarization and promotes the charge transfer at active material/electrolyte interface, and also acts as a stabilizer to keep the octahedral structure integrity during discharge–charge processes.

  14. Characterization of Graphite Lithium-Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Figure 46. Dual Pulse 125 Stored Energy Resistance Welding Power Supply.................75 Figure 47. Thin-Line Model 88F Parallel Gap Welder...problem is lithium-ion batteries. Lithium-ion batteries, with their high energy density, can provide a means for reducing spacecraft weight and...and discharge rates will be twice what they were in the previous test. This amounts to the same energy in and out of the cell during an orbit. The

  15. Lithium ion phase-transfer reaction at the interface between the lithium manganese oxide electrode and the nonaqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shota; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2005-07-14

    The lithium ion phase-transfer reaction between the spinel lithium manganese oxide electrode and a nonaqueous electrolyte was investigated by the ac impedance spectroscopic method. The dependence of the impedance spectra on the electrochemical potential of the lithium ion in the electrode, the lithium salt concentration in the electrolyte, the kind of solvent, and the measured temperature were examined. Nyquist plots, obtained from the impedance measurements, consist of two semicircles for high and medium frequency and warburg impedance for low frequency, indicating that the reaction process of two main steps for high and medium frequency obey the Butler-Volmer type equation and could be related to the charge-transfer reaction process accompanied with lithium ion phase-transfer at the interface. The dependency on the solvent suggests that both steps in the lithium ion phase-transfer at the electrode/electrolyte interface include the desolvation process and have high activation barriers.

  16. Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

  17. Nonaqueous lithium-ion capacitors with high energy densities using trigol-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as cathode-active material.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Mhamane, Dattakumar; Ling, Wong Chui; Ogale, Satishchandra; Madhavi, Srinivasan

    2013-12-01

    One HEC of a material: The use of trigol-reduced graphene oxide nanosheets as cathode material in hybrid lithium-ion electrochemical capacitors (Li-HECs) results in an energy density of 45 Wh kg(-1) ; much enhanced when compared to similar devices. The mass loading of the active materials is optimized, and the devices show good cycling performance. Li-HECs employing these materials outperform other supercapacitors, making them attractive for use in power sources.

  18. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  19. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Tojo T, Sakurai Y. Synthesis and lithium - ion conductivity for perovskite-type Li3/8Sr7/16Ta3/4Zr1/4O3 solid electrolyte by powder-bed sintering...battery performance is limited by the electrolytic membrane, which needs high Li-ionic conductivity. Lithium lanthanum titanate (Li3xLa(2/3)-xTiO3, or...of the A-site ions and lithium ion conductivity in the perovskite solid solution La0.67-xLi3xTiO3 (x=0.11). Journal of Solid State Ionics. 1999;121

  20. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha; Button, Robert; Manzo, Michelle; McKissock, Barbara; Miller, Thomas; Gemeiner, Russel; Bennett, William; Hand, Evan

    2006-01-01

    Life-test data of Lithium-Ion battery cells is critical in order to establish their performance capabilities for NASA missions and Exploration goals. Lithium-ion cells have the potential to replace rechargeable alkaline cells in aerospace applications, but they require a more complex charging scheme than is typically required for alkaline cells. To address these requirements in our Lithium-Ion Cell Test Verification Program, a Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit was developed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). This unit gives researchers the ability to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and results in a substantial reduction in test costs as compared to individual cell testing. The Naval Surface Warfare Center at Crane, Indiana developed a power reduction scheme that works in conjunction with the Lithium-Ion Cell Charge Control Unit. This scheme minimizes the power dissipation required by the circuitry to prolong circuit life and improve its reliability.

  1. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    DOE PAGES

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, andmore » solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.« less

  2. Lithium ion batteries and their manufacturing challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Claus

    2015-03-01

    There is no single lithium ion battery. With the variety of materials and electrochemical couples available, it is possible to design battery cells specific to their applications in terms of voltage, state of charge use, lifetime needs, and safety. Selection of specific electrochemical couples also facilitates the design of power and energy ratios and available energy. Integration in a large format cell requires optimized roll-to-roll electrode manufacturing and use of active materials. Electrodes are coated on a metal current collector foil in a composite structure of active material, binders, and conductive additives, requiring careful control of colloidal chemistry, adhesion, and solidification. But the added inactive materials and the cell packaging reduce energy density. Furthermore, degree of porosity and compaction in the electrode can affect battery performance.

  3. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  4. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  5. Organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Qian; Lemmon, John P.; Choi, Daiwon; Cosimbescu, Lelia

    2016-09-13

    Disclosed are embodiments of active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid electrodes and particularly active materials for organometallic and organometallic-inorganic hybrid cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. In certain embodiments the organometallic material comprises a ferrocene polymer.

  6. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOEpatents

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  7. Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    2016-05-16

    This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: long calendar life (greater than 10 years); sufficient cycle life; reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures; safe performance under extreme conditions; end-of-life recycling. To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.

  8. 78 FR 19024 - Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... SAFETY BOARD Lithium Ion Batteries in Transportation Public Forum On Thursday and Friday, April 11-12, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum titled, ``Lithium Ion... Inquiry. The forum is organized into three topic areas: Lithium ion battery design, development, and...

  9. Lithium Ion Source for Satellite Charge Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    ePH^TOELE 1a b |, SOLAR PHOTONS PH3TOL ETROtJS ATTRACTED BACK BY THE SURFACE CHARGE Figure 1. Qualitative illustration of the charging : of a surface by...LITHIUM ION SOURCE FOR SATELLITE CHARGE CONTROL 12 Personal Author(s) Song. Tae Ik 13a Type of Report 13b Time Covered Id Date of Report (year, month...if ncvessary and Identify by block number) Field Group Subgroup Lithium Ion Source, Satellite Charge Control 19 Abstract (continue on reverse if

  10. Lithium ion battery with improved safety

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Chun-hua; Hyung, Yoo Eup; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    2006-04-11

    A lithium battery with improved safety that utilizes one or more additives in the battery electrolyte solution wherein a lithium salt is dissolved in an organic solvent, which may contain propylene, carbonate. For example, a blend of 2 wt % triphenyl phosphate (TPP), 1 wt % diphenyl monobutyl phosphate (DMP) and 2 wt % vinyl ethylene carbonate additives has been found to significantly enhance the safety and performance of Li-ion batteries using a LiPF6 salt in EC/DEC electrolyte solvent. The invention relates to both the use of individual additives and to blends of additives such as that shown in the above example at concentrations of 1 to 4-wt % in the lithium battery electrolyte. This invention relates to additives that suppress gas evolution in the cell, passivate graphite electrode and protect it from exfoliating in the presence of propylene carbonate solvents in the electrolyte, and retard flames in the lithium batteries.

  11. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  12. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  13. Metal hydrides for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oumellal, Y; Rougier, A; Nazri, G A; Tarascon, J-M; Aymard, L

    2008-11-01

    Classical electrodes for Li-ion technology operate via an insertion/de-insertion process. Recently, conversion electrodes have shown the capability of greater capacity, but have so far suffered from a marked hysteresis in voltage between charge and discharge, leading to poor energy efficiency and voltages. Here, we present the electrochemical reactivity of MgH(2) with Li that constitutes the first use of a metal-hydride electrode for Li-ion batteries. The MgH(2) electrode shows a large, reversible capacity of 1,480 mAh g(-1) at an average voltage of 0.5 V versus Li(+)/Li(o) which is suitable for the negative electrode. In addition, it shows the lowest polarization for conversion electrodes. The electrochemical reaction results in formation of a composite containing Mg embedded in a LiH matrix, which on charging converts back to MgH(2). Furthermore, the reaction is not specific to MgH(2), as other metal or intermetallic hydrides show similar reactivity towards Li. Equally promising, the reaction produces nanosized Mg and MgH(2), which show enhanced hydrogen sorption/desorption kinetics. We hope that such findings can pave the way for designing nanoscale active metal elements with applications in hydrogen storage and lithium-ion batteries.

  14. Electrochemical stiffness in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassol, Hadi; Jones, Elizabeth M. C.; Sottos, Nancy R.; Gewirth, Andrew A.

    2016-11-01

    Although lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in portable electronics, increased charge rate and discharge power are required for more demanding applications such as electric vehicles. The high-rate exchange of lithium ions required for more power and faster charging generates significant stresses and strains in the electrodes that ultimately lead to performance degradation. To date, electrochemically induced stresses and strains in battery electrodes have been studied only individually. Here, a new technique is developed to probe the chemomechanical response of electrodes by calculating the electrochemical stiffness via coordinated in situ stress and strain measurements. We show that dramatic changes in electrochemical stiffness occur due to the formation of different graphite-lithium intercalation compounds during cycling. Our analysis reveals that stress scales proportionally with the lithiation/delithiation rate and strain scales proportionally with capacity (and inversely with rate). Electrochemical stiffness measurements provide new insights into the origin of rate-dependent chemomechanical degradation and the evaluation of advanced battery electrodes.

  15. Lithium Ion Electrolytes and Lithium Ion Cells With Good Low Temperature Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    There is provided in one embodiment of the invention an electrolyte for use in a lithium ion electrochemical cell. The electrolyte comprises a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), an ester cosolvent, and a lithium salt. The ester cosolvent comprises methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), or butyl butyrate (BB). The electrochemical cell operates in a temperature range of from about -60 C to about 60 C. In another embodiment there is provided a lithium ion electrochemical cell using the electrolyte of the invention.

  16. Size effects in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu-Rong, Yao; Ya-Xia, Yin; Yu-Gao, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Size-related properties of novel lithium battery materials, arising from kinetics, thermodynamics, and newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms, are reviewed. Complementary experimental and computational investigations of the use of the size effects to modify electrodes and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries are enumerated and discussed together. Size differences in the materials in lithium ion batteries lead to a variety of exciting phenomena. Smaller-particle materials with highly connective interfaces and reduced diffusion paths exhibit higher rate performance than the corresponding bulk materials. The thermodynamics is also changed by the higher surface energy of smaller particles, affecting, for example, secondary surface reactions, lattice parameter, voltage, and the phase transformation mechanism. Newly discovered lithium storage mechanisms that result in superior storage capacity are also briefly highlighted. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51225204 and 21303222), the Shandong Taishan Scholarship, China, the Ministry of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012CB932900), and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDA09010000).

  17. The role of SEI in lithium and lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Ardel, G.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.; Eshkenazy, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses fundamental processes taking place at the lithium and Li{sub x}C{sub 6} electrode/electrolyte interphases and models for these interphases. The authors deal with both nonaqueous and polymer (dry and gel) electrolytes, graphitized and nongraphitized carbonaceous materials as anodes for Li-ion batteries. Each electrode/electrolyte combination has its own unique features and problems but there are some general phenomena common to all of them. Issues to be reviewed include SEI composition, morphology and formation reactions, graphite surface modifications including chemical bonded SEI and micro channels formation, electrode degradation processes, lithium deposition-dissolution and intercalation-deintercalation mechanisms, rate-determining steps (RDS), electrolyte and electrode parameters and conditions affecting the above mentioned processes. Technology-related issues are emphasized.

  18. Study of lithium absorption by users of spas treated with lithium ion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, J D; Carter, S P; Fletcher, M J; Reape, M J

    1994-05-01

    This study examines the possible dermal absorption of lithium ion into the blood serum of spa/hot tub bathers. Fifty-three participants (28 males and 25 females) spent 20 minutes per day, 4 days per week for 2 consecutive weeks in one of two assigned spas. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the two spas after matching based on sex, age, and use of oral contraceptives. The test spa contained 40 +/- 5 ppm lithium ion, while the control spa contained no additional lithium ion above the background levels of approximately 0.02 ppm. The exposure in the spa treated with lithium ion (from lithium chloride) simulated the maximum exposure that would be expected in a spa sanitized with lithium hypochlorite. The two spas were maintained at 101 +/- 2 degrees F. Serum lithium ion levels before and after spa use were determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy with a minimum detectable level of lithium ion in serum of 2 micrograms l-1 (ppb). There was no statistically significant difference in serum lithium levels between the control and treatment group at any stage. We conclude that dermal exposure to lithium ion (as would be present after treatment of a spa with lithium hypochlorite) did not result in a detectable increase in the serum lithium ion level.

  19. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-01-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg−1 and 84.6 Wh kg−1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg−1 and 24375 W kg−1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode. PMID:28155853

  20. A high performance lithium ion capacitor achieved by the integration of a Sn-C anode and a biomass-derived microporous activated carbon cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui; Zhu, Yuwen; Pi, Xinxin; Wang, Lijie; Liu, Xin; Qin, Yukun

    2017-02-01

    Hybridizing battery and capacitor materials to construct lithium ion capacitors (LICs) has been regarded as a promising avenue to bridge the gap between high-energy lithium ion batteries and high-power supercapacitors. One of the key difficulties in developing advanced LICs is the imbalance in the power capability and charge storage capacity between anode and cathode. Herein, we design a new LIC system by integrating a rationally designed Sn-C anode with a biomass-derived activated carbon cathode. The Sn-C nanocomposite obtained by a facile confined growth strategy possesses multiple structural merits including well-confined Sn nanoparticles, homogeneous distribution and interconnected carbon framework with ultra-high N doping level, synergically enabling the fabricated anode with high Li storage capacity and excellent rate capability. A new type of biomass-derived activated carbon featuring both high surface area and high carbon purity is also prepared to achieve high capacity for cathode. The assembled LIC (Sn-C//PAC) device delivers high energy densities of 195.7 Wh kg‑1 and 84.6 Wh kg‑1 at power densities of 731.25 W kg‑1 and 24375 W kg‑1, respectively. This work offers a new strategy for designing high-performance hybrid system by tailoring the nanostructures of Li insertion anode and ion adsorption cathode.

  1. Visualization of lithium ions by annular bright field imaging.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yoshifumi; Lee, Soyeon; Takayanagi, Kunio

    2016-10-14

    The detection of lithium ions is required for characterization of lithium ion batteries, since the movement of lithium ions in the battery is one of the key ways to improve the performance. Annular bright field (ABF) imaging enables us to visualize individual lithium atomic columns simultaneously with heavy elements. Furthermore, it has been found that the number of lithium ions at the column is countable when the specimen is thin. These results suggest that movement of lithium ions in the material can be observed by taking consecutive ABF images during operation or in situ ABF observation. Actually, the spinel structure of L2V4O crystals was directly observed to be transformed into the defective NaCl structure at the moment when lithium ions were extracted from the original position during electron beam irradiation. We clarify the features of ABF imaging by comparing it with HAADF imaging in order to understand what information can be obtained by ABF imaging directly.

  2. Thermal Aspects of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H.; Shakkottai, P.; Bugga, R.; Smart, M.; Huang, C. K.; Timmerman, P.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation outlines the development of a thermal model of Li-ion cells in terms of heat generation, thermal mass, and thermal resistance. Intended for incorporation into battery model. The approach was to estimate heat generation: with semi-theoretical model, and then to check accuracy with efficiency measurements. Another objective was to compute thermal mass from component weights and specific heats, and to compute the thermal resistance from component dimensions and conductivities. Two lithium batteries are compared, the Cylindrical lithium battery, and the prismatic lithium cell. It reviews methodology for estimating the heat generation rate. Graphs of the Open-circuit curves of the cells and the heat evolution during discharge are given.

  3. Characterization of commercially available lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Bradley A.; White, Ralph E.

    With the aggressive growth of the lithium-ion battery market, several companies have recently offered their version of the lithium-ion battery for consumer purchase. This paper describes the physical design, rate, cycle-lifetime, and self-discharge performance of cells from Sony, Matsushita, A&T, Moli, and Sanyo lithium-ion batteries. The study used a total of 85 lithium-ion cells from these manufacturers. All cells performed as indicated by manufacturers' specifications and the performance and design differences are discussed. The design differences include discussion of gas chrornatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis of the electrolytes, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of separators, the activation of a positive temperature coefficient (PTC), and a comparison of the basic physical parameters of each cell. Performance characterization shows an excellent high discharge rale performance of the A&T and Matsushita cells, an excellent cycle-lifetime performance for Sony cells, and negligible effects of self-discharge.

  4. Cold neutron depth profiling of lithium-ion battery materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamaze, G. P.; Chen-Mayer, H. H.; Becker, D. A.; Vereda, F.; Goldner, R. B.; Haas, T.; Zerigian, P.

    We report the characterization of two thin-film battery materials using neutron techniques. Neutron depth profiling (NDP) has been employed to determine the distribution of lithium and nitrogen simultaneously in lithium phosphorous oxynitride (LiPON) deposited by ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). The depth profiles are based on the measurement of the energy of the charged particle products from the 6Li(n,α) 3H and 14N(n,p) 14C reactions for lithium and nitrogen, respectively. Lithium at the level of 10 22 atoms/cm 3 and N of 10 21 atoms/cm 3, distributed in the film thickness on the order of 1 μm, have been determined. This information provides insights into nitrogen incorporation and lithium concentration in the films under various fabrication conditions. NDP of lithium has also been performed on IBAD LiCoO 2 films, in conjunction with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to determine the cobalt concentration. The Li/Co ratio thus obtained serves as an ex situ control for the thin-film evaporation process. The non-destructive nature of the neutron techniques is especially suitable for repeated analysis of these materials and for actual working devices.

  5. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  6. Light-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-04-10

    Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar energy in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-ion materials to investigate light-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium ion battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  7. Energetics of lithium ion battery failure.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E; Walters, Richard N

    2016-11-15

    The energy released by failure of rechargeable 18-mm diameter by 65-mm long cylindrical (18650) lithium ion cells/batteries was measured in a bomb calorimeter for 4 different commercial cathode chemistries over the full range of charge using a method developed for this purpose. Thermal runaway was induced by electrical resistance (Joule) heating of the cell in the nitrogen-filled pressure vessel (bomb) to preclude combustion. The total energy released by cell failure, ΔHf, was assumed to be comprised of the stored electrical energy E (cell potential×charge) and the chemical energy of mixing, reaction and thermal decomposition of the cell components, ΔUrxn. The contribution of E and ΔUrxn to ΔHf was determined and the mass of volatile, combustible thermal decomposition products was measured in an effort to characterize the fire safety hazard of rechargeable lithium ion cells.

  8. Intercalation Dynamics in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    issues, batteries have become much more complex systems. As an illustration, consider the “ voltaic pile ” invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800. This was... voltaic pile , practical lithium-ion batteries are necessarily much more complicated. The electrode materials are present in the form of a fine powder...it is shown that the smaller particles tend to phase separate first , a phenomenon seen in experiments but difficult to explain with any other

  9. International Space Station Lithium-Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Penni J.; Balcer, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) currently uses Nickel-Hydrogen (Ni-H2) batteries to store electrical energy. The batteries are charged during insolation and discharged during eclipse. The Ni-H2 batteries are designed to operate at a 35 depth of discharge (DOD) maximum during normal operation in a Low Earth Orbit. Since the oldest of the 48 Ni-H2 battery Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) has been cycling since September 2006, these batteries are now approaching their end of useful life. In 2010, the ISS Program began the development of Lithium-Ion (Li-ion) batteries to replace the Ni-H2 batteries and concurrently funded a Li-ion cell life testing project. This paper will include an overview of the ISS Li-Ion battery system architecture and the progress of the Li-ion battery design and development.

  10. Safer Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kejha, Joe; Smith, Novis; McCloseky, Joel

    2004-01-01

    A number of nonvolatile, low-flammability liquid oligomers and polymers based on aliphatic organic carbonate molecular structures have been found to be suitable to be blended with ethylene carbonate to make electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells. Heretofore, such electrolytes have often been made by blending ethylene carbonate with volatile, flammable organic carbonates. The present nonvolatile electrolytes have been found to have adequate conductivity (about 2 mS/cm) for lithium ions and to remain liquid at temperatures down to -5 C. At normal charge and discharge rates, lithiumion cells containing these nonvolatile electrolytes but otherwise of standard design have been found to operate at current and energy densities comparable to those of cells now in common use. They do not perform well at high charge and discharge rates -- an effect probably attributable to electrolyte viscosity. Cells containing the nonvolatile electrolytes have also been found to be, variously, nonflammable or at least self-extinguishing. Hence, there appears to be a basis for the development of safer high-performance lithium-ion cells.

  11. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone.

    PubMed

    Jha, Manis Kumar; Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-01

    In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H(2)O(2) (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75°C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H(2)O(2) in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1-(1-X)(1/3)=k(c)t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model 'ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles' i.e. 1-3(1-X)(2/3)+2(1-X)=k(c)t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  12. Parameter estimation for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhanagopalan, Shriram

    With an increase in the demand for lithium based batteries at the rate of about 7% per year, the amount of effort put into improving the performance of these batteries from both experimental and theoretical perspectives is increasing. There exist a number of mathematical models ranging from simple empirical models to complicated physics-based models to describe the processes leading to failure of these cells. The literature is also rife with experimental studies that characterize the various properties of the system in an attempt to improve the performance of lithium ion cells. However, very little has been done to quantify the experimental observations and relate these results to the existing mathematical models. In fact, the best of the physics based models in the literature show as much as 20% discrepancy when compared to experimental data. The reasons for such a big difference include, but are not limited to, numerical complexities involved in extracting parameters from experimental data and inconsistencies in interpreting directly measured values for the parameters. In this work, an attempt has been made to implement simplified models to extract parameter values that accurately characterize the performance of lithium ion cells. The validity of these models under a variety of experimental conditions is verified using a model discrimination procedure. Transport and kinetic properties are estimated using a non-linear estimation procedure. The initial state of charge inside each electrode is also maintained as an unknown parameter, since this value plays a significant role in accurately matching experimental charge/discharge curves with model predictions and is not readily known from experimental data. The second part of the dissertation focuses on parameters that change rapidly with time. For example, in the case of lithium ion batteries used in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) applications, the prediction of the State of Charge (SOC) of the cell under a variety of

  13. Dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses: influence of strontium ions.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Ghosh, A

    2006-08-07

    The influence of strontium ions on the relaxation dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses has been investigated in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 2 MHz. We have observed that the conductivity increases and the activation energy decreases with the increase of SrO content in the glass compositions with fixed Li2O content. We have also observed that the conductivity increases and the activation energy decreases when Sr2+ ions are replaced by Li+ ions, keeping the glass former content fixed. We have shown that the estimated mobile ion concentration is almost independent of temperature and SrO content in the compositions. We have further shown that a fraction of total lithium ions are mobile for all glass compositions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the modification of the bismuthate network by the addition of SrO, which enhances the mobility of Li ions, without altering the mobile Li+ ion concentration. We have also shown that the conductivity relaxation in these glasses is independent of temperature and composition, and the nonexponential parameter is less than that for the lithium bismuthate glasses without SrO.

  14. Dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses: Influence of strontium ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2006-08-01

    The influence of strontium ions on the relaxation dynamics of lithium ions in bismuthate glasses has been investigated in the frequency range of 10Hzto2MHz. We have observed that the conductivity increases and the activation energy decreases with the increase of SrO content in the glass compositions with fixed Li2O content. We have also observed that the conductivity increases and the activation energy decreases when Sr2+ ions are replaced by Li+ ions, keeping the glass former content fixed. We have shown that the estimated mobile ion concentration is almost independent of temperature and SrO content in the compositions. We have further shown that a fraction of total lithium ions are mobile for all glass compositions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the modification of the bismuthate network by the addition of SrO, which enhances the mobility of Li ions, without altering the mobile Li+ ion concentration. We have also shown that the conductivity relaxation in these glasses is independent of temperature and composition, and the nonexponential parameter is less than that for the lithium bismuthate glasses without SrO.

  15. Lithium-Ion Batteries for Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.; Marsh, R. A.; James, R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews: (1) the goals and objectives, (2) the NASA and Airforce requirements, (3) the potential near term missions, (4) management approach, (5) the technical approach and (6) the program road map. The objectives of the program include: (1) develop high specific energy and long life lithium ion cells and smart batteries for aerospace and defense applications, (2) establish domestic production sources, and to demonstrate technological readiness for various missions. The management approach is to encourage the teaming of universities, R&D organizations, and battery manufacturing companies, to build on existing commercial and government technology, and to develop two sources for manufacturing cells and batteries. The technological approach includes: (1) develop advanced electrode materials and electrolytes to achieve improved low temperature performance and long cycle life, (2) optimize cell design to improve specific energy, cycle life and safety, (3) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (4) establish manufacturing processes to ensure predictable performance, (5) develop aerospace lithium ion cells in various AH sizes and voltages, (6) develop electronics for smart battery management, (7) develop a performance database required for various applications, and (8) demonstrate technology readiness for the various missions. Charts which review the requirements for the Li-ion battery development program are presented.

  16. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O-CeO{sub 2}-SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  17. A PSPICE macromodel for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, S.

    1997-12-01

    Battery models for simulation are useful for estimating operating life, stability, transient response, and related characteristics in circuits and systems. This paper presents a parametric PSPICE macromodel for simulating Lithium-Ion batteries. Comparisons of the simulation with experimental data from 1.25 Ah Lithium-Ion cells are then made.

  18. Thin film method of conducting lithium-ions

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-11-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  19. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Fluoroester Co-Solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, G. K. Surya (Inventor); Smith, Kiah (Inventor); Bhalla, Pooja (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An embodiment lithium-ion battery comprising a lithium-ion electrolyte of ethylene carbonate; ethyl methyl carbonate; and at least one solvent selected from the group consisting of trifluoroethyl butyrate, ethyl trifluoroacetate, trifluoroethyl acetate, methyl pentafluoropropionate, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl propionate. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  20. Performance and Safety of Lithium-ion Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Martinez, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-ion capacitors (LIC) are a recent innovation in the area of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors. With an operating voltage range similar to that of lithium-ion batteries and a very low selfdischarge rate, these can be readily used in the place of batteries especially when large currents are required to be stored safely for use at a later time.

  1. A closed loop process for recycling spent lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, Eric; Sa, Qina; Apelian, Diran; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    As lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries continue to increase their market share, recycling Li-ion batteries will become mandatory due to limited resources. We have previously demonstrated a new low temperature methodology to separate and synthesize cathode materials from mixed cathode materials. In this study we take used Li-ion batteries from a recycling source and recover active cathode materials, copper, steel, etc. To accomplish this the batteries are shredded and processed to separate the steel, copper and cathode materials; the cathode materials are then leached into solution; the concentrations of nickel, manganese and cobalt ions are adjusted so NixMnyCoz(OH)2 is precipitated. The precipitated product can then be reacted with lithium carbonate to form LiNixMnyCozO2. The results show that the developed recycling process is practical with high recovery efficiencies (∼90%), and 1 ton of Li-ion batteries has the potential to generate 5013 profit margin based on materials balance.

  2. Optimization and Domestic Sourcing of Lithium Ion Battery Anode Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, III, D. L.; Yoon, S.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between ORNL and A123Systems, Inc. was to develop a low-temperature heat treatment process for natural graphite based anode materials for high-capacity and long-cycle-life lithium ion batteries. Three major problems currently plague state-of-the-art lithium ion battery anode materials. The first is the cost of the artificial graphite, which is heat-treated well in excess of 2000°C. Because of this high-temperature heat treatment, the anode active material significantly contributes to the cost of a lithium ion battery. The second problem is the limited specific capacity of state-of-the-art anodes based on artificial graphites, which is only about 200-350 mAh/g. This value needs to be increased to achieve high energy density when used with the low cell-voltage nanoparticle LiFePO4 cathode. Thirdly, the rate capability under cycling conditions of natural graphite based materials must be improved to match that of the nanoparticle LiFePO4. Natural graphite materials contain inherent crystallinity and lithium intercalation activity. They hold particular appeal, as they offer huge potential for industrial energy savings with the energy costs essentially subsidized by geological processes. Natural graphites have been heat-treated to a substantially lower temperature (as low as 1000-1500°C) and used as anode active materials to address the problems described above. Finally, corresponding graphitization and post-treatment processes were developed that are amenable to scaling to automotive quantities.

  3. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  4. Safety focused modeling of lithium-ion batteries: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abada, S.; Marlair, G.; Lecocq, A.; Petit, M.; Sauvant-Moynot, V.; Huet, F.

    2016-02-01

    Safety issues pertaining to Li-ion batteries justify intensive testing all along their value chain. However, progress in scientific knowledge regarding lithium based battery failure modes, as well as remarkable technologic breakthroughs in computing science, now allow for development and use of prediction tools to assist designers in developing safer batteries. Subsequently, this paper offers a review of significant modeling works performed in the area with a focus on the characterization of the thermal runaway hazard and their relating triggering events. Progress made in models aiming at integrating battery ageing effect and related physics is also discussed, as well as the strong interaction with modeling-focused use of testing, and the main achievements obtained towards marketing safer systems. Current limitations and new challenges or opportunities that are expected to shape future modeling activity are also put in perspective. According to market trends, it is anticipated that safety may still act as a restraint in the search for acceptable compromise with overall performance and cost of lithium-ion based and post lithium-ion rechargeable batteries of the future. In that context, high-throughput prediction tools capable of screening adequate new components properties allowing access to both functional and safety related aspects are highly desirable.

  5. Effects of vibrations and shocks on lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Martin J.; Schuster, Simon F.; Bach, Tobias; Fleder, Elena; Stelz, Manfred; Gläser, Simon; Müller, Jana; Sextl, Gerhard; Jossen, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are increasingly used in mobile applications where mechanical vibrations and shocks are a constant companion. This work shows how these mechanical loads affect lithium-ion cells. Therefore pouch and cylindrical cells are stressed with vibrational and shock profiles according to the UN 38.3 standard. Additionally, a vibration test is set up to reflect stress in real-world applications and is carried out for 186 days. The effects of the load profiles on the tested cells are investigated by capacity measurement, impedance spectroscopy, micro-X-ray computed tomography and post mortem analyses. The mechanical stress has no effect on the investigated pouch cells. Although all tested cylindrical cells would pass the standard tests, in certain cells stressed in a vertical position the mandrel dispatched itself and struck against internal components. This caused bruised active materials, short circuits, a damaged current collector and current interrupt device. The investigations are not directly transferrable to all pouch or cylindrical cells but show that the mechanical cell design, especially the fixation of the internal components, determines whether a cell withstands vibrations and shocks. Depending on the cell design and the loading direction, long-term vibrational loads can have additional detrimental effects on lithium-ion cells compared to standard tests.

  6. Fast formation cycling for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Seong Jin; Li, Jianlin; Du, Zhijia; Daniel, Claus; Wood, David L.

    2017-02-01

    The formation process for lithium ion batteries typically takes several days or more, and it is necessary for providing a stable solid electrolyte interphase on the anode (at low potentials vs. Li/Li+) for preventing irreversible consumption of electrolyte and lithium ions. An analogous layer known as the cathode electrolyte interphase layer forms at the cathode at high potentials vs. Li/Li+. However, several days, or even up to a week, of these processes result in either lower LIB production rates or a prohibitively large size of charging-discharging equipment and space (i.e. excessive capital cost). In this study, a fast and effective electrolyte interphase formation protocol is proposed and compared with an Oak Ridge National Laboratory baseline protocol. Graphite, NMC 532, and 1.2 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate: diethyl carbonate were used as anodes, cathodes, and electrolytes, respectively. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show the new protocol reduced surface film (electrolyte interphase) resistances, and 1300 aging cycles show an improvement in capacity retention.

  7. Recovery of lithium and cobalt from waste lithium ion batteries of mobile phone

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Manis Kumar Kumari, Anjan; Jha, Amrita Kumari; Kumar, Vinay; Hait, Jhumki; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2013-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Recovery of valuable metals from scrap batteries of mobile phone. - Highlights: • Recovery of Co and Li from spent LIBs was performed by hydrometallurgical route. • Under the optimum condition, 99.1% of lithium and 70.0% of cobalt were leached. • The mechanism of the dissolution of lithium and cobalt was studied. • Activation energy for lithium and cobalt were found to be 32.4 kJ/mol and 59.81 kJ/mol, respectively. • After metal recovery, residue was washed before disposal to the environment. - Abstract: In view of the stringent environmental regulations, availability of limited natural resources and ever increasing need of alternative energy critical elements, an environmental eco-friendly leaching process is reported for the recovery of lithium and cobalt from the cathode active materials of spent lithium-ion batteries of mobile phones. The experiments were carried out to optimize the process parameters for the recovery of lithium and cobalt by varying the concentration of leachant, pulp density, reductant volume and temperature. Leaching with 2 M sulfuric acid with the addition of 5% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (v/v) at a pulp density of 100 g/L and 75 °C resulted in the recovery of 99.1% lithium and 70.0% cobalt in 60 min. H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in sulfuric acid solution acts as an effective reducing agent, which enhance the percentage leaching of metals. Leaching kinetics of lithium in sulfuric acid fitted well to the chemical controlled reaction model i.e. 1 − (1 − X){sup 1/3} = k{sub c}t. Leaching kinetics of cobalt fitted well to the model ‘ash diffusion control dense constant sizes spherical particles’ i.e. 1 − 3(1 − X){sup 2/3} + 2(1 − X) = k{sub c}t. Metals could subsequently be separated selectively from the leach liquor by solvent extraction process to produce their salts by crystallization process from the purified solution.

  8. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  9. Gas–solid interfacial modification of oxygen activity in layered oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bao; Zhang, Minghao; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Jun; Xia, Yonggao; Qian, Danna; Liu, Haodong; Hy, Sunny; Chen, Yan; An, Ke; Zhu, Yimei; Liu, Zhaoping; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Lattice oxygen can play an intriguing role in electrochemical processes, not only maintaining structural stability, but also influencing electron and ion transport properties in high-capacity oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the design of a gas–solid interface reaction to achieve delicate control of oxygen activity through uniformly creating oxygen vacancies without affecting structural integrity of Li-rich layered oxides. Theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations demonstrate that oxygen vacancies provide a favourable ionic diffusion environment in the bulk and significantly suppress gas release from the surface. The target material is achievable in delivering a discharge capacity as high as 301 mAh g−1 with initial Coulombic efficiency of 93.2%. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g−1 still remains without any obvious decay in voltage. This study sheds light on the comprehensive design and control of oxygen activity in transition-metal-oxide systems for next-generation Li-ion batteries. PMID:27363944

  10. Gas-solid interfacial modification of oxygen activity in layered oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Qiu, Bao; Zhang, Minghao; Wu, Lijun; ...

    2016-07-01

    Lattice oxygen can play an intriguing role in electrochemical processes, not only maintaining structural stability, but also influencing electron and ion transport properties in high-capacity oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the design of a gas–solid interface reaction to achieve delicate control of oxygen activity through uniformly creating oxygen vacancies without affecting structural integrity of Li-rich layered oxides. Theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations demonstrate that oxygen vacancies provide a favourable ionic diffusion environment in the bulk and significantly suppress gas release from the surface. The target material is achievable in delivering a discharge capacity as high asmore » 301 mAh g–1 with initial Coulombic efficiency of 93.2%. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g–1 still remains without any obvious decay in voltage. Lastly, this study sheds light on the comprehensive design and control of oxygen activity in transition-metal-oxide systems for next-generation Li-ion batteries.« less

  11. Gas-solid interfacial modification of oxygen activity in layered oxide cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Bao; Zhang, Minghao; Wu, Lijun; Wang, Jun; Xia, Yonggao; Qian, Danna; Liu, Haodong; Chen, Yan; An, Ke; Zhu, Yimei; Liu, Zhaoping; Meng, Ying Shirley; Hy, Sunny

    2016-07-01

    Lattice oxygen can play an intriguing role in electrochemical processes, not only maintaining structural stability, but also influencing electron and ion transport properties in high-capacity oxide cathode materials for Li-ion batteries. Here, we report the design of a gas–solid interface reaction to achieve delicate control of oxygen activity through uniformly creating oxygen vacancies without affecting structural integrity of Li-rich layered oxides. Theoretical calculations and experimental characterizations demonstrate that oxygen vacancies provide a favourable ionic diffusion environment in the bulk and significantly suppress gas release from the surface. The target material is achievable in delivering a discharge capacity as high as 301 mAh g–1 with initial Coulombic efficiency of 93.2%. After 100 cycles, a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g–1 still remains without any obvious decay in voltage. Lastly, this study sheds light on the comprehensive design and control of oxygen activity in transition-metal-oxide systems for next-generation Li-ion batteries.

  12. Selectively accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon anodes via an organogel binder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Chihyun; Cho, Yoon-Gyo; Kang, Na-Ri; Ko, Younghoon; Lee, Ungju; Ahn, Dongjoon; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Young-Jin; Song, Hyun-Kon

    2015-12-01

    Silicon, a promising high-capacity anode material of lithium ion batteries, suffers from its volume expansion leading to pulverization and low conductivities, showing capacity decay during cycling and low capacities at fast charging and discharging. In addition to popular active-material-modifying strategies, building lithium-ion-rich environments around silicon surface is helpful in enhancing unsatisfactory performances of silicon anodes. In this work, we accelerated lithium ion transport to silicon surface by using an organogel binder to utilize the electroactivity of silicon in a more efficient way. The cyanoethyl polymer (PVA-CN), characterized by high lithium ion transference number as well as appropriate elastic modulus with strong adhesion, enhanced cycle stability of silicon anodes with high coulombic efficiency even at high temperature (60 °C) as well as at fast charging/discharging rates.

  13. Storage Characteristics of Lithium Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Blosiu, J. O.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion cells are being developed under the NASA/Air Force Consortium for the upcoming aerospace missions. First among these missions are the Mars 2001 Lander and Mars 2003 Lander and Rover missions. Apart from the usual needs of high specific energy, energy density and long cycle life, a critical performance characteristic for the Mars missions is low temperature performance. The batteries need to perform well at -20 C, with at least 70% of the rated capacity realizable at moderate discharge rates (C/5). Several modifications have been made to the lithium ion chemistry, mainly with respect to the electrolyte, both at JPL' and elsewhere to achieve this. Another key requirement for the battery is its storageability during pre-cruise and cruise periods. For the Mars programs, the cruise period is relatively short, about 12 months, compared to the Outer Planets missions (3-8 years). Yet, the initial results of our storage studies reveal that the cells do sustain noticeable permanent degradation under certain storage conditions, typically of 10% over two months duration at ambient temperatures, attributed to impedance buildup. The build up of the cell impedance or the decay in the cell capacity is affected by various storage parameters, i.e., storage temperature, storage duration, storage mode (open circuit, on buss or cycling at low rates) and state of charge. Our preliminary studies indicate that low storage temperatures and states of charge are preferable. In some cases, we have observed permanent capacity losses of approx. 10% over eight-week storage at 40 C, compared to approx. 0-2% at O C. Also, we are attempting to determine the impact of cell chemistry and design upon the storageability of Li ion cells.

  14. Thermal stability of active/inactive nanocomposite anodes based on Cu2Sb in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allcorn, Eric; Kim, Sang-Ok; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2015-12-01

    Various active/inactive nanocomposites of Cu2Sb-Al2O3@C, Cu2Sb-TiC, and Cu2Sb-TiC@C have been synthesized by high energy mechanical milling and investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the lithiated phase stability and heat generation arising from these electrodes. The milling process reduces the Li3Sb phase stability, relative to the un-milled samples, to below ∼200 °C. However, the incorporation of the reinforcing, inactive phases Al2O3, TiC, and carbon black offer a slight improvement. DSC curves also show that the low-temperature heat generation in the SEI-layer reaction range is not noticeably altered by either the milling process or the addition of the inactive phases. A strong exothermic peak is observed at ∼200 °C for the 0% state of charge electrodes of Cu2Sb-Al2O3@C and Cu2Sb-TiC@C that was caused by the incorporation of carbon black into the composite. This peak was not present in the electrodes of milled Cu2Sb or Cu2Sb-TiC, suggesting that efforts to extend the cycle life of alloy anodes should avoid carbon black due to its destabilizing effects on delithiated electrodes. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicates that the reaction arising from the incorporation of carbon black is tied to a low-temperature breakdown of the lithium salt LiPF6.

  15. Ceramic and polymeric solid electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fergus, Jeffrey W.

    Lithium-ion batteries are important for energy storage in a wide variety of applications including consumer electronics, transportation and large-scale energy production. The performance of lithium-ion batteries depends on the materials used. One critical component is the electrolyte, which is the focus of this paper. In particular, inorganic ceramic and organic polymer solid-electrolyte materials are reviewed. Solid electrolytes provide advantages in terms of simplicity of design and operational safety, but typically have conductivities that are lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. This paper provides a comparison of the conductivities of solid-electrolyte materials being used or developed for use in lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Method for fabricating carbon/lithium-ion electrode for rechargeable lithium cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Attia, Alan I. (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The method includes steps for forming a carbon electrode composed of graphitic carbon particles adhered by an ethylene propylene diene monomer binder. An effective binder composition is disclosed for achieving a carbon electrode capable of subsequent intercalation by lithium ions. The method also includes steps for reacting the carbon electrode with lithium ions to incorporate lithium ions into graphitic carbon particles of the electrode. An electrical current is repeatedly applied to the carbon electrode to initially cause a surface reaction between the lithium ions and to the carbon and subsequently cause intercalation of the lithium ions into crystalline layers of the graphitic carbon particles. With repeated application of the electrical current, intercalation is achieved to near a theoretical maximum. Two differing multi-stage intercalation processes are disclosed. In the first, a fixed current is reapplied. In the second, a high current is initially applied, followed by a single subsequent lower current stage. Resulting carbon/lithium-ion electrodes are well suited for use as an anode in a reversible, ambient temperature, lithium cell.

  17. Thermal characteristics of Lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Dan

    2004-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have a very promising future for space applications. Currently they are being used on a few GEO satellites, and were used on the two recent Mars rovers Spirit and Opportunity. There are still problem that exist that need to be addressed before these batteries can fully take flight. One of the problems is that the cycle life of these batteries needs to be increased. battery. Research is being focused on the chemistry of the materials inside the battery. This includes the anode, cathode, and the cell electrolyte solution. These components can undergo unwanted chemical reactions inside the cell that deteriorate the materials of the battery. During discharge/ charge cycles there is heat dissipated in the cell, and the battery heats up and its temperature increases. An increase in temperature can speed up any unwanted reactions in the cell. Exothermic reactions cause the temperature to increase; therefore increasing the reaction rate will cause the increase of the temperature inside the cell to occur at a faster rate. If the temperature gets too high thermal runaway will occur, and the cell can explode. The material that separates the electrode from the electrolyte is a non-conducting polymer. At high temperatures the separator will melt and the battery will be destroyed. The separator also contains small pores that allow lithium ions to diffuse through during charge and discharge. High temperatures can cause these pores to close up, permanently damaging the cell. My job at NASA Glenn research center this summer will be to perform thermal characterization tests on an 18650 type lithium-ion battery. High temperatures cause the chemicals inside lithium ion batteries to spontaneously react with each other. My task is to conduct experiments to determine the temperature that the reaction takes place at, what components in the cell are reacting and the mechanism of the reaction. The experiments will be conducted using an accelerating rate calorimeter

  18. Electrolyte compositions for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng; Liao, Chen

    2016-03-29

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to an ionic liquid of the general formula Y.sup.+Z.sup.-, wherein Y.sup.+ is a positively-charged component of the ionic liquid and Z.sup.- is a negatively-charged component of the ionic liquid, wherein Z.sup.- is a boron-containing anion of the following formula: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to electrolyte compositions in which the boron-containing ionic liquid Y.sup.+Z.sup.- is incorporated into a lithium ion battery electrolyte, with or without admixture with another ionic liquid Y.sup.+X.sup.- and/or non-ionic solvent and/or non-ionic solvent additive.

  19. Lithium Ion Testing at NSWC Crane in Support of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Harry; Jung, David; Lee, Leonine

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Lithium Ion Cell testing at the Naval Surface Warfare Center in Crane, India. The contents include: 1) Quallion 15 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 2) Lithion 50 Ahr Lithium-Ion Cells, LEO Life Cycle Test; 3) ABSL 5 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, LRO-LLO Life Cycle Test, SDO-GEO Life Cycle Test; and 4) A123 40 Ahr Lithium-Ion Battery, GPM Life Cycle Test, MMS Life Cycle Test.

  20. Lithium Storage Mechanisms in Purpurin Based Organic Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-11

    Advances in Lithium-ion batteries (Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, 2002). 7. Mizushima, K., Jones, P. C., Wiseman, P. J. & Goodenough , J. B. LixCoO2 (0...P. G. & Goodenough , J. B. Electrochemical extraction of lithium from LiMn2O4. Mat. Res. Bull. 18, 461 (1983). 9. Recham, N., Chotard, J. N., Dupont

  1. Electrolytes for Wide Operating Temperature Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Provided herein are electrolytes for lithium-ion electrochemical cells, electrochemical cells employing the electrolytes, methods of making the electrochemical cells and methods of using the electrochemical cells over a wide temperature range. Included are electrolyte compositions comprising a lithium salt, a cyclic carbonate, a non-cyclic carbonate, and a linear ester and optionally comprising one or more additives.

  2. Electroanalytical Evaluation of Lithium Ion Batteries and Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, Daniel Jacob

    Efficient solar energy conversion and electrical energy storage have been studied widely for decades. However, as materials development and process engineering for these devices have advanced through the years, some of the traditional characterization techniques have gradually fallen short of providing quantitative information that is necessary for further significant advancements in these fields. In this work a modern electroanalytical framework for characterization of silicon solar cells and lithium ion batteries is presented. Electroanalytical characterization of lithium ion battery electrodes is achieved through a strategic combination of the D.C. techniques of slow scan cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, Ragone Analysis with the A.C. technique of impedance spectroscopy (IS) coupled with complex nonlinear least squares (CNLS) analysis of impedance spectra. Primarily this investigation focuses on characterization of intercalating composite electrodes where the active material is either lithium manganese oxide (cathode,LiMn2O4) or lithium titanate (anode, Li4Ti5O12). Aspects of high power limitations are studied in detail to elucidate physical parameters that control electrode performance under rapid charge/discharge conditions. Electroanalytical evaluation of the p-n junction silicon solar cell with a back surface field (BSF) is accomplished through the use of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and IS combined with CNLS analysis. Although LSV has been previously used for characterization of silicon solar cells the use of impedance techniques is relatively new. Temperature and voltage dependence of the series resistance (Rs), diode quality factor (m), minority carrier lifetime and BSF electrical parameters obtained through IS are examined. The temperature dependence of results obtained from LSV such as the open circuit potential (Voc), short circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency are also explored. Finally, a parative

  3. Relaxation dynamics of lithium ions in lead bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2000-08-01

    We have investigated relaxation dynamics of lithium ions in lead bismuthate glasses in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range from 303-553 K. Using the Anderson-Stuart model, we have calculated the activation energy, which is observed to be lower than that of the dc conductivity. We have studied the relaxation mechanism of these glasses in the framework of the electric modulus and conductivity formalisms. The microscopic parameters obtained from these formalisms have been compared. We have also calculated the decoupling index and correlated them with the stretched exponential relaxation parameter and the dc conductivity.

  4. Silicon oxide based high capacity anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Masarapu, Charan; Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Lopez, Herman A.; Kumar, Sujeet

    2017-03-21

    Silicon oxide based materials, including composites with various electrical conductive compositions, are formulated into desirable anodes. The anodes can be effectively combined into lithium ion batteries with high capacity cathode materials. In some formulations, supplemental lithium can be used to stabilize cycling as well as to reduce effects of first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Batteries are described with surprisingly good cycling properties with good specific capacities with respect to both cathode active weights and anode active weights.

  5. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-01-01

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries. PMID:26686655

  6. Bipolar and Monopolar Lithium-Ion Battery Technology at Yardney

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Flynn, J.; Reddy, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery systems offer several advantages: intrinsically safe; long cycle life; environmentally friendly; high energy density; wide operating temperature range; good discharge rate capability; low self-discharge; and no memory effect.

  7. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; Dayeh, Shadi A.

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through the systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.

  8. Engineering Heteromaterials to Control Lithium Ion Transport Pathways

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yang; Vishniakou, Siarhei; Yoo, Jinkyoung; ...

    2015-12-21

    Safe and efficient operation of lithium ion batteries requires precisely directed flow of lithium ions and electrons to control the first directional volume changes in anode and cathode materials. Understanding and controlling the lithium ion transport in battery electrodes becomes crucial to the design of high performance and durable batteries. Recent work revealed that the chemical potential barriers encountered at the surfaces of heteromaterials play an important role in directing lithium ion transport at nanoscale. Here, we utilize in situ transmission electron microscopy to demonstrate that we can switch lithiation pathways from radial to axial to grain-by-grain lithiation through themore » systematic creation of heteromaterial combinations in the Si-Ge nanowire system. Lastly, our systematic studies show that engineered materials at nanoscale can overcome the intrinsic orientation-dependent lithiation, and open new pathways to aid in the development of compact, safe, and efficient batteries.« less

  9. Tracking areal lithium densities from neutron activation - quantitative Li determination in self-organized TiO2 nanotube anode materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Portenkirchner, E; Neri, G; Lichtinger, J; Brumbarov, J; Rüdiger, C; Gernhäuser, R; Kunze-Liebhäuser, J

    2017-03-28

    Nanostructuring of electrode materials is a promising approach to enhance the performance of next-generation, high-energy density lithium (Li)-ion batteries. Various experimental and theoretical approaches allow for a detailed understanding of solid-state or surface-controlled reactions that occur in nanoscaled electrode materials. While most techniques which are suitable for nanomaterial investigations are restricted to analysis widths of the order of Å to some nm, they do not allow for characterization over the length scales of interest for electrode design, which is typically in the order of mm. In this work, three different self-organized anodic titania nanotube arrays, comprising as-grown amorphous titania nanotubes, carburized anatase titania nanotubes, and silicon coated carburized anatase titania nanotubes, have been synthesized and studied as model composite anodes for use in Li-ion batteries. Their 2D areal Li densities have been successfully reconstructed with a sub-millimeter spatial resolution over lateral electrode dimensions of 20 mm exploiting the (6)Li(n,α)(3)H reaction, in spite of the extremely small areal Li densities (10-20 μg cm(-2) Li) in the nanotubular active material. While the average areal Li densities recorded via triton analysis are found to be in good agreement with the electrochemically measured charges during lithiation, triton analysis revealed, for certain nanotube arrays, areas with a significantly higher Li content ('hot spots') compared to the average. In summary, the presented technique is shown to be extremely well suited for analysis of the lithiation behavior of nanostructured electrode materials with very low Li concentrations. Furthermore, identification of lithiation anomalies is easily possible, which allows for fundamental studies and thus for further advancement of nanostructured Li-ion battery electrodes.

  10. Lithium plating in lithium-ion batteries investigated by voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lüders, Christian; Zinth, Veronika; Erhard, Simon V.; Osswald, Patrick J.; Hofmann, Michael; Gilles, Ralph; Jossen, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    In this work, lithium plating is investigated by means of voltage relaxation and in situ neutron diffraction in commercial lithium-ion batteries. We can directly correlate the voltage curve after the lithium plating with the ongoing phase transformation from LiC12 to LiC6 according to the neutron diffraction data during the relaxation. Above a threshold current of C/2 at a temperature of -2 °C, lithium plating increases dramatically. The results indicate that the intercalation rate of deposited lithium seems to be constant, independent of the deposited amount. It can be observed that the amount of plating correlates with the charging rate, whereas a charging current of C/2 leads to a deposited amount of lithium of 5.5% of the charge capacity and a current of 1C to 9.0%.

  11. Flashover lithium ion source development for large pulsed power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Gerber, R.A.; Olsen, J.N.; Lamppa, K.P.

    1985-01-01

    PBFA II, a light-ion pulsed power accelerator intended for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications, is currently under construction at Sandia National Laboratories. The accelerator will deliver a 30 MV, 5 MA lithium beam from an Applied-B diode to drive an ICF target. The ion source for this diode will require a thin (approx.1 mm), dense (10 W cm S) anode plasma layer of singly-ionized lithium over an anode area of 10T cmS. One type of source being investigated is the flashover ion source, which generates the anode plasma via vacuum flashover of a lithium-bearing dielectric material. Experiments with a LiF flashover source on the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator have shown that contaminant ions account for as much as 70% of the extracted ion beam current. To overcome this, we have explored in-diode cleaning of the externally-prepared anode surface by glow discharge cleaning and vacuum baking as well as in-diode preparation of the anode surface by vacuum evaporation of the lithium dielectric. Lithium-bearing dielectric materials which have been investigated include LiF, LiI, LiNO3, and Li3N. These techniques have resulted in a two- to three-fold improvement in the extracted lithium ion purity. As a result, a glow-discharge cleaned LiF flashover source will be used for initial pulsed-power testing on PBFA II.

  12. Non-aqueous electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2015-11-12

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing anion receptor additives to enhance the power capability of lithium-ion batteries. The anion receptor of the present invention is a Lewis acid that can help to dissolve LiF in the passivation films of lithium-ion batteries. Accordingly, one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising a lithium salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and an anion receptor additive; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  13. Status of the Space-Rated Lithium-Ion Battery Advanced Development Project in Support of the Exploration Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), along with the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Johnson Space Center (JSC), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), and industry partners, is leading a space-rated lithium-ion advanced development battery effort to support the vision for Exploration. This effort addresses the lithium-ion battery portion of the Energy Storage Project under the Exploration Technology Development Program. Key discussions focus on the lithium-ion cell component development activities, a common lithium-ion battery module, test and demonstration of charge/discharge cycle life performance and safety characterization. A review of the space-rated lithium-ion battery project will be presented highlighting the technical accomplishments during the past year.

  14. Hectorite-based nanocomposite electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Michael William

    Hectorite clay is presented in this work as a promising component for electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. This negatively-charged, plate-shaped (250 nm diameter by 1 nm thickness) clay has exchangeable cations for which lithium may be substituted. When properly dispersed in high-dielectric solvents such as the carbonates (ethylene carbonate and propylene carbonate) typically used in lithium-ion cells, a shear-thinning physical gel is created possessing a good conductivity (as high as 2 x 10-4 S/cm at room temperature has been measured) with near unity lithium-ion transference numbers. As a result, hectorite-based electrolytes could drastically reduce concentration polarization and present an inherently safer electrolyte as toxic salts such as LiPF6 that are typically used could be eliminated. Hectorite clay dispersions in aqueous and non-aqueous (1:1 (v:v) ethylene carbonate: poly(ethylene)glycol dimethyl ether 250 MW) solvents have been studied using rheology (dynamic and steady) and conductivity. The aqueous dispersions show a highly-exfoliated microstructure (fractal dimension, Df ≈ 1.6) created primarily through electrostatic repulsive forces which recovers after shear deformation by reorientation of the clay platelets. The non-aqueous dispersions form gel structures with a much higher degree of aggregation (Df ≈ 2.5), and recovery after shear deformation appears to be an aggregation controlled process as well. TEM imaging of non-aqueous clay dispersions shows the clay to be uniformly distributed, with the platelets existing in aggregates of 3 to 5 layers. Use of the hectorite-based electrolytes in lithium-ion cells requires electrodes that contain a single-ion conductor in the typically porous structures. Cathodes based on LiCoO2 that contain various lithium-conducting species (lithium hectorite, lithium LaponiteRTM, and lithium-exchanged NAFIONRTM) have been studied. AC impedance spectroscopy was used to probe the cells and equivalent circuits were

  15. Selective Recovery of Lithium from Cathode Materials of Spent Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higuchi, Akitoshi; Ankei, Naoki; Nishihama, Syouhei; Yoshizuka, Kazuharu

    2016-10-01

    Selective recovery of lithium from four kinds of cathode materials, manganese-type, cobalt-type, nickel-type, and ternary-type, of spent lithium ion battery was investigated. In all cathode materials, leaching of lithium was improved by adding sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8) as an oxidant in the leaching solution, while the leaching of other metal ions (manganese, cobalt, and nickel) was significantly suppressed. Optimum leaching conditions, such as pH, temperature, amount of Na2S2O8, and solid/liquid ratio, for the selective leaching of lithium were determined for all cathode materials. Recovery of lithium from the leachate as lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) was then successfully achieved by adding sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) to the leachate. Optimum recovery conditions, such as pH, temperature, and amount of Na2CO3, for the recovery of lithium as Li2CO3 were determined for all cases. Purification of Li2CO3 was achieved by lixiviation in all systems, with purities of the Li2CO3 higher than 99.4%, which is almost satisfactory for the battery-grade purity of lithium.

  16. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Kanesue, T.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.

    2016-02-15

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  17. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2016-02-01

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To identify the difficulties in providing such highly reactive materials as laser targets, both species were experimentally tested. Plate shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6 ns 1064 nm neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high charge state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large spot size, low power density laser was used to create low charge state beams without scanning the targets. The low charge state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely of oxide with a low power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low power laser at the target repeatedly at 10 s, 30 s, 60 s, and 120 s interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  18. Calcium and lithium ion production for laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Palm, K.; Stifler, C.; Steski, D.; Ikeda, S.; Kumaki, M.; Kanesue, T.

    2015-08-23

    Calcium and lithium ion beams are required by NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to simulate the effects of cosmic radiation. To find out difficulties to provide such high reactive material as laser targets, the both species were experimentally tested. Plate-shaped lithium and calcium targets were fabricated to create ablation plasmas with a 6ns, 1064nm Nd:YAG laser. We found significant oxygen contamination in both the Ca and Li high-charge-state beams due to the rapid oxidation of the surfaces. A large-spot-size, low-power-density laser was then used to analyze the low-charge-state beams without scanning the targets. The low-charge-state Ca beam did not have any apparent oxygen contamination, showing the potential to clean the target entirely with a low-power beam once in the chamber. The Li target was clearly still oxidizing in the chamber after each low-power shot. To measure the rate of oxidation, we shot the low-power laser at the target repeatedly at 10sec, 30sec, 60sec, and 120sec interval lengths, showing a linear relation between the interval time and the amount of oxygen in the beam.

  19. The effect of lithium ions on the hydrophobic effect: does lithium affect hydrophobicity differently than other ions?

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, David L; Khajehpour, Mazdak

    2012-04-01

    Ionic species have been shown to significantly perturb the interactions between non-polar solutes in aqueous solution. These perturbations are often analyzed in terms of the interactions existing between hydrophobic surfaces and ions. It has been known for some time, that ions with a high charge density are repelled from hydrophobic surfaces while ions with a low charge density tend to stick to these surfaces. Therefore, from a continuum model standpoint, small monovalent ions promote hydrophobicity by minimizing the exposed hydrophobic surface area, while "sticky" large monovalent ions interact with the hydrophobic surfaces and discourage aggregation. However, the charge-dense lithium ion often exhibits anomalous behaviour different from these predicted trends: instead of enhancing, the addition of lithium ions often seems to weaken the hydrophobic effect and on the contrary help dissolve hydrophobic molecules. This weakening of apparent hydrophobicity is considered to be one of the reasons for the protein denaturing properties of lithium salts. Recent theoretical and experimental results however have shown that lithium cations can interact with a variety of molecular functional groups. This suggests that this apparent lithium-induced lowering of hydrophobicity, that is often reported in the literature may be a result of specific interactions between these molecular functional groups and lithium, rather than weakening the interaction between hydrophobic surfaces. This work examines these possibilities by studying the effect of various cations on the simple hydrophobic interaction existing between methyl and phenyl contact-pairs and demonstrates that the effect of lithium cations on the hydrophobic effect follows the trend predicted by continuum models. In other words, the influence of an ion on the hydrophobic interaction between two non-polar surfaces is a function of the interaction of that ion and each non-polar surface.

  20. Strain-tolerant High Capacity Silicon Anodes via Directed Lithium Ion Transport for High Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Jason

    2012-02-01

    Energy storage is an essential component of modern technology, with applications including public infrastructure, transportation systems, and consumer electronics. Lithium-ion batteries are the preeminent form of energy storage when high energy / moderate power densities are required. Improvements to lithium-ion battery energy / power density through the adoption of silicon anodes—with approximately an order of magnitude greater gravimetric capacity than traditional carbon-based anodes--have been limited by ˜300% strains during electrochemical lithium insertion which result in short operational lifetimes. In two different systems we demonstrated improvements to silicon-based anode performance via directed lithium ion transport. The first system demonstrated a crystallographic-dependent anisotropic electrochemical lithium insertion in single-crystalline silicon anode microstructures. Exploiting this anisotropy, we highlight model silicon anode architectures that limit the maximum strain during electrochemical lithium insertion. This self-strain-limiting is a result of selecting a specific microstructure design such that during lithiation the anisotropic evolution of strain, above a given threshold, blocks further lithium intercalation. Exemplary design rules have achieved self-strain-limited charging capacities ranging from 677 mAhg-1 to 2833 mAhg-1. A second system with variably encapsulated silicon-based anodes demonstrated greater than 98% of their initial capacity after 130+ cycles. This anode also can operate stably at high energy/power densities. A lithium-ion battery with this anode was able to continuously (dis)charge in 10 minutes, corresponding to a power / energy density of ˜1460 W/kg and ˜243 Wh/kg--up to 780% greater power density and 220% higher energy density than conventional lithium-ion batteries. Anodes were also demonstrated with areal capacities of 12.7 mAh/cm^2, two orders of magnitude greater than traditional thin-film silicon anodes.[4pt

  1. Ultrafast fluxional exchange dynamics in electrolyte solvation sheath of lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Hochan; Noh, Yohan; Kossowska, Dorota; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-03-01

    Lithium cation is the charge carrier in lithium-ion battery. Electrolyte solution in lithium-ion battery is usually based on mixed solvents consisting of polar carbonates with different aliphatic chains. Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods. Here we investigate the ultrafast carbonate solvent exchange dynamics around lithium ions in electrolyte solutions with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and find that the time constants of the formation and dissociation of lithium-ion...carbonate complex in solvation sheaths are on a picosecond timescale. We anticipate that such ultrafast microscopic fluxional processes in lithium-solvent complexes could provide an important clue to understanding macroscopic mobility of lithium cation in lithium-ion battery on a molecular level.

  2. Materials for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Hayner, Cary M; Zhao, Xin; Kung, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is the most promising battery candidate to power battery-electric vehicles. For these vehicles to be competitive with those powered by conventional internal combustion engines, significant improvements in battery performance are needed, especially in the energy density and power delivery capabilities. Recent discoveries and advances in the development of electrode materials to improve battery performance are summarized. Promising substitutes for graphite as the anode material include silicon, tin, germanium, their alloys, and various metal oxides that have much higher theoretical storage capacities and operate at slightly higher and safer potentials. Designs that attempt to accommodate strain owing to volumetric changes upon lithiation and delithiation are presented. All known cathode materials have storage capacities inferior to those of anode materials. In addition to variations on known transition metal oxides and phosphates, other potential materials, such as metal fluorides, are discussed as well as the effects of particle size and electrode architecture. New electrolyte systems and additives as well as their effects on battery performance, especially with regard to safety, are described.

  3. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K Y Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-09-14

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm(-3) has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm(-3) in addition to the conventional unit mA h g(-1) in the battery community.

  4. Electrode architectures for enhanced lithium ion battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Sharon Loeffler

    Increasing prevalence of portable electronic devices and growing concern over the consumption of fossil fuels have led to a growing demand for more efficient energy storage options. Lithium ion chemistry has grown to dominate the battery market, but still requires improvement to meet the increasing need for smaller, cheaper, better performing batteries. The use of nanomaterials has garnered much attention in recent years as a potential way of improving battery performance while decreasing the size. However, new problems are introduced with these materials such as low packing density and high reactivity with the electrolyte. This research focuses on the development of an electrode architecture using nanomaterials which will decrease lithium ion transport distance while enhancing electrical conductivity within the cell. The proposed architecture consists of a stacked, 2D structure composed of layers of carbon nanotubes and active material particles, and can be applied to both the anode and the cathode. The process also has the advantage of low cost because it can be performed under normal laboratory conditions (e.g. temperature and pressure) and easily adapted to a commercial scale.

  5. Application of Carbon Nanomaterials in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaber-Ansari, Laila

    situ and Ar-atmosphere Raman spectroscopy, a rapid increase in graphene defect level is detected for small increments in the number of lithiation/delithiation cycles until the I(D)/I(G) ratio reaches ˜1.5-2.0 and the 2D peak intensity drops by ˜50%, after which the Raman spectra show minimal changes upon further cycling. Using DFT, the interplay between graphene topological defects and chemical functionalization is explored, thus providing insight into the experimental results. In particular, the DFT results show that defects can act as active sites for species that are present in the electrochemical environment such as Li, O, and F. Furthermore, chemical functionalization with these species lowers subsequent defect formation energies, thus accelerating graphene degradation upon cycling. This positive feedback loop continues until the defect concentration reaches a level where lithium diffusion through the graphene can occur in a relatively unimpeded manner, with minimal further degradation upon extended cycling. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insight into graphene defect formation during lithiation, thus informing ongoing efforts to employ graphene in lithium ion battery technology. Having understood the electrochemical properties of graphene, we have used this to improve the performance of Li-ion cathodes. In particular, Spinel-structured LiMn2O4 (LMO) is a desirable cathode material for Li-ion batteries due to its low cost, thermal stability (safety) and high power capability. However, LMO suffers from a limited cycle life that is triggered by manganese dissolution into the electrolyte during electrochemical cycling. Here, we show that a single sheet of graphene can act effectively as a diffusion barrier for Mn2+ ions, thereby protecting the cathode surface and significantly reducing the dissolution process. Relative to lithium cells containing a sputtered and uncoated thin film LMO 'control' cathode, cells with a graphene-coated LMO cathode provide

  6. Where is the lithium? Quantitative determination of the lithium distribution in lithium ion battery cells: Investigations on the influence of the temperature, the C-rate and the cell type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vortmann-Westhoven, Britta; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-04-01

    With lithium being the capacity determining species in lithium-ion battery (LIB) cells, the local quantification is of enormous importance for understanding of the cell performance. The investigation of the lithium distribution in LIB full cells is performed with two different cell types, T-cells of the Swagelok® type and pouch bag cells with lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide and mesocarbon microbead graphite as the active materials as well as a lithium hexafluorophosphate based organic carbonate solvent electrolyte. The lithium content of/at the individual components of the cells is analyzed for different states of charge (SOCs) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and the lithium distribution as well as the loss of active lithium within the cells is calculated after cycling. With increasing the SOC, the lithium contents decrease in the cathodes and simultaneously increase in the anodes. The temperature increase shows a clear shift of the lithium content in the direction of the anode for the T-cells. The comparison of the C-rate influence shows that the lower the C-rate, the more the lithium content on the electrodes is shifted into the direction of the anode.

  7. Mitigating Thermal Runaway Risk in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darcy, Eric; Jeevarajan, Judy; Russell, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    The JSC/NESC team has successfully demonstrated Thermal Runaway (TR) risk reduction in a lithium ion battery for human space flight by developing and implementing verifiable design features which interrupt energy transfer between adjacent electrochemical cells. Conventional lithium ion (li-Ion) batteries can fail catastrophically as a result of a single cell going into thermal runaway. Thermal runaway results when an internal component fails to separate electrode materials leading to localized heating and complete combustion of the lithium ion cell. Previously, the greatest control to minimize the probability of cell failure was individual cell screening. Combining thermal runaway propagation mitigation design features with a comprehensive screening program reduces both the probability, and the severity, of a single cell failure.

  8. Interphase Evolution of a Lithium-Ion/Oxygen Battery.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giuseppe Antonio; Bresser, Dominic; Reiter, Jakub; Oberhumer, Philipp; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Passerini, Stefano; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-10-14

    A novel lithium-ion/oxygen battery employing Pyr14TFSI-LiTFSI as the electrolyte and nanostructured LixSn-C as the anode is reported. The remarkable energy content of the oxygen cathode, the replacement of the lithium metal anode by a nanostructured stable lithium-alloying composite, and the concomitant use of nonflammable ionic liquid-based electrolyte result in a new and intrinsically safer energy storage system. The lithium-ion/oxygen battery delivers a stable capacity of 500 mAh g(-1) at a working voltage of 2.4 V with a low charge-discharge polarization. However, further characterization of this new system by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy reveals the progressive decrease of the battery working voltage, because of the crossover of oxygen through the electrolyte and its direct reaction with the LixSn-C anode.

  9. Modified natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y. P.; Jiang, C.; Wan, C.; Holze, R.

    A concentrated nitric acid solution was used as an oxidant to modify the electrochemical performance of natural graphite as anode material for lithium ion batteries. Results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermogravimmetry, differential thermal analysis, high resolution electron microscopy, and measurement of the reversible capacity suggest that the surface structure of natural graphite was changed, a fresh dense layer of oxides was formed. Some structural imperfections were removed, and the stability of the graphite structure increased. These changes impede decomposition of electrolyte solvent molecules, co-intercalation of solvated lithium ions and movement of graphene planes along the a-axis direction. Concomitantly, more micropores were introduced, and thus, lithium intercalation and deintercalation were favored and more sites were provided for lithium storage. Consequently, the reversible capacity and the cycling behavior of the modified natural graphite were much improved by the oxidation. Obviously, the liquid-solid oxidation is advantageous in controlling the uniformity of the products.

  10. A Stable Fluorinated and Alkylated Lithium Malonatoborate Salt for Lithium Ion Battery Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Shun; Jiang, Xueguang; Guo, Bingkun; Dai, Sheng; Goodenough, John B.; Sun, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    A new fluorinated and alkylated lithium malonatoborate salt, lithium bis(2-methyl-2-fluoromalonato)borate (LiBMFMB), has been synthesized for lithium ion battery application. A 0.8 M LiBMFMB solution is obtained in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.). The new LiBMFMB based electrolyte exhibits good cycling stability and rate capability in LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells.

  11. Lithium-Ion Performance and Abuse Evaluation Using Lithium Technologies 9Ah cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Albert Daniel; Jeevarajan, Judith A.

    2006-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries in a pouch form offer high energy density and safety in their designs and more recently they are offering performance at higher rates. Lithium Technologies 9Ah high-power pouch cells were studied at different rates, thermal environments, under vacuum and several different conditions of abuse including overcharge, over-discharge and external short circuit. Results of this study will be presented.

  12. Atomic resolution of Lithium Ions in LiCoO

    SciTech Connect

    Shao-Horn, Yang; Croguennec, Laurence; Delmas, Claude; Nelson, Chris; O'Keefe, Michael A.

    2003-03-18

    LiCoO2 is the most common lithium storage material for lithium rechargeable batteries, used widely to power portable electronic devices such as laptop computers. Lithium arrangements in the CoO2 framework have a profound effect on the structural stability and electrochemical properties of LixCoO2 (0 < x < 1), however, probing lithium ions has been difficult using traditional X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. Here we have succeeded in simultaneously resolving columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in layered LiCoO2 battery material using experimental focal series of LiCoO2 images obtained at sub-Angstrom resolution in a mid-voltage transmission electron microscope. Lithium atoms are the smallest and lightest metal atoms, and scatter electrons only very weakly. We believe our observations of lithium to be the first by electron microscopy, and that they show promise to direct visualization of the ordering of lithium and vacancy in LixCoO2.

  13. Energy-savvy solid-state and sonochemical synthesis of lithium sodium titanate as an anode active material for Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Swatilekha; Kee, Yongho; Okada, Shigeto; Barpanda, Prabeer

    2015-11-01

    Lithium sodium titanate insertion-type anode has been synthesized by classical solid-state (dry) and an alternate solution-assisted (wet) sonochemical synthesis routes. Successful synthesis of the target compound has been realized using simple Na- and Li-hydroxide salts along with titania. In contrast to the previous reports, these energy-savvy synthesis routes can yield the final product by calcination at 650-750 °C for limited duration of 1-10 h. Owing to the restricted calcination duration (dry route for 1-2 h and wet route for 1-5 h), they yield homogeneous nanoscale lithium sodium titanate particles. Sonochemical synthesis reduces the lithium sodium titanate particle size down to 80-100 nm vis-à-vis solid-state method delivering larger (200-500 nm) particles. Independent of the synthetic methods, the end products deliver reversible electrochemical performance with reversible capacity exceeding 80 mAh·g-1 acting as a 1.3 V anode for Li-ion batteries.

  14. Electrolyte Suitable for Use in a Lithium Ion Cell or Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Electrolyte suitable for use in a lithium ion cell or battery. According to one embodiment, the electrolyte includes a fluorinated lithium ion salt and a solvent system that solvates lithium ions and that yields a high dielectric constant, a low viscosity and a high flashpoint. In one embodiment, the solvent system includes a mixture of an aprotic lithium ion solvating solvent and an aprotic fluorinated solvent.

  15. Safer lithium ion batteries based on nonflammable electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ziqi; Wu, Bingbin; Xiao, Lifen; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Yao; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-04-01

    The safety of lithium ion batteries has long been a critical obstacle for their high-power and large-scale applications because of the flammable nature of their carbon anode and organic carbonate electrolytes. To eliminate the potential safety hazards, lithium ion batteries should be built up with thermal-stable electrodes and nonflammable electrolytes. Here we report safer lithium ion batteries using nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte, thermal-stable LiFePO4 cathode and alloy anodes. Benefiting from the electrochemical compatibility and strong fire-retardancy of the phosphonate electrolyte, the cathode and anode materials in the nonflammable phosphonate electrolyte demonstrate similar charge-discharge performances with those in the conventional carbonate electrolyte, showing a great prospect for large-scale applications in electric vehicles and grid-scale electric energy storage.

  16. Anisotropic lithium ion migration in LiFePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. B.; Park, C. K.; Hwang, J. T.; Cho, W. I.; Jang, H.

    2011-12-01

    An anisotropic behavior of lithium ion migration in LiFePO4 is investigated using the cathode particles after chemical delithiation. A phase contrast of a LiFePO4 particle validating the directional property is also found. It suggests that the lithium ion migration path is limited to the [010] direction and the phase boundary between LiFePO4 and FePO4 is perpendicular [010]. The symmetric phase boundary inside the LiFePO4 particle is contrary to the non-directional core-shell model reported by others. The molecular dynamics simulation confirms the crystallographic direction with the lowest energy for lithium ion migration.

  17. Electrochemical Study of Hollow Carbon Nanospheres as High-Rate and Low Temperature Negative Electrodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Jonathan David

    The continued advancements in portable electronics have demanded more advanced power sources. To date, lithium ion batteries have been the state-of-the-art for portable devices. One significant drawback of lithium ion batteries is the slow charging times and their performance at low temperatures. In this dissertation, we explore the electrochemical behavior of a new lithium ion, negative electrode active material, hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNS). HCNS are ˜50 nm in diameter hollow spheres with ˜5 - 10 nm graphic walls which have a nominal reversible capacity of ˜220 mAh/g. We assembled and cycled HCNS as a lithium ion anode material and compared it to graphite, currently used as the anode material in most commercial lithium ion batteries. The charging mechanism of HCNS is an intercalation of the lithium ions into the graphitic walls of the spheres, similar to graphite, determined by diffraction and electroanalytical techniques. However, the HCNS electrodes cycled at much higher charge and discharge rates than graphite. Additionally, we demonstrated HCNS cycling at low temperatures (-20 *C) in electrolytes not obtainable by graphite due to material exfoliation during cycling. Although, due to the large surface area of HCNS, the first cycle coulombic losses are very high. This work has resulted in an understanding of a potentially new lithium ion battery anode material with significantly better cycling attributes than the current anode material.

  18. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-12-23

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn(4+) with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g(-1) based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions.

  19. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g−1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions. PMID:28008955

  20. Origin of stabilization and destabilization in solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakayama, Masanobu; Takeuchi, Mitsue; Komaba, Shinichi; Hashimoto, Yu; Mukai, Takahiro; Shiiba, Hiromasa; Sato, Kei; Kobayashi, Yuki; Nakao, Aiko; Yonemura, Masao; Yamanaka, Keisuke; Mitsuhara, Kei; Ohta, Toshiaki

    2016-12-01

    Further increase in energy density of lithium batteries is needed for zero emission vehicles. However, energy density is restricted by unavoidable theoretical limits for positive electrodes used in commercial applications. One possibility towards energy densities exceeding these limits is to utilize anion (oxide ion) redox, instead of classical transition metal redox. Nevertheless, origin of activation of the oxide ion and its stabilization mechanism are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the suppression of formation of superoxide-like species on lithium extraction results in reversible redox for oxide ions, which is stabilized by the presence of relatively less covalent character of Mn4+ with oxide ions without the sacrifice of electronic conductivity. On the basis of these findings, we report an electrode material, whose metallic constituents consist only of 3d transition metal elements. The material delivers a reversible capacity of 300 mAh g-1 based on solid-state redox reaction of oxide ions.

  1. Flashover lithium ion source development for large pulsed power accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bieg, K.W.; Burns, E.J.T.; Gerber, R.A.; Olsen, J.N.; Lamppa, K.P.

    1986-05-01

    The Particle Beam Fusion Accelerator II (PBFA II), a light-ion pulsed power accelerator intended for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications, is currently under construction at Sandia National Laboratories. The accelerator will deliver a 30 MV, 5 MA lithium beam from an Applied-B diode to drive an ICF target. The ion source for this diode will require a thin (approx.1 mm), dense (10/sup 16/ cm/sup -2/) anode plasma layer of singly ionized lithium over an anode area of 10/sup 3/ cm/sup 2/. One type of source being investigated is the flashover ion source, which generates the anode plasma via vacuum flashover of a lithium-bearing dielectric material. Experiments with a LiF flashover source on the 0.03 TW Nereus accelerator have shown that contaminant ions account for as much as 70% of the extracted ion beam current. To overcome this, we have explored in-diode cleaning of the externally prepared anode surface by glow discharge cleaning and vacuum baking as well as in-diode preparation of the anode surface by vacuum evaporation of the lithium dielectric. Lithium-bearing dielectric materials which have been investigated include LiF, LiI, LiNO/sub 3/, and Li/sub 3/N. These techniques have resulted in a two to threefold improvement in the extracted lithium ion purity. As a result, a glow-discharge cleaned LiF flashover source will be used for initial pulsed-power testing on PBFA II.

  2. Dynamics of lithium ions in calcium bismuthate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Ghosh, A.

    2005-06-01

    Ion transport in Li2O-CaO-Bi2O3 glasses has been studied in the frequency range from 10Hzto2MHz and in the temperature range from 293to543K. The variation of the dc conductivity and the activation energy of these glasses with composition have been compared with those of binary lithium bismuthate glasses. It has been observed that the introduction of CaO in small amount does not effect the dc conductivity and the corresponding activation energy, but the larger amount of CaO changes them to some extent. The frequency-dependent conductivity has been studied using both conductivity and modulus formalisms. The values of the nonexponential parameter and frequency exponent are found to differ for the Li2O-CaO-Bi2O3 glasses from those for the binary Li2O-Bi2O3 glasses. The concentration of mobile Li+ ions does not change appreciably with the change in the Li2O as well as CaO content in the compositions. The increasing amount of CaO in the glass compositions for fixed Li2O content points out that CaO dilates the glass network, enhancing the migration of Li+ ions.

  3. Dynamics of lithium ions in calcium bismuthate glasses.

    PubMed

    Dutta, A; Ghosh, A

    2005-06-15

    Ion transport in Li(2)O-CaO-Bi(2)O(3) glasses has been studied in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 2 MHz and in the temperature range from 293 to 543 K. The variation of the dc conductivity and the activation energy of these glasses with composition have been compared with those of binary lithium bismuthate glasses. It has been observed that the introduction of CaO in small amount does not effect the dc conductivity and the corresponding activation energy, but the larger amount of CaO changes them to some extent. The frequency-dependent conductivity has been studied using both conductivity and modulus formalisms. The values of the nonexponential parameter and frequency exponent are found to differ for the Li(2)O-CaO-Bi(2)O(3) glasses from those for the binary Li(2)O-Bi(2)O(3) glasses. The concentration of mobile Li(+) ions does not change appreciably with the change in the Li(2)O as well as CaO content in the compositions. The increasing amount of CaO in the glass compositions for fixed Li(2)O content points out that CaO dilates the glass network, enhancing the migration of Li(+) ions.

  4. Solvation of lithium ion in dimethoxyethane and propylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    Solvation of the lithium ion (Li+) in dimethoxyethane (DME) and propylene carbonate (PC) is of scientific significance and urgency in the context of lithium-ion batteries. I report PM7-MD simulations on the composition of Li+ solvation shells (SH) in a few DME/PC mixtures. The equimolar mixture features preferential solvation by PC, in agreement with classical MD studies. However, one DME molecule is always present in the first SH, supplementing the cage formed by five PC molecules. As PC molecules get removed, DME gradually substitutes vacant places. In the PC-poor mixtures, an entire SH is populated by five DME molecules.

  5. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  6. New Horizons for Conventional Lithium Ion Battery Technology.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Evan M; Ghanty, Chandan; Aurbach, Doron

    2014-10-02

    Secondary lithium ion battery technology has made deliberate, incremental improvements over the past four decades, providing sufficient energy densities to sustain a significant mobile electronic device industry. Because current battery systems provide ∼100-150 km of driving distance per charge, ∼5-fold improvements are required to fully compete with internal combustion engines that provide >500 km range per tank. Despite expected improvements, the authors believe that lithium ion batteries are unlikely to replace combustion engines in fully electric vehicles. However, high fidelity and safe Li ion batteries can be used in full EVs plus range extenders (e.g., metal air batteries, generators with ICE or gas turbines). This perspective article describes advanced materials and directions that can take this technology further in terms of energy density, and aims at delineating realistic horizons for the next generations of Li ion batteries. This article concentrates on Li intercalation and Li alloying electrodes, relevant to the term Li ion batteries.

  7. AC impedance electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion positive electrodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D.; Gunen, E.; Abraham, D.; Jansen, A.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Engineering; IIT

    2004-01-01

    Under Department of Energy's Advanced Technology Development Program,various analytical diagnostic studies are being carried out to examine the lithium-ion battery technology for hybrid electric vehicle applications, and a series of electrochemical studies are being conducted to examine the performance of these batteries. An electrochemical model was developed to associate changes that were observed in the post-test analytical diagnostic studies with the electrochemical performance loss during testing of lithium ion batteries. While both electrodes in the lithium-ion cell have been studied using a similar electrochemical model, the discussion here is limited to modeling of the positive electrode. The positive electrode under study has a composite structure made of a layered nickel oxide (LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}) active material, a carbon black and graphite additive for distributing current, and a PVDF binder all on an aluminum current collector. The electrolyte is 1.2M LiPF{sub 6} dissolved in a mixture of EC and EMC and a Celgard micro-porous membrane is used as the separator. Planar test cells (positive/separator/negative) were constructed with a special fixture and two separator membranes that allowed the placement of a micro-reference electrode between the separator membranes [1]. Electrochemical studies including AC impedance spectroscopy were then conducted on the individual electrodes to examine the performance and ageing effects in the cell. The model was developed by following the work of Professor Newman at Berkeley [2]. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) region, based on post-test analytical results, was assumed to be a film on the oxide and an oxide layer at the surface of the oxide. A double layer capacity was added in parallel with the Butler-Volmer kinetic expression. The pertinent reaction, thermodynamic, and transport equations were linearized for a small sinusoidal perturbation [3]. The resulting system of differential

  8. Lithium Ion Cell Development for Photovoltaic Energy Storage Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Babinec, Susan

    2012-02-08

    The overall project goal is to reduce the cost of home and neighborhood photovoltaic storage systems by reducing the single largest cost component the energy storage cells. Solar power is accepted as an environmentally advantaged renewable power source. Its deployment in small communities and integrated into the grid, requires a safe, reliable and low cost energy storage system. The incumbent technology of lead acid cells is large, toxic to produce and dispose of, and offer limited life even with significant maintenance. The ideal PV storage battery would have the safety and low cost of lead acid but the performance of lithium ion chemistry. Present lithium ion batteries have the desired performance but cost and safety remain the two key implementation barriers. The purpose of this project is to develop new lithium ion cells that can meet PVES cost and safety requirements using A123Systems phosphate-based cathode chemistries in commercial PHEV cell formats. The cost target is a cell design for a home or neighborhood scale at <$25/kWh. This DOE program is the continuation and expansion of an initial MPSC (Michigan Public Service Commission) program towards this goal. This program further pushes the initial limits of some aspects of the original program even lower cost anode and cathode actives implemented at even higher electrode loadings, and as well explores new avenues of cost reduction via new materials specifically our higher voltage cathode. The challenge in our materials development is to achieve parity in the performance metrics of cycle life and high temperature storage, and to produce quality materials at the production scale. Our new cathode material, M1X, has a higher voltage and so requires electrolyte reformulation to meet the high temperature storage requirements. The challenge of thick electrode systems is to maintain adequate adhesion and cycle life. The composite separator has been proven in systems having standard loading electrodes; the challenge

  9. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance of Cathodes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianxin

    Lithium ion batteries provide a high energy density, higher voltage as well as a long shelf life compared to traditionally used lead acid, NiMH and NiCd batteries. Thus, they are a very promising energy storage system for our daily life. As one of the most important components in a battery, cathode materials have been investigated intensively in recent years as they play a key role in determining the cell voltage and discharge capacity in a battery. Both layered Li(Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O 2 (NCM) and olivine-structured LiFePO4 (LFP) materials are promising cathode candidates. However, these cathodes also have some disadvantages that have hindered further commercialization. The main issue with NCM is its rapid performance decay upon cycling. In addition, LFP is hindered by a low rate capacity and low lithium ion diffusivity. We studied the crystal growth behavior and performance of both Li(Ni 1/3Co1/3Mn1/3)O2 and LiFePO4 cathodes in order to develop synthesis-structure-function relationships. Three different crystal growth behaviors were observed for the NCM annealing process: surface, volume and grain boundary diffusion. Further exploration of the mechanism of NCM performance decay revealed that microstructural changes were related to the strain accommodation ability in this system and that nanostructured materials were more stable during cycling. In the LFP synthesis, we observed both oriented attachment (OA) and Ostwald ripening (OR) during growth in a triethylene-glycol system. Both polycrystalline and single crystalline particles evolved as a function of a time-dependent pH change. Thus, the lithium ion diffusion rate of LiFePO4 was improved by tailoring the morphology and size though our modification of the precursor environment, revealing that polycrystalline LFP displayed better performance than single crystalline particles. Finally, the electronic conductivity of LiFePO4 was successfully increased via a polymer solution coating method. By producing more uniform

  10. Lithium-Ion Verification Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKissock, Barbara; Manzo, Michelle; Miller, Thomas; Reid, Concha; Bennett, William; Gemeiner, Russel

    2004-01-01

    In order to assess the capabilities of current aerospace lithium-ion cells to perform long-term NASA missions, low-earth-orbits (LEO) testing to evaluate long-term cycle life was initiated. A flexible program was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center to enable assessment of technology developments as they occur as well as provide information about different cell vendors and cell designs. Following extensive characterization testing, cells are tested using LEO charge and discharge profiles under ten different combinations of test conditions that were statistically chosen to determine the effects of depth-of-discharge, temperature, and end-of-charge voltage on LEO cycle life. Four cells from each vendor are tested at each specific combination of conditions. Conditions included in the test matrix are depth-of-discharges of 20%, 30, 35%, and 40%; temperatures of 20, 30, and 40 C; and end-of-charge voltages of 3.85 V, 3.95 V, and 4.05 V. Cells are randomly assigned to packs and packs are randomly assigned to test conditions. The capacity of the cells to 3.0 V at the conditions of the test is being periodically measured. The results of this testing will be used to model cell performance and degradation as a function of test operating conditions. Cells are being evaluated in 4-cell series strings with charge voltage limits being applied to individual cells by charge control units designed and built at NASA Glenn Research Center. Testing is being performed at the Naval Surface Warfare Center/Crane Division in Crane, IN. Testing was initiated in September 2004 with 40 Ah cells from Saft and 30 Ah cells from Lithion. The test program is being expanded with the addition of cells from MSA and the addition of small cell modules is being considered. Preliminary results showing voltage, temperature, usable capacity per unit mass, and voltage dispersion as their changes over time for the cells at 20 C is presented.

  11. Block copolymer with simultaneous electric and ionic conduction for use in lithium ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Javier, Anna Esmeralda K; Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Patel, Shrayesh Naran; Hallinan, Jr., Daniel T

    2013-10-08

    Redox reactions that occur at the electrodes of batteries require transport of both ions and electrons to the active centers. Reported is the synthesis of a block copolymer that exhibits simultaneous electronic and ionic conduction. A combination of Grignard metathesis polymerization and click reaction was used successively to synthesize the block copolymer containing regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) segments. The P3HT-PEO/LiTFSI mixture was then used to make a lithium battery cathode with LiFePO.sub.4 as the only other component. All-solid lithium batteries of the cathode described above, a solid electrolyte and a lithium foil as the anode showed capacities within experimental error of the theoretical capacity of the battery. The ability of P3HT-PEO to serve all of the transport and binding functions required in a lithium battery electrode is thus demonstrated.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of nanostructured cathode materials for rechargeable lithium/lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jingsi

    The rapidly increasing markets of portable electronic devices and electric/hybrid vehicles have raised worldwide R&D efforts in developing high-energy rechargeable lithium and lithium ion batteries. High performance intercalation cathodes are key to the success of these batteries. The nanotechnology has endowed the electrode materials with a variety of improved features as well as unique characteristics. Synthesis approaches were designed in this thesis work to utilize these advantages and investigate the exceptional phenomena raised by the nanostructured materials. A novel sol-gel method was designed for the synthesis of carbon-coated phase-pure lithium iron phosphate with submicron particle sizes and uniform size distribution. The surface carbon coating was formed in-situ through pyrolysis of the precursor gel, which improved the apparent electronic conductivity of the as prepared material to 10-2 S/cm compared with 10-9-10-10 S/cm of the pristine LiFePO 4. The favorable physical characteristics of the synthesized LiFePO 4 particles and the improved electronic conductivity through the carbon coating led to electrochemical properties comparable to the best performances reported so far. Amorphous manganese oxide cryogels with nanoarchitecture were obtained by freeze-drying Mn (IV) oxide hydrogels. The combination of the advantages of the amorphous structure and the nano-architecture of the materials gave high capacities and excellent rate capabilities. This work led to the finding of a nanocrystalline Li2MnO3-like compound with a surprising electrochemical activity, which is in sharp contrast to the microcrystalline rock-salt Li2MnO3 that has been known to be electrochemically inactive. The study highlights the possibility of qualitative difference in intercalation behavior of nanostructured intercalation compounds compared with their microcrystalline counterparts. Bismuth and copper modified amorphous manganese oxides were synthesized by aqueous coprecipitation

  13. Early time interaction of lithium ions with the solar wind in the AMPTE mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Goodrich, C. C.; Papadopoulos, K.; Mankofsky, A.

    1986-01-01

    The early time interaction of an artifically injected lithium cloud with the solar wind is simulated with a one-dimensional hybrid code. Simulation results indicate that the lithium cloud presents an obstacle to the solar wind flow, forming a shock-like interaction region. Several notable features are found: (1) The magnetic field is enhanced up to a factor of about 6, followed by a magnetic cavity downstream. (2) Solar wind ions are slowed down inside the lithium cloud, with substantial upstream reflection. (3) Most of the lithium ions gradually pick up the velocity of the solar wind and move downstream. (4) Intense and short-wavelength electric fields exist ahead of the interaction region. (5) Strong electron heating occurs within the lithium cloud. (6) The convection electric field in the solar wind is modulated in the interaction region. The simulation results are in remarkable agreement with in situ spacecraft measurements made during lithium releases in the solar wind by the AMPTE (Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers) Program.

  14. A Self-Healing Aqueous Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Ye; Sun, Hao; Dong, Xiaoli; Cao, Jingyu; Wang, Lie; Xu, Yifan; Ren, Jing; Hwang, Yunil; Son, In Hyuk; Huang, Xianliang; Wang, Yonggang; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-11-07

    Flexible lithium-ion batteries are critical for the next-generation electronics. However, during the practical application, they may break under deformations such as twisting and cutting, causing their failure to work or even serious safety problems. A new family of all-solid-state and flexible aqueous lithium ion batteries that can self-heal after breaking has been created by designing aligned carbon nanotube sheets loaded with LiMn2 O4 and LiTi2 (PO4 )3 nanoparticles on a self-healing polymer substrate as electrodes, and a new kind of lithium sulfate/sodium carboxymethylcellulose serves as both gel electrolyte and separator. The specific capacity, rate capability, and cycling performance can be well maintained after repeated cutting and self-healing. These self-healing batteries are demonstrated to be promising for wearable devices.

  15. Lithium ion batteries with titania/graphene anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; Graff, Gordon L; Nie, Zimin; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V; Zhang, Jason; Xu, Wu; Kim, Jin Yong

    2013-05-28

    Lithium ion batteries having an anode comprising at least one graphene layer in electrical communication with titania to form a nanocomposite material, a cathode comprising a lithium olivine structure, and an electrolyte. The graphene layer has a carbon to oxygen ratio of between 15 to 1 and 500 to 1 and a surface area of between 400 and 2630 m.sup.2/g. The nanocomposite material has a specific capacity at least twice that of a titania material without graphene material at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C. The olivine structure of the cathode of the lithium ion battery of the present invention is LiMPO.sub.4 where M is selected from the group consisting of Fe, Mn, Co, Ni and combinations thereof.

  16. Internal Short Circuits in Lithium-Ion Cells for PHEVs

    SciTech Connect

    Sriramulu, Suresh; Stringfellow, Richard

    2013-05-25

    Development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) has recently become a high national priority because of their potential to enable significantly reduced petroleum consumption by the domestic transportation sector in the relatively near term. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are a critical enabling technology for PHEVs. Among battery technologies with suitable operating characteristics for use in vehicles, Li-ion batteries offer the best combination of energy, power, life and cost. Consequently, worldwide, leading corporations and government agencies are supporting the development of Li-ion batteries for PHEVs, as well as the full spectrum of vehicular applications ranging from mild hybrid to all-electric. In this project, using a combination of well-defined experiments, custom designed cells and simulations, we have improved the understanding of the process by which a Li-ion cell that develops an internal short progresses to thermal runaway. Using a validated model for thermal runaway, we have explored the influence of environmental factors and cell design on the propensity for thermal runaway in full-sized PHEV cells. We have also gained important perspectives about internal short development and progression; specifically that initial internal shorts may be augmented by secondary shorts related to separator melting. Even though the nature of these shorts is very stochastic, we have shown the critical and insufficiently appreciated role of heat transfer in influencing whether a developing internal short results in a thermal runaway. This work should lead to enhanced perspectives on separator design, the role of active materials and especially cathode materials with respect to safety and the design of automotive cooling systems to enhance battery safety in PHEVs.

  17. Non-aqueous electrolyte for lithium-ion battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-04-15

    The present technology relates to stabilizing additives and electrolytes containing the same for use in electrochemical devices such as lithium ion batteries and capacitors. The stabilizing additives include triazinane triones and bicyclic compounds comprising succinic anhydride, such as compounds of Formulas I and II described herein.

  18. Mechanochemical approaches to employ silicon as a lithium-ion battery anode

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoi, Norihiro Bahena-Garrido, Sharon; Tanaka, Yasumitsu; Qiwu, Zhang

    2015-05-15

    Silicon is essential as an active material in lithium-ion batteries because it provides both high-charge and optimal cycle characteristics. The authors attempted to realize a composite by a simple mechanochemical grinding approach of individual silicon (Si) particles and copper monoxide (CuO) particles to serve as an active material in the anode and optimize the charge-discharge characteristics of a lithium-ion battery. The composite with Si and CuO allowed for a homogenous dispersion with nano-scale Si grains, nano-scale copper-silicon alloy grains and silicon monoxide oxidized the oxide from CuO. The authors successfully achieved the synthesis of an active composite unites the structural features of an active material based on silicon composite as an anode in Li-ion battery with high capacity and cyclic reversible charge properties of 3256 mAh g{sup −1} after 200 cycles.

  19. Lithium-Ion Cell Charge-Control Unit Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Buton, Robert M.; Gemeiner, Russel

    2005-01-01

    A lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell charge-control unit was developed as part of a Li-ion cell verification program. This unit manages the complex charging scheme that is required when Li-ion cells are charged in series. It enables researchers to test cells together as a pack, while allowing each cell to charge individually. This allows the inherent cell-to-cell variations to be addressed on a series string of cells and reduces test costs substantially in comparison to individual cell testing.

  20. Evaluation of Performance and Safety of Electrofuel Lithium-Ion Polymer Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Bragg, Bobby J.; Tracinski, Walter A.

    2002-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries of the conventional and polymer type are being used widely for cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, personal computers, PDAs and in several other portable electronic equipment. The Electrofuel 11-ion polymer battery is one of the first available polymer batteries to be used for commercial applications. In our study, the tests carried out on these cells were aimed at determining if these batteries can be used in extravehicular activity tools for both Shuttle and International Space Station

  1. Optimization of operation conditions for extracting lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-jun; Li, Qing-hai; Li, Bing; Guo, Feng-qin; Meng, Qing-fen; Li, Wu

    2012-04-01

    Al(OH)3 was prepared to extract lithium ions from calcium chloride-type oil field brine. The influences of four factors, namely temperature, Al3+/Li+ molar ratio, OH-/Al3+ molar ratio, and contact time between Al(OH)3 and the brine, on the yield of lithium ions were investigated. It is found that their optimal values are 35°C, 4.5, 2.6, and 6 h, respectively. In the course of the experiment, the apparent pH value was observed. The results reveal that the apparent pH value has no remarkable influence on the yield of lithium ions. Meanwhile, the effects of the concentrations of calcium ions and magnesium ions in the brine on lithium recovery were studied. The results indicate that calcium ions have minor negative influence on the yield of lithium ions under optimal conditions, and magnesium ions slightly influence the yield of lithium ions.

  2. The Incorporation of Lithium Alloying Metals into Carbon Matrices for Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hays, Kevin A.

    An increased interest in renewable energies and alternative fuels has led to recognition of the necessity of wide scale adoption of the electric vehicle. Automotive manufacturers have striven to produce an electric vehicle that can match the range of their petroleum-fueled counterparts. However, the state-of-the-art lithium ion batteries used to power the current offerings still do not come close to the necessary energy density. The energy and power densities of the lithium ion batteries must be increased significantly if they are going to make electric vehicles a viable option. The chemistry of the lithium ion battery, based on lithium cobalt oxide cathodes and graphite anodes, is limited by the amount of lithium the cathode can provide and the anode will accept. While these materials have proven themselves in portable electronics over the past two decades, plausible higher energy alternatives do exist. The focus is of this study is on anode materials that could achieve a capacity of more than 3 times greater than that of graphite anodes. The lithium alloying anode materials investigated and reported herein include tin, arsenic, and gallium arsenide. These metals were synthesized with nanoscale dimensions, improving their electrochemical and mechanical properties. Each exhibits their own benefits and challenges, but all display opportunities for incorporation in lithium ion batteries. Tin is incorporated in multilayer graphene nanoshells by introducing small amounts of metal in the core and, separately, on the outside of these spheres. Electrolyte decomposition on the anode limits cycle life of the tin cores, however, tin vii oxides introduced outside of the multilayer graphene nanoshells have greatly improved long term battery performance. Arsenic is a lithium alloying metal that has largely been ignored by the research community to date. One of the first long term battery performance tests of arsenic is reported in this thesis. Anodes were made from nanoscale

  3. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.; Rohan, James F.; Foo, Conrad C.; Pasquariello, David M.

    1999-01-01

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4 positive electrode (cathode).

  4. Chemical overcharge protection of lithium and lithium-ion secondary batteries

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, K.M.; Rohan, J.F.; Foo, C.C.; Pasquariello, D.M.

    1999-01-12

    This invention features the use of redox reagents, dissolved in non-aqueous electrolytes, to provide overcharge protection for cells having lithium metal or lithium-ion negative electrodes (anodes). In particular, the invention features the use of a class of compounds consisting of thianthrene and its derivatives as redox shuttle reagents to provide overcharge protection. Specific examples of this invention are thianthrene and 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene. One example of a rechargeable battery in which 2,7-diacetyl thianthrene is used has carbon negative electrode (anode) and spinet LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} positive electrode (cathode). 8 figs.

  5. Electrochemical characterization of electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries based on lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zugmann, Sandra; Moosbauer, Dominik; Amereller, Marius; Schreiner, Christian; Wudy, Franz; Schmitz, René; Schmitz, Raphael; Isken, Philipp; Dippel, Christian; Müller, Romek; Kunze, Miriam; Lex-Balducci, Alexandra; Winter, Martin; Gores, Heiner Jakob

    The salt lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiDFOB) showed some promising results for lithium-ion-cells. It was synthesized via a new synthetic route that avoids chloride impurities. Here we report the properties of its solutions (solvent blend ethylene carbonate/diethyl carbonate (3:7, mass ratio), including its conductivity, cationic transference number, hydrolysis, Al-current collector corrosion-protection ability and its cycling performance with some electrode materials. Some Al-corrosion studies were also performed with the help of our recently developed computer controlled impedance scanning electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) that proofed to be a useful tool for battery material investigations.

  6. Survey of Radioactivities Induced by Lithium Ions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-15

    function is not sinusoidal, but exponentially decaying . The WKB approximation is good if the lithium energy is close to the barrier potential, Eb, and...titanium alloy targets are identified. For each radioactivity, the half-life and decay products are tabulated. Reaction yields are dominated by the Coulomb...survey. In Sec. II, the nuclear reactions on these targets which produce radioactivity are listed, and the decay properties of the radioactive nuclei

  7. Nanocomposites with embedded structures for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zichao

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have been widely employed in portable electronics and are rapidly expanding into emerging markets such as hybrid and electric vehicles and potentially electric grid storage. These new opportunities create new challenges for LIBs and further improvement of specific energy, cycling performance and rate capability are required. A major strategy in performance enhancement for the electrode materials involves the creation of carbon composites to provide mechanical buffering of active material and to improve electrical conductivity. In the current work, a platform is developed for creating functional hybrid materials by copolymerization of organic molecules and inorganic compounds followed by thermal pyrolysis, and the approach yields nanostructured composites in which nanoparticles are uniformly embedded in a porous, partially graphitic carbon matrix. Depending upon the chemistry of the starting materials, nanocomposites with embedded structures created using the approach are attractive as anode or cathode materials for next-generation rechargeable lithium battery systems. The platform is very versatile and through ex situ conversion or utilization of multiple precursors, can be applied to various classes of materials including metal oxides (single or mixed), metals, metal sulfides, alloys, metalloids, phosphates, etc. The approach also lends itself to the development of scalable processes for production of nanostructured battery materials. Mechanistic analysis was performed and reveals that the performance enhancement of the embedded nanocomposite configuration is mainly brought about by the mechanical buffering effect offered by the carbon matrix. The active material loading was shown to be an important factor in the design of the composites as electrode materials. In addition to the polymerization-based approach, other in situ methods such as one based on spray pyrolysis are also explored and demonstrate the versatility of the in situ

  8. Aluminum-doped lithium nickel cobalt oxide electrodes for high-power lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. H.; Liu, J.; Stoll, M. E.; Henriksen, G.; Vissers, D. R.; Amine, K.

    Non-doped and aluminum-doped LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes from three industrial developers coupled with graphite anodes were made into lithium-ion cells for high-power applications. The powder morphology of the active cathode materials was examined by a scanning electron microscope. The electrochemical performance of these cells was investigated by hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) testing, accelerated aging, and AC impedance measurement of symmetric cells. Although all of the fresh cells are found to meet and exceed the power requirements set by PNGV, the power capability of those cells with non-doped LiNi 0.8Co 0.2O 2 cathodes fades rapidly due to the rise of the cell impedance. Al-doping is found very effective to suppress the cell impedance rise by stabilizing the charge-transfer impedance on the cathode side. The stabilization mechanism may be related to the low average oxidation state of nickel ions in the cathode. The powder morphology also plays a secondary role in determining the impedance stabilization.

  9. Li-Rich Li-Si Alloy As A Lithium-Containing Negative Electrode Material Towards High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell. PMID:25626879

  10. Li-rich Li-Si alloy as a lithium-containing negative electrode material towards high energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Iwamura, Shinichiroh; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Ono, Yoshitaka; Morito, Haruhiko; Yamane, Hisanori; Nara, Hiroki; Osaka, Tetsuya; Kyotani, Takashi

    2015-01-28

    Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are generally constructed by lithium-including positive electrode materials, such as LiCoO2, and lithium-free negative electrode materials, such as graphite. Recently, lithium-free positive electrode materials, such as sulfur, are gathering great attention from their very high capacities, thereby significantly increasing the energy density of LIBs. Though the lithium-free materials need to be combined with lithium-containing negative electrode materials, the latter has not been well developed yet. In this work, the feasibility of Li-rich Li-Si alloy is examined as a lithium-containing negative electrode material. Li-rich Li-Si alloy is prepared by the melt-solidification of Li and Si metals with the composition of Li21Si5. By repeating delithiation/lithiation cycles, Li-Si particles turn into porous structure, whereas the original particle size remains unchanged. Since Li-Si is free from severe constriction/expansion upon delithiation/lithiation, it shows much better cyclability than Si. The feasibility of the Li-Si alloy is further examined by constructing a full-cell together with a lithium-free positive electrode. Though Li-Si alloy is too active to be mixed with binder polymers, the coating with carbon-black powder by physical mixing is found to prevent the undesirable reactions of Li-Si alloy with binder polymers, and thus enables the construction of a more practical electrochemical cell.

  11. Tunneling holes in microparticles to facilitate the transport of lithium ions for high volumetric density batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jian; Ng, K. Y. Simon; Deng, Da

    2015-08-01

    Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the electrolyte than that of nanoparticles. Therefore, it will be interesting to tunnel-holes in the high volumetric density microparticles to facilitate the reversible storage of lithium ions. Here, tunnel-like holes were generated in microparticles to dramatically increase the accessibility of the active materials to facilitate the lithium ion transfer. A plausible formation mechanism to explain the generation of tunnel-like holes was proposed based on time-course experiments and intensive characterization. Impressively, the as-prepared microbeads with tunnels demonstrated dramatically improved performance compared to the solid microbeads without tunnels in lithium ion storage. The microparticles with tunnels could achieve comparable electrochemical performances to those nanoparticles reported in the literature, suggesting that microparticles, properly tuned, could be promising candidates as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and worthy of further studies. We also directly measured the volumetric density of the microparticles. We would like to highlight that a superior volumetric capacity of 514 mA h cm-3 has been achieved. We hope to promote more frequent use of the unit mA h cm-3 in addition to the conventional unit mA h g-1 in the battery community.Microscale materials generally have a higher tap density than that of random nanoparticles. Therefore, microparticles have been attracting much attention for application as high volumetric density electrodes for lithium ion batteries. However, microparticles have much longer electrolyte diffusion and Li-ion migration length and less accessibility to the

  12. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    SciTech Connect

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C.K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  13. Lithium-Ion Battery Program Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surampudi, S.; Huang, C. K.; Smart, M.; Davies, E.; Perrone, D.; Distefano, S.; Halpert, G.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop rechargeable Li-ion cells for future NASA missions. Applications that would benefit from this project are: new millenium spacecraft; rovers; landers; astronaut equipment; and planetary orbiters. The approach of this program is: select electrode materials and electrolytes; identify failure modes and mechanisms and enhance cycle life; demonstrate Li-ion cell technology with liquid electrolyte; select candidate polymer electrolytes for Li-ion polymer cells; and develop Li-ion polymer cell technology.

  14. Lithium-ion cell technology demonstration for future NASA applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Chin, K. B.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.; Dalton, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    NASA requires lightweight rechargeable batteries for future missions to Mars and the outer planets that are capable of operating over a wide range of temperatures, with high specific energy and energy densities. Due to their attractive performance characteristics, lithium-ion batteries have been identified as the battery chemistry of choice for a number of future applications, including planetary orbiters, rovers and landers. For example, under the Mars Surveyor Program MSP 01 lithium-ion batteries were developed by Lithion (each being 28 V, 25 Ah, 8-cells. and 9 kg) and fully qualified prior to mission cancellation. In addition to the requirement of being able to supply at least 90 cycles on the surface of Mars, the battery demonstrated operational capability (both charge and discharge) over a large temperature range (-2O'C to +4OoC), with tolerance to non-operational excursions to -30nd 50Currently, JPL is implementing lithium-ion technology on the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover (MER), which will be coupled with a solar array. This mission has similar performance requirements to that of the 2001 Lander in that high energy density and a wide operating temperature range are necessitated. In addition to planetary rover and lander applications, we are also engaged in determining the viability of using lithium-ion technology for orbiter applications that require exceptionally long life (>20,000 cydes at partial depth of discharge). To assess the viabili of lithium-ion cells for these applications, a number of performance characterization tests have been performed (at the cell and battery level) on state-of-art prototype lihium- ion cells, induding: assessing the cycle life performance (at varying DODs), life characteristics at extreme temperatures (< -10nd >+4OoC), rate capability as a function of temperature (-30' to 4OoC), pulse capability, self-discharge and storage characteristics, as well as, mission profile capability. This paper will describe the current and

  15. NREL Enhances the Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-10-01

    Scientists from NREL and the University of Toledo have combined theoretical and experimental studies to demonstrate a promising approach to significantly enhance the performance of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Advanced Lithium-Ion Cell Development for NASA's Constellation Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Mercer, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    The Energy Storage Project of NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program is developing advanced lithium-ion batteries to meet the requirements for specific Constellation missions. NASA GRC, in conjunction with JPL and JSC, is leading efforts to develop High Energy and Ultra High Energy cells for three primary Constellation customers: Altair, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and Lunar Surface Systems. The objective of the High Energy cell development is to enable a battery system that can operationally deliver approximately 150 Wh/kg for 2000 cycles. The Ultra High Energy cell development will enable a battery system that can operationally deliver 220 Wh/kg for 200 cycles. To accomplish these goals, cathode, electrolyte, separator, and safety components are being developed for High Energy Cells. The Ultra High Energy cell development adds lithium alloy anodes to the component development portfolio to enable much higher cell-level specific energy. The Ultra High Energy cell development is targeted for the ascent stage of Altair, which is the Lunar Lander, and for power for the Portable Life support System of the EVA Lunar spacesuit. For these missions, mass is highly critical, but only a limited number of cycles are required. The High Energy cell development is primarily targeted for Mobility Systems (rovers) for Lunar Surface Systems, however, due to the high risk nature of the Ultra High Energy cell development, the High Energy cell will also serve as a backup technology for Altair and EVA. This paper will discuss mission requirements and the goals of the material, component, and cell development efforts in further detail.

  17. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; ...

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition,more » these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.« less

  18. New promising lithium malonatoborate salts for high voltage lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao -Guang; Wan, Shun; Guang, Hong Yu; Fang, Youxing; Reeves, Kimberly Shawn; Chi, Miaofang; Dai, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Here, three new lithium salts, lithium difluoro-2-methyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFMFMB), lithium difluoro-2-ethyl-2-fluoromalonaoborate (LiDFEFMB), and lithium difluoro-2-propyl-2-fluoro malonaoborate (LiDFPFMB), have been synthesized and evaluated for application in lithium ion batteries. These new salts are soluble in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:2 by wt.) and 1.0 M salt solutions can be easily prepared. The ionic conductivities of these new salts are close to those of LiBF4 and LiPF6. Cyclic voltammograms reveal that these new salt based electrolytes can passivate both natural graphite and high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 (LNMO) to form effective solid electrolyte interphases (SEIs). In addition, these new salts based electrolytes exhibit good cycling stability with high coulombic efficiencies in both LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 and graphite based half-cells and full cells.

  19. Three-dimensional tungsten nitride nanowires as high performance anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Min; Qiu, Yongfu; Han, Yi; Guo, Yan; Cheng, Faliang

    2016-08-01

    Nanostructure materials often achieve low capacity when the active material mass loading is high. In this communication, high mass-loading tungsten nitride nanowires (WNNWs) were fabricated on a flexible carbon cloth by hydrothermal method and post annealing. The prepared electrode exhibited remarkable cyclic stability and attractive rate capability for lithium storage. It delivers at a current density of 200 mA g-1, a high capacity of 418 mAh g-1, which is higher than that of conventional graphite. This research opens more opportunity for the fabrication of three-dimensional metal nitrides as negative electrode material for flexible lithium ion batteries.

  20. Nickel-Hydrogen and Lithium Ion Space Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Robert O., II

    2004-01-01

    The tasks of the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn Research Center are to improve and develop high energy density and rechargeable, life-long batteries. It is with these batteries that people across the globe are able to power their cell phones, laptop computers, and cameras. Here, at NASA Glenn Research Center, the engineers and scientists of the Electrochemistry branch are leading the way in the development of more powerful, long life batteries that can be used to power space shuttles and satellites. As of now, the cutting edge research and development is being done on nickel-hydrogen batteries and lithium ion batteries. Presently, nickel-hydrogen batteries are common types of batteries that are used to power satellites, space stations, and space shuttles, while lithium batteries are mainly used to power smaller appliances such as portable computers and phones. However, the Electrochemistry Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center is focusing more on the development of lithium ion batteries for deep space use. Because of the limitless possibilities, lithium ion batteries can revolutionize the space industry for the better. When compared to nickel-hydrogen batteries, lithium ion batteries possess more advantages than its counterpart. Lithium ion batteries are much smaller than nickel-hydrogen batteries and also put out more power. They are more energy efficient and operate with much more power at a reduced weight than its counterpart. Lithium ion cells are also cheaper to make, possess flexibility that allow for different design modifications. With those statistics in hand, the Electrochemistry Branch of NASA Glenn has decided to shut down its Nickel-Hydrogen testing for lithium ion battery development. Also, the blackout in the summer of 2003 eliminated vital test data, which played a part in shutting down the program. from the nickel-hydrogen batteries and compare it to past data. My other responsibilities include superheating the electrolyte that is used in the

  1. Synthesis, strctural and electrochemical characterizations of lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng

    The electrification trend for transportation systems requires alternative cathode materials to LiCoO2 with improved safety, lowered cost and extended cycle life. Lithium- manganese- rich composite cathode materials, which can be presented in a two component notation as xLi2MnO3·(1-x)LiMO 2, (M= Ni, Co or Mn) have superior cost and energy density advantages. These cathode materials have shown success in laboratory scale experiments, but are still facing challenges such as voltage fade, moderate rate capacity and tap density for commercialization. The synthesis of precursors with high packing density and suitable physical properties is critical to achieve high energy density as well as the other acceptable electrochemical performance for the next generation lithium ion batteries. The aim of this study is to correlate the electrochemical properties of materials to their structural, morphological, and physical properties by coordinating the science of synthesis with the science of function, in order to enable the use of these compounds in vehicle technologies. Three different precursors including carbonate, hydroxide and oxalate were synthesized by co-precipitation reactions using continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under various conditions. Research focused on areas such as nucleation and growth mechanisms, synthesis optimizations, and intrinsic limitations of each co-precipitation method. A combination of techniques such as PSA, BET, SEM, EDX FIB, TEM, Raman, FTIR, TGA-DSC, XRD, and ICP-MS, as well as electrochemical test methods such as cycling, CV, EIS and HPPC tests were used in correlation with each other in order to deepen our understanding to these materials. Related topics such as the composite structure formation process during the solid state reaction, lithium and nickel content effects on the cathode properties were also discussed. Additionally, the side reactions between the active materials and electrolyte as a result of the high charge potential were

  2. Electrochemical studies of lithium-ion battery anode materials in lithium-ion battery electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingchuan

    The stability of uncoated copper (Cu) foils and graphite-coated copper (Cu-C) foils in lithium-ion battery electrolytes were extensively studied in this dissertation. At first, the electrochemical behavior and stability of the Cu foils and Cu-C foils were studied. Cyclic voltammetry was used to study the redox behavior of the foils in the electrolyte solutions. The reduction of electrolyte and its effect on the oxidation of copper was also studied. Bulk electrolysis was used to quantitatively study the dissolution of the foils in dry electrolytes and in electrolytes doped with impurities of H2O or HF. It was found that the graphite coating greatly influenced the redox behavior of the copper substrate and provided some protection to the copper from oxidation. Impurities increased the oxidation tendency of both Cu foils and Cu-C foils and may influence the integrity of the Cu-C foil electrode. During these studies, the open-circuit voltage (OCV) of Cu foil and Cu-C foil electrodes in Li-ion battery electrolytes was found to be a variable value over time. A detailed study showed that the OCV first rapidly decreased until reaching a minimum, and then gradually increased until reaching a meta-steady or steady state. These results were compared with OCV studies of Al foil, Pt wire, glassy carbon and Cu disk and wire electrodes. The OCV variation appeared to correlate to a surface change on the electrode after being immersed into the electrolyte solutions. The influence of aging of the reference electrode, the surface condition and edge effect of the copper foil, and solution impurities on the stability of the OCV was also studied. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to quantitatively evaluate the stability of Cu and Cu-C foils in lithium-ion battery electrolytes at open-circuit. Results showed that the stability of Cu and Cu-C foils was different in "fresh" electrolytes whereas it was similar in "aged" electrolytes. For Cu foils, in the "fresh" electrolyte, the

  3. Single- and double-ion type cross-linked polysiloxane solid electrolytes for lithium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Morita, Masayuki; Matsuda, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Takashi; Asai, Hiroyuki

    Polymeric solid electrolytes, that have poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMS) backbone and cross-linked network, were applied to a rechargeable lithium battery system. Single- (PMS-Li) and double-ion type (PMS-LiClO 4) electrolytes were prepared from the same prepolymers. Lithium electrode in the both electrolytes showed reversible stripping and deposition of lithium. Intercalation and deintercalation processes of lithium ion between lithium-manganese composite oxide (Li xMnO 2) electrode and the electrolytes were also confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, however, peak current decreased with several cycles in both cases. The model cell, Li/PMS-Li/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.4 mA h g -1 (per 1 g of active material, current density: 3.77 μA cm -2), and the Li/PMS-LiClO 4/Li xMnO 2 cell had 1.6 mA h g -1 (current density: 75.3 μA cm -2).

  4. Metal-organic frameworks for lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Ke, Fu-Sheng; Wu, Yu-Shan; Deng, Hexiang

    2015-03-15

    Porous materials have been widely used in batteries and supercapacitors attribute to their large internal surface area (usually 100–1000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and porosity that can favor the electrochemical reaction, interfacial charge transport, and provide short diffusion paths for ions. As a new type of porous crystalline materials, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have received huge attention in the past decade due to their unique properties, i.e. huge surface area (up to 7000 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), high porosity, low density, controllable structure and tunable pore size. A wide range of applications including gas separation, storage, catalysis, and drug delivery benefit from the recent fast development of MOFs. However, their potential in electrochemical energy storage has not been fully revealed. Herein, the present mini review appraises recent and significant development of MOFs and MOF-derived materials for rechargeable lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors, to give a glimpse into these potential applications of MOFs. - Graphical abstract: MOFs with large surface area and high porosity can offer more reaction sites and charge carriers diffusion path. Thus MOFs are used as cathode, anode, electrolyte, matrix and precursor materials for lithium ion battery, and also as electrode and precursor materials for supercapacitors. - Highlights: • MOFs have potential in electrochemical area due to their high porosity and diversity. • We summarized and compared works on MOFs for lithium ion battery and supercapacitor. • We pointed out critical challenges and provided possible solutions for future study.

  5. Fundamental Investigation of Silicon Anode in Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, James J.; Bennett, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon is a promising and attractive anode material to replace graphite for high capacity lithium ion cells since its theoretical capacity is 10 times of graphite and it is an abundant element on Earth. However, there are challenges associated with using silicon as Li-ion anode due to the significant first cycle irreversible capacity loss and subsequent rapid capacity fade during cycling. Understanding solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation along with the lithium ion insertion/de-insertion kinetics in silicon anodes will provide greater insight into overcoming these issues, thereby lead to better cycle performance. In this paper, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy are used to build a fundamental understanding of silicon anodes. The results show that it is difficult to form the SEI film on the surface of a Si anode during the first cycle; the lithium ion insertion and de-insertion kinetics for Si are sluggish, and the cell internal resistance changes with the state of lithiation after electrochemical cycling. These results are compared with those for extensively studied graphite anodes. The understanding gained from this study will help to design better Si anodes, and the combination of cyclic voltammetry with impedance spectroscopy provides a useful tool to evaluate the effectiveness of the design modifications on the Si anode performance.

  6. Phosphoryl-rich flame-retardant ions (FRIONs): towards safer lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Rectenwald, Michael F; Gaffen, Joshua R; Rheingold, Arnold L; Morgan, Alexander B; Protasiewicz, John D

    2014-04-14

    The functionalized catecholate, tetraethyl (2,3-dihydroxy-1,4-phenylene)bis(phosphonate) (H2 -DPC), has been used to prepare a series of lithium salts Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)], Li[B(DPC)2], Li[B(DPC)F2], and Li[P(DPC)3]. The phosphoryl-rich character of these anions was designed to impart flame-retardant properties for their use as potential flame-retardant ions (FRIONs), additives, or replacements for other lithium salts for safer lithium-ion batteries. The new materials were fully characterized, and the single-crystal structures of Li[B(DPC)(oxalato)] and Li[P(DPC)3] have been determined. Thermogravimetric analysis of the four lithium salts show that they are thermally stable up to around 200 °C. Pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry reveals that these salts produce high char yields upon combustion.

  7. An Effectively Activated Hierarchical Nano-/Microspherical Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 Cathode for Long-Life and High-Rate Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Bai, Ying; Bi, Xuanxuan; Qian, Ji; Ma, Lu; Tian, Jun; Wu, Chuan; Wu, Feng; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil

    2016-04-07

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries with high energy and high power density are required in the application of electric vehicles and portable electronics. Herein, we introduce a type of spherical Li-rich cathode material, Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, assembled from uniform nanocubes by a facile polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted hydrothermal method. The material with a hierarchical nano-/microstructure exhibits stable high-rate performance. Furthermore, the precipitant (i.e., urea) and the structure-directing agent (i.e., PVP) effectively activated the Li2 MnO3 components in the microscale material to achieve a high specific capacity of 298.5 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle. This Li-rich cathode material still delivered 243 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C after 200 cycles and the capacity retentions at 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 C were 94.4, 78.7, 76.3, and 67.8% after 150 cycles, respectively. The results make this Li-rich nano-/microstructure a promising cathode material for long-life and high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  8. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-ion porous electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dees, Dennis W.; Kawauchi, Shigehiro; Abraham, Daniel P.; Prakash, Jai

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi 0.8Co 0.15Al 0.05O 2, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10 -10 cm 2 s -1 at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  9. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-Ion porous electrode.

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, D. W.; Kawauchi, S.; Abraham, D. P.; Prakash, J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Toyota Central R&D Labs Inc.; Illinois Inst. of Tech.

    2009-04-01

    Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) experiments were conducted to determine the lithium diffusion coefficient of LiNi{sub 0.8}Co{sub 0.15}Al{sub 0.05}O{sub 2}, used as the active material in a lithium-ion battery porous composite positive electrode. An electrochemical model, based on concentrated solution porous electrode theory, was developed to analyze the GITT experimental results and compare to the original GITT analytical theory. The GITT experimental studies on the oxide active material were conducted between 3.5 and 4.5 V vs. lithium, with the maximum lithium diffusion coefficient value being 10{sup -10} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} at 3.85 V. The lithium diffusion coefficient values obtained from this study agree favorably with the values obtained from an earlier electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study.

  10. Charge-Control Unit for Testing Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Mazo, Michelle A.; Button, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    A charge-control unit was developed as part of a program to validate Li-ion cells packaged together in batteries for aerospace use. The lithium-ion cell charge-control unit will be useful to anyone who performs testing of battery cells for aerospace and non-aerospace uses and to anyone who manufacturers battery test equipment. This technology reduces the quantity of costly power supplies and independent channels that are needed for test programs in which multiple cells are tested. Battery test equipment manufacturers can integrate the technology into their battery test equipment as a method to manage charging of multiple cells in series. The unit manages a complex scheme that is required for charging Li-ion cells electrically connected in series. The unit makes it possible to evaluate cells together as a pack using a single primary test channel, while also making it possible to charge each cell individually. Hence, inherent cell-to-cell variations in a series string of cells can be addressed, and yet the cost of testing is reduced substantially below the cost of testing each cell as a separate entity. The unit consists of electronic circuits and thermal-management devices housed in a common package. It also includes isolated annunciators to signal when the cells are being actively bypassed. These annunciators can be used by external charge managers or can be connected in series to signal that all cells have reached maximum charge. The charge-control circuitry for each cell amounts to regulator circuitry and is powered by that cell, eliminating the need for an external power source or controller. A 110-VAC source of electricity is required to power the thermal-management portion of the unit. A small direct-current source can be used to supply power for an annunciator signal, if desired.

  11. Managing voids of Si anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianglong; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-10-07

    The implementation of silicon (Si) in practical lithium ion battery electrodes has been hindered due to its large volume change and consequent structural and interfacial instabilities. Coating nanostructured Si with a second phase (e.g., carbon (C)) represents a very promising strategy for dealing with these critical issues facing Si-based electrodes. In this review article, we will outline recent advances in coating Si with engineered C matrices. By exemplifying hollow core-shell, core-hollow shell, and core-shell structured Si-C hybrid nanomaterials, we aim to highlight the importance of managing voids in designing such Si-C hybrid electrodes, and provide some scientific insights into the development of advanced Si-based anodes for next-generation lithium ion batteries.

  12. Characteristics and Behavior of Cycled Aged Lithium Ion Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    service cycle and provide the cornerstone for safety analysis. 18650 Cells with representative chemistry of cells contained in current Army procured...their relevance to this effort warrants inclusion. 1-3 EXPERIMENTAL Representative 18650 cells were cycled at different rates and environmental...conditions. The 18650 chemistry used in this effort is a LiCoO2 lithium ion electrochemical cell. The bulk of this effort was conducted with 1.5 Amp-hr

  13. Modified carbon black materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas; Boesenberg, Ulrike; Pollak, Elad; Lux, Simon

    2016-06-14

    A lithium (Li) ion battery comprising a cathode, a separator, an organic electrolyte, an anode, and a carbon black conductive additive, wherein the carbon black has been heated treated in a CO.sub.2 gas environment at a temperature range of between 875-925 degrees Celsius for a time range of between 50 to 70 minutes to oxidize the carbon black and reduce an electrochemical reactivity of the carbon black towards the organic electrolyte.

  14. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility.

  15. Equilibrium lithium-ion transport between nanocrystalline lithium-inserted anatase TiO2 and the electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Swapna; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Mulder, Fokko M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2011-12-23

    The power density of lithium-ion batteries requires the fast transfer of ions between the electrode and electrolyte. The achievable power density is directly related to the spontaneous equilibrium exchange of charged lithium ions across the electrolyte/electrode interface. Direct and unique characterization of this charge-transfer process is very difficult if not impossible, and consequently little is known about the solid/liquid ion transfer in lithium-ion-battery materials. Herein we report the direct observation by solid-state NMR spectroscopy of continuous lithium-ion exchange between the promising nanosized anatase TiO(2) electrode material and the electrolyte. Our results reveal that the energy barrier to charge transfer across the electrode/electrolyte interface is equal to or greater than the barrier to lithium-ion diffusion through the solid anatase matrix. The composition of the electrolyte and in turn the solid/electrolyte interface (SEI) has a significant effect on the electrolyte/electrode lithium-ion exchange; this suggests potential improvements in the power of batteries by optimizing the electrolyte composition.

  16. Guidelines on Lithium-ion Battery Use in Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara; Loyselle, Patricia; Vogel, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    This guideline discusses a standard approach for defining, determining, and addressing safety, handling, and qualification standards for lithium-ion (Li-Ion) batteries to help the implementation of the technology in aerospace applications. Information from a variety of other sources relating to Li-ion batteries and their aerospace uses has been collected and included in this document. The sources used are listed in the reference section at the end of this document. The Li-Ion chemistry is highly energetic due to its inherent high specific energy and its flammable electrolyte. Due to the extreme importance of appropriate design, test, and hazard control of Li-ion batteries, it is recommended that all Government and industry users and vendors of this technology for space applications, especially involving humans, use this document for appropriate guidance prior to implementing the technology.

  17. Construction and testing of coin cells of lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Kayyar, Archana; Huang, Jiajia; Samiee, Mojtaba; Luo, Jian

    2012-08-02

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have wide applications in electronics, where customers always demand more capacity and longer lifetime. Lithium ion batteries have also been considered to be used in electric and hybrid vehicles or even electrical grid stabilization systems. All these applications simulate a dramatic increase in the research and development of battery materials, including new materials, doping, nanostructuring, coatings or surface modifications and novel binders. Consequently, an increasing number of physicists, chemists and materials scientists have recently ventured into this area. Coin cells are widely used in research laboratories to test new battery materials; even for the research and development that target large-scale and high-power applications, small coin cells are often used to test the capacities and rate capabilities of new materials in the initial stage. In 2010, we started a National Science Foundation (NSF) sponsored research project to investigate the surface adsorption and disordering in battery materials (grant no. DMR-1006515). In the initial stage of this project, we have struggled to learn the techniques of assembling and testing coin cells, which cannot be achieved without numerous help of other researchers in other universities (through frequent calls, email exchanges and two site visits). Thus, we feel that it is beneficial to document, by both text and video, a protocol of assembling and testing a coin cell, which will help other new researchers in this field. This effort represents the "Broader Impact" activities of our NSF project, and it will also help to educate and inspire students. In this video article, we document a protocol to assemble a CR2032 coin cell with a LiCoO2 working electrode, a Li counter electrode, and (the mostly commonly used) polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder. To ensure new learners to readily repeat the protocol, we keep the protocol as specific and explicit as we can. However, it is important

  18. Olivine Composite Cathode Materials for Improved Lithium Ion Battery Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, R.M.; Vaughey, J.T.

    2006-01-01

    Composite cathode materials in lithium ion batteries have become the subject of a great amount of research recently as cost and safety issues related to LiCoO2 and other layered structures have been discovered. Alternatives to these layered materials include materials with the spinel and olivine structures, but these present different problems, e.g. spinels have low capacities and cycle poorly at elevated temperatures, and olivines exhibit extremely low intrinsic conductivity. Previous work has shown that composite structures containing spinel and layered materials have shown improved electrochemical properties. These types of composite structures have been studied in order to evaluate their performance and safety characteristics necessary for use in lithium ion batteries in portable electronic devices, particularly hybrid-electric vehicles. In this study, we extended that work to layered-olivine and spinel-olivine composites. These materials were synthesized from precursor salts using three methods: direct reaction, ball-milling, and a coreshell synthesis method. X-ray diffraction spectra and electrochemical cycling data show that the core-shell method was the most successful in forming the desired products. The electrochemical performance of the cells containing the composite cathodes varied dramatically, but the low overpotential and reasonable capacities of the spinel-olivine composites make them a promising class for the next generation of lithium ion battery cathodes.

  19. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-12-01

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more difficult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to fill the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more effective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. We conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  20. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  1. Testing Conducted for Lithium-Ion Cell and Battery Verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Miller, Thomas B.; Manzo, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been conducting in-house testing in support of NASA's Lithium-Ion Cell Verification Test Program, which is evaluating the performance of lithium-ion cells and batteries for NASA mission operations. The test program is supported by NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology under the NASA Aerospace Flight Battery Systems Program, which serves to bridge the gap between the development of technology advances and the realization of these advances into mission applications. During fiscal year 2003, much of the in-house testing effort focused on the evaluation of a flight battery originally intended for use on the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Results of this testing will be compared with the results for similar batteries being tested at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Naval Research Laboratory. Ultimately, this work will be used to validate lithium-ion battery technology for future space missions. The Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander battery was characterized at several different voltages and temperatures before life-cycle testing was begun. During characterization, the battery displayed excellent capacity and efficiency characteristics across a range of temperatures and charge/discharge conditions. Currently, the battery is undergoing lifecycle testing at 0 C and 40-percent depth of discharge under low-Earth-orbit (LEO) conditions.

  2. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    DOE PAGES

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ectivemore » or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.« less

  3. Analyzing system safety in lithium-ion grid energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rosewater, David; Williams, Adam

    2015-10-08

    As grid energy storage systems become more complex, it grows more di cult to design them for safe operation. This paper first reviews the properties of lithium-ion batteries that can produce hazards in grid scale systems. Then the conventional safety engineering technique Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is reviewed to identify its limitations in complex systems. To address this gap, new research is presented on the application of Systems-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to a lithium-ion battery based grid energy storage system. STPA is anticipated to ll the gaps recognized in PRA for designing complex systems and hence be more e ective or less costly to use during safety engineering. It was observed that STPA is able to capture causal scenarios for accidents not identified using PRA. Additionally, STPA enabled a more rational assessment of uncertainty (all that is not known) thereby promoting a healthy skepticism of design assumptions. Lastly, we conclude that STPA may indeed be more cost effective than PRA for safety engineering in lithium-ion battery systems. However, further research is needed to determine if this approach actually reduces safety engineering costs in development, or improves industry safety standards.

  4. Methacrylate based gel polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isken, P.; Winter, M.; Passerini, S.; Lex-Balducci, A.

    2013-03-01

    A methacrylate based gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) was prepared and electrochemically investigated. The polymer was synthesized as a statistical co-polymer of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (OEGMA) and benzyl methacrylate (BnMA) by free radical polymerization. The ethylene glycol side chain of OEGMA should be able to interact with the liquid electrolyte, thus keeping it inside the GPE, whereas BnMA was used to enhance the mechanical stability of the GPE. Such a polymer was able to retain liquid electrolyte up to 400% of its own weight, while the mechanical stability of the GPE was still high enough to be used as separator in lithium-ion batteries. The GPE displayed a conductivity of 1.8 mS cm-1 at 25 °C and an electrochemical stability window comparable to that of a standard liquid electrolyte. When used in lithium-ion batteries, such a GPE allowed a performance comparable to that obtained using conventional liquid electrolytes. Therefore the reported electrolyte was identified as a promising candidate as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Senyshyn, A; Mühlbauer, M J; Dolotko, O; Hofmann, M; Ehrenberg, H

    2015-12-18

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm(3) has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  6. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-01-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode. PMID:26681110

  7. Homogeneity of lithium distribution in cylinder-type Li-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyshyn, A.; Mühlbauer, M. J.; Dolotko, O.; Hofmann, M.; Ehrenberg, H.

    2015-12-01

    Spatially-resolved neutron powder diffraction with a gauge volume of 2 × 2 × 20 mm3 has been applied as an in situ method to probe the lithium concentration in the graphite anode of different Li-ion cells of 18650-type in charged state. Structural studies performed in combination with electrochemical measurements and X-ray computed tomography under real cell operating conditions unambiguously revealed non-homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the graphite anode. Deviations from a homogeneous behaviour have been found in both radial and axial directions of 18650-type cells and were discussed in the frame of cell geometry and electrical connection of electrodes, which might play a crucial role in the homogeneity of the lithium distribution in the active materials within each electrode.

  8. Operando X-ray scattering and spectroscopic analysis of germanium nanowire anodes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Katharine E; Lowe, Michael A; Richards, Benjamin; Gao, Jie; Hanrath, Tobias; Abruña, Héctor D

    2015-02-17

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements have been employed to determine structural and bonding changes, as a function of the lithium content/state of charge, of germanium nanowires used as the active anode material within lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Our data, collected throughout the course of battery cycling (operando), indicate that lithium incorporation within the nanostructured germanium occurs heterogeneously, preferentially into amorphous regions over crystalline domains. Maintenance of the molecular structural integrity within the germanium nanowire is dependent on the depth of discharge. Discharging to a shallower cutoff voltage preserves partial crystallinity for several cycles.

  9. The cost of lithium is unlikely to upend the price of Li-ion storage systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciez, Rebecca E.; Whitacre, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    As lithium ion batteries become more common in electric vehicles and other storage applications, concerns about the cost of their namesake material, and its impact on the cost of these batteries, will continue. However, examining the constituent materials of these devices shows that lithium is a relatively small contributor to both the battery mass and manufacturing cost. The use of more expensive lithium precursor materials results in less than 1% increases in the cost of lithium ion cells considered. Similarly, larger fluctuations in the global lithium price (from 0 to 25/kg from a baseline of 7.50 per kg of Li2CO3) do not change the cost of lithium ion cells by more than 10%. While this small cost increase will not have a substantial impact on consumers, it could affect the manufacturers of these lithium ion cells, who already operate with small profit margins.

  10. Precursor polymers for the carbon coating of Au@ZnO multipods for application as active material in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Oschmann, Bernd; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Mueller, Franziska; Bresser, Dominic; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Tremel, Wolfgang; Passerini, Stefano; Zentel, Rudolf

    2015-06-01

    The synthesis of statistical and block copolymers based on polyacrylonitrile, as a source for carbonaceous materials, and thiol-containing repeating units as inorganic nanoparticle anchoring groups is reported. These polymers are used to coat Au@ZnO multipod heteroparticles with polymer brushes. IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy prove the successful binding of the polymer onto the inorganic nanostructures. Thermogravimetric analysis is applied to compare the binding ability of the block and statistical copolymers. Subsequently, the polymer coating is transformed into a carbonaceous (partially graphitic) coating by pyrolysis. The obtained carbon coating is characterized by Raman spectroscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The benefit of the conformal carbon coating of the Au@ZnO multipods regarding its application as lithium-ion anode material is revealed by performing galvanostatic cycling, showing a highly enhanced and stabilized electrochemical performance of the carbon-coated particles (still 831 mAh g(-1) after 150 cycles) with respect to the uncoated ones (only 353 mAh g(-1) after 10 cycles).

  11. Surface modifications of electrode materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, L. J.; Liu, H.; Li, C.; Wu, Y. P.; Rahm, E.; Holze, R.; Wu, H. Q.

    2006-02-01

    Since the birth of the lithium ion battery in the early 1990s, its development has been very rapid and it has been widely applied as power source for a lot of light and high value electronics due to its significant advantages over traditional rechargeable battery systems. Recent research demonstrates the importance of surface structural features of electrode materials for their electrochemical performance, and in this paper the latest progress on this aspect is reviewed. Electrode materials are either anodic or cathodic ones. The former mainly include graphitic carbons, whose surfaces can be modified by mild oxidation, deposition of metals and metal oxides, coating with polymers and other kinds of carbons. Through these modifications, the surface structures of the graphitic carbon anodes are improved, and these improvements include: (1) smoothing the active edge surfaces by removing some reactive sites and/or defects on the graphite surface, (2) forming a dense oxide layer on the graphite surface, and (3) covering active edge structures on the graphite surface. Meanwhile, other accompanying changes occur: (1) production of nanochannels/micropores, (2) an increase in the electronic conductivity, (3) an inhibition of structural changes during cycling, (4) a reduction of the thickness of the SEI (solid-electrolyte-interface) layer, and (5) an increase in the number of host sites for lithium storage. As a result, the direct contact of graphite with the electrolyte solution is prevented, its surface reactivity with electrolytes, the decomposition of electrolytes, the co-intercalation of the solvated lithium ions and the charge-transfer resistance are decreased, and the movement of graphene sheets is inhibited. When the surfaces of cathode materials, mainly including LiCoO 2, LiNiO 2 and LiMn 2O 4, are coated with oxides such as MgO, Al 2O 3, ZnO, SnO 2, ZrO 2, Li 2Oṡ2B 2O 3 glass and other electroactive oxides, the coating can prevent their direct contact with the

  12. Fabrication and Optimization of Carbon Nanomaterial-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Anodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    carbons , carbon onions and carbon nanotubes , used in lithium-ion battery electrodes can exhibit a much higher specific...SUBJECT TERMS Lithium-Ion Batteries, Amorphous Carbon , Carbide-Derived Carbon , Carbon Onions, Carbon Nanotubes , Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes 15. NUMBER...nanomaterials, such as carbide-derived carbons , carbon onions and carbon nanotubes , used in lithium-ion battery electrodes can exhibit a much

  13. Performance Loss of Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries Subjected to Overcharge and Overdischarge Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-16

    hexafluorophosphate EC: ethylene carbonate DEC: diethyl carbonate DMC: dimethyl carbonate PC: propylene carbonate     2    2. Introduction  Lithium -ion...Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6110--12-9455 Performance Loss of Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries Subjected to Overcharge...ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Performance Loss of Lithium Ion Polymer Batteries Subjected to Overcharge and

  14. Photovoltaic lithium-ion battery fabricated by molecular precursor method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Hiroki; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Yoshihisa; Sato, Mitsunobu

    2016-06-01

    A novel thin-film lithium-ion battery (LIB) which can be charged by the light irradiation was fabricated by molecular precursor method. The unprecedented, translucent thin-film LIB, fabricated on a fluorine-doped tin oxide pre-coated glass substrate, was attained by using the active materials, titania for anode and LiCoO2 for cathode, respectively. The averaged potential at 2.04V was observed by applying a constant current of 0.2mA. Then, that at 1.82V was detected after 60s during the sequential self-discharge process. The charging voltage of the assembled battery was 1.38V with irradiation of 1-sun, the self-discharge voltage was 1.37V. Based on the calibration curve of the charging voltages over constant currents ranging from 0-1.0mA, the detected value can be theoretically reduced to the charging operation by applying a constant current of approximately 60μA. The charge and discharge of this device was stable voltage at least 30 cycles. The two-in-one device can simultaneously generate and store electricity from solar light, the renewable energy source, and may be applied in smart windows for distributed power system according to on-site demand.

  15. Sinusoidal current and stress evolutions in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao-Guang; Bauer, Christoph; Wang, Chao-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical breakdown of graphite materials due to diffusion-induced stress (DIS) is a key aging mechanism of lithium-ion batteries. In this work, electrochemical-thermal coupled model along with a DIS model is developed to study the DIS distribution across the anode thickness. Special attention is paid to the evolution behavior of surface tangential stress (STS) in the discharge process for graphite at different locations of the anode. For the first time, we report that the evolution of STS, as well as local current, at all locations of the anode, evolve like sinusoidal waves in the discharge process with several crests and troughs. The staging behavior of graphite active material, in particular the sharp change of open-circuit potential (OCP) of graphite in the region between two plateaus, is found to be the root cause for the sinusoidal patterns of current and stress evolution. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters, such as starting state of charge, discharge C-rate and electrode thickness on the current and stress evolutions are investigated.

  16. Novel approach to recover cobalt and lithium from spent lithium-ion battery using oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xianlai; Li, Jinhui; Shen, Bingyu

    2015-09-15

    With the booming of consumer electronics (CE) and electric vehicle (EV), a large number of spent lithium-ion battery (LIBs) have been generated worldwide. Resource depletion and environmental concern driven from the sustainable industry of CE and EV have motivated spent LIBs should be recovered urgently. However, the conventional process combined with leaching, precipitating, and filtering was quite complicated to recover cobalt and lithium from spent LIBs. In this work, we developed a novel recovery process, only combined with oxalic acid leaching and filtering. When the optimal parameters for leaching process is controlled at 150 min retention time, 95 °C heating temperature, 15 g L(-1) solid-liquid ratio, and 400 rpm rotation rate, the recovery rate of lithium and cobalt from spent LIBs can reach about 98% and 97%, respectively. Additionally, we also tentatively discovered the leaching mechanism of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) using oxalic acid, and the leaching order of the sampling LiCoO2 of spent LIBs. All the obtained results can contribute to a short-cut and high-efficiency process of spent LIBs recycling toward a sound closed-loop cycle.

  17. Electrochemical Intercalation of Lithium Ions into Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. L.; Sumanasekera, G. U.; Rao, A. M.; Fang, S.; Eklund, P. C.

    1998-03-01

    We have investigated the electrochemical intercalation of lithium ions into ropes of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in a standard three electrode cell. The SWNT mat pressed onto a Pt plate was the working electrode. Lithium was used at both the counter and reference electrodes, and 1M LiAsF6 in ethylene carbonate:diethyl carbonate (1:1 by volume) served as the electrolyte. Raman spectra of the SWNTs were recorded in situ as a function of electrochemical charge using 514.5 nm excitation. During galvanostatic intercalation, we observed a relatively steep decrease in voltage until a plateau at around 1.2 V is reached. We attribute this initial decrease to the intercalation of lithium into SWNT and a concurrent electron doping of the SWNT π band. In the Raman spectrum, as the voltage reaches 1.2 V, the tangential mode frequency down shifted from 1593 cm-1 to 1591 cm-1 consistent with electron addition to the π^* band. We speculate that surface reactions of the lithium doped SWNT and the electrolyte are occuring during the plateau. During the evolution of the plateau, the Raman signal of the tangential mode gradually diminishes without further downshift of the its frequency and eventually disappears completely. Cyclic voltammograms show a minimum at around 1.2 V and peaks at around 0.7 V and 1.7 V. The origin of this structure is not presently understood.

  18. Lithium ion beam impact on selenium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, Suresh; Chauhan, R. P.

    2017-03-01

    This study is structured on Li3+ ion irradiation effect on the different properties of selenium (Se) nanowires (NW's) (80 nm). Template technique was employed for the synthesis of Se nanowires. Exploration of the effect of 10 MeV Li3+ ions on Se NW's was done for structural and electrical analysis with the help of characterization tools. X-ray diffraction revealed the variation in peak intensity only, with no peak shifting. The grain size and texture coefficients of various planes were also found to vary. Current-Voltage characteristics (IVC) show an increment in the conductivity up to a fluence of 1×1012 ions/cm2 and a decrease at the next two fluences. The effects of irradiation are presented in this paper and possible reasons for the variation in properties are also discussed in this study.

  19. Preliminary Performance of Lithium-ion Cell Designs for Ares I Upper Stage Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Thomas B.; Reid, Concha M.; Kussmaul, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) baselined lithium-ion technology for the Upper Stage (US). Under this effort, the NASA Glenn Research Center investigated three different aerospace lithium-ion cell suppliers to assess the performance of the various lithium-ion cell designs under acceptance and characterization testing. This paper describes the overall testing approaches associated with lithium-ion cells, their ampere-hour capacity as a function of temperature and discharge rates, as well as their performance limitations for use on the Ares I US vehicle.

  20. Irreversible Capacities of Graphite in Low Temperature Electrolytes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B.; Smart, M.; Surampudi, S.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, X.; Greenbaum, S.; Hightower, A.; Ahn, C.; Fultz, B.

    1999-01-01

    Carbonaceous anode materials in lithium ion rechargeable cells experience irreversible capacity, mainly due to a consumption of lithium in the formation of surface passive films. The stability and kinetics of lithium intercalation into the carbon anodes are dictated by these films.

  1. Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Susarla, Naresh; Dees, Dennis W.

    2017-02-01

    The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day-1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kgNMC-1 of energy, 15 L kgNMC-1 of process water, and cost 23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na2CO3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. A combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.

  2. Conductive Polymeric Binder for Lithium-Ion Battery Anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tianxiang

    Tin (Sn) has a high-specific capacity (993 mAhg-1) as an anode material for Li-ion batteries. To overcome the poor cycling performance issue caused by its large volume expansion and pulverization during the charging and discharging process, many researchers put efforts into it. Most of the strategies are through nanostructured material design and introducing conductive polymer binders that serve as matrix of the active material in anode. This thesis aims for developing a novel method for preparing the anode to improve the capacity retention rate. This would require the anode to have high electrical conductivity, high ionic conductivity, and good mechanical properties, especially elasticity. Here the incorporation of a conducting polymer and a conductive hydrogel in Sn-based anodes using a one-step electrochemical deposition via a 3-electrode cell method is reported: the Sn particles and conductive component can be electrochemically synthesized and simultaneously deposited into a hybrid thin film onto the working electrode directly forming the anode. A well-defined three dimensional network structure consisting of Sn nanoparticles coated by conducting polymers is achieved. Such a conductive polymer-hydrogel network has multiple advantageous features: meshporous polymeric structure can offer the pathway for lithium ion transfer between the anode and electrolyte; the continuous electrically conductive polypyrrole network, with the electrostatic interaction with elastic, porous hydrogel, poly (2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid-co-acrylonitrile) (PAMPS) as both the crosslinker and doping anion for polypyrrole (PPy) can decrease the volume expansion by creating porous scaffold and softening the system itself. Furthermore, by increasing the amount of PAMPS and creating an interval can improve the cycling performance, resulting in improved capacity retention about 80% after 20 cycles, compared with only 54% of that of the control sample without PAMPS. The cycle

  3. Microscale Alloy Type Lithium Ion Battery Anodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    The fabrication of microscale anodes designed for in situ atomic force microscopy testing is discussed. The anodes are partially confined in a nickel......test bed structures . a) A Ni film is evaporated on the Si handle wafer. b) Photoresist is coated and patterned on the Ni film. c) The Ni film is ion

  4. Conductive Polymer Binder-Enabled SiO-SnxCoyCz Anode for High-Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Ling, Min; Jia, Zhe; Song, Xiangyun; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Gao

    2016-06-01

    A SiOSnCoC composite anode is assembled using a conductive polymer binder for the application in next-generation high energy density lithium-ion batteries. A specific capacity of 700 mAh/g is achieved at a 1C (900 mA/g) rate. A high active material loading anode with an areal capacity of 3.5 mAh/cm(2) is demonstrated by mixing SiOSnCoC with graphite. To compensate for the lithium loss in the first cycle, stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) is used for prelithiation; when paired with a commercial cathode, a stable full cell cycling performance with a 86% first cycle efficiency is realized. By achieving these important metrics toward a practical application, this conductive polymer binder/SiOSnCoC anode system presents great promise to enable the next generation of high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

  5. In situ evaporation of lithium for LEVIS ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, B.; Lopez, M.; Lamppa, K.; Stearns, W.; Bieg, K.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the In Situ evaporation of pure lithium on the anode of PBFA II which then can be evaporated and ionized by Laser Evaporation and Ionization Source (LEVIS). Included in this report are the necessary calculations, light laboratory experiments and details of the hardware for PBFA II. This report gives all the details of In Situ evaporation for PBFA II so when a decision is made to provide an active lithium source for PBFA II, it can be fielded in a minimum of time.

  6. On the choice of graphite for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, B.; Flandrois, S.; Guerin, K.; Fevrier-Bouvier, A.; Teulat, I.; Biensan, P.

    Graphites as active materials for negative electrode in lithium batteries are particularly attractive because of their large capacity of lithium intercalation and their low average voltage. In some conditions, they are known to suffer from low reversibility of the initial intercalation process. This phenomenon is shown to be unambiguously related to an exfoliation of graphene layers, that can occur even in EC based electrolytes. Occurrence of a clear correlation between the extent of irreversible behaviour and rhombohedral phase content of graphites is discussed. Milling or thermal treatment of pristine graphites are also shown to influence electrochemical properties.

  7. The Extravehicular Maneuvering Unit's New Long Life Battery and Lithium Ion Battery Charger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.; Elder, Mark A.; Williams, Anthony G.; Dembeck, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit Silver/Zinc Increased Capacity Battery, which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem during Extravehicular Activities. The Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the battery either in a charger-strapped configuration or in a suit-mounted configuration. This paper will provide an overview of the capabilities and systems engineering development approach for both the battery and the charger

  8. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  9. Graphene-based nanocomposite anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-21

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever-growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. Synergetic effects between graphene and the introduced second-phase component are generally observed. In this feature review article, we will focus on the recent work on four different categories of graphene-based nanocomposite anodes by us and others: graphene-transitional metal oxide, graphene-Sn/Si/Ge, graphene-metal sulfide, and graphene-carbon nanotubes. For the supported materials on graphene, we will emphasize the non-zero dimensional (non-particle) morphologies such as two dimensional nanosheet/nanoplate and one dimensional nanorod/nanofibre/nanotube morphologies. The synthesis strategies and lithium-ion storage properties of these highlighted electrode morphologies are distinct from those of the commonly obtained zero dimensional nanoparticles. We aim to stress the importance of structure matching in the composites and their morphology-dependent lithium-storage properties and mechanisms.

  10. Graphene composites as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, M.; Kovacevic, R.

    2013-03-01

    Since the world of mobile phones and laptops has significantly altered by a big designer named Steve Jobs, the electronic industries have strived to prepare smaller, thinner and lower weight products. The giant electronic companies, therefore, compete in developing more efficient hardware such as batteries used inside the small metallic or polymeric frame. One of the most important materials in the production lines is the lithium-based batteries which is so famous for its ability in recharging as many times as a user needs. However, this is not an indication of being long lasted, as many of the electronic devices are frequently being used for a long time. The performance, chemistry, safety and above all cost of the lithium ion batteries should be considered when the design of the compounds are at the top concern of the engineers. To increase the efficiency of the batteries a combination of graphene and nanoparticles is recently introduced and it has shown to have enormous technological effect in enhancing the durability of the batteries. However, due to very high electronic conductivity, these materials can be thought of as preparing the anode electrode in the lithiumion battery. In this paper, the various approaches to characterize different types of graphene/nanoparticles and the process of preparing the anode for the lithium-ion batteries as well as their electrical properties are discussed.

  11. Modeling of early age loss of lithium ions from pore solution of cementitious systems treated with lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Taehwan Olek, Jan

    2015-01-15

    Addition of lithium nitrate admixture to the fresh concrete mixture helps to minimize potential problems related to alkali-silica reaction. For this admixture to function as an effective ASR control measure, it is imperative that the lithium ions remain in the pore solution. However, it was found that about 50% of the originally added lithium ions are removed from the pore solution during early stages of hydration. This paper revealed that the magnitude of the Li{sup +} ion loss is highly dependent on the concentration of Li{sup +} ions in the pore solution and the hydration rate of the cementitious systems. Using these findings, an empirical model has been developed which can predict the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution during the hydration period. The proposed model can be used to investigate the effects of mixture parameters on the loss of Li{sup +} ions from the pore solution of cementitious system.

  12. Coupled Mechanical and Electrochemical Phenomena in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannarella, John

    Lithium-ion batteries are complee electro-chemo-mechanical systems owing to a number of coupled mechanical and electrochemical phenomena that occur during operation. In this thesis we explore these phenomena in the context of battery degradation, monitoring/diagnostics, and their application to novel energy systems. We begin by establishing the importance of bulk stress in lithium-ion batteries through the presentation of a two-year exploratory aging study which shows that bulk mechanical stress can significantly accelerate capacity fade. We then investigate the origins of this coupling between stress and performance by investigating the effects of stress in idealized systems. Mechanical stress is found to increase internal battery resistance through separator deformation, which we model by considering how deformation affects certain transport properties. When this deformation occurs in a spatially heterogeneous manner, local hot spots form, which accelerate aging and in some cases lead to local lithium plating. Because of the importance of separator deformation with respect to mechanically-coupled aging, we characterize the mechanical properties of battery separators in detail. We also demonstrate that the stress state of a lithium-ion battery cell can be used to measure the cell's state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC)--important operating parameters that are traditionally difficult to measure outside of a laboratory setting. The SOH is shown to be related to irreversible expansion that occurs with degradation and the SOC to the reversible strains characteristic of the cell's electrode materials. The expansion characteristics and mechanical properties of the constituent cell materials are characterized, and a phenomenological model for the relationship between stress and SOH/SOC is developed. This work forms the basis for the development of on-board monitoring of SOH/SOC based on mechanical measurements. Finally we study the coupling between mechanical

  13. Iron phosphates as cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijun

    High performance lithium ion batteries are essential to meeting the requirements of both portable electronic equipment for personal use and large-scale applications like hybrid electric and all-electric vehicles. Iron-based materials combined with phosphate groups are promising cathode candidates, with their rich structural chemistry and the relatively high Fe3+/Fe2+ redox potential vs. Li/Li+. This study investigated primarily two iron phosphate frameworks: the olivine-type all-ferrous LiFePO4 and the all-ferric lipscombite. Both were synthesized at low temperatures using a hydrothermal or solvothermal method. The structure and morphology were evaluated by XRD, TGA, SEM, TEM and electrochemical studies. The olivine-type LiFePO4 contains isolated chains of corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra, forming a 1-D tunnel structure through which lithium can be intercalated/deintercalated. Pure ordered LiFePO4 was achieved at an optimized synthesis condition by adding hydrazine at a pH of 6. It was found that the pH significantly affects the morphology. The reversible capacity was less than ideal, mainly due to the relatively large particle size. Lithium ion diffusivity was determined to be around 10-14 cm 2 s-1. The all-ferric lipscombite structure Fe3+4/3-z/3⊘2/ 3+z/3 (PO4)(OH)1-z (H2O)z ( z = 0 or 0.46, O = vacancy) contains interconnecting chains of face-sharing FeO6 octahedra, with about 2/3 (Fe-2/3-T) and 60% (Fe-60%) iron occupancy with a "stacking-log-like" structure. Lithium can diffuse within one tunnel as well as possibly jump between tunnels through vacancies in the FeO6 octahedra, making pseudo 3-D diffusion paths. On metal substitution, high valence ions increased the capacity when compared to its parent compound. Lithium ion-exchanged compounds significantly improve the capacity in Fe-2/3-T while minimally doing so in Fe-60%.

  14. Are Lithium Ion Cells Intrinsically Safe?

    PubMed Central

    Dubaniewicz, Thomas H.; DuCarme, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health researchers are studying the potential for Li-ion-battery thermal runaway from an internal short circuit in equipment approved as permissible for use in underground coal mines. Researchers used a plastic wedge to induce internal short circuits for thermal runaway susceptibility evaluation purposes, which proved to be a more severe test than the flat plate method for selected Li-ion cells. Researchers conducted cell crush tests within a 20-L chamber filled with 6.5% CH4–air to simulate the mining hazard. Results indicate that LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells pose a CH4 explosion hazard from a cell internal short circuit. Under specified test conditions, A123 Systems 26650 LiFePO4 cells were safer than the LG Chem ICR18650S2 LiCoO2 cells at a conservative statistical significance level. PMID:26166911

  15. New lithium iron pyrophosphate as 3.5 V class cathode material for lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Shin-ichi; Nakamura, Megumi; Natsui, Ryuichi; Yamada, Atsuo

    2010-10-06

    A new pyrophosphate compound Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) was synthesized by a conventional solid-state reaction, and its crystal structure was determined. Its reversible electrode operation at ca. 3.5 V vs Li was identified with the capacity of a one-electron theoretical value of 110 mAh g(-1) even for ca. 1 μm particles without any special efforts such as nanosizing or carbon coating. Li(2)FeP(2)O(7) and its derivatives should provide a new platform for related lithium battery electrode research and could be potential competitors to commercial olivine LiFePO(4), which has been recognized as the most promising positive cathode for a lithium-ion battery system for large-scale applications, such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.

  16. Solid-State Electrode Engineering and Material Processing for All-Solid-State Lithium and Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yersak, Thomas A.

    In this dissertation we demonstrate the full rechargeability of a FeS 2/lithium metal battery at 60°C. To enable the reversibility of the FeS2 redox chemistry we utilize a bulk all-solid-state battery architecture based upon the Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. The glass-ceramic electrolyte's non-volatility and non-flammability allows us to use a lithium metal anode safely, while its solid nature confines FeS2's intermediate electroactive species to prevent active material loss and capacity fade. Based only on the weight of the active materials our battery stands to triple the specific energy (Wh kg-1) of conventional state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries. We also observe ortho-FeS2 as a charge product and propose a new discharge mechanism which revises 30 years of research on the subject. Unfortunately, our laboratory FeS2/Li battery could not achieve a practical cell-level specific energy because the composite electrode was nearly 70 wt. % glass-ceramic electrolyte and carbon black. We also found that our batteries were not durable because the formation of lithium dendrites through the glass-ceramic electrolyte separator membrane frequently internally shorted test cells upon charge. The remainder of this dissertation outlines our work to develop an all-solid-state Li-ion battery to address the shorting issue and the work done to engineer better active material-electrolyte solid-solid interfaces in the composite electrode for high cell-level specific energy.

  17. Lithium-ion batteries with intrinsic pulse overcharge protection

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Zonghai; Amine, Khalil

    2013-02-05

    The present invention relates in general to the field of lithium rechargeable batteries, and more particularly relates to the positive electrode design of lithium-ion batteries with improved high-rate pulse overcharge protection. Thus the present invention provides electrochemical devices containing a cathode comprising at least one primary positive material and at least one secondary positive material; an anode; and a non-aqueous electrolyte comprising a redox shuttle additive; wherein the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is greater than the redox potential of the primary positive material; the redox potential of the redox shuttle additive is lower than the redox potential of the secondary positive material; and the redox shuttle additive is stable at least up to the redox potential of the secondary positive material.

  18. Application of PVDF composite for lithium-ion battery separator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrina, Q.; Majid, N.; Prihandoko, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this study a composite observed in PVDF composite as lithium ion battery separator. Observation of performance cell battery with cyclic voltametry and charge discharge capacity. Surface morphology PVDF separator and commercial separator observed with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cyclic Voltamerty test (CV) and Charge Discharge (CD) showed a capacity value on the coin cell. Coin cell is composed of material LiFePO4 cathode, anode material of lithium metal and varies as graphite, liquid electrolyte varied use LiBOB and LiPF6. While the PVDF as compared to the commercial separator. Coin cell commercial separator has a better high capacity value when compared with Coin cell with the PVDF separator. Life cycle coin cell with the commercial separator material is still longer than coin cell separator with PVDF Copolymer. Development of PVDF as separator remains to be done in order to improve the performance of the battery exceeds the usage of commercial material.

  19. Ultrafast fluxional exchange dynamics in electrolyte solvation sheath of lithium ion battery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Hochan; Noh, Yohan; Kossowska, Dorota; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-03-08

    Lithium cation is the charge carrier in lithium-ion battery. Electrolyte solution in lithium-ion battery is usually based on mixed solvents consisting of polar carbonates with different aliphatic chains. Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods. Here we investigate the ultrafast carbonate solvent exchange dynamics around lithium ions in electrolyte solutions with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and find that the time constants of the formation and dissociation of lithium-ion···carbonate complex in solvation sheaths are on a picosecond timescale. We anticipate that such ultrafast microscopic fluxional processes in lithium-solvent complexes could provide an important clue to understanding macroscopic mobility of lithium cation in lithium-ion battery on a molecular level.

  20. Ultrafast fluxional exchange dynamics in electrolyte solvation sheath of lithium ion battery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Koo; Park, Kwanghee; Lee, Hochan; Noh, Yohan; Kossowska, Dorota; Kwak, Kyungwon; Cho, Minhaeng

    2017-01-01

    Lithium cation is the charge carrier in lithium-ion battery. Electrolyte solution in lithium-ion battery is usually based on mixed solvents consisting of polar carbonates with different aliphatic chains. Despite various experimental evidences indicating that lithium ion forms a rigid and stable solvation sheath through electrostatic interactions with polar carbonates, both the lithium solvation structure and more importantly fluctuation dynamics and functional role of carbonate solvent molecules have not been fully elucidated yet with femtosecond vibrational spectroscopic methods. Here we investigate the ultrafast carbonate solvent exchange dynamics around lithium ions in electrolyte solutions with coherent two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy and find that the time constants of the formation and dissociation of lithium-ion···carbonate complex in solvation sheaths are on a picosecond timescale. We anticipate that such ultrafast microscopic fluxional processes in lithium-solvent complexes could provide an important clue to understanding macroscopic mobility of lithium cation in lithium-ion battery on a molecular level. PMID:28272396

  1. Feasibility of Cathode Surface Coating Technology for High-Energy Lithium-ion and Beyond-Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalluri, Sujith; Yoon, Moonsu; Jo, Minki; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue; Cho, Jaephil; Guo, Zaiping

    2017-03-02

    Cathode material degradation during cycling is one of the key obstacles to upgrading lithium-ion and beyond-lithium-ion batteries for high-energy and varied-temperature applications. Herein, we highlight recent progress in material surface-coating as the foremost solution to resist the surface phase-transitions and cracking in cathode particles in mono-valent (Li, Na, K) and multi-valent (Mg, Ca, Al) ion batteries under high-voltage and varied-temperature conditions. Importantly, we shed light on the future of materials surface-coating technology with possible research directions. In this regard, we provide our viewpoint on a novel hybrid surface-coating strategy, which has been successfully evaluated in LiCoO2 -based-Li-ion cells under adverse conditions with industrial specifications for customer-demanding applications. The proposed coating strategy includes a first surface-coating of the as-prepared cathode powders (by sol-gel) and then an ultra-thin ceramic-oxide coating on their electrodes (by atomic-layer deposition). What makes it appealing for industry applications is that such a coating strategy can effectively maintain the integrity of materials under electro-mechanical stress, at the cathode particle and electrode- levels. Furthermore, it leads to improved energy-density and voltage retention at 4.55 V and 45 °C with highly loaded electrodes (≈24 mg.cm(-2) ). Finally, the development of this coating technology for beyond-lithium-ion batteries could be a major research challenge, but one that is viable.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Active Thermal Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries using Solid-State Thermoelectric Heat Pump and Heat Pipes with Electric Vehicular Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parekh, Bhaumik Kamlesh

    Lithium-Ion batteries have become a popular choice for use in energy storage systems in electric vehicles (EV) and Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) because of high power and high energy density. But the use of EV and HEV in all climates demands for a battery thermal management system (BTMS) since temperature effects their performance, cycle life and, safety. Hence the BTMS plays a crucial role in the performance of EV and HEV. In this paper, three thermal management systems are studied: (a) simple aluminum as heat spreader material, (b) heat pipes as heat spreader, and (c) advanced combined solid state thermoelectric heat pump (TE) and heat pipe system; these will be subsequently referred to as Design A, B and C, respectively. A detailed description of the designs and the experimental setup is presented. The experimental procedure is divided into two broad categories: Cooling mode and Warming-up mode. Cooling mode covers the conditions when a BTMS is responsible to cool the battery pack through heat dissipation and Warming-up mode covers the conditions when the BTMS is responsible to warm the battery pack in a low temperature ambient condition, maintaining a safe operating temperature of the battery pack in both modes. The experimental procedure analyzes the thermal management system by evaluating the effect of each variable like heat sink area, battery heat generation rate, cooling air temperature, air flow rate and TE power on parameters like maximum temperature of the battery pack (T max), maximum temperature difference (DeltaT) and, heat transfer through heat sink/cooling power of TE (Q c). The results show that Design C outperforms Design A and Design B in spite of design issues which reduce its efficiency, but can still be improved to achieve better performance.

  3. An advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode.

    PubMed

    Hassoun, Jusef; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Agostini, Marco; Angelucci, Marco; Betti, Maria Grazia; Cingolani, Roberto; Gemmi, Mauro; Mariani, Carlo; Panero, Stefania; Pellegrini, Vittorio; Scrosati, Bruno

    2014-08-13

    We report an advanced lithium-ion battery based on a graphene ink anode and a lithium iron phosphate cathode. By carefully balancing the cell composition and suppressing the initial irreversible capacity of the anode in the round of few cycles, we demonstrate an optimal battery performance in terms of specific capacity, that is, 165 mAhg(-1), of an estimated energy density of about 190 Wh kg(-1) and a stable operation for over 80 charge-discharge cycles. The components of the battery are low cost and potentially scalable. To the best of our knowledge, complete, graphene-based, lithium ion batteries having performances comparable with those offered by the present technology are rarely reported; hence, we believe that the results disclosed in this work may open up new opportunities for exploiting graphene in the lithium-ion battery science and development.

  4. Molten Salt Electrolytically Produced Carbon/Tin Nanomaterial as the Anode in a Lithium Ion Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Gupta, Rajshekar; Schwandt, Carsten; Fray, Derek J.

    2017-03-01

    A carbon/tin nanomaterial, consisting of predominantly Sn-filled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticles, is prepared by molten salt electrochemistry, using electrodes of graphite and an electrolyte of LiCl salt containing a small admixture of SnCl2. The C/Sn hybrid material generated is incorporated into the active anode material of a lithium ion battery and tested with regard to storage capacity and cycling behavior. The results demonstrate that the C/Sn material has favorable properties, in terms of energy density and in particular long-term stability, that exceed those of the individual components alone. The initial irreversible capacity of the material is somewhat larger than that of conventional battery graphite which is due to its unique nanostructure. Overall the results would indicate the suitability of this material for use in the anodes of lithium ion batteries with high rate capability.

  5. Yolk/shell nanoparticles: new platforms for nanoreactors, drug delivery and lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Qiao, Shi Zhang; Chen, Jun Song; Lou, Xiong Wen; Xing, Xianran; Lu, Gao Qing

    2011-12-21

    Yolk/shell or 'rattle-typed' nanomaterials with nanoparticle cores inside hollow shells are interesting among the complex hollow nanostructures. Yolk/shell nanoparticles (YSNs) are promising functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications such as catalysis, delivery, lithium-ion batteries and biosensors due to their tailorability and functionality in both the cores and hollow shells. This feature article provides an overview of advances in this exciting area of YSNs, covering systematic synthesis approaches and key promising applications based on the literature and our own recent work. We present some strategies for the synthesis of YSNs with controllable sizes, compositions, geometries, structures and functionalities. Applications of these new materials in a wide range of potential areas are discussed including nanoreactors, biomedicine and lithium-ion batteries. Promising future directions of this active research field are also highlighted.

  6. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  7. Battery Separator Characterization and Evaluation Procedures for NASA's Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Richard S.; Bennet, William R.; Wong, Eunice K.; Lewton, MaryBeth R.; Harris, Megan K.

    2010-01-01

    To address the future performance and safety requirements for the electrical energy storage technologies that will enhance and enable future NASA manned aerospace missions, advanced rechargeable, lithium-ion battery technology development is being pursued within the scope of the NASA Exploration Technology Development Program s (ETDP's) Energy Storage Project. A critical cell-level component of a lithium-ion battery which significantly impacts both overall electrochemical performance and safety is the porous separator that is sandwiched between the two active cell electrodes. To support the selection of the optimal cell separator material(s) for the advanced battery technology and chemistries under development, laboratory characterization and screening procedures were established to assess and compare separator material-level attributes and associated separator performance characteristics.

  8. Copper Antimonide Nanowire Array Lithium Ion Anodes Stabilized by Electrolyte Additives.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Everett D; Prieto, Amy L

    2016-11-09

    Nanowires of electrochemically active electrode materials for lithium ion batteries represent a unique system that allows for intensive investigations of surface phenomena. In particular, highly ordered nanowire arrays produced by electrodeposition into anodic aluminum oxide templates can lead to new insights into a material's electrochemical performance by providing a high-surface-area electrode with negligible volume expansion induced pulverization. Here we show that for the Li-CuxSb ternary system, stabilizing the surface chemistry is the most critical factor for promoting long electrode life. The resulting solid electrolyte interphase is analyzed using a mix of electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and lithium ion battery half-cell testing to provide a better understanding of the importance of electrolyte composition on this multicomponent alloy anode material.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Anodes Being Evaluated for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Gennett, Tom; VanderWal, Randy L.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is evaluating the use of carbon nanotubes as anode materials for thin-film lithium-ion (Li) batteries. The motivation for this work lies in the fact that, in contrast to carbon black, directed structured nanotubes and nanofibers offer a superior intercalation media for Li-ion batteries. Carbon lamellas in carbon blacks are circumferentially oriented and block much of the particle interior, rendering much of the matrix useless as intercalation material. Nanofibers, on the other hand, can be grown so as to provide 100-percent accessibility of the entire carbon structure to intercalation. These tubes can be visualized as "rolled-up" sheets of carbon hexagons (see the following figure). One tube is approximately 1/10,000th the diameter of a human hair. In addition, the high accessibility of the structure confers a high mobility to ion-exchange processes, a fundamental for the batteries to respond dynamically because of intercalation.

  10. Non-aqueous Electrode Processing and Construction of Lithium-ion Coin Cells.

    PubMed

    Stein, Malcolm; Chen, Chien-Fan; Robles, Daniel J; Rhodes, Christopher; Mukherjee, Partha P

    2016-02-01

    Research into new and improved materials to be utilized in lithium-ion batteries (LIB) necessitates an experimental counterpart to any computational analysis. Testing of lithium-ion batteries in an academic setting has taken on several forms, but at the most basic level lies the coin cell construction. In traditional LIB electrode preparation, a multi-phase slurry composed of active material, binder, and conductive additive is cast out onto a substrate. An electrode disc can then be punched from the dried sheet and used in the construction of a coin cell for electrochemical evaluation. Utilization of the potential of the active material in a battery is critically dependent on the microstructure of the electrode, as an appropriate distribution of the primary components are crucial to ensuring optimal electrical conductivity, porosity, and tortuosity, such that electrochemical and transport interaction is optimized. Processing steps ranging from the combination of dry powder, wet mixing, and drying can all critically affect multi-phase interactions that influence the microstructure formation. Electrochemical probing necessitates the construction of electrodes and coin cells with the utmost care and precision. This paper aims at providing a step-by-step guide of non-aqueous electrode processing and coin cell construction for lithium-ion batteries within an academic setting and with emphasis on deciphering the influence of drying and calendaring.

  11. Lithium recovery from brine using a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoni; Lee, Jaehan; Kang, Jin Soo; Jo, Kyusik; Kim, Seonghwan; Sung, Yung-Eun; Yoon, Jeyong

    2015-04-01

    Lithium is one of the most important elements in various fields including energy storage, medicine manufacturing and the glass industry, and demands for lithium are constantly increasing these days. The lime soda evaporation process using brine lake water is the major extraction method for lithium, but this process is not only inefficient and time-consuming but also causes a few environmental problems. Electrochemical recovery processes of lithium ions have been proposed recently, but the better idea for the silver negative electrodes used in these systems is required to reduce its cost or increase long term stability. Here, we report an electrochemical lithium recovery method based on a λ-MnO2/activated carbon hybrid supercapacitor system. In this system, lithium ions and counter anions are effectively captured at each electrode with low energy consumption in a salt solution containing various cationic species or simulated Salar de Atacama brine lake water in Chile. Furthermore, we designed this system as a flow process for practical applications. By experimental analyses, we confirmed that this system has high selectivity and long-term stability, with its performance being retained even after repetitive captures and releases of lithium ions.

  12. Performance of SONY 18650-HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-15

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-2010(8550)-5 Performance of SONY 18650 -HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates 15 January 2010 Albert H...SONY 18650 -HC Lithium-Ion Cells for Various Cycling Rates 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-09-C-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 20100310195 14. ABSTRACT Five different life tests of SONY 18650 -HC lithium

  13. Analysis of capacity fade in a lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamps, Andrew T.; Holland, Charles E.; White, Ralph E.; Gatzke, Edward P.

    Two parameter estimation methods are presented for online determination of parameter values using a simple charge/discharge model of a Sony 18650 lithium ion battery. Loss of capacity and resistance increase are both included in the model. The first method is a hybrid combination of batch data reconciliation and moving-horizon parameter estimation. A discussion on the selection of tuning parameters for this method based on confidence intervals is included. The second method uses batch data reconciliation followed by application of discrete filtering of the resulting parameters. These methods are demonstrated using cycling data from an experimental cell with over 1600 charge-discharge cycles.

  14. Modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Liaw, Bor Yann; Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Jungst, Rudolph George

    2003-09-01

    Battery life is an important, yet technically challenging, issue for battery development and application. Adequately estimating battery life requires a significant amount of testing and modeling effort to validate the results. Integrated battery testing and modeling is quite feasible today to simulate battery performance, and therefore applicable to predict its life. A relatively simple equivalent-circuit model (ECM) is used in this work to show that such an integrated approach can actually lead to a high-fidelity simulation of a lithium-ion cell's performance and life. The methodology to model the cell's capacity fade during thermal aging is described to illustrate its applicability to battery calendar life prediction.

  15. Advances in Wearable Fiber-Shaped Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Weng, Wei; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-06-01

    It is highly desirable to develop flexible and efficient energy-storage systems for widely used wearable electronic products. To this end, fiber-shaped lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) attract increasing interest due to their combined superiorities of miniaturization, adaptability, and weavability, compared with conventional bulky and planar structures. Recent advances in the fabrication, structure, mechanism, and properties of fiber-shaped LIBs are summarized here, with a focus on the electrode material. Remaining challenges and future directions are also highlighted to provide some useful insights from the viewpoint of practical applications.

  16. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-11

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  17. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-06-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces.

  18. Kirigami-based stretchable lithium-ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zeming; Wang, Xu; Lv, Cheng; An, Yonghao; Liang, Mengbing; Ma, Teng; He, David; Zheng, Ying-Jie; Huang, Shi-Qing; Yu, Hongyu; Jiang, Hanqing

    2015-01-01

    We have produced stretchable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) using the concept of kirigami, i.e., a combination of folding and cutting. The designated kirigami patterns have been discovered and implemented to achieve great stretchability (over 150%) to LIBs that are produced by standardized battery manufacturing. It is shown that fracture due to cutting and folding is suppressed by plastic rolling, which provides kirigami LIBs excellent electrochemical and mechanical characteristics. The kirigami LIBs have demonstrated the capability to be integrated and power a smart watch, which may disruptively impact the field of wearable electronics by offering extra physical and functionality design spaces. PMID:26066809

  19. Prussian blues as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2014-09-22

    Prussian blues (or iron cyanides) and their analogues are attractive in both fundamental studies and industrial applications owing to their chemical and structural diversity. The large open space in their framework provides tunnels and space for the transport and storage of lithium ions. Two Prussian blues were synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The nanosized Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 and cubic FeFe(CN)6 deliver reversible capacities of 95 mAh g(-1) and 138 mAh g(-1) , respectively. In comparison, FeFe(CN)6 shows cycling and rate performances superior to Fe4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 .

  20. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S; Zheng, Honghe

    2014-10-07

    A family of carboxylic acid group containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  1. Silver: high performance anode for thin film lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillades, G.; Sarradin, J.

    Among metals and intermetallic compounds, silver exhibits a high specific capacity according to the formation of different Ag-Li alloys (up to AgLi 12) in a very low voltage range versus lithium (0.250-0 V). Electrochemical results including Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as well as cycling behaviour experiments confirmed the interesting characteristics of silver thin film electrodes prepared by radio frequency (r.f.) sputtering. XRD patterns recorded at different electrochemical stages of the alloying/de-alloying processes showed the complexity of the silver-lithium system under dynamic conditions. Cycling life depends on several parameters and particularly of the careful choice of cut-off voltages. In very well monitored conditions, galvanostatic cycles exhibited flat reversible plateaus with a minimal voltage value (0.050 V) between charge and discharge, a feature of great interest in the use of an electrode. The first results of a lithium ion battery with both silver and LiMn 1.5Ni 0.5O 4 thin films are presented.

  2. UV and EB Curable Binder Technology for Lithium Ion Batteries and UltraCapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Voelker, Gary

    2012-04-30

    the basic feasibility of using UV curing technology to produce Lithium ion battery electrodes at speeds over 200 feet per minute has been shown. A unique set of UV curable chemicals were discovered that were proven to be compatible with a Lithium ion battery environment with the adhesion qualities of PVDF.

  3. Improved low temperature performance of lithium ion cells with low ethylene carbonate content electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.; Crott, H.; Tice, D.; Staniewicz, R.

    2001-01-01

    Lithium-ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD interagency program. For the projected missions, lithium ion batteries need to be further improved, i.e., low temperature performance for Mars Landers, Rovers, and Penetrators and cycle life for the Orbiters and LEO and GEO satellites.

  4. Transition metal dissolution, ion migration, electrocatalytic reduction and capacity loss in Lithium-ion full cells

    DOE PAGES

    Gilbert, James A.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Abraham, Daniel P.

    2017-01-05

    Continuous operation of full cells with layered transition metal (TM) oxide positive electrodes (NCM523) leads to dissolution of TM ions and their migration and incorporation into the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) of the graphite-based negative electrode. These processes correlate with cell capacity fade and accelerate markedly as the upper cutoff voltage (UCV) exceeds 4.30 V. At voltages ≥ 4.4 V there is enhanced fracture of the oxide during cycling that creates new surfaces and causes increased solvent oxidation and TM dissolution. Despite this deterioration, cell capacity fade still mainly results from lithium loss in the negative electrode SEI. Among TMs,more » Mn content in the SEI shows a better correlation with cell capacity loss than Co and Ni contents. As Mn ions become incorporated into the SEI, the kinetics of lithium trapping change from power to linear at the higher UCVs, indicating a large effect of these ions on SEI growth and implicating (electro)catalytic reactions. Lastly, we estimate that each MnII ion deposited in the SEI causes trapping of ~102 additional Li+ ions thereby hastening the depletion of cyclable lithium ions. Using these results, we sketch a mechanism for cell capacity fade, emphasizing the conceptual picture over the chemical detail.« less

  5. Simulation of charge-discharge cycling of lithium-ion batteries under low-earth-orbit conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Anguchamy, Yogesh K.; Popov, Branko N.

    Charge-discharge behavior of SONY 18650 lithium-ion batteries for aerospace applications was simulated under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions, by using a first-principles based mathematical model. The model determines the capacity fade on the basis of the irreversible loss of active lithium ions due to electrolyte reduction. The capacity fade during LEO cycling was studied for 5 years of continuous operation with 20% depth of discharge as a function of the cycling parameters such as the end of charge voltage and the charging rate.

  6. Saft Electrochemical Lithium-Ion Model (SLIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.; Masgrangeas, D.

    2008-09-01

    In the last 5 years, Saft has developed a life prediction model for VES and MPS cells. The Saft Li-Ion Model (SLIM) is a macroscopic electrochemical model based on energy (global at cell level). The main purpose is to predict the cell performances during the life for GEO, MEO and LEO missions. This model is based on electrochemical characteristics such as Energy, Capacity, EMF, Internal resistance, end of charge voltage. It uses fading and calendar law effects on energy and internal impedance vs. time, temperature, End of Charge voltage. The degradation mechanisms at electrode levels have been set up based on the Destructive Physical Analyses that were focused on the electrochemical changes. Heavy analysis methods have been used to characterize shrewdly the particles modification.The model is also able to provide the battery performances using mission figures and profiles: power, duration, DOD, end of charge voltages, temperatures during eclipses and solstices, cell failures. The main outputs are the cell and battery voltage profiles, energy evolution through the life time (nominal and failed cases) see figure 1. This model has been correlated with existing life and calendar tests performed on VES140, VES180 and MPS cells. The accuracy of the model from voltage point of view is less than 10 mV at End Of Life. In addition, the comparison with in-orbit data has been also successfully achieved.So, the paper will present the definition of the key electrochemical laws implemented within the SLIM model. In addition, the validation of the modeled ageing mechanism through life tests, Destructive Physical Analyses and in-orbit results will be described. Finally it will be presented the accuracy of the model versus the cycling results.

  7. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate... lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14, Code...

  8. 78 FR 62495 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 35, 35A, 36, and 36A Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Airplanes; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Batteries and Battery Systems AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... associated with rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and battery systems. These batteries have certain failure... certificate for installing equipment that uses rechargeable lithium-ion battery systems in Learjet Model...

  9. An Artificial Solid Electrolyte Interphase with High Li-Ion Conductivity, Mechanical Strength, and Flexibility for Stable Lithium Metal Anodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yayuan; Lin, Dingchang; Yuen, Pak Yan; Liu, Kai; Xie, Jin; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Cui, Yi

    2017-03-01

    An artificial solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is demonstrated for the efficient and safe operation of a lithium metal anode. Composed of lithium-ion-conducting inorganic nanoparticles within a flexible polymer binder matrix, the rationally designed artificial SEI not only mechanically suppresses lithium dendrite formation but also promotes homogeneous lithium-ion flux, significantly enhancing the efficiency and cycle life of the lithium metal anode.

  10. Investigating the low-temperature impedance increase of lithium-ion cells.

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, D. P.; Heaton, J. R.; Kang, S.-H.; Dees, D. W.; Jansen, A. N.; Chemical Engineering

    2008-01-01

    Low-temperature performance loss is a significant barrier to commercialization of lithium-ion cells in hybrid electric vehicles. Increased impedance, especially at temperatures below 0 C, reduces the cell pulse power performance required for cold engine starts, quick acceleration, or regenerative braking. Here we detail electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data on binder- and carbon-free layered-oxide and spinel-oxide electrodes, obtained over the +30 to ?30 C temperature range, in coin cells containing a lithium-preloaded Li{sub 4/3}Ti{sub 5/3}O{sub 4} composite (LTOc) counter electrode and a LiPF{sub 6}-bearing ethylene carbonate/ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte. For all electrodes studied, the impedance increased with decreasing cell temperature; the increases observed in the midfrequency arc dwarfed the increases in ohmic resistance and diffusional impedance. Our data suggest that the movement of lithium ions across the electrochemical interface on the active material may have been increasingly hindered at lower temperatures, especially below 0 C. Low-temperature performance may be improved by modifying the electrolyte-active material interface (for example, through electrolyte composition changes). Increasing surface area of active particles (for example, through nanoparticle use) can lower the initial electrode impedance and lead to lower cell impedances at -30 C.

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of Silicon clathrates as anode materials for Lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Rahul

    Novel materials for Li-ion batteries is one of the principle thrust areas for current research in energy storage, more so than most, considering its widespread use in portable electronic gadgets and plug-in electric and hybrid cars. One of the major limiting factors in a Li-ion battery's energy density is the low specific capacities of the active materials in the electrodes. In the search for high-performance anode materials for Li-ion batteries, many alternatives to carbonaceous materials have been studied. Both cubic and amorphous silicon can reversibly alloy with lithium and have a theoretical capacity of 3500 mAh/g, making silicon a potential high density anode material. However, a large volume expansion of 300% occurs due to changes in the structure during lithium insertion, often leading to pulverization of the silicon. To this end, a class of silicon based cage compounds called clathrates are studied for electrochemical reactivity with lithium. Silicon-clathrates consist of silicon covalently bonded in cage structures comprised of face sharing Si20, Si24 and/or Si28 clusters with guest ions occupying the interstitial positions in the polyhedra. Prior to this, silicon clathrates have been studied primarily for their superconducting and thermoelectric properties. In this work, the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of two categories of silicon clathrates - Type-I silicon clathrate with aluminum framework substitution and barium guest ions (Ba8AlxSi46-x) and Type-II silicon clathrate with sodium guest ions (Nax Si136), are explored. The Type-I clathrate, Ba8AlxSi46-x consists of an open framework of aluminium and silicon, with barium (guest) atoms occupying the interstitial positions. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that a crystalline phase of clathrate is obtained from synthesis, which is powdered to a fine particle size to be used as the anode material in a Li-ion battery. Electrochemical measurements of these type of clathrates have shown

  12. Thigh burns from exploding e-cigarette lithium ion batteries: First case series.

    PubMed

    Nicoll, K J; Rose, A M; Khan, M A A; Quaba, O; Lowrie, A G

    2016-06-01

    E-cigarette (EC) use has risen meteorically over the last decade. The majority of these devices are powered by re-chargeable lithium ion batteries, which can represent a fire hazard if damaged, over-heated, over-charged or stored inappropriately. There are currently no reports in the medical literature of lithium ion battery burns related to EC use and no guidance on the appropriate management of lithium ion battery associated injuries. We report two individual cases of burn resulting from explosion of EC re-chargeable lithium ion batteries. Both patients required in-patient surgical management. We provide evidence that lithium ion battery explosions can be associated with mixed thermal and alkali chemical burns, resulting from the significant discharge of thermal energy and the dispersal of corrosive lithium ion compounds. We would recommend, as with other elemental metal exposures, caution in exposing lithium ion battery burns to water irrigation. Early and thorough cleaning and debridement of such burns, to remove residual lithium contamination, may limit the risk of burn wound extension and potentially improve outcomes.

  13. Thermal stability of electrodes in Lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    ROTH,EMANUEL P.; NAGASUBRAMANIAN,GANESAN

    2000-02-07

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis was used to identify thermal reactions in Sony-type lithium-ion cells and to correlate these reactions with interactions of cell constituents and reaction products. An electrochemical half-cell was used to cycle the anode and cathode materials and to set the state-of-charge (SOC). Three temperature regions of interaction were identified and associated with the SOC (degree of Li intercalation) of the cell. Anodes were shown to undergo exothermic reactions as low as 80 C involving decomposition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer. The LiPF{sub 6} salt in the electrolyte (EC:PC:DEC/1M LiPF{sub 6}) was seen to play an essential role in this reaction. DSC analysis of the anodes from disassembled Sony cells showed similar behavior to the half-cell anodes with a strong exotherm beginning in the 80 C--90 C range. Exothermic reactions were also observed in the 200 C--300 C region between the intercalated lithium anodes, the LiPF{sub 6} salt, and the PVDF binder. These reactions were followed by a high-temperature reaction region, 300 C--400 C, also involving the PVDF binder and the intercalated lithium anodes. Cathode exothermic reactions with the PVDF binder were observed above 200 C and increased with the SOC (decreasing Li content in the cathode). No thermal reactions were seen at lower temperatures suggesting that thermal runaway reactions in this type of cell are initiated at the anode. An Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) was used to perform measurements of thermal runaway on commercial Sony Li-ion cells as a function of SOC. The cells showed sustained thermal output as low as 80 C in agreement with the DSC observations of anode materials but the heating rate was strongly dependent on the SOC.

  14. Lithium Nitride Synthesized by in situ Lithium Deposition and Ion Implantation for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitama, Shintaro; Baba, Yuji; Fujii, Ryo; Nakamura, Masaru; Imahori, Yoshio

    Li3N synthesis on Li deposition layer was conducted without H2O and O2 by in situ lithium deposition in high vacuum chamber of 10-6 Pa and ion implantation techniques and the thermo-chemical stability of the Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) under laser heating and air exposure was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Following conclusions were derived; (1) Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target with very low oxide and carbon contamination was synthesized by in situ lithium vacuum deposition and N2+ ion implantation without H2O and O2 additions, (2) The starting temperature of evaporation of Li3N/Li/Cu tri-layered target increased by 120K compared to that of the Li/Cu target and (3) Remarkable oxidation and carbon contamination were observed on the surface of Li3N/Li/Cu after air exposure and these contaminated compositions was not removed by Ar+ heavy sputtering.

  15. Measurement of interfacial thermal conductance in Lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaitonde, Aalok; Nimmagadda, Amulya; Marconnet, Amy

    2017-03-01

    Increasing usage and recent accidents due to Lithium ion (Li-ion) batteries exploding or catching on fire has inspired research on the thermal management of these batteries. In cylindrical 18650 cells, heat generated during the charge/discharge cycle must dissipate to the surrounding through its metallic case due to the poor thermal conductivity of the jelly roll, which is spirally wound with many interfaces between electrodes and the polymeric separator. This work develops a technique to measure the thermal resistance across the case-separator interface, which ultimately limits heat transfer out of the jelly roll. Commercial 18650 batteries are discharged and opened using a battery disassembly tool, and the 25 μm thick separator and the 200 μm thick metallic case are harvested to make samples. A miniaturized version of the conventional reference bar method

  16. Memory effect in a lithium-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Ukyo, Yoshio; Novák, Petr

    2013-06-01

    Memory effects are well known to users of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal-hydride batteries. If these batteries are recharged repeatedly after being only partially discharged, they gradually lose usable capacity owing to a reduced working voltage. Lithium-ion batteries, in contrast, are considered to have no memory effect. Here we report a memory effect in LiFePO4-one of the materials used for the positive electrode in Li-ion batteries-that appears already after only one cycle of partial charge and discharge. We characterize this memory effect of LiFePO4 and explain its connection to the particle-by-particle charge/discharge model. This effect is important for most battery uses, as the slight voltage change it causes can lead to substantial miscalculations in estimating the state of charge of batteries.

  17. Solar photovoltaic charging of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Thomas L.; Kelly, Nelson A.

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) charging of batteries was tested by using high efficiency crystalline and amorphous silicon PV modules to recharge lithium-ion battery modules. This testing was performed as a proof of concept for solar PV charging of batteries for electrically powered vehicles. The iron phosphate type lithium-ion batteries were safely charged to their maximum capacity and the thermal hazards associated with overcharging were avoided by the self-regulating design of the solar charging system. The solar energy to battery charge conversion efficiency reached 14.5%, including a PV system efficiency of nearly 15%, and a battery charging efficiency of approximately 100%. This high system efficiency was achieved by directly charging the battery from the PV system with no intervening electronics, and matching the PV maximum power point voltage to the battery charging voltage at the desired maximum state of charge for the battery. It is envisioned that individual homeowners could charge electric and extended-range electric vehicles from residential, roof-mounted solar arrays, and thus power their daily commuting with clean, renewable solar energy.

  18. Costs of lithium-ion batteries for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.; Cuenca, R.

    2000-08-21

    One of the most promising battery types under development for use in both pure electric and hybrid electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery. These batteries are well on their way to meeting the challenging technical goals that have been set for vehicle batteries. However, they are still far from achieving the current cost goals. The Center for Transportation Research at Argonne National Laboratory undertook a project for the US Department of Energy to estimate the costs of lithium-ion batteries and to project how these costs might change over time, with the aid of research and development. Cost reductions could be expected as the result of material substitution, economies of scale in production, design improvements, and/or development of new material supplies. The most significant contributions to costs are found to be associated with battery materials. For the pure electric vehicle, the battery cost exceeds the cost goal of the US Advanced Battery Consortium by about $3,500, which is certainly enough to significantly affect the marketability of the vehicle. For the hybrid, however, the total cost of the battery is much smaller, exceeding the cost goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles by only about $800, perhaps not enough to deter a potential buyer from purchasing the power-assist hybrid.

  19. Rate dependence of swelling in lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, KY; Siegel, JB; Secondo, L; Kim, SU; Samad, NA; Qin, JW; Anderson, D; Garikipati, K; Knobloch, A; Epureanu, BI; Monroe, CW; Stefanopoulou, A

    2014-12-01

    Swelling of a commercial 5 Ah lithium-ion cell with a nickel/manganese/cobalt-oxide cathode is investigated as a function of the charge state and the charge/discharge rate. In combination with sensitive displacement measurements, knowledge of the electrode configuration within this prismatic cell's interior allows macroscopic deformations of the casing to be correlated to electrochemical and mechanical transformations in individual anode/separator/cathode layers. Thermal expansion and interior charge state are both found to cause significant swelling. At low rates, where thermal expansion is negligible, the electrode sandwich dilates by as much as 1.5% as the charge state swings from 0% to 100% because of lithium-ion intercalation. At high rates a comparably large residual swelling was observed at the end of discharge. Thermal expansion caused by joule heating at high discharge rate results in battery swelling. The changes in displacement with respect to capacity at low rate correlate well with the potential changes known to accompany phase transitions in the electrode materials. Although the potential response changes minimally with the C-rate, the extent of swelling varies significantly, suggesting that measurements of swelling may provide a sensitive gauge for characterizing dynamic operating states. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mesoporous Cladophora cellulose separators for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ruijun; Cheung, Ocean; Wang, Zhaohui; Tammela, Petter; Huo, Jinxing; Lindh, Jonas; Edström, Kristina; Strømme, Maria; Nyholm, Leif

    2016-07-01

    Much effort is currently made to develop inexpensive and renewable materials which can replace the polyolefin microporous separators conventionally used in contemporary lithium-ion batteries. In the present work, it is demonstrated that mesoporous Cladophora cellulose (CC) separators constitute very promising alternatives based on their high crystallinity, good thermal stability and straightforward manufacturing. The CC separators, which are fabricated using an undemanding paper-making like process involving vacuum filtration, have a typical thickness of about 35 μm, an average pore size of about 20 nm, a Young's modulus of 5.9 GPa and also exhibit an ionic conductivity of 0.4 mS cm-1 after soaking with 1 M LiPF6 EC: DEC (1/1, v/v) electrolyte. The CC separators are demonstrated to be thermally stable at 150 °C and electrochemically inert in the potential range between 0 and 5 V vs. Li+/Li. A LiFePO4/Li cell containing a CC separator showed good cycling stability with 99.5% discharge capacity retention after 50 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. These results indicate that the renewable CC separators are well-suited for use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chong M.; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.

  2. Inward Lithium-Ion Breathing of Hierarchically Porous Silicon Anodes

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; ...

    2015-11-05

    Silicon has been identified as one of the most promising candidates as anode for high performance lithium-ion batteries. The key challenge for Si anodes is the large volume change induced chemomechanical fracture and subsequent rapid capacity fading upon cyclic charge and discharge. Improving capacity retention thus critically relies on smart accommodation of the volume changes through nanoscale structural design. In this work, we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. Upon charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward expansion/contraction with negligible particle-levelmore » outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such a unique volume-change accommodation mechanism is enabled by the much stiffer modulus of the lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer and the low flow stress of the porous structure. Such inward expansion shields the hp-SiNSs from fracture, opposite to the outward expansion in solid Si during lithiation. Lithium ion battery assembled with this new nanoporous material exhibits high capacity, high power, long cycle life and high coulombic efficiency, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. We find the low cost synthesis approach reported here provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties.« less

  3. In situ formed lithium sulfide/microporous carbon cathodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyou; Chen, Yvonne; Xu, Yunhua; Yi, Feng; Zhu, Yujie; Liu, Yihang; Yang, Junhe; Wang, Chunsheng

    2013-12-23

    Highly stable sulfur/microporous carbon (S/MC) composites are prepared by vacuum infusion of sulfur vapor into microporous carbon at 600 °C, and lithium sulfide/microporous carbon (Li2S/MC) cathodes are fabricated via a novel and facile in situ lithiation strategy, i.e., spraying commercial stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) onto a prepared S/MC film cathode prior to the routine compressing process in cell assembly. The in situ formed Li2S/MC film cathode shows high Coulombic efficiency and long cycling stability in a conventional commercial Li-ion battery electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 + EC/DEC (1:1 v/v)). The reversible capacities of Li2S/MC cathodes remain about 650 mAh/g even after 900 charge/discharge cycles, and the Coulombic efficiency is close to 100% at a current density of 0.1C, which demonstrates the best electrochemical performance of Li2S/MC cathodes reported to date. Furthermore, this Li2S/MC film cathode fabricated via our in situ lithiation strategy can be coupled with a Li-free anode, such as graphite, carbon/tin alloys, or Si nanowires to form a rechargeable Li-ion cell. As the Li2S/MC cathode is paired with a commercial graphite anode, the full cell of Li2S/MC-graphite (Li2S-G) shows a stable capacity of around 600 mAh/g in 150 cycles. The Li2S/MC cathodes prepared by high-temperate sulfur infusion and SLMP prelithiation before cell assembly are ready to fit into current Li-ion batteries manufacturing processes and will pave the way to commercialize low-cost Li2S-G Li-ion batteries.

  4. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    PubMed

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction.

  5. Prospects for spinel-stabilized, high-capacity lithium-ion battery cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croy, Jason R.; Park, Joong Sun; Shin, Youngho; Yonemoto, Bryan T.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Long, Brandon R.; Ren, Yang; Thackeray, Michael M.

    2016-12-01

    Herein we report early results on efforts to optimize the electrochemical performance of a cathode composed of a lithium- and manganese-rich "layered-layered-spinel" (LLS) material for lithium-ion battery applications. Pre-pilot scale synthesis leads to improved particle properties compared with lab-scale efforts, resulting in high capacities (∼200 mAh g-1) and good energy densities (>700 Wh kgoxide-1) in tests with lithium-ion cells. Subsequent surface modifications give further improvements in rate capabilities and high-voltage stability. These results bode well for advances in the performance of this class of lithium- and manganese-rich cathode materials.

  6. Advanced Nanofiber-Based Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toprakci, Ozan

    Among various energy storage technologies, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries have been considered as effective solution to the increasing need for high-energy density electrochemical power sources. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries offer energy densities 2 - 3 times and power densities 5 - 6 times higher than conventional Ni-Cd and Ni-MH batteries, and as a result, they weigh less and take less space for a given energy delivery. However, the use of lithium-ion batteries in many large applications such as electric vehicles and storage devices for future power grids is hindered by the poor thermal stability, relatively high toxicity, and high cost of lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) powders, which are currently used as the cathode material in commercial lithium-ion batteries. Recently, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4) powders have become a favorable cathode material for lithium-ion batteries because of their low cost, high discharge potential (around 3.4 V versus Li/Li+), large specific capacity (170 mAh g -1), good thermal stability, and high abundance with the environmentally benign and safe nature. As a result, there is a huge demand for the production of high-performance LiFePO4. However, LiFePO4 also has its own limitation such as low conductivity (˜10-9 S cm -1), which results in poor rate capability. To address this problem, various approaches can be used such as decreasing particle size of LiFePO 4, doping LiFePO4 with metal ions or coating LiFePO 4 surface with carboneous materials. Formation of conductive layer on LiFePO4 and decreasing particle size are promising approaches due to their superior contribution to electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Although different approaches can be used for surface coating and particle size decrement, electrospinning can be potentially considered as an efficient, simple and inexpensive way. In this study, LiFePO 4/carbon and carbon nanotube- and graphene-loaded electrospun LiFePO 4/carbon

  7. Nanostructured Fe3O4@C as anode material for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhipeng; Zhao, Hailei; Wang, Jie; Lv, Pengpeng; Zhang, Tianhou; Xia, Qing

    2014-02-01

    The active particle cracking and electrode pulverization of iron oxide anode material as a result of volume expansion during charge/discharge process cause poor reversibility and significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate a facile solvothermal route to immobilize the Fe3O4 particles on the porous active carbon. The present method enables us to obtain nano-porous and mosaic structured Fe3O4@C spheres with an average size of ca. 100 nm. The porous active carbon plays an important role in the improvement of electrochemical properties of Fe3O4. It not only acts as a host for the deposition of Fe3O4 particles, but also provides void spaces for active Fe3O4 to buffer the volume expansion. The good contact between Fe3O4 and active carbon ensures the fast electron/Li-ion transport. As a result, the porous Fe3O4@C shows a high reversible specific capacity of ∼1000 mAh g-1, good cycle stability and excellent rate capability. Therefore, we believe that this composite is a potential candidate for anode material of high-energy lithium-ion battery.

  8. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes with Improved Safety Tolerance to High Voltage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick C. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries, the electrolytes having improved safety and the ability to operate with high capacity anodes and high voltage cathodes. In one embodiment there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion battery comprising an anode and a high voltage cathode. The electrolyte has a mixture of a cyclic carbonate of ethylene carbonate (EC) or mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) co-solvent, ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a lithium salt, and an electrolyte additive that improves compatibility and performance of the lithium-ion battery with a high voltage cathode. The lithium-ion battery is charged to a voltage in a range of from about 2.0 V (Volts) to about 5.0 V (Volts).

  9. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  10. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-10-01

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g-1 at 100 mA g-1vs. 590 mA h g-1 of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ~4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g-1 (current density, 200 mA g-1) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP

  11. Electrolyte and Cathode Degradation Mechanisms in Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebbe, Jonathon

    Lithium ion battery technologies suffer from limitations in performance, such as capacity fading, due in part to degradation of the cathode and electrolyte materials. Quantum chemical simulations were employed to investigate the reactions leading to degradation of LiCoO2 cathodes and the electrolyte molecules. Formation of HF in the electrolyte resulting from reaction between PF5 and H2O impurities was first investigated. This research predicts HF is produced as a result of PF5 complexing with H2O, then reacting through ligand exchange to form HF and PF4OH with an activation barrier of 1.18 eV and reaction enthalpy of 0.15 eV. HF undergoes dissociative adsorption at that the (101¯4) surface of LiCoO2 without a barrier, leading to formation of LiF-Li+ precipitates and H 2O on the surface with a reaction energy of -2.41 eV. The formation of H2O is of particular concern because H2O drives further formation of HF in the electrolyte, resulting in an autocatalytic cycle of degradation. These findings indicate that HF initially occurs in low concentrations rapidly increases due to H2O generation upon HF attack. Reduction in capacity fading is observed in alumina ALD coated LiCoO2 cathodes and we have investigated a monolayer alumina coating on the LiCoO2 (101¯4) surface to identify the mechanism by which the alumina coating protects the cathode surface. We have found that HF will preferentially dissociate at the alumina coating with a reaction energy of -2.84 eV and without any resolvable barrier to dissociation. Additionally, our calculations predict that H2O does not form as a result of HF dissociation at the alumina monolayer; instead HF dissociation produces neighboring hydroxyl sites on the alumina surface. Consequently, the alumina coating prevents the autocatalytic degradation of the cathode by sequestering HF impurities in the alumina film. Finally, we found that Lewis acid-base complexation between ethylene carbonate (EC) electrolyte molecules and PF5 or the Li

  12. Electrode architectures for efficient electronic and ionic transport pathways in high power lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Ankita Shah

    As the demand for clean energy sources increases, large investments have supported R&D programs aimed at developing high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles, military, grid storage and space applications. State of the art lithium ion technology cannot meet power demands for these applications due to high internal resistances in the cell. These resistances are mainly comprised of ionic and electronic resistance in the electrode and electrolyte. Recently, much attention has been focused on the use of nanoscale lithium ion active materials on the premise that these materials shorten the diffusion length of lithium ions and increase the surface area for electrochemical charge transfer. While, nanomaterials have allowed significant improvements in the power density of the cell, they are not a complete solution for commercial batteries. Due to their large surface area, they introduce new challenges such as a poor electrode packing densities, high electrolyte reactivity, and expensive synthesis procedures. Since greater than 70% of the cost of the electric vehicle is due to the cost of the battery, a cost-efficient battery design is most critical. To address the limitations of nanomaterials, efficient transport pathways must be engineered in the bulk electrode. As a part of nanomanufacturing research being conducted the Center for High-rate Nanomanufacturing at Northeastern University, the first aim of the proposed work is to develop electrode architectures that enhance electronic and ionic transport pathways in large and small area lithium ion electrodes. These architectures will utilize the unique electronic and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes to create robust electrode scaffolding that improves electrochemical charge transfer. Using extensive physical and electrochemical characterization, the second aim is to investigate the effect of electrode parameters on electrochemical performance and evaluate the performance against standard commercial

  13. Novel Non-Vacuum Fabrication of Solid State Lithium Ion Battery Components

    SciTech Connect

    Oladeji, I.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, III, D. L.

    2012-10-19

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Planar Energy Devices, Inc. was to develop large-scale electroless deposition and photonic annealing processes associated with making all-solid-state lithium ion battery cathode and electrolyte layers. However, technical and processing difficulties encountered in 2011 resulted in the focus of the CRADA being redirected solely to annealing of the cathode thin films. In addition, Planar Energy Devices de-emphasized the importance of annealing of the solid-state electrolytes within the scope of the project, but materials characterization of stabilized electrolyte layers was still of interest. All-solid-state lithium ion batteries are important to automotive and stationary energy storage applications because they would eliminate the problems associated with the safety of the liquid electrolyte in conventional lithium ion batteries. However, all-solid-state batteries are currently produced using expensive, energy consuming vacuum methods suited for small electrode sizes. Transition metal oxide cathode and solid-state electrolyte layers currently require about 30-60 minutes at 700-800°C vacuum processing conditions. Photonic annealing requires only milliseconds of exposure time at high temperature and a total of <1 min of cumulative processing time. As a result, these processing techniques are revolutionary and highly disruptive to the existing lithium ion battery supply chain. The current methods of producing all-solid-state lithium ion batteries are only suited for small-scale, low-power cells and involve high-temperature vacuum techniques. Stabilized LiNixMnyCozAl1-x-y-zO2 (NMCA) nanoparticle films were deposited onto stainless steel substrates using Planar Energy Devices’ streaming process for electroless electrochemical deposition (SPEED). Since successful SPEED trials were demonstrated by Planar Energy Devices with NMCA prior to 2010, this

  14. An unsymmetrical lithium-ion pathway between charge and discharge processes in a two-phase stage of Li4Ti5O12.

    PubMed

    Li, De; He, Ping; Li, Huiqiao; Zhou, Haoshen

    2012-07-07

    In this work, we investigated lithium-ion diffusion in spinel Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) nano-particles with carbon coating by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and proposed a hybrid model of the unsymmetrical lithium-ion pathway between charge and discharge processes. In this hybrid model, the charge process still follows the core-shell model, but in the discharge process, the phase transition evolves by growth of a few nuclei on the surface. And this hybrid model is possibly attributed to the nonuniform electron conductivity inside the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) particles. Additionally, the relaxation process and the particle morphology are also carefully discussed in the experiment to show that this hybrid model is quite practical. Thereby, this investigation presents an unsymmetrical lithium-ion pathway in Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) particles, which could be extended to other active materials in lithium ion batteries.

  15. Thermal Characterization Study of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Doris L.; Miller, Thomas B.; Bennett, William R.

    2007-01-01

    The primary challenge in designing a full scale lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system is safety under both normal operating as well as abusive conditions. The normal conditions involve expected charge/discharge cycles and it is known that heat evolves in batteries during those cycles. This is a major concern in the design for high power applications and careful thermal management is necessary to alleviate this concern. An emerging thermal measurement technology, such as the electrochemical calorimetric of batteries, will aid in the development of advanced, safe battery system. To support this technology, several "commercial-off-the-shelf" (COTS) Li-ion cells with different chemistries and designs are being evaluated for different cycling regimes at a given operating temperature. The Accelerated Rate Calorimeter (ARC)-Arbin cycler setup is used to measure the temperature, voltage, and current of the cells at different charge/discharge rates. Initial results demonstrated good cell cyclability. During the cycle testing, the cell exhibited an endothermic cooling in the initial part of the charge cycle. The discharge portion of the cycle is exothermic during the entire discharge period. The presence of an endothermic reaction indicates a significant entropy effect during the beginning of charge cycle. Further studies will be performed to understand the thermal characteristics of the Li-ion cells at the different operating conditions. The effects on the thermal response on cell aging and states-of-charge will also be identified.

  16. Effects of Surface Oxygen on the Performance of Carbon as an Anode in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Clark, Gregory W.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon materials with similar bulk structure but different surface oxygen were compared for their performance as anodes in lithium-ion battery. The bulk structure was such that the graphene planes were perpendicular to the surface. Three types of surfaces were examined: surface containing C=O type oxygen. surface containing -O-C type oxygen, and surface containing high concentration of active sites. The test involved cycles of lithium insertion into and release from the carbon materials, which was in the half cells of carbon/saturated LiI-50/50 (vol %) EC and DMC/lithium. During the first cycle of lithium insertion, the presence of adsorbed oxygen, -O-C type oxygen, active carbon sites, and C=O type oxygen resulted in the formation of solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) when the carbon's voltage relative to lithium metal was >1.35, 1 to 1.35, 0.5 to 1, and 0.67 to 0.7 V, respectively. An optimum -O-C type oxygen and a minimum C=O type oxygen was found to increase the reversible and decrease the irreversible capacity of carbon. Active sites on the carbon surface result in a large irreversible capacity and a second lithium insertion-release mechanism. However, this new mechanism has a short cycle life.

  17. Design and synthesis of new electrolyte systems for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Amartya

    Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are extensively used in consumer electronic products, including laptop computers, cellular phones, cameras, camcorders, and medical devices. They have great potential for application in electric and hybrid electric vehicles by virtue of their high energy and power density. Research and development in this direction have been focused all around the globe. The major challenges include the higher cost, safety issues related to the solvents, and conductivities at lower ambient temperature of the solvent-free solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) systems. In this dissertation, three different approaches are presented to achieve an improved electrolyte system for lithium-ion batteries. A plasticizer was synthesized and incorporated into a conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based solid polymer electrolyte system. The ambient temperature ionic conductivity observed at room temperature was noteworthy, due to the decrease of the glass transition temperature of the polymer. Secondly, a branched polymer was synthesized and used as the base matrix in SPEs. Polymers with a higher order of branching remained undissolved in common organic solvents, thereby limiting the scope of their use for making films for the study. The ones with a lower order of branching exhibited ionic conductivities comparable to regular PEO-based electrolytes. The third and most successful approach involved the strategic design and synthesis of a series of low lattice energy lithium salts and their chemical, thermal and electrochemical characterization. In this methodology, the two-to-three step synthetic strategy involved chlorosulfonation of an activated aromatic ring, reaction of the corresponding sulfonyl chloride with trifluoromethanesulfonamide in the presence of triethylamine as a base, followed by lithiation of the resulting triethylammonium salt to generate monolithium, dilithium and scaffolded polylithium salts. The mono- and dilithium salts were tested in

  18. Assembling metal oxide nanocrystals into dense, hollow, porous nanoparticles for lithium-ion and lithium-oxygen battery application.

    PubMed

    Ming, Jun; Wu, Yingqiang; Park, Jin-Bum; Lee, Joong Kee; Zhao, Fengyu; Sun, Yang-Kook

    2013-11-07

    New dense hollow porous (DHP) metal oxide nanoparticles that are smaller than 100 nm and composed of Co3O4, FeOx, NiO and MnOx were prepared by densely assembling metal oxide nanocrystals based on the hard-template method using a carbon colloid as a sacrificial core. These nanoparticles are quite different from the traditional particles as their hollow interior originates from the stacking of nanocrystals rather than a spherical shell. The DHP nanoparticles preserve the intriguing properties of nanocrystals and possess desirable surface area and pore volume that enhance the active surface, which ultimately benefits applications such as lithium-ion batteries. The DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles demonstrated an enhanced capacity of 1168 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1)vs. 590 mA h g(-1) of powders and stable cycling performance greater than 250 cycles when used as an anode material. Most importantly, the electrochemical performance of DHP Co3O4 nanoparticles in a lithium-O2 battery was also investigated for the first time. A low charge potential of ∼4.0 V, a high discharge voltage near 2.74 V and a long cycle ability greater than 100 cycles at a delivered capacity of 2000 mA h g(-1) (current density, 200 mA g(-1)) were observed. The performances were considerably improved compared to recent results of mesoporous Co3O4, Co3O4 nanoparticles and a composite of Co3O4/RGO and Co3O4/Pd. Therefore, it would be promising to investigate such properties of DHP nanoparticles or other hollow metal (oxide) particles for the popular lithium-air battery.

  19. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  20. Lithium-ion capacitors with 2D Nb2CTx (MXene) - carbon nanotube electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Ayeong; Glushenkov, Alexey M.; Anasori, Babak; Urbankowski, Patrick; Li, Jingwen; Byles, Bryan W.; Blake, Brian; Van Aken, Katherine L.; Kota, Sankalp; Pomerantseva, Ekaterina; Lee, Jae W.; Chen, Ying; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest to hybrid energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion capacitors, in which battery-type electrodes are combined with capacitor-type ones. It is anticipated that the energy density (either gravimetric or volumetric) of lithium-ion capacitors is improved if pseudocapacitive or fast insertion materials are used instead of conventional activated carbon (AC) in the capacitor-type electrode. MXenes, a new family of two-dimensional transition metal carbides, demonstrate metallic conductivity and fast charge-discharge behavior that make them suitable for this application. In this study, we move beyond single electrodes, half-cell studies and demonstrate three types of hybrid cells using Nb2CTx-carbon nanotube (CNT) films. It is shown that lithiated graphite/Nb2CTx-CNT, Nb2CTx-CNT/LiFePO4 and lithiated Nb2CTx-CNT/Nb2CTx-CNT cells are all able to operate within 3 V voltage windows and deliver capacities of 43, 24 and 36 mAh/g (per total weight of two electrodes), respectively. Moreover, the polarity of the electrodes can be reversed in the symmetric Nb2CTx-CNT cells from providing a positive potential between 0 and 3 V to a negative one from -3 to 0 V. It is shown that the volumetric energy density (50-70 Wh/L) of our first-generation devices with MXene electrodes exceeds that of a lithium titanate/AC capacitor.

  1. Laser-adjusted three-dimensional Li-Mn-O cathode architectures for secondary lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pröll, J.; Kohler, R.; Torge, M.; Bruns, M.; Przybylski, M.; Ulrich, S.; Seifert, H. J.; Pfleging, W.

    2012-03-01

    Three-dimensional cathode architectures for rechargeable lithium-ion cells can provide better Li-ion diffusion due to larger electrochemical active surface area and therefore, may stabilize the cycling behaviour of an electrochemical cell. This features show great importance when aiming for long-life batteries, e.g. in stationary or portable power devices. In this study, lithium manganese oxide thin films were used as cathode material with the goal to stabilize their cycling behavior and to counter degradation effects which come up within the lithium manganese oxide system. Firstly, appropriate laser ablation parameters were selected in order to achieve defined three-dimensional structures with features sizes down to micro- and sub-micrometer scale by using mask imaging technique. Laser annealing was also applied onto the laser structured material in a second step in order to form an electrochemically active phase. Process development led to a laser annealing strategy for a flexible adjustment of crystallinity and grain size. Laser annealing was realized using a high power diode laser system operating at a wavelength of 940 nm. Information on the surface composition, chemistry and topography as well as studies on the crystalline phase of the material were obtained by using Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical activity of the laser modified lithium manganese oxide cathodes was explored by cyclic voltammetry measurements and galvanostatic testing by using a lithium anode and standard liquid electrolyte.

  2. Origins of Lithium-Carbon Binding in Carbon-based Lithium-ion Battery Anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brandon; Liu, Yuanyue; Wang, Morris; Yakobson, Boris

    2014-03-01

    Many key performance characteristics of carbon-based lithium-ion battery anodes are determined by the strength of binding between lithium (Li) and sp2 carbon (C). Using extensive density functional theory calculations, we investigate the detailed interaction of Li with a wide variety of sp2 C substrates, including pristine, defective, and strained graphene; planar C clusters; nanotubes; C edges; and multilayer stacks. We find that in almost all cases, the Li-C binding energy scales is determined largely by the work required to fill unoccupied carbon states, suggesting that intrinsic quantum capacitance is important for predicting Li capacity. This allows the binding energy and capacity to be estimated based solely on the electronic structure of the substrate. It also provides a connection to carbon-based supercapacitors, and underscores the role of electronic structure in interfacial electrochemical systems. Implications for improving the effective capacity of carbon-based anodes will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Air Force/Ion Physics hardened lithium doped solar cell development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, A.; Bartels, F.; Carnes, C.; Ho, J.; Smith, D.

    1971-01-01

    Introduction of lithium by ion implantation eliminates reproducibility and surface problem deficiencies of other introduction techniques. Implantation has been demonstrated to make possible a degree of control over the cell lithium content which has not previously been available. Front barrier development remains to be completed. Successful development of the barrier will make available the freedom to select optimum lithium concentration throughout the cell, including in the vicinity of the junction.

  4. Characteristics of lithium-ion batteries during fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Lorén, Anders; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Commercial lithium-ion battery cells are exposed to a controlled propane fire in order to evaluate heat release rate (HRR), emission of toxic gases as well as cell temperature and voltage under this type of abuse. The study includes six abuse tests on cells having lithium-iron phosphate (LFP) cathodes and, as a comparison, one test on conventional laptop battery packs with cobalt based cathode. The influence of different state of charge (SOC) is investigated and a limited study of the effect of water mist application is also performed. The total heat release (THR) per battery energy capacity are determined to be 28-75 kJ Wh-1 and the maximum HRR values to 110-490 W Wh-1. Hydrogen fluoride (HF) is found in the released gases for all tests but no traceable amounts of phosphorous oxyfluoride (POF3) or phosphorus pentafluoride (PF5) are detected. An extrapolation of expected HF emissions for a typical automotive 10 kWh battery pack exposed to fire gives a release of 400-1200 g HF. If released in a confined environment such emissions of HF may results in unacceptable exposure levels.

  5. Quasi-Solid Electrolytes for High Temperature Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kalaga, Kaushik; Rodrigues, Marco-Tulio F; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Babu, Ganguli; Arava, Leela Mohana Reddy; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2015-11-25

    Rechargeable batteries capable of operating at high temperatures have significant use in various targeted applications. Expanding the thermal stability of current lithium ion batteries requires replacing the electrolyte and separators with stable alternatives. Since solid-state electrolytes do not have a good electrode interface, we report here the development of a new class of quasi-solid-state electrolytes, which have the structural stability of a solid and the wettability of a liquid. Microflakes of clay particles drenched in a solution of lithiated room temperature ionic liquid forming a quasi-solid system has been demonstrated to have structural stability until 355 °C. With an ionic conductivity of ∼3.35 mS cm(-1), the composite electrolyte has been shown to deliver stable electrochemical performance at 120 °C, and a rechargeable lithium battery with Li4Ti5O12 electrode has been tested to deliver reliable capacity for over several cycles of charge-discharge.

  6. A reduced order electrochemical thermal model for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambhire, Priya; Ganesan, Nandhini; Basu, Suman; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin; Yeo, Taejung; Doo, Seokgwang

    2015-09-01

    A reduced order model (ROM) is proposed for accurate prediction of electrochemical and thermal response of lithium ion cells. The order reduction is carried on the coupled partial differential equations (PDE) of the electrochemical thermal model by consistent volume averaging of local heat generation and spatial temperature variation. The model is validated with experimental data for temperatures ranging from 253 K-333 K. It is seen that modification of ROM to account for low electronic conductivity results in accurate voltage estimation of cells with lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide (LNCO) cathodes. A detailed parametric sensitivity to operating conditions is provided. The utility of ROM for on-board state estimation is demonstrated by applying to realistic drive cycle protocols such as the Hybrid Pulse Power Characterization (HPPC) and the Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) data. The electrochemical structure of ROM enables identification of controlling processes, and analysis of HPPC results reveal that Ohmic drop of cathode is controlling at high rates and the electrolyte potential during rest phase. Based on accurate voltage prediction, computational speed and physical insights, it can be concluded that the proposed ROM is an adequate state estimation and a cell design tool.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Batteries from a Systems Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadesigan, V.; Northrop, P. W. C.; De, S.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Braatz, R. D.; Subramanian, Venkat R.

    2012-01-01

    The lithium-ion battery is an ideal candidate for a wide variety of applications due to its high energy/power density and operating voltage. Some limitations of existing lithium-ion battery technology include underutilization, stress-induced material damage, capacity fade, and the potential for thermal runaway. This paper reviews efforts in the modeling and simulation of lithium-ion batteries and their use in the design of better batteries. Likely future directions in battery modeling and design including promising research opportunities are outlined.

  8. Mars Mission Surface Operation Simulation Testing of Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Bugga, R.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Davies, E. D.; Surampudi, S.

    2003-01-01

    The objectives of this program are to 1) Assess viability of using lithium-ion technology for future NASA applications, with emphasis upon Mars landers and rovers which will operate on the planetary surface; 2) Support the JPL 2003 Mars Exploration Rover program to assist in the delivery and testing of a 8 AHr Lithium-Ion battery (Lithion/Yardney) which will power the rover; 3) Demonstrate applicability of using lithium-ion technologyfor future Mars applications: Mars 09 Science Laboratory (Smart Lander) and Future Mars Surface Operations (General). Mission simulation testing was carried out for cells and batteries on the Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander and the 2003 Mars Exploration Rover.

  9. Mechanics of high-capacity electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable batteries, such as lithium-ion batteries, play an important role in the emerging sustainable energy landscape. Mechanical degradation and resulting capacity fade in high-capacity electrode materials critically hinder their use in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This paper presents an overview of recent advances in understanding the electrochemically-induced mechanical behavior of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries. Particular emphasis is placed on stress generation and facture in high-capacity anode materials such as silicon. Finally, we identify several important unresolved issues for future research. Project support by the NSF (Grant Nos. CMMI 1100205 and DMR 1410936).

  10. The temperature and ion energy dependence of deuterium retention in lithium films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzi, Luxherta; Koel, Bruce E.; Skinner, Charles H.

    2016-10-01

    Lithium conditioning of plasma facing components in magnetic fusion devices has improved plasma performance and lowered hydrogen recycling. For applications of lithium in future high heat flux and long pulse duration machines it is important to understand and parameterize deuterium retention in lithium. This work presents surface science studies of deuterium retention in lithium films as a function of surface temperature, incident deuterium ion energy and flux. Initial experiments are performed on thin (3-30 ML) lithium films deposited on a single crystal molybdenum substrate to avoid effects due to grain boundaries, intrinsic defects and impurities. A monoenergetic and mass-filtered deuterium ion beam was generated in a differentially pumped Colutron ion gun. Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to identify the elemental composition and temperature programmed desorption was used to measure the deuterium retention under the different conditions. Support was provided through DOE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Enhanced lithium ion conductivity in lithium lanthanum titanate solid electrolyte nanowires prepared by electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ting; Li, Ying; Chan, Candace K.

    2015-08-01

    Solid electrolytes have great potential to address the safety issues of Li-ion batteries, but better synthesis methods are still required for ceramics such as lithium lanthanum titanate (LLTO) since current techniques require high-temperature calcination for long times. Here we report a new approach that utilizes electrospinning to prepare phase-pure polycrystalline LLTO nanowires with well-crystallized tetragonal structure after only 3 h calcination at 1000 °C. Pellets prepared from the electrospun LLTO nanowires had higher density, less void space, and higher Li+ conductivity compared to those comprised of LLTO prepared with conventional sol-gel methods. This work demonstrates the potential that electrospinning can provide towards improving the properties of sol-gel derived ceramics.

  12. Fabrication and demonstration of high energy density lithium ion microbatteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ke

    Since their commercialization by Sony two decades ago, Li-ion batteries have only experienced mild improvement in energy and power performance, which remains one of the main hurdles for their widespread implementation in applications outside of powering compact portable devices, such as in electric vehicles. Li-ion batteries must be advanced through a disruptive technological development or a series of incremental improvements in chemistry and design in order to be competitive enough for advanced applications. As it will be introduced in this work, achieving this goal by new chemistries and chemical modifications does not seem to be promising in the short term, so efforts to fully optimize existing systems must be pursued at in parallel. This optimization must be mainly relying on the modification and optimizations of micro and macro structures of current battery systems. This kind of battery architecture study will be even more important when small energy storage devices are desired to power miniaturized and autonomous gadgets, such as MEMs, micro-robots, biomedical sensors, etc. In this regime, the limited space available makes requirements on electrode architecture more stringent and the assembly process more challenging. Therefore, the study of battery assembly strategies for Li-ion microbatteries will benefit not only micro-devices but also the development of more powerful and energetic large scale battery systems based on available chemistries. In chapter 2, preliminary research related to the mechanism for the improved rate capability of cathodes by amorphous lithium phosphate surficial films will be used to motivate the potential for structural optimization of existing commercial lithium ion battery electrode. In the following chapters, novel battery assembly techniques will be explored to achieve new battery architectures. In chapter 3, direct ink writing will be used to fabricate 3D interdigitated microbattery structures that have superior areal energy

  13. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  14. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  15. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-27

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  16. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-08-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium-air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications.

  17. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Hari; Rao, Gopalakrishna

    1999-01-01

    The 18650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 m Omega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39 percent. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55 percent state-of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cc. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  18. Electrical and Thermal Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao. Gopalskrishna M.; Vaidyanathan, Hari

    1999-01-01

    The 18,650 type lithium ion cells are characterized by a cell resistance of 130 mOmega, capacity of 1.27 Ah at 25 C, and a mid-discharge voltage of 3.6 V. The capacity loss in the 72-hour stand test was 3.39%. The heat dissipation properties were determined by a radiative calorimeter. During charge, initial endothermic cooling and subsequent exothermic cooling beyond 55% state- of-charge were observed. At C/2 rate of discharge (which is considered medium rate), the heat dissipated was 17 mW/cu cm. The heat dissipation profile during discharge is also unique in the presence of a minimum that is different from that observed for Ni-Cd, Ni-MH, and Ni-H2 cells.

  19. Carbon Cryogel Silicon Composite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodworth James; Baldwin, Richard; Bennett, William

    2010-01-01

    A variety of materials are under investigation for use as anode materials in lithium-ion batteries, of which, the most promising are those containing silicon. 10 One such material is a composite formed via the dispersion of silicon in a resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) gel followed by pyrolysis. Two silicon-carbon composite materials, carbon microspheres and nanofoams produced from nano-phase silicon impregnated RF gel precursors have been synthesized and investigated. Carbon microspheres are produced by forming the silicon-containing RF gel into microspheres whereas carbon nano-foams are produced by impregnating carbon fiber paper with the silicon containing RF gel to create a free standing electrode. 1-4,9 Both materials have demonstrated their ability to function as anodes and utilize the silicon present in the material. Stable reversible capacities above 400 mAh/g for the bulk material and above 1000 mAh/g of Si have been observed.

  20. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-22

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today's society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg(-1). It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  1. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg‑1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects.

  2. Model-based condition monitoring for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taesic; Wang, Yebin; Fang, Huazhen; Sahinoglu, Zafer; Wada, Toshihiro; Hara, Satoshi; Qiao, Wei

    2015-11-01

    Condition monitoring for batteries involves tracking changes in physical parameters and operational states such as state of health (SOH) and state of charge (SOC), and is fundamentally important for building high-performance and safety-critical battery systems. A model-based condition monitoring strategy is developed in this paper for Lithium-ion batteries on the basis of an electrical circuit model incorporating hysteresis effect. It systematically integrates 1) a fast upper-triangular and diagonal recursive least squares algorithm for parameter identification of the battery model, 2) a smooth variable structure filter for the SOC estimation, and 3) a recursive total least squares algorithm for estimating the maximum capacity, which indicates the SOH. The proposed solution enjoys advantages including high accuracy, low computational cost, and simple implementation, and therefore is suitable for deployment and use in real-time embedded battery management systems (BMSs). Simulations and experiments validate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  3. Oral Exposure of a Child to a Lithium Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Janice A; Curran, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Battery exposure has the potential for severe morbidity and possible mortality. Accidental exposure is rising with the increased use of button batteries, and young children and older adults are at highest risk for accidental exposure. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of mouth exposure to a lithium ion battery in a boy. A review of the current literature on incidence, diagnosis, and outcomes of battery exposure is presented. When symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal distress of non-specific origin are present, battery ingestion should be included in the differential diagnosis. Dentists may be the first health professionals to encounter battery exposure, especially in the case of mouth exposures. Knowledge of signs and symptoms are necessary to properly diagnose and refer for medical management.

  4. A lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Wang, Yanfang; Chen, Bingwei; Fu, Lijun; Zhu, Yusong; Zhang, Lixin; Wu, Yuping; Huang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Energy and environmental pollution have become the two major problems in today’s society. The development of green energy storage devices with good safety, high reliability, high energy density and low cost are urgently demanded. Here we report on a lithium ion battery using an aqueous electrolyte solution. It is built up by using graphite coated with gel polymer membrane and LISICON as the negative electrode, and LiFePO4 in aqueous solution as the positive electrode. Its average discharge voltage is up to 3.1 V and energy density based on the two electrode materials is 258 Wh kg−1. It will be a promising energy storage system with good safety and efficient cooling effects. PMID:27328707

  5. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Park, Sang -Jae

    2015-10-06

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  6. Electronically conductive polymer binder for lithium-ion battery electrode

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Xun, Shidi; Battaglia, Vincent S.; Zheng, Honghe; Wu, Mingyan

    2015-07-07

    A family of carboxylic acid groups containing fluorene/fluorenon copolymers is disclosed as binders of silicon particles in the fabrication of negative electrodes for use with lithium ion batteries. Triethyleneoxide side chains provide improved adhesion to materials such as, graphite, silicon, silicon alloy, tin, tin alloy. These binders enable the use of silicon as an electrode material as they significantly improve the cycle-ability of silicon by preventing electrode degradation over time. In particular, these polymers, which become conductive on first charge, bind to the silicon particles of the electrode, are flexible so as to better accommodate the expansion and contraction of the electrode during charge/discharge, and being conductive promote the flow battery current.

  7. Circuit for Full Charging of Series Lithium-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E.; Saunders, David L.

    2007-01-01

    An advanced charger has been proposed for a battery that comprises several lithium-ion cells in series. The proposal is directed toward charging the cells in as nearly an optimum manner as possible despite unit-to-unit differences among the nominally identical cells. The particular aspect of the charging problem that motivated the proposal can be summarized as follows: During bulk charging (charging all the cells in series at the same current), the voltages of individual cells increase at different rates. Once one of the cells reaches full charge, bulk charging must be stopped, leaving other cells less than fully charged. To make it possible to bring all cells up to full charge once bulk charging has been completed, the proposed charger would include a number of top-off chargers one for each cell. The top-off chargers would all be powered from the same DC source, but their outputs would be DC-isolated from each other and AC-coupled to their respective cells by means of transformers, as described below. Each top-off charger would include a flyback transformer, an electronic switch, and an output diode. For suppression of undesired electromagnetic emissions, each top-off charger would also include (1) a resistor and capacitor configured to act as a snubber and (2) an inductor and capacitor configured as a filter. The magnetic characteristics of the flyback transformer and the duration of its output pulses determine the energy delivered to the lithium-ion cell. It would be necessary to equip the cell with a precise voltage monitor to determine when the cell reaches full charge. In response to a full-charge reading by this voltage monitor, the electronic switch would be held in the off state. Other cells would continue to be charged similarly by their top-off chargers until their voltage monitors read full charge.

  8. Fully Coupled Simulation of Lithium Ion Battery Cell Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Murthy, Jayathi Y.; Roberts, Scott Alan

    2015-09-01

    Lithium-ion battery particle-scale (non-porous electrode) simulations applied to resolved electrode geometries predict localized phenomena and can lead to better informed decisions on electrode design and manufacturing. This work develops and implements a fully-coupled finite volume methodology for the simulation of the electrochemical equations in a lithium-ion battery cell. The model implementation is used to investigate 3D battery electrode architectures that offer potential energy density and power density improvements over traditional layer-by-layer particle bed battery geometries. Advancement of micro-scale additive manufacturing techniques has made it possible to fabricate these 3D electrode microarchitectures. A variety of 3D battery electrode geometries are simulated and compared across various battery discharge rates and length scales in order to quantify performance trends and investigate geometrical factors that improve battery performance. The energy density and power density of the 3D battery microstructures are compared in several ways, including a uniform surface area to volume ratio comparison as well as a comparison requiring a minimum manufacturable feature size. Significant performance improvements over traditional particle bed electrode designs are observed, and electrode microarchitectures derived from minimal surfaces are shown to be superior. A reduced-order volume-averaged porous electrode theory formulation for these unique 3D batteries is also developed, allowing simulations on the full-battery scale. Electrode concentration gradients are modeled using the diffusion length method, and results for plate and cylinder electrode geometries are compared to particle-scale simulation results. Additionally, effective diffusion lengths that minimize error with respect to particle-scale results for gyroid and Schwarz P electrode microstructures are determined.

  9. Performance Characterization of High Energy Commercial Lithium-ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneidegger, Brianne T.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center Electrochemistry Branch performed characterization of commercial lithium-ion cells to determine the cells' performance against Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Key Performance Parameters (KPP). The goals of the ETDP Energy Storage Project require significant improvements in the specific energy of lithium-ion technology over the state-of-the-art. This work supports the high energy cell development for the Constellation customer Lunar Surface Systems (LSS). In support of these goals, testing was initiated in September 2009 with high energy cylindrical cells obtained from Panasonic and E-One Moli. Both manufacturers indicated the capability of their cells to deliver specific energy of at least 180 Wh/kg or higher. Testing is being performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center to evaluate the performance of these cells under temperature, rate, and cycling conditions relevant to the ETDP goals for high energy cells. The cell-level specific energy goal for high energy technology is 180 Wh/kg at a C/10 rate and 0 C. The threshold value is 165 Wh/kg. The goal is to operate for at least 2000 cycles at 100 percent DOD with greater than 80 percent capacity retention. The Panasonic NCR18650 cells were able to deliver nearly 200 Wh/kg at the aforementioned conditions. The E-One Moli ICR18650J cells also met the specific energy goal by delivering 183 Wh/kg. Though both cells met the goal for specific energy, this testing was only one portion of the testing required to determine the suitability of commercial cells for the ETDP. The cells must also meet goals for cycle life and safety. The results of this characterization are summarized in this report.

  10. Structural optimization of 3D porous electrodes for high-rate performance lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianchao; Baumgaertel, Andreas C; Wang, Y Morris; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M

    2015-02-24

    Much progress has recently been made in the development of active materials, electrode morphologies and electrolytes for lithium ion batteries. Well-defined studies on size effects of the three-dimensional (3D) electrode architecture, however, remain to be rare due to the lack of suitable material platforms where the critical length scales (such as pore size and thickness of the active material) can be freely and deterministically adjusted over a wide range without affecting the overall 3D morphology of the electrode. Here, we report on a systematic study on length scale effects on the electrochemical performance of model 3D np-Au/TiO2 core/shell electrodes. Bulk nanoporous gold provides deterministic control over the pore size and is used as a monolithic metallic scaffold and current collector. Extremely uniform and conformal TiO2 films of controlled thickness were deposited on the current collector by employing atomic layer deposition (ALD). Our experiments demonstrate profound performance improvements by matching the Li(+) diffusivity in the electrolyte and the solid state through adjusting pore size and thickness of the active coating which, for 200 μm thick porous electrodes, requires the presence of 100 nm pores. Decreasing the thickness of the TiO2 coating generally improves the power performance of the electrode by reducing the Li(+) diffusion pathway, enhancing the Li(+) solid solubility, and minimizing the voltage drop across the electrode/electrolyte interface. With the use of the optimized electrode morphology, supercapacitor-like power performance with lithium-ion-battery energy densities was realized. Our results provide the much-needed fundamental insight for the rational design of the 3D architecture of lithium ion battery electrodes with improved power performance.

  11. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  12. Lithium-Ion rechargeable batteries on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R. C.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, have been roving on the surface of Mars, capturing impressive images of its terrain and analyzing the drillings from Martian rocks, to answer the ever -puzzling questions of life beyond Earth and origin of our planets. These rovers are being enabled by an advanced rechargeable battery system, lithium-ion, for the first time on a space mission of this scale, for keeping the rover electronics warm, and for supporting nighttime experimentation and communications. These rover Li-ion batteries are characterized by their unique low temperature capability, in addition to the usual advantages associated with Li-ion chemistry in terms of mass, volume and energy efficiency. To enable a rapid insertion of this advanced Li-ion chemistry into flight missions, we have performed several performance assessment studies on several prototype cells over the last few years. These tests mainly focused primarily on the long-term performance characteristics, such as cycling and storage, as described in our companion paper. In addition, various tests have been performed on MER cells and engineering and proto flight batteries; under conditions relevant to these missions. For example, we have examined the performance of the cells in: a) an inverted orientation, as during integration and launch, and b) conditions of low rate discharge, between 3.0-2.5 V to support the mission clock. Likewise, we have determined the impedance of the proto-flight Rover battery assembly unit in detail, with a view to asses whether a current-limiting resistor would be unduly stressed, in the event of a shorting induced by a failed pyro. In this paper we will describe these studies in detail, as well as the performance of Li-ion batteries in Spirit and Opportunity rovers, during cruise and on Mars.

  13. Electrochemical properties of iron oxides/carbon nanotubes as anode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhipeng; Zhao, Hailei; Lv, Pengpeng; Zhang, Zijia; Wang, Jie; Xia, Qing

    2015-01-01

    A composited anode material with combined Fe3O4/FeO nanotube and carbon shell is synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method with subsequent CVD heat treatment. The as-prepared Fe3O4/FeO/C composite shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability as lithium ion battery anode. We study the effect of FeO on the electrochemical performances of the Fe3O4/FeO/C electrode. A capacity climbing phenomenon can be observed for the Fe3O4/FeO/C electrodes, which tends to be more evident with increasing FeO content. The "extra capacity" is correlated with the reversible formation of polymeric gel-like film on the particle surface of active materials, which is electrochemical active towards Li ions. The FeO component presents a certain extent of catalytic role in assisting the formation of the gel-like film. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analytical technique are combined to further confirm the reversible growth of the SEI gel-like film. High temperature promotes the formation of gel-like film, while the resistance from the film decreases remarkably with temperature due to the enhanced lithium ion conductivity. The film contributes little to the whole EIS resistance of Fe3O4/FeO nanotube/carbon electrode. Tentative explanations based on the current experiments and existing literature are made to explain such unusual finding.

  14. Mechanistic insights related to the design and construction of lithium single ion conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spahlinger, Gregory

    Lithium single ion conductors are a class of electrolytes, typically designed for lithium ion batteries, with the potential to improve the performance of these batteries. The benefits of single ion conductors arise out of the fact that their immobile anions are not capable of concentrating near the anode of the battery, causing an increase in resistance as the battery is discharged. Unfortunately lithium single ion conductors suffer severe drawbacks in their conductivity which have been attributed to diverse causes. Because of the low success rate of single ion conductors in the literature and previous work in the Baker group, I have chosen to investigate mechanistic questions related to the design and construction of these materials, without engineering new materials. An attractive design strategy for the screening of immobile anion moieties for single ion conductors would be the use of the copper catalyzed alkyne azide (CUAAC) "click" reaction in order to efficiently introduce anions onto a polymer or nanoparticle support in a way that is efficient and tunable. A variable added by this strategy would be the presence of a 1,2,3-triazole moiety which is without any significant precedent in the lithium ion electrolyte literature. In order to assess the impact of the triazole in on the conductivity of an electrolyte a series of model compounds were synthesized containing a variable number of triazoles in an otherwise poly(ethylene glycol) like oligomer chain. The model compounds were subjected to differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and in one case single crystal X-ray diffraction, and solvent shells were modeled for lithium with and without triazoles using ab initio quantum chemistry calculations. It was concluded that the triazole is not significantly stronger than an ether oxygen as a ligand in the electrolytes, however the triazole has a substantial dipole which exerts some deleterious effects on the conductivity, leading to

  15. A Tunable 3D Nanostructured Conductive Gel Framework Electrode for High-Performance Lithium Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ye; Zhang, Jun; Bruck, Andrea M; Zhang, Yiman; Li, Jing; Stach, Eric A; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S; Yu, Guihua

    2017-03-22

    This study develops a tunable 3D nanostructured conductive gel framework as both binder and conductive framework for lithium ion batteries. A 3D nanostructured gel framework with continuous electron pathways can provide hierarchical pores for ion transport and form uniform coatings on each active particle against aggregation. The hybrid gel electrodes based on a polypyrrole gel framework and Fe3 O4 nanoparticles as a model system in this study demonstrate the best rate performance, the highest achieved mass ratio of active materials, and the highest achieved specific capacities when considering total electrode mass, compared to current literature. This 3D nanostructured gel-based framework represents a powerful platform for various electrochemically active materials to enable the next-generation high-energy batteries.

  16. Synthesis of Microspherical LiFePO4-Carbon Composites for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Linghui; Cai, Dandan; Wang, Haihui; Titirici, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an “all in one” procedure to produce mesoporous, micro-spherical LiFePO4 composed of agglomerated crystalline nanoparticles. Each nanoparticle is individually coated with a thin glucose-derived carbon layer. The main advantage of the as-synthesized materials is their good performance at high charge-discharge rates. The nanoparticles and the mesoporosity guarantee a short bulk diffusion distance for both lithium ions and electrons, as well as additional active sites for the charge transfer reactions. At the same time, the thin interconnected carbon coating provides a conductive framework capable of delivering electrons to the nanostructured LiFePO4.

  17. Effect of ions of potassium and lithium on NO synthase expression in the human adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Kovzun, E I; Lukashenya, O S; Pushkarev, V M; Mikosha, A S; Tron'ko, N D

    2014-01-01

    The expression of endothelial and inducible NO synthase in the human adrenal glands was studied under a change in the concentration of K(+), which plays a regulatory role in aldosterone secretion. K(+) ions stimulated the expression of both isoforms of NO synthase in the human adrenal cortex. A stimulatory effect of K(+) on NO synthase is probably related to activation of the calmodulin system and potassium-induced translocation of protein kinase C. Lithium produced n inhibitory effect on both isoforms of NO synthase, which suggests that protein kinase C serves a major regulator of expression in the human adrenal glands.

  18. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-05-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances.

  19. Ionic Conduction in Lithium Ion Battery Composite Electrode Governs Cross-sectional Reaction Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Orikasa, Yuki; Gogyo, Yuma; Yamashige, Hisao; Katayama, Misaki; Chen, Kezheng; Mori, Takuya; Yamamoto, Kentaro; Masese, Titus; Inada, Yasuhiro; Ohta, Toshiaki; Siroma, Zyun; Kato, Shiro; Kinoshita, Hajime; Arai, Hajime; Ogumi, Zempachi; Uchimoto, Yoshiharu

    2016-01-01

    Composite electrodes containing active materials, carbon and binder are widely used in lithium-ion batteries. Since the electrode reaction occurs preferentially in regions with lower resistance, reaction distribution can be happened within composite electrodes. We investigate the relationship between the reaction distribution with depth direction and electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes with changing electrode porosities. Two dimensional X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that the reaction distribution is happened in lower porosity electrodes. Our developed 6-probe method can measure electronic/ionic conductivity in composite electrodes. The ionic conductivity is decreased for lower porosity electrodes, which governs the reaction distribution of composite electrodes and their performances. PMID:27193448

  20. Extension of Lithium Ion Cell Model to Include Transient and Low-Temperature Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.

    2014-08-01

    Current-interruption resistance measurements have been analysed in detail allowing the ESTEC lithium ion cell electrical/thermal model to be extended to allow modelling of cell voltage in response to imposed current changes at low temperatures and short time scales where activation polarisation becomes important. Whilst an unnecessary complication in most cases, this extension is needed under certain circumstances such as the simulation of Mars rover batteries forced to operate at low temperature and possible effects of battery voltage transients on battery-bus power subsystems. Comparison with test data show that the model is capable of giving a good fit in these circumstances.

  1. Applications of the Lithium Focused Ion Beam: Nanoscale Electrochemistry and Microdisk Mode Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGehee, William; Takeuchi, Saya; Michels, Thomas; Oleshko, Vladimir; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Soles, Christopher; McClelland, Jabez; CenterNanoscale Science; Technology at NIST Collaboration; Materials Measurement Laboratory at NIST Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The NIST-developed lithium Focused-Ion-Beam (LiFIB) system creates a low-energy, picoampere-scale ion beam from a photoionized gas of laser-cooled atoms. The ion beam can be focused to a <30 nm spot and scanned across a sample. This enables imaging through collection of ion-induced secondary electrons (similar to SEM) as well as the ability to selectively deposit lithium-ions into nanoscale volumes in a material. We exploit this second ability of the LiFIB to selectively ''titrate'' lithium ions as a means of probing the optical modes in microdisk resonators as well as for exploring nanoscale, Li-ion electrochemistry in battery-relevant materials. We present an overview of both measurements, including imaging of the optical mode in a silicon microdisk and a comparison of FIB and electrochemical lithiation of tin.

  2. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  3. Anisotropic Lithium Ion Conductivity in Single-Ion Diblock Copolymer Electrolyte Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Aissou, Karim; Mumtaz, Muhammad; Usluer, Özlem; Pécastaings, Gilles; Portale, Giuseppe; Fleury, Guillaume; Cloutet, Eric; Hadziioannou, Georges

    2016-02-01

    Well-defined single-ion diblock copolymers consisting of a Li-ion conductive poly(styrenesulfonyllithium(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) (PSLiTFSI) block associated with a glassy polystyrene (PS) block have been synthesized via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. Conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 1000 has been achieved from PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films by comparing Li-ion conductivities of out-of-plane (aligned) and in-plane (antialigned) cylinder morphologies at 40 °C. Blending of PS-b-PSLiTFSI thin films with poly(ethylene oxide) homopolymer (hPEO) enables a substantial improvement of Li-ion transport within aligned cylindrical domains, since hPEO, preferentially located in PSLiTFSI domains, is an excellent lithium-solvating material. Results are also compared with unblended and blended PSLiTFSI homopolymer (hPSLiTFSI) homologues, which reveals that ionic conductivity is improved when thin films are nanostructured.

  4. Graft copolymer-based lithium-ion battery for high-temperature operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qichao; Osswald, Sebastian; Daniel, Reece; Zhu, Yan; Wesel, Steven; Ortiz, Luis; Sadoway, Donald R.

    The use of conventional lithium-ion batteries in high temperature applications (>50 °C) is currently inhibited by the high reactivity and volatility of liquid electrolytes. Solvent-free, solid-state polymer electrolytes allow for safe and stable operation of lithium-ion batteries, even at elevated temperatures. Recent advances in polymer synthesis have led to the development of novel materials that exhibit solid-like mechanical behavior while providing the ionic conductivities approaching that of liquid electrolytes. Here we report the successful charge and discharge cycling of a graft copolymer electrolyte (GCE)-based lithium-ion battery at temperatures up to 120 °C. The GCE consists of poly(oxyethylene) methacrylate-g-poly(dimethyl siloxane) (POEM-g-PDMS) doped with lithium triflate. Using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), we analyze the temperature stability and cycling behavior of GCE-based lithium-ion batteries comprised of a LiFePO 4 cathode, a metallic lithium anode, and an electrolyte consisting of a 20-μm-thick layer of lithium triflate-doped POEM-g-PDMS. Our results demonstrate the great potential of GCE-based Li-ion batteries for high-temperature applications.

  5. Current status of environmental, health, and safety issues of lithium ion electric vehicle batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vimmerstedt, L.J.; Ring, S.; Hammel, C.J.

    1995-09-01

    The lithium ion system considered in this report uses lithium intercalation compounds as both positive and negative electrodes and has an organic liquid electrolyte. Oxides of nickel, cobalt, and manganese are used in the positive electrode, and carbon is used in the negative electrode. This report presents health and safety issues, environmental issues, and shipping requirements for lithium ion electric vehicle (EV) batteries. A lithium-based electrochemical system can, in theory, achieve higher energy density than systems using other elements. The lithium ion system is less reactive and more reliable than present lithium metal systems and has possible performance advantages over some lithium solid polymer electrolyte batteries. However, the possibility of electrolyte spills could be a disadvantage of a liquid electrolyte system compared to a solid electrolyte. The lithium ion system is a developing technology, so there is some uncertainty regarding which materials will be used in an EV-sized battery. This report reviews the materials presented in the open literature within the context of health and safety issues, considering intrinsic material hazards, mitigation of material hazards, and safety testing. Some possible lithium ion battery materials are toxic, carcinogenic, or could undergo chemical reactions that produce hazardous heat or gases. Toxic materials include lithium compounds, nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and dimethoxyethane. Carcinogenic materials include nickel compounds, arsenic compounds, and (possibly) cobalt compounds, copper, and polypropylene. Lithiated negative electrode materials could be reactive. However, because information about the exact compounds that will be used in future batteries is proprietary, ongoing research will determine which specific hazards will apply.

  6. Low-cost carbon-silicon nanocomposite anodes for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Badi, Nacer; Erra, Abhinay Reddy; Hernandez, Francisco C Robles; Okonkwo, Anderson O; Hobosyan, Mkhitar; Martirosyan, Karen S

    2014-01-01

    The specific energy of the existing lithium ion battery cells is limited because intercalation electrodes made of activated carbon (AC) materials have limited lithium ion storage capacities. Carbon nanotubes, graphene, and carbon nanofibers are the most sought alternatives to replace AC materials but their synthesis cost makes them highly prohibitive. Silicon has recently emerged as a strong candidate to replace existing graphite anodes due to its inherently large specific capacity and low working potential. However, pure silicon electrodes have shown poor mechanical integrity due to the dramatic expansion of the material during battery operation. This results in high irreversible capacity and short cycle life. We report on the synthesis and use of carbon and hybrid carbon-silicon nanostructures made by a simplified thermo-mechanical milling process to produce low-cost high-energy lithium ion battery anodes. Our work is based on an abundant, cost-effective, and easy-to-launch source of carbon soot having amorphous nature in combination with scrap silicon with crystalline nature. The carbon soot is transformed in situ into graphene and graphitic carbon during mechanical milling leading to superior elastic properties. Micro-Raman mapping shows a well-dispersed microstructure for both carbon and silicon. The fabricated composites are used for battery anodes, and the results are compared with commercial anodes from MTI Corporation. The anodes are integrated in batteries and tested; the results are compared to those seen in commercial batteries. For quick laboratory assessment, all electrochemical cells were fabricated under available environment conditions and they were tested at room temperature. Initial electrochemical analysis results on specific capacity, efficiency, and cyclability in comparison to currently available AC counterpart are promising to advance cost-effective commercial lithium ion battery technology. The electrochemical performance observed for

  7. In situ monitoring of temperature inside lithium-ion batteries by flexible micro temperature sensors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Tang, Ming-Shao; Chen, Pei-Chi

    2011-01-01

    Lithium-ion secondary batteries are commonly used in electric vehicles, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), notebooks and electric cars. These lithium-ion secondary batteries must charge and discharge rapidly, causing the interior temperature to rise quickly, raising a safety issue. Over-charging results in an unstable voltage and current, causing potential safety problems, such as thermal runaways and explosions. Thus, a micro flexible temperature sensor for the in in-situ monitoring of temperature inside a lithium-ion secondary battery must be developed. In this work, flexible micro temperature sensors were integrated into a lithium-ion secondary battery using the micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) process for monitoring temperature in situ.

  8. Liquid Cooling of Tractive Lithium Ion Batteries Pack with Nanofluids Coolant.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Xie, Huaqing; Yu, Wei; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The heat generated from tractive lithium ion batteries during discharge-charge process has great impacts on the performances of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. How to solve the thermal abuse in tractive lithium ion batteries pack becomes more and more urgent and important for future development of electrical vehicles. In this work, TiO2, ZnO and diamond nanofluids are prepared and utilized as coolants in indirect liquid cooling of tractive lithium ion batteries pack. The results show that nanofluids present superior cooling performance to that of pure fluids and the diamond nanofluid presents relatively excellent cooling abilities than that of TiO2 and ZnO nanofluids. During discharge process, the temperature distribution of batteries in batteries pack is uniform and stable, due to steady heat dissipation by indirect liquid cooling. It is expected that nanofluids could be considered as a potential alternative for indirect liquid cooling in electrical vehicles.

  9. Coupled Mechanical-Electrochemical-Thermal Analysis of Failure Propagation in Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-07-28

    This is a presentation given at the 12th World Congress for Computational Mechanics on coupled mechanical-electrochemical-thermal analysis of failure propagation in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles.

  10. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  11. Effect of local velocity on diffusion-induced stress in large-deformation electrodes of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Kai; Zheng, Bailin; Yang, Fuqian

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the contribution of local velocity to the resultant flux of lithium in lithium-ion battery is introduced into the diffusion equation to describe the migration of lithium in the active material of electrodes. The effect of the local velocity on the stress evolution in a spherical electrode made of silicon is analyzed, using the derived diffusion equation and nonlinear theory of elasticity. Two boundary conditions at the surface of the electrode, which represent two extreme conditions of real electrode materials, are used in the stress analysis: one is stress-free, and the other is immobile. The numerical results with the stress-free boundary condition suggest that the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of radial stress and hoop stress increases with the increase of time and the effect of the local velocity on the distribution of lithium is relatively small. In comparison with the results without the effect of the local velocity, the effect of the local velocity is negligible for the immobile boundary condition. The numerical result shows that the use of the immobile boundary condition leads to the decrease of von-Mises stress, which likely will retard the mechanical degradation of electrode and improve the electrochemical performance of lithium-ion battery.

  12. Spatially resolved surface valence gradient and structural transformation of lithium transition metal oxides in lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hanshuo; Bugnet, Matthieu; Tessaro, Matteo Z; Harris, Kristopher J; Dunham, Mark J R; Jiang, Meng; Goward, Gillian R; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2016-10-26

    Layered lithium transition metal oxides are one of the most important types of cathode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) that possess high capacity and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, these layered cathode materials suffer structural changes during electrochemical cycling that could adversely affect the battery performance. Clear explanations of the cathode degradation process and its initiation, however, are still under debate and not yet fully understood. We herein systematically investigate the chemical evolution and structural transformation of the LiNixMnyCo1-x-yO2 (NMC) cathode material in order to understand the battery performance deterioration driven by the cathode degradation upon cycling. Using high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) we clarify the role of transition metals in the charge compensation mechanism, particularly the controversial Ni(2+) (active) and Co(3+) (stable) ions, at different states-of-charge (SOC) under 4.6 V operation voltage. The cathode evolution is studied in detail from the first-charge to long-term cycling using complementary diagnostic tools. With the bulk sensitive (7)Li nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements, we show that the local ordering of transition metal and Li layers (R3[combining macron]m structure) is well retained in the bulk material upon cycling. In complement to the bulk measurements, we locally probe the valence state distribution of cations and the surface structure of NMC particles using EELS and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The results reveal that the surface evolution of NMC is initiated in the first-charging step with a surface reduction layer formed at the particle surface. The NMC surface undergoes phase transformation from the layered structure to a poor electronic and ionic conducting transition-metal oxide rock-salt phase (R3[combining macron]m → Fm3[combining macron]m), accompanied by irreversible lithium and oxygen loss. In addition to the

  13. Fumed Silica-Based Single-Ion Nanocomposite Electrolyte for Lithium Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Jia, Zhe; Yuan, Wen; Hu, Heyi; Fu, Yanbao; Baker, Gregory L; Liu, Gao

    2015-09-02

    A composite lithium electrolyte composed of polyelectrolyte-grafted nanoparticles and polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether (PEGDME) is synthesized and characterized. Polyanions immobilized by the silica nanoparticles have reduced anion mobility. Composite nanoparticles grafted by poly(lithium 4-styrenesulfonate) only have moderate conductivity at 60 °C. Almost an order increase of the conductivity to ∼10(-6) S/cm is achieved by co-polymerization of the poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate with sodium 4-styrenesulfonate, which enhances dissociation between lithium cation and polyanion and facilitates lithium ion transfer from the inner part of the polyelectrolyte layer. This composite electrolyte has the potential to suppress lithium dendrite growth and enable the use of lithium metal anode in rechargeable batteries.

  14. Lithium rich cathode/graphite anode combination for lithium ion cells with high tolerance to near zero volt storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, K. R.; Staub, J. W.; Hladky, M. P.; Landi, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Management of reversible lithium is an advantageous approach to design lithium ion cells that are tolerant to near zero volt (NZV) storage under fixed resistive load towards highly controllable, enhanced user-inactive safety. Presently, the first cycle loss from a high energy density Li-rich HE5050 cathode is used to provide excess reversible lithium when paired with an appropriately capacity matched mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode. Cells utilizing 1.2 M LiPF6 3:7 v/v ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte and a lithium reference were used for 3-electrode testing. After conditioning, a fixed resistive load was applied to 3-electrode cells for 72 or 168-h during which the anode potential and electrode asymptotic potential (EAP) remained less than the copper dissolution potential. After multiple storage cycles (room temperature or 40 °C), the NZV coulombic efficiency (cell reversibility) exceeded 97% and the discharge capacity retention was >98%. Conventional 2-electrode HE5050/MCMB pouch cells stored at NZV or open circuit for 3 days had nearly identical rate capability (up to 5C) and discharge performance stability (for 500 cycles under a 30% depth of discharge low-earth-orbit regime). Thus, lithium ion cells with appropriately capacity matched HE5050/MCMB electrodes have excellent tolerance to prolonged NZV storage, which can lead to enhanced user-inactive safety.

  15. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  16. Interpretation of Simultaneous Mechanical-Electrical-Thermal Failure in a Lithium-Ion Battery Module: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chao; Santhanagopalan, Shriram; Stock, Mark J.; Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Gruchalla, Kenny

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are currently the state-of- the-art power sources for electric vehicles, and their safety behavior when subjected to abuse, such as a mechanical impact, is of critical concern. A coupled mechanical-electrical-thermal model for simulating the behavior of a lithium-ion battery under a mechanical crush has been developed. We present a series of production-quality visualizations to illustrate the complex mechanical and electrical interactions in this model.

  17. Novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Gross, T; Giebeler, L; Hess, C

    2013-07-01

    A novel in situ cell for Raman diagnostics of working lithium-ion batteries is described. The design closely mimics that of standard battery testing cells and therefore allows to obtain Raman spectra under representative electrochemical conditions. Both cathode and anode materials can be studied. First results on the intercalation of a Li1-xCoO2 cathode material demonstrate the potential of the experimental approach for structural studies and underline the importance of studying lithium-ion batteries at work.

  18. Temperature dependent dielectric properties and ion transportation in solid polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengwa, R. J.; Dhatarwal, Priyanka; Choudhary, Shobhna

    2016-05-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) film consisted of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blend matrix with lithium tetrafluroborate (LiBF4) as dopant ionic salt and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as plasticizer has been prepared by solution casting method followed by melt pressing. Dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of the SPE film at different temperatures have been determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy. It has been observed that the dc ionic conductivity of the SPE film increases with increase of temperature and also the decrease of relaxation time. The temperature dependent relaxation time and ionic conductivity values of the electrolyte are governed by the Arrhenius relation. Correlation observed between dc conductivity and relaxation time confirms that ion transportation occurs with polymer chain segmental dynamics through hopping mechanism. The room temperature ionic conductivity is found to be 4 × 10-6 S cm-1 which suggests the suitability of the SPE film for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  19. Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications. PMID:22353373

  20. Boehmite particle coating modified microporous polyethylene membrane: A promising separator for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chongwen; Tong, Hua; Luo, Chuanpeng; Yuan, Shuanglong; Chen, Guorong; Yang, Yunxia

    2017-04-01

    To exploit high-quality separators for lithium ion batteries, current research activities are mainly focused on the modification of microporous polyolefin membranes by coating them with inorganic particles to achieve comprehensive improvements in their thermal stability, electrochemical compatibility, and overcharge protection. Here, we report a separator made by coating boehmite (AlOOH) particles on microporous polyethylene (PE) membranes. Compared to the commercially applied coating materials, e.g., aluminum oxide (Al2O3), AlOOH allows for a substantial reduction in the coating thickness, while ensuring excellent thermal stability of the modified PE membrane. Our study shows that this is due to the formation of an interlocking interface structure that interconnects the PE membrane and AlOOH coating layer as soon as PE melts at about 140 °C, preventing the modified PE membrane from shrinking at subsequently elevated temperatures. The modified PE membrane exhibits suitable electrolyte wettability to facilitate ion transport through it. Thus, the lithium ion batteries employing it as a separator could attain substantially improved electrochemical performance. Furthermore, the AlOOH-coated PE separator was also found to provide an excellent overcharge protection.

  1. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-28

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li(+) ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  2. Fabricating high performance lithium-ion batteries using bionanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Hou, Yukun; He, Wen; Yang, Guihua; Cui, Jingjie; Liu, Shikun; Song, Xin; Huang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    Designing, fabricating, and integrating nanomaterials are key to transferring nanoscale science into applicable nanotechnology. Many nanomaterials including amorphous and crystal structures are synthesized via biomineralization in biological systems. Amongst various techniques, bionanotechnology is an effective strategy to manufacture a variety of sophisticated inorganic nanomaterials with precise control over their chemical composition, crystal structure, and shape by means of genetic engineering and natural bioassemblies. This provides opportunities to use renewable natural resources to develop high performance lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). For LIBs, reducing the sizes and dimensions of electrode materials can boost Li+ ion and electron transfer in nanostructured electrodes. Recently, bionanotechnology has attracted great interest as a novel tool and approach, and a number of renewable biotemplate-based nanomaterials have been fabricated and used in LIBs. In this article, recent advances and mechanism studies in using bionanotechnology for high performance LIBs studies are thoroughly reviewed, covering two technical routes: (1) Designing and synthesizing composite cathodes, e.g. LiFePO4/C, Li3V2(PO4)3/C and LiMn2O4/C; and (2) designing and synthesizing composite anodes, e.g. NiO/C, Co3O4/C, MnO/C, α-Fe2O3 and nano-Si. This review will hopefully stimulate more extensive and insightful studies on using bionanotechnology for developing high-performance LIBs.

  3. Analysis of Long-Range Interaction in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Mistry, Aashutosh; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Stein, Malcolm; Smith, Kandler; Mukherjee, Partha P.

    2016-12-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode represents a complex porous composite, consisting of multiple phases including active material (AM), conductive additive, and polymeric binder. This study proposes a mesoscale model to probe the effects of the cathode composition, e.g., the ratio of active material, conductive additive, and binder content, on the electrochemical properties and performance. The results reveal a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the effective electrical conductivity as the amount of conductive additive is increased. Insufficient electronic conductivity of the electrode limits the cell operation to lower currents. Once sufficient electron conduction (i.e., percolation) is achieved, the rate performance can be a strong function of ion-blockage effect and pore phase transport resistance. In conclusion, even for the same porosity, different arrangements of the solid phases may lead to notable difference in the cell performance, which highlights the need for accurate microstructural characterization and composite electrode preparation strategies.

  4. Analysis of Long-Range Interaction in Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    DOE PAGES

    Mistry, Aashutosh; Juarez-Robles, Daniel; Stein, Malcolm; ...

    2016-12-01

    The lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrode represents a complex porous composite, consisting of multiple phases including active material (AM), conductive additive, and polymeric binder. This study proposes a mesoscale model to probe the effects of the cathode composition, e.g., the ratio of active material, conductive additive, and binder content, on the electrochemical properties and performance. The results reveal a complex nonmonotonic behavior in the effective electrical conductivity as the amount of conductive additive is increased. Insufficient electronic conductivity of the electrode limits the cell operation to lower currents. Once sufficient electron conduction (i.e., percolation) is achieved, the rate performance can bemore » a strong function of ion-blockage effect and pore phase transport resistance. In conclusion, even for the same porosity, different arrangements of the solid phases may lead to notable difference in the cell performance, which highlights the need for accurate microstructural characterization and composite electrode preparation strategies.« less

  5. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects.

    PubMed

    Latz, Arnulf; Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory.

  6. Multiscale modeling of lithium ion batteries: thermal aspects

    PubMed Central

    Zausch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Summary The thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries has a huge impact on their lifetime and the initiation of degradation processes. The development of hot spots or large local overpotentials leading, e.g., to lithium metal deposition depends on material properties as well as on the nano- und microstructure of the electrodes. In recent years a theoretical structure emerges, which opens the possibility to establish a systematic modeling strategy from atomistic to continuum scale to capture and couple the relevant phenomena on each scale. We outline the building blocks for such a systematic approach and discuss in detail a rigorous approach for the continuum scale based on rational thermodynamics and homogenization theories. Our focus is on the development of a systematic thermodynamically consistent theory for thermal phenomena in batteries at the microstructure scale and at the cell scale. We discuss the importance of carefully defining the continuum fields for being able to compare seemingly different phenomenological theories and for obtaining rules to determine unknown parameters of the theory by experiments or lower-scale theories. The resulting continuum models for the microscopic and the cell scale are numerically solved in full 3D resolution. The complex very localized distributions of heat sources in a microstructure of a battery and the problems of mapping these localized sources on an averaged porous electrode model are discussed by comparing the detailed 3D microstructure-resolved simulations of the heat distribution with the result of the upscaled porous electrode model. It is shown, that not all heat sources that exist on the microstructure scale are represented in the averaged theory due to subtle cancellation effects of interface and bulk heat sources. Nevertheless, we find that in special cases the averaged thermal behavior can be captured very well by porous electrode theory. PMID:25977870

  7. Construction of a lithium ion transport network in cathode with lithiated bis(benzene sulfonyl)imide based single ion polymer ionomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Qiyun; Zhang, Wenchao; Pan, Meize; Zhang, Baodan; Zeng, Danli; Sun, Yubao; Cheng, Hansong

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a novel method to construct a lithium ion transport network in cathode materials by replacing PVDF with lithiated poly(bis(4-carbonyl benzene sulfonyl)imide-co-bis(4-amino benzene sulfonyl)imide) as the binder. The single ion conducting polymer was synthesized via polycondensation of bis(4-carbonyl benzene sulfonyl)imide and bis(4-amino benzene sulfonyl)imide followed by lithium ion exchange. By blending the ionomers with LiFePO4 and acetylene carbon, the ionic network was well constructed, resulting in a maximum use of active cathode material inside the cathode. The membrane of the polymer electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 0.14 mS cm-1 at room temperature, a high ion transference number of 0.92 and a wide electrochemical window of 4.5 V (vs. Li+/Li). A lithium ion battery assembled with the single ion conducting polymer electrolyte delivers excellent performance at room temperature with various C-rates.

  8. An experimental study on burning behaviors of 18650 lithium ion batteries using a cone calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Lu, Song; Li, Kaiyuan; Liu, Changchen; Cheng, Xudong; Zhang, Heping

    2015-01-01

    Numerous of lithium ion battery fires and explosions enhance the need of precise risk assessments on batteries. In the current study, 18650 lithium ion batteries at different states of charge are tested using a cone calorimeter to study the burning behaviors under an incident heat flux of 50 kW m-2. Several parameters are measured, including mass loss rate, time to ignition, time to explosion, heat release rate (HRR), the surface temperature and concentration of toxic gases. Although small quantities of oxygen are released from the lithium ion battery during burning, it is estimated that the energy, consuming oxygen released from the lithium ion battery, accounts for less than 13% of total energy released by a fully charged lithium ion battery. The experimental results show that the peak HRR and concentration of toxic gases rise with the increasing the states of charge, whereas the time to ignition and time to explosion decrease. The test results of the fully charged lithium ion batteries at three different incident heat fluxes show that the peak HRR increases from 6.2 to 9.1 kW and the maximum surface temperature increases from 662 to 934 °C as the incident heat flux increases from 30 to 60 kW m-2.

  9. Efficiently photo-charging lithium-ion battery by perovskite solar cell

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jiantie; Chen, Yonghua; Dai, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicles using lithium-ion battery pack(s) for propulsion have recently attracted a great deal of interest. The large-scale practical application of battery electric vehicles may not be realized unless lithium-ion batteries with self-charging suppliers will be developed. Solar cells offer an attractive option for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries. Here we demonstrate the use of perovskite solar cell packs with four single CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells connected in series for directly photo-charging lithium-ion batteries assembled with a LiFePO4 cathode and a Li4Ti5O12 anode. Our device shows a high overall photo-electric conversion and storage efficiency of 7.80% and excellent cycling stability, which outperforms other reported lithium-ion batteries, lithium–air batteries, flow batteries and super-capacitors integrated with a photo-charging component. The newly developed self-chargeable units based on integrated perovskite solar cells and lithium-ion batteries hold promise for various potential applications. PMID:26311589

  10. Neutron scattering for analysis of processes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Samoylova, N. Yu; Drozhzhin, O. A.; Antipov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    The review is concerned with analysis and generalization of information on application of neutron scattering for elucidation of the structure of materials for rechargeable energy sources (mainly lithium-ion batteries) and on structural rearrangements in these materials occurring in the course of electrochemical processes. Applications of the main methods including neutron diffraction, small-angle neutron scattering, inelastic neutron scattering, neutron reflectometry and neutron introscopy are considered. Information on advanced neutron sources is presented and a number of typical experiments are outlined. The results of some studies of lithium-containing materials for lithium-ion batteries, carried out at IBR-2 pulsed reactor, are discussed. The bibliography includes 50 references.

  11. Stabilized lithium-ion battery anode performance by calcium-bridging of two dimensional siloxene layers.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, Haruo; Itahara, Hiroshi

    2017-03-14

    A Ca-bridged siloxene (Ca-siloxene) composed of two-dimensional siloxene planes with Ca bridging was synthesized via a solid state metathesis reaction using TaCl5 to extract Ca from CaSi2. Three different Ca-siloxenes synthesized at Cl2/Ca molar ratios of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 (CS0.25, CS1.25 and CS2.5, respectively) were fabricated and investigated as anode active materials for lithium-ion batteries. Both secondary and primary Ca-siloxene particles, which serve to increase the contact interfaces with conductive materials and to generate accessible sites for lithium ions, respectively, were found to become smaller and to have increased pore volumes as the Cl2/Ca molar ratio was increased. These Ca-siloxenes exhibited stable charge/discharge performance as anode materials, with 69-99% capacity retention after 50 charge/discharge cycles (compared with 36% retention for a conventional Kautsky-type siloxene). The charge capacity also increased with increases in the Cl2/Ca molar ratio, such that the CS2.5 showed the highest capacity after 50 charge/discharge cycles. This may reflect the formation of Si6Li6 rather than SiLi4.4 and suggests the maintenance of layered Si planes for large capacity retention after charge/discharge cycling. The increase of contact interfaces between acetylene black (as a conductive material) and Ca-siloxenes was found to effectively increase the lithium-ion capacity of Ca-siloxene during high rate charge/discharge cycling.

  12. Nanostructured metal oxide-based materials as advanced anodes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hao Bin; Chen, Jun Song; Hng, Huey Hoon; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2012-04-21

    The search for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has been an important way to satisfy the ever-growing demands for better performance with higher energy/power densities, improved safety and longer cycle life. Nanostructured metal oxides exhibit good electrochemical properties, and they are regarded as promising anode materials for high-performance LIBs. In this feature article, we will focus on three different categories of metal oxides with distinct lithium storage mechanisms: tin dioxide (SnO(2)), which utilizes alloying/dealloying processes to reversibly store/release lithium ions during charge/discharge; titanium dioxide (TiO(2)), where lithium ions are inserted/deinserted into/out of the TiO(2) crystal framework; and transition metal oxides including iron oxide and cobalt oxide, which react with lithium ions via an unusual conversion reaction. For all three systems, we will emphasize that creating nanomaterials with unique structures could effectively improve the lithium storage properties of these metal oxides. We will also highlight that the lithium storage capability can be further enhanced through designing advanced nanocomposite materials containing metal oxides and other carbonaceous supports. By providing such a rather systematic survey, we aim to stress the importance of proper nanostructuring and advanced compositing that would result in improved physicochemical properties of metal oxides, thus making them promising negative electrodes for next-generation LIBs.

  13. Lithium and chromospherically active single giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    Nine chromospherically active single K giants were identified from surveys of chromospherically active stars. The stars have v sin i's ranging from 6 to 46 km/sec. Such large velocities are not explained by scenarios of main sequence to giant star evolution. Fluxes of the ultraviolet emission lines of these stars are substantially less than those of FK Comae. Many of these giants have a moderate or strong lithium line strongly suggesting that these stars recently evolved from rapidly rotating A or early F stars as is suggested by their space motions. Thus, they are not spun down FK Com stars. The characteristics of these stars are such that they may be confused with pre-main sequence stars. The primary difference may be that the post main sequence stars have strong H alpha absorption lines while the pre-main sequence stars appear to have a weak H alpha absorption line or possibly H alpha in emission above the continuum.

  14. Facial-shape controlled precursors for lithium cobalt oxides and the electrochemical performances in lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Sang-Woo; Missiul, Aleksandr; Jung, Hyun-Ok; Lee, Sanghun

    2015-01-01

    Two types of lithium cobalt oxides (LiCoO2) as cathode materials for lithium ion batteries are synthesized from two cobalt sources of different facial-shapes (octahedral and truncated-octahedral Co3O4) and Li2CO3 using solid state synthesis. From X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy measurements, the reaction mechanism of the formation of LiCoO2 is investigated. It is revealed that LiCoO2 from octahedral Co3O4 with only {111} surfaces grows in one direction whereas the crystal orientation of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 with {111} and {100} surfaces is not unique and the spinel intermediates of LixCo2O4 are formed during synthesis. They show largely unequal rate and cycling performances for lithium ion battery, even though their outer appearances are nearly identical. Almost single-crystalline LiCoO2 from octahedral precursors shows much better electrochemical performances than LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral precursors as a lithium ion battery cathode. By studying crystal orientation, it is shown that the poor electrochemical performances of LiCoO2 from truncated-octahedral Co3O4 are originated by crystal-mismatch between crystallites.

  15. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO.

  16. Size and shape dependence of the electrochemical properties of hematite nanoparticles and their applications in lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Linfeng; Wang, Gaojun; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Hematite nanoparticles are a type of promising electrode active materials for lithium ion batteries due to their low cost and high specific capacity. However, the cycling performances of hematite nanoparticles are not as good as those of the conventional electrode active materials for lithium ion batteries. This paper reports the study on the relationship between the electrochemical properties and the particle sizes and shapes, aiming to optimize the electrochemical properties of hematite nanoparticles for their applications in lithium ion batteries. Three types of hematite nanoparticles were compared, including hematite nanospheres with an average diameter of 200 nm, hematite nanoflakes with an average maximum dimension of 200 nm, and hematite nanospheres with an average diameter of 30 nm. Their crystalline structures were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their particle morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Composite electrode materials were made from hematite nanoparticles with carbon black as the conducting material and PVDF as the binding material (hematite : carbon black : PVDF = 70 : 15 : 15). Prototype lithium ion batteries (CR2032 button cells) were assembled with the composite electrodes as cathodes, metal lithium as anodes, and Celgard 2400 porous membrane as separators. It was found that in the first few cycles, the specific discharge capacity of hematite nanospheres with an average diameter of 30 nm is higher than those of the other two, while after first seven cycles, the specific discharge capacity of hematite nanospheres with an average diameter of 30 nm is lower than those of the other two. Possible approaches for improving the cycling performance and rate capacity of hematite nanoparticles are discussed at the end of this paper.

  17. Bioleaching of valuable metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries using Aspergillus niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horeh, N. Bahaloo; Mousavi, S. M.; Shojaosadati, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a bio-hydrometallurgical route based on fungal activity of Aspergillus niger was evaluated for the detoxification and recovery of Cu, Li, Mn, Al, Co and Ni metals from spent lithium-ion phone mobile batteries under various conditions (one-step, two-step and spent medium bioleaching). The maximum recovery efficiency of 100% for Cu, 95% for Li, 70% for Mn, 65% for Al, 45% for Co, and 38% for Ni was obtained at a pulp density of 1% in spent medium bioleaching. The HPLC results indicated that citric acid in comparison with other detected organic acids (gluconic, oxalic and malic acid) had an important role in the effectiveness of bioleaching using A. niger. The results of FTIR, XRD and FE-SEM analysis of battery powder before and after bioleaching process confirmed that the fungal activities were quite effective. In addition, bioleaching achieved higher removal efficiency for heavy metals than the chemical leaching. This research demonstrated the great potential of bio-hydrometallurgical route to recover heavy metals from spent lithium-ion mobile phone batteries.

  18. Inexpensive method for producing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs) with pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile for lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Madhuri; Sinsabaugh, Steven L.; Isaacson, Mark J.; Wong, Michael S.; Biswal, Sibani Lisa

    2012-01-01

    One of the most exciting areas in lithium ion batteries is engineering structured silicon anodes. These new materials promise to lead the next generation of batteries with significantly higher reversible charge capacity than current technologies. One drawback of these materials is that their production involves costly processing steps, limiting their application in commercial lithium ion batteries. In this report we present an inexpensive method for synthesizing macroporous silicon particulates (MPSPs). After being mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and pyrolyzed, MPSPs can alloy with lithium, resulting in capacities of 1000 mAhg−1 for over 600+ cycles. These sponge-like MPSPs with pyrolyzed PAN (PPAN) can accommodate the large volume expansion associated with silicon lithiation. This performance combined with low cost processing yields a competitive anode material that will have an immediate and direct application in lithium ion batteries. PMID:23139860

  19. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Flame Retardant Additives for Increased Safety Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor); Smith, Kiah A. (Inventor); Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Prakash, Surya G. (Inventor); Krause, Frederick Charles (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention discloses various embodiments of Li-ion electrolytes containing flame retardant additives that have delivered good performance over a wide temperature range, good cycle life characteristics, and improved safety characteristics, namely, reduced flammability. In one embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a fluorinated co-solvent, a flame retardant additive, and a lithium salt. In another embodiment of the invention there is provided an electrolyte for use in a lithium-ion electrochemical cell, the electrolyte comprising a mixture of an ethylene carbonate (EC), an ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), a flame retardant additive, a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film forming agent, and a lithium salt.

  20. Redox-assisted Li+-storage in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qizhao, Huang; Qing, Wang

    2016-01-01

    Interfacial charge transfer is the key kinetic process dictating the operation of lithium-ion battery. Redox-mediated charge propagations of the electronic (e- and h+) and ionic species (Li+) at the electrode-electrolyte interface have recently gained increasing attention for better exploitation of battery materials. This article briefly summarises the energetic and kinetic aspects of lithium-ion batteries, and reviews the recent progress on various redox-assisted Li+ storage approaches. From molecular wiring to polymer wiring and from redox targeting to redox flow lithium battery, the role of redox mediators and the way of the redox species functioning in lithium-ion batteries are discussed. Project supported by the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its Competitive Research Program (CRP Award No. NRF-CRP8-2011-04).

  1. Changes of the balancing between anode and cathode due to fatigue in commercial lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Karin; Jakes, Peter; Scharner, Sebastian; Liebau, Verena; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    The electrode balancing defines the state of charge (SoC) of a lithium-ion cell and is a crucial point considering lifetime and safe operation. The electrode balancing varies during fatigue which results in changes of the individual electrode potentials for fixed (dis-)charge voltages of the full-cell. Therefore the materials are cycled closer or beyond their electrochemical (meta-)stability window. This leads to accelerated degradation reactions or even to safety problems. The origin of the changes in the cell balancing is the limited amount of mobile lithium, which decreases during cycling due to the loss of lithiated active material a), the reduction of accessible lattice sites in the active materials b) and the loss of active lithium outside the electrodes c). In most of the commercial cells a) and b) can be attributed to the cathode, c) occurs due to reactions on the anode surface. Changes in the electrode balancing of three differently fatigued 7 Ah lithium-ion cells are investigated by electrochemical cycling of full- and half-cells, assembled from cell components of the fatigued 7 Ah cells. Based on these results the observed performance drop is assigned to a), b) or c) mentioned above and the capacity losses are quantified.

  2. Electrochemical properties of an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery with an in-situ formed electrode material grown from a lithium conductive glass ceramics sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiki, Yuichi; Sagane, Fumihiro; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Sudoh, Masao; Motoyama, Munekazu; Iriyama, Yasutoshi

    2013-11-01

    A lithium insertion reaction in a Li+ conductive glass ceramics solid electrolyte (lithium aluminum titanium phosphate: LATP) sheet produces an in-situ formed electrode active material, which operates at 2.35 V vs. Li/Li+ in the vicinity of the LATP-sheet/current-collector interface. Electron energy loss spectroscopy clarifies that titanium in the LATP sheet in the vicinity of the current collector/LATP-sheet interface is preferentially reduced by this lithium insertion reaction. Charge transfer resistance between the in-situ-formed-electrode and the LATP-sheet is less than 100 Ω cm2, which is smaller than that of the common LiPON/LiCoO2 interface. A thin film of LiCoO2 is deposited on one side of the LATP-sheet as a Li+ source for developing the in-situ formed electrode material. Eventually, a Pt/LATP-sheet/LiCoO2/Au multilayer is fabricated. The multilayer structure successfully works as an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery operating at 1.5 V. A redox peak of the battery is observed even at 100 mV s-1 in the potential sweep curve. Additionally, charge-discharge reactions are repeated stably even after 25 cycles.

  3. β - NMR Measurements of Lithium Ion Transport in Thin Films of Pure and Lithium-Salt-Doped Poly(ethylene oxide)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, Iain; Harada, Masashi; Cortie, David L.; Kiefl, Robert F.; Levy, C. D. Philip; Macfarlane, W. Andrew; McFadden, Ryan M. L.; Morris, Gerald D.; Ogata, Shin-Ichi; Pearson, Matthew R.; Sugiyama, Jun

    2015-03-01

    β - Detected nuclear spin relaxation of 8Li+ has been used to study the microscopic diffusion of lithium ions in thin films of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), PEO with lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI), PEO with lithium triflate (LiTf) and PEO with lithium trifluoroacetic acid (LiTFA) with monomer-to-salt ratios of 8.3:1. Hopping of Li + above ~ 250 K follows an Arrhenius law in all of the films. Diffusion of Li+ is fastest in pure PEO and decreases in order LiTFSI >LiTf >LiTFA. We observed the activation energy for hopping (EA) and the intrinsic hop rate (τ0-1) both increasing in order LiTFA

  4. A carbon-free lithium-ion solid dispersion redox couple with low viscosity for redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaoxiang; Koenig, Gary M.

    2016-08-01

    A new type of non-aqueous redox couple without carbon additives for flow batteries is proposed and the target anolyte chemistry is demonstrated. The so-called "Solid Dispersion Redox Couple" incorporates solid electroactive materials dispersed in organic lithium-ion battery electrolyte as its flowing suspension. In this work, a unique and systematic characterization approach has been used to study the flow battery redox couple in half cell demonstrations relative to a lithium electrode. An electrolyte laden with Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has been characterized in multiple specially designed lithium half cell configurations. The flow battery redox couple described in this report has relatively low viscosity, especially in comparison to other flow batteries with solid active materials. The lack of carbon additive allows characterization of the electrochemical properties of the electroactive material in flow without the complication of conductive additives and unambiguous observation of the electrorheological coupling in these dispersed particle systems.

  5. Nickel-rich layered lithium transition-metal oxide for high-energy lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen; Oh, Pilgun; Liu, Xien; Lee, Min-Joon; Cho, Woongrae; Chae, Sujong; Kim, Youngsik; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-04-07

    High energy-density lithium-ion batteries are in demand for portable electronic devices and electrical vehicles. Since the energy density of the batteries relies heavily on the cathode material used, major research efforts have been made to develop alternative cathode materials with a higher degree of lithium utilization and specific energy density. In particular, layered, Ni-rich, lithium transition-metal oxides can deliver higher capacity at lower cost than the conventional LiCoO2 . However, for these Ni-rich compounds there are still several problems associated with their cycle life, thermal stability, and safety. Herein the performance enhancement of Ni-rich cathode materials through structure tuning or interface engineering is summarized. The underlying mechanisms and remaining challenges will also be discussed.

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of lithium ion using a water-soluble octabromoporphyrin in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Tabata, M; Nishimoto, J; Kusano, T

    1998-08-01

    A water-soluble porphyrin, (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin; H(2)obtpps(4-)) was synthesized and developed for the determination of lithium ion in aqueous solution. The octabromo groups lower the basicity of the porphyrin by their electron-withdrawing effect, and enable the porphyrin to react with the lithium ion in alkaline solution to form the lithium complex along with a shift of absorption maximum: lambda max/nm (logepsilon/mol(-1) dm(3) cm(-1)) of the lithium porphyrin are 490.5 nm (5.31) and 734 nm (4.36). Sodium and potassium ions did not react with the porphyrin. The equilibrium constant for the reaction Li(+)+Hobtpps(5-)right harpoon over left harpoon[Li(obtpps)](5-)+H(+) was found to be 10(-8.80) and the conditional formation constant of the [Li(obtpps)](5-) at pH 13 is 10(4.21). The above results were applied to the determination of lithium ion in aqueous solution. The interference from transition and heavy metal ions was masked by using N,N'-1,2-ethanediylbis[N(carboxylmethy)glycinato]magnesium(II) ([Mg(edta)](2-)) solution. Absorbance at 490 nm was measured against a blank solution. A calibration graph was linear over the range of 0.007-0.7 mug cm(-3) (1x10(-6)-1x10(-4) mol dm(-3)) of lithium(I) with a correlation factor of 0.967. Lithium ion less than ppm level was determined spectrophtometrically in aqueous solution. The proposed method was applied to the determination of lithium in human serum and sea water samples.

  7. Demonstration of Experimental Infrastructure for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-11

    Love, C. T.; Swider-Lyons, K. “Impedance diagnostic for overcharged lithium -ion batteries.” Electrochem. Solid -State Lett. 15 (2012) A53-A56. [21...Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries September 11, 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Christopher r. Field Mark h...for Studying Cell-to-Cell Failure Propagation in Lithium -ion Batteries Christopher R. Field, Mark H. Hammond, Steven G. Tuttle, Bradley A. Williams

  8. Lithium Fast-Ion Conductors: Polymer Based Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-30

    syntheses and room temperature conductivities of a wide variety of simple and polymeric lithium salts have been explored without finding mater- ials with...significant ambient temperature ionic conductivities. Some of the -aterials may be of interest in other contexts. A study of lithium tetra...fluoroborate in polyacrylonitrile showed that t ..e composites could form the basis for a sensitive humidity sensor. Preliminary studies of a number of lithium

  9. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, Sanjeev S.; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is an essential component of numerous physiological processes including not only conscious senses of touch and hearing, but also unconscious senses such as blood pressure regulation. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels. PMID:26402601

  10. Mechanically Activated Ion Channels.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Sanjeev S; Syeda, Ruhma; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2015-09-23

    Mechanotransduction, the conversion of physical forces into biochemical signals, is essential for various physiological processes such as the conscious sensations of touch and hearing, and the unconscious sensation of blood flow. Mechanically activated (MA) ion channels have been proposed as sensors of physical force, but the identity of these channels and an understanding of how mechanical force is transduced has remained elusive. A number of recent studies on previously known ion channels along with the identification of novel MA ion channels have greatly transformed our understanding of touch and hearing in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Here, we present an updated review of eukaryotic ion channel families that have been implicated in mechanotransduction processes and evaluate the qualifications of the candidate genes according to specified criteria. We then discuss the proposed gating models for MA ion channels and highlight recent structural studies of mechanosensitive potassium channels.

  11. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  12. Leaching lithium from the anode electrode materials of spent lithium-ion batteries by hydrochloric acid (HCl).

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Li, Feng; Zhu, Haochen; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; He, Wenzhi

    2016-05-01

    Spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are considered as an important secondary resource for its high contents of valuable components, such as lithium and cobalt. Currently, studies mainly focus on the recycling of cathode electrodes. There are few studies concentrating on the recovery of anode electrodes. In this work, based on the analysis result of high amount of lithium contained in the anode electrode, the acid leaching process was applied to recycle lithium from anode electrodes of spent LIBs. Hydrochloric acid was introduced as leaching reagent, and hydrogen peroxide as reducing agent. Within the range of experiment performed, hydrogen peroxide was found to have little effect on lithium leaching process. The highest leaching recovery of 99.4wt% Li was obtained at leaching temperature of 80°C, 3M hydrochloric acid and S/L ratio of 1:50g/ml for 90min. The graphite configuration with a better crystal structure obtained after the leaching process can also be recycled.

  13. Failure propagation in multi-cell lithium ion batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Lamb, Joshua; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Steele, Leigh Anna M.; ...

    2014-10-22

    Traditionally, safety and impact of failure concerns of lithium ion batteries have dealt with the field failure of single cells. However, large and complex battery systems require the consideration of how a single cell failure will impact the system as a whole. Initial failure that leads to the thermal runaway of other cells within the system creates a much more serious condition than the failure of a single cell. This work examines the behavior of small modules of cylindrical and stacked pouch cells after thermal runaway is induced in a single cell through nail penetration trigger [1] within the module.more » Cylindrical cells are observed to be less prone to propagate, if failure propagates at all, owing to the limited contact between neighboring cells. However, the electrical connectivity is found to be impactful as the 10S1P cylindrical cell module did not show failure propagation through the module, while the 1S10P module had an energetic thermal runaway consuming the module minutes after the initiation failure trigger. Modules built using pouch cells conversely showed the impact of strong heat transfer between cells. In this case, a large surface area of the cells was in direct contact with its neighbors, allowing failure to propagate through the entire battery within 60-80 seconds for all configurations (parallel or series) tested. This work demonstrates the increased severity possible when a point failure impacts the surrounding battery system.« less

  14. Inward lithium-ion breathing of hierarchically porous silicon anodes

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Qiangfeng; Gu, Meng; Yang, Hui; Li, Bing; Zhang, Cunman; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Fang; Yang, Li; Liu, Zhongyi; Xiao, Xingcheng; Liu, Gao; Zhao, Peng; Zhang, Sulin; Wang, Chongmin; Lu, Yunfeng; Cai, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon has been identified as a highly promising anode for next-generation lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The key challenge for Si anodes is large volume change during the lithiation/delithiation cycle that results in chemomechanical degradation and subsequent rapid capacity fading. Here we report a novel fabrication method for hierarchically porous Si nanospheres (hp-SiNSs), which consist of a porous shell and a hollow core. On charge/discharge cycling, the hp-SiNSs accommodate the volume change through reversible inward Li breathing with negligible particle-level outward expansion. Our mechanics analysis revealed that such inward expansion is enabled by the much stiffer lithiated layer than the unlithiated porous layer. LIBs assembled with the hp-SiNSs exhibit high capacity, high power and long cycle life, which is superior to the current commercial Si-based anode materials. The low-cost synthesis approach provides a new avenue for the rational design of hierarchically porous structures with unique materials properties. PMID:26538181

  15. Quantification of Lithium-ion Cell Thermal Runaway Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Lamb, Joshua; Steele, Leigh Anna Marie; Spangler, Scott Wilmer; Langendorf, Jill Louise

    2016-01-01

    Much of what is known about lithium-ion cell thermal runaway energetics has been measured and extrapolated from data acquired on relatively small cells (< 3 Ah). This work is aimed at understanding the effects of cell size on thermal runaway energetics on cells from 3 to 50 Ah of both LiFePO4 (LFP) and LiNi0.80Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) chemistries. Results show that for both LFP and NCA cells, the normalized heating rate (W/Ah) increases roughly linearly for cells from 3-38 Ah while the normalized total heat released (kJ/Ah) is relatively constant over that cell size range. The magnitude of the normalized heating rate is on the order of 2x greater for NCA relative to LFP chemistries for 2-3 Ah cells, while that difference is on the order of 10x for 30-40 Ah cells. The total normalized heat release is ~ 15-20% greater for NCA relative to LFP cells across the entire size range studied 3-38 Ah.

  16. Prototype Lithium-Ion Battery Developed for Mars 2001 Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2000-01-01

    In fiscal year 1997, NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the U.S. Air Force established a joint program to competitively develop high-power, rechargeable lithium-ion battery technology for aerospace applications. The goal was to address Department of Defense and NASA requirements not met by commercial battery developments. Under this program, contracts have been awarded to Yardney Technical Products, Eagle- Picher Technologies, LLC, BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation, and SAFT America, Inc., to develop cylindrical and prismatic cell and battery systems for a variety of NASA and U.S. Air Force applications. The battery systems being developed range from low-capacity (7 to 20 A-hr) and low-voltage (14 to 28 V) systems for planetary landers and rovers to systems for aircraft that require up to 270 V and for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles that require capacities up to 200 A-hr. Low-Earth-orbit and geosynchronousorbit spacecraft pose additional challenges to system operation with long cycle life (>30,000 cycles) and long calendar life (>10 years), respectively.

  17. Rate-based degradation modeling of lithium-ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    E.V. Thomas; I. Bloom; J.P. Christophersen; V.S. Battaglia

    2012-05-01

    Accelerated degradation testing is commonly used as the basis to characterize battery cell performance over a range of stress conditions (e.g., temperatures). Performance is measured by some response that is assumed to be related to the state of health of the cell (e.g., discharge resistance). Often, the ultimate goal of such testing is to predict cell life at some reference stress condition, where cell life is defined to be the point in time where performance has degraded to some critical level. These predictions are based on a degradation model that expresses the expected performance level versus the time and conditions under which a cell has been aged. Usually, the degradation model relates the accumulated degradation to the time at a constant stress level. The purpose of this article is to present an alternative framework for constructing a degradation model that focuses on the degradation rate rather than the accumulated degradation. One benefit of this alternative approach is that prediction of cell life is greatly facilitated in situations where the temperature exposure is not isothermal. This alternative modeling framework is illustrated via a family of rate-based models and experimental data acquired during calendar-life testing of high-power lithium-ion cells.

  18. Quantifying Cell-to-Cell Variations in Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Santhanagopalan, S.; White, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries have conventionally been manufactured in small capacities but large volumes for consumer electronics applications. More recently, the industry has seen a surge in the individual cell capacities, as well as the number of cells used to build modules and packs. Reducing cell-to-cell and lot-to-lot variations has been identified as one of the major means to reduce the rejection rate when building the packs as well as to improve pack durability. The tight quality control measures have been passed on from the pack manufactures to the companies building the individual cells and in turn to the components. This paper identifies a quantitative procedure utilizing impedance spectroscopy, a commonly used tool, to determine the effects of material variability on the cell performance, to compare the relative importance of uncertainties in the component properties, and to suggest a rational procedure to set quality control specifications for the various components of a cell, that will reduce cell-to-cell variability, while preventing undue requirements on uniformity that often result in excessive cost of manufacturing but have a limited impact on the cells performance.

  19. Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng

    2016-02-24

    A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V.

  20. Prospects for reducing the processing cost of lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, David L.; Li, Jianlin; Daniel, Claus

    2015-02-01

    A detailed processing cost breakdown is given for lithium-ion battery (LIB) electrodes, which focuses on: 1) elimination of toxic, costly N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) dispersion chemistry; 2) doubling the thicknesses of the anode and cathode to raise energy density; and 3) reduction of the anode electrolyte wetting and SEI-layer formation time. These processing cost reduction technologies generically adaptable to any anode or cathode cell chemistry and are being implemented at ORNL. This paper shows step by step how these cost savings can be realized in existing or new LIB manufacturing plants using a baseline case of thin (power) electrodes produced with NMP processing and a standard 10-14-day wetting and formation process. In particular, it is shown that aqueous electrode processing can cut the electrode processing cost and energy consumption by an order of magnitude. Doubling the thickness of the electrodes allows for using half of the inactive current collectors and separators, contributing even further to the processing cost savings. Finally wetting and SEI-layer formation cost savings are discussed in the context of a protocol with significantly reduced time. These three benefits collectively offer the possibility of reducing LIB pack cost from 502.8 kW h-1-usable to 370.3 kW h-1-usable, a savings of 132.5/kWh (or 26.4%).

  1. An electrochemical modeling of lithium-ion battery nail penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Kuan-Cheng; Lin, Chi-Hao; Yeh, Sheng-Fa; Lin, Yu-Han; Chen, Kuo-Ching

    2014-04-01

    Nail penetration into a battery pack, resulting in a state of short-circuit and thus burning, is likely to occur in electric car collisions. To demonstrate the behavior of a specific battery when subject to such incidents, a standard nail penetration test is usually performed; however, conducting such an experiment is money consuming. The purpose of this study is to propose a numerical electrochemical model that can simulate the test accurately. This simulation makes two accurate predictions. First, we are able to model short-circuited lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) via electrochemical governing equations so that the mass and charge transfer effect could be considered. Second, the temperature variation of the cell during and after nail penetration is accurately predicted with the help of simulating the temperature distribution of thermal runaway cells by thermal abuse equations. According to this nail penetration model, both the onset of battery thermal runaway and the cell temperature profile of the test are obtained, both of which are well fitted with our experimental results.

  2. Graphite Recycling from Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Rothermel, Sergej; Evertz, Marco; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Qi, Xin; Grützke, Martin; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-12-20

    The present work reports on challenges in utilization of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)-an increasingly important aspect associated with a significantly rising demand for electric vehicles (EVs). In this context, the feasibility of anode recycling in combination with three different electrolyte extraction concepts is investigated. The first method is based on a thermal treatment of graphite without electrolyte recovery. The second method additionally utilizes a subcritical carbon-dioxide (subcritical CO2 )-assisted electrolyte extraction prior to thermal treatment. And the final investigated approach uses supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 ) as extractant, subsequently followed by the thermal treatment. It is demonstrated that the best performance of recycled graphite anodes can be achieved when electrolyte extraction is performed using subcritical CO2 . Comparative studies reveal that, in the best case, the electrochemical performance of recycled graphite exceeds the benchmark consisting of a newly synthesized graphite anode. As essential efforts towards electrolyte extraction and cathode recycling have been made in the past, the electrochemical behavior of recycled graphite, demonstrating the best performance, is investigated in combination with a recycled LiNi1/3 Co1/3 Mn1/3 O2 cathode.

  3. A novel mechanistic modeling framework for analysis of electrode balancing and degradation modes in commercial lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Stefan; Danzer, Michael A.

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at a long-term stable and safe operation of rechargeable lithium-ion cells, elementary design aspects and degradation phenomena have to be considered depending on the specific application. Among the degrees of freedom in cell design, electrode balancing is of particular interest and has a distinct effect on useable capacity and voltage range. Concerning intrinsic degradation modes, understanding the underlying electrochemical processes and tracing the overall degradation history are the most crucial tasks. In this study, a model-based, minimal parameter framework for combined elucidation of electrode balancing and degradation pathways in commercial lithium-ion cells is introduced. The framework rests upon the simulation of full cell voltage profiles from the superposition of equivalent, artificially degraded half-cell profiles and allows to separate aging contributions from loss of available lithium and active materials in both electrodes. A physically meaningful coupling between thermodynamic and kinetic degradation modes based on the correlation between altered impedance features and loss of available lithium as well as loss of active material is proposed and validated by a low temperature degradation profile examined in one of our recent publications. The coupled framework is able to determine the electrode balancing within an error range of < 1% and the projected cell degradation is qualitatively and quantitatively in line with experimental observations.

  4. Combining operando synchrotron X-ray tomographic microscopy and scanning X-ray diffraction to study lithium ion batteries

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Patrick; Hess, Michael; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Eller, Jens; Wood, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    We present an operando study of a lithium ion battery combining scanning X-ray diffraction (SXRD) and synchrotron radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) simultaneously for the first time. This combination of techniques facilitates the investigation of dynamic processes in lithium ion batteries containing amorphous and/or weakly attenuating active materials. While amorphous materials pose a challenge for diffraction techniques, weakly attenuating material systems pose a challenge for attenuation-contrast tomography. Furthermore, combining SXRD and SRXTM can be used to correlate processes occurring at the atomic level in the crystal lattices of the active materials with those at the scale of electrode microstructure. To demonstrate the benefits of this approach, we investigate a silicon powder electrode in lithium metal half-cell configuration. Combining SXRD and SRXTM, we are able to (i) quantify the dissolution of the metallic lithium electrode and the expansion of the silicon electrode, (ii) better understand the formation of the Li15Si4 phase, and (iii) non-invasively probe kinetic limitations within the silicon electrode. A simple model based on the 1D diffusion equation allows us to qualitatively understand the observed kinetics and demonstrates why high-capacity electrodes are more prone to inhomogeneous lithiation reactions. PMID:27324109

  5. Enhancing the Lithium Ion Conductivity in Lithium Superionic Conductor (LISICON) Solid Electrolytes through a Mixed Polyanion Effect.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yue; Eames, Christopher; Fleutot, Benoit; David, Rénald; Chotard, Jean-Noël; Suard, Emmanuelle; Masquelier, Christian; Islam, M Saiful

    2017-03-01

    Lithium superionic conductor (LISICON)-related compositions Li4±xSi1-xXxO4 (X = P, Al, or Ge) are important materials that have been identified as potential solid electrolytes for all solid state batteries. Here, we show that the room temperature lithium ion conductivity can be improved by several orders of magnitude through substitution on Si sites. We apply a combined computer simulation and experimental approach to a wide range of compositions (Li4SiO4, Li3.75Si0.75P0.25O4, Li4.25Si0.75Al0.25O4, Li4Al0.33Si0.33P0.33O4, and Li4Al1/3Si1/6Ge1/6P1/3O4) which include new doped materials. Depending on the temperature, three different Li(+) ion diffusion mechanisms are observed. The polyanion mixing introduced by substitution lowers the temperature at which the transition to a superionic state with high Li(+) ion conductivity occurs. These insights help to rationalize the mechanism of the lithium ion conductivity enhancement and provide strategies for designing materials with promising transport properties.

  6. SISGR: Linking Ion Solvation and Lithium Battery Electrolyte Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Trulove, Paul C.; Foley, Matthew P.

    2012-09-30

    The solvation and phase behavior of the model battery electrolyte salt lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3) in commonly used organic solvents; ethylene carbonate (EC), gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), and propylene carbonate (PC) was explored. Data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction were correlated to provide insight into the solvation states present within a sample mixture. Data from DSC analyses allowed the construction of phase diagrams for each solvent system. Raman spectroscopy enabled the determination of specific solvation states present within a solvent-salt mixture, and X-ray diffraction data provided exact information concerning the structure of a solvates that could be isolated Thermal analysis of the various solvent-salt mixtures revealed the phase behavior of the model electrolytes was strongly dependent on solvent symmetry. The point groups of the solvents were (in order from high to low symmetry): C2V for EC, CS for GBL, and C1 for PC(R). The low symmetry solvents exhibited a crystallinity gap that increased as solvent symmetry decreased; no gap was observed for EC-LiTf, while a crystallinity gap was observed spanning 0.15 to 0.3 mole fraction for GBL-LiTf, and 0.1 to 0.33 mole fraction for PC(R)-LiTf mixtures. Raman analysis demonstrated the dominance of aggregated species in almost all solvent compositions. The AGG and CIP solvates represent the majority of the species in solutions for the more concentrated mixtures, and only in very dilute compositions does the SSIP solvate exist in significant amounts. Thus, the poor charge transport characteristics of CIP and AGG account for the low conductivity and transport properties of LiTf and explain why is a poor choice as a source of Li+ ions in a Li-ion battery.

  7. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg‑1 at the current density 500 mAg‑1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  8. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-10-11

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80-100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg(-1) at the current density 500 mAg(-1) after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability.

  9. Characterization of large format lithium ion battery exposed to extremely high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xuning; Sun, Jing; Ouyang, Minggao; He, Xiangming; Lu, Languang; Han, Xuebing; Fang, Mou; Peng, Huei

    2014-12-01

    This paper provides a study on the characterizations of large format lithium ion battery cells exposed to extreme high temperature but without thermal runaway. A unique test is set up: an extended volume-accelerating rate calorimetry (EV-ARC) test is terminated at a specific temperature before thermal runaway happens in the battery. The battery was cooled down after an EV-ARC test with early termination. The performances of the battery before and after the EV-ARC test are investigated in detail. The results show that (a) the melting point of the separator dictates the reusability of the 25 Ah NCM battery after a near-runaway event. The battery cannot be reused after being heated to 140 °C or higher because of the exponential rise in ohmic resistance; (b) a battery can lose up to 20% of its capacity after being heated to 120 °C just one time; (c) if a battery is cycled after a thermal event, its lost capacity may be recovered partially. Furthermore, the fading and recovery mechanisms are analyzed by incremental capacity analysis (ICA) and a prognostic/mechanistic model. Model analysis confirms that the capacity loss at extremely high temperature is caused by the increase of the resistance, the loss of lithium ion (LLI) at the anode and the loss of active material (LAM) at the cathode.

  10. Lithium-Ion Battery Demonstrated for NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, William R.; Baldwin, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attractive performance characteristics that are well suited to a number of NASA applications. These rechargeable batteries produce compact, lightweight energy-storage systems with excellent cycle life, high charge/discharge efficiency, and low self-discharge rate. NASA Glenn Research Center's Electrochemistry Branch designed and produced five lithium-ion battery packs configured to power the liquid-air backpack (LAB) on spacesuit simulators. The demonstration batteries incorporated advanced, NASA-developed electrolytes with enhanced low-temperature performance characteristics. The objectives of this effort were to (1) demonstrate practical battery performance under field-test conditions and (2) supply laboratory performance data under controlled laboratory conditions. Advanced electrolyte development is being conducted under the Exploration Technology Development Program by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Three field trials were successfully completed at Cinder Lake from September 10 to 12, 2007. Extravehicular activities of up to 1 hr and 50 min were supported, with residual battery capacity sufficient for 30 min of additional run time. Additional laboratory testing of batteries and cells is underway at Glenn s Electrochemical Branch.

  11. Cu3P/RGO Nanocomposite as a New Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuling; He, Xiaodong; Zhu, Jianping; Xu, Liqiang; Tong, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    Cu3P/reduced graphene oxide (Cu3P/RGO) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized by a facile one-pot method as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Cu3P nanostructures with a polyhedral shape with the mean diameter (80–100 nm) were homogeneously anchored on the surface of RGO. The flexible RGO sheets acted as elastic buffering layer which not only reduced the volume change, but also prevented the aggregation of Cu3P nanostructures, the cracking and crumbing of electrodes. On the other hand, the presence of Cu3P nanostructures could also avoid the agglomeration of RGO sheets and retain their highly active surface area. Therefore, as an advanced anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, the as-prepared Cu3P/RGO exhibited high capacity of 756.15 mAhg−1 at the current density 500 mAg−1 after 80 cycles, superior cyclic stability and good rate capability. PMID:27725701

  12. Performance improvement of Sn-Co alloy film anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Chen, Yun; Zeng, Duoqing; Xiao, Qizhen; Li, Zhaohui; Lei, Gangtie

    2014-05-01

    Three sets of Sn-Co alloy films were electrochemically deposited onto nodule-type Cu foil in aqueous solution. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) proved that the electrochemical current density and the depositing time had influence on the structure and the morphology of the alloy films. The electrochemical properties of the Sn-Co alloy film electrodes for lithium-ion battery were investigated by galvanostatic charge-discharge test and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Sn-Co alloy with the thickness of 0.8 μm created at the current density of 15 mA cm-2 presents excellent electrochemical performance with the discharge capacity of 949.3 mAh g-1 at the first cycle and 661.1 mAh g-1 after 70 cycles. The high coulombic efficiency of almost 100% can be observed at different current rate. The improved performance is attributed to the structure of Cu foil, the optimized Co content and thickness of the alloy film, which were beneficial to strengthen the adhesion of the active materials to the current collector, shorten diffusion length of lithium ions and reduce the electrical resistance.

  13. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, David M; Manolopoulos, David E; Dang, Liem X

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  14. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David E.; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the exchange processes are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium.

  15. Nuclear quantum effects in water exchange around lithium and fluoride ions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, David M.; Manolopoulos, David; Dang, Liem X.

    2015-02-14

    We employ classical and ring polymer molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of nuclear quantum fluctuations on the structure and the water exchange dynamics of aqueous solutions of lithium and fluoride ions. While we obtain reasonably good agreement with experimental data for solutions of lithium by augmenting the Coulombic interactions between the ion and the water molecules with a standard Lennard-Jones ion-oxygen potential, the same is not true for solutions of fluoride, for which we find that a potential with a softer repulsive wall gives much better agreement. A small degree of destabilization of the first hydration shell is found in quantum simulations of both ions when compared with classical simulations, with the shell becoming less sharply defined and the mean residence time of the water molecules in the shell decreasing. In line with these modest differences, we find that the mechanisms of the water exchange reactions are unaffected by quantization, so a classical description of these reactions gives qualitatively correct and quantitatively reasonable results. We also find that the quantum effects in solutions of lithium are larger than in solutions of fluoride. This is partly due to the stronger interaction of lithium with water molecules, partly due to the lighter mass of lithium, and partly due to competing quantum effects in the hydration of fluoride, which are absent in the hydration of lithium. LXD was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  16. Hazards, Safety and Design Considerations for Commercial Lithium-ion Cells and Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the features of the Lithium-ion batteries, particularly in reference to the hazards and safety of the battery. Some of the characteristics of the Lithium-ion cell are: Highest Energy Density of Rechargeable Battery Chemistries, No metallic lithium, Leading edge technology, Contains flammable electrolyte, Charge cut-off voltage is critical (overcharge can result in fire), Open circuit voltage higher than metallic lithium anode types with similar organic electrolytes. Intercalation is a process that places small ions in crystal lattice. Small ions (such as lithium, sodium, and the other alkali metals) can fit in the interstitial spaces in a graphite lattice. These metallic ions can go farther and force the graphitic planes apart to fit two, three, or more layers of metallic ions between the carbon sheets. Other features of the battery/cell are: The graphite is conductive, Very high energy density compared to NiMH or NiCd, Corrosion of aluminum occurs very quickly in the presence of air and electrolyte due to the formation of HF from LiPF6 and HF is highly corrosive. Slides showing the Intercalation/Deintercalation and the chemical reactions are shown along with the typical charge/discharge for a cylindrical cell. There are several graphs that review the hazards of the cells.

  17. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implanation and the resultant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacancies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  18. Radiation damage and defect behavior in ion-implanted, lithium counterdoped silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, I.; Mehta, S.; Swartz, C. K.

    1984-01-01

    Boron doped silicon n+p solar cells were counterdoped with lithium by ion implantation and the resuitant n+p cells irradiated by 1 MeV electrons. The function of fluence and a Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) was studied to correlate defect behavior with cell performance. It was found that the lithium counterdoped cells exhibited significantly increased radiation resistance when compared to boron doped control cells. It is concluded that the annealing behavior is controlled by dissociation and recombination of defects. The DLTS studies show that counterdoping with lithium eliminates at least three deep level defects and results in three new defects. It is speculated that the increased radiation resistance of the counterdoped cells is due primarily to the interaction of lithium with oxygen, single vacanies and divacancies and that the lithium-oxygen interaction is the most effective in contributing to the increased radiation resistance.

  19. Advanced Manufacturing Process for Lower Cost Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries for DOD Including the BB2590

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-30

    Nickelate in 18650 Cell 24 8. Installation of Resistance Welder 25 9. Bi-Cell Vacuum Dryer and with Activation Box 26 10. Semi...DOD lithium-ion rechargeable cells/batteries are composed of combinations using Asian 18650 cells including the BB2590. This dependence is due to the...much lower cost of the Asian and particularly the Chinese 18650 cells which are made on very large scale and also with lower labor costs. LithChem

  20. High power, gel polymer lithium-ion cells with improved low temperature performance for NASA and DoD applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Whitcanack, L. D.; Chin, K. B.; Surampudi, S.; Narayanan, S. R.; Alamgir, Mohamed; Yu, Ji-Sang; Plichta, Edward P.

    2004-01-01

    Both NASA and the U.S. Army have interest in developing secondary energy storage devices that are capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements of aerospace and man-portable applications. In order to meet these demanding requirements, gel-polymer electrolyte-based lithium-ion cells are being actively considered, due to their promise of providing high specific energy and enhanced safety aspects.

  1. In-situ measurement of the lithium distribution in Li-ion batteries using micro-IBA techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, A.; Orikasa, Y.; Chen, K.; Uchimoto, Y.; Kamiya, T.; Koka, M.; Satoh, T.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.; Fujita, K.

    2016-03-01

    Direct observation of lithium concentration distribution in lithium-ion battery composite electrodes has been performed for the first time. Lithium-ion battery model cells for particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and particle induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) measurements were designed and fabricated. Two dimensional images of lithium concentration in LiFePO4 composite electrodes were obtained with PIXE and PIGE by scanning the proton microbeam for various charged states of the electrodes. Lithium concentration in LiFePO4 composite electrodes was decreased from the contact interface between LiFePO4 electrode and liquid electrolyte during the charge reaction.

  2. Investigation into key interfacial reactions within lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, Daniel Richard

    Given the concern of global climate change and the understanding that carbon dioxide emissions are driving this change, much effort has been invested into lowering carbon dioxide emissions. One approach to reduce carbon dioxide emissions is to curtail the carbon dioxide emissions from vehicles through the introduction of hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. Today, lithium cobalt oxide materials are widely used in consumer electronic applications, yet these materials are cost prohibitive for larger scale vehicle applications. As a result, alternative materials with higher energy densities and lower costs are being investigated. One key alternative to cobalt that has received much attention is manganese. Manganese is of interest for its lower cost and favorable environmental friendliness. The use of manganese has led to numerous cathode materials such as Li 1-deltaMn2O4 (4V spinel), Li1-deltaMn 1.5Ni0.25O4 (5V spinel), Li1-(Mn 1-x-yNiyCox)O2 (layered), Li2MnO 3-Li1-delta(Mn1-x-yNiyCox)O 2 (layered-layered), and Li2MnO3-Li1-delta (Mn1-x-yNiyCox)1O2 -Li1-deltaMn2O4 (layered-layered-spinel). The work disclosed in the dissertation focuses on two topics associated with these manganese based cathodes. The first topic is the exceptional cyclic-ability of a high power, high energy density, 5V spinel cathode material (Li 1-deltaMn1.5Ni0.25O4) with a core-shell architecture, and the second is the severe capacity fade associated with manganese dissolution from cathodes at elevated operating temperatures. Both topics are of interest to the Li-ion battery industry. For instance, a 5V spinel cathode represents a viable path to increase both the power and energy density of Li-ion batteries. As its name implies, the 5V spinel operates at 5V that is higher than the conventional 4V lithium ion batteries. Since power and energy are directly proportional to the potential, moving from an operating potential of 4V to 5V represents an increase

  3. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    PubMed Central

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J.L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features. PMID:25919582

  4. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway.

    PubMed

    Finegan, Donal P; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J; Millichamp, Jason; Di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J L; Shearing, Paul R

    2015-04-28

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  5. In-operando high-speed tomography of lithium-ion batteries during thermal runaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finegan, Donal P.; Scheel, Mario; Robinson, James B.; Tjaden, Bernhard; Hunt, Ian; Mason, Thomas J.; Millichamp, Jason; di Michiel, Marco; Offer, Gregory J.; Hinds, Gareth; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.

    2015-04-01

    Prevention and mitigation of thermal runaway presents one of the greatest challenges for the safe operation of lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the application of high-speed synchrotron X-ray computed tomography and radiography, in conjunction with thermal imaging, to track the evolution of internal structural damage and thermal behaviour during initiation and propagation of thermal runaway in lithium-ion batteries. This diagnostic approach is applied to commercial lithium-ion batteries (LG 18650 NMC cells), yielding insights into key degradation modes including gas-induced delamination, electrode layer collapse and propagation of structural degradation. It is envisaged that the use of these techniques will lead to major improvements in the design of Li-ion batteries and their safety features.

  6. Active primary lithium thionyl chloride battery for artillery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Arlen R.; Delnick, Frank M.; Miller, David L.

    1990-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and Eagle Picher Industries have successfully developed an Active Lithium Thionyl Chloride (ALTC) power battery for unique artillery applications. Details of the design and the results of safety and performance will be presented.

  7. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Chong M.; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Jie; Genc, Arda; Zhang, Jiguang; Belharouak, Ilias; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and the oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.

  8. Visualizing nanoscale 3D compositional fluctuation of lithium in advanced lithium-ion battery cathodes

    DOE PAGES

    Devaraj, Arun; Gu, Meng; Colby, Robert J.; ...

    2015-08-14

    The distribution and concentration of lithium in Li-ion battery cathodes at different stages of cycling is a pivotal factor in determining battery performance. Non-uniform distribution of the transition metal cations has been shown to affect cathode performance; however, the Li is notoriously challenging to characterize with typical high-spatial-resolution imaging techniques. Here, for the first time, laser–assisted atom probe tomography is applied to two advanced Li-ion battery oxide cathode materials—layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 and spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4—to unambiguously map the three dimensional (3D) distribution of Li at sub-nanometer spatial resolution and correlate it with the distribution of the transition metal cations (M) and themore » oxygen. The as-fabricated layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 is shown to have Li-rich Li2MO3 phase regions and Li-depleted Li(Ni0.5Mn0.5)O2 regions while in the cycled layered Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2 an overall loss of Li and presence of Ni rich regions, Mn rich regions and Li rich regions are shown in addition to providing the first direct evidence for Li loss on cycling of layered LNMO cathodes. The spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode is shown to have a uniform distribution of all cations. These results were additionally validated by correlating with energy dispersive spectroscopy mapping of these nanoparticles in a scanning transmission electron microscope. Thus, we have opened the door for probing the nanoscale compositional fluctuations in crucial Li-ion battery cathode materials at an unprecedented spatial resolution of sub-nanometer scale in 3D which can provide critical information for understanding capacity decay mechanisms in these advanced cathode materials.« less

  9. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-08-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices.

  10. Octahedral Tin Dioxide Nanocrystals Anchored on Vertically Aligned Carbon Aerogels as High Capacity Anode Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingkai; Liu, Yuqing; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Yiliao; Zhang, Peng; Yan, Yan; Liu, Tianxi

    2016-01-01

    A novel binder-free graphene - carbon nanotubes - SnO2 (GCNT-SnO2) aerogel with vertically aligned pores was prepared via a simple and efficient directional freezing method. SnO2 octahedrons exposed of {221} high energy facets were uniformly distributed and tightly anchored on multidimensional graphene/carbon nanotube (GCNT) composites. Vertically aligned pores can effectively prevent the emersion of “closed” pores which cannot load the active SnO2 nanoparticles, further ensure quick immersion of electrolyte throughout the aerogel, and can largely shorten the transport distance between lithium ions and active sites of SnO2. Especially, excellent electrical conductivity of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel was achieved as a result of good interconnected networks of graphene and CNTs. Furthermore, meso- and macroporous structures with large surface area created by the vertically aligned pores can provide great benefit to the favorable transport kinetics for both lithium ion and electrons and afford sufficient space for volume expansion of SnO2. Due to the well-designed architecture of GCNT-SnO2 aerogel, a high specific capacity of 1190 mAh/g with good long-term cycling stability up to 1000 times was achieved. This work provides a promising strategy for preparing free-standing and binder-free active electrode materials with high performance for lithium ion batteries and other energy storage devices. PMID:27510357

  11. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g−1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage. PMID:28074899

  12. Mixtures of protic ionic liquids and propylene carbonate as advanced electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Vogl, T; Menne, S; Balducci, A

    2014-12-07

    In this study we investigated the chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing the protic ionic liquid (PIL) N-butyl-pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (PYRH4TFSI), propylene carbonate (PC) and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) in view of their use as electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). We showed that these electrolytic solutions might display conductivity and viscosity comparable to those of conventional electrolytes. Depending on the amount of PIL present inside the mixtures, such mixtures might also display the ability to suppress the anodic dissolution of Al. Furthermore, we showed that the coordination of lithium ions by TFSI in PIL-PC mixtures appears to be different than the one observed for mixtures of PC and aprotic ionic liquids (AILs). When used in combination with a battery electrode, e.g. lithium iron phosphate (LFP), these mixtures allow the achievement of high performance also at a very high C-rate.

  13. MOF-derived multifractal porous carbon with ultrahigh lithium-ion storage performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Tong, Yan; Cao, Bin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Zhihong; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Chen, Gen; Luo, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Porous carbon is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional graphite materials in lithium-ion batteries. This is not only attributed to its advantages of good safety, stability and electrical conductivity, which are held by all the carbon-based electrodes, but also especially ascribed to its relatively high capacity and excellent cycle stability. Here we report the design and synthesis of a highly porous pure carbon material with multifractal structures. This material is prepared by the vacuum carbonization of a zinc-based metal-organic framework, which demonstrates an ultrahigh lithium storage capacity of 2458 mAh g‑1 and a favorable high-rate performance. The associations between the structural features and the lithium storage mechanism are also revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), especially the closed pore effects on lithium-ion storage.

  14. Highly Reversible Lithium-ions Storage of Molybdenum Dioxide Nanoplates for High Power Lithium-ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Jun; Hou, Wenhua; Wang, Jiulin; Nuli, Yanna

    2015-08-24

    Herein, MoO2 nanoplates have been facilely prepared through a hydrothermal process by using MoO3 microbelts as the intercalation host. The obtained MoO2 nanoplates manifest excellent electrochemical properties when the discharge cutoff voltage is simply set at 1.0 V to preclude the occurrence of conversion reactions. Its initial reversible capacity reaches 251 mAh g(-1), which is larger than that of Li4Ti5O12 , at a current rate of 0.2 C. The average capacity decay is only 0.0465 mAh g(-1) per cycle, with a coulombic efficiency of 99.5% (from the 50th cycle onward) for 2000 cycles at 1 C. Moreover, this MoO2 electrode demonstrates an outstanding high power performance. When the current rate is increased from 0.2 to 50 C, about 54% of the capacity is retained. The superior electrochemical performance can be attributed to the metallic conductivity of MoO2, short Li(+) diffusion distance in the nanoplates, and reversible crystalline phase conversion of the addition-type reaction of MoO2. The prepared MoO2 nanoplates may hopefully replace their currently used analogues, such as Li4Ti5O12 , in high power lithium-ion batteries.

  15. Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2O3 @polyaniline for lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jae-Min; Choi, Bong Gill; Lee, Soon Chang; Lee, Kyoung G; Chang, Sung-Jin; Han, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young Boo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Kwon, Soonjo; Lee, Gaehang; Lee, Chang-Soo; Huh, Yun Suk

    2013-11-20

    Hierarchical hollow spheres of Fe2 O3 @polyaniline are fabricated by template-free synthesis of iron oxides followed by a post in- and exterior construction. A combination of large surface area with porous structure, fast ion/electron transport, and mechanical integrity renders this material attractive as a lithium-ion anode, showing superior rate capability and cycling performance.

  16. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inda, Yasushi; Katoh, Takashi; Baba, Mamoru

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li 1+ x+ yAl xTi 2- xSi yP 3- yO 12 with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10 -3 S cm -1 or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO 2 positive electrode, a Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic.

  17. Evidence of ion intercalation mediated band structure modification and opto-ionic coupling in lithium niobite

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, Joshua C.; Tellekamp, M. Brooks; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2015-01-21

    The theoretically suggested band structure of the novel p-type semiconductor lithium niobite (LiNbO{sub 2}), the direct coupling of photons to ion motion, and optically induced band structure modifications are investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence. LiNbO{sub 2} has previously been used as a memristor material but is shown here to be useful as a sensor owing to the electrical, optical, and chemical ease of lithium removal and insertion. Despite the high concentration of vacancies present in lithium niobite due to the intentional removal of lithium atoms, strong photoluminescence spectra are observed even at room temperature that experimentally confirm the suggested band structure implying transitions from a flat conduction band to a degenerate valence band. Removal of small amounts of lithium significantly modifies the photoluminescence spectra including additional larger than stoichiometric-band gap features. Sufficient removal of lithium results in the elimination of the photoluminescence response supporting the predicted transition from a direct to indirect band gap semiconductor. In addition, non-thermal coupling between the incident laser and lithium ions is observed and results in modulation of the electrical impedance.

  18. Biomass-derived carbonaceous positive electrodes for sustainable lithium-ion storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tianyuan; Kavian, Reza; Chen, Zhongming; Cruz, Samuel S.; Noda, Suguru; Lee, Seung Woo

    2016-02-01

    Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering that the carbon spheres were obtained in an aqueous glucose solution and no toxic or hazardous reagents were used, this process opens up a green and sustainable method for designing high performance, environmentally-friendly energy storage devices.Biomass derived carbon materials have been widely used as electrode materials; however, in most cases, only electrical double layer capacitance (EDLC) is utilized and therefore, only low energy density can be achieved. Herein, we report on redox-active carbon spheres that can be simply synthesized from earth-abundant glucose via a hydrothermal process. These carbon spheres exhibit a specific capacity of ~210 mA h gCS-1, with high redox potentials in the voltage range of 2.2-3.7 V vs. Li, when used as positive electrode in lithium cells. Free-standing, flexible composite films consisting of the carbon spheres and few-walled carbon nanotubes deliver high specific capacities up to ~155 mA h gelectrode-1 with no obvious capacity fading up to 10 000 cycles, proposing to be promising positive electrodes for lithium-ion batteries or capacitors. Furthermore, considering

  19. Chemically Etched Silicon Nanowires as Anodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    West, Hannah Elise

    2015-08-01

    This study focused on silicon as a high capacity replacement anode for Lithium-ion batteries. The challenge of silicon is that it expands ~270% upon lithium insertion which causes particles of silicon to fracture, causing the capacity to fade rapidly. To account for this expansion chemically etched silicon nanowires from the University of Maine were studied as anodes. They were built into electrochemical half-cells and cycled continuously to measure the capacity and capacity fade.

  20. Synthesis of nanoporous spheres of cubic gallium oxynitride and their lithium ion intercalation properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chengchun; Bando, Yoshio; Huang, Yang; Zhi, Chunyi; Golberg, Dmitri; Xu, Xuewen; Zhao, Jianling; Li, YangXian

    2010-03-01

    Cubic spinel structured gallium oxynitride has been synthesized through the reaction of metallic gallium and water in the presence of organic ethylenediamine. The relative content of the mixed solvent of water and ethylenediamine controls the product morphology and structure. A novel well-defined nanoporous structure has finally been obtained, whose large surface area and peculiar surface chemistry will generate novel physical and chemical properties. As an example, lithium intercalation properties for prospective applications in lithium ion batteries are demonstrated in this work.

  1. Multi-Node Thermal System Model for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Ying; Smith, Kandler; Wood, Eric; Pesaran, Ahmad

    2015-09-14

    Temperature is one of the main factors that controls the degradation in lithium ion batteries. Accurate knowledge and control of cell temperatures in a pack helps the battery management system (BMS) to maximize cell utilization and ensure pack safety and service life. In a pack with arrays of cells, a cells temperature is not only affected by its own thermal characteristics but also by its neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs. neighbors, the cooling system and pack configuration, which increase the noise level and the complexity of cell temperatures prediction. This work proposes to model lithium ion packs thermal behavior using a multi-node thermal network model, which predicts the cell temperatures by zones. The model was parametrized and validated using commercial lithium-ion battery packs.

  2. Investigation of a novel ternary electrolyte based on dimethyl sulfite and lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Renjie; Zhu, Lu; Wu, Feng; Li, Li; Zhang, Rong; Chen, Shi

    2014-01-01

    Lithium difluoromono(oxalato)borate (LiODFB) has been used as a novel lithium salt for battery in recent studies. In this study, a series of novel electrolytes has been prepared by adding 30 vol% dimethyl sulfite (DMS) or dimethyl carbonate (DMC) as co-solvent into an ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + LiX mixture, in which the LiX could be LiClO4, LiODFB, LiBOB, LiTFSI, or LiCF3SO3. These ternary electrolytes have been investigated for use in lithium ion batteries. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis shows that characteristic functional groups (-CO3, -SO3) undergo red-shift or blue-shift with the addition of different lithium salts. The LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity, which is mainly because of the low melting point of DMS, and LiODFB possessing high solubility. The Li/MCMB cells containing this novel electrolyte exhibit high capacities, good cycling performance, and excellent rate performance. These performances are probably because both LiODFB and DMS can assist in the formation of SEI films by reductive decomposition. Additionally, the discharge capacity of Li/LiCoO2 half cell containing LiODFB-EC/EMC/DMS electrolyte is 130.9 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles, and it is very comparable with the standard-commercial electrolyte. The results show that this study produces a promising electrolyte candidate for lithium ion batteries.

  3. Chemical State of Surface Oxygen on Carbon and Its Effects on the Capacity of the Carbon Anode in a Lithium-Ion Battery Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh

    2001-01-01

    In a lithium-ion battery, the lithium-storage capacity of the carbon anode is greatly affected by a surface layer formed during the first half cycle of lithium insertion and release into and out of the carbon anode. The formation of this solid-electrolyte interface, in turn, is affected by the chemistry of the carbon surface. A study at the NASA Glenn Research Center examined the cause-and-effect relations. Information obtained from this research could contribute in designing a high-capacity lithium-ion battery and, therefore, small, powerful spacecraft. In one test, three types of surfaces were examined: (1) a surface with low oxygen content (1.5 at.%) and a high concentration of active sites, (2) a surface with 4.5 at.% -OH or -OC type oxygen, and (3) a surface with 6.5 at.% O=C type oxygen. The samples were made from the same precursor and had similar bulk properties. They were tested under a constant current of 10 mA/g in half cells that used lithium metal as the counter electrode and 0.5 M lithium iodide in 50/50 (vol%) ethylene carbonate and dimethyl carbonate as the electrolyte. For the first cycle of the electrochemical test, the graph describes the voltage of the carbon anode versus the lithium metal as a function of the capacity (amount of lithium insertion or release). From these data, it can be observed that the surface with low oxygen and a high concentration of active sites could result in a high irreversible capacity. Such a high irreversible capacity could be prevented if the active sites were allowed to react with oxygen in air, producing -OH or -OC type oxygen. The O=C type oxygen, on the other hand, could greatly reduce the capacity of lithium intercalation and, therefore, needs to be avoided during battery fabrication.

  4. Mass and charge transport in cyclic carbonates: implications for improved lithium ion battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Petrowsky, Matt; Ismail, Mohd; Glatzhofer, Daniel T; Frech, Roger

    2013-05-16

    The compensated Arrhenius formalism (CAF) is applied to conductivity and diffusion data for a family of cyclic carbonates composed of octylene carbonate, decylene carbonate, undecylene carbonate, and dodecylene carbonate. The strong intermolecular interactions in these liquids lead to diffusion activation energies that are higher than those for typical aprotic solvents. The conductivity results show that activation energies are similar between TbaTf and LiTf cyclic carbonate electrolytes. However, the conductivities of the TbaTf solutions are higher than those for the LiTf solutions, and this is attributed to the greater number of charge carriers in the TbaTf electrolytes. These CAF results are then used to give a possible explanation of why the ionic conductivity in lithium ion battery electrolytes is often optimized by mixing a cyclic carbonate with a lower viscosity liquid.

  5. Innovative manufacturing and materials for low cost lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Steven

    2015-12-29

    This project demonstrated entirely new manufacturing process options for lithium ion batteries with major potential for improved cost and performance. These new manufacturing approaches are based on the use of the new electrode-coated separators instead of the conventional electrode-coated metal current collector foils. The key enabler to making these electrode-coated separators is a new and unique all-ceramic separator with no conventional porous plastic separator present. A simple, low cost, and high speed manufacturing process of a single coating of a ceramic pigment and polymer binder onto a re-usable release film, followed by a subsequent delamination of the all-ceramic separator and any layers coated over it, such as electrodes and metal current collectors, was utilized. A suitable all-ceramic separator was developed that demonstrated the following required features needed for making electrode-coated separators: (1) no pores greater than 100 nanometer (nm) in diameter to prevent any penetration of the electrode pigments into the separator; (2) no shrinkage of the separator when heated to the high oven heats needed for drying of the electrode layer; and (3) no significant compression of the separator layer by the high pressure calendering step needed to densify the electrodes by about 30%. In addition, this nanoporous all-ceramic separator can be very thin at 8 microns thick for increased energy density, while providing all of the performance features provided by the current ceramic-coated plastic separators used in vehicle batteries: improved safety, longer cycle life, and stability to operate at voltages up to 5.0 V in order to obtain even more energy density. The thin all-ceramic separator provides a cost savings of at least 50% for the separator component and by itself meets the overall goal of this project to reduce the cell inactive component cost by at least 20%. The all-ceramic separator also enables further cost savings by its excellent heat stability

  6. Physical and chemical analysis of lithium-ion battery cell-to-cell failure events inside custom fire chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinner, Neil S.; Field, Christopher R.; Hammond, Mark H.; Williams, Bradley A.; Myers, Kristina M.; Lubrano, Adam L.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Tuttle, Steven G.

    2015-04-01

    A 5-cubic meter decompression chamber was re-purposed as a fire test chamber to conduct failure and abuse experiments on lithium-ion batteries. Various modifications were performed to enable remote control and monitoring of chamber functions, along with collection of data from instrumentation during tests including high speed and infrared cameras, a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, real-time gas analyzers, and compact reconfigurable input and output devices. Single- and multi-cell packages of LiCoO2 chemistry 18650 lithium-ion batteries were constructed and data was obtained and analyzed for abuse and failure tests. Surrogate 18650 cells were designed and fabricated for multi-cell packages that mimicked the thermal behavior of real cells without using any active components, enabling internal temperature monitoring of cells adjacent to the active cell undergoing failure. Heat propagation and video recordings before, during, and after energetic failure events revealed a high degree of heterogeneity; some batteries exhibited short burst of sparks while others experienced a longer, sustained flame during failure. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene carbonate were detected via gas analysis, and the presence of these species was consistent throughout all failure events. These results highlight the inherent danger in large format lithium-ion battery packs with regards to cell-to-cell failure, and illustrate the need for effective safety features.

  7. Origins of Large Voltage Hysteresis in High-Energy-Density Metal Fluoride Lithium-Ion Battery Conversion Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Linsen; Jacobs, Ryan; Gao, Peng; Gan, Liyang; Wang, Feng; Morgan, Dane; Jin, Song

    2016-03-02

    Metal fluorides and oxides can store multiple lithium ions through conversion chemistry to enable high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, their practical applications have been hindered by an unusually large voltage hysteresis between charge and discharge voltage profiles and the consequent low-energy efficiency (<80%). The physical origins of such hysteresis are rarely studied and poorly understood. Here we employ in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, density functional theory calculations, and galvanostatic intermittent titration technique to first correlate the voltage profile of iron fluoride (FeF3), a representative conversion electrode material, with evolution and spatial distribution of intermediate phases in the electrode. The results reveal that, contrary to conventional belief, the phase evolution in the electrode is symmetrical during discharge and charge. However, the spatial evolution of the electrochemically active phases, which is controlled by reaction kinetics, is different. We further propose that the voltage hysteresis in the FeF3 electrode is kinetic in nature. It is the result of ohmic voltage drop, reaction overpotential, and different spatial distributions of electrochemically active phases (i.e., compositional inhomogeneity). Therefore, the large hysteresis can be expected to be mitigated by rational design and optimization of material microstructure and electrode architecture to improve the energy efficiency of lithium-ion batteries based on conversion chemistry.

  8. Modeling mechanical degradation in lithium ion batteries during cycling: Solid electrolyte interphase fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laresgoiti, Izaro; Käbitz, Stefan; Ecker, Madeleine; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-12-01

    During cycling, mechanical stresses can occur in the composite electrode, inside the active material, but also in the solid electrolyte interphase layer. A mechanical model is proposed based on a system made of a spherical graphite particle surrounded by the solid electrolyte interphase layer. During lithium intercalation or de-intercalation, stresses in the graphite are produced, governed by the diffusion induced stress phenomena and in the solid electrolyte interphase, driven by the graphite expansion. The stresses in both materials were simulated and a sensitivity analysis was performed to clarify the influence of principal parameters on both processes. Finally, assuming that the solid electrolyte interphase is the weakest material and therefore more prone to fracture than graphite, the experimental capacity fade during cycling was modeled based on its break and repair effect rather than on the fracture of the active material. The mechanical model of the solid electrolyte interphase was implemented in a single particle lithium ion battery model in order to reproduce capacity fade during battery lifetime. The model results were compared against cycle life aging experimental data, reproducing accurately the influence of the depth of discharge as well as the average state of charge on the capacity fade.

  9. Lithium-assisted plastic deformation of silicon electrodes in lithium-ion batteries: a first-principles theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Kejie; Wang, Wei L; Gregoire, John; Pharr, Matt; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2011-07-13

    Silicon can host a large amount of lithium, making it a promising electrode for high-capacity lithium-ion batteries. Recent experiments indicate that silicon experiences large plastic deformation upon Li absorption, which can significantly decrease the stresses induced by lithiation and thus mitigate fracture failure of electrodes. These issues become especially relevant in nanostructured electrodes with confined geometries. On the basis of first-principles calculations, we present a study of the microscopic deformation mechanism of lithiated silicon at relatively low Li concentration, which captures the onset of plasticity induced by lithiation. We find that lithium insertion leads to breaking of Si-Si bonds and formation of weaker bonds between neighboring Si and Li atoms, which results in a decrease in Young's modulus, a reduction in strength, and a brittle-to-ductile transition with increasing Li concentration. The microscopic mechanism of large plastic deformation is attributed to continuous lithium-assisted breaking and re-forming of Si-Si bonds and the creation of nanopores.

  10. Lithium-Excess Research of Cathode Material Li2MnTiO4 for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyi; Yang, Le; Hao, Feng; Chen, Haosen; Yang, Meng; Fang, Daining

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-excess and nano-sized Li2+xMn1−x/2TiO4 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) cathode materials were synthesized via a sol-gel method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments indicate that the obtained main phases of Li2.0MnTiO4 and the lithium-excess materials are monoclinic and cubic, respectively. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that the as-prepared particles are well distributed and the primary particles have an average size of about 20–30 nm. The further electrochemical tests reveal that the charge-discharge performance of the material improves remarkably with the lithium content increasing. Particularly, the first discharging capacity at the current of 30 mA g−1 increases from 112.2 mAh g−1 of Li2.0MnTiO4 to 187.5 mAh g−1 of Li2.4Mn0.8TiO4. In addition, the ex situ XRD experiments indicate that the monoclinic Li2MnTiO4 tends to transform to an amorphous state with the extraction of lithium ions, while the cubic Li2MnTiO4 phase shows better structural reversibility and stability.

  11. Progress in Materials and Component Development for Advanced Lithium-ion Cells for NASA's Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha, M.; Reid, Concha M.

    2011-01-01

    Vehicles and stand-alone power systems that enable the next generation of human missions to the Moon will require energy storage systems that are safer, lighter, and more compact than current state-of-the- art (SOA) aerospace quality lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries. NASA is developing advanced Li-ion cells to enable or enhance the power systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities spacesuit, and rovers and portable utility pallets for Lunar Surface Systems. Advanced, high-performing materials are required to provide component-level performance that can offer the required gains at the integrated cell level. Although there is still a significant amount of work yet to be done, the present state of development activities has resulted in the synthesis of promising materials that approach the ultimate performance goals. This report on interim progress of the development efforts will elaborate on the challenges of the development activities, proposed strategies to overcome technical issues, and present performance of materials and cell components.

  12. Reaction between Lithium Anode and Polysulfide Ions in a Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-08-18

    Here, the reaction between polysulfides and a lithium anode in a Li–S battery was examined using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the polysulfide species with six sulfur atoms or more were reactive with regard to lithium metal. Although the reaction can be greatly inhibited by the addition of LiNO3 in the electrolyte, LiNO3 cannot form a stable protection layer on the Li anode to prevent the reaction during storage.

  13. Reaction between Lithium Anode and Polysulfide Ions in a Lithium-Sulfur Battery

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Qu, Deyang

    2016-08-18

    Here, the reaction between polysulfides and a lithium anode in a Li–S battery was examined using HPLC. The results demonstrated that the polysulfide species with six sulfur atoms or more were reactive with regard to lithium metal. Although the reaction can be greatly inhibited by the addition of LiNO3 in the electrolyte, LiNO3 cannot form a stable protection layer on the Li anode to prevent the reaction during storage.

  14. Composite gel polymer electrolyte for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naderi, Roya

    Composite gel polymer electrolyte (CGPE) films, consisting of poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) as the membrane, DMF and PC as solvent and plasticizing agent, mixture of charge modified TiO2 and SiO 2 nano particles as ionic conductors, and LiClO4+LiPF 6 as lithium salts were fabricated. Following the work done by Li et al., CGPE was coated on an O2-plasma treated trilayer polypropylene-polyethylene-polypropylene membrane separator using solution casting technique in order to improve the adhesive properties of gel polymer electrolyte to the separator membrane and its respective ionic conductivity due to decreasing the bulk resistance. In acidic CGPE with, the mixture of acid treated TiO2 and neutral SiO2 nano particles played the role of the charge modified nano fillers with enhanced hydroxyl groups. Likely, the mixture of neutral TiO 2 nano particles with basic SiO2 prepared through the hydrolization of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) provided a more basic environment due to the residues of NH4OH (Ammonium hydroxide) catalyst. The O2 plasma treated separator was coated with the solution of PVDF-HFP: modified nano fillers: Organic solvents with the mixture ratio of 0.1:0.01:1. After the evaporation of the organic solvents, the dried coated separator was soaked in PC-LiClO4+LiPF6 in EC: DMC:DEC (4:2:4 in volume) solution (300% wt. of PVDF-HFP) to form the final CGPE. Lim et al. has reported the enhanced ionic conductivity of 9.78*10-5 Scm-1 in an acidic composite polystyrene-Al2O3 solid electrolyte system with compared to that of basic and neutral in which the ionic conductivity undergoes an ion hopping process in solid interface rather than a segmental movement of ions through the plasticized polymer chain . Half-cells with graphite anode and Li metal as reference electrode were then assembled and the electrochemical measurements and morphology examinations were successfully carried out. Half cells demonstrated a considerable change in their

  15. Spectroscopic studies of cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totir, Dana Alexa

    2000-10-01

    Structural changes that occur during electrochemical cycling of lithium-ion battery cathode materials have been investigated using in situ spectroscopic techniques. A new method was developed for the preparation of carbon and binder free cathodes utilizing powder materials of interest for commercial batteries. The extraordinary quality of the cyclic voltammetric curves recorded for this type of electrodes during the in situ measurements allows direct correlations to be made between the state of charge of the material and its structural and electronic characteristics. LiCoO2, LiMn2O4 and LiCo0.15Ni 0.85O2 electrodes were evaluated using cycling voltammetry and the mean diffusion coefficient for Li-ions in the lattice (DLi) was calculated for LiMn2O4. LiMn2O4 electrodes prepared by this technique have been studied in situ using Mn K-edge XAS. Data analysis for the species formed at different potentials indicated a contraction of the lattice associated with the increase in the oxidation state of manganese. In situ Raman spectra of particles of LiMn2O 4, and LiCoO2 embedded in Au and also of KS-44 graphite and carbon microfibers MCF28 embedded in thermally annealed Ni have been recorded as a function of the applied potential. Fe K-edge XAFS of pyrite electrodes in a Li/PEO(LiClO4)/FeS 2 cell and S K-edge XANES measurements of a FeS2 electrode in a non-aqueous electrolyte have been acquired as a function of the state of charge. The studies have clearly evidenced the formation of metallic Fe and Li2S as intermediates after 4 e- discharge and the formation of Li2FeS2 after 2 e- recharge. While Fe K-edge studies have indicated that there is no change in the Fe environment and oxidation state upon 4 e- recharge, the results obtained from S K-edge studies are inconclusive for this stage. Finally, in situ Co K-edge XAFS data were obtained for the first time during the electrochemical cycling of electrodeposited Co(OH) 2 films in alkaline solutions. The results support

  16. Activated porous carbon wrapped sulfur sub-microparticles as cathode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Yan, Y. L.; Ren, B.; Yang, R.; Zhang, W.; Xu, Y. H.

    2017-03-01

    The lithium-sulfur batteries holds a high theoretical capacity and specific energy, which is 4-5 times larger than that of today’s lithium-ion batteries, yet the low sulfur loading and large particles in the cathode greatly offset its advantage in high energy density. In the present paper, a liquid phase deposition method was introduced to synthesize sub-micro sulfur particles, which utilized as cathode materials after composed with activated porous carbon. Compared with common sublimed sulfur cathodes, as-obtained composite cathode shows an enhanced initial discharge capacity from 840.7 mAh/g to 1093 mAh/g at C/10. The reversible specific capacity after 50 cycles increased from 383 mAh/g to 504 mAh/g. The developed method has the advantages of simple process, convenient operation and low cost, and is suitable for the industrial preparation of lithium/sulfur batteries.

  17. High Performance Pillared Vanadium Oxide Cathode for Lithium Ion Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-24

    nitrogen as the cathode material. Cycles were performed at rates of C/10, C/2, C/10, 2C, and C/10 for 10 cycles each. UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED...batteries but their mechanical and thermal properties can lead to safety and reliability (e.g. cycle life) challenges in particular for military vehicle...reduce stresses caused by lithium insertion and enhance lithium diffusion thereby improving cycle -life, high rate capacities and resistance to thermal

  18. Nanoscale imaging of lithium ion distribution during in situ operation of battery electrode and electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Megan E; Yu, Yingchao; Gunceler, Deniz; Gao, Jie; Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Schwarz, Kathleen A; Arias, Tomás A; Abruña, Héctor D; Muller, David A

    2014-03-12

    A major challenge in the development of new battery materials is understanding their fundamental mechanisms of operation and degradation. Their microscopically inhomogeneous nature calls for characterization tools that provide operando and localized information from individual grains and particles. Here, we describe an approach that enables imaging the nanoscale distribution of ions during electrochemical charging of a battery in a transmission electron microscope liquid flow cell. We use valence energy-loss spectroscopy to track both solvated and intercalated ions, with electronic structure fingerprints of the solvated ions identified using an ab initio nonlinear response theory. Equipped with the new electrochemical cell holder, nanoscale spectroscopy and theory, we have been able to determine the lithiation state of a LiFePO4 electrode and surrounding aqueous electrolyte in real time with nanoscale resolution during electrochemical charge and discharge. We follow lithium transfer between electrode and electrolyte and image charging dynamics in the cathode. We observe competing delithiation mechanisms such as core-shell and anisotropic growth occurring in parallel for different particles under the same conditions. This technique represents a general approach for the operando nanoscale imaging of electrochemically active ions in the electrode and electrolyte in a wide range of electrical energy storage systems.

  19. Experimental triggers for internal short circuits in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Roth, E. Peter; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    2011-08-01

    Lithium-ion cell field failures due to internal short circuits are a significant concern to the entire lithium-ion cell market from consumer electronics to electric vehicles. While the probability of these failure events occurring is estimated to be very low (1 in 5-10 million), the consequences of a cell failure due to an internal short in a high energy battery system have the potential to be catastrophic. The statistical probability of one of these events is very low and they are difficult to predict and simulate in a laboratory using some external test; which makes cell failure due to an internal short circuit a unique challenge to overcome. Several of the experiments designed to simulate internal shorts have been adopted as testing protocols across the industry; in general, they do not accurately simulate an internal short. This work highlights our efforts to experimentally trigger an internal short circuit in a lithium-ion cell.

  20. A Highly Thermostable Ceramic-Grafted Microporous Polyethylene Separator for Safer Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Ai, Xinping; Yang, Hanxi; Cao, Yuliang

    2015-11-04

    The safety concern is a critical obstacle to large-scale energy storage applications of lithium-ion batteries. A thermostable separator is one of the most effective means to construct the safe lithium-ion batteries. Herein, we demonstrate a novel ceramic (SiO2)-grafted PE separator prepared by electron beam irradiation. The separator shows similar thickness and pore structure to the bare separator, while displaying strong dimensional thermostability, as the shrinkage ratio is only 20% even at an elevated temperature of 180 °C. Besides, the separator is highly electrochemically inert, showing no adverse effect on the energy and power output of the batteries. Considering the excellent electrochemical and thermal stability, the SiO2-grafted PE separator developed in this work is greatly beneficial for constructing safer lithium-ion batteries.

  1. Prognostics of Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on Wavelet Denoising and DE-RVM

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chaolong; He, Yigang; Yuan, Lifeng; Xiang, Sheng; Wang, Jinping

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are widely used in many electronic systems. Therefore, it is significantly important to estimate the lithium-ion battery's remaining useful life (RUL), yet very difficult. One important reason is that the measured battery capacity data are often subject to the different levels of noise pollution. In this paper, a novel battery capacity prognostics approach is presented to estimate the RUL of lithium-ion batteries. Wavelet denoising is performed with different thresholds in order to weaken the strong noise and remove the weak noise. Relevance vector machine (RVM) improved by differential evolution (DE) algorithm is utilized to estimate the battery RUL based on the denoised data. An experiment including battery 5 capacity prognostics case and battery 18 capacity prognostics case is conducted and validated that the proposed approach can predict the trend of battery capacity trajectory closely and estimate the battery RUL accurately. PMID:26413090

  2. One-dimensional/two-dimensional hybridization for self-supported binder-free silicon-based lithium ion battery anodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Zhi, Linjie

    2013-02-21

    A unique silicon-based anode for lithium ion batteries is developed via the facile hybridization of one-dimensional silicon nanowires and two-dimensional graphene sheets. The resulting paper-like film holds advantages highly desirable for not only accommodating the volume change of silicon, but also facilitating the fast transport of electron and lithium ions.

  3. Performance Characteristics of Lithium-Ion Cells for Mars Sample Return Athena Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Smart, M. C.; Ewell, R.; Surampudi, S.; Marsh, R.

    1999-01-01

    In contrast to the primary batteries (lithium thionyl chloride) on the Sojourner Mars Rover and the upcoming 2001 Mars Rover, the Mars Sample Return (MSR) Athena Rover will utilize rechargeable lithium ion batteries, following the footsteps of MSP 2001 Lander. The MSR Athena Rover will contain a rechargeable lithium ion battery of 16 V and a total energy of 150 Wh. The mass and volume of the projected power system will be a maximum of 3 kg and 2 liters, respectively. Each battery consists of twelve cells (6-7 Ah), combined in three parallel strings of four cells (16 V) each, such that the capability of the Rover shall be maintained even in the event of one string failure. In addition to the usual requirements of high specific energy and energy density and long cycle life (100 cycles), the battery is required to operate at wide range of temperatures, especially at sub-zero temperatures down to -20 C. In this paper, we report various performance characterization tests carried out on lithium ion cells, fabricated by different manufacturers under a NASA/DoD lithium ion battery consortium.

  4. Comprehensive Enhancement of Nanostructured Lithium-Ion Battery Cathode Materials via Conformal Graphene Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kan-Sheng; Xu, Rui; Luu, Norman S; Secor, Ethan B; Hamamoto, Koichi; Li, Qianqian; Kim, Soo; Sangwan, Vinod K; Balla, Itamar; Guiney, Linda M; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Yu, Xiankai; Liu, Weiwei; Wu, Jinsong; Wolverton, Chris; Dravid, Vinayak P; Barnett, Scott A; Lu, Jun; Amine, Khalil; Hersam, Mark C

    2017-04-12

    Efficient energy storage systems based on lithium-ion batteries represent a critical technology across many sectors including consumer electronics, electrified transportation, and a smart grid accommodating intermittent renewable energy sources. Nanostructured electrode materials present compelling opportunities for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, but inherent problems related to the high surface area to volume ratios at the nanometer-scale have impeded their adoption for commercial applications. Here, we demonstrate a materials and processing platform that realizes high-performance nanostructured lithium manganese oxide (nano-LMO) spinel cathodes with conformal graphene coatings as a conductive additive. The resulting nanostructured composite cathodes concurrently resolve multiple problems that have plagued nanoparticle-based lithium-ion battery electrodes including low packing density, high additive content, and poor cycling stability. Moreover, this strategy enhances the intrinsic advantages of nano-LMO, resulting in extraordinary rate capability and low temperature performance. With 75% capacity retention at a 20C cycling rate at room temperature and nearly full capacity retention at -20 °C, this work advances lithium-ion battery technology into unprecedented regimes of operation.

  5. Molecular Layer Deposition for Surface Modification of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, Chunmei; George, Steven M.

    2016-10-21

    Inspired by recent successes in applying molecular layer deposition (MLD) to stabilize lithium-ion (Li-ion) electrodes, this review presents the MLD process and its outstanding attributes for electrochemical applications. The review discusses various MLD materials and their implementation in Li-ion electrodes. The rationale behind these emerging uses of MLD is examined to motivate future efforts on the fundamental understanding of interphase chemistry and the development of new materials for enhanced electrochemical performance.

  6. Cycle life performance of rechargeable lithium ion batteries and mathematical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Gang

    Capacity fade of commercial Sony US 18650 Li-ion batteries cycled at high discharge rates was studied at ambient temperature. Battery cycled at the highest discharge rate (3 C) shows the largest internal resistance increase of 27.7% relative to the resistance of fresh battery. It's been observed anode carbon loses 10.6% of its capability to intercalate or deintercalate Li+ after it was subjected to 300 cycles at discharge rate of 3 C. This loss dominates capacity fade of full battery. A mechanism considering continuous parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and film thickening has been proposed. First principles based charge-discharge models to simulate cycle life behavior of rechargeable Li-ion batteries have been developed. In the generalized model, transport in both electrolyte phase and solid phase were simultaneously taken into account. Under mild charge-discharge condition, transport of lithium in the electrolyte phase has been neglected in the simplified model. Both models are based on loss of the active lithium ions due to the electrochemical parasitic reaction at anode/electrolyte interface and on rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as depth of discharge (DOD), end of charge voltage (EOCV) and overvoltage of the parasitic reaction on the cycle life behavior of a battery has been analyzed. The experimental results obtained at a charge rate of 1 C, discharge rate of 0.5 C, EOCV of 4.0 V and DOD of 0.4 have been used to validate cycle life models. Good agreement between the simulations and the experiments has been achieved up to 1968 cycles with both models. Simulation of cycle life of battery under multiple cycling regimes has also been demonstrated.

  7. Multi-dimensional construction of a novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web as a self-standing anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-11-01

    A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode.A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details and additional information about material characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06531c

  8. Multi-dimensional construction of a novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web as a self-standing anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hao; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-12-21

    A novel active yolk@conductive shell nanofiber web with a unique synergistic advantage of various hierarchical nanodimensional objects including the 0D monodisperse SiO2 yolks, the 1D continuous carbon shell and the 3D interconnected non-woven fabric web has been developed by an innovative multi-dimensional construction method, and thus demonstrates excellent electrochemical properties as a self-standing LIB anode.

  9. Mitigating Voltage Decay of Li-Rich Cathode Material via Increasing Ni Content for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-Lei; Zhang, Jie-Nan; He, Min; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Li, Hong; Guo, Yu-Guo; Gu, Lin; Wan, Li-Jun

    2016-08-10

    Li-rich layered materials have been considered as the most promising cathode materials for future high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries. However, they suffer from severe voltage decay upon cycling, which hinders their further commercialization. Here, we report a Li-rich layered material 0.5Li2MnO3·0.5LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 with high nickel content, which exhibits much slower voltage decay during long-term cycling compared to conventional Li-rich materials. The voltage decay after 200 cycles is 201 mV. Combining in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), ex situ XRD, ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrate that nickel ions act as stabilizing ions to inhibit the Jahn-Teller effect of active Mn(3+) ions, improving d-p hybridization and supporting the layered structure as a pillar. In addition, nickel ions can migrate between the transition-metal layer and the interlayer, thus avoiding the formation of spinel-like structures and consequently mitigating the voltage decay. Our results provide a simple and effective avenue for developing Li-rich layered materials with mitigated voltage decay and a long lifespan, thereby promoting their further application in lithium-ion batteries with high energy density.

  10. Carbon-Based Materials for Lithium-Ion Batteries, Electrochemical Capacitors, and Their Hybrid Devices.

    PubMed

    Yao, Fei; Pham, Duy Tho; Lee, Young Hee

    2015-07-20

    A rapidly developing market for portable electronic devices and hybrid electrical vehicles requires an urgent supply of mature energy-storage systems. As a result, lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors have lately attracted broad attention. Nevertheless, it is well known that both devices have their own drawbacks. With the fast development of nanoscience and nanotechnology, various structures and materials have been proposed to overcome the deficiencies of both devices to improve their electrochemical performance further. In this Review, electrochemical storage mechanisms based on carbon materials for both lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors are introduced. Non-faradic processes (electric double-layer capacitance) and faradic reactions (pseudocapacitance and intercalation) are generally explained. Electrochemical performance based on different types of electrolytes is briefly reviewed. Furthermore, impedance behavior based on Nyquist plots is discussed. We demonstrate the influence of cell conductivity, electrode/electrolyte interface, and ion diffusion on impedance performance. We illustrate that relaxation time, which is closely related to ion diffusion, can be extracted from Nyquist plots and compared between lithium-ion batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Finally, recent progress in the design of anodes for lithium-ion batteries, electrochemical capacitors, and their hybrid devices based on carbonaceous materials are reviewed. Challenges and future perspectives are further discussed.

  11. Prelithiation of silicon-carbon nanotube anodes for lithium ion batteries by stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP).

    PubMed

    Forney, Michael W; Ganter, Matthew J; Staub, Jason W; Ridgley, Richard D; Landi, Brian J

    2013-09-11

    Stabilized lithium metal powder (SLMP) has been applied during battery assembly to effectively prelithiate high capacity (1500-2500 mAh/g) silicon-carbon nanotube (Si-CNT) anodes, eliminating the 20-40% first cycle irreversible capacity loss. Pressure-activation of SLMP is shown to enhance prelithiation and enable capacity matching between Si-CNT anodes and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA) cathodes in full batteries with minimal added mass. The prelithiation approach enables high energy density NCA/Si-CNT batteries achieving >1000 cycles at 20% depth-of-discharge.

  12. Conflicting Roles Of Nickel In Controlling Cathode Performance In Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Meng; Belharouak, Ilias; Genc, Arda; Wang, Zhiguo; Wang, Dapeng; Amine, Khalil; Gao, Fei; Zhou, Guangwen; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Baer, Donald R.; Zhang, Jiguang; Browning, Nigel D.; Liu, Jun; Wang, Chong M.

    2012-09-17

    A variety of approaches are being made to enhance the performance of lithium ion batteries. Incorporating multi-valence transition metal ions into metal oxide cathodes has been identified as an essential approach to achieve the necessary high voltage and high capacity. However, the fundamental mechanism that limits their power rate and cycling stability remains unclear. The power rate strongly depends on the lithium ion drift speed in the cathode. Crystallographically, these transition metal-based cathodes frequently have a layered structure. In the classic wisdom, it is accepted that lithium ion travels swiftly within the layers moving out/in of the cathode during the charge/discharge. Here, we report the unexpected discovery of a thermodynamically driven, yet kinetically controlled, surface modification in the widely explored lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode material, which may inhibit the battery charge/discharge rate. We found that during cathode synthesis and processing before electrochemical cycling in the cell nickel can preferentially move along the fast diffusion channels and selectively segregate at the surface facets terminated with a mix of anions and cations. This segregation essentially blocks the otherwise fast out/in pathways for lithium ions during the charge/discharge. Therefore, it appears that the transition metal dopant may help to provide high capacity and/or high voltage, but can be located in a “wrong” location that blocks or slows lithium diffusion, limiting battery performance. In this circumstance, limitations in the properties of Li-ion batteries using these cathode materials can be determined more by the materials synthesis issues than by the operation within the battery itself.

  13. Infrared thermography non-destructive evaluation of lithium-ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi-jun; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Qiang

    2011-08-01

    The power lithium-ion battery with its high specific energy, high theoretical capacity and good cycle-life is a prime candidate as a power source for electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Safety is especially important for large-scale lithium-ion batteries, especially the thermal analysis is essential for their development and design. Thermal modeling is an effective way to understand the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion battery during charging and discharging. With the charging and discharging, the internal heat generation of the lithium-ion battery becomes large, and the temperature rises leading to an uneven temperature distribution induces partial degradation. Infrared (IR) Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) has been well developed for decades years in materials, structures, and aircraft. Most thermographic methods need thermal excitation to the measurement structures. In NDE of battery, the thermal excitation is the heat generated from carbon and cobalt electrodes in electrolyte. A technique named "power function" has been developed to determine the heat by chemical reactions. In this paper, the simulations of the transient response of the temperature distribution in the lithium-ion battery are developed. The key to resolving the security problem lies in the thermal controlling, including the heat generation and the internal and external heat transfer. Therefore, three-dimensional modelling for capturing geometrical thermal effects on battery thermal abuse behaviour is required. The simulation model contains the heat generation during electrolyte decomposition and electrical resistance component. Oven tests are simulated by three-dimensional model and the discharge test preformed by test system. Infrared thermography of discharge is recorded in order to analyze the security of the lithium-ion power battery. Nondestructive detection is performed for thermal abuse analysis and discharge analysis.

  14. Effect of impurities and moisture on lithium bisoxalatoborate (LiBOB) electrolyte performance in lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, L.; Furczon, M. M.; Xiao, A.; Lucht, B. L.; Zhang, Z.; Abraham, D. P.

    Electrolytes containing LiB(C 2O 4) 2 (LiBOB) salts are of increasing interest for lithium-ion cells for several reasons that include their ability to form a stable solid electrolyte interphase on graphite electrodes. However, cells containing these electrolytes often show inconsistent performance because of impurities in the LiBOB salt. In this work we compare cycling and impedance data from cells containing electrolytes with LiBOB that was obtained commercially and LiBOB purified by a rigorous recrystallization procedure. We relate the difference in performance to a lithium oxalate impurity that may be a residual from the salt manufacturing process. We also examine the reaction of LiBOB with water to determine the effect of salt storage in high-humidity environments. Although LiBOB electrolytes containing trace amounts (∼100 ppm) of moisture appear relatively stable, higher moisture contents (∼1 wt%) lead to observable salt decomposition resulting in the generation of B(C 2O 4)(OH) and LiB(C 2O 4)(OH) 2 compounds that do not dissolve in typical carbonate solutions and impair lithium-ion cell performance.

  15. Commuter simulation of lithium-ion battery performance in hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P. A.; Henriksen, G. L.; Amine, K.

    2000-12-04

    In this study, a lithium-ion battery was designed for a hybrid electric vehicle, and the design was tested by a computer program that simulates driving of a vehicle on test cycles. The results showed that the performance goals that have been set for such batteries by the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles are appropriate. The study also indicated, however, that the heat generation rate in the battery is high, and that the compact lithium-ion battery would probably require cooling by a dielectric liquid for operation under conditions of vigorous vehicle driving.

  16. Lithium ion conductive behavior of TiO2 nanotube/ionic liquid matrices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A series of TiO2 nanotube (TNT)/ionic liquid matrices were prepared, and their lithium ion conductive properties were studied. SEM images implied that ionic liquid was dispersed on the whole surface of TNT. Addition of TNT to ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (BMImTFSA)) resulted in significant increase of ionic conductivity. Furthermore, lithium transference number was also largely enhanced due to the interaction of anion with TNT. Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann parameter showed higher carrier ion number for TNT/BMImTFSA in comparison with BMImTFSA. PMID:25313300

  17. Thermal Properties of Microstrain Gauges Used for Protection of Lithium-Ion Cells of Different Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this innovation is to use microstrain gauges to monitor minute changes in temperature along with material properties of the metal cans and pouches used in the construction of lithium-ion cells. The sensitivity of the microstrain gauges to extremely small changes in temperatures internal to the cells makes them a valuable asset in controlling the hazards in lithium-ion cells. The test program on lithium-ion cells included various cell configurations, including the pouch type configurations. The thermal properties of microstrain gauges have been found to contribute significantly as safety monitors in lithium-ion cells that are designed even with hard metal cases. Although the metal cans do not undergo changes in material property, even under worst-case unsafe conditions, the small changes in thermal properties observed during charge and discharge of the cell provide an observable change in resistance of the strain gauge. Under abusive or unsafe conditions, the change in the resistance is large. This large change is observed as a significant change in slope, and this can be used to prevent cells from going into a thermal runaway condition. For flexible metal cans or pouch-type lithium-ion cells, combinations of changes in material properties along with thermal changes can be used as an indication for the initiation of an unsafe condition. Lithium-ion cells have a very high energy density, no memory effect, and almost 100-percent efficiency of charge and discharge. However, due to the presence of a flammable electrolyte, along with the very high energy density and the capability of releasing oxygen from the cathode, these cells can go into a hazardous condition of venting, fire, and thermal runaway. Commercial lithium-ion cells have current and voltage monitoring devices that are used to control the charge and discharge of the batteries. Some lithium-ion cells have internal protective devices, but when used in multi-cell configurations, these protective

  18. Roles of surface chemistry on safety and electrochemistry in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyu Tae; Jeong, Sookyung; Cho, Jaephil

    2013-05-21

    Motivated by new applications including electric vehicles and the smart grid, interest in advanced lithium ion batteries has increased significantly over the past decade. Therefore, research in this field has intensified to produce safer devices with better electrochemical performance. Most research has focused on the development of new electrode materials through the optimization of bulk properties such as crystal structure, ionic diffusivity, and electric conductivity. More recently, researchers have also considered the surface properties of electrodes as critical factors for optimizing performance. In particular, the electrolyte decomposition at the electrode surface relates to both a lithium ion battery's electrochemical performance and safety. In this Account, we give an overview of the major developments in the area of surface chemistry for lithium ion batteries. These ideas will provide the basis for the design of advanced electrode materials. Initially, we present a brief background to lithium ion batteries such as major chemical components and reactions that occur in lithium ion batteries. Then, we highlight the role of surface chemistry in the safety of lithium ion batteries. We examine the thermal stability of cathode materials: For example, we discuss the oxygen generation from cathode materials and describe how cells can swell and heat up in response to specific conditions. We also demonstrate how coating the surfaces of electrodes can improve safety. The surface chemistry can also affect the electrochemistry of lithium ion batteries. The surface coating strategy improved the energy density and cycle performance for layered LiCoO2, xLi2MnO3·(1 - x)LiMO2 (M = Mn, Ni, Co, and their combinations), and LiMn2O4 spinel materials, and we describe a working mechanism for these enhancements. Although coating the surfaces of cathodes with inorganic materials such as metal oxides and phosphates improves the electrochemical performance and safety properties of

  19. Lithium-Ion Battery Failure: Effects of State of Charge and Packing Configuration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-22

    review of thermal issues in lithium-ion batteries.” J. Electrochem . Soc. 158 (2011) R1-R25. 20. Y. Fu, S. Lu, K. Li, C. Liu, X. Cheng and H. Zhang, “An...Larsson and B.-E. Mellander, “Abuse by external heating, overcharge and short circuiting of commercial lithium-ion battery cells.” J. Electrochem . Soc... Electrochem . Soc. 162 (2015) A2789- 2795. 24. S. J. Drake, D. A. Wetz, J. K. Ostanek, S. P. Miller, J. M. Heinzel and A. Jain, “Measurement of anisotropic

  20. Determination of transport properties and optimization of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Sarah Grace

    We have adapted the method of restricted diffusion to measure diffusion coefficients in lithium-battery electrolytes using Ultra-Violent-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption. The use of UV-Vis absorption reduces the likelihood of side reactions. Here we describe the measurement of the diffusion coefficient in lithium-battery electrolytic solutions. The diffusion coefficient is seen to decrease with increasing concentration according to the following: D = 3.018·10-5 exp(-0.357c), for LiPF 6 in acetonitrile and D = 2.582·10-5 exp(-2.856c) for LiPF6 in EC:DEC (with D in cm2/s and c in moles per liter). This technique may be useful for any liquid solution with a UV-active species of D greater than 10-6 cm2/s. Activity coefficients were measured in concentration cell and melting-point-depression experiments. Results from concentration-cell experiments are presented for solutions of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in propylene carbonate (PC) as well as in a 1:1 by weight solution of ethylene carbonate (EC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC). Heat capacity results are also presented. The thermodynamic factor of LiPF6 solutions in EC varies between ca. 1.33 and ca. 6.10 in the concentration range ca. 0.06 to 1.25 M (which appears to be a eutectic point). We show that the solutions of LiPF6 investigated are not ideal but that an assumption of ideality for these solutions may overestimate the specific energy of a lithium-ion cell by only 0.6%. The thermodynamic and transport properties that we have measured are used in a system model. We have used this model to optimize the design of an asymmetric-hybrid system. This technology attempts to bridge the gap in energy density between a battery and supercapacitor. In this system, the positive electrode stores charge through a reversible, nonfaradaic adsorption of anions on the surface. The negative electrode is nanostructured Li4Ti 5O12, which reversibly intercalates lithium. We use the properties that we have measured in a system