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Sample records for active living potential

  1. Teaching Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.

    Provided are strategies for teaching activities of daily living (ADL), which include dressing, eating, grooming, toileting, and basic homemakine, to severely retarded students. Reviewed are the steps necessary to teach ADL skills: ADL assessment, identification of appropriate strategies and tactics, and task analysis. Explained are four common…

  2. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (< 0.7) and the lack of space, respectively. The most probable zones of microbial activity, those likely to develop sustainable biofilms are within the interface zones. A major restriction

  3. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy for living cell membrane potential measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panday, Namuna

    Recently, the existence of multiple micro-domains of extracellular potential around individual cells have been revealed by voltage reporter dye using fluorescence microscopy. One hypothesis is that these long lasting potential patterns play a vital role in regulating important cell activities such as embryonic patterning, regenerative repair and reduction of cancerous disorganization. We used multifunctional Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy (SICM) to study these extracellular potential patterns of single cell with higher spatial resolution. To validate this novel technique, we compared the extracellular potential distribution on the fixed HeLa cell surface and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface and found significant difference. We then measured the extracellular potential distributions of living melanocytes and melanoma cells and found both the mean magnitude and spatial variation of extracellular potential of the melanoma cells are bigger than those of melanocytes. As compared to the voltage reporter dye based fluorescence microscope method, SICM can achieve quantitative potential measurements of non-labeled living cell membranes with higher spatial resolution.

  4. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action.

  5. Active living and injury risk.

    PubMed

    Parkkari, J; Kannus, P; Natri, A; Lapinleimu, I; Palvanen, M; Heiskanen, M; Vuori, I; Järvinen, M

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to get reliable insight into injury risk in various commuting and lifestyle activities, as well as recreational and competitive sports. A cohort of 3 657 persons was randomly selected from the 15- to 74-year-old Finnish population. Ninety-two percent (n = 3 363) of the subjects accepted to participate the one-year follow-up, record all their physical activities that lasted 15 min or more, and register all acute and overuse injuries that occurred during these activities. To collect the information, the study subjects were interviewed by phone by the trained personnel of the Statistics Finland three times in four-month intervals. The individual injury risk per exposure time was relatively low, ranging from 0.19 to 1.5 per 1 000 hours of participation, in commuting and lifestyle activities including walking and cycling to work, gardening, home repair, hunting and fishing, and, in sports such as golf, dancing, swimming, walking, and rowing. The risk was clearly higher in squash, orienteering, and contact and team sports, such as judo, wrestling, karate, rinkball, floorball, basketball, soccer, ice hockey, volleyball, and Finnish baseball ranging from 6.6 to 18.3 per 1 000 hours of participation. However, the highest absolute number of injuries occurred in low-risk activities, such as gardening, walking, home-repair, and cycling, because they are performed so often. In conclusion, individual injury risk per exposure hours is relatively low in commuting and lifestyle activities compared to many recreational and competitive sports. However, at a population level, these low-to-moderate intensity activities are widely practised producing a rather high absolute number of injuries, and thus, preventive efforts are needed in these activities, too.

  6. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  7. Psychosocial data of potential living donors before living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Bronner, Ekkehard; Steinmüller, Thomas; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    In view of the scarcity of organ resources for transplantation, donation by living donors is assuming greater significance now that the technical-surgical problems involved have been solved. In the period between December 1999 and December 2000, 47 potential living liver donors were evaluated and a total of 27 hepatic lobes were transplanted at the Virchow-Klinikum of the Charité Hospital in Berlin. The close personal relationships between recipients and donors gives reason to anticipate high levels of psychosocial pressure during the pre-operative evaluation process; this process consists in part in looking into donor motivation, ambivalence and anxiety. The pre-operative psychometric evaluation of 40 potential living donors indicated that most of the potential donors see themselves as 'super-healthy' and tend to adapt to social expectations, while on the other hand those seven potential living donors not accepted for psychosocial reasons were marked by heightened values for anxious depression and pessimism. The results indicate in most cases a great willingness to donate and on the other hand a high level of obvious psychological pressure for a low number of potential donors. For the latter, both the clinical evaluation interview and the psychometric diagnostics used revealed clear-cut feelings of anxiety and ambivalence towards transplantation.

  8. Urban reconciliation ecology: the potential of living roofs and walls.

    PubMed

    Francis, Robert A; Lorimer, Jamie

    2011-06-01

    Reconciling human and non-human use of urban regions to support biological conservation represents a major challenge for the 21st century. The concept of reconciliation ecology, by which the anthropogenic environment may be modified to encourage non-human use and biodiversity preservation without compromising societal utilization, potentially represents an appropriate paradigm for urban conservation given the generally poor opportunities that exist for reserve establishment and ecological restoration in urban areas. Two habitat improvement techniques with great potential for reconciliation ecology in urban areas are the installation of living roofs and walls, which have been shown to support a range of taxa at local scales. This paper evaluates the reconciliation potential of living roofs and walls, in particular highlighting both ecological and societal limitations that need to be overcome for application at the landscape scale. We further consider that successful utilization of living roofs and walls for urban reconciliation ecology will rely heavily on the participation of urban citizens, and that a 'citizen science' model is needed to facilitate public participation and support and to create an evidence base to determine their effectiveness. Living roofs and walls are just one aspect of urban reconciliation ecology, but are particularly important 'bottom-up' techniques for improving urban biodiversity that can be performed directly by the citizenry.

  9. Bursts of Active Transport in Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-01

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  10. Bursts of active transport in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Kuo, James; Granick, Steve

    2013-11-15

    We show, using a large new data set, that the temporally resolved speed of active cargo transport in living cells follows a scaling law over several decades of time and length. The statistical regularities display a time-averaged shape that we interpret to reflect stress buildup, followed by rapid release. The scaling power law agrees quantitatively with those reported in inanimate systems (jammed colloids and granular media, and magnetic Barkhausen noise), suggesting a common origin in pushing through a crowded environment in a weak force regime. The implied regulation of the speed of active cellular transport due to environmental obstruction results in bursts of speed and acceleration. These findings extend the classical notion of molecular crowding.

  11. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem.

  12. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Harun, Aisha; Semenov, Yevgeniy R.; Agrawal, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years (N = 5,017). Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [OR] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]). In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]). This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36]) and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18]) on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities. PMID:26753170

  13. Monitoring of relative mitochondrial membrane potential in living cells by fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Permeant cationic fluorescent probes are shown to be selectively accumulated by the mitochondria of living cells. Mitochondria-specific interaction of such molecules is apparently dependent on the high trans- membrane potential (inside negative) maintained by functional mitochondria. Dissipation of the mitochondrial trans-membrane and potential by ionophores or inhibitors of electron transport eliminates the selective mitochondrial association of these compounds. The application of such potential-dependent probes in conjunction with fluorescence microscopy allows the monitoring of mitochondrial membrane potential in individual living cells. Marked elevations in mitochondria- associated probe fluorescence have been observed in cells engaged in active movement. This approach to the analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential should be of value in future investigations of the control of energy metabolism and energy requirements of specific biological functions at the cellular level. PMID:6783667

  14. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  15. Medical ethics and the potentialities of the living being.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, D

    1985-08-17

    Attitudes toward the personhood of the fetus as opposed to the existence of mere biological life with the potential to become a person are discussed in relation to reproductive issues such as abortion. Holbrook examines the arguments raised in the Times by W.H. Thorpe, R.J. Berry, and Andrew Huxley regarding the status of fetuses, and suggests that the way we act toward such beings, our attitudes toward "life," are relevant to our relationship with the natural world. He discusses the uniqueness of the fetus, the biology of conception, and the mysterious element in the formation and development of a living being. Because we do not fully understand the development of a fertilized egg, he contends, it is important to protect the process by which humans are formed and born against the ambitions of science and technology.

  16. Reassortant rotaviruses as potential live rotavirus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed Central

    Midthun, K; Greenberg, H B; Hoshino, Y; Kapikian, A Z; Wyatt, R G; Chanock, R M

    1985-01-01

    A series of reassortants was isolated from coinfection of cell cultures with a wild-type animal rotavirus and a "noncultivatable" human rotavirus. Wild-type bovine rotavirus (UK strain) was reassorted with human rotavirus strains D, DS-1, and P; wild-type rhesus rotavirus was reassorted with human rotavirus strains D and DS-1. The D, DS-1, and P strains represent human rotavirus serotypes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Monospecific antiserum (to bovine rotavirus, NCDV strain) or a set of monoclonal antibodies to the major outer capsid neutralization glycoprotein, VP7 (of the rhesus rotavirus), was used to select for reassortants with human rotavirus neutralization specificity. This selection technique yielded many reassortants which received only the gene segment coding for the major neutralization protein from the human rotavirus parent, whereas the remaining genes were derived from the animal rotavirus parent. Single human rotavirus gene substitution reassortants of this sort represent potential live vaccine strains. Images PMID:2983101

  17. Identifying the Potential for Robotics to Assist Older Adults in Different Living Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mitzner, Tracy L.; Chen, Tiffany L.; Kemp, Charles C.; Rogers, Wendy A.

    2014-01-01

    As the older adult population grows and becomes more diverse, so will their needs and preferences for living environments. Many adults over 65 years of age require some assistance [1, 2]; yet it is important for their feelings of well-being that the assistance not restrict their autonomy [3]. Not only is autonomy correlated with quality of life [4], autonomy enhancement may improve functionality [2, 5]. The goal of this paper is to provide guidance for the development of technology to enhance autonomy and quality of life for older adults. We explore the potential for robotics to meet these needs. We evaluated older adults' diverse living situations and the predictors of residential moves to higher levels of care in the United States. We also examined older adults' needs for assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), and medical conditions when living independently or in a long-term care residence. By providing support for older adults, mobile manipulator robots may reduce need-driven, undesired moves from residences with lower levels of care (i.e., private homes, assisted living) to those with higher levels of care (i.e., skilled nursing). PMID:24729800

  18. Music Is Key to Active, Happy Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Encapsulates a series of verbatim statements made by young musicians about the joy music has brought to their lives. The musicians, all students at Black Mountain Middle School in San Diego, California, exhibit a wide range of responses discussing their commitment, hard work, and sense of accomplishment. (MJP)

  19. Partnerships for progress in active living: from research to action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...

  20. Citizens' visions on active assisted living.

    PubMed

    Gudowsky, Niklas; Sotoudeh, Mahshid

    2015-01-01

    People aged 65 years and older are the fastest growing section of the population in many countries. Great hopes are projected on technology to support solutions for many of the challenges arising from this trend, thus making our lives more independent, more efficient and safer with a higher quality of life. But, as research and innovation ventures are often closely linked to the market, their focus may lead to biased planning in research and development as well as in policy-making with severe social and economic consequences. Thus the main research question concerned desirable settings of ageing in the future from different perspectives. The participatory foresight study CIVISTI-AAL cross-linked knowledge of lay persons, experts and stakeholders to include a wide variety of perspectives and values into productive long-term planning of research and development. Results include citizens' visions for autonomous living in 2050, implicitly and explicitly containing basic needs towards technological, social and organizational development as well as recommendations for implementation. Conclusions suggest that personalized health and living environments play an important part in the lay persons' view of aging in the future, but only if technologies support social and organizational innovations and yet do not neglect the importance of social affiliation and inclusion.

  1. Promoting active living in healthy cities of Europe.

    PubMed

    Faskunger, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Local governments in Europe have a vital role in promoting physical activity in the daily life of citizens. However, explicit investment in active living has been limited. One of the four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) was to encourage local governments and their partners to implement programs in favor of active living. This study analyzes the performance of network cities during this period. Responses to a general evaluation questionnaire are analyzed by content according to a checklist, and categorized into themes and dimensions. Most cities viewed "active living" as an important issue for urban planning; to improve visual appeal, enhance social cohesion, create a more sustainable transport system to promote walkability and cyclability and to reduce inequalities in public health. Almost all member cities reported on existing policies that support the promotion of active living. However, only eight (of the 59) responding cities mentioned an integrated framework specific for active living. Many efforts to promote active living are nested in programs to prevent obesity among adults or children. Future challenges include establishing integrated policies specifically for active living, introducing a larger range of actions, as well as increasing funding and capacity to make a difference at the population level.

  2. Neuropathologic correlates of activities of daily living in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Gad A; Fairbanks, Lynn A; Tekin, Sibel; Vinters, Harry V; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2006-01-01

    Functional status, reflected by measures of activities of daily living (ADLs), deteriorates as Alzheimer disease (AD) progresses. Decline in activities of daily living may be mediated by executive and frontal lobe dysfunction. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between activities of daily living and pathologic burden in Alzheimer disease. Twenty two subjects with definite Alzheimer disease were selected from the UCLA ADRC neuropathology database. A total activities of daily living score was derived from the Retrospective Collateral Dementia Interview-Revised (RCDI-R) questionnaire, which was administered to caregivers of autopsied subjects included in the study. Neuritic plaque (NP) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) counts were performed for 8 brain regions. There was a significant positive correlation between total activities of daily living score (higher scores indicate more disability) and mean neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts (r = 0.671, P = 0.001, and r = 0.542, P = 0.009, resp), as well as CA1 and prosubiculum neuritic plaques and neurofibrillary tangle counts, right and left orbital frontal neuritic plaques counts, and occipital neuritic plaques count. Total activities of daily living score did not correlate with age at death, age at symptom onset, dementia duration, gender, or education. Deteriorating activities of daily living in Alzheimer Disease subjects correlate with greater overall pathologic burden and possibly selectively with involvement of the medial temporal, occipital, and orbital frontal regions.

  3. Activities of Daily Living of Spanish-Speaking Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailinger, Rita L.

    This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…

  4. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  5. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  6. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Engel, Lauren R; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A; Lewis, James W

    2009-10-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places-categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and sub-cortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with "embodied" and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may underlie

  7. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Lauren R.; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A.; Lewis, James W.

    2009-01-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places—categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left-lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and subcortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with “embodied” and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may

  8. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older people…

  9. Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Luara de Sousa; Bastos, Katherine Xavier; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; de Athayde-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras; Diniz, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo; Sobral, Marianna Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. PMID:25147575

  10. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W.

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  11. Living on the edge: how philopatry maintains adaptive potential

    PubMed Central

    Stiebens, Victor A.; Merino, Sonia E.; Roder, Christian; Chain, Frédéric J. J.; Lee, Patricia L. M.; Eizaguirre, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Without genetic variation, species cannot cope with changing environments, and evolution does not proceed. In endangered species, adaptive potential may be eroded by decreased population sizes and processes that further reduce gene flow such as philopatry and local adaptations. Here, we focused on the philopatric and endangered loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nesting in Cape Verde as a model system to investigate the link between adaptive potential and philopatry. We produced a dataset of three complementary genomic regions to investigate female philopatric behaviour (mitochondrial DNA), male-mediated gene flow (microsatellites) and adaptive potential (major histocompatibility complex, MHC). Results revealed genetically distinct nesting colonies, indicating remarkably small-scale philopatric behaviour of females. Furthermore, these colonies also harboured local pools of MHC alleles, especially at the margins of the population's distribution, which are therefore important reserves of additional diversity for the population. Meanwhile, directional male-mediated gene flow from the margins of distribution sustains the adaptive potential for the entire rookery. We therefore present the first evidence for a positive association between philopatry and locally adapted genomic regions. Contrary to expectation, we propose that philopatry conserves a high adaptive potential at the margins of a distribution, while asymmetric gene flow maintains genetic connectivity with the rest of the population. PMID:23720544

  12. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  13. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  14. Enhancing the Lives of Nursing Home Patients through Reading Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovelace, Terry

    This study investigated the use of reading activities in the enhancement of the lives of nursing-home patients. A special reading group was led by a reading specialist in weekly sessions. Patients voluntarily attended the one-hour sessions and read short selections supplied by the reading specialist. Patients ranged in age from 54 to 91. The…

  15. Determinants of physical activity among Somali women living in Maine.

    PubMed

    Devlin, John T; Dhalac, Deqa; Suldan, Asha A; Jacobs, Ana; Guled, Khadija; Bankole, Kolawole A

    2012-04-01

    Somali women living in the US are at increased risk for chronic health conditions due to changes in lifestyle following immigration. Numerous barriers to physical activity have been reported in this population. Behavioral theory may inform the design of successful health interventions. We explored in focus groups the behavioral determinants of physical activity (theory of planned behavior, self-efficacy) among Somali women (N = 30). We found that most (two-thirds) subjects were sedentary, although women who had lived in the US for 10 years or longer were more likely to be active. Somali women recognize the health threat of physical inactivity, including high rates of obesity. Moral norms appear to be the major barrier to physical activity, due to prohibitions against exercising in public or in Western-style clothing. Taking moral norms into consideration should allow for the design of culturally-appropriate exercise programs that can address a major health threat in this vulnerable population.

  16. Exploring socioecological correlates of active living in retirement village residents.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Andrea; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-01-01

    This study explored individual, social, and built environmental attributes in and outside of the retirement village setting and associations with various active living outcomes including objectively measured physical activity, specific walking behaviors, and social participation. Residents in Perth, Australia (N = 323), were surveyed on environmental perceptions of the village and surrounding neighborhood, self-reported physical activity, and demographic characteristics and wore accelerometers. Managers (N = 32) were surveyed on village characteristics, and objective neighborhood measures were generated in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Results indicated that built- and social-environmental attributes within and outside of retirement villages were associated with active living among residents; however, salient attributes varied depending on the specific outcome considered. Findings suggest that locating villages close to destinations is important for walking and that locating them close to previous and familiar neighborhoods is important for social participation. Further understanding and consideration into retirement village designs that promote both walking and social participation are needed.

  17. Animals living in polluted environments are potential source of antimicrobials against infectious agents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Simon; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2012-08-01

    The antimicrobials crisis is a ticking time bomb which could lead to millions of people dying from untreatable infections. With the worsening trends of antimicrobial resistance, we are heading towards a pre-antibiotic era. Thus, there is a need for newer and more powerful antibiotic agents. The search for new antibiotic compounds originating from natural resources is a promising research area. Animals living in germ-infested environments are a potent source of antimicrobials. Under polluted milieus, organisms such as cockroaches encounter different types of bacteria, including superbugs. Such creatures survive the onslaught of superbugs and are able to ward off disease by producing antimicrobial substances which show potent activity in the nervous system. We hope that the discovery of antimicrobial activity in the cockroach brain will stimulate research in finding antimicrobials from unusual sources, and has potential for the development of novel antibiotics. Nevertheless, intensive research in the next few years will be required to approach or realize these expectations.

  18. Happier People Live More Active Lives: Using Smartphones to Link Happiness and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lathia, Neal; Sandstrom, Gillian M.; Mascolo, Cecilia; Rentfrow, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity, both exercise and non-exercise, has far-reaching benefits to physical health. Although exercise has also been linked to psychological health (e.g., happiness), little research has examined physical activity more broadly, taking into account non-exercise activity as well as exercise. We examined the relationship between physical activity (measured broadly) and happiness using a smartphone application. This app has collected self-reports of happiness and physical activity from over ten thousand participants, while passively gathering information about physical activity from the accelerometers on users' phones. The findings reveal that individuals who are more physically active are happier. Further, individuals are happier in the moments when they are more physically active. These results emerged when assessing activity subjectively, via self-report, or objectively, via participants' smartphone accelerometers. Overall, this research suggests that not only exercise but also non-exercise physical activity is related to happiness. This research further demonstrates how smartphones can be used to collect large-scale data to examine psychological, behavioral, and health-related phenomena as they naturally occur in everyday life. PMID:28052069

  19. Confocal imaging of glutathione redox potential in living plant cells.

    PubMed

    Schwarzländer, M; Fricker, M D; Müller, C; Marty, L; Brach, T; Novak, J; Sweetlove, L J; Hell, R; Meyer, A J

    2008-08-01

    Reduction-oxidation-sensitive green fluorescent protein (roGFP1 and roGFP2) were expressed in different sub-cellular compartments of Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves to empirically determine their performance as ratiometric redox sensors for confocal imaging in planta. A lower redox-dependent change in fluorescence in combination with reduced excitation efficiency at 488 nm resulted in a significantly lower dynamic range of roGFP1 than for roGFP2. Nevertheless, when targeted to the cytosol and mitochondria of Arabidopsis leaves both roGFPs consistently indicated redox potentials of about -320 mV in the cytosol and -360 mV in the mitochondria after pH correction for the more alkaline matrix pH. Ratio measurements were consistent throughout the epidermal cell layer, but results might be attenuated deeper within the leaf tissue. Specific interaction of both roGFPs with glutaredoxin in vitro strongly suggests that in situ both variants preferentially act as sensors for the glutathione redox potential. roGFP2 targeted to plastids and peroxisomes in epidermal cells of tobacco leaves was slightly less reduced than in other plasmatic compartments, but still indicated a highly reduced glutathione pool. The only oxidizing compartment was the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, in which roGFP2 was almost completely oxidized. In all compartments tested, roGFP2 reversibly responded to perfusion with H(2)O(2) and DTT, further emphasizing that roGFP2 is a reliable probe for dynamic redox imaging in planta. Reliability of roGFP1 measurements might be obscured though in extended time courses as it was observed that intense irradiation of roGFP1 at 405 nm can lead to progressive photoisomerization and thus a redox-independent change of fluorescence excitation ratios.

  20. Some potentialities of living organisms under simulated Martian conditions.

    PubMed

    Lozina-Lozinsky, L K; Bychenkova, V N; Zaar, E I; Levin, V L; Rumyantseva, V M

    1971-01-01

    Temperature, humidity, pressure, composition of the atmosphere and radiation are the main factors conditioning life on the surface of Mars. When studying the Martian ecology, one must know the total effect of these factors. One may expect that, as a result of adaptation to low temperatures, there is a corresponding shift in the temperature optimum of enzymatic activity. Dryness is the main obstacle to active life. We suggest the presence of some soil moisture and water vapour. Moreover, there can be areas of permafrost. This minimum supply of water and periodic fluctuations of humidity may create conditions for the existence of drought-resistant organisms. Decreased atmospheric pressure alone does not affect micro-organisms, plants, protozoa and even insects. Ciliates reproduce in a flowing atmosphere of pure nitrogen containing 0.0002-0.0005% oxygen as an impurity. Protozoa may also develop in an atmosphere of 98-99% carbon dioxide mixed with 1% O2. Therefore, even traces of oxygen in the Martian atmosphere would be sufficient for aerobic unicellular organisms. Cells and organisms on earth have acquired various ways of protection from uv light, and therefore may increase their resistance further by adaptation or selection. The resistance of some organisms to ionizing radiation is high enough to enable them to endure hard ionizing radiation of the sun. Experiments with unicellular [correction of unicellar] organisms show that the effect of short wave uv radiation depends on the intensity of visible light, long-wave solar uv radiation, temperatures, cell repair processes, and the state of cell components, i.e. whether the cell was frozen, dried or hydrated.

  1. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  2. Muscle metabolic function and free-living physical activity.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Sirikul, Bovorn; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2006-11-01

    We have previously shown that muscle metabolic function measured during exercise is related to exercise performance and subsequent 1-yr weight gain. Because it is well established that physical activity is important in weight maintenance, we examined muscle function relationships with free-living energy expenditure and physical activity. Subjects were 71 premenopausal black and white women. Muscle metabolism was evaluated by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy during 90-s isometric plantar flexion contractions (45% maximum). Free-living energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water, activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) was calculated as 0.9 x TEE - sleeping energy expenditure from room calorimetry, and free-living physical activity (ARTE) was calculated by dividing AEE by energy cost of standard physical activities. At the end of exercise, anaerobic glycolytic rate (ANGLY) and muscle concentration of phosphomonoesters (PME) were negatively related to TEE, AEE, and ARTE (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that both PME (partial r = -0.29, <0.02) and ANGLY (partial r = -0.24, P < 0.04) were independently related to ARTE. PME, primarily glucose-6-phosphate and fructose-6-phosphate, was significantly related to ratings of perceived exertion (r = 0.21, P < or = 0.05) during a maximal treadmill test. PME was not related to ARTE after inclusion of RPE in the multiple regression model, suggesting that PME may be obtaining its relationship with ARTE through an increased perception of effort during physical activity. In conclusion, physically inactive individuals tend to be more dependent on anaerobic glycolysis during exercise while relying on a glycolytic pathway that may not be functioning optimally.

  3. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  4. Positive Technology for Healthy Living and Active Ageing.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Gaggioli, Andrea; Villani, Daniela; Cipresso, Pietro; Repetto, Claudia; Serino, Silvia; Triberti, Stefano; Brivio, Eleonora; Galimberti, Carlo; Graffigna, Guendalina

    2014-01-01

    Information and communication technologies are widely and rapidly spreading in people's daily lives. But what is the possible role of the mass proliferation of digital devices in supporting healthy living and active ageing? Are they useful in fostering personal growth and individual integration of the elderly, by promoting satisfaction, opportunities for action, and self-expression? Rather, do they enhance automation, impose constraints on personal initiative, and result in compulsive consumption of information? In this chapter, we suggest that possible answers to these questions will be offered by the "Positive Technology" approach, i.e., the scientific and applied approach to using technology so that it improves the quality of our personal experiences through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement. First, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to manipulate the quality of experience with the goal of increasing wellness and generating strengths and resilience in individuals, organizations, and society. Then, we classify positive technologies according to their effects on these three features of personal experience - Hedonic: technologies used to induce positive and pleasant experiences; Eudaimonic: technologies used to support individuals in reaching engaging and self-actualizing experiences; Social/Interpersonal: technologies used to support and improve the connectedness between individuals, groups, and organizations. Finally, we discuss the possible role of positive technologies for healthy living and active ageing by presenting different practical applications of this approach.

  5. A fluorescent reporter of caspase activity for live imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Kolahgar, Golnar; Mynett, Anita; Miguel-Aliaga, Irene; Briscoe, James; Meier, Pascal; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the mechanisms that control the apoptosis cascade during development and adult life. To investigate the regulatory events that trigger apoptosis in whole tissues, we have devised a genetically encoded caspase sensor that can be detected in live and fixed tissue by standard confocal microscopy. The sensor comprises two fluorophores, mRFP, monomeric red fluorescent protein (mRFP) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), that are linked by an efficient and specific caspase-sensitive site. Upon caspase activation, the sensor is cleaved and eGFP translocates to the nucleus, leaving mRFP at membranes. This is detected before other markers of apoptosis, including anti–cleaved caspase 3 immunoreactivity. Moreover, the sensor does not perturb normal developmental apoptosis and is specific, as cleavage does not occur in Drosophila embryos that are unable to activate the apoptotic cascade. Importantly, dying cells can be recognized in live embryos, thus opening the way for in vivo imaging. As expected from the high conservation of caspases, it is also cleaved in dying cells of chick embryos. It is therefore likely to be generally useful to track the spatiotemporal pattern of caspase activity in a variety of species. PMID:18779587

  6. Living Clusters and Crystals from Low-Density Suspensions of Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mognetti, B. M.; Šarić, A.; Angioletti-Uberti, S.; Cacciuto, A.; Valeriani, C.; Frenkel, D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies aimed at investigating artificial analogs of bacterial colonies have shown that low-density suspensions of self-propelled particles confined in two dimensions can assemble into finite aggregates that merge and split, but have a typical size that remains constant (living clusters). In this Letter, we address the problem of the formation of living clusters and crystals of active particles in three dimensions. We study two systems: self-propelled particles interacting via a generic attractive potential and colloids that can move toward each other as a result of active agents (e.g., by molecular motors). In both cases, fluidlike “living” clusters form. We explain this general feature in terms of the balance between active forces and regression to thermodynamic equilibrium. This balance can be quantified in terms of a dimensionless number that allows us to collapse the observed clustering behavior onto a universal curve. We also discuss how active motion affects the kinetics of crystal formation.

  7. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  8. Nuclear pore ion channel activity in live syncytial nuclei.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Jose Omar

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are important nanochannels for the control of gene activity and expression. Most of our knowledge of NPC function has been derived from isolated nuclei and permeabilized cells in cell lysates/extracts. Since recent patch-clamp work has challenged the dogma that NPCs are freely permeable to small particles, a preparation of isolated living nuclei in their native liquid environment was sought and found: the syncytial nuclei in the water of the coconut Cocos nucifera. These nuclei have all properties of NPC-mediated macromolecular transport (MMT) and express foreign green fluorescent protein (GFP) plasmids. They display chromatin movement, are created by particle aggregation or by division, can grow by throwing filaments to catch material, etc. This study shows, for the first time, that living NPCs engaged in MMT do not transport physiological ions - a phenomenon that explains observations of nucleocytoplasmic ion gradients. Since coconuts are inexpensive (less than US$1/nut per litre), this robust preparation may contribute to our understanding of NPCs and cell nucleus and to the development of biotechnologies for the production of DNA, RNA and proteins.

  9. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  10. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  11. Development of live attenuated Streptococcus agalactiae as potential vaccines by selecting for resistance to sparfloxacin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To develop attenuated bacteria as potential live vaccines, sparfloxacin was used in this study to modify 40 isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae. Majority of S. agalactiae used in this study were able to develop at least 80-fold resistance to sparfloxacin. When the virulence of the sparfloxacin-resi...

  12. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  13. Alpha Decay Potential Barriers and Half-Lives and Analytical Formula Predictions for Superheavy Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royer, Guy; Zhang, Hongfei

    The α decay potential barriers are determined in the cluster-like shape path within a generalized liquid drop model including the proximity effects between the α particle and the daughter nucleus and adjusted to reproduce the experimental Qα. The α emission half-lives are determined within the WKB penetration probability. Calculations using previously proposed formulae depending only on the mass and charge of the alpha emitter and Qα are also compared with new experimental alpha-decay half-lives. The agreement allows to provide predictions for the α decay half-lives of other still unknown superheavy nuclei using the Qα determined from the 2003 atomic mass evaluation of Audi, Wapstra and Thibault.

  14. How to Identify Success Among Networks That Promote Active Living

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Jill; Varda, Danielle; Reed, Hannah; Retrum, Jessica; Tabak, Rachel; Gustat, Jeanette; Tompkins, Nancy O’Hara

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We evaluated organization- and network-level factors that influence organizations’ perceived success. This is important for managing interorganizational networks, which can mobilize communities to address complex health issues such as physical activity, and for achieving change. Methods In 2011, we used structured interview and network survey data from 22 states in the United States to estimate multilevel random-intercept models to understand organization- and network-level factors that explain perceived network success. Results A total of 53 of 59 “whole networks” met the criteria for inclusion in the analysis (89.8%). Coordinators identified 559 organizations, with 3 to 12 organizations from each network taking the online survey (response rate: 69.7%; range: 33%–100%). Occupying a leadership position (P < .01), the amount of time with the network (P < .05), and support from community leaders (P < .05) emerged as correlates of perceived success. Conclusions Organizations’ perceptions of success can influence decisions about continuing involvement and investment in networks designed to promote environment and policy change for active living. Understanding these factors can help leaders manage complex networks that involve diverse memberships, varied interests, and competing community-level priorities. PMID:26378863

  15. Measurement of individual intracellular pH and membrane potential values in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Jan; Lanz, Edvard; Cimprich, Petr

    1999-07-01

    It was assumed that each cell is a homogeneous suspension may have a slightly different pH and membrane potential. A wide range of pH-sensitive fluorescent dyes BCECF, SNARF, FITC, carboxyfluorescein, fluorescein and pyranine have been carefully tested for the accuracy and reliability of their pH-response inside living cells. The intracellular milieu was simulated by a series of mineral buffers with addition of proteins. The pH values have been determined from the excitation ratios 490/435 nm for BCECF, FITC, carboxyfluorescein and fluorescein, and 450/400 nm for pyranine, emission ratios 518/529 nm for BCECF and 635/590 nm for SNARF. The spectrally determined values were then compared with the pH values of buffers measured by a glass electrode. Using the data from the calibration procedure, we evaluated individual intracellular pH values of a large number of cells within one cell population. The confocal ratio fluorescence microscopy revealed pH maps from which both cytoplasmic and vacuolar pH values could be determine, flow cytometry gave enormous amount of average intracellular pH values of individual cells of a whole cell population. Each cell population exhibited significant differences in both cytoplasmic pH values among individual cells. The pH distribution of a typical cell population appeared to fit a Gaussian curve. In yeast it was a Gaussian curve with half- width values around 0.4 pH unit. The men pH values depended on the growth phase, H-ATPase activity and external pH values. The preliminary result with the new membrane potential dye tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester indicated that similarly to pH values, there is a heterogeneity in membrane potential values among cell sin one cell population. The data presented above suggest that each ell behaves as an individual with an individual set up of its metabolism. This 'fine tuning' of the metabolism result in slightly higher or lower pH or membrane potential values that can be detected by fluorescence

  16. Health smart home for elders - a tool for automatic recognition of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Le, Xuan Hoa Binh; Di Mascolo, Maria; Gouin, Alexia; Noury, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Elders live preferently in their own home, but with aging comes the loss of autonomy and associated risks. In order to help them live longer in safe conditions, we need a tool to automatically detect their loss of autonomy by assessing the degree of performance of activities of daily living. This article presents an approach enabling the activities recognition of an elder living alone in a home equipped with noninvasive sensors.

  17. Chemical Potentials and Activities: An Electrochemical Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, T. L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which explores the effects of adding inert salts to electrolytic cells and demonstrates the difference between concentration and chemical activity. Examines chemical potentials as the driving force of reactions. Provides five examples of cell potential and concentration change. (JM)

  18. Social Media Use Among Living Kidney Donors and Recipients: Survey on Current Practice and Potential

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In the United States, there is a national shortage of organs donated for transplant. Among the solid organs, most often kidneys are donated by living donors, but the lack of information and complicated processes limit the number of individuals who serve as living kidney donors. Social media can be a tool for advocacy, educating the public about the need, process, and outcomes of live kidney donors, yet little is known about social media use by kidney transplant patients. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the social media use of potential kidney transplant patients and their willingness to use social media and their networks to advocate and educate about living kidney donation. Methods Using a validated survey, we modified the instrument to apply to the patient population of interest attending the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. The questions on the survey inquired about current social media use, sites visited, frequency and duration of social media use, and willingness to use social media to share the need for living kidney donors. We asked patients who had received a transplant and those awaiting a transplant to complete the survey during an office visit. Participation was voluntary. Results A total of 199 patients completed the survey. Approximately half of all kidney transplant patients surveyed used social media (104/199, 52.3%), and approximately one-third (66/199, 33.2%) had more than 100 friends in their social media network. Facebook was the most popular site, and 51% (102/199) reported that they would be willing to post information about living kidney donation on their social networks. More than a quarter of the sample (75/199, 37.7%) had posted about their health status in the past. Conclusions Social media holds great promise for health-related education and awareness. Our study shows the current social media use of kidney transplant patients. In turn, such information can be used to design

  19. Imaging of influenza virus sialidase activity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Kurebayashi, Yuuki; Takahashi, Tadanobu; Otsubo, Tadamune; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Shunsaku; Takano, Maiko; Agarikuchi, Takashi; Sato, Tsubasa; Matsuda, Yukino; Minami, Akira; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Toshihiro; Kawamori, Fumihiko; Thomson, Robin; von Itzstein, Mark; Suzuki, Takashi

    2014-05-02

    Influenza virus is rich in variation and mutations. It would be very convenient for virus detection and isolation to histochemically detect viral infection regardless of variation and mutations. Here, we established a histochemical imaging assay for influenza virus sialidase activity in living cells by using a new fluorescent sialidase substrate, 2-(benzothiazol-2-yl)-4-bromophenyl 5-acetamido-3,5-dideoxy-α-D-glycero-D-galacto-2-nonulopyranosidonic acid (BTP3-Neu5Ac). The BTP3-Neu5Ac assay histochemically visualized influenza virus-infected cells regardless of viral hosts and subtypes. Influenza virus neuraminidase-expressed cells, viral focus formation, and virus-infected locations in mice lung tissues were easily, rapidly, and sensitively detected by the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay. Histochemical visualization with the BTP3-Neu5Ac assay is extremely useful for detection of influenza viruses without the need for fixation or a specific antibody. This novel assay should greatly improve the efficiency of detection, titration, and isolation of influenza viruses and might contribute to research on viral sialidase.

  20. Load along the femur shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2013-08-09

    A comprehensive knowledge of the loads applied during activities of daily living to the femur shaft is necessary to the design of direct attachments of relevant prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate the three components of the forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the full femur shaft. Twenty healthy young volunteers were analyzed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stairs ascending and descending, squat, rising from a chair and sitting down. Average load patterns, after normalisation for body weight and height, were calculated over subjects for each point, about the three anatomical axes, and for each motor task. These patterns were found consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes and tasks. In general, the moments were observed limitedly influenced by the progression speed, and higher for more proximal points. The moments were also higher in abd/adduction (8.1% body weight*height on average), nearly three times larger than those in flex/extension (2.6) during stair descending. The largest value over all moments was 164.8 N m, abd/adduction in level walking at high speed. The present results should be of value also for a most suitable level for amputation in transfemoral amputation, for in-vitro mechanical tests and for finite element models of the femur.

  1. Detection of amount and activity of living algae in fresh water by dehydrogenase activity (DHA).

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Dun, Mina; Qi, Feng

    2008-11-01

    A study was performed to determine the amount and activity of living algae in fresh water by measuring the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of algae in order to provide a method to assess the effect of algicide treatment. The conditions of measurement were researched with respect to incubating temperature and duration, and selection of extractants. The comparison between this method and an alternative method, chlorophyll a, shows that this method is simple and easy to practice, and can determine the effect of algicide treatment.

  2. Platelet Activation: The Mechanisms and Potential Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Seong-Hoon; Sim, Eun-Hye; Goh, Ri-Young; Park, Joo-In

    2016-01-01

    Beyond hemostasis and thrombosis, an increasing number of studies indicate that platelets play an integral role in intercellular communication, mediating inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities. Our knowledge about how platelets modulate inflammatory and immunity has greatly improved in recent years. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the pathways of platelet activation and potential application of platelet activation biomarkers to diagnosis and prediction of disease states. PMID:27403440

  3. Stochastic simulation of live salmonid movement in England and Wales to predict potential spread of exotic pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thrush, Mark; Peeler, Edmund

    2006-10-17

    The anthropogenic movement of live fish has been identified as the most important route for the transmission of disease between river catchments. To assist in contingency planning for exotic salmonid disease outbreaks, a stochastic model was developed to assess the potential geographic distribution of an introduced pathogen with time to first detection. The Live Fish Movement Database (a resource funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs [Defra] and managed by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science [CEFAS] and the Environment Agency [EA]) was used to establish details of live fish movement in England and Wales. A contact network was created for farm to farm and farm to non-farm (fishery) movements of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, brown trout Salmo trutta and Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, and probability functions were used to model the timing and destination of movements from farm sites, based on these trading activities. Monte Carlo simulations were run to track the progression of potential disease transmission from single index farm inputs through river catchments with time. Two hundred farms exported fish to 1653 destinations in 147 of the total 198 river catchments. The median number of catchments contacted after 3 and 12 mo were 3 and 6, respectively. In 5% of simulations 63 or more catchments were contacted, and in 1% of simulations 75 or more catchments were contacted after 12 mo. These results may be used to underpin the development of contingency plans for exotic disease outbreaks.

  4. Load along the tibial shaft during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    D'Angeli, V; Belvedere, C; Ortolani, M; Giannini, S; Leardini, A

    2014-03-21

    External load at the tibia during activities of daily living provides baseline measures for the improvement of the design of the bone-implant interface for relevant internal and external prostheses. A motion analysis system was used together with an established protocol with skin markers to estimate three-dimensional forces and moments acting on ten equidistant points along the tibial shaft. Twenty young and able-bodied volunteers were analysed while performing three repetitions of the following tasks: level walking at three different speeds, in a straight-line and with sudden changes of direction to the right and to the left, stair ascending and descending, squatting, rising from a chair and sitting down. Moment and force patterns were normalised to the percentage of body weight per height and body weight, respectively, and then averaged over all subjects for each point, about the three tibial anatomical axes, and for each task. Load patterns were found to be consistent over subjects, but different among the anatomical axes, tasks and points. Generally, moments were higher in the medio/lateral axis and influenced by walking speed. In all five walking tasks and in ascending stairs with alternating feet, the more proximal the point was the smaller the mean moment was. For the remaining tasks the opposite trend was observed. The overall largest value was observed in the medio/lateral direction at the ankle centre in level walking at high speed (9.1% body weight * height on average), nearly three times larger than that of the anterior/posterior axis (2.9) during level walking with a sidestep turn. The present results should be of value also for in-vitro mechanical tests and finite element models.

  5. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls.

  6. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C.; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: “Movement,” “Movement with cognition,” and “Cognition.” Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10 years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of “Movement” and “Movement with cognition.” Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10 years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5 years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10 years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  7. Harnessing Technology and Citizen Science to Support Neighborhoods that Promote Active Living in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Lisa G; Salvo, Deborah; Winter, Sandra J; Cortes, David; Rivera, Juan; Rodriguez, Nicole M; King, Abby C

    2016-12-01

    citizen scientist approach using the Discovery Tool has high potential for assisting communities in diverse settings to begin to identify both local barriers to active living as well as potentially useful strategies for promoting physical activity in culturally congruent ways that are appropriate and feasible in the local context.

  8. Jahn-Teller effect for short-lived states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2004-07-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for short-lived electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.

  9. Potential fluid mechanic pathways of platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Shadden, Shawn C; Hendabadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here, we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation potential that is derived from a Lagrangian integral of strain rate magnitude. We demonstrate that such a measure is generally maximized along, and near to, distinguished material surfaces in the flow. The connections between activation potential and these structures are illustrated through stenotic flow computations. We uncover two distinct structures that may explain observed thrombus formation at the apex and downstream of stenoses. More broadly, these findings suggest fundamental relationships may exist between potential fluid mechanic pathways for mechanical platelet activation and the mechanisms governing their transport.

  10. Activation induced morphological changes and integrin αIIbβ3 activity of living platelets.

    PubMed

    Posch, Sandra; Neundlinger, Isabel; Leitner, Michael; Siostrzonek, Peter; Panzer, Simon; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Platelets are essential in hemostasis. Upon activation they undergo a shape-change accompanied with receptor presentation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging and single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) were used as powerful tools for exploring morphological changes as well as receptor activities of platelets. Imaging time series was accomplished with and without fixation steps at the single platelet level. Hereby the response of mechanical stimulation of the platelet by the AFM cantilever tip was directly observed. We demonstrate that living and fixed platelets develop filopodia after a short activation time followed by their disappearance including cellular bleb formation. Thereafter a second filopodia formation (filopodia extrusion) was observed; those filopodia subsequently disappeared again, and finally platelets detached from the support due to cell death. We determined the influence of mechanical stress on the chronology of morphological changes of platelets and demonstrated shear force induced filopodia formation. Through recordings over several hours, topographical AFM images over the full platelet lifetime - from early activation up to apoptosis - are presented. SMFS measurements on living platelets allowed determining the activation state of the most prominent membrane receptor integrin αIIbβ3 at all different phases of activation. αIIbβ3 was fully activated, independent of the morphological state.

  11. Direct measurement of catalase activity in living cells and tissue biopsies.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V Krishnan

    2016-01-29

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies - can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1 μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings.

  12. Direct Measurement of Catalase Activity in Living Cells and Tissue Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Scaglione, Christine N; Xu, Qijin; Ramanujan, V. Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    Spatiotemporal regulation of enzyme-substrate interactions governs the decision-making steps in biological systems. Enzymes, being functional units of every living cell, contribute to the macromolecular stability of cell survival, proliferation and hence are vital windows to unraveling the biological complexity. Experimental measurements capturing this dynamics of enzyme-substrate interactions in real time add value to this understanding. Furthermore these measurements, upon validation in realistic biological specimens such as clinical biopsies – can further improve our capability in disease diagnostics and treatment monitoring. Towards this direction, we describe here a novel, high-sensitive measurement system for measuring diffusion-limited enzyme-substrate kinetics in real time. Using catalase (enzyme) and hydrogen peroxide (substrate) as the example pair, we demonstrate that this system is capable of direct measurement of catalase activity in vitro and the measured kinetics follows the classical Michaelis-Menten reaction kinetics. We further demonstrate the system performance by measuring catalase activity in living cells and in very small amounts of liver biopsies (down to 1μg total protein). Catalase-specific enzyme activity is demonstrated by genetic and pharamacological tools. Finally we show the clinically-relevant diagnostic capability of our system by comparing the catalase activities in liver biopsies from young and old mouse (liver and serum) samples. We discuss the potential applicability of this system in clinical diagnostics as well as in intraoperative surgical settings. PMID:26772884

  13. Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

  14. Preventing suicide and homicide in the United States: the potential benefit in human lives.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Fotios C; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Kyllekidis, Spyros; Ekselius, Lisa; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2009-09-30

    In order to assess the potential benefit in human lives if all geographical regions in the US (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West) achieved the lowest suicide and homicide rates observed within these regions, age-, race- and gender-adjusted suicide and homicide rates for each of the four regions were calculated based on data retrieved using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention database for 1999-2004. Data on known risk factors were retrieved from online sources. Overall suicide rates (10.42 per 100,000) exceeded homicide rates (6.97 per 100,000). Almost 27% (12,942 lives per year) of the 288,222 suicide and homicide deaths during the study period might have been avoided if all US regions achieved the mortality rate reported by the Northeast. A firearm was used in 55% of all suicides and 66% of all homicides. In the total estimate of avoidable deaths, firearm suicides (90%) and firearm homicides (75%) were overrepresented. The Northeast had the lowest access to firearms (20%) contrasted to almost double in the other regions, whereas greater firearms availability was related to unrestricted firearm legislation. Measures to restrict firearms availability should be highly prioritized in the public health agenda in order to achieve an impressive benefit in human lives.

  15. Potential biological activity of acacia honey.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Aliyu; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Sallau, Abdullahi B; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Aimola, Idown A; Malami, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in functional foods-based research have increasingly become an area of major interest because it affects human health and activities. Functional foods are classes of foods with health promoting and disease preventing properties in addition to multiple nutritional values and of such type is honey. Acacia honey is a type of honey produced by bees (Apis mellifera) fed on Acacia flowers, hence the name. This review focuses on the potential biological activities of Acacia honey which includes quality, antioxidant, immuno-modulatory, antiproliferative and neurological properties at in vitro and in vivo levels. Based on our review, Acacia honey used from various researches is of high purity, contains some bioactive compounds ranging from vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids and fatty acids. It's highly nutritional with strong antioxidant and immuno-modulatory potentials which may therefore be considered a potential candidate for both cancer prevention and treatment. Neurologically, it may be considered as a viable therapeutic agent in the management of Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Relationship between potential platelet activation and LCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadden, Shawn

    2010-11-01

    In the study of blood flow, emphasis is often directed at understanding shear stress at the vessel wall due to its potentially disruptive influence on the endothelium. However, it is also known that shear stress has a potent effect on platelet activation. Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which in turn is the cause of most forms of death. Since most platelets are contained in the flow domain, it is important to consider stresses acting on the platelet as they are convected. Locations of high stress can correspond to boundaries between different dynamic regions and locations of hyperbolic points in the Eulerian sense. In the computation of LCS, strain in typically considered in the Lagrangian sense. In this talk we discuss the relationship between locations of potential platelet activation due to increased stress and locations of LCS marking increase Lagrangian deformation.

  17. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  18. Multidetector row computed tomography evaluation of potential living laparoscopic renal donors: the story so far.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, Saravanan; Kalra, Mannudeep K; Small, William C; Torres, William E; Mittal, Pardeep K

    2006-01-01

    Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. Living related kidney donation is the major source of renal grafts due to limited availability of cadaveric kidneys. Open nephrectomy was used to harvest donor kidneys. However, the laparoscopic approach is associated with less postoperative pain and quick recovery. So, most centers now prefer a laparoscopic approach to explant donor kidneys. Laparoscopic approach is technically challenging due to limited operative visibility. Hence, accurate preoperative detection of renal arterial and venous anomalies is imperative to avoid inadvertent vascular injury and bleeding. The preoperative workup of renal donors includes clinical evaluation, laboratory tests, and imaging. Traditionally, the renal donors were evaluated with conventional imaging techniques, which included renal catheter angiography and intravenous urography. However, conventional imaging is invasive, expensive, and less accurate for evaluation of complex renal venous anomalies, small calculi, and diffuse or focal renal parenchymal lesions. The introduction of multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) revolutionized the CT technology by enabling isotropic resolution with faster scan coverage in a single, short breath-hold. Consequently, MDCT has now replaced conventional imaging for comprehensive imaging of potential living renal donors. MDCT is a minimally invasive technique that can accurately detect urolithiasis, renal arterial and venous anomalies, renal parenchymal lesions, and urinary tract anomalies. Renal vascular anomalies detected by MDCT can help the surgeon in planning donor nephrectomy. MDCT with three-dimensional CT angiography enables accurate preoperative renal vascular mapping. This article reviews the role of MDCT in preoperative evaluation of potential laparoscopic renal donors.

  19. Attitudes, psychology, and risk taking of potential live kidney donors: strangers, relatives, and the general public.

    PubMed

    Boulware, L Ebony; Ratner, Lloyd E; Troll, Misty U; Chaudron, Alexis; Yeung, Edwina; Chen, Shirley; Klein, Andrew S; Hiller, Janet; Powe, Neil R

    2005-07-01

    It is unclear whether potential living kidney donors and the general public differ in attitudes and psychological characteristics. We performed a case-control study to explore differences in these groups using a standardized questionnaire (analyzed using conditional logistic regression). Strangers (N = 42) were more willing than controls (N = 126) to incur risks: 64% strangers versus 35% controls accepting >50% medical complications (MC) risk; 90% strangers versus 61% controls accepting >8 days hospitalization; 71% strangers versus 43% controls accepting >3 months unpaid; 55% strangers versus 16% controls accepting 100% kidney failure (KF) risk; 70% strangers versus 34% controls accepting < or =10% likelihood of successful transplant (all p < 0.01). Relatives (N = 251) were also more willing than controls (N = 251) to incur risks. Strangers were most willing to incur MC, KF and transplant failure. Groups did not differ in attitudes, depression or anxiety. Potential stranger and related donors are willing to undergo greater risks with donation than the general public, but do not differ in other attitudes, depression or anxiety. This should help reassure transplant centers and the public that both forms of live donation do not necessarily involve increased ethical risks of donor coercion or irrational thought processes. Still, careful attention to communication of all risks of donation is warranted.

  20. Lactic acid bacteria--20 years exploring their potential as live vectors for mucosal vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wyszyńska, Agnieszka; Kobierecka, Patrycja; Bardowski, Jacek; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a diverse group of Gram-positive, nonsporulating, low G + C content bacteria. Many of them have been given generally regarded as safe status. Over the past two decades, intensive genetic and molecular research carried out on LAB, mainly Lactococcus lactis and some species of the Lactobacillus genus, has revealed new, potential biomedical LAB applications, including the use of LAB as adjuvants, immunostimulators, or therapeutic drug delivery systems, or as factories to produce therapeutic molecules. LAB enable immunization via the mucosal route, which increases effectiveness against pathogens that use the mucosa as the major route of entry into the human body. In this review, we concentrate on the encouraging application of Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera for the development of live mucosal vaccines. First, we present the progress that has recently been made in the field of developing tools for LAB genetic manipulations, which has resulted in the successful expression of many bacterial, parasitic, and viral antigens in LAB strains. Next, we discuss the factors influencing the efficacy of the constructed vaccine prototypes that have been tested in various animal models. Apart from the research focused on an application of live LABs as carriers of foreign antigens, a lot of work has been recently done on the potential usage of nonliving, nonrecombinant L. lactis designated as Gram-positive enhancer matrix (GEM), as a delivery system for mucosal vaccination. The advantages and disadvantages of both strategies are also presented.

  1. Activities of daily living in children with developmental coordination disorder: dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills.

    PubMed

    Summers, Janet; Larkin, Dawne; Dewey, Deborah

    2008-04-01

    In order to understand how age, culture, and problems in motor coordination impact the performance of activities of daily living, we used focus groups and in-depth interviews with Australian and Canadian parents to examine activities of daily living of younger (5-7 years of age) and older (8-9 years of age) children with and without DCD. By comparison with their typically developing age group, children with DCD had more difficulty with dressing, personal hygiene, and eating skills. Difficulties with postural control and fine-motor skills were reported to contribute to poorer performance of activities of daily living. As expected, competence in the performance of activities of daily living improved in the older children with and without DCD and there were few differences in the performance of daily living tasks between typical children in Australia and Canada. Overall, the motor difficulties of children with DCD had a significant impact on performance of a wide range of daily activities.

  2. Regulation of RNA polymerase II activation by histone acetylation in single living cells.

    PubMed

    Stasevich, Timothy J; Hayashi-Takanaka, Yoko; Sato, Yuko; Maehara, Kazumitsu; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Tokunaga, Makio; Nagase, Takahiro; Nozaki, Naohito; McNally, James G; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2014-12-11

    In eukaryotic cells, post-translational histone modifications have an important role in gene regulation. Starting with early work on histone acetylation, a variety of residue-specific modifications have now been linked to RNA polymerase II (RNAP2) activity, but it remains unclear if these markers are active regulators of transcription or just passive byproducts. This is because studies have traditionally relied on fixed cell populations, meaning temporal resolution is limited to minutes at best, and correlated factors may not actually be present in the same cell at the same time. Complementary approaches are therefore needed to probe the dynamic interplay of histone modifications and RNAP2 with higher temporal resolution in single living cells. Here we address this problem by developing a system to track residue-specific histone modifications and RNAP2 phosphorylation in living cells by fluorescence microscopy. This increases temporal resolution to the tens-of-seconds range. Our single-cell analysis reveals histone H3 lysine-27 acetylation at a gene locus can alter downstream transcription kinetics by as much as 50%, affecting two temporally separate events. First acetylation enhances the search kinetics of transcriptional activators, and later the acetylation accelerates the transition of RNAP2 from initiation to elongation. Signatures of the latter can be found genome-wide using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing. We argue that this regulation leads to a robust and potentially tunable transcriptional response.

  3. Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells.

    PubMed

    Moebius, Nadine; Üzüm, Zerrin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-09-02

    The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus and its endosymbiont Burkholderia rhizoxinica form an unusual, highly specific alliance to produce the highly potent antimitotic phytotoxin rhizoxin. Yet, it has remained a riddle how bacteria invade the fungal cells. Genome mining for potential symbiosis factors and functional analyses revealed that a type 2 secretion system (T2SS) of the bacterial endosymbiont is required for the formation of the endosymbiosis. Comparative proteome analyses show that the T2SS releases chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase, chitosanase) and chitin-binding proteins. The genes responsible for chitinolytic proteins and T2SS components are highly expressed during infection. Through targeted gene knock-outs, sporulation assays and microscopic investigations we found that chitinase is essential for bacteria to enter hyphae. Unprecedented snapshots of the traceless bacterial intrusion were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Beyond unveiling the pivotal role of chitinolytic enzymes in the active invasion of a fungus by bacteria, these findings grant unprecedented insight into the fungal cell wall penetration and symbiosis formation.

  4. Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Moebius, Nadine; Üzüm, Zerrin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus and its endosymbiont Burkholderia rhizoxinica form an unusual, highly specific alliance to produce the highly potent antimitotic phytotoxin rhizoxin. Yet, it has remained a riddle how bacteria invade the fungal cells. Genome mining for potential symbiosis factors and functional analyses revealed that a type 2 secretion system (T2SS) of the bacterial endosymbiont is required for the formation of the endosymbiosis. Comparative proteome analyses show that the T2SS releases chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase, chitosanase) and chitin-binding proteins. The genes responsible for chitinolytic proteins and T2SS components are highly expressed during infection. Through targeted gene knock-outs, sporulation assays and microscopic investigations we found that chitinase is essential for bacteria to enter hyphae. Unprecedented snapshots of the traceless bacterial intrusion were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Beyond unveiling the pivotal role of chitinolytic enzymes in the active invasion of a fungus by bacteria, these findings grant unprecedented insight into the fungal cell wall penetration and symbiosis formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03007.001 PMID:25182414

  5. Active commuting to school in Finland, the potential for physical activity increase in different seasons

    PubMed Central

    Kallio, Jouni; Turpeinen, Salla; Hakonen, Harto; Tammelin, Tuija

    2016-01-01

    Background Active commuting to school (ACS) can be a significant source of physical activity and provide many health benefits. Objective This study identified the potential to increase physical activity levels by promoting ACS in Finnish schools and evaluated the effects of season, distance and age on ACS. Design Data were collected with a questionnaire from 5,107 students, aged 10–16, in 45 comprehensive schools in Finland. The distance and the mode of transport to school in different seasons were self-reported. Results The prevalence of ACS was over 80% during spring/fall for those living 0–5 km from school. ACS was inversely associated with the distance to school and was lower in winter compared to spring and fall. Cycling is less common in winter, especially among girls and younger students. The potential for increasing students’ physical activity levels via ACS seems to be largest in winter, especially among students living 1–5 km from school. The variation in the prevalence of ACS between schools was large, especially in winter. Conclusions When planning interventions to promote ACS, one is encouraged to acknowledge and evaluate the potential in the selected target schools in different seasons. The potential varies largely between schools and seasons and is highly dependent on students’ commuting distances. PMID:27924739

  6. How Can Children Tell Us about Their Wellbeing? Exploring the Potential of Participatory Research Approaches within "Young Lives"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crivello, Gina; Camfield, Laura; Woodhead, Martin

    2009-01-01

    "Wellbeing" is a key concept in the study of children's lives over time, given its potential to link the objective, subjective, and inter-subjective dimensions of their experiences in ways that are holistic, contextualized and longitudinal. For this reason wellbeing is one of the core concepts used by Young Lives, a 15-year project…

  7. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  8. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  9. Active control of electric potential of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are discussed for controlling the potential of a spacecraft by means of devices which release appropriate charged particles from the spacecraft to the environment. Attention is given to electron emitters, ion emitters, a basic electron emitter arrangement, techniques for sensing electric field or potential, and flight experiments on active potential control. It is recommended to avoid differential charging on spacecraft surfaces because it can severely affect the efficacy of emitters. Discharging the frame of a spacecraft with dielectric surfaces involves the risk of stressing the dielectric material excessively. The spacecraft should, therefore, be provided with grounded conductive surfaces. It is pointed out that particles released by control systems can return to the spacecraft.

  10. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods.

  11. Microrheology, Stress Fluctuations, and Active Behavior of Living Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, A. W.; Hoffman, B. D.; Davies, A.; Crocker, J. C.; Lubensky, T. C.

    2003-11-01

    We report the first measurements of the intrinsic strain fluctuations of living cells using a recently developed tracer correlation technique along with a theoretical framework for interpreting such data in heterogeneous media with nonthermal driving. The fluctuations' spatial and temporal correlations indicate that the cytoskeleton can be treated as a course-grained continuum with power-law rheology, driven by a spatially random stress tensor field. Combined with recent cell rheology results, our data imply that intracellular stress fluctuations have a nearly 1/ω2 power spectrum, as expected for a continuum with a slowly evolving internal prestress.

  12. Allosterism and Structure in Thermally Activated Transient Receptor Potential Channels.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Franulic, Ignacio; Poblete, Horacio; Miño-Galaz, Germán; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramón

    2016-07-05

    The molecular sensors that mediate temperature changes in living organisms are a large family of proteins known as thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels. These membrane proteins are polymodal receptors that can be activated by cold or hot temperatures, depending on the channel subtype, voltage, and ligands. The stimuli sensors are allosterically coupled to a pore domain, increasing the probability of finding the channel in its ion conductive conformation. In this review we first discuss the allosteric coupling between the temperature and voltage sensor modules and the pore domain, and then discuss the thermodynamic foundations of thermo-TRP channel activation. We provide a structural overview of the molecular determinants of temperature sensing. We also posit an anisotropic thermal diffusion model that may explain the large temperature sensitivity of TRP channels. Additionally, we examine the effect of several ligands on TRP channel function and the evidence regarding their mechanisms of action.

  13. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  14. Living in a Global Environment. Classroom Activities in Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.

    Forty classroom activities selected from New Internationalist Calendars published between 1984-1989 were collected. Each activity is presented in the form of a short story about a real-life person and a graphic spread of data consisting of maps, tables, photographs, diagrams, text, and student exercises. These activities have been written to…

  15. Individual differences in personality profiles among potential living kidney transplant donors

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín; de Santiago-Guervós, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the psychological assessment of potential living kidney donors (PLKD) is part of the recommendations for action for any transplant coordination, there are not many studies that provide data about the importance of selecting donors for improving transplant outcomes. This work aims to raise awareness of potential kidney donors by designing methods for early detection of potential problems after the transplant, as well as by selecting the most suitable donors. Methods: This is a study of 25 PLKD drawn from the General University Hospital of Alicante. Participants completed the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III) for the study of personality characteristics. Results: Women scored higher than men in the compulsive personality scale, and individuals with a genetic link with the recipient scored higher on depressive and dependent scales than did those with other relationships (emotional or altruistic). Conclusions: Women showed a pattern of significantly more compulsive personality traits (cautious, controlled, perfectionist) within a non-pathological style. Among the PLKD, there were significantly more women, which is contrary to what typically happens with donations from cadavers. Genetically related subjects scored higher on depression than did those that were emotionally related. The personality assessment of candidates for PLKD can help with developing a post-transplant follow-up regimen for an improved quality of life. PMID:24892237

  16. EADB: An Estrogenic Activity Database for Assessing Potential Endocrine Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body’s endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many ...

  17. Steps toward validity in active living research: research design that limits accusations of physical determinism.

    PubMed

    Riggs, William

    2014-03-01

    "Active living research" has been accused of being overly "physically deterministic" and this article argues that urban planners must continue to evolve research and address biases in this area. The article first provides background on how researchers have dealt with the relationship between the built environment and health over years. This leads to a presentation of how active living research might be described as overly deterministic. The article then offers lessons for researchers planning to embark in active-living studies as to how they might increase validity and minimize criticism of physical determinism.

  18. Research Opportunities and Challenges in the Era of Healthy Living Medicine: Unlocking the Potential.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shane A; Martino, Sharon; Arena, Ross

    2017-01-26

    Non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), obesity, cancer, pulmonary disease, and diabetes are a very high global health concern. The health costs of risk factors for CVD, such as hypertension (HTN), is mounting and are unrelenting. As an example, it is estimated that direct and indirect costs due to HTN amounted to $46.4 billion in 2011 and projections of six-fold increases by 2030; the importance of low-cost nonpharmacological interventions involving collaborative teams of health care professionals is at a critical junction. Certainly, the data supported by research including some clinical trials for healthy living interventions support deploying health education, nutrition, smoking cessation, and physical activity(PA) in preventing CVD risk, such as HTN. Exercise training (ET) for blood pressure (BP) control has been shown to be an effective and integral component of BP management. However, less is known about what optimization of PA/ET modalities with nutrition and lifestyle tracking with modern era technologies will bring to this equation. New research methods may need to consider how to collaborate to collect data in using teams of researchers while interacting with community centers, school systems, and in traditional health care practices. This review will discuss and present what is known about the research that support modern era healthy living medicine and how this data may be integrated in venues that support health lifestyle in the community (i.e. schools and the work place).

  19. EADB: an estrogenic activity database for assessing potential endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Xu, Lei; Fang, Hong; Richard, Ann M; Bray, Jeffrey D; Judson, Richard S; Zhou, Guangxu; Colatsky, Thomas J; Aungst, Jason L; Teng, Christina; Harris, Steve C; Ge, Weigong; Dai, Susie Y; Su, Zhenqiang; Jacobs, Abigail C; Harrouk, Wafa; Perkins, Roger; Tong, Weida; Hong, Huixiao

    2013-10-01

    Endocrine-active chemicals can potentially have adverse effects on both humans and wildlife. They can interfere with the body's endocrine system through direct or indirect interactions with many protein targets. Estrogen receptors (ERs) are one of the major targets, and many endocrine disruptors are estrogenic and affect the normal estrogen signaling pathways. However, ERs can also serve as therapeutic targets for various medical conditions, such as menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, and ER-positive breast cancer. Because of the decades-long interest in the safety and therapeutic utility of estrogenic chemicals, a large number of chemicals have been assayed for estrogenic activity, but these data exist in various sources and different formats that restrict the ability of regulatory and industry scientists to utilize them fully for assessing risk-benefit. To address this issue, we have developed an Estrogenic Activity Database (EADB; http://www.fda.gov/ScienceResearch/BioinformaticsTools/EstrogenicActivityDatabaseEADB/default.htm) and made it freely available to the public. EADB contains 18,114 estrogenic activity data points collected for 8212 chemicals tested in 1284 binding, reporter gene, cell proliferation, and in vivo assays in 11 different species. The chemicals cover a broad chemical structure space and the data span a wide range of activities. A set of tools allow users to access EADB and evaluate potential endocrine activity of chemicals. As a case study, a classification model was developed using EADB for predicting ER binding of chemicals.

  20. How Children Characterise Living Beings and the Activities in Which They Engage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Losada, Cristina; García-Barros, Susana; Garrido, María

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the characteristics that children in the initial stages of schooling attribute to living beings. Interviews were conducted with 138 children aged 3-7 years in a school in the Spanish city of A Coruña, Galicia. Aspects found in pen-and-paper activities dealing with living beings, provided by the teachers (158 in total) at this…

  1. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  2. Leisure as a context for active living, recovery, health and life quality for persons with mental illness in a global context

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Coyle, Catherine P.; Shank, John W.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Globally, the mental health system is being transformed into a strengths-based, recovery-oriented system of care, to which the concept of active living is central. Based on an integrative review of the literature, this paper presents a heuristic conceptual framework of the potential contribution that enjoyable and meaningful leisure experiences can have in active living, recovery, health and life quality among persons with mental illness. This framework is holistic and reflects the humanistic approach to mental illness endorsed by the United Nations and the World Health Organization. It also includes ecological factors such as health care systems and environmental factors as well as cultural influences that can facilitate and/or hamper recovery, active living and health/life quality. Unique to this framework is our conceptualization of active living from a broad-based and meaning-oriented perspective rather than the traditional, narrower conceptualization which focuses on physical activity and exercise. Conceptualizing active living in this manner suggests a unique and culturally sensitive potential for leisure experiences to contribute to recovery, health and life quality. In particular, this paper highlights the potential of leisure engagements as a positive, strengths-based and potentially cost-effective means for helping people better deal with the challenges of living with mental illness. PMID:20543204

  3. Examining the utility of a bite-count-based measure of eating activity in free-living human beings.

    PubMed

    Scisco, Jenna L; Muth, Eric R; Hoover, Adam W

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has triggered a need for novel methods for measuring eating activity in free-living settings. Here, we introduce a bite-count method that has the potential to be used in long-term investigations of eating activity. The purpose of our observational study was to describe the relationship between bite count and energy intake and determine whether there are sex and body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite in free-living human beings. From October 2011 to February 2012, 77 participants used a wrist-worn device for 2 weeks to measure bite count during 2,975 eating activities. An automated self-administered 24-hour recall was completed daily to provide kilocalorie estimates for each eating activity. Pearson's correlation indicated a moderate, positive correlation between bite count and kilocalories (r=0.44; P<0.001) across all 2,975 eating activities. The average per-individual correlation was 0.53. A 2 (sex)×3 (body mass index group: normal, overweight, obese) analysis of variance indicated that men consumed 6 kcal more per bite than women on average. However, there were no body mass index group differences in kilocalories per bite. This was the longest study of a body-worn sensor for monitoring eating activity of free-living human beings to date, which highlights the strong potential for this method to be used in future, long-term investigations.

  4. Genetically encoded biosensors for visualizing live-cell biochemical activity at super-resolution.

    PubMed

    Mo, Gary C H; Ross, Brian; Hertel, Fabian; Manna, Premashis; Yang, Xinxing; Greenwald, Eric; Booth, Chris; Plummer, Ashlee M; Tenner, Brian; Chen, Zan; Wang, Yuxiao; Kennedy, Eileen J; Cole, Philip A; Fleming, Karen G; Palmer, Amy; Jimenez, Ralph; Xiao, Jie; Dedecker, Peter; Zhang, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Compartmentalized biochemical activities are essential to all cellular processes, but there is no generalizable method to visualize dynamic protein activities in living cells at a resolution commensurate with cellular compartmentalization. Here, we introduce a new class of fluorescent biosensors that detect biochemical activities in living cells at a resolution up to threefold better than the diffraction limit. These 'FLINC' biosensors use binding-induced changes in protein fluorescence dynamics to translate kinase activities or protein-protein interactions into changes in fluorescence fluctuations, which are quantifiable through stochastic optical fluctuation imaging. A protein kinase A (PKA) biosensor allowed us to resolve minute PKA activity microdomains on the plasma membranes of living cells and to uncover the role of clustered anchoring proteins in organizing these activity microdomains. Together, these findings suggest that biochemical activities of the cell are spatially organized into an activity architecture whose structural and functional characteristics can be revealed by these new biosensors.

  5. Learning to Live: A Manual of Environmental Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    Contributions from a variety of sources are compiled in this manual to provide both students and teachers with environmental study activities. Several activities are suggested under each of the following topics: Ecology and Esthetics (emphasizing awareness); The Decision-Making Process (resource management problems); A Plea for an Alternative…

  6. Active, capable, and potentially active faults - a paleoseismic perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Machette, M.N.

    2000-01-01

    Maps of faults (geologically defined source zones) may portray seismic hazards in a wide range of completeness depending on which types of faults are shown. Three fault terms - active, capable, and potential - are used in a variety of ways for different reasons or applications. Nevertheless, to be useful for seismic-hazards analysis, fault maps should encompass a time interval that includes several earthquake cycles. For example, if the common recurrence in an area is 20,000-50,000 years, then maps should include faults that are 50,000-100,000 years old (two to five typical earthquake cycles), thus allowing for temporal variability in slip rate and recurrence intervals. Conversely, in more active areas such as plate boundaries, maps showing faults that are <10,000 years old should include those with at least 2 to as many as 20 paleoearthquakes. For the International Lithosphere Programs' Task Group II-2 Project on Major Active Faults of the World our maps and database will show five age categories and four slip rate categories that allow one to select differing time spans and activity rates for seismic-hazard analysis depending on tectonic regime. The maps are accompanied by a database that describes evidence for Quaternary faulting, geomorphic expression, and paleoseismic parameters (slip rate, recurrence interval and time of most recent surface faulting). These maps and databases provide an inventory of faults that would be defined as active, capable, and potentially active for seismic-hazard assessments.

  7. Dopa decarboxylase activity of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gjedde, A.; Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Leger, G.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Evans, A.; Kuwabara, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Monoaminergic neurons use dopa decarboxylase to form dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). We measured regional dopa decarboxylase activity in brains of six healthy volunteers with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa and positron emission tomography. We calculated the enzyme activity, relative to its Km, with a kinetic model that yielded the relative rate of conversion of 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa to ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine. Regional values of relative dopa decarboxylase activity ranged from nil in occipital cortex to 1.9 h-1 in caudate nucleus and putamen, in agreement with values obtained in vitro.

  8. Toward high-content screening of mitochondrial morphology and membrane potential in living cells.

    PubMed

    Iannetti, Eligio F; Willems, Peter H G M; Pellegrini, Mina; Beyrath, Julien; Smeitink, Jan A M; Blanchet, Lionel; Koopman, Werner J H

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria are double membrane organelles involved in various key cellular processes. Governed by dedicated protein machinery, mitochondria move and continuously fuse and divide. These "mitochondrial dynamics" are bi-directionally linked to mitochondrial and cell functional state in space and time. Due to the action of the electron transport chain (ETC), the mitochondrial inner membrane displays a inside-negative membrane potential (Δψ). The latter is considered a functional readout of mitochondrial "health" and required to sustain normal mitochondrial ATP production and mitochondrial fusion. During the last decade, live-cell microscopy strategies were developed for simultaneous quantification of Δψ and mitochondrial morphology. This revealed that ETC dysfunction, changes in Δψ and aberrations in mitochondrial structure often occur in parallel, suggesting they are linked potential targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss how combining high-content and high-throughput strategies can be used for analysis of genetic and/or drug-induced effects at the level of individual organelles, cells and cell populations. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies.

  9. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of short-lived halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  10. Activities of daily living and quality of life in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Opara, J A

    2012-06-12

    Alzheimer's disease is known for placing a significant burden on caregivers, which includes social, psychological, physical or economic aspects. The disease decreases patients' capacity for activities of daily living and quality of life. Information about functional status is useful in the interpretation of the quality of life assessment results. In this paper the most commonly used scales evaluating activities of daily living and quality of life in Alzheimer's disease, either generic or specific, is presented.

  11. Physical activity and fracture risk in a free-living elderly cohort.

    PubMed

    Sorock, G S; Bush, T L; Golden, A L; Fried, L P; Breuer, B; Hale, W E

    1988-09-01

    A prospective study to determine if regular leisure-time physical activity (including recreational walking) is associated with fracture risk was conducted in a large cohort (N = 3110) of free-living elderly men and women in the retirement community of Dunedin, Florida. Sixty-three percent of the cohort was female, all were white, and the average age was 73.0 years +/- 5.3 (SD). Participants in regular physical activity at baseline had a reduced risk of fracture; the risk ratio (RR) of fracture for men and women, respectively, was RR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.17 to 1.01 and RR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.50 to 1.15. Walking at least one mile 3 times/week appeared to offer a protective effect for both sexes. After controlling for potentially confounding variables including body mass and selected health conditions, the RR for regular physical activity on fracture incidence in men and women remained essentially unchanged. We conclude that regular physical activity such as walking may protect against fracture in older persons.

  12. Activities of daily living and manual hand dexterity in persons with idiopathic parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo-Im; Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daily activities and manual dexterity in persons with Parkinson disease. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. This study used two clinical tools, the box-and-block test and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, to investigate the relationship between manual dexterity and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score. [Results] A positive correlation was observed between the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living and the box-and-block test scores on the more and less affected sides. Moreover, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score had a greater correlation with the box-and-block test score on the less affected side than that on the more affected side. [Conclusion] Manual dexterity and activities of daily living showed a positive correlation in individuals with Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that manual dexterity is an important factor for predicting physical performance in daily living in persons with Parkinson disease. PMID:28356630

  13. Activities of daily living and manual hand dexterity in persons with idiopathic parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoo-Im; Song, Chiang-Soon; Chun, Byung-Yoon

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daily activities and manual dexterity in persons with Parkinson disease. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants were 25 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. This study used two clinical tools, the box-and-block test and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living scale, to investigate the relationship between manual dexterity and Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score. [Results] A positive correlation was observed between the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living and the box-and-block test scores on the more and less affected sides. Moreover, the Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living score had a greater correlation with the box-and-block test score on the less affected side than that on the more affected side. [Conclusion] Manual dexterity and activities of daily living showed a positive correlation in individuals with Parkinson disease. The results of this study suggest that manual dexterity is an important factor for predicting physical performance in daily living in persons with Parkinson disease.

  14. School Physical Education, Extracurricular Sports, and Lifelong Active Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocarro, Jason; Kanters, Michael A.; Casper, Jonathan; Forrester, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of school-based extracurricular initiatives in facilitating immediate and long-term positive impact on physical activity, healthy behavior, and obesity in children. A critique of the role of various sports-related initiatives that have been developed to address the obesity epidemic currently…

  15. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  16. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  17. Lively Earthquake Activity in North-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    The seismograph at the Danish military outpost, Station Nord (NOR) in North East Greenland, records many regional/local earthquakes every day. Most of these events originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. The plate boundary has a particularly active segment approximately 200 km from the seismograph. Additionally we find a seismically very active region 20-30 km from NOR on the Kronprins Christian Land peninsula. The BB seismograph at NOR was installed in 2002 and later upgraded with real-time telemetry as part of the GLISN-project. Since late 2013 data from NOR have been included in routine processing at GEUS. Phase readings on some of the older data, primarily 2002-2003, have been carried out previously in connection with other projects. As a result, phase readings for more than 6000 local events, recorded exclusively at NOR, were found in the GEUS data base. During the years 2004 to 2007 four locations were occupied by temporary BB seismographs on the North coast of Greenland as part of the Law of the Sea preparatory work. Data from these stations have not previously been analyzed for local and regional events. In this study we combine the recordings from NOR with phase readings from the temporary seismographs in Northern Greenland. The local events on Kronprins Christian Land range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event widely recorded in the region and felt by the personnel at Station Nord on August 30, 2005. Station Nord is located in the seismically most active region of Greenland.

  18. Short-Lived Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S.

    2010-12-01

    Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are short-lived, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.

  19. New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and short-lived climate pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.

    2016-08-01

    Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `short-lived climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.

  20. Avian influenza viruses in Korean live poultry markets and their pathogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Ki; Seo, Sang Heui; Kim, Jin A; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2005-02-20

    We surveyed live-poultry markets in Korea in 2003 and isolated 9 H9N2, 6 H3N2, and 1 H6N1 influenza viruses. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses showed that all 9 H9N2 isolates were of A/Chicken/Korea/25232-96006/96-like lineage (which caused disease in chickens in Korea in 1996) but were different from H9N2 viruses of southeastern China. They had at least 4 genotypes and replicated in chickens but not in mice. The H3N2 and H6N1 viruses were new to Korea and were probably reassortants of avian influenza viruses from southeastern China and recent Korean H9N2 viruses. All 8 segments of the H3N2 viruses formed a single phylogenetic cluster with 99.1 to 100% homology. The H3N2 viruses replicated in chickens and mice without preadaptation, but the H6N1 virus did not. Our results show an increasingly diverse pool of avian influenza viruses in Korea that are potential pandemic influenza agents.

  1. Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Gołaś, Artur; Maszczyk, Adam; Zajac, Adam; Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Stastny, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Post activation potentiation (PAP) has shown improved performance during movements requiring large muscular power output following contractions under near maximal load conditions. PAP can be described as an acute enhancement of performance or an enhancement of factors determining an explosive sports activity following a preload stimulus. In practice, PAP has been achieved by complex training, which involves a combination of a heavy loaded exercise followed by a biomechanically similar explosive activity, best if specific for a particular sport discipline. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAP on performance in explosive motor activities specific for basketball, luge and athletics throws. The novel approach to the experiments included individualized recovery time (IRT) between the conditioning exercise and the explosive activity. Additionally, the research groups were homogenous and included only competitive athletes of similar age and training experience. Thirty one well trained athletes from 3 different sport disciplines participated in the study. All athletes performed a heavy loaded conditioning activity (80-130%1RM) followed by a biomechanically similar explosive exercise, during which power (W) or the rate of power development (W/s/kg) was evaluated. The results of our experiment confirmed the effectiveness of PAP with well-trained athlets during explosive motor activities such as jumping, throwing and pushing. Additionally, our research showed that eccentric supramaximal intensities (130% 1RM) can be effective in eliciting PAP in strength trained athletes. Our experiments also showed that the IRT should be individualized because athletes differ in the strength level, training experience and muscle fiber structure. In the three experiments conducted with basketball players, track and field athletes and luge athletes, the optimal IRT equaled 6 min. This justifies the need to individualize the volume and intensity of the CA, and

  2. Optimizing post activation potentiation for explosive activities in competitive sports

    PubMed Central

    Gołaś, Artur; Maszczyk, Adam; Mikołajec, Kazimierz; Stastny, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Post activation potentiation (PAP) has shown improved performance during movements requiring large muscular power output following contractions under near maximal load conditions. PAP can be described as an acute enhancement of performance or an enhancement of factors determining an explosive sports activity following a preload stimulus. In practice, PAP has been achieved by complex training, which involves a combination of a heavy loaded exercise followed by a biomechanically similar explosive activity, best if specific for a particular sport discipline. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAP on performance in explosive motor activities specific for basketball, luge and athletics throws. The novel approach to the experiments included individualized recovery time (IRT) between the conditioning exercise and the explosive activity. Additionally, the research groups were homogenous and included only competitive athletes of similar age and training experience. Thirty one well trained athletes from 3 different sport disciplines participated in the study. All athletes performed a heavy loaded conditioning activity (80-130%1RM) followed by a biomechanically similar explosive exercise, during which power (W) or the rate of power development (W/s/kg) was evaluated. The results of our experiment confirmed the effectiveness of PAP with well-trained athlets during explosive motor activities such as jumping, throwing and pushing. Additionally, our research showed that eccentric supramaximal intensities (130% 1RM) can be effective in eliciting PAP in strength trained athletes. Our experiments also showed that the IRT should be individualized because athletes differ in the strength level, training experience and muscle fiber structure. In the three experiments conducted with basketball players, track and field athletes and luge athletes, the optimal IRT equaled 6 min. This justifies the need to individualize the volume and intensity of the

  3. Allosteric activation of membrane-bound glutamate receptors using coordination chemistry within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyonaka, Shigeki; Kubota, Ryou; Michibata, Yukiko; Sakakura, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Hideo; Numata, Tomohiro; Inoue, Ryuji; Yuzaki, Michisuke; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-10-01

    The controlled activation of proteins in living cells is an important goal in protein-design research, but to introduce an artificial activation switch into membrane proteins through rational design is a significant challenge because of the structural and functional complexity of such proteins. Here we report the allosteric activation of two types of membrane-bound neurotransmitter receptors, the ion-channel type and the G-protein-coupled glutamate receptors, using coordination chemistry in living cells. The high programmability of coordination chemistry enabled two His mutations, which act as an artificial allosteric site, to be semirationally incorporated in the vicinity of the ligand-binding pockets. Binding of Pd(2,2‧-bipyridine) at the allosteric site enabled the active conformations of the glutamate receptors to be stabilized. Using this approach, we were able to activate selectively a mutant glutamate receptor in live neurons, which initiated a subsequent signal-transduction pathway.

  4. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001) instrument.…

  5. Repeated threat (without harm) in a living environment potentiates defensive behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, D J; Anderson, B J

    2015-02-15

    Children exposed to neighborhood violence have higher rates of aggression, but it is unclear whether aggression is associated with threat, harm or the combination of factors. All animals, including humans, experience threat as they leave the safety of home and risk harm to gather resources (foraging). To better understand how selective environmental variables drive behavioral tendencies, we developed a semi-naturalistic living environment that includes the need to navigate across space to obtain resources. Rats were housed for three weeks in two tub cages, one with food and the other with water, both consistently available, but separated by a 91 cm long tunnel. After habituating for three days, half the rats (threat stress condition) received unpredictable threats (simultaneous puff of air with ferret dander, abrupt flash of light, and an abrupt sound) when crossing the central position of the tunnel (random order with p=0.25) for 21 days. During the manipulation, the threat stress rats crossed the tunnel less and exhibited risk assessment behaviors. After cessation of the treatment conditions, the threat stress group spent more time burying a rag with ferret dander odor and was more likely to bury, and spent more time burying a highly novel stimulus. There were no group differences in symptoms of depression, avoidance, or exploration. The results suggest that repeated threats without harm increase pre-emptive defense behaviors, a form of active coping, without affecting passive forms of coping.

  6. Active living for rural youth: addressing physical inactivity in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Yousefian, Anush; Ziller, Erika; Swartz, Jon; Hartley, David

    2009-01-01

    Rural youth are at greater risk than urban youth for obesity and physical inactivity. Active living research incorporates an ecological approach to promoting physical activity (PA) by recognizing that individual behavior, social environments, physical environments, and policies contribute to behavior change. Active living research and interventions have been limited primarily to urban settings. Because rural communities have unique environmental features and sociocultural characteristics, this project combines insights from current active living models with more focused consideration of the physical and social realities of rural areas. In this study, we report on our efforts to develop, test, and refine a conceptual model describing the interaction between the individual and the environment as it enhances or thwarts active living in rural communities. Our findings revealed a host of relevant "predisposing" and "enabling" factors, including sociodemographic, environmental, policy, and programmatic elements, that extend across the four domains of active living--transportation, recreation, occupation, and household. A one-size approach to PA promotion will not fit the needs of rural youth. Given the unique challenges that rural communities face, efforts to combat childhood obesity must consider rural residents a priority population. More research, interventions, and evaluations on ways to promote rural PA are needed.

  7. Activation of right fronto-temporal cortex characterizes the 'living' category in semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Leube, D T; Erb, M; Grodd, W; Bartels, M; Kircher, T T

    2001-12-01

    It is a vital ability for humans to distinguish between living and non-living objects. Whether the semantic features of these two classes of objects are represented in distinct brain areas, is unknown. In our study, words belonging to the categories 'living' and 'non-living' were presented visually to twelve right-handed volunteers, while brain activation was measured with event-related fMRI. Subjects had to judge whether the item belonged to one of these categories. Common areas of activation (P<0.05, corrected) during processing of both categories include the inferior occipital gyri bilaterally (BA 17/18), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) and left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40). During processing of 'living' minus 'non-living' items, signal changes (P<0.05, corrected) were present in the the right inferior frontal (BA 47), middle temporal (BA 21) and fusiform gyrus (BA 19). Our results are in line with findings from patients with a deficit in semantic processing of living things, who specifically suffer from right hemispheric lesions.

  8. Nano-engineered living bacterial motors for active microfluidic mixing.

    PubMed

    Al-Fandi, M; Jaradat, M A K; Fandi, K; Beech, J P; Tegenfeldt, J O; Yih, T C

    2010-09-01

    Active micromixers with rotating elements are attractive microfluidic actuators in many applications because of their mixing ability at a short distance. However, miniaturising the impeller design poses technical challenges including the fabrication and driving means. As a possible solution inspired by macro magnetic bar-stirrers, this study proposes the use of tethered, rotating bacteria as mixing elements. A tethered cell is a genetically engineered, harmless Escherichia coli (E. coli) attached to a surface by a single, shortened flagellum. The tethered flagellum acts as a pivot around which the entire cell body smoothly rotates. Videomicroscopy, image analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are utilised to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for the micro mixing process. Flow visualisation experiments show that a approximately 3 microm long tethered E. coli rotating at approximately 240 rpm can circulate a 1 microm polystyrene bead in the adjacent area at an average speed of nearly 4 microm/s. The Peclet (Peb) number for the stirred bead is evaluated to approximately 4. CFD simulations show that the rotary motion of a tethered E. coli rotating at 240 rpm can generate fluid velocities, up to 37 microm/s bordering the cell envelop. Based on these simulations, the Strouhal number (St) is calculated to about 2. This hybrid bio-inorganic micromxer could be used as a local, disposable mixer.

  9. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  10. SALSA : SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley; Orlando Edwards, Raul; McNeill, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA) was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (N = 50; M = 42 years) who participated were overweight (MBMI = 29.7 kg/m(2); Mbody fat = 38.5%) and reported low levels of leisure time PA (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) and FV consumption (M = 4.2 servings/day). All were randomized to a four-week (1) semiweekly Latin dance group or (2) internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) to follow up (M = 34.0 MET-min/wk, P < .001), and FV consumption increased over time by group (P = .02). Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color.

  11. "Active Living" Related to the Rural-Urban Continuum: A Time-Use Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the degree to which "active living" varies along the rural-urban continuum, within the county-sized regional municipality of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods: Time-diary data from the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project were used to compute daily participation rates (PRs) and time durations, at various…

  12. Physical Education and Physically Active Lives: A Lifelong Approach to Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Jess, Mike

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses upon the relationship between physical education and interests in enabling more people to establish and maintain "active and healthy lives" from a curriculum development perspective. Twin and inter-linked concepts of "lifelong learning" and "lifelong physical activity" are presented as a conceptual…

  13. Ling's Adsorption Theory as a Mechanism of Membrane Potential Generation Observed in Both Living and Nonliving Systems.

    PubMed

    Tamagawa, Hirohisa; Funatani, Makoto; Ikeda, Kota

    2016-01-26

    The potential between two electrolytic solutions separated by a membrane impermeable to ions was measured and the generation mechanism of potential measured was investigated. From the physiological point of view, a nonzero membrane potential or action potential cannot be observed across the impermeable membrane. However, a nonzero membrane potential including action potential-like potential was clearly observed. Those observations gave rise to a doubt concerning the validity of currently accepted generation mechanism of membrane potential and action potential of cell. As an alternative theory, we found that the long-forgotten Ling's adsorption theory was the most plausible theory. Ling's adsorption theory suggests that the membrane potential and action potential of a living cell is due to the adsorption of mobile ions onto the adsorption site of cell, and this theory is applicable even to nonliving (or non-biological) system as well as living system. Through this paper, the authors emphasize that it is necessary to reconsider the validity of current membrane theory and also would like to urge the readers to pay keen attention to the Ling's adsorption theory which has for long years been forgotten in the history of physiology.

  14. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.

  15. Potential arsenic exposures in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures.

    PubMed

    Gress, J; da Silva, E B; de Oliveira, L M; Zhao, Di; Anderson, G; Heard, D; Stuchal, L D; Ma, L Q

    2016-05-01

    Animal enclosures are often constructed from wood treated with the pesticide chromated copper arsenate (CCA), which leaches arsenic (As) into adjacent soil during normal weathering. This study evaluated potential pathways of As exposure in 25 species of zoo animals living in CCA-wood enclosures. We analyzed As speciation in complete animal foods, dislodgeable As from CCA-wood, and As levels in enclosure soils, as well as As levels in biomarkers of 9 species of crocodilians (eggs), 4 species of birds (feathers), 1 primate species (hair), and 1 porcupine species (quills). Elevated soil As in samples from 17 enclosures was observed at 1.0-110mg/kg, and enclosures housing threatened and endangered species had As levels higher than USEPA's risk-based Eco-SSL for birds and mammals of 43 and 46mg/kg. Wipe samples of CCA-wood on which primates sit had dislodgeable As residues of 4.6-111μg/100cm(2), typical of unsealed CCA-wood. Inorganic As doses from animal foods were estimated at 0.22-7.8μg/kg bw/d. Some As levels in bird feathers and crocodilian eggs were higher than prior studies on wild species. However, hair from marmosets had 6.37mg/kg As, 30-fold greater than the reference value, possibly due to their inability to methylate inorganic As. Our data suggested that elevated As in soils and dislodgeable As from CCA-wood could be important sources of As exposure for zoo animals.

  16. Recreating communities to support active living: a new role for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward W

    2003-01-01

    The lack of routine physical activity has become an all too pervasive health threat in the United States. Social marketing can be used directly to promote increased physical activity among people who have access to active living options (e.g., safe and convenient sidewalks or bike paths). A second, albeit indirect, use of social marketing to promote physical activity--and the focus of this article--involves promoting behaviors that influence the built environment for the purpose of increasing people's access to active living options. This use of social marketing involves changing the behavior of consumers, developers, distribution channels (e.g., real estate agents) and policy makers. The approach offers public health and other organizations a disciplined, consumer-focused means of mobilizing their available resources in a manner that maximizes the odds of creating active living communities. These means include understanding the competition, understanding target markets, creating mutually beneficial exchanges, segmenting markets and targeting them based on anticipated return. This article identifies specific opportunities for applying the social marketing approach to create active living communities, and identifies opportunities at the state and national level that will enhance the effectiveness of local efforts.

  17. Ambient Information Systems to Support the Elderly in Carrying Out Their Activities of Daily Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vázquez, Juan Pablo; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    As they age, older adult's present losses in their functional capabilities which cause them can't continue performing their activities of daily living (ADL) independently at home. We propose Ambient Information Systems (AIS) as appropriate pervasive devices to promote their independent living. Therefore our aim is to determine the utility and usability of AIS to support the independent life of older adults by helping them to perform their activities. In this paper we present preliminary results of a case study that we carried out for understanding the problems and needs that older adults face in doing some of their activities of daily living. In particular, we present results regarding the elderly problems to adhere to their medication prescription. Based on these results we propose AIS to support older adults to medicate. Finally, we present the design attributes incorporated into this AIS, which were identified from the design taxonomies of AIS reported in the literature.

  18. Plug&Play Brain-Computer Interfaces for effective Active and Assisted Living control.

    PubMed

    Mora, Niccolò; De Munari, Ilaria; Ciampolini, Paolo; Del R Millán, José

    2016-11-17

    Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) rely on the interpretation of brain activity to provide people with disabilities with an alternative/augmentative interaction path. In light of this, BCI could be considered as enabling technology in many fields, including Active and Assisted Living (AAL) systems control. Interaction barriers could be removed indeed, enabling user with severe motor impairments to gain control over a wide range of AAL features. In this paper, a cost-effective BCI solution, targeted (but not limited) to AAL system control is presented. A custom hardware module is briefly reviewed, while signal processing techniques are covered in more depth. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) are exploited in this work as operating BCI protocol. In contrast with most common SSVEP-BCI approaches, we propose the definition of a prediction confidence indicator, which is shown to improve overall classification accuracy. The confidence indicator is derived without any subject-specific approach and is stable across users: it can thus be defined once and then shared between different persons. This allows some kind of Plug&Play interaction. Furthermore, by modelling rest/idle periods with the confidence indicator, it is possible to detect active control periods and separate them from "background activity": this is capital for real-time, self-paced operation. Finally, the indicator also allows to dynamically choose the most appropriate observation window length, improving system's responsiveness and user's comfort. Good results are achieved under such operating conditions, achieving, for instance, a false positive rate of 0.16 min(-1), which outperform current literature findings.

  19. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected.

  20. Nanoelectronics-biology frontier: From nanoscopic probes for action potential recording in live cells to three-dimensional cyborg tissues

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Xiaojie; Fu, Tian-Ming; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Semiconductor nanowires configured as the active channels of field-effect transistors (FETs) have been used as detectors for high-resolution electrical recording from single live cells, cell networks, tissues and organs. Extracellular measurements with substrate supported silicon nanowire (SiNW) FETs, which have projected active areas orders of magnitude smaller than conventional microfabricated multielectrode arrays (MEAs) and planar FETs, recorded action potential and field potential signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution from cultured neurons, cultured cardiomyocytes, acute brain slices and whole animal hearts. Measurements made with modulation-doped nanoscale active channel SiNW FETs demonstrate that signals recorded from cardiomyocytes are highly localized and have improved time resolution compared to larger planar detectors. In addition, several novel three-dimensional (3D) transistor probes, which were realized using advanced nanowire synthesis methods, have been implemented for intracellular recording. These novel probes include (i) flexible 3D kinked nanowire FETs, (ii) branched intracellular nanotube SiNW FETs, and (iii) active silicon nanotube FETs. Following phospholipid modification of the probes to mimic the cell membrane, the kinked nanowire, branched intracellular nanotube and active silicon nanotube FET probes recorded full-amplitude intracellular action potentials from spontaneously firing cardiomyocytes. Moreover, these probes demonstrated the capability of reversible, stable, and long-term intracellular recording, thus indicating the minimal invasiveness of the new nanoscale structures and suggesting biomimetic internalization via the phospholipid modification. Simultaneous, multi-site intracellular recording from both single cells and cell networks were also readily achieved by interfacing independently addressable nanoprobe devices with cells. Finally, electronic and biological systems have been seamlessly

  1. Nanoelectronics-biology frontier: From nanoscopic probes for action potential recording in live cells to three-dimensional cyborg tissues.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaojie; Fu, Tian-Ming; Liu, Jia; Lieber, Charles M

    2013-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowires configured as the active channels of field-effect transistors (FETs) have been used as detectors for high-resolution electrical recording from single live cells, cell networks, tissues and organs. Extracellular measurements with substrate supported silicon nanowire (SiNW) FETs, which have projected active areas orders of magnitude smaller than conventional microfabricated multielectrode arrays (MEAs) and planar FETs, recorded action potential and field potential signals with high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution from cultured neurons, cultured cardiomyocytes, acute brain slices and whole animal hearts. Measurements made with modulation-doped nanoscale active channel SiNW FETs demonstrate that signals recorded from cardiomyocytes are highly localized and have improved time resolution compared to larger planar detectors. In addition, several novel three-dimensional (3D) transistor probes, which were realized using advanced nanowire synthesis methods, have been implemented for intracellular recording. These novel probes include (i) flexible 3D kinked nanowire FETs, (ii) branched intracellular nanotube SiNW FETs, and (iii) active silicon nanotube FETs. Following phospholipid modification of the probes to mimic the cell membrane, the kinked nanowire, branched intracellular nanotube and active silicon nanotube FET probes recorded full-amplitude intracellular action potentials from spontaneously firing cardiomyocytes. Moreover, these probes demonstrated the capability of reversible, stable, and long-term intracellular recording, thus indicating the minimal invasiveness of the new nanoscale structures and suggesting biomimetic internalization via the phospholipid modification. Simultaneous, multi-site intracellular recording from both single cells and cell networks were also readily achieved by interfacing independently addressable nanoprobe devices with cells. Finally, electronic and biological systems have been seamlessly merged in 3D

  2. Risky business: Lived experience mental health practice, nurses as potential allies.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Louise; Happell, Brenda; Reid-Searl, Kerry

    2016-09-21

    Mental health policy includes a clear expectation that consumers will participate in all aspects of the design and delivery of mental health services. This edict has led to employment roles for people with lived experience of significant mental health challenges and service use. Despite the proliferation of these roles, research into factors impacting their success or otherwise is limited. This paper presents findings from a grounded theory study investigating the experiences of Lived Experience Practitioners in the context of their employment. In-depth interviews were conducted with 13 Lived Experience Practitioners. Risk was identified as a core category, and included sub-categories: vulnerability, 'out and proud', fear to disclose, and self-care. Essentially participants described the unique vulnerabilities of their mental health challenges being known, and while there were many positives about disclosing there was also apprehension about personal information being so publically known. Self-care techniques were important mediators against these identified risks. The success of lived experience roles requires support and nurses can play an important role, given the size of the nursing workforce in mental health, the close relationships nurses enjoy with consumers and the contribution they have made to the development of lived experience roles within academia.

  3. Plant growth promoting potential of free-living diazotrophs and other rhizobacteria isolated from Northern Indian soil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farah; Ahmad, Iqbal; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmed Wani, Aijaz; Sousche, Yogesh S

    2006-10-01

    The viable count of free-living diazotrophic bacteria in different crop rhizospheres varied from 1.11 x 10(4) to 8.5 x 10(5) CFU/g of soil. The majority of the diazotrophs phenotypically belong to either Azotobacter chroococcum, non-A. chroococcum type and to a heterogenous group tentatively named putative nitrogen-fixing (PNF) bacteria. In this study, 25 isolates of the PNF group were screened for their multiple plant growth-promoting (PGP) traits and grouped into 5 PGP types. An isolate, PNF(11) showed promising PGP potential in vitro and was characterized as a species of Achromobacter by 16S rRNA analysis. The isolate PNF(11) along with three other previously isolated PGP bacteria, Azotobacter sp. (AZS(3)), fluorescent pseudomonas (Ps(5)), Bacillus sp. (Bc(1)) were selected for crop inoculation response in green house experiment on Vigna radiata var.T44. Plants from inoculated and control pots were sampled and analyzed at 30, 45 and 60 days after sowing for various vegetative, nodule-related data and yield parameters. The findings indicated that selected isolate of PNF bacteria, and other PGP isolates with multiple activities significantly improve the plant growth parameters, yield parameters of Vigna radiata T44 over control and also show good compatibility with Bradyrhizobium inoculation.

  4. Determination of Long-Lived Neutron Activation Products in Reactor Shielding Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-10-15

    The results of activation studies of TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete were irradiated in the reactor to simulate neutron activation in the shielding concrete. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides were measured in the samples with a high-purity germanium detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in the ordinary concrete samples were found to be {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. In the barytes concrete samples, the most active long-lived radioactive nuclides were {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. Activation in the concrete was also calculated using the ORIGEN2 code and compared to experimental results. Simple radioactive nuclide generation and depletion calculation using one-group cross-section libraries provided together with the ORIGEN2 code did not give conservative results. Significant discrepancies were observed for some nuclides. For accurate long-lived radioactive nuclide generation in reactor shielding, material-specific cross-section libraries should be generated and verified by measurement.

  5. An inducible transgene reports activation of macrophages in live zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Leslie E; Chien, An-Tzu; Astin, Jonathan W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Hall, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are the most functionally heterogenous cells of the hematopoietic system. Given many diseases are underpinned by inappropriate macrophage activation, macrophages have emerged as a therapeutic target to treat disease. A thorough understanding of what controls macrophage activation will likely reveal new pathways that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit. Live imaging fluorescent macrophages within transgenic zebrafish larvae has provided a valuable window to investigate macrophage behavior in vivo. Here we describe the first transgenic zebrafish line that reports macrophage activation, as evidenced by induced expression of an immunoresponsive gene 1(irg1):EGFP transgene. When combined with existing reporter lines that constitutively mark macrophages, we reveal this unique transgenic line can be used to live image macrophage activation in response to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide and xenografted human cancer cells. We anticipate the Tg(irg1:EGFP) line will provide a valuable tool to explore macrophage activation and plasticity in the context of different disease models.

  6. Standardized training tools for the UPDRS activities of daily living scale: newly available teaching program.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; LeWitt, Peter A; Weidenman, Meredith

    2003-12-01

    The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the most widely used scale for evaluation of clinical impairment in PD. Whereas the motor section has been studied intensively for clinimetric properties and has an associated training tape, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) section has been studied less rigorously. In preparation for a multicenter study that planned to use the UPDRS ADL score as an outcome, the authors reviewed the UPDRS ADL scale and designed a teaching program to provide a uniform technique for data acquisition without changing any wording of the primary scale. The teaching program is composed of four components: overall guidelines, clarifying points, recommended strategies, and a teaching videotape. The videotape shows examples of interviewers assessing each ADL item with patients of different disability levels and provides a complete ADL assessment of a single patient. Systematic training and utilization of this teaching program offer the potential for more uniformity in results of ADL assessments conducted in clinical practice and multicenter, international studies of PD. The written materials and videotape belong to the Movement Disorder Society and are available by contacting the MDS central office.

  7. Recognition-mediated activation of therapeutic gold nanoparticles inside living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chaekyu; Agasti, Sarit S.; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Isaacs, Lyle; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2010-11-01

    Supramolecular chemistry provides a versatile tool for the organization of molecular systems into functional structures and the actuation of these assemblies for applications through the reversible association between complementary components. Use of this methodology in living systems, however, represents a significant challenge owing to the chemical complexity of cellular environments and lack of selectivity of conventional supramolecular interactions. Herein, we present a host-guest system featuring diaminohexane-terminated gold nanoparticles (AuNP-NH2) and complementary cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). In this system, threading of CB[7] on the particle surface reduces the cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2 through sequestration of the particle in endosomes. Intracellular triggering of the therapeutic effect of AuNP-NH2 was then achieved through the administration of 1-adamantylamine (ADA), removing CB[7] from the nanoparticle surface, causing the endosomal release and concomitant in situ cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2. This supramolecular strategy for intracellular activation provides a new tool for potential therapeutic applications.

  8. [Isolation of free-living amoebae from the nasal mucosa of man. Potential risk (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Simitzis, A M; Le Goff, F; L'Azou, M T

    1979-01-01

    From march 1976 until december 1978, we have analysed 1039 nasal swabs in order to discover the healthy free-living amoebae carriers. So, we have isolated 9 strains of which one Hartmannella vermiformis. From the 8 remaining Acanthamoebae, only one, ORL 561 (Acanthamoeba hatchetti) is as pathogenic for mice as the 2 other identical known strains and A. culbertsoni.

  9. Transition to Kindergarten Activity the Lived Experiences of Teachers, Parents and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latte, Ave M.

    2012-01-01

    Problem: Transitioning into kindergarten marks an important time in the lives of young children and their families. While many families and teachers participate in transition events little is known about the ways that transition activities actually inform and support key stakeholders. The purpose of this study was to describe district transition…

  10. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  11. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having agency may…

  12. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  13. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  14. Need for Assistance in the Activities of Daily Living. Disability Statistics Abstract, Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.; Kaye, H. Stephen

    This abstract summarizes recent statistics on those needing assistance in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), along with participation rates for various proposed benefit programs, based on an analysis of the 1990-91 Survey of Income and Program Participation. Analysis indicates: (1) an estimated 1.9 percent of the population has difficulty…

  15. Supervised classification of Activities of Daily Living in Health Smart Homes using SVM.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Anthony; Noury, Norbert; Vacher, Michel

    2009-01-01

    By 2050, about a third of the French population will be over 65. To face this modification of the population, the current studies of our laboratory focus on the monitoring of elderly people at home. This aims at detect, as early as possible, a loss of autonomy by objectivizing criterions such as the international ADL or the French AGGIR scales implementing automatic classification of the different Activities of Daily Living. A Health Smart Home is used to achieve this goal. This flat includes different sensors. The data from the various sensors were used to classify each temporal frame into one of the activities of daily living that has been previously learnt (seven activities: hygiene, toilets, eating, resting, sleeping, communication and dressing/undressing). This is done using Support Vector Machines. We performed an experimentation with 13 young and healthy subjects to learn the model of activities and then we tested the classification algorithm (cross-validation) on real data.

  16. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  17. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE - Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  18. GroEL and Lipopolysaccharide from Francisella tularensis Live Vaccine Strain Synergistically Activate Human Macrophages ▿

    PubMed Central

    Noah, Courtney E.; Malik, Meenakshi; Bublitz, DeAnna C.; Camenares, Devin; Sellati, Timothy J.; Benach, Jorge L.; Furie, Martha B.

    2010-01-01

    Francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, interacts with host cells of innate immunity in an atypical manner. For most Gram-negative bacteria, the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from their outer membranes stimulates an inflammatory response. When LPS from the attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) or the highly virulent Schu S4 strain of F. tularensis was incubated with human umbilical vein endothelial cells, neither species of LPS induced expression of the adhesion molecule E-selectin or secretion of the chemokine CCL2. Moreover, a high concentration (10 μg/ml) of LVS or Schu S4 LPS was required to stimulate production of CCL2 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (huMDM). A screen for alternative proinflammatory factors of F. tularensis LVS identified the heat shock protein GroEL as a potential candidate. Recombinant LVS GroEL at a concentration of 10 μg/ml elicited secretion of CXCL8 and CCL2 by huMDM through a TLR4-dependent mechanism. When 1 μg of LVS GroEL/ml was added to an equivalent amount of LVS LPS, the two components synergistically activated the huMDM to produce CXCL8. Schu S4 GroEL was less stimulatory than LVS GroEL and showed a lesser degree of synergy when combined with Schu S4 LPS. These findings suggest that the intrinsically low proinflammatory activity of F. tularensis LPS may be increased in the infected human host through interactions with other components of the bacterium. PMID:20123721

  19. Fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Karakurt, Papatya; Ünsal, Ayla

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the fatigue, anxiety and depression levels, activities of daily living of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 255). It was found that there was significant difference between Visual Analogue Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F) point averages and gender, education levels, marital status and economical status of patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Among the participants in this study, 36.5% had an anxiety disorder whereas 69.0% exhibited depression. In the study, it was determined that 85.5% of those were independent in their Katz's Index of Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and 49.4% of those were independent in their Lawton and Brody's Index of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs). This study has shown that VAS-F, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, ADL and IADL instruments that measure the various aspects of health-related quality of living can contribute considerably to a more diversified understanding of the patients' situation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm.

  1. Real-World Affected Upper Limb Activity in Chronic Stroke: An Examination of Potential Modifying Factors

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Birkenmeier, Rebecca L.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Despite improvement in motor function after intervention, adults with chronic stroke experience disability in everyday activity. Factors other than motor function may influence affected upper limb (UL) activity. OBJECTIVE To characterize affected UL activity and examine potential modifying factors of affected UL activity in community-dwelling adults with chronic stroke. METHODS Forty-six adults with chronic stroke wore accelerometers on both ULs for 25 hours and provided information about potential modifying factors (time spent in sedentary activity, cognitive impairment, depressive symptomatology, number of comorbidities, motor dysfunction of the affected UL, age, activities of daily living (ADL) status, and living arrangement). Accelerometry was used to quantify duration of affected and unaffected UL activity. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was also calculated. Associations within and between accelerometry-derived variables and potential modifying factors were examined. RESULTS Mean hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were 5.0 ± 2.2 and 7.6 ± 2.1 hours, respectively. The ratio of affected-to-unaffected UL activity was 0.64 ± 0.19, and hours of affected and unaffected UL activity were strongly correlated (r=0.78). Increased severity of motor dysfunction and dependence in ADLs were associated with decreased affected UL activity. No other factors were associated with affected UL activity. CONCLUSIONS Severity of motor dysfunction and ADL status should be taken into consideration when setting goals for UL activity in people with chronic stroke. Given the strong, positive correlation between affected and unaffected UL activity, encouragement to increase activity of the unaffected UL may increase affected UL activity. PMID:25776118

  2. Phase Differential Enhancement of FLIM to Distinguish FRET Components of a Biosensor for Monitoring Molecular Activity of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, John Paul; Huang, He

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscopy (FLIM) has been used to monitor the enzymatic activity of a proteolytic enzyme, Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), with a recently developed FRET-based biosensor in vitro and in live HeLa and HT1080 cells. MT1-MMP is a collagenaise that is involved in the destruction of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as well as in various cellular functions including migration. The increased expression of MT1-MMP has been positively correlated with the invasive potential of tumor cells. However, the precise spatiotemporal activation patterns of MT1-MMP in live cells are still not well-established. The activity of MT1-MMP was examined with our biosensor in live cells. Imaging of live cells was performed with full-field frequency-domain FLIM. Image analysis was carried out both with polar plots and phase differential enhancement. Phase differential enhancement, which is similar to phase suppression, is shown to facilitate the differentiation between different conformations of the MT1-MMP biosensor in live cells when the lifetime differences are small. FLIM carried out in differential enhancement or phase suppression modes, requires only two acquired phase images, and permits rapid imaging of the activity of MT1-MMP in live cells. PMID:21519891

  3. Potentiation of Femtosecond Laser Intratissue Refractive Index Shaping (IRIS) in the Living Cornea with Sodium Fluorescein

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Lana J.; Ding, Li; Xu, Lisen; Knox, Wayne H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the effectiveness of intratissue refractive index shaping (IRIS) in living corneas and test the hypothesis that it can be enhanced by increasing the two-photon absorption (TPA) of the tissue. Methods. Three corneas were removed from adult cats and cut into six pieces, which were placed in preservative (Optisol-GS; Bausch & Lomb, Inc., Irvine, CA) containing 0%, 0.25%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2.5% sodium fluorescein (Na-Fl). An 800-nm Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser with a 100-fs pulse duration and 80-MHz repetition rate was used to perform IRIS in each piece, creating several refractive index (RI) modification lines at different speeds (between 0.1 and 5 mm/s). The lines were 1 μm wide, 10 μm apart, and ∼150 μm below the tissue surface. The RI change of each grating was measured using calibrated, differential interference contrast microscopy. TUNEL staining was performed to assess whether IRIS or Na-Fl doping causes cell death. Results. Scanning at 0.1 mm/s changed the RI of undoped, living corneas by 0.005. In doped corneas, RI changes between 0.01 and 0.02 were reliably achieved with higher scanning speeds. The magnitude of RI changes attained was directly proportional to Na-Fl doping concentration and inversely proportional to the scanning speed used to create the gratings. Conclusions. IRIS can be efficiently performed in living corneal tissue. Increasing the TPA of the tissue with Na-Fl increased both the scanning speeds and the magnitude of RI changes in a dose-dependent manner. Ongoing studies are exploring the use of IRIS to alter the optical properties of corneal tissue in situ, over an extended period. PMID:19815735

  4. Anaplasma marginale Yucatan (Mexico) Strain. Assessment of low virulence and potential use as a live vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Camarillo, Sergio D; García Ortiz, Miguel Angel; Rojas Ramírez, Edmundo E; Cantó Alarcón, Germinal J; Preciado de la Torre, Jesús F; Rosario Cruz, Rodrigo; Ramos Aragón, Juan A; Aboytes Torres, Ramón

    2008-12-01

    Anaplasma marginale Yucatan strain was found to have low virulence in cattle. We studied the virulence of this isolate by experimental inoculation of 113 susceptible cattle at increasing doses, after which only one animal required treatment for clinical disease. Subsequently, 104 cattle received a live vaccine of this strain by inoculation, which induced immunoprotection after heterologous challenged exposure with a different A. marginale isolate. In this study 14% of the immunized cattle required treatment as compared with the control nonimmunized cattle, in which 56% required treatment. The A. marginale vaccine strains used for the immunization studies had MSP1a variable regions that were different from those used for the challenge exposure.

  5. Stathmin Potentiates Vinflunine and Inhibits Paclitaxel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malesinski, Soazig; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Kruczynski, Anna; Peyrot, Vincent; Devred, François

    2015-01-01

    Cell biology and crystallographic studies have suggested a functional link between stathmin and microtubule targeting agents (MTAs). In a previous study we showed that stathmin increases vinblastine (VLB) binding to tubulin, and that conversely VLB increases stathmin binding to tubulin. This constituted the first biochemical evidence of the direct relationship between stathmin and an antimitotic drug, and revealed a new mechanism of action for VLB. The question remained if the observed interaction was specific for this drug or represented a general phenomenon for all MTAs. In the present study we investigated the binding of recombinant stathmin to purified tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel or another Vinca alkaloid, vinflunine, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). These experiments revealed that stathmin binding to tubulin is increased in the presence of vinflunine, whereas no signal is observed in the presence of paclitaxel. Further investigation using turbidity and co-sedimentation showed that stathmin inhibited paclitaxel microtubule-stabilizing activity. Taken together with the previous study using vinblastine, our results suggest that stathmin can be seen as a modulator of MTA activity and binding to tubulin, providing molecular explanation for multiple previous cellular and in vivo studies showing that stathmin expression level affects MTAs efficiency. PMID:26030092

  6. Strength and ability to implement the activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas

    PubMed Central

    Souza dos Santos, Samara; Carneiro Vasconcelos, Lélia Renata; Alves dos Santos, Clarice

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between muscle strength and the ability to perform basic and instrumental activities of daily living in elderly resident in rural areas of Jequie, Brazil. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional design study with a population of 104 individuals aged sixty or older, registered in the Family Health Unit of the district of Itajuru, Jequie-Brazil. Data collection was performed using a standardized instrument used as an interview, followed by the application of tests (bending arm with dumbbell and rising from a chair 30 sec). The basic and instrumental activities of daily living were investigated through the Katz and Lawton scales, respectively. The chi-square test with p ≤0.05 was used as a measure of statistical significance for bivariate analyzes between muscle strength and ability to perform daily activities. Results: The results showed a significant association between muscle strength and dynamic ability to perform activities of daily living. Conclusion: Reduced muscle strength is an important predictor of the functional ability of the elderly. Accordingly, it is recommended to observe muscle strength in actions directed at the elderly. PMID:27821897

  7. Terbinafine: novel formulations that potentiate antifungal activities.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y; Chen, X; Guan, S

    2015-03-01

    Terbinafine, an orally and topically active antifungal agent, has been available for the treatment of dermatophytic infections and onychomycosis for more than a decade. In addition, oral administration has been shown to be associated with drug-drug interactions, hepatotoxicity, low concentration at the infected sites, gastrointestinal and systemic side effects and other adverse effects. Since topical drug delivery can provide higher patient compliance, allow immediate access to the infected site and reduce unwanted systemic drug exposure, an improved topical drug delivery approach with high permeability, sustained release and prolonged retainment could overcome the limitations and side effects caused by oral administration. Conventional topical formulations cannot keep the drug in the targeted sites for a long duration of time and hence a novel drug delivery that can avoid the side effects while still providing sustained efficacy in treatment should be developed. This brief review of novel formulations based on polymers and nanostructure carriers provides insight into the efficacy and topical delivery of terbinafine.

  8. A FRET biosensor reveals spatiotemporal activation and functions of aurora kinase A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Giulia; Sizaire, Florian; Herbomel, Gaëtan; Reboutier, David; Prigent, Claude; Tramier, Marc

    2016-09-14

    Overexpression of AURKA is a major hallmark of epithelial cancers. It encodes the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase aurora A, which is activated at metaphase and is required for cell cycle progression; assessing its activation in living cells is mandatory for next-generation drug design. We describe here a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor detecting the conformational changes of aurora kinase A induced by its autophosphorylation on Thr288. The biosensor functionally replaces the endogenous kinase in cells and allows the activation of the kinase to be followed throughout the cell cycle. Inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase prevents the conformational changes of the biosensor. Using this approach, we discover that aurora kinase A activates during G1 to regulate the stability of microtubules in cooperation with TPX2 and CEP192. These results demonstrate that the aurora kinase A biosensor is a powerful tool to identify new regulatory pathways controlling aurora kinase A activation.

  9. A FRET biosensor reveals spatiotemporal activation and functions of aurora kinase A in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Bertolin, Giulia; Sizaire, Florian; Herbomel, Gaëtan; Reboutier, David; Prigent, Claude; Tramier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of AURKA is a major hallmark of epithelial cancers. It encodes the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase aurora A, which is activated at metaphase and is required for cell cycle progression; assessing its activation in living cells is mandatory for next-generation drug design. We describe here a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor detecting the conformational changes of aurora kinase A induced by its autophosphorylation on Thr288. The biosensor functionally replaces the endogenous kinase in cells and allows the activation of the kinase to be followed throughout the cell cycle. Inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase prevents the conformational changes of the biosensor. Using this approach, we discover that aurora kinase A activates during G1 to regulate the stability of microtubules in cooperation with TPX2 and CEP192. These results demonstrate that the aurora kinase A biosensor is a powerful tool to identify new regulatory pathways controlling aurora kinase A activation. PMID:27624869

  10. Randomised controlled trials of physical activity promotion in free living populations: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Hillsdon, M; Thorogood, M; Anstiss, T; Morris, J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review evidence on the effectiveness of trials of physical activity promotion in healthy, free living adults. To identify the more effective intervention programmes. METHODS--Computerised databases and references were searched. Experts were contacted and asked for information about existing work. INCLUSION CRITERIA--Randomised controlled trials of healthy, free living adult subjects, where exercise behaviour was the dependent variable were included. CONCLUSIONS--Ten trials were identified. The small number of trials limits the strength of any conclusions and highlights the need for more research. No UK based studies were found. Previously sedentary adults can increase activity levels and sustain them. Promotion of these changes requires personal instruction, continued support, and exercise of moderate intensity which does not depend on attendance at a facility. The exercise should be easily included into an existing lifestyle and should be enjoyable. Walking is the exercise most likely to fulfil these criteria. PMID:7499985

  11. A Study of Activities of Daily Living and Employment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age…

  12. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  13. Active Tectonics and Seismic Potential of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Wesson, Robert L.; Ekström, Göran

    This multidisciplinary monograph provides the first modern integrative summary focused on the most spectacular active tectonic systems in North America. Encompassing seismology, tectonics, geology, and geodesy, it includes papers that summarize the state of knowledge, including background material for those unfamiliar with the region; address global hypotheses using data from Alaska; and test important global hypotheses using data from this region. It is organized around four major themes: • subduction and great earthquakes at the Aleutian Arc, • the transition from strike slip to accretion and subduction of the Yakutat microplate, • the Denali fault and related structures and their role in accommodating permanent deformation of the overriding plate, and • regional integration and large-scale models and the use of data from Alaska to address important global questions and hypotheses. The book's publication near the beginning of the National Science Foundation's EarthScope project makes it especially timely because Alaska is perhaps the least understood area within the EarthScope footprint, and interest in the region can be expected to rise with time as more EarthScope data become available.

  14. Relationship between physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in independent community-living elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Fraile-Bermúdez, A B; Kortajarena, M; Zarrazquin, I; Maquibar, A; Yanguas, J J; Sánchez-Fernández, C E; Gil, J; Irazusta, A; Ruiz-Litago, F

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between objective data of physical activity and markers of oxidative stress in older men and women. Participants were old adults, aged≥60years (61 women and 34 men) who were all capable of performing basic daily activities by themselves and lived on their own. To describe physical activity we used objective data measured by accelerometers which record active and sedentary periods during everyday life for five days. Determination of oxidative stress was conducted from three perspectives: determination plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and membrane lipid peroxidation (TBARS). In the group of women, those who met physical activity recommendations (WR) had lower level of TAS. In addition, the moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was negatively correlated with TAS. Simultaneously, MVPA was correlated with increase in the GPx antioxidant enzyme activity, and the counts per minute were positively correlated with CAT activity. In the group of men, the cpm and the MVPA were negatively correlated with lipid peroxidation while lifestyle physical activity was positively correlated with CAT activity. These findings suggest that MVPA in the elderly although it is related to a decrease in the TAS in women, induces adaptive increase in antioxidant enzyme activity and decreases lipid peroxidation in both women and men. These results suggest that at this time of life, it is not only the amount of physical activity performed that is important but also its intensity.

  15. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  16. Identifying Drug (Cocaine) Intake Events from Acute Physiological Response in the Presence of Free-living Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Syed Monowar; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Epstein, David; Kennedy, Ashley; Preston, Kenzie; Umbricht, Annie; Chen, Yixin; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    A variety of health and behavioral states can potentially be inferred from physiological measurements that can now be collected in the natural free-living environment. The major challenge, however, is to develop computational models for automated detection of health events that can work reliably in the natural field environment. In this paper, we develop a physiologically-informed model to automatically detect drug (cocaine) use events in the free-living environment of participants from their electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements. The key to reliably detecting drug use events in the field is to incorporate the knowledge of autonomic nervous system (ANS) behavior in the model development so as to decompose the activation effect of cocaine from the natural recovery behavior of the parasympathetic nervous system (after an episode of physical activity). We collect 89 days of data from 9 active drug users in two residential lab environments and 922 days of data from 42 active drug users in the field environment, for a total of 11,283 hours. We develop a model that tracks the natural recovery by the parasympathetic nervous system and then estimates the dampening caused to the recovery by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system due to cocaine. We develop efficient methods to screen and clean the ECG time series data and extract candidate windows to assess for potential drug use. We then apply our model on the recovery segments from these windows. Our model achieves 100% true positive rate while keeping the false positive rate to 0.87/day over (9+ hours/day of) lab data and to 1.13/day over (11+ hours/day of) field data.

  17. A cancer detection platform which measures telomerase activity from live circulating tumor cells captured on microfilter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tong; Lu, Bo; Tai, Yu-Chong; Goldkorn, Amir

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantified in cancer patients’ blood can predict disease outcome and response to therapy. However, the CTC analysis platforms commonly used cannot capture live CTCs and only apply to tumors of epithelial origin. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel cancer detection platform which measures telomerase activity from live CTCs captured on a Parylene-C slot microfilter. Using a constant low-pressure delivery system, the new microfilter platform was capable of cell capture from 1 ml of whole blood in less than 5 minutes, achieving 90% capture efficiency, 90% cell viability and 200-fold sample enrichment. Importantly, the captured cells retained normal morphology by scanning electron microscopy and could be readily manipulated, further analyzed, or expanded on or off filter. Telomerase activity – a well-recognized universal cancer marker – was reliably detected by qPCR from as few as 25 cancer cells spiked into 7.5 ml whole blood and captured on microfilter. Moreover, significant telomerase activity elevation also was measured from patient blood samples and from single cancer cells lifted off the microfilter. Live CTC capture and analysis is fast and simple yet highly quantitative, versatile, and applicable to nearly all solid tumor types, making this a highly promising new strategy for cancer detection and characterization. PMID:20663903

  18. Transition in participation in sport and unstructured physical activity for rural living adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Eime, R M; Payne, W R; Casey, M M; Harvey, J T

    2010-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) is important for lifelong health; however, participation is lower in rural compared with metropolitan areas and declines during adolescence, particularly for girls. It is likely that this decline is related to the number of life transitions that occur during adolescence. This qualitative study examined the views of active rural living girls regarding the factors affecting their sport and PA participation, using the socioecological model. Twenty-seven girls aged 16-17 from four schools participated in semi-structured focus group discussions. Content and thematic analysis was conducted from verbatim transcripts using NVivo. The girls enjoyed involvement in community club sport with friends and they reported living in communities where participation in sport was a major form of social interaction. However, the desire to succeed educationally was a critical factor affecting their participation in sport and PA and influenced their movement from structured club sport to more flexible, but socially isolated individual activities. It is recommended that future longitudinal research should track rural living adolescent females as they complete secondary school, in order to better understand the influence of educational priorities upon sport and PA participation and to identify practical strategies for both schools and community organizations to foster continuing participation throughout this crucial period of life transition.

  19. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-Hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-08-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCom software 30 minutes/day, 5 times/week for 5 weeks. The control group received only rehabilitation therapy including physical and occupational therapy. A comparative analysis on all subjects was conducted before and after the experiment using a cognitive test and activities of daily living test. [Results] After 5 weeks of therapy, the training group presented statistically significant improvement in cognitive function assessment items of digit span, visual span, visual learning, auditory continuous performance, visual continuous performance, and others compared with the control group but did not present statistically significant improvement in activities of daily living. [Conclusion] It was revealed through this study that computerized cognitive rehabilitation with the RehaCom program results in improvement in cognitive function and can be used as a treatment tool beneficial to stroke patients presenting cognitive impairment.

  20. Effect of computerized cognitive rehabilitation program on cognitive function and activities of living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chanuk; Yong, Mi-hyun; Chung, Jaeyeop; Yang, Yeongae

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to examine the effect of cognitive rehabilitation using a computer on cognitive function and activities of daily living in stroke patients presenting impairment of cognitive function. [Subjects] Forty-six stroke patients were divided into two groups (a training group and control group) through random assignment. [Methods] The training group received rehabilitation therapy and an additional computerized cognitive rehabilitation program using The RehaCom software 30 minutes/day, 5 times/week for 5 weeks. The control group received only rehabilitation therapy including physical and occupational therapy. A comparative analysis on all subjects was conducted before and after the experiment using a cognitive test and activities of daily living test. [Results] After 5 weeks of therapy, the training group presented statistically significant improvement in cognitive function assessment items of digit span, visual span, visual learning, auditory continuous performance, visual continuous performance, and others compared with the control group but did not present statistically significant improvement in activities of daily living. [Conclusion] It was revealed through this study that computerized cognitive rehabilitation with the RehaCom program results in improvement in cognitive function and can be used as a treatment tool beneficial to stroke patients presenting cognitive impairment. PMID:26355244

  1. Physical Activity Assessment Between Consumer- and Research-Grade Accelerometers: A Comparative Study in Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Winfree, Kyle N; Pohlig, Ryan T; Papas, Mia A

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity monitors such as Fitbit enable users to track various attributes of their physical activity (PA) over time and have the potential to be used in research to promote and measure PA behavior. However, the measurement accuracy of Fitbit in absolute free-living conditions is largely unknown. Objective To examine the measurement congruence between Fitbit Flex and ActiGraph GT3X for quantifying steps, metabolic equivalent tasks (METs), and proportion of time in sedentary activity and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA in healthy adults in free-living conditions. Methods A convenience sample of 19 participants (4 men and 15 women), aged 18-37 years, concurrently wore the Fitbit Flex (wrist) and ActiGraph GT3X (waist) for 1- or 2-week observation periods (n=3 and n=16, respectively) that included self-reported bouts of daily exercise. Data were examined for daily activity, averaged over 14 days and for minutes of reported exercise. Average day-level data included steps, METs, and proportion of time in different intensity levels. Minute-level data included steps, METs, and mean intensity score (0 = sedentary, 3 = vigorous) for overall reported exercise bouts (N=120) and by exercise type (walking, n=16; run or sports, n=44; cardio machine, n=20). Results Measures of steps were similar between devices for average day- and minute-level observations (all P values > .05). Fitbit significantly overestimated METs for average daily activity, for overall minutes of reported exercise bouts, and for walking and run or sports exercises (mean difference 0.70, 1.80, 3.16, and 2.00 METs, respectively; all P values < .001). For average daily activity, Fitbit significantly underestimated the proportion of time in sedentary and light intensity by 20% and 34%, respectively, and overestimated time by 3% in both moderate and vigorous intensity (all P values < .001). Mean intensity scores were not different for overall minutes of exercise or for run or

  2. Visualization of positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) activation in living cells.

    PubMed

    Fujinaga, Koh; Luo, Zeping; Schaufele, Fred; Peterlin, B Matija

    2015-01-16

    Regulation of transcription elongation by positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) plays a central role in determining the state of cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation. In cells, P-TEFb exists in active and inactive forms. Its release from the inactive 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex is a critical step for P-TEFb to activate transcription elongation. However, no good method exists to analyze this P-TEFb equilibrium in living cells. Only inaccurate and labor-intensive cell-free biochemical assays are currently available. In this study, we present the first experimental system to monitor P-TEFb activation in living cells. We created a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to detect interactions between P-TEFb and its substrate, the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II. When cells were treated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, which releases P-TEFb from the 7SK small nuclear ribonucleoprotein, they turned green. Other known P-TEFb-releasing agents, including histone deacetylase inhibitors, bromodomain and extraterminal bromodomain inhibitors, and protein kinase C agonists, also scored positive in this assay. Finally, we identified 5'-azacytidine as a new P-TEFb-releasing agent. This release of P-TEFb correlated directly with activation of human HIV and HEXIM1 transcription. Thus, our visualization of P-TEFb activation by fluorescent complementation assay could be used to find new P-TEFb-releasing agents, compare different classes of agents, and assess their efficacy singly and/or in combination.

  3. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the

  4. Potential of BODIPY-cholesterol for analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells.

    PubMed

    Wüstner, Daniel; Lund, Frederik W; Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is an abundant and important lipid component of cellular membranes. Analysis of cholesterol transport and diffusion in living cells is hampered by the technical challenge of designing suitable cholesterol probes which can be detected for example by optical microscopy. One strategy is to use intrinsically fluorescent sterols, as dehydroergosterol (DHE), having minimal chemical alteration compared to cholesterol but giving low fluorescence signals in the UV region of the spectrum. Alternatively, one can use dye-tagged cholesterol analogs and in particular BODIPY-cholesterol (BChol), whose synthesis and initial characterization was pioneered by Robert Bittman. Here, we give a general overview of the properties and applications but also limitations of BODIPY-tagged cholesterol probes for analyzing intracellular cholesterol trafficking. We describe our own experiences and collaborative efforts with Bob Bittman for studying diffusion in the plasma membrane (PM) and uptake of BChol in a quantitative manner. For that purpose, we used a variety of fluorescence approaches including fluorescence correlation spectroscopy and its imaging variants, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP). We also describe pulse-chase studies from the PM using BChol in direct comparison to DHE. Based on the gathered imaging data, we present a two-step kinetic model for sterol transport between PM and recycling endosomes. In addition, we highlight the suitability of BChol for determining transport of lipoprotein-derived sterol using electron microscopy (EM) and show that this approach ideally complements fluorescence studies.

  5. Dyspnoea with activities of daily living versus peak dyspnoea during exercise in male patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Oga, Toru; Nishimura, Koichi; Tsukino, Mitsuhiro; Hajiro, Takashi; Mishima, Michiaki

    2006-06-01

    Dyspnoea measurements in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be broadly divided into two categories: those that assess breathlessness during exercise, and those that assess breathlessness during daily activities. We investigated the relationships between dyspnoea at the end of exercise and during daily activities with clinical measurements and mortality in COPD patients. We examined 143 male outpatients with moderate to very severe COPD. The peak Borg score at the end of progressive cycle ergometry was used for the assessment of peak dyspnoea rating during exercise, and the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) score was used for dyspnoea with activities of daily living. Relationships between these dyspnoea ratings with other clinical measurements of pulmonary function, exercise indices, health status and psychological status were then investigated. In addition, their relationship with the 5-year mortality of COPD patients was also analyzed to examine their predictive ability. Although the BDI score was significantly correlated with airflow limitation, diffusing capacity, exercise indices, health status and psychological status, the Borg score at the end of exercise had non-existent or only weak correlations with them. The BDI score was strongly significantly correlated with mortality, whereas the Borg score was not. Dyspnoea during daily activities was more significantly correlated with objective and subjective measurements of COPD than dyspnoea at the end of exercise. In addition, the former was more predictive of mortality. Dyspnoea with activities of daily living is considered to be a better measurement for evaluating the disease severity of COPD than peak dyspnoea during exercise.

  6. Resistance training increases total energy expenditure and free-living physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Hunter, G R; Wetzstein, C J; Fields, D A; Brown, A; Bamman, M M

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effects 26 wk of resistance training have on resting energy expenditure (REE), total free-living energy expenditure (TEE), activity-related energy expenditure (AEE), engagement in free-living physical activity as measured by the activity-related time equivalent (ARTE) index, and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in 61- to 77-yr-old men (n = 8) and women (n = 7). Before and after training, body composition (four-compartment model), strength, REE, TEE (doubly labeled water), AEE (TEE - REE + thermic response to meals), and ARTE (AEE adjusted for energy cost of standard activities) were evaluated. Strength (36%) and fat-free mass (2 kg) significantly increased, but body weight did not change. REE increased 6.8%, whereas resting RER decreased from 0.86 to 0.83. TEE (12%) and ARTE (38%) increased significantly, and AEE (30%) approached significance (P = 0.06). The TEE increase remained significant even after adjustment for the energy expenditure of the resistance training. In response to resistance training, TEE increased and RER decreased. The increase in TEE occurred as a result of increases in both REE and physical activity. These results suggest that resistance training may have value in increasing energy expenditure and lipid oxidation rates in older adults, thereby improving their metabolic profiles.

  7. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment.

  8. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  9. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  10. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  11. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  12. Examining the Effects of Video Modeling and Prompts to Teach Activities of Daily Living Skills.

    PubMed

    Aldi, Catarina; Crigler, Alexandra; Kates-McElrath, Kelly; Long, Brian; Smith, Hillary; Rehak, Kim; Wilkinson, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills. • Video modeling with handheld portable devices (Apple iPod or iPad) can be just as effective as video modeling with stationary viewing devices (television or computer). • The use of handheld portable devices (Apple iPod and iPad) makes video modeling accessible and possible in a wide variety of environments.

  13. Acid base activity of live bacteria: Implications for quantifying cell wall charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claessens, Jacqueline; van Lith, Yvonne; Laverman, Anniet M.; Van Cappellen, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    To distinguish the buffering capacity associated with functional groups in the cell wall from that resulting from metabolic processes, base or acid consumption by live and dead cells of the Gram-negative bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens was measured in a pH stat system. Live cells exhibited fast consumption of acid (pH 4) or base (pH 7, 8, 9, and 10) during the first few minutes of the experiments. At pH 5.5, no acid or base was required to maintain the initial pH constant. The initial amounts of acid or base consumed by the live cells at pH 4, 8, and 10 were of comparable magnitudes as those neutralized at the same pHs by intact cells killed by exposure to gamma radiation or ethanol. Cells disrupted in a French press required higher amounts of acid or base, due to additional buffering by intracellular constituents. At pH 4, acid neutralization by suspensions of live cells stopped after 50 min, because of loss of viability. In contrast, under neutral and alkaline conditions, base consumption continued for the entire duration of the experiments (5 h). This long-term base neutralization was, at least partly, due to active respiration by the cells, as indicated by the build-up of succinate in solution. Qualitatively, the acid-base activity of live cells of the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis resembled that of S. putrefaciens. The pH-dependent charging of ionizable functional groups in the cell walls of the live bacteria was estimated from the initial amounts of acid or base consumed in the pH stat experiments. From pH 4 to 10, the cell wall charge increased from near-zero values to about -4 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 and -6.5 × 10 -16 mol cell -1 for S. putrefaciens and B. subtilis, respectively. The similar cell wall charging of the two bacterial strains is consistent with the inferred low contribution of lipopolysaccharides to the buffering capacity of the Gram-negative cell wall (of the order of 10%).

  14. Increase in natural killer cell activity following living-related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Kita, Y; Saito, S; Nishimura, M; Ito, M; Mizuta, K; Tanaka, H; Harihara, Y; Kawarasaki, H; Hashizume, K; Makuuchi, M

    1998-01-01

    We monitored the serial changes of natural killer cell (NK) activity in eight recipients of living-related liver transplantation. The HLA types of all eight patients were haplotypically identical with those of their donors. Tacrolimus and methylprednisolone were used for immunosuppression. The NK activity before transplantation was 24.1 +/- 20.2% which is surprisingly low when compared with the value for normal individuals (67.7 +/- 13.2%, P < 0.01) or a liver dysfunction group (49.4 +/- 21.9%, P < 0.05). Serial changes in NK activity revealed a minimum of 6.1 +/- 3.6% 1 week after transplantation, gradually increasing to 49.2 +/- 12.5% at 2 months after transplantation. These results suggest that the diseased liver might play an important role in the suppression of NK activity.

  15. Data Acquisition System for In Situ Monitoring of Chemoelectrical Potential in Living Plant Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Chee, Fuei Pien; Chen, Cheng Ann; Chang, Jackson Hian Wui; Choo, Ying Ying; Dayou, Jedol

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis process in plants generates numerous sources of bioenergy. However, only a small fraction is readily exploited for electrical energy. The impact of environmental factors is one of the significant physiological influences on the electrical potential of the plants. Hence, we developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system for instantaneous monitoring of electrical potential in plants and Aloe vera was used as a plant sample. The static response characterization, capability index (P/T), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation procedures were applied to assess the reliability of the obtained data. This developed system offers the capability of in situ monitoring and detecting gradual changes in the electrical potential of plants up to a correlational strength of greater than 0.7. Interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in the Aloe vera plant and the optimization of the electricity can be achieved through the application of this monitoring system. This system, therefore, can serve as a tool to measure and analyze the electrical signals in plants at different conditions.

  16. Data Acquisition System for In Situ Monitoring of Chemoelectrical Potential in Living Plant Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Ying Ying

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthesis process in plants generates numerous sources of bioenergy. However, only a small fraction is readily exploited for electrical energy. The impact of environmental factors is one of the significant physiological influences on the electrical potential of the plants. Hence, we developed a data acquisition (DAQ) system for instantaneous monitoring of electrical potential in plants and Aloe vera was used as a plant sample. The static response characterization, capability index (P/T), and Pearson's coefficient of correlation procedures were applied to assess the reliability of the obtained data. This developed system offers the capability of in situ monitoring and detecting gradual changes in the electrical potential of plants up to a correlational strength of greater than 0.7. Interpretation of the electrical signal mechanisms in the Aloe vera plant and the optimization of the electricity can be achieved through the application of this monitoring system. This system, therefore, can serve as a tool to measure and analyze the electrical signals in plants at different conditions. PMID:27660638

  17. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain.

  18. Relationship between free-living daily physical activity and peripheral circulation in patients with intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Killewich, L A; Katzel, L I; Womack, C J; Montgomery, P S; Otis, R B; Fonong, T

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between free-living daily physical activity and peripheral circulation under resting, reactive hyperemia, and maximal exercise conditions in peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients with intermittent claudication. Sixty-one PAOD patients (age = 70 +/- 6 years, ankle/brachial index [ABI] = 0.57 +/- 0.24) were recruited from the Vascular Clinic at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center and from radio and newspaper advertisements. Free-living daily physical activity was measured as the energy expenditure of physical activity (EEPA), determined from doubly labeled water and indirect calorimetry. Patients also were characterized on ankle/brachial index, calf blood flow, calf transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcPO2), and calf transcutaneous heating power (TcHP). ABI and calf blood flow served as markers of the macrocirculation of the lower extremity, while TcPO2 and TcHP served as markers of the microcirculation. The claudication patients were sedentary, reflected by a mean EEPA value of 486 +/- 274 kcal/day. EEPA was related to calf TcHP at rest (282 +/- 24 mW; r = -0.413, p = 0.002), after postocclusion reactive hyperemia (275 +/- 22 mW; r = -0.381, p = 0.004), and after maximal exercise (276 +/- 20 mW; r = -0.461, p<0.001). ABI, calf blood flow, and calf TcPO2 were not related to EEPA under any condition. In conclusion, higher levels of free-living daily physical activity were associated with better microcirculation of the calf musculature in older PAOD patients with intermittent claudication.

  19. Live Long and Prosper: Potentials of Low-Cost Consumer Devices for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hein, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are one of the major causes of death worldwide. Personal behavior such as physical activity considerably influences the risk of incurring a CVD. In the last years numerous products such as pedometers have become available on the mass market that allow monitoring relevant behaviors and vital parameters. These devices are sufficiently precise, affordable, and easy to use. While today they are mostly lifestyle oriented they also have considerable potential for health and prevention. Objective Our goal is to investigate how recent low-cost devices can be used in real-life settings for the prevention of CVD, and whether using these devices has an advantage over subjective self-assessment. We also examine whether it is feasible to use multiple of such devices in parallel. Methods We observe whether and how persons are willing and able to use multiple devices in their daily lives. We compare the devices’ measurements with subjective self-assessment. We make use of existing low-cost consumer devices to monitor a user's behavior. By mapping the devices' features with pre-defined prevention goals we ensure that the system collects meaningful data that can be used to monitor the individual's behavior. We conducted a user study with 10 healthy adults to measure usability and to identify problems with sensor use in real life. The participants used the devices' original portals to monitor their behavior. The subjects (age range 35-75) used an off-the-shelf pedometer and a sports watch for 4 weeks. Results The participants responded in principle positively to the use of the devices. Analyzing the sensor data, we found that the users had some difficulties in operating the devices. We also found that the participants' self-assessment of their health behavior was too optimistic compared to the monitored data. They rated the usability of the overall system with 71 of up to 100 points in the "System Usability Scale". Conclusions Our study

  20. An Active Lifestyle is Associated with Better Neurocognitive Functioning in Adults Living with HIV-infection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Heaton, Robert K.; Umlauf, Anya; Gouaux, Ben; Rosario, Debra; Moore, Raeanne C.; Grant, Igor; Moore, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of healthy adults show that engagement in physical, social, and mental activities is associated with better cognitive outcomes, suggesting these activities may increase cognitive reserve. Given the prevalence and real-world impact of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), the present study examined the association between neurocognitive outcomes and self-reported proxies for physical exercise, social activity, and mental activity (employment was used as a proxy for mental activity) among 139 HIV-infected adults (Mage = 48.7; 48% age 50+). Participants completed a neuromedical and neuropsychological battery and were classified based on the number of self-reported active lifestyle factors (ALFs; 0 to 3), including physical exercise, social activity, and current employment. The association between ALFs and both demographically-adjusted average neuropsychological T-scores and HAND diagnoses were examined. Results revealed that an increased number of ALFs was associated with better global neurocognitive performance as well as a lower prevalence of HAND. These cross-sectional findings suggest that an active engagement in life may bolster neurocognitive functioning, perhaps by enhancing cognitive and/or brain reserve. However, an alternative explanation might be that persons with better neurocognitive functioning are more inclined and able to engage in these life activities. Future studies should utilize neuroimaging methodology, longitudinal data, and interventional approaches to establish cause-effect relationships and uncover the neural mechanisms whereby physical, social, and mental stimulation may protect neurocognition via cognitive reserve among those living with HIV. PMID:24554483

  1. Intracellular calcium strongly potentiates agonist-activated TRPC5 channels

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Nathaniel T.; Kaczmarek, J. Stefan

    2009-01-01

    TRPC5 is a calcium (Ca2+)-permeable nonselective cation channel expressed in several brain regions, including the hippocampus, cerebellum, and amygdala. Although TRPC5 is activated by receptors coupled to phospholipase C, the precise signaling pathway and modulatory signals remain poorly defined. We find that during continuous agonist activation, heterologously expressed TRPC5 currents are potentiated in a voltage-dependent manner (∼5-fold at positive potentials and ∼25-fold at negative potentials). The reversal potential, doubly rectifying current–voltage relation, and permeability to large cations such as N-methyl-d-glucamine remain unchanged during this potentiation. The TRPC5 current potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+: replacement by Ba2+ or Mg2+ abolishes it, whereas the addition of 10 mM Ca2+ accelerates it. The site of action for Ca2+ is intracellular, as simultaneous fura-2 imaging and patch clamp recordings indicate that potentiation is triggered at ∼1 µM [Ca2+]. This potentiation is prevented when intracellular Ca2+ is tightly buffered, but it is promoted when recording with internal solutions containing elevated [Ca2+]. In cell-attached and excised inside-out single-channel recordings, increases in internal [Ca2+] led to an ∼10–20-fold increase in channel open probability, whereas single-channel conductance was unchanged. Ca2+-dependent potentiation should result in TRPC5 channel activation preferentially during periods of repetitive firing or coincident neurotransmitter receptor activation. PMID:19398778

  2. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  3. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  4. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Compensation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living – Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  5. Development and psychometric properties of the instrumental activities of daily living: compensation scale.

    PubMed

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living - Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group.

  6. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely.

  7. A Comparison of Activity Levels among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Family Homes and Out-of-Family Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan; Kerr, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background: The quality of life of adults with intellectual disabilities living in the family home is an under-researched area. The current study compared indicators of household and community activity between adults living in family homes and those in out-of-family placements. Methods: Four datasets were merged to produce information on the…

  8. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Department of... INFORMATION Title: Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care, VA Form 10-0137. OMB Control... admitted to a VA medical facility complete VA Form 10-0137 to appoint a health care agent to make...

  9. Polymerase chain reaction detection of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in dental units.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Annie; Gravel, Sabrina; Abikhzer, Jérémie; Roy, Stéphane; Barbeau, Jean

    2012-07-01

    Several genera of amoebae can be found in water from dental units and on the inner surface of waterlines. The presence of bacterial biofilms on these surfaces is thought to favor the proliferation of amoebae. Potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba and Naegleria spp. may be an infection risk for patients through contact with open surgical sites or aerosolization. A polymerase chain reaction of DNA extracted from pelleted samples showed that Acanthamoeba spp. and Naegleria spp. were present in water from dental units, suction lines, and suction filters at the dental clinic of the Université de Montréal. Acanthamoeba spp. were detected in 24.2% of 66 samples and Naegleria spp. in 3.0%. We discuss the infection risk associated with these results.

  10. Two strategies to live in low chronic pollution estuaries: the potential role of lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Rubal, M; Guilhermino, L M; Medina, M H

    2011-07-01

    Although physiological and genetic adaptation to toxic stress has been the focus of recent research, the role of lifestyle in pollution tolerance has received less attention. In this study, copper tolerance of benthic and epi-benthic species of harpacticoid copepods was investigated. Concentration-response curves were generated for populations of both species but collected at contaminated and uncontaminated estuaries. The population of the benthic species from the contaminated site showed higher tolerance than its population from the uncontaminated site. The epi-benthic species showed no inter-specific differences in tolerance. The comparison of tolerance between field collected animals of the benthic species and animals from the same population but reared in the laboratory for two generations suggested the existence of a genetic inherited tolerance. Results revealed the importance that lifestyle may have on the generation of tolerance to toxic substances and highlight a potential unforeseen role of it in maintenance of biodiversity on contaminated habitats.

  11. Opposite-polarity motors activate one another to trigger cargo transport in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Shabeen; Larson, Adam G.; Barlan, Kari; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport is typically bidirectional, consisting of a series of back and forth movements. Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein require each other for bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules; i.e., inhibition or depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes dynein-driven cargo transport and vice versa. Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate that replacement of endogenous kinesin-1 or dynein with an unrelated, peroxisome-targeted motor of the same directionality activates peroxisome transport in the opposite direction. However, motility-deficient versions of motors, which retain the ability to bind microtubules and hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate, do not activate peroxisome motility. Thus, any pair of opposite-polarity motors, provided they move along microtubules, can activate one another. These results demonstrate that mechanical interactions between opposite-polarity motors are necessary and sufficient for bidirectional organelle transport in live cells. PMID:20038680

  12. "Molecular-Activity Painting": Switch-like, Light-Controlled Perturbations inside Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Venkatachalapathy, Muthukumaran; Kamps, Dominic; Weigel, Simone; Kumar, Ravi; Orlich, Michael; Garrecht, Ruben; Hirtz, Michael; Niemeyer, Christof M; Wu, Yao-Wen; Dehmelt, Leif

    2017-03-29

    Acute subcellular protein targeting is a powerful tool to study biological networks. However, signaling at the plasma membrane is highly dynamic, making it difficult to study in space and time. In particular, sustained local control of molecular function is challenging owing to the lateral diffusion of plasma membrane targeted molecules. Herein we present "molecular-activity painting" (MAP), a novel technology which combines photoactivatable chemically induced dimerization (pCID) with immobilized artificial receptors. The immobilization of artificial receptors by surface-immobilized antibodies blocks lateral diffusion, enabling rapid and stable "painting" of signaling molecules and their activity at the plasma membrane with micrometer precision. Using this method, we show that painting of the RhoA-myosin activator GEF-H1 induces patterned acto-myosin contraction inside living cells.

  13. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be a Scientist Coloring Science Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU ...

  14. Monitoring Biosensor Activity in Living Cells with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hum, Julia M.; Siegel, Amanda P.; Pavalko, Fredrick M.; Day, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    Live-cell microscopy is now routinely used to monitor the activities of the genetically encoded biosensor proteins that are designed to directly measure specific cell signaling events inside cells, tissues, or organisms. Most fluorescent biosensor proteins rely on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to report conformational changes in the protein that occur in response to signaling events, and this is commonly measured with intensity-based ratiometric imaging methods. An alternative method for monitoring the activities of the FRET-based biosensor proteins is fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). FLIM measurements are made in the time domain, and are not affected by factors that commonly limit intensity measurements. In this review, we describe the use of the digital frequency domain (FD) FLIM method for the analysis of FRET signals. We illustrate the methods necessary for the calibration of the FD FLIM system, and demonstrate the analysis of data obtained from cells expressing “FRET standard” fusion proteins. We then use the FLIM-FRET approach to monitor the changes in activities of two different biosensor proteins in specific regions of single living cells. Importantly, the factors required for the accurate determination and reproducibility of lifetime measurements are described in detail. PMID:23203070

  15. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Tranah, Gregory J; Lam, Ernest T; Katzman, Shana M; Nalls, Michael A; Zhao, Yiqiang; Evans, Daniel S; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Mooney, Sean; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret H; Newman, Anne B; Harris, Tamara B; Manini, Todd M; Cummings, Steven R

    2012-09-01

    The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.

  16. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  17. Simultaneous mechanical stiffness and electrical potential measurements of living vascular endothelial cells using combined atomic force and epifluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callies, Chiara; Schön, Peter; Liashkovich, Ivan; Stock, Christian; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina; Fels, Johannes; Sträter, Alexandra S.; Oberleithner, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The degree of mechanical stiffness of vascular endothelial cells determines the endogenous production of the vasodilating gas nitric oxide (NO). However, the underlying mechanisms are not yet understood. Experiments on vascular endothelial cells suggest that the electrical plasma membrane potential is involved in this regulatory process. To test this hypothesis we developed a technique that simultaneously measures the electrical membrane potential and stiffness of vascular endothelial cells (GM7373 cell line derived from bovine aortic endothelium) under continuous perfusion with physiological electrolyte solution. The cellular stiffness was determined by nano-indentation using an atomic force microscope (AFM) while the electrical membrane potential was measured with bis-oxonol, a voltage-reporting fluorescent dye. These two methods were combined using an AFM attached to an epifluorescence microscope. The electrical membrane potential and mechanical stiffness of the same cell were continuously recorded for a time span of 5 min. Fast fluctuations (in the range of seconds) of both the electrical membrane potential and mechanical stiffness could be observed that were not related to each other. In contrast, slow cell depolarizations (in the range of minutes) were paralleled by significant increases in mechanical stiffness. In conclusion, using the combined AFM-fluorescence technique we monitored for the first time simultaneously the electrical plasma membrane potential and mechanical stiffness in a living cell. Vascular endothelial cells exhibit oscillatory non-synchronized waves of electrical potential and mechanical stiffness. The sustained membrane depolarization, however, is paralleled by a concomitant increase of cell stiffness. The described method is applicable for any fluorophore, which opens new perspectives in biomedical research.

  18. Effect of combined movement and heart rate monitor placement on physical activity estimates during treadmill locomotion and free-living.

    PubMed

    Brage, Søren; Brage, Niels; Ekelund, Ulf; Luan, Jian'an; Franks, Paul W; Froberg, Karsten; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2006-03-01

    A placement effect on activity measures from movement sensors has been reported during treadmill and free-living activity. Positioning of electrodes may impact on movement artifact susceptibility as well as surface ECG waveform amplitudes and thus potentially on the precision by which heart rate (HR) is ascertained from such ECG traces. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which placement of the combined HR and movement sensor, Actiheart, influences measurement of HR and movement, and estimates of energy expenditure. A total of 24 participants (20-39 years, 45-109 kg, 1.54-2.05 m, 19-29 kg m(-2)) were recruited. Whilst wearing two monitors, one placed at the level of the third intercostal space (upper position) and one just below the apex of the sternum (lower position), study participants performed level walking, incline walking, and level running on treadmill, and completed at least one day of free-living monitoring. Placement differences in HR data quality, movement counts, and energy expenditure (estimated from combined HR and movement) were analyzed with regression techniques. Quality of HR data was generally higher when monitors were placed in the lower position. This effect was more pronounced in men during both treadmill activity (relative risk, RR [95% CI] of noisy HR data in upper vs. lower position, RR=1.3[0.3; 5.6] in women, RR=174[14; 2,156] in men) and during free-living (RR=1.2[0.4; 3.3] in women, RR=25[9.6; 67] in men). There were minor placement differences (< or =8%) in movement counts only in women during incline walking and running. During free-living, no placement effect on counts was observed. In all test scenarios, estimates of energy expenditure from the two positions were not significantly different. Positioning the Actiheart at the level below the sternum may yield cleaner HR data. Regardless of which position is used, this has little or no effect on movement counts and energy expenditure estimates, which is encouraging

  19. Amount and intensity of daily living activities in Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A patients

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Federica; Laudani, Luca; Damiani, Antonello; Macaluso, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background Charcot–Marie–Tooth 1A (CMT1A) patients show a reduction of spontaneous activities of daily living measured by means of questionnaires or pedometers, which are quite inaccurate compared to recent measurement techniques. Aim The study aimed at quantifying daily living activities in CMT1A patients by means of inertial sensors, which give information not only on the amount but also on the intensity of these activities. Materials and methods Time and count (amount), and velocity and power (intensity) of 24 h daily living activities were measured in eight patients (20–48 years; Barthel >90; Tinetti >20) and eight healthy individuals, matched for age and gender, by means of a wearable inertial sensor device. Results There were no differences between patients and controls in the 24-h distance covered and count of steps. However, count of step climbing and sit to stand were lower in patients than in controls (139.93 ± 141.66 vs. 341.06 ± 164.07 n and 58.23 ± 7.82 vs. 65.81 ± 4.75 n, respectively; P < 0.05) as well as mean daily step-climbing and walking velocities (1.07 ± 0.17 vs. 1.21 ± 0.10 m/sec and 1.16 ± 0.31 vs. 1.87 ± 0.50 m/sec, respectively; P < 0.05). In CMT1A patients there was a positive correlation between strength of the knee extensor muscles and both count of steps climbed (R = 0.80) and sit to stand (R = 0.79). Discussion and conclusion The reduced ability of CMT1A patients to carry out activities at high intensity, which was correlated with strength, suggests that strength training might be a rehabilitation tool for improving the 1 ability to carry out these activities. PMID:24653950

  20. Active living research: creating and using evidence to support childhood obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Cutter, Carmen L; Lou, Deborah; Spoon, Chad; Wilson, Amanda L; Ding, Ding; Ponkshe, Prabhu; Cervero, Robert; Patrick, Kevin; Schmid, Thomas L; Mignano, Alexandra; Orleans, C Tracy

    2014-02-01

    The second phase of Active Living Research (ALR-2, 2007-2012) focused on advancing the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF)'s goal of reversing the childhood obesity epidemic. The mission was to stimulate and support research to identify environmental factors and policies that influence physical activity for children and families to inform effective childhood obesity prevention strategies, with an emphasis on the lower-income and racial/ethnic communities with highest childhood obesity prevalence. The present report describes ALR activities undertaken to accomplish three goals. The first goal-to build an evidence base-was furthered by funding 230 competitive grants to identify and evaluate promising environment and policy changes. More than 300 publications have been produced so far. The second goal-to build an interdisciplinary and diverse field of investigators-was supported through annual conferences and linked journal supplements, academic outreach to multiple disciplines, and grants targeting young investigators and those representing groups historically disadvantaged or underrepresented in RWJF-funded research. The third goal-to use research to inform policy and practice-was advanced through research briefs; webinars; research-translation grants supporting ALR grantees to design communications tailored to decision-maker audiences; active engagement of policymakers and other stakeholders in ALR program meetings and annual conferences; ALR presentations at policy-related meetings; and broad outreach through a widely used website, e-mailed newsletters, and social media. ALR-2 findings and products have contributed to a rapid increase in the evidence base and field of active living research, as documented by an independent program evaluation.

  1. Evaluation of An Activities of Daily Living Scale for Adolescents and Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Maenner, Matthew J; Smith, Leann E; Hong, Jinkuk; Makuch, Renee; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity limitations are an important and useful dimension of disability, but there are few validated measures of activity limitations for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. Objective/Hypothesis To describe the development of the Waisman Activities of Daily Living (W-ADL) Scale for adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities, and systematically evaluate its measurement properties according to an established set of criteria. Methods The W-ADL was administered among four longitudinally-studied groups of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities: 406 with autism; 147 with fragile-X syndrome; 169 with Down syndrome, and 292 with intellectual disability of other or unknown origin. The W-ADL contains 17 activities and each is rated on a 3-point scale (0=“does not do at all”, 1=“does with help”, 2=“independent”), and a standard set of criteria were used to evaluate its measurement properties. Results Across the disability groups, Cronbach’s alphas ranged from 0.88 to 0.94, and a single-factor structure was most parsimonious. The W-ADL was reliable over time, with weighted kappas between 0.92 and 0.93. Criterion and construct validity were supported through substantial associations with the Vineland Screener, need for respite services, caregiving burden, and competitive employment. No floor or ceiling effects were present. There were significant group differences in W-ADL scores by maternally-reported level of intellectual disability (mild, moderate, severe, profound). Conclusions The W-ADL exceeded the recommended threshold for each quality criterion the authors evaluated. This freely-available tool is an efficient measure of activities of daily living for surveys and epidemiological research concerning adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities. PMID:23260606

  2. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Potentially Pathogenic Free-living Amoebae from Water Sources in Kish Island, Southern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasgerdi, Zohreh; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Amoebic keratitis, a sight-threatening corneal infection, mainly occurs in contact lens wearers who wash their eyes with tap water. The present research was conducted to identify the occurrence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) in tap water sources on Kish Island, a tourist region in Iran. Amoebae were detected using a culture-enriched method and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)/sequencing of the diagnostic fragment 3 region of the 18S rRNA gene of Acanthamoeba. In the case of other free-living amoebae species, PCR/sequencing analysis of the 18S rDNA was conducted. Results of this study showed the presence of Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, T5, and T11 genotypes in tap water sources. Additionally, Vermamoebae vermiformis was detected in three water samples. This is the first report of the Acanthamoeba genotypes T3, T4, T5, and T11 and V. vermiformis species in tap water sources in a tourist region in Iran. PMID:25922581

  3. Accumulation of ammonia and other potentially noxious gases on live export shipments from Australia to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Pines, M K; Phillips, C J C

    2011-10-01

    Noxious gases on ships are irritant pollutants that have potential impacts on the comfort and health of both livestock and humans. Identification of environmental influences on the pollutants will assist live exporters to control them. Ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide, as well as wet and dry bulb temperature, dew point, air speed and depth of faeces that the sheep stood in, were measured on two ship voyages in which sheep were transported from Australia to the Middle East. Daily measurements were made at 20 measurement locations over 12 days. At four sites, the mean ammonia concentration for the voyage was above the recommended maximum limit for the live export industry (25 ppm). The mean ammonia concentrations at the remaining 16 sites were below 18 ppm and considered safe. High ammonia concentrations were localised and occurred particularly on closed decks, as well as at the front of the vessel and near the engine block on open decks. Ammonia concentration on the open decks was correlated with cumulative wind during the voyage, air speed, dew point, wet bulb temperature and faecal pad depth, and on the closed decks with dew point, and wet and dry bulb temperature. Hydrogen sulphide (<1.8 ppm) and carbon dioxide (<1900 ppm) concentrations were low and did not pose a risk to animal or human welfare or health. The results suggest that high ammonia concentrations occur in those parts of the ship where there is insufficient ventilation and/or high temperatures and humidity.

  4. The Potential for Pocket Parks to Increase Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Golinelli, Daniella; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of new pocket parks in low-income neighborhoods. Setting Los Angeles Subjects Parks users and residents living within ½ mile of 3 pocket parks and 15 neighborhood parks Intervention The creation of pocket parks Design Quasi-experimental post-only comparison Measures We used the System of Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) to measure park use and park-based physical activity and surveyed park users and residents about their park use. Analysis We surveyed 392 and 432 household members within one-half mile of the 3 pocket parks before and after park construction, respectively, as well as 71 pocket park users and compared them to 992 neighborhood park users and 342 residents living within ½ mile of other neighborhood parks. We compared pocket park use to playground area use in the larger neighborhood parks. We used descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations for the analysis. Results Overall, pocket park use compared favorably in promoting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity with that of existing playground space in nearby parks and they were cost-effective at $0.73/MET hour gained. Pocket park visitors walked an average of 0.25 miles to get there. Conclusions Pocket parks, when perceived as attractive and safe destinations, may increase physical activity by encouraging families with children to walk there. Additional strategies and programs may be needed to encourage more residents to use the parks. PMID:24380461

  5. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  6. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  7. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-11-16

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering.

  8. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  9. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  10. Translating active living research into policy and practice: one important pathway to chronic disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F; Sugiyama, Takemi; Frank, Lawrence D; Lowe, Melanie; Owen, Neville

    2015-05-01

    Global concerns about rising levels of chronic disease make timely translation of research into policy and practice a priority. There is a need to tackle common risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and harmful alcohol use. Using evidence to inform policy and practice is challenging, often hampered by a poor fit between academic research and the needs of policymakers and practitioners--notably for active living researchers whose objective is to increase population physical activity by changing the ways cities are designed and built. We propose 10 strategies that may facilitate translation of research into health-enhancing urban planning policy. Strategies include interdisciplinary research teams of policymakers and practitioners; undertaking explicitly policy-relevant research; adopting appropriate study designs and methodologies (evaluation of policy initiatives as 'natural experiments'); and adopting dissemination strategies that include knowledge brokers, advocates, and lobbyists. Conducting more policy-relevant research will require training for researchers as well as different rewards in academia.

  11. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  12. Impact of odor from industrial hog operations on daily living activities.

    PubMed

    Tajik, M; Muhammad, N; Lowman, A; Thu, K; Wing, S; Grant, G

    2008-01-01

    Intensive industrial animal production systems worldwide require confinement of large numbers of animals in small spaces and concentration of enormous quantities of waste. Industrial hog operations, in particular, have raised public concerns about their adverse impact on public health and sustainable development. Using a community-based participatory research approach and qualitative interviews, we explored people's perception of the impact of odor from these industries on daily living activities as they relate to the beneficial use of property and enjoyment of life. Our research indicates that hog odor limits several leisure time activities and social interactions which could have adverse public health consequences. The results of this study can assist the communities and other stakeholders in public policy development that addresses these concerns.

  13. Small-molecule FRET probes for protein kinase activity monitoring in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaasa, Angela; Lust, Marje; Terrin, Anna; Uri, Asko; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2010-07-09

    In this study, the applicability of fluorescently labeled adenosine analogue-oligoarginine conjugates (ARC-Photo probes) for monitoring of protein kinase A (PKA) activity in living cells was demonstrated. ARC-Photo probes possessing subnanomolar affinity towards the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) and competitive with the regulatory subunit (PKAr), penetrate cell plasma membrane and associate with PKAc fused with yellow fluorescent protein (PKAc-YFP). Detection of inter-molecular Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between the fluorophores of the fusion protein and ARC-Photo probe can be used for both the evaluation of non-labeled inhibitors of PKAc and for monitoring of cAMP signaling via detection of changes in the activity of PKA as a cAMP downstream effector.

  14. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants’ reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Methods Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Results Cronbach’s alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = –0.587, p <0.01). Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = –0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = –0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812–0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. Conclusion The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD. PMID:27851810

  15. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  16. Using Rasch Analysis to Evaluate Accuracy of Individual Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) for Disability Measurement.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce; Li, Yanen

    2015-01-01

    Our study objectives were to examine the accuracy of individual activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental ADLs (IADLs) for disability measurement, and determine whether dependence or difficulty is more useful for disability measurement. We analyzed data from 499 patients with 2+ ADLs or 3+ IADLs who participated in a home visiting nurse intervention study, and whose function had been assessed at study baseline and 22 months. Rasch analysis was used to evaluate accuracy of 24 individual ADL and IADL items. The individual items differed in the amount of information provided in measuring functional disability along the range of disability, providing much more information in (usually) one part of the range. While nearly all of the Item Information Curves (IICs) for the ADL dependence, IADL difficulty, and IADL dependence items were unimodal with one information peak each, the IICs for ADL difficulty exhibited a bimodal pattern with two peaks. Which of the individual items performed better in disability measurement varied by the extent of functional disability (i.e., by how disabled the patients were). The information peaks of most ADLs and many IADLs rise or drop steeply in a relatively short distance. Thus, whether dependence or difficulty is superior often changes very quickly along the disability continuum. There was considerable heterogeneity in which individual items provided the most and the least information at the three points of interest examined across the disability range (-2 SD units, mean, +2 SD units). While the disability region (low, medium, and high disability) for which each individual item provided the most information remained quite stable between baseline and 22 months for ADL difficulty, IADL difficulty, and IADL dependence, relatively large shifts occurred for ADL dependence items. At the disability mean dependence items offered more information for assessment than difficulty. While ADLs also provided more information at -2 and +2 SD

  17. Pathomimetic cancer avatars for live-cell imaging of protease activity.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kyungmin; Heyza, Joshua; Cavallo-Medved, Dora; Sloane, Bonnie F

    2016-03-01

    Proteases are essential for normal physiology as well as multiple diseases, e.g., playing a causative role in cancer progression, including in tumor angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Identification of dynamic alterations in protease activity may allow us to detect early stage cancers and to assess the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies. Despite the clinical importance of proteases in cancer progression, their functional roles individually and within the context of complex protease networks have not yet been well defined. These gaps in our understanding might be addressed with: 1) accurate and sensitive tools and methods to directly identify changes in protease activities in live cells, and 2) pathomimetic avatars for cancer that recapitulate in vitro the tumor in the context of its cellular and non-cellular microenvironment. Such avatars should be designed to facilitate mechanistic studies that can be translated to animal models and ultimately the clinic. Here, we will describe basic principles and recent applications of live-cell imaging for identification of active proteases. The avatars optimized by our laboratory are three-dimensional (3D) human breast cancer models in a matrix of reconstituted basement membrane (rBM). They are designated mammary architecture and microenvironment engineering (MAME) models as they have been designed to mimic the structural and functional interactions among cell types in the normal and cancerous human breast. We have demonstrated the usefulness of these pathomimetic avatars for following dynamic and temporal changes in cell:cell interactions and quantifying changes in protease activity associated with these interactions in real-time (4D). We also briefly describe adaptation of the avatars to custom-designed and fabricated tissue architecture and microenvironment engineering (TAME) chambers that enhance our ability to analyze concomitant changes in the malignant phenotype and the associated tumor microenvironment.

  18. MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to laparoscopic donor nephrectomy: What the transplant surgeon wants to know?

    PubMed

    Ghonge, Nitin P; Gadanayak, Satyabrat; Rajakumari, Vijaya

    2014-10-01

    As Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy (LDN) offers several advantages for the donor such as lesser post-operative pain, fewer cosmetic concerns and faster recovery time, there is growing global trend towards LDN as compared to open nephrectomy. Comprehensive pre-LDN donor evaluation includes assessment of renal morphology including pelvi-calyceal and vascular system. Apart from donor selection, evaluation of the regional anatomy allows precise surgical planning. Due to limited visualization during laparoscopic renal harvesting, detailed pre-transplant evaluation of regional anatomy, including the renal venous anatomy is of utmost importance. MDCT is the modality of choice for pre-LDN evaluation of potential renal donors. Apart from appropriate scan protocol and post-processing methods, detailed understanding of surgical techniques is essential for the Radiologist for accurate image interpretation during pre-LDN MDCT evaluation of potential renal donors. This review article describes MDCT evaluation of potential living renal donor, prior to LDN with emphasis on scan protocol, post-processing methods and image interpretation. The article laid special emphasis on surgical perspectives of pre-LDN MDCT evaluation and addresses important points which transplant surgeons want to know.

  19. Doing Well: A SEM Analysis of the Relationships between Various Activities of Daily Living and Geriatric Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katt, James A.; Speranza, Linda; Shore, Wendy; Saenz, Karen H.; Witta, E. Lea

    2009-01-01

    An existing large data set, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) with the subsequent addition of the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS) data, provides a rich data set for the examination of the activities of older adults. In this study HRS and CAMS data are used to examine relationships between various activities of daily living (ADLs)…

  20. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  1. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic

  2. Does where you live matter? Leisure-time physical activity among Canadian youth: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Nadeau, Charles; Letarte, Laurence; Fratu, Ramona; Waygood, E. Owen D.; Lebel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore the population-wide distribution in the practice of leisure-time physical activity among Canadian youth and how physical activity level is influenced by contextual features of the environment. Methods: We studied the self-reported leisure-time physical activity of 54 832 Canadians aged 12 to 17 years. Observations were structured according to a 4-level geographic hierarchy. The outcome studied was a dichotomous indicator that referred to achieving (or not) the recommended daily level of leisure-time physical activity. To investigate the influence of the contextual features, we conducted multilevel logistic regressions. Results: For both girls and boys, significant variations were observed between health regions and between neighbourhoods within the provinces. Girls who lived in an urban setting showed lower odds of achieving the recommended physical activity level, as did those surveyed during the winter. Boys surveyed during the winter also showed lower odds of achieving the recommended level, but living in an urban setting had no effect on activity levels. Analysis of province-level residuals showed that girls living in Quebec were less likely to achieve the recommended activity level as compared with the national mean, and girls living in Ontario and British Columbia were more likely to achieve that threshold. Boys living in Ontario were more likely to achieve the recommended activity level as compared with the national mean. Youth had up to a 17% increased chance of achieving the recommended physical activity level if they lived in a context with a higher activity achievement level. Interpretation: Leisure-time physical activity was associated with environmental factors at multiple geographic scales among Canadian youth. The variation was more important at the neighbourhood level. The results provide rationale for further investigation into how leisure-time physical activity is promoted in different contexts

  3. The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Giudice, E.; Stefanini, P.; Tedeschi, A.; Vitiello, G.

    2011-12-01

    It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

  4. Breaking-up sedentary time is associated with impairment in activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Luis B; Ekelund, Ulf; dos Santos, Leandro; Cyrino, Edilson S; Silva, Analiza M; Santos, Diana A

    2015-12-01

    Identifying modifiable behaviors associated with prevention of activities of daily living (ADL) impairments is vital to implement preventive strategies for independent living in elderly. We aimed to examine the associations between objectively measured breaks in sedentary time with ADL impairments and physical independence. Cross-sectional assessments were carried out in 371 participants (131 male) aged 65-103 years from the Portuguese surveillance system of physical activity. Physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) were assessed with accelerometry, and ADL impairments and physical independence with the self-reported 12-item composite physical function scale. Using ROC analyses a cut-off of 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was identified which maximized the sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing physical dependence. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that, independently of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), participants performing ≤ 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time had 2 to 7 fold increased odds for impairment in 10 of the 12 ADL. When stratifying ADL into basic, instrumental and advanced ADL we verified that less than 7 hourly breaks in sedentary time was associated with a 2 to 5 fold increased odds for impairments and physical dependence, independent of MVPA. No associations were observed between meeting PA guidelines and basic, instrumental, and advanced ADL impairment although time in MVPA was lower in participants showing impairments. In conclusion, the frequency of breaks in sedentary time in older ages is independently associated with lower risk for ADL impairments and physical dependence. Our findings support interventions to encourage older adults to increase overall PA by interrupting sedentary time.

  5. Bioindication potential of carbonic anhydrase activity in anemones and corals.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, A L; Guzmán, H M

    2001-09-01

    Activity levels of carbonic anhydrase (CA) were assessed in anemones Condylactis gigantea and Stichodactyla helianthus with laboratory exposures to copper, nickel, lead, and vanadium, and also in animals collected from polluted vs pristine field sites. CA activity was found to be decreased with increase in metal concentration and also in animals collected from the polluted field site. Preliminary assessments to adapt the CA assay for use in the widespread coral Montastraea cavernosa show decreased CA activity in specimens from the polluted field site and provide an avenue for future research aimed at more thoroughly describing coral CA activity for potential application in bioindication.

  6. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  7. Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

  8. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic activities in live mammalian hippocampal tissues with stimulated Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fanghao; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Wei, Lu; Morrison, Barclay; Min, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Brain is an immensely complex system displaying dynamic and heterogeneous metabolic activities. Visualizing cellular metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in brain with chemical specificity has been a long-standing challenge. Recent development in metabolic labeling of small biomolecules allows the study of these metabolisms at the global level. However, these techniques generally require nonphysiological sample preparation for either destructive mass spectrometry imaging or secondary labeling with relatively bulky fluorescent labels. In this study, we have demonstrated bioorthogonal chemical imaging of DNA, RNA, protein and lipid metabolism in live rat brain hippocampal tissues by coupling stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with integrated deuterium and alkyne labeling. Heterogeneous metabolic incorporations for different molecular species and neurogenesis with newly-incorporated DNA were observed in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus at the single cell level. We further applied this platform to study metabolic responses to traumatic brain injury in hippocampal slice cultures, and observed marked upregulation of protein and lipid metabolism particularly in the hilus region of the hippocampus within days of mechanical injury. Thus, our method paves the way for the study of complex metabolic profiles in live brain tissue under both physiological and pathological conditions with single-cell resolution and minimal perturbation. PMID:28000773

  9. The coelacanth: Can a “living fossil” have active transposable elements in its genome?

    PubMed Central

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The coelacanth has long been regarded as a “living fossil,” with extant specimens looking very similar to fossils dating back to the Cretaceous period. The hypothesis of a slowly or even not evolving genome has been proposed to account for this apparent morphological stasis. While this assumption seems to be sustained by different evolutionary analyses on protein-coding genes, recent studies on transposable elements have provided more conflicting results. Indeed, the coelacanth genome contains many transposable elements and has been shaped by several major bursts of transposition during evolution. In addition, comparison of orthologous genomic regions from the genomes of the 2 extant coelacanth species L. chalumnae and L. menadoensis revealed multiple species-specific insertions, indicating transposable element recent activity and contribution to post-speciation genome divergence. These observations, which do not support the genome stasis hypothesis, challenge either the impact of transposable elements on organismal evolution or the status of the coelacanth as a “living fossil.” Closer inspection of fossil and molecular data indicate that, even if coelacanths might evolve more slowly than some other lineages due to demographic and/or ecological factors, this variation is still in the range of a “non-fossil” vertebrate species. PMID:26442185

  10. Linking Existing Instruments to Develop an Activity of Daily Living Item Bank.

    PubMed

    Li, Chih-Ying; Romero, Sergio; Bonilha, Heather S; Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Hong, Ickpyo; Velozo, Craig A

    2016-11-16

    This study examined dimensionality and item-level psychometric properties of an item bank measuring activities of daily living (ADL) across inpatient rehabilitation facilities and community living centers. Common person equating method was used in the retrospective veterans data set. This study examined dimensionality, model fit, local independence, and monotonicity using factor analyses and fit statistics, principal component analysis (PCA), and differential item functioning (DIF) using Rasch analysis. Following the elimination of invalid data, 371 veterans who completed both the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and minimum data set (MDS) within 6 days were retained. The FIM-MDS item bank demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .98) and met three rating scale diagnostic criteria and three of the four model fit statistics (comparative fit index/Tucker-Lewis index = 0.98, root mean square error of approximation = 0.14, and standardized root mean residual = 0.07). PCA of Rasch residuals showed the item bank explained 94.2% variance. The item bank covered the range of θ from -1.50 to 1.26 (item), -3.57 to 4.21 (person) with person strata of 6.3. The findings indicated the ADL physical function item bank constructed from FIM and MDS measured a single latent trait with overall acceptable item-level psychometric properties, suggesting that it is an appropriate source for developing efficient test forms such as short forms and computerized adaptive tests.

  11. The coelacanth: Can a "living fossil" have active transposable elements in its genome?

    PubMed

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The coelacanth has long been regarded as a "living fossil," with extant specimens looking very similar to fossils dating back to the Cretaceous period. The hypothesis of a slowly or even not evolving genome has been proposed to account for this apparent morphological stasis. While this assumption seems to be sustained by different evolutionary analyses on protein-coding genes, recent studies on transposable elements have provided more conflicting results. Indeed, the coelacanth genome contains many transposable elements and has been shaped by several major bursts of transposition during evolution. In addition, comparison of orthologous genomic regions from the genomes of the 2 extant coelacanth species L. chalumnae and L. menadoensis revealed multiple species-specific insertions, indicating transposable element recent activity and contribution to post-speciation genome divergence. These observations, which do not support the genome stasis hypothesis, challenge either the impact of transposable elements on organismal evolution or the status of the coelacanth as a "living fossil." Closer inspection of fossil and molecular data indicate that, even if coelacanths might evolve more slowly than some other lineages due to demographic and/or ecological factors, this variation is still in the range of a "non-fossil" vertebrate species.

  12. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-05-23

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel.

  13. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  14. [Behavioral competence among community dwelling older people with disability in basic activities of daily living].

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T; Watanabe, S; Suzuki, T; Shibata, H; Yoshida, H; Yasumura, S; Niino, N

    2000-07-01

    This study observed the status of independence in behavioral competence among older people who have any disability in basic activities of daily living (BADL) living in a rural community in Japan. Study participants (N = 76) who were regarded as bedridden were surveyed by means of a questionnaire in July to August 1996. The independence variables were age, sex, BADL status, hearing impairment, visual impairment, history of stroke, and cognitive impairment. The dependent variable was each item of the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) Index of Competence, which is a multidimensional 13-item index of behavioral competence. Percentages of subjects who were independent in each item of the TMIG Index of Competence varied from 1% to 36%. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that BADL status was independently associated with independence in using a telephone, being interested in news stories or programs dealing with health, being called on for advice, and initiating conversations with young people, after adjustment for age, sex, hearing impairment, visual impairment, history of stroke, and cognitive impairment. These findings suggest that programs for preventing decline in behavioral competence of older people with BADL disability might be important as well as physical therapy for them.

  15. Bioorthogonal chemical imaging of metabolic activities in live mammalian hippocampal tissues with stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Wei, Lu; Morrison, Barclay; Min, Wei

    2016-12-01

    Brain is an immensely complex system displaying dynamic and heterogeneous metabolic activities. Visualizing cellular metabolism of nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids in brain with chemical specificity has been a long-standing challenge. Recent development in metabolic labeling of small biomolecules allows the study of these metabolisms at the global level. However, these techniques generally require nonphysiological sample preparation for either destructive mass spectrometry imaging or secondary labeling with relatively bulky fluorescent labels. In this study, we have demonstrated bioorthogonal chemical imaging of DNA, RNA, protein and lipid metabolism in live rat brain hippocampal tissues by coupling stimulated Raman scattering microscopy with integrated deuterium and alkyne labeling. Heterogeneous metabolic incorporations for different molecular species and neurogenesis with newly-incorporated DNA were observed in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus at the single cell level. We further applied this platform to study metabolic responses to traumatic brain injury in hippocampal slice cultures, and observed marked upregulation of protein and lipid metabolism particularly in the hilus region of the hippocampus within days of mechanical injury. Thus, our method paves the way for the study of complex metabolic profiles in live brain tissue under both physiological and pathological conditions with single-cell resolution and minimal perturbation.

  16. The Role of the Kink Instability of a Long-Lived Active Region AR 9604

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lirong; Liu, Yang; Yang, Jing; Alexander, David

    2005-07-01

    We have traced the long-term evolution of a non-Hale active region composed of NOAA 9604 9632 9672 9704 9738, which displayed strong transient activity with associated geomagnetic effects from September to December, 2001. By studying the development of spot-group and line-of-sight magnetic field together with the evolution of Hα filaments, the EUV and X-ray corona (TRACE 171 Å, Yohkoh/SXT), we have found that the magnetic structure of the active region exhibited a continuous clockwise rotation throughout its entire life. Vector magnetic data obtained from Huairou Solar Observing Station (HSOS) and full-disk line-of-sight magnetograms from SOHO/MDI allowed the determination of the best-fit force-free parameter (proxy of twist), αbest, and the systematic tilt angle (proxy of writhe) which were both found to take positive values. Soft X-ray coronal loops from Yohkoh/SXT displayed a pronounced forward-sigmoid structure in period of NOAA 9704. These observations imply that the magnetic flux tube (loops) with the same handedness (right) of the writhe and the twist rotated clockwise in the solar atmosphere for a long time. We argue that the continuous clockwise rotation of the long-lived active region may be a manifestation that a highly right-hand twisted and kinked flux tube was emerging through the photosphere and chromosphere into the corona.

  17. Active in-database processing to support ambient assisted living systems.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Wagner O; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-08-12

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare.

  18. Diversity and methane oxidation of active epibiotic methanotrophs on live Shinkaia crosnieri

    PubMed Central

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Yamamoto, Asami; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Kenji; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Shinkaia crosnieri is a galatheid crab that predominantly dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic microbial community on the setae of S. crosnieri was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a functional gene (pmoA) encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. Phylogenetic analysis of pmoA transcript sequences revealed that the active epibiotic methanotrophs on S. crosnieri setae consisted of gammaproteobacterial type Ia and Ib methanotrophs. The effect of different RNA stabilization procedures on the abundance of pmoA and 16S rRNA transcripts in the epibiotic community was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. Our novel RNA fixation method performed immediately after sampling effectively preserved cellular RNA assemblages, particularly labile mRNA populations, including pmoA mRNA. Methane consumption in live S. crosnieri was also estimated by continuous-flow incubation under atmospheric and in situ hydrostatic pressures, and provided a clear evidence of methane oxidation activity of the epibiotic microbial community, which was not significantly affected by hydrostatic pressure. Our study revealed the significant ecological function and nutritional contribution of epibiotic methanotrophs to the predominant S. crosnieri populations in the Okinawa Trough deep-sea hydrothermal systems. In conclusion, our study gave clear facts about diversity and methane oxidation of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic community associated with invertebrates. PMID:24401859

  19. Using fluorescent sensors to detect botulinum neurotoxin activity in vitro and in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Min; Tepp, William H.; Johnson, Eric A.; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2004-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) act as zinc-dependent endopeptidases that cleave proteins required for neurotransmitter release. To detect toxin activity, fragments of the toxin substrate proteins, synaptobrevin (Syb) or synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25), were used to link cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Cleavage of these fusion proteins by BoNTs abolished fluorescence resonance energy transfer between the CFP and YFP, providing a sensitive means to detect toxin activity in real-time in vitro. Furthermore, using full-length SNAP-25 and Syb as the linkers, we report two fluorescent biosensors that can detect toxin activity within living cells. Cleavage of the SNAP-25 fusion protein abolished fluorescence resonance energy transfer between CFP and YFP, and cleavage of Syb resulted in spatial redistribution of YFP fluorescence in cells. This approach provides a means to carry out cell-based screening of toxin inhibitors and to study toxin activity in situ. By using these biosensors, we found that the subcellular localizations of SNAP-25 and Syb are critical for efficient cleavage by BoNT/A and B, respectively. PMID:15465919

  20. Persistent synchronized oscillations in prolactin gene promoter activity in living pituitary cells.

    PubMed

    McFerran, D W; Stirland, J A; Norris, A J; Khan, R A; Takasuka, N; Seymour, Z C; Gill, M S; Robertson, W R; Loudon, A S; Davis, J R; White, M R

    2001-07-01

    PRL gene expression in the anterior pituitary gland responds rapidly to different hormonal signals. We have investigated the long-term timing of transcriptional activation from the PRL, GH, and cytomegalovirus promoters in response to different stimulus duration, using real-time imaging of luciferase expression in living stably transfected GH3 cells. Long-term stimulation of serum-starved cells with 50% serum induced a homogeneous rise in PRL promoter activity, with subsequent heterogeneous fluctuations in luciferase activity in individual cells. When cells were subjected to a 2-h pulse of 50% serum, followed by serum-free medium, there were long-term (approximately 50 h) synchronized, homogeneous oscillations in PRL promoter activity. This response was PRL-specific, because in GH3 cells expressing luciferase from the GH or cytomegalovirus promoters, a serum pulse elicited no oscillations in luciferase expression after an initial transient response to serum. The PRL promoter may therefore be a template for an unstable transcription complex subject to stochastic regulation, allowing an oscillatory transcriptional response to physiological signals. This suggests that precise timing and coordination of cell responses to different signal-duration may represent a novel mechanism for coordinating long-term dynamic changes in transcription in cell populations.

  1. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Wagner O.; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare. PMID:25120164

  2. Active spacecraft potential control: An ion emitter experiment. [Cluster mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, W.; Goldstein, R.; Hamelin, M.; Maehlum, B. N.; Troim, J.; Olsen, R. C.; Pedersen, A.; Grard, R. J. L.; Schmidt, R.; Rudenauer, F.

    1988-01-01

    The cluster spacecraft are instrumented with ion emitters for charge neutralization. The emitters produce indium ions at 6 keV. The ion current is adjusted in a feedback loop with instruments measuring the spacecraft potential. The system is based on the evaporation of indium in the apex field of a needle. The design of the active spacecraft potential control instruments, and the ion emitters is presented.

  3. AMPK activation--protean potential for boosting healthspan.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2014-04-01

    AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated when the cellular (AMP+ADP)/ATP ratio rises; it therefore serves as a detector of cellular "fuel deficiency." AMPK activation is suspected to mediate some of the health-protective effects of long-term calorie restriction. Several drugs and nutraceuticals which slightly and safely impede the efficiency of mitochondrial ATP generation-most notably metformin and berberine-can be employed as clinical AMPK activators and, hence, may have potential as calorie restriction mimetics for extending healthspan. Indeed, current evidence indicates that AMPK activators may reduce risk for atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke; help to prevent ventricular hypertrophy and manage congestive failure; ameliorate metabolic syndrome, reduce risk for type 2 diabetes, and aid glycemic control in diabetics; reduce risk for weight gain; decrease risk for a number of common cancers while improving prognosis in cancer therapy; decrease risk for dementia and possibly other neurodegenerative disorders; help to preserve the proper structure of bone and cartilage; and possibly aid in the prevention and control of autoimmunity. While metformin and berberine appear to have the greatest utility as clinical AMPK activators-as reflected by their efficacy in diabetes management-regular ingestion of vinegar, as well as moderate alcohol consumption, may also achieve a modest degree of health-protective AMPK activation. The activation of AMPK achievable with any of these measures may be potentiated by clinical doses of the drug salicylate, which can bind to AMPK and activate it allosterically.

  4. POTENTIALLY PATHOGENIC FREE-LIVING AMOEBAE IN SOME FLOOD-AFFECTED AREAS DURING 2011 CHIANG MAI FLOOD

    PubMed Central

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA. PMID:24213194

  5. Potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in some flood-affected areas during 2011 Chiang Mai flood.

    PubMed

    Wannasan, Anchalee; Uparanukraw, Pichart; Songsangchun, Apichart; Morakote, Nimit

    2013-01-01

    The survey was carried out to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae (FLA) during flood in Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2011. From different crisis flood areas, seven water samples were collected and tested for the presence of amoebae using culture and molecular methods. By monoxenic culture, FLA were detected from all samples at 37 °C incubation. The FLA growing at 37 °C were morphologically identified as Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp. and some unidentified amoebae. Only three samples (42.8%), defined as thermotolerant FLA, continued to grow at 42 °C. By molecular methods, two non-thermotolerant FlA were shown to have 99% identity to Acanthamoeba sp. and 98% identity to Hartmannella vermiformis while the two thermotolerant FLA were identified as Echinamoeba exundans (100% identity) and Hartmannella sp. (99% identity). This first report of the occurrence of FLA in water during the flood disaster will provide information to the public to be aware of potentially pathogenic FLA.

  6. Sodium conductance and the activation potential in Xenopus laevis eggs.

    PubMed

    Peres, A; Mancinelli, E

    1985-09-01

    Experiments have been performed to identify the membrane permeability changes causing activation potential in Xenopus eggs. The eggs were artificially activated either by pricking or by addition of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 to the bath. Two different ionic currents appear to control the activation potential: (i) a chloride current which develops after a delay of 30 s to 5 min from the activating stimulus and which, in low external chloride, produces a depolarization and, (ii) a voltage-dependent outward current which begins to flow when the membrane potential is more positive than about +20 mV and tends to hyperpolarize the membrane. The chloride current lasts about 3-4 min; the voltage-dependent outward current is present before activation and disappears more slowly than the Cl- current. Changes in external sodium concentration affect the reversal potential of the outward current before and after the development of the inward Cl- current. We suggest that the chloride current has the role of producing a rapid depolarization necessary to block polyspermy, while the voltage-dependent sodium outward current might prevent the depolarization from reaching excessively high values and help the repolarization phase.

  7. Active control of spacecraft potentials at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, R.; Deforest, S. E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests have been conducted concerning the active control of the potentials of the geosynchronous satellites ATS-5 and ATS-6. The ATS-5 tests show that a simple electron emitter can be used to reduce the magnitude of the potential of a spacecraft which has been charged negatively by the environment. The ATS-6 ion thruster had also a pronounced effect on the potential barrier. In this case, the flux of high-energy primary ions and of low-charge exchange ions produces a space-charge neutralization effect which the electron gun alone cannot achieve.

  8. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey

    PubMed Central

    Hegazi, Ahmed G.; Guthami, Faiz M. Al; Gethami, Ahmed F. M. Al; Allah, Fyrouz M. Abd; Saleh, Ashraf A.; Fouad, Ehab A.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria. PMID:28344408

  9. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  10. Activities of Daily Living in Mexican American Caregivers: The Key to Continuing Informal Care

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2013-01-01

    La familia drives elder care in Mexican–American (MA) families, but nursing home placement can result from day-to-day caregiving demands that increase caregiver difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs). Using life course perspective, this article describes the initial data wave of 31 MA caregivers from a descriptive, longitudinal, mixed-methods study of 110 MA caregivers and care recipients over 15 months in their caregiving trajectories. Fifteen of 31 caregivers consistently indicated “no help needed” on the Katz ADL, whereas all but one reported “help needed” during semistructured interviews with cultural brokers. In addition to the discrepancy between results on the Katz ADL and interviews, findings include consideration of nursing home placement by moderately acculturated caregivers and minimization of their illnesses by caregivers. Additional methods of MA caregiver assessment may be needed due to the questionable accuracy of the Katz ADL; additional research should explore minimization and acculturation in MA caregivers. PMID:22740307

  11. Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that global cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when global cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients. PMID:16822730

  12. Attentional deficits affect activities of daily living in dementia‐associated with Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bronnick, K; Ehrt, U; Emre, M; De Deyn, P P; Wesnes, K; Tekin, S; Aarsland, D

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of attentional deficits on activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PDD). Method 461 patients were assessed neuropsychologically. Factor analyses were used to differentiate attention from other cognitive functions and to differentiate different aspects of ADL functions. The effects of the attentional measure on ADL were examined using sequential multiple regression, controlling for age, sex, education, severity of motor symptoms and other cognitive functions. Results Three cognitive factors were identified, with one factor emerging as a measure of vigilance and focused attention. This factor predicted different aspects of ADL status even after controlling for motor functions and other cognitive factors. The attention factor was the single strongest cognitive predictor of ADL status, matching the strength of the effects of motor functions on ADL status. Conclusion Impaired attention is an important determinant of ADL functions in patients with PDD. PMID:16801351

  13. Associations between active living-oriented zoning and no adult leisure-time physical activity in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Leider, Julien; Chriqui, Jamie F; Thrun, Emily

    2017-02-01

    Nearly one-third of adults report no leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Governmental and authoritative bodies recognize the role that community design through zoning code changes can play in enabling LTPA. This study examined the association between zoning and no adult LTPA in the U.S. This study was conducted between 2012 and 2016, with analyses occurring in 2015-2016. Zoning codes effective as of 2010 were compiled for jurisdictions located in the 495 most populous U.S. counties and were evaluated for pedestrian-oriented code reform zoning, 11 active living-oriented provisions (e.g., sidewalks, bike-pedestrian connectivity, mixed use, bike lanes) and a summated zoning scale (max=12). Individual-level LTPA data were obtained from the 2012 CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). County-aggregated, population-weighted zoning variables were constructed for linking to BRFSS. Log-log multivariate regressions (N=147,517 adults), controlling for individual and county characteristics and with robust standard errors clustered on county, were conducted to examine associations between zoning and no LTPA. Relative risks (RR) compared predicted lack of LTPA at 0% and 100% county-level population exposure to each zoning predictor. Zoning code reforms were associated with a 13% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.82-0.92). Except for crosswalks, all zoning provisions were associated with an 11-16% lower probability of no LTPA. Having all 12 zoning provisions was associated with a 22% lower probability of no LTPA (RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.83). The results suggest that active living-oriented zoning is a policy lever available to communities seeking to reduce rates of no LTPA.

  14. Novel 2-Aminobenzamides as Potential Orally Active Antithrombotic Agents

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to develop potent antithrombotic agents, a series of novel 2-aminobenzamide derivatives were synthesized and screened for their in vivo antithrombotic activity. Among the 23 compounds tested, compound (8g) showed the most promising antithrombotic activity, which was comparable with clinically used aspirin or warfarin, but at variance with these standard drugs, 8g did not exhibit the increased bleeding time, suggesting its potential as a novel antithrombotic agent. PMID:24900559

  15. Bromophenols from marine algae with potential anti-diabetic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiukun; Liu, Ming

    2012-12-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities, including antimicrobial, anticancer, and anti-diabetic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae, emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications. Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B, α-glucosidase, as well as other mechanisms.

  16. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  17. Association Between Social Participation and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Population-based data examining the relationship between social participation (SP) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) are scarce. This study examined the cross-sectional relationship between SP and IADL in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 23 710 residents aged ≥65 years in Nara, Japan (response rate: 74.2%). Data from 14 956 respondents (6935 males and 8021 females) without dependency in basic activities of daily living (ADL) were analyzed. The number, type, and frequency of participation in social groups (SGs) were used to measure SP. SGs included volunteer groups, sports groups, hobby groups, senior citizens’ clubs, neighborhood community associations, and cultural groups. IADL was evaluated using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Logistic regression models stratified by gender were used. Results After adjustment for putative confounding factors, including demographics, health status, life-style habits, ADL, depression, cognitive function, social networks, social support, and social roles, participation in various SGs among both genders was inversely associated with poor IADL, showing a significant dose-response relationship between an increasing number of SGs and a lower proportion of those with poor IADL (P for trend <0.001). A significant inverse association between frequent participation and poor IADL was observed for all types of SGs among females, whereas the association was limited to sports groups and senior citizens’ clubs among males. Conclusions Our results show that participation in a variety of SGs is associated with independent IADL among the community-dwelling elderly, regardless of gender. However, the beneficial effects of frequent participation on IADL may be stronger for females than for males. PMID:27180933

  18. Concurrent Validity of Wearable Activity Trackers Under Free-Living Conditions.

    PubMed

    Brooke, Skyler M; An, Hyun-Sung; Kang, Seoung-Ki; Noble, John M; Berg, Kris E; Lee, Jung-Min

    2017-04-01

    Brooke, SM, An, H-S, Kang, S-K, Noble, JM, Berg, KE, and Lee, J-M. Concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers under free-living conditions. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1097-1106, 2017-The purpose of this study is to evaluate the concurrent validity of wearable activity trackers in energy expenditure (EE) and sleep period time (SPT) under free-living conditions. Ninety-five (28.5 ± 9.8 years) healthy men (n = 34) and women (n = 61) participated in this study. The total EE and SPT were measured using 8 monitors: Nike+ FuelBand SE (NFB), Garmin VivoFit (VF), Misfit Shine (MF), Fitbit Flex (FF), Jawbone UP (JU), Polar Loop (PL), Fitbit Charge HR (FC), and SenseWear Armband Mini (SWA) (criterion measures: SWA for EE and a sleep log for SPT). The mean absolute percent error (MAPE) for EE was 13.0, 15.2, 15.5, 16.1, 16.2, 22.8, and 24.5% for PL, MF, FF, NFB, FC, JU, and VF, respectively. Mean absolute percent errors were calculated for SPT to be 4.0, 8.8, 10.2, 11.5, 12.9, 13.6, 17.5, and 21.61% for VF, FF, JU, FC, MF, SWA laying down, PL, and SWA, respectively. Concurrent validity was examined using equivalence testing on EE (equivalence zone: 2,889.7-3,531.9 kcal); 2 trackers fell short of falling in the zone: PL (2,714.4-3,164.8 kcal) and FC (2,473.8-3,066.5 kcal). For SPT (equivalence zone: 420.6-514.0 minutes), several monitors fell in the zone: PL (448.3-485.6 minutes), MS (442.8-492.2 minutes), and FF (427.7-486.7 minutes). This study suggests that the PL and FC provide a reasonable estimate of EE under free-living conditions. The PL, FC, and MF were the most valid monitors used for measuring SPT.

  19. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  20. A daily living activity remote monitoring system for solitary elderly people.

    PubMed

    Maki, Hiromichi; Ogawa, Hidekuni; Matsuoka, Shingo; Yonezawa, Yoshiharu; Caldwell, W Morton

    2011-01-01

    A daily living activity remote monitoring system has been developed for supporting solitary elderly people. The monitoring system consists of a tri-axis accelerometer, six low-power active filters, a low-power 8-bit microcontroller (MC), a 1GB SD memory card (SDMC) and a 2.4 GHz low transmitting power mobile phone (PHS). The tri-axis accelerometer attached to the subject's chest can simultaneously measure dynamic and static acceleration forces produced by heart sound, respiration, posture and behavior. The heart rate, respiration rate, activity, posture and behavior are detected from the dynamic and static acceleration forces. These data are stored in the SD. The MC sends the data to the server computer every hour. The server computer stores the data and makes a graphic chart from the data. When the caregiver calls from his/her mobile phone to the server computer, the server computer sends the graphical chart via the PHS. The caregiver's mobile phone displays the chart to the monitor graphically.

  1. Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with short interfering DNA (Dbait) in various living systems.

    PubMed

    Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M

    2011-10-01

    Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) live zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower 'efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials.

  2. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  3. Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: an exploration of literature.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Spoon, Chad; Cavill, Nick; Engelberg, Jessa K; Gebel, Klaus; Parker, Mike; Thornton, Christina M; Lou, Debbie; Wilson, Amanda L; Cutter, Carmen L; Ding, Ding

    2015-02-28

    To reverse the global epidemic of physical inactivity that is responsible for more than 5 million deaths per year, many groups recommend creating "activity-friendly environments." Such environments may have other benefits, beyond facilitating physical activity, but these potential co-benefits have not been well described. The purpose of the present paper is to explore a wide range of literature and conduct an initial summary of evidence on co-benefits of activity-friendly environments. An extensive but non-systematic review of scientific and "gray" literature was conducted. Five physical activity settings were defined: parks/open space/trails, urban design, transportation, schools, and workplaces/buildings. Several evidence-based activity-friendly features were identified for each setting. Six potential outcomes/co-benefits were searched: physical health, mental health, social benefits, safety/injury prevention, environmental sustainability, and economics. A total of 418 higher-quality findings were summarized. The overall summary indicated 22 of 30 setting by outcome combinations showed "strong" evidence of co-benefits. Each setting had strong evidence of at least three co-benefits, with only one occurrence of a net negative effect. All settings showed the potential to contribute to environmental sustainability and economic benefits. Specific environmental features with the strongest evidence of multiple co-benefits were park proximity, mixed land use, trees/greenery, accessibility and street connectivity, building design, and workplace physical activity policies/programs. The exploration revealed substantial evidence that designing community environments that make physical activity attractive and convenient is likely to produce additional important benefits. The extent of the evidence justifies systematic reviews and additional research to fill gaps.

  4. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  5. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Encarnación; Lázaro, Angelina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e) = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95%) were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years) and gender (female). The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered) with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are independent enough to

  6. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  7. Screening of recreational areas of rivers for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae in the suburbs of Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Niyyati, Maryam; Lasjerdi, Zohreh; Nazar, Mahdieh; Haghighi, Ali; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2012-03-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA), especially Acanthamoeba and Naegleria, in river recreation areas in Tehran Province, Iran. All rivers surveyed were associated with human activity, and two were also a source of municipal tap water. Fifty-five water samples from 10 major rivers were screened for FLA and identified by morphological characters, PCR amplification targeting specific genes for Acanthamoeba (DF3 region of Rns gene) and other FLA (ITS PCR), and homology analysis. The percentage of positive FLA isolates was 27.3%, of which 80% were Acanthamoeba, assigned to the T4 and T15 genotype, and 20% were Naegleria. Isolation of Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (91.7%) from recreation areas could be a health threat and a sanitary risk associated with human activity where young people and tourists congregate in summer. Posting of warning signs and education of high-risk individuals are important for disease prevention. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of genotype T15 (clustered with A. jacobsi) identified in Iran and the first report of the distribution of FLA such as Naegleria (N. pagei, N. clarki and N. fultoni) in recreation areas in rivers of Tehran Province using molecular methods.

  8. Measuring Physical Activity in Free-Living Conditions—Comparison of Three Accelerometry-Based Methods

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, Anna-Maiju; Ahola, Riikka; Kulmala, Janne; Hakonen, Harto; Vähä-Ypyä, Henri; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Auvinen, Juha; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Sievänen, Harri; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2017-01-01

    We examined the agreement in time spent on different physical activity (PA) levels using (1) mean amplitude deviation (MAD) of raw acceleration from the hip, (2) wrist-worn Polar Active, and (3) hip-worn Actigraph counts using Freedson's cut-points among adults under free-living conditions. PA was measured in 41 volunteers (mean age 47.6 years) for 14 days. Two MET-based threshold sets were used for MAD and Polar Active for sedentary time (ST) and time spent in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA. Actigraph counts were divided into PA classes, ≤100 counts/min for ST and Freedson's cut-points for LPA, MPA, and VPA. Analysis criteria were simultaneous use of devices for at least 4 days of >500 min/d. The between-method differences were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance test. Bland-Altman plots and ROC graphs were also employed. Valid data were available from 27 participants. Polar Active produced the highest amount of VPA with both thresholds (≥5 and ≥6 MET; mean difference 17.9–30.9 min/d, P < 0.001). With the threshold 3–6 MET for MPA, Polar Active indicated 19.2 min/d more than MAD (95% CI 5.8–32.6) and 51.0 min/d more than Actigraph (95% CI 36.7–65.2). The results did not differ with 3.5–5 MET for MPA [F(1.44, 37.43) = 1.92, P = 0.170]. MAD and Actigraph were closest to each other for ST with the threshold < 1.5 MET (mean difference 22.2 min/d, 95% CI 7.1–37.3). With the threshold <2 MET, Polar Active and Actigraph provided similar results (mean difference 7.0 min/d, 95% CI −17.8–31.7). Moderate to high agreement (area under the ROC curve 0.806–0.963) was found between the methods for the fulfillment of the recommendation for daily moderate-to-vigorous PA of 60 min. In free-living conditions the agreement between MAD, Polar Active, and Actigraph for measuring time spent on different activity levels in adults was dependent on the activity thresholds used and PA intensity. ROC analyses showed moderate to

  9. Participation in Black Lives Matter and Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals: Modern Activism among Black and Latino College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, Elan C.; Keels, Micere; Durkee, Myles I.

    2016-01-01

    Political activism is one way racially/ethnically marginalized youth can combat institutional discrimination and seek legislative change toward equality and justice. In the current study, we examine participation in #BlackLivesMatter (BLM) and advocacy for Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) as political activism popular among youth.…

  10. Diet, physical activity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Chinese Americans living in New York City.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sally S; Beth Dixon, L; Gilbride, Judith A; Chin, Warren W; Kwan, Tak W

    2011-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the US and affects Chinese Americans disproportionately compared to other ethnic groups in the American population. However, few studies have examined CVD risk factors, including diet and physical activity, in Chinese Americans. This investigation used a cross-sectional design to evaluate the dietary intake, dietary supplement use, and physical activity of 125 older Chinese Americans aged 50-98 years, and to determine how these behaviors may be related to obesity and other CVD risk factors. Sociodemographic information, CVD risk factors, dietary intake, and physical activity were obtained from all participants recruited from health fairs conducted in New York City (NYC). The findings revealed that older Chinese American adults living in NYC had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, borderline hypertension, pre-diabetes, and diabetes. Many participants did not meet their daily requirements calcium, potassium, folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12, several minerals and vitamins important for cardiovascular health. Although most participants consumed an adequate numbers of servings of foods from the main food groups, most did not meet the recommended number of servings of dairy foods and only one in four adults took a multivitamin supplement daily. After adjusting for potential confounders, daily consumption of oil/sweets and dairy foods was positively associated with waist circumference. Also, daily consumption of oils/sweets, meats, and grains was positively associated with systolic blood pressure. The majority of the participants reported at least 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity per day. Dietary intake or supplement use did not show protective effects but performing vigorous physical activity may reduce risk of CVD in this population.

  11. Factors associated with the recovery of activities of daily living after hospitalization for acute medical illness: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Ryohei; Watanabe, Hiroki; Tsutsumi, Madoka; Kanamori, Takeshige; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yanagi, Hisako

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the factors associated with the recovery rate of activities of daily living of elderly patients hospitalized for acute medical illness. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 238 elderly patients were enrolled in this study. The main outcome measure was the functional independence measure score which was used as an assessment of activities of daily living. The participants were divided into 2 groups based on their activities of daily living before onset: the independent group and the partially dependent group. The participants of each group were further divided into 2 subgroups based on recovery rates of activities of daily living: the high-recovery group (80%) and the low-recovery group (<80%). The factors associated with the recovery rate were examined using multivariate logistic regression analysis. [Results] The factors associated with the recovery rate were: days of inactivity and cognitive status at the start of rehabilitation for the independent group, and days of inactivity and nutritional status at the start of rehabilitation for the partially dependent group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the important factors for return to normal activities of daily living are: days of inactivity and cognitive status for the independent group; and days of inactivity and management of nutrition for the partially dependent group. PMID:27821931

  12. [A statistical analysis of factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients].

    PubMed

    Nogaki, H

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate several factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients after cerebro-vascular diseases. A statistical analysis of 121 hemiplegic patients with unilateral supratentorial lesions showed that age, severity of muscle weakness of involved or uninvolved extremities, unilateral spatial neglect and the sense of toe position had influence on standing balance, activity of daily living or ambulation. The patients were divided into five groups based on the degree of unilateral spatial neglect, evaluated by their copies of two daisies who omitted more than three quarters, three quarters, half, one quarter and none of the figures were defined as the USN-4, USN-3, USN-2, USN-1 and no involvement groups, respectively. Those who belonged to the USN-2 group had significantly lower scores for activity of daily living than those who belonged to the no involvement group. In the USN-2 group, 7 of the 8 patients could not keep standing for 50 seconds, while in the no involvement group, this was the case in only 1 of the 15 patients. Activity of daily living scores or sway area during standing showed no statistically significant differences between the USN-1 and no involvement groups. These results suggested that severe or moderate unilateral spatial neglect is one of the most important factors influencing standing balance and activity of daily living.

  13. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  14. Pollution effects on fisheries — potential management activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindermann, C. J.

    1980-03-01

    Management of ocean pollution must be based on the best available scientific information, with adequate consideration of economic, social, and political realities. Unfortunately, the best available scientific information about pollution effects on fisheries is often fragmentary, and often conjectural; therefore a primary concern of management should be a critical review and assessment of available factual information about effects of pollutants on fish and shellfish stocks. A major problem in any such review and assessment is the separation of pollutant effects from the effects of all the other environmental factors that influence survival and well-being of marine animals. Data from long-term monitoring of resource abundance, and from monitoring of all determinant environmental variables, will be required for analyses that lead to resolution of the problem. Information must also be acquired about fluxes of contaminants through resource-related ecosystems, and about contaminant effects on resource species as demonstrated in field and laboratory experiments. Other possible management activities include: (1) encouragement of continued efforts to document clearly the localized and general effects of pollution on living resources; (2) continued pressure to identify and use reliable biological indicators of environmental degradation (indicators of choice at present are: unusually high levels of genetic and other anomalies in the earliest life history stages; presence of pollution-associated disease signs, particularly fin erosion and ulcers, in fish; and biochemical/physiological changes); and (3) major efforts to reduce inputs of pollutants clearly demonstrated to be harmful to living resources, from point sources as well as ocean dumping. Such pollution management activities, based on continuous efforts in stock assessment, environmental assessment, and experimental studies, can help to insure that rational decisions will be made about uses and abuses of coastal

  15. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  16. Prediction of oxygen uptake dynamics by machine learning analysis of wearable sensors during activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Beltrame, T.; Amelard, R.; Wong, A.; Hughson, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, oxygen uptake () is the most precise means of investigating aerobic fitness and level of physical activity; however, can only be directly measured in supervised conditions. With the advancement of new wearable sensor technologies and data processing approaches, it is possible to accurately infer work rate and predict during activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this study was to develop and verify the methods required to predict and investigate the dynamics during ADL. The variables derived from the wearable sensors were used to create a predictor based on a random forest method. The temporal dynamics were assessed by the mean normalized gain amplitude (MNG) obtained from frequency domain analysis. The MNG provides a means to assess aerobic fitness. The predicted during ADL was strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) with the measured and the prediction bias was 0.2 ml·min−1·kg−1. The MNG calculated based on predicted was strongly correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) with MNG calculated based on measured data. This new technology provides an important advance in ambulatory and continuous assessment of aerobic fitness with potential for future applications such as the early detection of deterioration of physical health. PMID:28378815

  17. Prediction of oxygen uptake dynamics by machine learning analysis of wearable sensors during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, T; Amelard, R; Wong, A; Hughson, R L

    2017-04-05

    Currently, oxygen uptake () is the most precise means of investigating aerobic fitness and level of physical activity; however, can only be directly measured in supervised conditions. With the advancement of new wearable sensor technologies and data processing approaches, it is possible to accurately infer work rate and predict during activities of daily living (ADL). The main objective of this study was to develop and verify the methods required to predict and investigate the dynamics during ADL. The variables derived from the wearable sensors were used to create a predictor based on a random forest method. The temporal dynamics were assessed by the mean normalized gain amplitude (MNG) obtained from frequency domain analysis. The MNG provides a means to assess aerobic fitness. The predicted during ADL was strongly correlated (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) with the measured and the prediction bias was 0.2 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1). The MNG calculated based on predicted was strongly correlated (r = 0.71, P < 0.001) with MNG calculated based on measured data. This new technology provides an important advance in ambulatory and continuous assessment of aerobic fitness with potential for future applications such as the early detection of deterioration of physical health.

  18. Multiplanar Knee Laxity and Perceived Function During Activities of Daily Living and Sport

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jeffrey B.; Wang, Hsin-Min; Schmitz, Randy J.; Rhea, Christopher K.; Ross, Scott E.; Shultz, Sandra J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Greater knee-joint laxity may lead to a higher risk of knee injury, yet it is unknown whether results of self-reported outcome measures are associated with distinct knee-laxity profiles. Objective To identify the extent to which multiplanar knee laxity is associated with patient-reported outcomes of knee function in healthy individuals during activities of daily living and sport. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Forty healthy individuals (20 men, 20 women; age = 18–31 years). Main Outcome Measure(s) All participants were given the Knee Outcome Survey Activities of Daily Living Scale (KOS-ADL) and Sports Activities Scale (KOS-SAS) and subsequently measured for knee laxity in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Separate backward stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the extent to which multiplanar knee-laxity values predicted KOS-ADL and KOS-SAS scores within each sex. Results Women had higher magnitudes of anterior, posterior (POSTLAX), varus (VARLAX), valgus (VALLAX), and internal-rotation laxity than men and trended toward greater external rotation (ERLAX) laxity. Greater POSTLAX, less VALLAX, and greater VARLAX was associated with lower KOS-ADL scores (KOS-ADL = −4.8 [POSTLAX], + 3.3 [VALLAX] − 2.2 [VARLAX] + 100.4, R2 = 0.74, P < .001) and greater POSTLAX and less VALLAX was associated with lower KOS-SAS scores (KOS-SAS = −8.2 [POSTLAX], + 3.6 [VALLAX] + 96.4, R2 = 0.67, P < .001) in women. In men, greater POSTLAX and less ERLAX was associated with lower KOS-SAS scores (KOS-ADL = −4.7 [POSTLAX], + 0.9 [ERLAX] + 96.4, R2 = 0.49, P < .001). Conclusions The combination of POSTLAX with less relative VALLAX (women) or less relative ERLAX (men) was a strong predictor of KOS scores, suggesting that a self-reported outcome measure may be beneficial as part of a preparticipation screening battery to identify those with perceived functional deficits

  19. Presence of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae strains from well water samples in Guinea-Bissau

    PubMed Central

    Baquero, Rocío A; Reyes-Batlle, María; Nicola, Graciela G; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Guillermo Esteban, J; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) include opportunistic pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and the genera Sappinia and Acanthamoeba. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to evaluate the presence of potentially pathogenic amoebic strains in water samples collected from wells located in the western part of Guinea-Bissau. The samples were left to precipitate for 48 hours and then the sediments were seeded on non-nutrient agar plates containing Escherichia coli spread and cultures were checked daily for the presence of FLA. Identification of FLA strains was based on the morphological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the 18S rDNA or 16S mitochondrial rDNA genes in the case of Naegleria and Balamuthia genera, respectively. In the case of positive samples of Acanthamoeba, strains were further classified at the genotype level by sequencing the diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region located in the 18S rDNA gene as previously described. Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study and thus, no molecular analysis was performed for this genus. The obtained results revealed the presence of Acanthamoeba (genotypes T3 and T4), Naegleria fowleri, and Balamuthia mandrillaris. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the presence of FLA in water bodies from Guinea-Bissau and the first report on the isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris from environmental sources in Africa. PMID:24934796

  20. Sustaining active-living communities over the decades: lessons from a 1930s Greenbelt town.

    PubMed

    Ahrentzen, Sherry

    2008-06-01

    Greendale, Wisconsin, was intentionally created with many of the design and planning principles that active-living advocates promote today. This case study examines the processes behind sustaining these particular planning and design principles over time in light of economic and regional challenges that have faced not just Greendale but most town centers over the last fifty years. Despite these challenges, the walkable nature of Greendale's center remains strong today, in terms of both activity and community identity. While many circumstances are specific to this particular town, useful lessons can be drawn for those new urbanist (NU) communities being developed in greenfields and suburbs today, many of which are strikingly similar to Greendale - relatively small, low density, and located within metropolitan areas. Greendale's success resulted from (1) attending to the retail/commercial product mix; (2) attracting nonresidents to use the community's retail and public space; and (3) capitalizing on community investment not simply from residents' organizing efforts but, more important in this case, from corporate community involvement by a Greendale business firm whose interests and values coincided with those of the community.

  1. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  2. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases.

  3. Palladium-triggered deprotection chemistry for protein activation in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Juntao; Zhao, Jingyi; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Siqi; Lin, Shixian; Chen, Long; Yang, Maiyun; Jia, Shang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Peng R.

    2014-04-01

    Employing small molecules or chemical reagents to modulate the function of an intracellular protein, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion, remains a challenge. In contrast to inhibitor-based loss-of-function approaches, methods based on a gain of function enable specific signalling pathways to be activated inside a cell. Here we report a chemical rescue strategy that uses a palladium-mediated deprotection reaction to activate a protein within living cells. We identify biocompatible and efficient palladium catalysts that cleave the propargyl carbamate group of a protected lysine analogue to generate a free lysine. The lysine analogue can be genetically and site-specifically incorporated into a protein, which enables control over the reaction site. This deprotection strategy is shown to work with a range of different cell lines and proteins. We further applied this biocompatible protection group/catalyst pair for caging and subsequent release of a crucial lysine residue in a bacterial Type III effector protein within host cells, which reveals details of its virulence mechanism.

  4. Assessing Upper Extremity Motor Function in Practice of Virtual Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard J.; Lichter, Matthew D.; Krepkovich, Eileen T.; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An Unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user’s avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs. PMID:25265612

  5. Can activities of daily living contribute to EMG normalization for gait analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Ghazwan, Aseel; Forrest, Sarah M.; Holt, Cathy A.; Whatling, Gemma M.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine alternative methods of normalization that effectively reflect muscle activity as compared to Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC). EMG data recorded from knee flexion-extension muscles in 10 control subjects during the stance phase of the gait cycle were examined by adopting different approaches of normalization: MVC, Mean and Peak Dynamic during gait cycles, (MDM and PDM, respectively), Peak Dynamic during activities of daily living (ADLs), (*PDM), and a combination of ADLs and MVC(**PDM). Intra- and inter-individual variability were calculated to determine reliability and similarity to MCV. **PDM showed excellent reliability across subjects in comparison to MVC, where variance ratio ranged from 0.43–0.99 for **PDM and 0.79–1.08 for MVC. Coefficient of variability showed a similar trend to Variance Ratio, ranging from 0.60–1.25 for **PDM and 1.97–3.92 for MVC. Both MVC and **PDM, and to some extent *PDM, demonstrated good-to-excellent relative amplitude’s matching; i.e. root mean square difference and absolute difference were both around 0.08 for Vastus medialis to about 4 for Medial gastrocnemius. It was concluded that **PDM and *PDM were reliable, **PDM mirrored MVC and thus could be used as an alternative to MVC for subjects who are unable to provide the required effort for MVC testing. Where MVC testing is not possible, *PDM is the next preferred option. PMID:28369104

  6. Can activities of daily living contribute to EMG normalization for gait analysis?

    PubMed

    Ghazwan, Aseel; Forrest, Sarah M; Holt, Cathy A; Whatling, Gemma M

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to examine alternative methods of normalization that effectively reflect muscle activity as compared to Maximal Voluntary Contraction (MVC). EMG data recorded from knee flexion-extension muscles in 10 control subjects during the stance phase of the gait cycle were examined by adopting different approaches of normalization: MVC, Mean and Peak Dynamic during gait cycles, (MDM and PDM, respectively), Peak Dynamic during activities of daily living (ADLs), (*PDM), and a combination of ADLs and MVC(**PDM). Intra- and inter-individual variability were calculated to determine reliability and similarity to MCV. **PDM showed excellent reliability across subjects in comparison to MVC, where variance ratio ranged from 0.43-0.99 for **PDM and 0.79-1.08 for MVC. Coefficient of variability showed a similar trend to Variance Ratio, ranging from 0.60-1.25 for **PDM and 1.97-3.92 for MVC. Both MVC and **PDM, and to some extent *PDM, demonstrated good-to-excellent relative amplitude's matching; i.e. root mean square difference and absolute difference were both around 0.08 for Vastus medialis to about 4 for Medial gastrocnemius. It was concluded that **PDM and *PDM were reliable, **PDM mirrored MVC and thus could be used as an alternative to MVC for subjects who are unable to provide the required effort for MVC testing. Where MVC testing is not possible, *PDM is the next preferred option.

  7. Measuring CREB activation using bioluminescent probes that detect KID-KIX interaction in living cells.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Tetsuya; Mano, Hiroki; Ozawa, Takeaki; Mori, Hisashi

    2012-05-16

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that contributes to memory formation. The transcriptional activity of CREB is induced by its phosphorylation at Ser-133 and subsequent interaction with the CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300. We designed and optimized firefly split luciferase probe proteins that detect the interaction of the kinase-inducible domain (KID) of CREB and the KIX domain of CBP/p300. The increase in the light intensity of the probe proteins results from the phosphorylation of the responsible serine corresponding to Ser-133 of CREB. Because these proteins have a high signal-to-noise ratio and are nontoxic, it has become possible for the first time to carry out long-term measurement of KID-KIX interaction in living cells. Furthermore, we examined the usefulness of the probe proteins for future high-throughput cell-based drug screening and found several herbal extracts that activated CREB.

  8. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  9. Effects of community-based rehabilitation program on activities of daily living and cognition in elderly chronic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Ju; Lee, Chun-Yeop

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of community-based rehabilitation program in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven subjects received community-based rehabilitation program ten times for ten months. The main outcome measures were the Modified Barthel Index score for activities of daily living and the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination score for cognition. [Results] The results of the study demonstrated that the community-based rehabilitation program improved activities of daily living performance and cognition significantly. [Conclusion] Based on the study results, the community-based rehabilitation program is an effective method for improving activities of daily living performance and cognitive function in elderly patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27942164

  10. Active subthreshold dendritic conductances shape the local field potential

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Torbjørn V.; Remme, Michiel W. H.

    2016-01-01

    Key points The local field potential (LFP), the low‐frequency part of extracellular potentials recorded in neural tissue, is often used for probing neural circuit activity. Interpreting the LFP signal is difficult, however.While the cortical LFP is thought mainly to reflect synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons, little is known about the role of the various subthreshold active conductances in shaping the LFP.By means of biophysical modelling we obtain a comprehensive qualitative understanding of how the LFP generated by a single pyramidal neuron depends on the type and spatial distribution of active subthreshold currents.For pyramidal neurons, the h‐type channels probably play a key role and can cause a distinct resonance in the LFP power spectrum.Our results show that the LFP signal can give information about the active properties of neurons and imply that preferred frequencies in the LFP can result from those cellular properties instead of, for example, network dynamics. Abstract The main contribution to the local field potential (LFP) is thought to stem from synaptic input to neurons and the ensuing subthreshold dendritic processing. The role of active dendritic conductances in shaping the LFP has received little attention, even though such ion channels are known to affect the subthreshold neuron dynamics. Here we used a modelling approach to investigate the effects of subthreshold dendritic conductances on the LFP. Using a biophysically detailed, experimentally constrained model of a cortical pyramidal neuron, we identified conditions under which subthreshold active conductances are a major factor in shaping the LFP. We found that, in particular, the hyperpolarization‐activated inward current, I h, can have a sizable effect and cause a resonance in the LFP power spectral density. To get a general, qualitative understanding of how any subthreshold active dendritic conductance and its cellular distribution can affect the LFP, we next performed a systematic

  11. Oseltamivir-conjugated polymeric micelles prepared by RAFT living radical polymerization as a new active tumor targeting drug delivery platform.

    PubMed

    Kapishon, Vitaliy; Allison, Stephanie; Whitney, Ralph A; Cunningham, Michael F; Szewczuk, Myron R; Neufeld, Ronald J

    2016-03-01

    Targeted drug delivery using polymeric nanostructures has been at the forefront of cancer research, engineered for safer, more efficient and effective use of chemotherapy. Here, we designed a new polymeric micelle delivery system for active tumor targeting followed by micelle-drug internalization via receptor-induced endocytosis. We recently reported that oseltamivir phosphate targets and inhibits Neu1 sialidase activity associated with receptor tyrosine kinases such as epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs) which are overexpressed in cancer cells. By decorating micelles with oseltamivir, we investigated whether they actively targeted human pancreatic PANC1 cancer cells. Amphiphilic block copolymers with oseltamivir conjugated at the hydrophilic end, oseltamivir-pPEGMEMA-b-pMMA (oseltamivir-poly(polyethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate), were synthesized using reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) living radical polymerization. Oseltamivir-conjugated micelles have self-assembling properties to give worm-like micellar structures with molecular weight of 80 000 g mol(-1). Oseltamivir-conjugated water soluble pPEGMEMA, dose dependently, both inhibited sialidase activity associated with Neu1, and reduced viability of PANC1 cells. In addition, oseltamivir-conjugated micelles, labelled with a hydrophobic fluorescent dye within the micelle core, were subsequently internalized by PANC1 cells. Blocking cell surface Neu1 with anti-Neu1 antibody, reduced internalization of oseltamivir-conjugated micelles, demonstrating that Neu1 binding linked to sialidase inhibition were prerequisite steps for subsequent internalization of the micelles. The mechanism of internalization is likely that of receptor-induced endocytosis demonstrating potential as a new nanocarrier system for not only targeting a tumor cell, but also for directly reducing viability through Neu1 inhibition, followed by intracellular delivery of hydrophobic

  12. Shell-crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanogels for live monitoring of hyaluronidase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihyun; Chong, Youhoon; Mok, Hyejung

    2014-06-01

    A hyaluronidase (HAdase) has been noticed as a potential drug target as well as prognostic marker because of its close associations with tumor invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Accordingly, precise monitoring of HAdase activity in vivo seems to be crucial not only for the evaluation of HAdase activity but also for non-invasive molecular imaging. In our study, we propose a new organic, near-infrared fluorescence imaging probe, indocyanine green (ICG)-based stimuli-responsive fluorescence probe for selective imaging of HAdases with appreciable signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios in serum and in vivo. Shell-crosslinked hyaluronic acid (HA) nanogels (sc-nanogels) are generated via a reducible covalent linkage which incorporate ICG derivatives. The ICG-embeded HA nanogels via shell-crosslinking have preferable properties for ideal selective imaging and detection of HAdase activity in vivo. The sc-nanogels exhibit prominent chemical stability against external light, greatly control background signals in serum, and small size compared to use of self-assembled ICG-based carriers. Collapsed ICG in the hydrogel core is selectively disentangled by HAdase treatment for selective near-infrared imaging without unwanted background signal. The newly designed sc-nanogels may have great potential to serve as probes for improved selective imaging of HAdase-associated diseases in clinics as well as HAdase-activity screening in vivo.

  13. Assistive devices in activities of daily living used by persons with age-related macular degeneration: a population study of 85-year-olds living at home.

    PubMed

    Dahlin Ivanoff, S; Sonn, U

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the overall use of assistive devices among persons with age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) and how it is related to dependence in daily activities. This was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional population study of 85-year-olds. The most common category of assistive devices was bathing devices followed by mobility devices. The overall use of assistive devices was 82%, and around 80% of the device users were independent in activities of daily living. They were multiple device users (57%) and used more mobility devices and personal assistance in mobility. In conclusion, the ARMD group comprises very frequent users of assistive devices and uses assistive devices to remain independent. This implies that health services should provide assistive devices at an early stage in the disablement process to avoid the development of dependence and should consider the likelihood of multiple health problems when assessing the needs of assistive devices among persons with ARMD.

  14. Identification of restriction endonuclease with potential ability to cleave the HSV-2 genome: Inherent potential for biosynthetic versus live recombinant microbicides

    PubMed Central

    Wayengera, Misaki; Kajumbula, Henry; Byarugaba, Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Background Herpes Simplex virus types 1 and 2 are enveloped viruses with a linear dsDNA genome of ~120–200 kb. Genital infection with HSV-2 has been denoted as a major risk factor for acquisition and transmission of HIV-1. Developing biomedical strategies for HSV-2 prevention is thus a central strategy in reducing global HIV-1 prevalence. This paper details the protocol for the isolation of restriction endunucleases (REases) with potent activity against the HSV-2 genome and models two biomedical interventions for preventing HSV-2. Methods and Results Using the whole genome of HSV-2, 289 REases and the bioinformatics software Webcutter2; we searched for potential recognition sites by way of genome wide palindromics. REase application in HSV-2 biomedical therapy was modeled concomitantly. Of the 289 enzymes analyzed; 77(26.6%) had potential to cleave the HSV-2 genome in > 100 but < 400 sites; 69(23.9%) in > 400 but < 700 sites; and the 9(3.1%) enzymes: BmyI, Bsp1286I, Bst2UI, BstNI, BstOI, EcoRII, HgaI, MvaI, and SduI cleaved in more than 700 sites. But for the 4: PacI, PmeI, SmiI, SwaI that had no sign of activity on HSV-2 genomic DNA, all 130(45%) other enzymes cleaved < 100 times. In silico palindromics has a PPV of 99.5% for in situ REase activity (2) Two models detailing how the REase EcoRII may be applied in developing interventions against HSV-2 are presented: a nanoparticle for microbicide development and a "recombinant lactobacillus" expressing cell wall anchored receptor (truncated nectin-1) for HSV-2 plus EcoRII. Conclusion Viral genome slicing by way of these bacterially- derived R-M enzymatic peptides may have therapeutic potential in HSV-2 infection; a cofactor for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. PMID:18687114

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoate production potential of heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Suzuki, Yuta; Uchida, Takahiro; Morohoshi, Jota; Sei, Kazunari

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production potential of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria in activated sludge by genotypic and phenotypic characterizations. A total of 114 bacterial strains were isolated from four activated sludge samples taken from a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor and three wastewater treatment processes of two municipal wastewater treatment plants. PCR detection of the phaC genes encoding class I and II PHA synthase revealed that 15% of the total isolates possessed phaC genes, all of which had the closest similarities to known phaC genes of α- and β-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. PHA production experiments under aerobic and nitrogen-limited conditions showed that 68% of the total isolates were capable of producing PHA from at least one of the six substrates used (acetate, propionate, lactate, butyrate, glucose and glycerol). Genotypic and phenotypic characterizations revealed that 75% of the activated sludge bacteria had PHA production potential. Our results also indicated that short-chain fatty acids would be the preferable substrates for PHA production by activated sludge bacteria, and that there might be a variety of unidentified phaC genes in activated sludge.

  16. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children.

  17. Skill Activities for Independent Living (SAIL). A Curriculum for Developmentally Disabled Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.

    This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…

  18. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  19. Activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Blake J; Gasson, Natalie; Kane, Robert; Bucks, Romola S; Loftus, Andrea M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether activities of daily living (ADL) mediate the relationship between depression and health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people with Parkinson's disease (PD). A cross-sectional, correlational research design examined data from 174 participants who completed the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39), and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-section 2 (UPDRS-section 2 [ADL]). Multiple Regression Analysis (MRA) was used to examine the mediator model. Depression and ADL significantly (p<.001) predicted HR-QOL, and depression significantly (p<.001) predicted ADL. Whilst ADL did not impact on the relationship between depression and HR-QOL, there was a significant (p<.001) indirect effect of depression on HR-QOL via ADL, suggesting both direct and indirect (via ADL) effects of depression on HR-QOL. The magnitude of this effect was moderate (R2 = .13). People with PD who report depression also experience greater difficulty completing ADL, which impacts upon their HR-QOL. It is recommended that clinicians adopt a multidisciplinary approach to care by combining pharmacological treatments with psycho/occupational therapy, thereby alleviating the heterogeneous impact of motor and non-motor symptoms on HR-QOL in people with PD.

  20. Measuring acute changes in adrenergic nerve activity of the heart in the living animal

    SciTech Connect

    Sisson, J.C.; Bolgos, G.; Johnson, J. )

    1991-04-01

    Changes in the function of the adrenergic neurons of the heart may be important indicators of the adaptations of an animal to physiologic stress and disease. Rates of loss of norepinephrine (NE) from the heart were considered to be proportional to NE secretion and to adrenergic function. In rat hearts, yohimbine induced almost identical increases in rates of loss of {sup 3}H-NE and of {sup 125}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a functional analog of NE. Clonidine induced decreases in rates of loss of {sup 3}H-NE that were also mimicked by those of {sup 125}I-MIBG. In the dog heart, pharmacologically-induced increases and decreases in rates of loss of {sup 123}I-MIBG could be measured externally; these values were similar to those obtained for {sup 125}I-MIBG in the rat heart. Thus acute changes in the adrenergic neuron activity can be measured in the living heart. The method is applicable to man in determining the capacity of the adrenergic system to respond to provocative challenges.

  1. Promoting Physical Activity among Children: The “Great Live and Move Challenge”

    PubMed

    Mourgues, Marion; Gourlan, Mathieu; Coste, Olivier; Fregeac, Bruno; Mora, Lucile; Cousson-Gélie, Florence

    2016-06-08

    Objective: The “Great Live and Move Challenge” (GLMC) is an intervention designed to promote physical activity (PA) in schools and the community among 6- to 11-year-old schoolchildren and their families.Method: This project, implemented in the Montpellier and Pays Coeur d’Hérault regions since 2013, encourages children to quantify their daily PA level by illustrating each 15 minutes of exercise by an “energy cube”. Based on collaboration between pilots, teachers and policymakers, this project is implemented over a 6-week period in schools, municipalities and recreation centres. “Great Challenge” events are organized to promote PA. The GLMC is also a theory-based intervention based on the tenets of the planned behaviour theory.Results: Since the 2014-2015 edition, 2,243 children have taken part in the GLMC and have accumulated 391,102 “energy cubes”. In addition, more than 30 “Great Challenge” events have been organized. Since its launch during the 2012-2013 school year, the numbers of children who have taken part in the GLMC have been multiplied by 5.58. The mean number of daily “energy cubes” accumulated by children has increased from 4.04 in the first year to 6.22 in 2014-2015.Conclusion: The “energy cube” can provide a measure of the commitment of children and their surrounding community in a comprehensive approach to PA promotion.

  2. Bayer-activities of daily living scale in mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, Nages; Nagaratnam, Kujan; O'Mara, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of the Bayer-Activities of Daily Living (B-ADL) scale when used as a cognitive screening instrument for mild and moderate dementia of the Alzheimer type. This is a retrospective study of 66 patients with dementia. The B-ADL scale was completed by the caregiver or the family member at the first encounter. The internal consistency was found to be 0.94 for the 27 patients that completed all 25 questions in the scale. Significant correlation and receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis were found for the B-ADL total score and subscale 1 (tasks requiring short- and long-term memory) for Clinical Dementia Rating scale. Severity of dementia by the B-ADL scale is statistically similar but not the same as Mini-Mental State Examination. Our findings confirm that B-ADL scale is a valid indicator of the cognitive status of patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  3. UPDRS activity of daily living score as a marker of Parkinson's disease progression.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Madaline B; Wylie, Scott A; Frysinger, Robert C; Patrie, James T; Huss, Diane S; Currie, Lillian J; Wooten, G Frederick

    2009-01-30

    The activities of daily living (ADL) subscore of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) captures the impact of Parkinson's disease (PD) on daily function and may be less affected than other subsections by variability associated with drug cycle and motor fluctuations. We examined UPDRS mentation, ADL and motor subscores in 888 patients with idiopathic PD. Multiple linear regression analyses determined the association between disease duration and UPDRS subscores as a function of medication status at examination and in a subset of patients with multiple examinations. Independent of medication status and across cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, ADL subscores showed a stronger and more stable association with disease duration than other UPDRS subscores after adjusting for age of disease onset. The association between disease duration and the motor subscore depended on medication status. The strong association between ADL subscore and disease duration in PD suggests that this measure may serve as a better marker of disease progression than signs and symptoms assessed in other UPDRS sections.

  4. Is surviving enough? Coping and impact on activities of daily living among melanoma patients with lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs.

  5. Activities of daily living, depression, and social support among elderly Turkish people.

    PubMed

    Bozo, Ozlem; Toksabay, N Ece; Kürüm, Oya

    2009-03-01

    The authors examined the effects of activities of daily living (ADL) and perceived social support on the level of depression among elderly Turkish people. Participants were 102 adults older than the age of 60 years. The authors hypothesized that (a) lower levels of ADL would predict a higher level of depression, (b) a higher level of perceived social support would predict a lower level of depression, and (c) perceived social support would moderate the relation between ADL and depression. Although hierarchical multiple regression analysis did not yield a significant effect for an ADL-perceived social support interaction, ADL and perceived social support significantly predicted depression among elderly people. Thus, perceived social support did not moderate the relation between ADL and depression among elderly people; however, higher ADL functioning and higher perceived social support predicted lower depression. The nonsignificant effect of an ADL-perceived social support interaction on the level of depression among elderly people was incongruent with the stress-buffering model (S. Cohen & T. A. Willis, 1985). The authors discuss the strengths, limitations, and possible implications of the findings.

  6. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture.

  7. A robotic system to train activities of daily living in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Guidali, Marco; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Broggi, Simon; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Nef, Tobias; Riener, Robert

    2011-10-01

    In the past decade, several arm rehabilitation robots have been developed to assist neurological patients during therapy. Early devices were limited in their number of degrees of freedom and range of motion, whereas newer robots such as the ARMin robot can support the entire arm. Often, these devices are combined with virtual environments to integrate motivating game-like scenarios. Several studies have shown a positive effect of game-playing on therapy outcome by increasing motivation. In addition, we assume that practicing highly functional movements can further enhance therapy outcome by facilitating the transfer of motor abilities acquired in therapy to daily life. Therefore, we present a rehabilitation system that enables the training of activities of daily living (ADL) with the support of an assistive robot. Important ADL tasks have been identified and implemented in a virtual environment. A patient-cooperative control strategy with adaptable freedom in timing and space was developed to assist the patient during the task. The technical feasibility and usability of the system was evaluated with seven healthy subjects and three chronic stroke patients.

  8. ICT services for active ageing and independent living: identification and assessment.

    PubMed

    Christophorou, Christophoros; Kleanthous, Styliani; Georgiadis, Dimosthenis; Cereghetti, Donato M; Andreou, Panayiotis; Wings, Cindy; Christodoulou, Eleni; Samaras, George

    2016-09-01

    Based on the demographic changes and the rapid increase of older population in Europe, major challenges are expected to rise, both in the economy as well as the society, whether the dominant care model for supporting elderly in living independently at home continues to rely on informal and formal caregivers' assistance. To respond to the above challenges, assistive technologies are called to develop Information and Communication Technology (ICT) services for supporting seniors to remain active and independent, for as long as possible, in their chosen home environment. The work described in this Letter is based on the Miraculous-Life project and it emphasises the identification and assessment of a set of services that an ICT system for Ageing Well should support, in an actual end-users setting. The outcome of this work may inform fellow researchers and other projects in the area of Ageing Well in: (i) understanding which ICT services can be the most valuable for end-users' Quality of Life, (ii) prioritising the development of related ICT services and (iii) facilitating better recourse allocation in order to reduce any risks associated to implementation failures of these services within their respective projects. A final trial phase is planned, aiming to validate the Miraculous Life prototype longitudinally in a naturalistic environment with a larger sample size. During this trial, it will be investigated if perceived usefulness, satisfaction and motivation could be predicted by sociodemographic variables and personality.

  9. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  10. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  11. Emotion, social functioning and activities of daily living in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Kipps, Christopher M; Mioshi, Eneida; Hodges, John R

    2009-06-01

    Social functioning in FTD is profoundly affected, and forms the basis for the clinical diagnosis of the behavioural variant of the disease (bv-FTD). In particular, there are deficits in emotional processing, but the inter-relationship of such deficits to other aspects of social functioning remains unclear. We studied patients with bv-FTD (n = 14) and AD (n = 14), and compared their performance on a test of emotion recognition with their scores on two carer-based assessments: the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD) of activities in daily living (ADL), and the Cambridge Behavioural Inventory (CBI). The bv-FTD group had significantly greater impairments in ADLs, and had higher scores on the CBI, compared to the AD group. Despite a deficit in emotion recognition, particularly involving negative emotions, in the FTD group relative to AD and controls, performance on this task did not correlate with ADL ratings which instead, correlated highly with carer-rated apathy levels on the CBI. The study highlights the multifactorial nature of social dysfunction in FTD which is important in the management of these patients and in designing effective behavioural and therapeutic interventions. The relationship of emotional processing to other aspects of social cognition in FTD is reviewed.

  12. Trunk angular kinematics during slip-induced backward falls and activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2014-10-01

    Prior to developing any specific fall detection algorithm, it is critical to distinguish the unique motion features associated with fall accidents. The current study aimed to investigate the upper trunk angular kinematics during slip-induced backward falls and activities of daily living (ADLs). Ten healthy older adults (age = 75 ± 6 yr (mean ± SD)) were involved in a laboratory study. Sagittal trunk angular kinematics were measured using optical motion analysis system during normal walking, slip-induced backward falls, lying down, bending over, and various types of sitting down (SN). Trunk angular phase-plane plots were generated to reveal the motion features of falls. It was found that backward falls were characterized by a simultaneous occurrence of a slight trunk extension and an extremely high trunk extension velocity (peak average = 139.7 deg/s), as compared to ADLs (peak average = 84.1 deg/s). It was concluded that the trunk extension angular kinematics of falls were clearly distinguishable from those of ADLs from the perspective of angular phase-plane plot. Such motion features can be utilized in future studies to develop a new prior-to-impact fall detection algorithm.

  13. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development.

  14. Live diatom silica immobilization of multimeric and redox-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, V C; Scheffel, A; Poulsen, N; Kröger, N

    2012-01-01

    Living organisms are adept in forming inorganic materials (biominerals) with unique structures and properties that exceed the capabilities of engineered materials. Biomimetic materials syntheses are being developed that aim at replicating the advantageous properties of biominerals in vitro and endow them with additional functionalities. Recently, proof-of-concept was provided for an alternative approach that allows for the production of biomineral-based functional materials in vivo. In this approach, the cellular machinery for the biosynthesis of nano-/micropatterned SiO₂ (silica) structures in diatoms was genetically engineered to incorporate a monomeric, cofactor-independent ("simple") enzyme, HabB, into diatom silica. In the present work, it is demonstrated that this approach is also applicable for enzymes with "complex" activity requirements, including oligomerization, metal ions, organic redox cofactors, and posttranslational modifications. Functional expression of the enzymes β-glucuronidase, glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was accomplished, and 66 to 78% of the expressed enzymes were stably incorporated into the biosilica. The in vivo incorporated enzymes represent approximately 0.1% (wt/wt) of the diatom biosilica and are stabilized against denaturation and proteolytic degradation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the gene construct for in vivo immobilization of glucose oxidase can be utilized as the first negative selection marker for diatom genetic engineering.

  15. Relationship between Brazilian adolescents' physical activity and social and economic indicators of the cities where they live.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sufficient amounts of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents and the economic and social indicators of the cities where they live. Data from a large national survey including 109,104 boys and girls ages 13 to 15 yr. (47.8% boys, 52.2% girls) were analyzed. The economic and social indicators were the Human Development Index (HDI), which is a comparative measure to rank cities according to their degree of human development, the Gini index (income inequality), population density, and maternal education. Stepwise regression was used to identify associations between physical activity and economic and social indicators of the cities. The physical activity of Brazilian adolescents was associated with the social and economic conditions of the cities where they live. The amount of physical activity of girls was greater in the cities with fewer income inequalities. For boys, physical activity was greater in the cities with a higher HDI and fewer income inequalities.

  16. Mental and physical quality of life in actual living liver donors versus potential living liver donors: a prospective, controlled, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Karl-Heinz; Kroencke, Sylvia; Beckmann, Mingo; Nadalin, Silvio; Paul, Andreas; Fischer, Lutz; Nashan, Björn; Senf, Wolfgang; Erim, Yesim

    2009-12-01

    In a quasi-experimental design, we investigated the quality of life (QOL) in actual liver donors (n = 43) and potential liver donors (n = 33) before and 3 months after liver transplantation. This is the first study in this field combining a prospective design with an adequate control group. Potential donors served as a control group because they also had a relative in need of a liver transplant and were as emotionally involved with the recipient as actual donors, but they were not subjected to the donor operation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, marital status, donor-recipient relationship, urgency of transplantation, or recipient group (adult versus child). Actual donors showed decreased physical QOL, whereas potential donors were not affected. However, for both groups, a decrease in anxiety was found. Furthermore, actual donors showed a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The recipients of these 2 groups did not differ with respect to postoperative complications. Furthermore, the groups did not report a different caregiver burden, but actual donors showed higher self-esteem. Because of the surgery, the worsening of physical symptoms in actual donors was expected. It is remarkable, however, that although actual donors still showed a limited physical QOL 3 months after the operation, in both groups, a similar reduction in anxiety could be observed, and actual donors even demonstrated a better mental QOL postoperatively than potential donors. The latter might be due to a psychological benefit that actual donors derived from the fact that they were able to help the recipients.

  17. Estimation of Physical Activity Energy Expenditure during Free-Living from Wrist Accelerometry in UK Adults

    PubMed Central

    Westgate, Kate; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Brage, Soren

    2016-01-01

    Background Wrist-worn accelerometers are emerging as the most common instrument for measuring physical activity in large-scale epidemiological studies, though little is known about the relationship between wrist acceleration and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). Methods 1695 UK adults wore two devices simultaneously for six days; a combined sensor and a wrist accelerometer. The combined sensor measured heart rate and trunk acceleration, which was combined with a treadmill test to yield a signal of individually-calibrated PAEE. Multi-level regression models were used to characterise the relationship between the two time-series, and their estimations were evaluated in an independent holdout sample. Finally, the relationship between PAEE and BMI was described separately for each source of PAEE estimate (wrist acceleration models and combined-sensing). Results Wrist acceleration explained 44–47% between-individual variance in PAEE, with RMSE between 34–39 J•min-1•kg-1. Estimations agreed well with PAEE in cross-validation (mean bias [95% limits of agreement]: 0.07 [-70.6:70.7]) but overestimated in women by 3% and underestimated in men by 4%. Estimation error was inversely related to age (-2.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per 10y) and BMI (-0.3 J•min-1•kg-1 per kg/m2). Associations with BMI were similar for all PAEE estimates (approximately -0.08 kg/m2 per J•min-1•kg-1). Conclusions A strong relationship exists between wrist acceleration and PAEE in free-living adults, such that irrespective of the objective method of PAEE assessment, a strong inverse association between PAEE and BMI was observed. PMID:27936024

  18. Tobacco control among disadvantaged youth living in low-income communities in India: Introducing Project ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Melissa; Gupta, Vinay; Bassi, Shalini; Dhavan, Poonam; Mathur, Neha; Tripathy, Vikal; Perry, Cheryl; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of Project ACTIVITY, a group randomized intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of a community-based, comprehensive approach to tobacco control for youth (10-19 years) living in low-income communities in India. In doing so, details regarding baseline characteristics of the study sample are provided. Methods Fourteen slum communities in Delhi, India were matched and randomized to intervention (n=7) and control (n=7) conditions. The intervention included multiple strategies to promote prevention and cessation of tobacco use among youth. A census was conducted in selected blocks in all study communities (n=78,133), as well as a baseline survey of eligible youth (n=6,023). Main outcomes measures on the survey included ever use, past six months use and current use of multiple forms of tobacco. Mixed effects regression models were used to examine differences between study conditions in (a) demographic characteristics and (b) the prevalence of tobacco consumption. Results Census data revealed that 31.9% of sampled population was in the age group of 10-19 years. No differences between study conditions in demographic characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion, education, and occupation) among either adults or youth were noted (p>0.05). The baseline survey data revealed the prevalence of ever tobacco use among youth was 7.99%, past six months use was 5.70%, and current use was 4.88%. No differences between study conditions in these prevalence rates were observed, either (p>0.05). Conclusion The two study conditions in Project ACTIVITY are comparable. The evaluation should provide a robust test of this intervention's efficacy. PMID:20593929

  19. Production of functional active human growth factors in insects used as living biofactories.

    PubMed

    Dudognon, Benoit; Romero-Santacreu, Lorena; Gómez-Sebastián, Silvia; Hidalgo, Ana B; López-Vidal, Javier; Bellido, María L; Muñoz, Eduardo; Escribano, José M

    2014-08-20

    Growth factors (GFs) are naturally signalling proteins, which bind to specific receptors on the cell surface. Numerous families of GFs have already been identified and remarkable progresses have been made in understanding the pathways that these proteins use to activate/regulate the complex signalling network involved in cell proliferation or wound healing processes. The bottleneck for a wider clinical and commercial application of these factors relay on their scalable cost-efficient production as bioactive molecules. The present work describes the capacity of Trichoplusia ni insect larvae used as living bioreactors in combination with the baculovirus vector expression system to produce three fully functional human GFs, the human epidermal growth factor (huEGF), the human fibroblast growth factor 2 (huFGF2) and the human keratinocyte growth factor 1 (huKGF1). The expression levels obtained per g of insect biomass were of 9.1, 2.6 and 3mg for huEGF, huFGF2 and huKGF1, respectively. Attempts to increase the productivity of the insect/baculovirus system we have used different modifications to optimize their production. Additionally, recombinant proteins were expressed fused to different tags to facilitate their purification. Interestingly, the expression of huKGF1 was significantly improved when expressed fused to the fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of the human antibody IgG. The insect-derived recombinant GFs were finally characterized in terms of biological activity in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The present work opens the possibility of a cost-efficient and scalable production of these highly valuable molecules in a system that favours its wide use in therapeutic or cosmetic applications.

  20. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  1. Toward real time detection of the basic living activity in home using a wearable sensor and smart home sensors.

    PubMed

    Bang, Sunlee; Kim, Minho; Song, Sa-Kwang; Park, Soo-Jun

    2008-01-01

    As the elderly people living alone are enormously increasing recently, we need the system inferring activities of daily living (ADL) for maintaining healthy life and recognizing emergency. The system should be constructed with sensors, which are used to associate with people's living while remaining as non intrusive views as possible. To do this, the proposed system use a triaxial accelerometer sensor and environment sensors indicating contact with subject in home. Particularly, in order to robustly infer ADLs, we present component ADL, which is decided with conjunction of human motion together, not just only contacted object identification. It is an important component in inferring ADL. In special, component ADL decision firstly refines misclassified initial activities, which improves the accuracy of recognizing ADL. Preliminary experiments results for proposed system provides overall recognition rate of over 97% over 8 component ADLs, which can be effectively applicable to recognize the final ADLs.

  2. Activated Charcoal—A Potential Material in Glucoamylase Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, S. O.; Akpan, I.; Popoola, T. O. S.; Sanni, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of activated charcoal in the purification of fungal glucoamylase was investigated. Various concentrations of activated charcoal (1–4% w/v) were used to concentrate crude glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus at different temperature values (30–50°C). Effects of pH (3.0–6.0) and contact time (0–60 min) on enzyme purification were also monitored. Activated charcoal (3% w/v) gave a 16-fold purification in a single-step purification at 50°C for 20 min and pH 5.5. The result of SDS-PAGE analysis of purified glucoamylase showed two major protein bands with corresponding molecular weight of 36 kDa and 50 kDa. The method is inexpensive, rapid, and simple which could facilitate downstream processing of industrial enzyme. PMID:22235364

  3. Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang

    2004-11-18

    ''Evaluation of Potential Impacts of Microbial Activity on Drift Chemistry'' focuses on the potential for microbial communities that could be active in repository emplacement drifts to influence the in-drift bulk chemical environment. This report feeds analyses to support the inclusion or exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA), but this work is not expected to generate direct feeds to the TSPA-LA. The purpose was specified by, and the evaluation was performed and is documented in accordance with, ''Technical Work Plan For: Near-Field Environment and Transport In-Drift Geochemistry Analyses'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172402], Section 2.1). This report addresses all of the FEPs assigned by the technical work plan (TWP), including the development of exclusion arguments for FEPs that are not carried forward to the TSPA-LA. Except for an editorial correction noted in Section 6.2, there were no other deviations from the TWP. This report documents the completion of all assigned tasks, as follows (BSC 2004 DIRS 172402, Section 1.2.1): (1) Perform analyses to evaluate the potential for microbial activity in the waste emplacement drift under the constraints of anticipated physical and chemical conditions. (2) Evaluate uncertainties associated with these analyses. (3) Determine whether the potential for microbes warrants a feed to TSPA-LA to account for predicted effects on repository performance. (4) Provide information to address the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NUREG-1804) (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]) and Key Technical Issues and agreements, as appropriate. (5) Develop information for inclusion or exclusion of FEPs.

  4. Life Course Impact of School-Based Promotion of Healthy Eating and Active Living to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Ohinmaa, Arto; Kuhle, Stefan; Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Veugelers, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Alberta Project Promoting active Living and healthy Eating in Schools (APPLE Schools) is a comprehensive school health program that is proven feasible and effective in preventing obesity among school aged children. To support decision making on expanding this program, evidence on its long-term health and economic impacts is particularly critical. In the present study we estimate the life course impact of the APPLE Schools programs in terms of future body weights and avoided health care costs. Method We modeled growth rates of body mass index (BMI) using longitudinal data from the National Population Health Survey collected between 1996–2008. These growth rate characteristics were used to project BMI trajectories for students that attended APPLE Schools and for students who attended control schools (141 randomly selected schools) in the Canadian province of Alberta. Results Throughout the life course, the prevalence of overweight (including obesity) was 1.2% to 2.8% (1.7 on average) less among students attending APPLE Schools relative to their peers attending control schools. The life course prevalence of obesity was 0.4% to 1.4% (0.8% on average) less among APPLE Schools students. If the APPLE Schools program were to be scaled up, the potential cost savings would be $33 to 82 million per year for the province of Alberta, or $150 to 330 million per year for Canada. Conclusions These projected health and economic benefits seem to support broader implementation of school-based health promotion programs. PMID:25025581

  5. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  6. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  7. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abilities to perform activities of daily living. [Results] Paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities were significantly different between the mirror therapy and sham therapy groups. Intervention in the mirror therapy group was more effective than in the sham therapy group for improving the ability to perform activities of daily living. Self-care showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy is effective in improving paretic upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. PMID:26180297

  8. Changes in Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors across Seven Semesters of College: Living on or off Campus Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is an important period for establishing behavioral patterns that affect long-term health and chronic disease risk. Nelson and colleagues speculated that developmental changes and changes in living situation may play an important role in the nutrition and physical activity behaviors of college students.…

  9. Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living). Grades 5 and 9. Assessment Annotations for the Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document provides supplemental assessment information to "Missouri's Framework for Curriculum Development in Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living) K-12." The assessment annotations found in the third column of this document are intended to provide information for administrators, curriculum directors, and…

  10. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  11. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  12. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  13. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items.

  14. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  15. A Profile of Adults Needing Assistance with Activities of Daily Living, 1991-1992. Disability Statistics Report 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report uses data from the 1990 and 1991 samples of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to construct a profile of the U.S. noninstitutionalized adult population needing assistance with activities of daily living (ADL) and to estimate the size of the population eligible for federal personal assistance services (PAS) under different…

  16. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  17. Long Live Rock! Exploring Active Microbial Populations in North Pond Subsurface Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, H. J.; Lehne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial life should be considered as an active source for subsurface alterations of crustal material. Over the past several decades, microbial populations have been qualitatively and quantitatively characterized in marine sediments from the near shore to gyre centers, from the surface to two kilometers below the surface. Recent exploration of the underlying basement has revealed bacterial populations within the basalt. Initial cultivation-based and in situ analysis of subsurface basalt has produced some structural identification of populations that have the potential to alter the crust. Within this study, we have advanced this understanding by characterizing the metabolically active fraction of these populations. A 16S rRNA gene transcript approach was conducted using high throughput sequencing on RNA extracted from breccia, glass basalts and ultramafic basalts of the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Previous research has shown that the fluid within the basement is oxic. As expected, populations associated with aerobic metabolism were detected. In addition, iron-utilizing populations were observed to be metabolically active within the basalt samples characterized. Future characterization will reveal overlap between previous studies to determine the total versus metabolically active populations.

  18. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 by Insoluble Particulate Material and Association with Asthma.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Shapiro, Darien; Romero, Erin G; Stockmann, Chris; Bevans, Tatjana S; Phan, Quang M; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.

  19. TRAF6 Activation in Multiple Myeloma: A Potential Therapeutic Target

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong; Tamashiro, Samantha; Baritaki, Stavroula; Penichet, Manuel; Yu, Youhua; Chen, Haiming; Berenson, James; Bonavida, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable B-lymphocyte malignancy. New therapeutic options have become available during the past several years; however nearly all patients acquire resistance to currently available therapeutic agents. Mechanisms contributing to the pathogenesis and chemoresistance of MM include genetic abnormalities, chromosomal translocations, gene mutations, the interaction between MM cells and the bone marrow microenvironment, and defects in the apoptotic signaling pathways. Survival signaling pathways associated with the pathogenesis of MM and bone marrow stromal cells play crucial roles in promoting growth, survival, adhesion, immortalization, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. The receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B/receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand/tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (RANK/RANKL-TRAF6) signal pathway mediates osteolytic bone lesions through the activation of the NF-κB and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JNK) pathways in osteoclast precursor cells and thus contributes to the main clinical manifestations of bone disease. TRAF6 has also been identified as a ligase for Akt ubiquitination and membrane recruitment and its phosphorylation on growth factor stimulation. The inhibition of TRAF6 by silencing RNA or by decoy peptides decreases MM tumor cell proliferation and increases apoptosis as well as bone resorption. Some proteasome inhibitors and benzoxadiazole derivatives showed inhibitory effects on the activity and function of TRAF6. Overall, we propose that TRAF6 may be considered as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of MM. PMID:22440007

  20. Chitosan oligosaccharide: Biological activities and potential therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Muanprasat, Chatchai; Chatsudthipong, Varanuj

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is an oligomer of β-(1➔4)-linked d-glucosamine. COS can be prepared from the deacetylation and hydrolysis of chitin, which is commonly found in the exoskeletons of arthropods and insects and the cell walls of fungi. COS is water soluble, non-cytotoxic, readily absorbed through the intestine and mainly excreted in the urine. Of particular importance, COS and its derivatives have been demonstrated to possess several biological activities including anti-inflammation, immunostimulation, anti-tumor, anti-obesity, anti-hypertension, anti-Alzheimer's disease, tissue regeneration promotion, drug and DNA delivery enhancement, anti-microbial, anti-oxidation and calcium-absorption enhancement. The mechanisms of actions of COS have been found to involve the modulation of several important pathways including the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the preparation methods, pharmacokinetic profiles, biological activities, potential therapeutic applications and safety profiles of COS and its derivatives. In addition, future research directions are discussed.

  1. Constituents of Quinchamalium majus with potential antitubercular activity.

    PubMed

    Gua, Jian-Qiao; Wang, Yuehong; Franzblau, Scott G; Montenegro, Gloria; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2004-01-01

    Antitubercular bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extracts of the above-ground biomass and roots of Quinchamalium majus led to the identification of six known constituents, betulinic acid (1), daucosterol (2), 5,7-dihydroxyflavone (3), oleanolic acid (4), (-)-2S-pinocembrin (5), and ursolic acid (6), for the first time in this species. Their chemical structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and chemical transformation methods. All of these compounds along with additional 11 analogues were evaluated for their antitubercular potential against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a microplate alamar blue assay, and the primary structure-activity relationships (SARs) for 4 and 6 were discussed. In addition, all the isolates were tested for cytotoxicity against African green monkey Vero cells in order to evaluate for their selectivity potential.

  2. Active Spacecraft Potential Control: Results From the Double Star Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkar, K.; Fazakerley, A.; Steiger, W.

    2006-10-01

    The ion emitter instrument "active spacecraft potential control" (ASPOC) has been used successfully in several magnetospheric missions including the European Space Agency Cluster Project. An improved version has been developed for the equatorial spacecraft of the Chinese-European Double Star mission (TC-1) launched in December 2003. The modifications include a new design of the ion emitter modules. As a result, higher currents than in previous missions can be achieved. The main objective of the investigation is the reduction of positive spacecraft potential in order to minimize perturbations to the plasma measurements onboard, in particular to the plasma electron instrument PEACE. These data show an almost complete suppression of photoelectrons when ASPOC is emitting at 30- to 50-muA beam current. The angular distribution of the electrons in the presence of the ion beam is investigated in detail. The measurement of ambient electron distributions is highly improved.

  3. Physical activity and telomere length: Impact of aging and potential mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Arsenis, Nicole C; You, Tongjian; Ogawa, Elisa F; Tinsley, Grant M; Zuo, Li

    2017-03-30

    Telomeres protect the integrity of information-carrying DNA by serving as caps on the terminal portions of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with aging, and this contributes to cell senescence. Recent evidence supports that telomere length of leukocytes and skeletal muscle cells may be positively associated with healthy living and inversely correlated with the risk of several age-related diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, chronic pain, and stress. In observational studies, higher levels of physical activity or exercise are related to longer telomere lengths in various populations, and athletes tend to have longer telomere lengths than non-athletes. This relationship is particularly evident in older individuals, suggesting a role of physical activity in combating the typical age-induced decrements in telomere length. To date, a small number of exercise interventions have been executed to examine the potential influence of chronic exercise on telomere length, but these studies have not fully established such relationship. Several potential mechanisms through which physical activity or exercise could affect telomere length are discussed, including changes in telomerase activity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and decreased skeletal muscle satellite cell content. Future research is needed to mechanistically examine the effects of various modalities of exercise on telomere length in middle-aged and older adults, as well as in specific clinical populations.

  4. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  5. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed.

  6. Reassessing the Potential Activities of Plant CGI-58 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Khatib, Abdallah; Arhab, Yani; Bentebibel, Assia; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Noiriel, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58) is a widespread protein found in animals and plants. This protein has been shown to participate in lipolysis in mice and humans by activating Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the initial enzyme responsible for the triacylglycerol (TAG) catabolism cascade. Human mutation of CGI-58 is the cause of Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome, an orphan disease characterized by a systemic accumulation of TAG which engenders tissue disorders. The CGI-58 protein has also been shown to participate in neutral lipid metabolism in plants and, in this case, a mutation again provokes TAG accumulation. Although its roles as an ATGL coactivator and in lipid metabolism are quite clear, the catalytic activity of CGI-58 is still in question. The acyltransferase activities of CGI-58 have been speculated about, reported or even dismissed and experimental evidence that CGI-58 expressed in E. coli possesses an unambiguous catalytic activity is still lacking. To address this problem, we developed a new set of plasmids and site-directed mutants to elucidate the in vivo effects of CGI-58 expression on lipid metabolism in E. coli. By analyzing the lipid composition in selected E. coli strains expressing CGI-58 proteins, and by reinvestigating enzymatic tests with adequate controls, we show here that recombinant plant CGI-58 has none of the proposed activities previously described. Recombinant plant and mouse CGI-58 both lack acyltransferase activity towards either lysophosphatidylglycerol or lysophosphatidic acid to form phosphatidylglycerol or phosphatidic acid and recombinant plant CGI-58 does not catalyze TAG or phospholipid hydrolysis. However, expression of recombinant plant CGI-58, but not mouse CGI-58, led to a decrease in phosphatidylglycerol in all strains of E. coli tested, and a mutation of the putative catalytic residues restored a wild-type phenotype. The potential activities of plant CGI-58 are subsequently discussed. PMID:26745266

  7. Prediction of ground reaction forces and moments during various activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Fluit, R; Andersen, M S; Kolk, S; Verdonschot, N; Koopman, H F J M

    2014-07-18

    Inverse dynamics based simulations on musculoskeletal models is a commonly used method for the analysis of human movement. Due to inaccuracies in the kinematic and force plate data, and a mismatch between the model and the subject, the equations of motion are violated when solving the inverse dynamics problem. As a result, dynamic inconsistency will exist and lead to residual forces and moments. In this study, we present and evaluate a computational method to perform inverse dynamics-based simulations without force plates, which both improves the dynamic consistency as well as removes the model׳s dependency on measured external forces. Using the equations of motion and a scaled musculoskeletal model, the ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&Ms) are derived from three-dimensional full-body motion. The method entails a dynamic contact model and optimization techniques to solve the indeterminacy problem during a double contact phase and, in contrast to previously proposed techniques, does not require training or empirical data. The method was applied to nine healthy subjects performing several Activities of Daily Living (ADLs) and evaluated with simultaneously measured force plate data. Except for the transverse ground reaction moment, no significant differences (P>0.05) were found between the mean predicted and measured GRF&Ms for almost all ADLs. The mean residual forces and moments, however, were significantly reduced (P>0.05) in almost all ADLs using our method compared to conventional inverse dynamic simulations. Hence, the proposed method may be used instead of raw force plate data in human movement analysis using inverse dynamics.

  8. Validation of the Korean version of the Bayer activities of daily living scale.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Hye; Na, Duk L; Lee, Byung Hwa; Kang, Sue J; Ha, Choong-Kun; Han, Seol-Heui; Erzigkeit, Hellmut

    2003-08-01

    The Bayer-activities of daily living (B-ADL) is a brief and internationally applicable ADL instrument which has been validated in three European countries. The B-ADL has been developed to provide a tool for the assessment of functional deficits in performance of every day tasks as they are observed in mild to moderate stages of dementia. The B-ADL has been constructed for use in clinical trials as well as in clinical practice. From an international perspective the major application is the evaluation of treatment effects in clinical studies and the current study was to validate the Korean version of the B-ADL. The B-ADL was administered to a total of 129 subjects with varying degrees of cognitive decline. A substantial cross-sectional correlation between B-ADL and MMSE scores was found. The internal consistency of B-ADL was above 0.98. A factor analysis revealed that a one factor solution accounted for most of the total variance. The B-ADL global score significantly increased as the severity of dementia, assessed by global deterioration scale increased from stage 1 to 5. Test-retest reliabilities of B-ADL global score and each item were very high. All of these results were very similar to those from three European countries except for the proportion of 'non-applicability' in some ADL items. These findings provide evidence that the Korean version of B-ADL can be useful not only for clinical purposes but also for international multicentre studies.

  9. Predictive Factors of Dependency in Activities of Daily Living Following Limb Trauma in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Azade; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, Masoumeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Traumatic injuries in the elderly often lead to permanent disabilities and long-term treatments that can adversely influence their activities of daily of living (ADL). The effect on ADL is an important outcome in elderly trauma. Objectives The present study was designed to evaluate the predictive factors of dependency in ADL following limb trauma in elderly referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This descriptive study was conducted on 200 traumatic patients admitted to the trauma emergency ward of Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The questionnaire used in this study had three parts: demographic data, information related to trauma, and an independence scale of ADL (ISADL). The ISADL was completed in the emergency ward to declare pre-traumatic status; it was also completed one and three months after trauma. Statistical analysis was conducted by the t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The repeated measure was used to study the trend of the ISADL and other demographic variables. The multiple regression analysis was also used to declare the predictive variables related to the ISADL. Results The study population consisted of 81 males (40.5%) and 119 females (59.5%). The participants’ average age was 70.57 ± 9.05 years. In total, 80.5% of the elderly were completely independent in ADL before trauma; this decreased to 13.5% one month after trauma. The repeated measure analysis showed a significant improvement in the ISADL three months after trauma. Gender, age, and education had significant interaction with the ISADL. The multiple regression analysis showed that type of trauma and location of injured organ had predictive values related to the ISADL, one and three months after trauma. The place and cause of trauma, and having surgery showed a significant relationship with the ISADL three months after trauma. Conclusions Many factors, such as gender, age, education, type of trauma, and location of injured organ

  10. Intestinal microflora as potential modifiers of sensitizer activity in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Sheldon, P.W.; Clarke, C.; Dawson, K.B.; Simpson, W.; Simmons, D.J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Treatment of mice (some bearing Lewis lung tumors), with penicillin (PEN) at 500 mg/l drinking water for one week prior to treatment with misonidazole (MIS), resulted in: the elimination of their anaerobic cecal flora; a decrease in MIS-induced neurotoxicity; an increase in pharmacological exposure to MIS; a decrease in MIS chemopotentiation; a probable increase in MIS radiosensitization; an increase in MIS induced hypothermia. Assuming no chemical interaction between PEN and MIS, these observations indicate that the intestinal microflora can influence the activity of MIS in vivo. The observed reduction in the neurotoxic but not the radiosensitizing potential of MIS following PEN treatment indicates a therapeutic benefit.

  11. A Bayesian framework to assess the potential for controlling classical scrapie in sheep flocks using a live diagnostic test.

    PubMed

    Gryspeirt, Aiko; Gubbins, Simon

    2013-09-01

    Current strategies to control classical scrapie remove animals at risk of scrapie rather than those known to be infected with the scrapie agent. Advances in diagnostic tests, however, suggest that a more targeted approach involving the application of a rapid live test may be feasible in future. Here we consider the use of two diagnostic tests: recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (RAMALT) biopsies; and a blood-based assay. To assess their impact we developed a stochastic age- and prion protein (PrP) genotype-structured model for the dynamics of scrapie within a sheep flock. Parameters were estimated in a Bayesian framework to facilitate integration of a number of disparate datasets and to allow parameter uncertainty to be incorporated in model predictions. In small flocks a control strategy based on removal of clinical cases was sufficient to control disease and more stringent measures (including the use of a live diagnostic test) did not significantly reduce outbreak size or duration. In medium or large flocks strategies in which a large proportion of animals are tested with either live diagnostic test significantly reduced outbreak size, but not always duration, compared with removal of clinical cases. However, the current Compulsory Scrapie Flocks Scheme (CSFS) significantly reduced outbreak size and duration compared with both removal of clinical cases and all strategies using a live diagnostic test. Accordingly, under the assumptions made in the present study there is little benefit from implementing a control strategy which makes use of a live diagnostic test.

  12. Transport of active ellipsoidal particles in ratchet potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Bao-Quan Wu, Jian-Chun

    2014-03-07

    Rectified transport of active ellipsoidal particles is numerically investigated in a two-dimensional asymmetric potential. The out-of-equilibrium condition for the active particle is an intrinsic property, which can break thermodynamical equilibrium and induce the directed transport. It is found that the perfect sphere particle can facilitate the rectification, while the needlelike particle destroys the directed transport. There exist optimized values of the parameters (the self-propelled velocity, the torque acting on the body) at which the average velocity takes its maximal value. For the ellipsoidal particle with not large asymmetric parameter, the average velocity decreases with increasing the rotational diffusion rate, while for the needlelike particle (very large asymmetric parameter), the average velocity is a peaked function of the rotational diffusion rate. By introducing a finite load, particles with different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities) will move to the opposite directions, which is able to separate particles of different shapes (or different self-propelled velocities)

  13. Hypoglycemic agents and potential anti-inflammatory activity

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Vishal; Galdo, John A; Mathews, Suresh T

    2016-01-01

    Current literature shows an association of diabetes and secondary complications with chronic inflammation. Evidence of these immunological changes include altered levels of cytokines and chemokines, changes in the numbers and activation states of various leukocyte populations, apoptosis, and fibrosis during diabetes. Therefore, treatment of diabetes and its complications may include pharmacological strategies to reduce inflammation. Apart from anti-inflammatory drugs, various hypoglycemic agents have also been found to reduce inflammation that could contribute to improved outcomes. Extensive studies have been carried out with thiazolidinediones (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist), dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and metformin (AMP-activated protein kinase activator) with each of these classes of compounds showing moderate-to-strong anti-inflammatory action. Sulfonylureas and alpha glucosidase inhibitors appeared to exert modest effects, while the injectable agents, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, may improve secondary complications due to their anti-inflammatory potential. Currently, there is a lack of clinical data on anti-inflammatory effects of sodium–glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors. Nevertheless, for all these glucose-lowering agents, it is essential to distinguish between anti-inflammatory effects resulting from better glucose control and effects related to intrinsic anti-inflammatory actions of the pharmacological class of compounds. PMID:27114714

  14. Synthesis, antifungal activities and qualitative structure activity relationship of carabrone hydrazone derivatives as potential antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Ren, Shuang-Xi; He, Ze-Yu; Wang, De-Long; Yan, Xiao-Nan; Feng, Jun-Tao; Zhang, Xing

    2014-03-11

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents.

  15. Antioxidant activity and potential photoprotective from amazon native flora extracts.

    PubMed

    Martins, Francislene J; Caneschi, César A; Vieira, José L F; Barbosa, Wagner; Raposo, Nádia R B

    2016-08-01

    Plant species are sources of active compounds that can fight and/or prevent damage caused by reactive oxygen species, which enables the development of natural products that can help to prevent premature aging caused by exposure to solar radiation. This study assessed the antioxidant and photoprotective activities of six dried extracts of plants from the Brazilian Amazon biome. Plant extracts were prepared in 70% (v/v) ethanol by dynamic maceration for 72h in the dark, and then filtered, concentrated and lyophilized. The extracts were subjected to a phytochemical screening. The antioxidant activity was measured using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay and the photoprotection assay was performed using the diffuse transmittance technique. The data obtained from the antioxidant activity assay was evaluated by Student's t-test for independent samples, with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences v.14.0 for Windows software. The flavonoids represent a special metabolites class present in all analyzed extracts. The antioxidant activity (μgmL(-1)) decreased in the following order: Aniba canelilla (1.80±0.16), Brosimum acutifolium (2.84±0.38), Dalbergia monetaria (5.46±0.17) or Caesalpinia pyramidalis (6.45±1.18), Arrabidaea chica (15.35±0.86), and Aspidosperma nitidum (99.14±2.3). Only D. monetaria showed a considerable sun protection factor allowing for labeling (6.0±0.3). The D. monetaria extract was considered the most promising sample because it had optimal antioxidant and photoprotective activities against solar radiation, considering the limit established by regulatory agencies. These extracts with antioxidant potential can be used in photoprotective formulations, providing synergistic photoprotective effect or elevating the adeed value of the product. Additionally, these formulations are attractive to a population who searchs for products made with natural ingredients.

  16. Some characteristics of activity of potential chemotherapeutics--benzimidazole derivatives.

    PubMed

    Błaszczak-Świątkiewicz, Katarzyna; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2015-03-01

    In this work, the biological activity of some benzimidazoles and benzimidazole-4,7-diones was compared. These two groups of compounds were evaluated as potential chemotherapeutics and their characteristic relationship structure to biological activity was discussed. The authors compared their effect into the cytotoxic, apoptosis and DNA destruction approach. Their cytotoxic effect on the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells line was determined by WST-1 test. Next the cytotoxic way of tumor cells death was determined by caspase 3/7 test. The last point referred to the DNA destruction of A549 cells and test in situ DNA Assay Kit was applied. Two of the examined compounds (B2 and D2) show a very good correlation of the cytotoxic effect normoxia to hypoxia and they have been found as the potential agents of the DNA damage. The most cytotoxic feature possesses N-oxide benzimidazole derivatives (D and B groups). The screening test of the DNA damage established that N-oxide benzimidazole derivatives (D and B groups) can be more potent as the hypoxia-selective agents for tumor cells than benzimidazole derivatives (A and C groups). Additionally, the test of the caspase-dependent apoptosis proved that the exposure of benzimidazole-4,7-diones against A549 cells, especially in hypoxia, promotes apoptotic cell death.

  17. The Promise of Wisconsin's 1999 Comprehensive Planning Law: Land-Use Policy Reforms to Support Active Living.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph; Keyes, Sheila D

    2008-06-01

    Weaving together the disciplines of planning and policy change with the emerging research of active living, this article explores the competing interests and underlying political forces behind the design and passage of Wisconsin's Comprehensive Planning Law of 1999. While Wisconsin's law remains a work in progress, it illustrates the contemporary policy battles over land use and smart growth and the resurgence of the property-rights movement. It further highlights the influence of smart-growth coalitions and policy networks on planning reform. The authors suggest that planning practitioners and active-living proponents can adapt and transfer these policy lessons from Wisconsin to address the complex relationships of the built environment, physical activity, and the nation's current obesity problem through state and local planning reforms.

  18. Redox Potentials, Laccase Oxidation, and Antilarval Activities of Substituted Phenols

    PubMed Central

    Prasain, Keshar; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Gorman, Maureen J.; Barrigan, Lydia M.; Peng, Zeyu; Kanost, Michael R.; Syed, Lateef U.; Li, Jun; Zhu, Kun Yan; Hua, Duy H.

    2012-01-01

    Laccases are copper-containing oxidases that are involved in sclerotization of the cuticle of mosquitoes and other insects. Oxidation of exogenous compounds by insect laccases may have the potential to produce reactive species toxic to insects. We investigated two classes of substituted phenolic compounds, halogenated di- and trihydroxybenzenes and substituted di-tert-butylphenols, on redox potential, oxidation by laccase and effects on mosquito larval growth. An inverse correlation between the oxidation potentials and laccase activity of halogenated hydroxybenzenes was found. Substituted di-tert-butylphenols however were found to impact mosquito larval growth and survival. In particular, 2,4-di-tert-butyl-6-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)phenol (15) caused greater than 98% mortality of Anopheles gambiae larvae in a concentration of 180 nM, whereas 2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-methylpropanal oxime (13) and 6,8-di-tert-butyl-2,2-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromene (33) caused 93% and 92% mortalities in concentrations of 3.4 and 3.7 μM, respectively. Larvae treated with di-tert-butylphenolic compounds died just before pupation. PMID:22300888

  19. Chaotic electrical activity of living β-cells in the mouse pancreatic islet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Takahiro; Miyano, Takaya; Tokuda, Isao; Galvanovskis, Juris; Wakui, Makoto

    2007-02-01

    To test for chaotic dynamics of the insulin producing β-cell and explore its biological role, we observed the action potentials with the perforated patch clamp technique, for isolated cells as well as for intact cells of the mouse pancreatic islet. The time series obtained were analyzed using nonlinear diagnostic algorithms associated with the surrogate method. The isolated cells exhibited short-term predictability and visible determinism, in the steady state response to 10 mM glucose, while the intact cells did not. In the latter case, determinism became visible after the application of a gap junction inhibitor. This tendency was enhanced by the stimulation with tolbutamide. Our observations suggest that, thanks to the integration of individual chaotic dynamics via gap junction coupling, the β-cells will lose memory of fluctuations occurring at any instant in their electrical activity more rapidly with time. This is likely to contribute to the functional stability of the islet against uncertain perturbations.

  20. An Empirical Study of the Potential for Geography in University Living-Learning Communities in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohli, Robert V.; Rogge, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Living-learning communities (LLCs) have become an important part of the educational experience for many first-year university students. As academic units seek new ways to reach undergraduate students, partnering with an LLC is often an effective solution. This article explores a largely untapped link between LLCs and geography. An inventory of…

  1. Selection of commercial hydrolytic enzymes with potential antifouling activity in marine environments.

    PubMed

    Zanaroli, Giulio; Negroni, Andrea; Calisti, Cecilia; Ruzzi, Maurizio; Fava, Fabio

    2011-12-10

    In this work, the marine antifouling potential of some commercially available hydrolytic enzymes acting on the main constituents of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) involved in bacterial biofilm formation was determined. The selected protease (i.e., alpha-chymotrypsin from bovine pancreas), carbohydrase (i.e., alpha-amylase from porcine pancreas) and lipase (from porcine pancreas) exhibited remarkable hydrolytic activities towards target macromolecules typically composing EPS under a wide range of pHs (6.5-9.0 for alpha-chymotrysin and alpha-amylase; 7.0-8.5 for the lipase) and temperatures (from 10 °C to 30 °C), as well as relevant half-lives (from about 2 weeks to about 2 months), in a marine synthetic water. The activity displayed by each enzyme was poorly affected by the co-presence of the other enzymes, thus indicating their suitability to be employed in combination. None of the enzymes was able to inhibit the formation of biofilm by an actual site marine microbial community when applied singly. However, a mixture of the same enzymes reduced biofilm formation by about 90% without affecting planktonic growth of the same microbial community. This indicates that multiple hydrolytic activities are required to efficiently prevent biofilm formation by complex microbial communities, and that the mixture of enzymes selected in this study has the potential to be employed as an environmental friendly antifouling agent in marine antifouling coatings.

  2. Discovery of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitors with potential for decreased active metabolite load compared to dirlotapide.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ralph P; Bartlett, Jeremy A; Bertinato, Peter; Bessire, Andrew J; Cosgrove, Judith; Foley, Patrick M; Manion, Tara B; Minich, Martha L; Ramos, Brenda; Reese, Matthew R; Schmahai, Theodore J; Swick, Andrew G; Tess, David A; Vaz, Alfin; Wolford, Angela

    2011-07-15

    Analogues related to dirlotapide (1), a gut-selective inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) were prepared with the goal of further reducing the potential for unwanted liver MTP inhibition and associated side-effects. Compounds were designed to decrease active metabolite load: reducing MTP activity of likely human metabolites and increasing metabolite clearance to reduce exposure. Introduction of 4'-alkyl and 4'-alkoxy substituents afforded compounds exhibiting improved therapeutic index in rats with respect to liver triglyceride accumulation and enzyme elevation. Likely human metabolites of select compounds were prepared and characterized for their potential to inhibit MTP in vivo. Based on preclinical efficacy and safety data and its potential for producing short-lived, weakly active metabolites, compound 13 (PF-02575799) advanced into phase 1 clinical studies.

  3. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (P<0.05). Hematological and serum biochemical profiles were restored to normal levels in the extract-treated mice compared with the EAC control mice. MPBL and EPBL treatment significantly decreased lipid peroxidation (P<0.05) and restored GSH, SOD and CAT levels towards normal compared with the EAC control. Taken together, the results of the present study demonstrated that Piper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  4. Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 by eugenol.

    PubMed

    Chung, G; Im, S T; Kim, Y H; Jung, S J; Rhyu, M-R; Oh, S B

    2014-03-07

    Eugenol is a bioactive plant extract used as an analgesic agent in dentistry. The structural similarity of eugenol to cinnamaldehyde, an active ligand for transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), suggests that eugenol might produce its effect via TRPA1, in addition to TRPV1 as we reported previously. In this study, we investigated the effect of eugenol on TRPA1, by fura-2-based calcium imaging and patch clamp recording in trigeminal ganglion neurons and in a heterologous expression system. As the result, eugenol induced robust calcium responses in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons that responded to a specific TRPA1 agonist, allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), and not to capsaicin. Capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist failed to inhibit eugenol-induced calcium responses in AITC-responding neurons. In addition, eugenol response was observed in trigeminal ganglion neurons from TRPV1 knockout mice and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines that express human TRPA1, which was inhibited by TRPA1-specific antagonist HC-030031. Eugenol-evoked TRPA1 single channel activity and eugenol-induced TRPA1 currents were dose-dependent with EC50 of 261.5μM. In summary, these results demonstrate that the activation of TRPA1 might account for another molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological action of eugenol.

  5. Peer-led active tuberculosis case-finding among people living with HIV: lessons from Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Dipu; Sthapit, Raisha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem People living with a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have a high risk of tuberculosis and should undergo regular screening. However, they can be difficult to reach because they are stigmatized and discriminated against. Approach In Nepal, the nongovernmental organization Naya Goreto implemented a peer-led tuberculosis screening project in which people living with HIV volunteered to contact others in this high-risk population. Volunteers took part in a short training course, after which they attempted to contact people living with HIV through existing networks and self-help groups. Tuberculosis screening and testing were carried out in accordance with national guidelines. Local setting In Nepal, the prevalence of HIV infection is 0.3% in the general population but is much higher, at 6%, in people in Kathmandu who inject drugs. To date, the health system has not been able to implement systematic tuberculosis screening in people living with HIV. Relevant changes Between May 2014 and mid-September 2015, 30 volunteers screened 6642 people in 10 districts, 5430 (82%) of whom were living with HIV. Of the 6642, 6046 (91%) were tested for tuberculosis and 287 (4.3%) were diagnosed with the disease, 240 of whom were HIV-positive. Of those with tuberculosis, 270 (94%) initiated treatment. Lessons learnt Using peers to contact people living with HIV for tuberculosis screening resulted in a high participation rate and the identification of a considerable number of HIV-positive tuberculosis patients. Follow-up during treatment was difficult in this highly mobile group and needs more attention in future interventions. PMID:28250514

  6. Post-weaning living with parents during juvenile period alters locomotor activity, social and parental behaviors in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Lu; Kong, Lingzhe; Wang, Jianli

    2013-09-01

    Neonatal parental care plays an important role in the development of offspring behavior, but little is known about the effect of post-weaning contact between offspring and parents on locomotory, social and parental behavior. Here, we explore this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Voles were assigned to live with parents and siblings from the same litter until 45d (natural dispersal time in the field) or to live with siblings from the same litter after weaning at 21d (normally weaned time, the control). At 70d of age, behaviors were recorded in open field and social interaction tests, and parental care toward their own offspring was measured. Results show that voles that live with parents post-weaning engaged in less locomotory activity and rearing behavior in the open field test, less sniffing of novel individuals and displayed more parental care, compared to voles that did not continue to live with their parents. These findings demonstrate that parent-offspring interaction post-weaning alters locomotory activity, social behavior and parental behavior of offspring at adulthood.

  7. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  8. Sociocultural perspectives on physical activity in the lives of older African American and American Indian women: a cross cultural activity participation study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, K A; Ainsworth, B E

    2000-01-01

    Illuminating the diversity and sociocultural specificity of women's experiences may be important if healthy lifestyles and quality of life are to be achieved. The incidence of cardiovascular disease linked to physical inactivity is high among African American and American Indian women. If more is understood about the experience of physical activity involvement, healthier living might be encouraged. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the sociocultural meanings of physical activity for older (over the age of 40 years) African American and American Indian women who participated in the Cross Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS). Through qualitative in-depth interviews, we explored how sociocultural perspectives are related to perceptions about physical activity. Gender and other sociocultural factors influenced physical involvement on a continuum from negligible to significant. Both groups interviewed showed evidence that opportunities for physical activity in their free time did not always exist for them. For African American women, history and daily living issues were important factors limiting their involvement. Marginality limited American Indian women, but their cultural pride was often a source of physical activity. The juxtaposition of cultural and personal values emerged as a determinant of physical activity involvement among the women in this study. A further expansion of cultural and personal life situation perspectives is recommended to help understand the complex dimensions of physical activity as it relates to healthy living.

  9. Alkyne-tag Raman imaging of bio-active small molecules in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Jun; Palonpon, Almar F.; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Kawata, Satoshi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-12-01

    Raman microscopy is useful for molecular imaging and analysis of biological specimens. Here, we used alkyne containing a carbon-carbon triple bond as a Raman tag for observing small molecules in live cells. Alkyne tags can maintain original properties of target molecules with providing high chemical specificity owing to its distinct peak in a Raman-silent window of biomolecules. For demonstrations, alkyne-tagged thymidine and coenzyme Q analogue in live cells were visualized with high-spatial resolution. We extended the application of alkyne-tag imaging to visualize cell organelles and specific lipid components in artificial monolayer membranes.

  10. Monitoring daily living activities of elderly people in a nursing home using an infrared motion-detection system.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryoji; Otake, Sakuko; Izutsu, Takeshi; Yoshida, Masaki; Iwaya, Tsutomu

    2006-04-01

    We examined whether we could identify activity patterns of elderly people in a nursing home from sensor outputs of an infrared monitoring system. The subjects consisted of three elderly people. A single passive infrared sensor installed on the ceiling of each subject's usual dwelling room provided digital output whenever the subject moved. The subjects' actual daily activities were established from questionnaires with which patients documented their living patterns for each of 7 days. Activities were classed as sleeping, getting up/breakfast, indoor activities/going out, and dinner/going to bed. The mean +/- 2 standard deviations (SDs) of the sensor outputs on each day for each period of indoor activity was used to distinguish between normal and aberrant activities. Days on which sensor outputs exceeded the means +/- 2 SDs were regarded as atypical and were identified for each subject over a 28-day period. We were unable to determine the physical condition of the subjects on these atypical days. We were able to identify the pattern of daily indoor living activities and the duration of each class of activity using sensor outputs and a questionnaire. Days were assumed to be atypical when sensor outputs deviated from the normal pattern.

  11. Speed of CMEs and the magnetic non-potentiality of their source active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Most fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate from solar active regions (ARs). Non-potentiality of ARs is expected to determine the speed and size of CMEs in the outer corona. Several other unexplored parameters might be important as well. To find out the correlation between the initial speed of CMEs and the non-potentiality of source ARs, we associated over a hundred of CMEs with source ARs via their co-produced flares. The speed of the CMEs are collected from the SOHO LASCO CME catalog. We have used vector magnetograms obtained mainly with HMI/SDO, also with Hinode (SOT/SP) when available within an hour of a CME occurence, to evaluate various magnetic non-potentiality parameters, e.g. magnetic free-energy proxies, computed magnetic free energy, twist, shear angle, signed shear angle etc. We have also included several other parameters e.g. total unsigned flux, net current, magnetic area of ARs, area of sunspots, to investigate their correlation, if any, with the initial speeds of CMEs. Our preliminary results show that the ARs with larger non-potentiality and area mostly produce fast CMEs but they can also produce slower ones. The ARs with lesser non-potentiality and area generally produce only slower CMEs, however, there are a few exceptions. The total unsigned flux correlate with the non-potentiality parameters and area of ARs but some ARs with large unsigned flux are also found to be least non-potential. A more detailed analysis is underway. SKT is supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. RLM is supported by funding from the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program of the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Support for MAG4 development comes from NASA's Game Changing Development Program, and Johnson Space Center's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG).

  12. Relationship of Cognitive Functions with Daily Living Activities, Depression, Anxiety and Clinical Variables in Hospitalized Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    DEMİR AKÇA, Ayşe Semra; SARAÇLI, Özge; EMRE, Ufuk; ATASOY, Nuray; GÜDÜL, Serdar; ÖZEN BARUT, Banu; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; BÜYÜKUYSAL, M. Çağatay; ATİK, Levent; ATASOY, H. Tuğrul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive impairment in elderly patients, which may be a sign of dementia, depression, anxiety or medical diseases, has been determined as a risk factor for functional loss. In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of cognitive impairment and to investigate the relationship of cognitive status with sociodemographic variables, daily living activities, anxiety and depression in elderly inpatients. Method The sample of this cross-sectional and descriptive study consists of 243 patients aged 65 years and older who were hospitalized in Bülent Ecevit University Hospital. A sociodemographic questionnaire,, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities of Daily Living Scale, Lawton-Brody Instrumental Daily Activities Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection. Results One hundred and six (43.6%) patients were female and 137 (56.4%) were male. The patients were divided into two groups according to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) 23/24 cut-off score. The cognitive decline was statistically significantly more frequent in patients who were older, female, less educated, low socioeconomic status, and living in rural areas. There were more problems in the basic and instrumental activities of daily living and nutrition in patients with cognitive decline. Anxiety and depression scores were higher in this group. In our study, although the frequency of cognitive decline and depression according to GDS were 56% and 48%, respectively; we found that only 10.5% of patients applied to the psychiatrist, and 9.3% of patients received psychiatric treatment. Conclusion Cognitive decline may cause deterioration in the daily living activities, nutrition and capacity for independent functioning. Older age, female, low education, low socioeconomic status and living in rural area are important risk factors for cognitive impairment. Cognitive decline in older age may be associated with depression and

  13. Activities of Daily Living Curriculum for Handicapped Adults. Materials Development Center Reprint #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Dept. of Rehabilitation and Manpower Services. Materials Development Center.

    Designed for use in group and shelter homes, this curriculum is intended to impart the necessary skills for independent living. It should also better prepare mentally and physically handicapped individuals with the training required to handle the responsibilities accompanying competitive employment. These fourteen courses are included: money…

  14. Making It Better: Activities for Children Living in a Stressful World, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Children living with uncertainty and insecurity often have difficulty focusing on learning. They might demonstrate disrespectful or defiant behaviors, act out, or act with aggression. As an educator, you may provide the only stability in their otherwise turbulent world. "Making It Better" explains trauma-­informed education, an approach…

  15. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  16. The Anticancer Activity of Organotelluranes: Potential Role in Integrin Inactivation.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Alon; Kalechman, Yona; Hirsch, Shira; Erlich, Ziv; Sredni, Benjamin; Albeck, Amnon

    2016-05-17

    Organic Te(IV) compounds (organotelluranes) differing in their labile ligands exhibited anti-integrin activities in vitro and anti-metastatic properties in vivo. They underwent ligand substitution with l-cysteine, as a thiol model compound. Unlike inorganic Te(IV) compounds, the organotelluranes did not form a stable complex with cysteine, but rather immediately oxidized it. The organotelluranes inhibited integrin functions, such as adhesion, migration, and metalloproteinase secretion mediation in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. In comparison, a reduced derivative with no labile ligand inhibited adhesion of B16F10 cells to a significantly lower extent, thus pointing to the importance of the labile ligands of the Te(IV) atom. One of the organotelluranes inhibited circulating cancer cells in vivo, possibly by integrin inhibition. Our results extend the current knowledge on the reactivity and mechanism of organotelluranes with different labile ligands and highlight their clinical potential.

  17. Ecological Validity of Virtual Reality Daily Living Activities Screening for Early Dementia: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlee, Winfried; Tsolaki, Magda; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs; Nef, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    , and chair stands separately and while performing VR-DOTs in order to correlate performance in these measures with VR-DOTs because performance while navigating a virtual environment is a valid and reliable indicator of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Results The mild AD group was more impaired than the amnestic MCI group, and both were more impaired than healthy controls. The novel VR-DOT functional index correlated strongly with standard cognitive and functional measurements, such as mini-mental state examination (MMSE; rho=0.26, P=.01) and Bristol Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale scores (rho=0.32, P=.001). Conclusions Functional impairment is a defining characteristic of predementia and is partly dependent on the degree of cognitive impairment. The novel virtual reality measures of functional ability seem more sensitive to functional impairment than qualitative measures in predementia, thus accurately differentiating from healthy controls. We conclude that VR-DOT is an effective tool for discriminating predementia and mild AD from controls by detecting differences in terms of errors, omissions, and perseverations while measuring ADL functional ability. PMID:25658491

  18. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-beom; Kim, Young-dong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157239

  19. The global deterioration scale: relationships to neuropsychological performance and activities of daily living in patients with vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Cohen, Ronald A; Moser, David J; Zawacki, Tricia; Ott, Brian R; Gordon, Norman; Stone, William

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the relationships between ratings on the Global Deterioration Scale (GDS) and activities of daily living and cognitive function in 39 individuals with vascular dementia (VaD). The results of the study revealed significant correlations between GDS rating and performance on cognitive tests, including memory and overall cognitive ability. In addition, the GDS was significantly related to ratings of instrumental activities of daily living. Comparisons between patients with VaD with GDS scores between 4 and 6 (n = 21) and patients with scores between 2 and 3 (n = 18) revealed greater cognitive and functional deficits in the group with higher GDS scores. Further, the GDS score accurately classified 87% of the patients with VaD. These findings provide support for the validity of the GDS in general staging of dementia severity of VaD.

  20. Return to normal activities and work after living donor laparoscopic nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Larson, Dawn B; Jacobs, Cheryl; Berglund, Danielle; Wiseman, Jennifer; Garvey, Catherine; Gillingham, Kristen; Ibrahim, Hassan N; Matas, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Transplant programs inform potential donors that they should be able to return to normal activities within ~2 weeks and to work by 6 weeks after laparoscopic nephrectomy. We studied actual time. Between 10/2004 and 9/2014, 911 donors having laparoscopic nephrectomy were surveyed 6 months post-donation. Surveys asked questions specific to their recovery experience, including time to return to normal activities and work and a description of their recovery time relative to pre-donation expectations. Of the 911, 646 (71%) responded: mean age at donation was 43.5±10.6 years; 65% were female, 95% were white, 51% were biologically related to their recipient, and 83% reported education beyond high school. Of the 646 respondents, a total of 35% returned to normal activities by 2 weeks post-donation; 79% by 4 weeks post-donation; 94% by 5-6 weeks; however, 6% took >6 weeks. Of the 646, 551 (85%) were working for pay; of these, mean time to return to work was 5.3±2.8 weeks; median, 5 weeks. Of the 551, a total of 14% returned to work in 1-2 weeks, 46% by 3-4 weeks, and 76% by 5-6 weeks. Importantly, 24% required >6 weeks before returning to work with the highest rates for donors in manual labor or a skilled trade. Significantly longer return to work was reported by females (vs males; P=.01), those without (vs those with) post-high school education (P=.010, those with longer hospital stay (P=.01), and those with a postoperative complication (P=.02). Of respondents, 37% described their recovery time as longer than expected. During the donor informed consent process, additional emphasis on realistic expectations around recovery to baseline activities and return to work is warranted.

  1. Evaluation of avian influenza virus isolated from ducks as a potential live vaccine candidate against novel H7N9 viruses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen-Ming; Wang, Su-Chun; Liu, Hua-Lei; Yu, Jian-Min; Du, Xiang; Hou, Guang-Yu; Li, Jin-Ping; Liu, Shuo; Wang, Kai-Cheng; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Liu, Xiang-Ming; Chen, Ji-Ming

    2014-11-12

    Recent outbreaks of a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus in humans in China raise pandemic concerns and underscore an urgent need to develop effective vaccines. Theoretically, live influenza vaccines are of multiple advantages over traditional inactivated influenza vaccines to be used in a pandemic, because they can be produced rapidly, safely, and inexpensively. However, studies on live vaccines against the novel H7N9 virus are limited. In this study, we evaluated a potential live influenza vaccine candidate using an H7N3 avian influenza virus isolated from ducks with controls of two recombinant viruses generated through reverse genetics. The potential candidate could be produced efficiently using chicken embryonated eggs, and is homogenous to the novel H7N9 virus in their viral hemagglutinin genes. The potential candidate is likely low pathogenic to birds and mammals, and likely sensitive to oseltamivir and amantadine, as suggested by its genomic sequences. Its low pathogenicity was further supported through inoculation in mice, chicken embryonated eggs and chickens. Specific antibodies elicited in mice were detectable at least during the period between day 14 and day 56 after intranasal administration of the candidate for one time. Titers of the specific antibodies increased significantly with a boost intranasal administration or a higher inoculation dose. The induced specific antibodies were of substantial cross-reactivity with the novel H7N9 virus. These primary but promising evaluation data suggest that the duck influenza virus could be used as a potential live vaccine candidate, favorably through a prime-boost route, to mitigate the severity of the possible pandemic caused by the newly emerging H7N9 virus, and is valuable to be further evaluated.

  2. Phage lysin LysK can be truncated to its CHAP domain and retain lytic activity against live antibiotic-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Horgan, Marianne; O'Flynn, Gary; Garry, Jennifer; Cooney, Jakki; Coffey, Aidan; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Ross, R Paul; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    A truncated derivative of the phage endolysin LysK containing only the CHAP (cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase) domain exhibited lytic activity against live clinical staphylococcal isolates, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first known report of a truncated phage lysin which retains high lytic activity against live staphylococcal cells.

  3. Unhealthy habits and practice of physical activity in Spanish college students: the role of gender, academic profile and living situation.

    PubMed

    Molina, Antonio J; Varela, Verónica; Fernández, Tania; Martín, Vicente; Ayán, Carlos; Cancela, José M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify personal factors associated with drugs use and the practice of physical activity in a college student population in northwest Spain. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and April 2010 using a self-administered questionnaire including questions concerning gender, age, course and year of study, living arrangements and work. Participants were asked also about current tobacco use, alcohol drinking and heavy episodic drinking, illegal drugs use, and frequency of physical activity. Prevalences were calculated and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate separate models for the different habits making adjustments for the demographic variables. Most of students consumed alcohol (78.3%), with 31.7% consuming tobacco and 34% having used illegal drugs at some point. The prevalence of sufficient physical activity was about 22.7% and it was clearly lower in women and in courses no linked with sports. Women have been lesser consumers of illegal drugs and alcohol. However, heavy episodic drinking is clearly associated with women. Living with friends was noticed as a risk factor, both for tobacco use and the consumption of alcohol and illegal drugs, when compared with living at home. Courses of study connected with sport, health and education showed a lower prevalence of drug uses than the other courses analysed. Since distribution of drug use and insufficient physical activity depending on gender, living arrangement and the course of study, it would be appropriate to design more efficient interventions of health promotion take these differences into account.

  4. Novel nicotine analogues with potential anti-mycobacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Paresh T; Athmaram, Thimmasandra Narayanappa; Arunkumar, Gundaiah Ramesh

    2016-04-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) is the second leading lethal infectious disease in the world after acquired immuno deficiency (AIDs). We have developed a series of twenty-five novel nicotine analogues with de-addiction property and tested them for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). In an effort to increase the specificity of action and directing nicotine analogues to target MTB, four promising compounds were further optimized via molecular docking studies against the Dihydrofolate reductase of MTB. After lead optimization, one nicotine analogue [3-(5-(3fluorophenyl)nicotinoyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one] exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 μg/mL (2.86 nM) against M. tuberculosis (H37Rv strain), a human pathogenic strain of clinically significant importance. Pharmacokinetic analysis of [3-(5-(3fluorophenyl)nicotinoyl)-1methylpyrrolidin-2-one] with lowest MIC value via oral route in Wistar rats revealed that at a dosage of 5 mg/kg body weight gave a maximum serum drug concentration (Cmax) of 2.86 μg/mL, Tmax of one hour and a half-life (T1/2) of more than 24 h and Volume of distribution (Vd) of 27.36 L. Whereas the parenteral (intra venous) route showed a Cmax of 3.37 μg/mL, Tmax of 0.05 h, T1/2 of 24 h and Vd equivalent to 23.18 L. The acute oral toxicity and repeated oral toxicity studies in female Wistar rats had an LD50>2000 mg/kg body weight. Our data suggests that nicotine derivatives developed in the present study has good metabolic stability with tunable pharmacokinetics (PK) with therapeutic potential to combat MTB. However, further in vivo studies for anti-tuberculosis activity and elucidation of mode of action could result in more promising novel drug for treating MTB. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report revealing the anti-mycobacterial potential of nicotine analogue at potential therapeutic concentrations.

  5. Measuring the potential activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J D; Colwell, R R

    1976-01-01

    [14C]hydrocarbons were utilized as a means of estimating the hydrocarbon-degrading potential of bacteria in estuarine and marine environments. Evaporation of the hydrocarbons must be considered in estimates of oxidation. Amount of mineralization of [14C]hexadecane can be equated with the total number of petroleum-degrading bacteria and the percentage of the total heterotrophic population, which they represent. Mineralization activity was found to be related to the activity of the bacterial populations during in situ incubation. Rates of mineralization were observed, as follows, for [14C]hexadecane greater than [14C]naphthalene greater than [14C]toluene greater than [14C]cyclohexane. Increased rates of uptake and mineralization were observed for bacteria in samples collected from an oil-polluted harbor compared with samples from a relatively unpolluted, shellfish-harvesting area, e.g., turnover times of 15 and 60 min for these areas, respectively, using [14C]hexadecane. PMID:999271

  6. Potential active materials for photo-supercapacitor: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. H.; Lim, H. N.; Hayase, S.; Harrison, I.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The need for an endless renewable energy supply, typically through the utilization of solar energy in most applications and systems, has driven the expansion, versatility, and diversification of marketed energy storage devices. Energy storage devices such as hybridized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-capacitors and DSSC-supercapacitors have been invented for energy reservation. The evolution and vast improvement of these devices in terms of their efficiencies and flexibilities have further sparked the invention of the photo-supercapacitor. The idea of coupling a DSSC and supercapacitor as a complete energy conversion and storage device arose because the solar energy absorbed by dye molecules can be efficiently transferred and converted to electrical energy by adopting a supercapacitor as the energy delivery system. The conversion efficiency of a photo-supercapacitor is mainly dependent on the use of active materials during its fabrication. The performances of the dye, photoactive metal oxide, counter electrode, redox electrolyte, and conducting polymer are the primary factors contributing to high-energy-efficient conversion, which enhances the performance and shelf-life of a photo-supercapacitor. Moreover, the introduction of compact layer as a primary adherent film has been earmarked as an effort in enhancing power conversion efficiency of solar cell. Additionally, the development of electrolyte-free solar cell such as the invention of hole-conductor or perovskite solar cell is currently being explored extensively. This paper reviews and analyzes the potential active materials for a photo-supercapacitor to enhance the conversion and storage efficiencies.

  7. Potential protective effects of autophagy activated in MPP+ treated astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Cunzhou; Xian, Wenbiao; Zhou, Hongyan; Chen, Ling; Pei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes, which have various important functions, have previously been associated with Parkinsons disease (PD), particularly in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) models of PD. MPP+ is the toxic metabolite of MPTP and is generated by the enzymatic activity of monoamine oxidase B, which is predominantly located in astrocytes. MPP+ acts as a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved self-digestion pathway in eukaryotic cells, which occurs in response to various types of stress, including starvation and oxidative stress. Lithium treatment has previously been shown to induce autophagy in astrocytes by inhibiting the enzyme inositol monophosphatase, which may aid in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease, in which the toxic protein is an autophagy substrate. Therefore, using western blotting and MTT assay, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of lithium-induced autophagy against astrocyte injury caused by MPP+ treatment, as well as the potential underlying mechanisms. The results of the present study suggested that lithium was able to induce autophagy in astrocytes treated with MPP+, and this likely occurred via activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway. PMID:27882077

  8. Shallow Encoding and Forgetting Are Associated with Dependence in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Older Adults Living with HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Doyle, Katie L.; Scott, J. Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Casaletto, Kaitlin B.; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Marquie-Beck, Jennifer; Sherman, Melanie; Ellis, Ronald J.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Letendre, Scott; Capparelli, Edmund; Schrier, Rachel; Rosario, Debra; LeBlanc, Shannon; Heaton, Robert K.; Woods, Steven Paul; Cherner, Mariana; Moore, David J.; Morgan, Erin E.; Dawson, Matthew; Jernigan, Terry; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Archibald, Sarah L.; Hesselink, John; Annese, Jacopo; Taylor, Michael J.; Masliah, Eliezer; Achim, Cristian; Everall, Ian; Richman, Douglas; Smith, David M.; Allen McCutchan, J.; Achim, Cristian; Lipton, Stuart; Hampton Atkinson, J.; Gamst, Anthony C.; Cushman, Clint; Abramson, Ian; Vaida, Florin; Deutsch, Reena; Umlauf, Anya

    2014-01-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence. PMID:24695591

  9. Shallow encoding and forgetting are associated with dependence in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Fazeli, Pariya L; Doyle, Katie L; Scott, J Cobb; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Weber, Erica; Moore, David J; Morgan, Erin E; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-05-01

    Aging and HIV are both risk factors for memory deficits and declines in real-world functioning. However, we know little about the profile of memory deficits driving instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) declines across the lifespan in HIV. This study examined 145 younger (<50 years) and 119 older (≥50 years) adults with HIV who completed the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), the Wechsler Memory Scale-Third Edition Logical Memory subtest (WMS-III LM), and a modified Lawton and Brody ADL questionnaire. No memory predictors of IADL dependence emerged in the younger cohort. In the older group, IADL dependence was uniquely associated with worse performance on all primary CVLT-II variables, as well as elevated recency effects. Poorer immediate and delayed recall of the WMS-III LM was also associated with IADL dependence, although recognition was intact. Findings suggest older HIV-infected adults with shallow encoding and forgetting are at risk for IADL dependence.

  10. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Population Density and Heterotrophic Activity of Attached and Free-Living Bacteria in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Iriberri, Juan; Unanue, Marian; Barcina, Isabel; Egea, Luis

    1987-01-01

    The abundance and heterotrophic activity of attached and free-living bacteria were examined seasonally in coastal water. Heterotrophic activity was determined by the uptake of [14C]glucose. The density of attached bacteria was always minor, not showing a seasonal variation, whereas the free-living bacteria were more numerous and showed a marked seasonal variation, their density being higher under warmer conditions. The contribution of the attached bacteria to the total assimilation of [14C]glucose (from 10 to 38%) was lower than that of the free-living bacteria, neither of them showing a seasonal variation. On a cellular basis, attached bacteria were more active, since they assimilated more [14C]glucose and showed, under warmer conditions, a higher cellular volume (0.102 versus 0.047 μm3). We consider that the factors responsible for these observations were the amount and quality of the particulate material, the different availability of organic matter for the two types of bacteria, and in a fundamental way, the variation in water temperature. PMID:16347451

  12. A l'ecole maternelle francaise: Vivre ensemble et pratiquer des activities d'art plastique. [In a French Nursery School: Living and Creating Together].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Early Childhood, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the role of collective creative activity in developing preschool children's multicultural understanding and ability to live together. Notes artistic and language-based activities used in French preschools to teach these concepts and develop critical and responsible behavior. (JPB)

  13. Phospholipid scramblase 1 potentiates the antiviral activity of interferon.

    PubMed

    Dong, Beihua; Zhou, Quansheng; Zhao, Ji; Zhou, Aimin; Harty, Ronald N; Bose, Santanu; Banerjee, Amiya; Slee, Roger; Guenther, Jeanna; Williams, Bryan R G; Wiedmer, Therese; Sims, Peter J; Silverman, Robert H

    2004-09-01

    Phospholipid scramblase 1 (PLSCR1) is an interferon (IFN)- and growth factor-inducible, calcium-binding protein that either inserts into the plasma membrane or binds DNA in the nucleus depending on its state of palmyitoylation. In certain hematopoietic cells, PLSCR1 is required for normal maturation and terminal differentiation from progenitor cells as regulated by select growth factors, where it promotes recruitment and activation of Src kinases. PLSCR1 is a substrate of Src (and Abl) kinases, and transcription of the PLSCR1 gene is regulated by the same growth factor receptor pathways in which PLSCR1 potentiates afferent signaling. The marked transcriptional upregulation of PLSCR1 by IFNs led us to explore whether PLSCR1 plays an analogous role in cellular responses to IFN, with specific focus on antiviral activities. Accordingly, human cells in which PLSCR1 expression was decreased with short interfering RNA were rendered relatively insensitive to the antiviral activity of IFNs, resulting in higher titers of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and encephalomyocarditis virus. Similarly, VSV replicated to higher titers in mouse PLSCR1(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts than in identical cells transduced to express PLSCR1. PLSCR1 inhibited accumulation of primary VSV transcripts, similar to the effects of IFN against VSV. The antiviral effect of PLSCR1 correlated with increased expression of a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), including ISG15, ISG54, p56, and guanylate binding proteins. Our results suggest that PLSCR1, which is itself an ISG-encoded protein, provides a mechanism for amplifying and enhancing the IFN response through increased expression of a select subset of potent antiviral genes.

  14. Volcanism at Pacaya, Guatemala 1985-2001: Potential of TM Images in Assessing Strombolian Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reif, S.; Matias, O.; Rose, W. I.; Bluth, G. J.; Flynn, L. P.; Harris, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Pacaya is a basaltic volcano with a history of catastrophic collapse which has exhibited nearly continual low-level eruptive activity since 1965, and has also had periods of violent explosions. In the current year one of the authors (Matias) is beginning a synthesis of the diverse observational data on Pacaya's activity of that exist for the past four decades as a step toward improving the ability to assess potential hazards from the volcano. This is particularly important because the volcano (1) is located 25 km S of Guatemala City, (2) falls along the local airport final approach route, (3) has caused airport closure for several days in 2000, (4) is located in a national park where it and is thus visited and closely viewed by large groups of tourists every day, and (5) has 500-2000 inhabitants living within 5 km of its active crater. Since 1985 a time series of >25 cloud-free Landsat Thematic Mapper and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus images have been assembled and these are being used with ground-based observations, mapping and modeling as an important tool in (a) quantifying activity (e.g. calculation of eruption rates and flow volumes), (b) tracking changes at the volcano and (c) in establishing time-based patterns that may be useful in hazards assessment. The study is just beginning and will be presented as a work in progress. Our plan is to interact with the large number of scientists who have visited this exciting volcano. Because we have abundant ground-based observational data to complement the satellite observations, we expect to be able to evaluate the potential value of multispectral satellite observations in tracking activity at Pacaya.

  15. Near-Infrared Light Activation of Proteins Inside Living Cells Enabled by Carbon Nanotube-Mediated Intracellular Delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Fan, Xinqi; Chen, Xing

    2016-02-01

    Light-responsive proteins have been delivered into the cells for controlling intracellular events with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the choice of wavelength is limited to the UV and visible range; activation of proteins inside the cells using near-infrared (NIR) light, which has better tissue penetration and biocompatibility, remains elusive. Here, we report the development of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based bifunctional system that enables protein intracellular delivery, followed by NIR activation of the delivered proteins inside the cells. Proteins of interest are conjugated onto SWCNTs via a streptavidin-desthiobiotin (SA-DTB) linkage, where the protein activity is blocked. SWCNTs serve as both a nanocarrier for carrying proteins into the cells and subsequently a NIR sensitizer to photothermally cleave the linkage and release the proteins. The released proteins become active and exert their functions inside the cells. We demonstrated this strategy by intracellular delivery and NIR-triggered nuclear translocation of enhanced green fluorescent protein, and by intracellular delivery and NIR-activation of a therapeutic protein, saporin, in living cells. Furthermore, we showed that proteins conjugated onto SWCNTs via the SA-DTB linkage could be delivered to the tumors, and optically released and activated by using NIR light in living mice.

  16. Identification and biological activity of potential probiotic bacterium isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb

    PubMed Central

    Sepová, H. Kiňová; Dubnicková, M.; Bilková, A.; Bukovský, M.; Bezáková, L.

    2011-01-01

    The lactic acid bacterium E isolated from the stomach mucus of breast-fed lamb was identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA fragment and species-specific PCR as Lactobacillus reuteri. Its potential antimicrobial activity and ability to modulate immune system in vitro and in vivo was determined. The growth inhibition of potential pathogens decreased from Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica ser. Minnesota to Escherichia coli. The lowest inhibition activity was observed in the case of Candida albicans. The ability of L. reuteri E to modulate biological activities of human and mouse mononuclear cells was estimated in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The production of IL-1β by monocytes in vitro was significantly induced by L. reuteri E (relative activity 2.47). The ability to modulate biological activities of mononuclear cells by living L. reuteri E cells in vitro in comparison to disintegrated L. reuteri E cells in vivo differed. For example lysozyme activity in vitro was inhibited while in vivo was stimulated (relative activities 0.30 and 1.83, respectively). The peroxidase activity in vitro was stimulated while in vivo was inhibited (relative activities 1.53 and 0.17, respectively). Obtained results indicate that L. reuteri E is potential candidate to be used in probiotic preparations for animals and/or human. PMID:24031741

  17. Developing Activity Localization Fluorescence Peptide Probe Using Thiol-Ene Click Reaction for Spatially Resolved Imaging of Caspase-8 in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Si-Jia; Kuang, Yong-Qing; Luo, Feng-Yan; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2016-08-02

    Small molecule probes suitable for high-resolution fluorescence imaging of enzyme activity pose a challenge in chemical biology. We developed a novel design of activity localization fluorescence (ALF) peptide probe, which enables spatially resolved, highly sensitive imaging of peptidase in live cells. The ALF probe was synthesized by a facile thiol-ene click reaction of a cysteine-appended peptide with an acryloylated fluorophore. Upon cleavage by peptidase, the probe undergoes a seven-membered intramolecular cyclization and releases the fluorophore with the excited-state intramolecular photon transfer (ESIPT) effect. A highly fluorescent, insoluble aggregate was formed around the enzyme, which facilitates high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging. This design is demonstrated for detection of caspase-8 activation. The results show that our design allows easy, high-yield synthesis of the probe, and the probe affords high sensitivity for caspase-8 detection. Live cell imaging reveals that the probe is able to render highly localized and high-contrast fluorescence signal for caspase-8. Our design holds the potential as a generally applicable strategy for developing high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging peptide probes in cell biology and diagnostics.

  18. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  19. Living Nanomachines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlier, M.-F.; Helfer, E.; Wade, R.; Haraux, F.

    The living cell is a kind of factory on the microscopic scale, in which an assembly of modular machines carries out, in a spatially and temporally coordinated way, a whole range of activities internal to the cell, including the synthesis of substances essential to its survival, intracellular traffic, waste disposal, and cell division, but also activities related to intercellular communication and exchanges with the outside world, i.e., the ability of the cell to change shape, to move within a tissue, or to organise its own defence against attack by pathogens, injury, and so on. These nanomachines are made up of macromolecular assemblies with varying degrees of complexity, forged by evolution, within which work is done as a result of changes in interactions between proteins, or between proteins and nucleic acids, or between proteins and membrane components. All these cell components measure a few nanometers across, so the mechanical activity of these nanomachines all happens on the nanometric scale. The directional nature of the work carried out by biological nanomachines is associated with a dissipation of energy. As examples of protein assemblies, one could mention the proteasome, which is responsible for the degradation of proteins, and linear molecular motors such as actomyosin, responsible for muscle contraction, the dynein-microtubule system, responsible for flagellar motility, and the kinesin-microtubule system, responsible for transport of vesicles, which transform chemical energy into motion. Nucleic acid-protein assemblies include the ribosome, responsible for synthesising proteins, polymerases, helicases, elongation factors, and the machinery of DNA replication and repair; the mitotic spindle is an integrated system involving several of these activities which drive chromosome segregation. The machinery coupling membranes and proteins includes systems involved in the energy metabolism, such as the ATP synthase rotary motor, signalling cascades, endocytosis

  20. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  1. Enriching Orphans' Potentials through Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Intelligence Enrichment Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azid, Nurulwahida Hj; Yaacob, Aizan

    2016-01-01

    Orphans are considered a minority and they should be given a greater emphasis so that they do not feel left out and can build their own lives without a sense of humility. This does not mean that the orphans should be pampered instead they should be given the confidence and motivation to strive for success in later life. Humility among orphans can…

  2. Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

  3. Monoxenic liquid culture with Escherichia coli of the free-living nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5), a potential live food candidate for marine fish and shrimp larvae.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Farhana; Seychelles, Laurent; Strauch, Olaf; Wittke, Martina; Ehlers, Ralf-Udo

    2013-09-01

    The free-living, bacterial-feeding nematode Panagrolaimus sp. (strain NFS 24-5) has potential for use as live food for marine shrimp and fish larvae. Mass production in liquid culture is a prerequisite for its commercial exploitation. Panagrolaimus sp. was propagated in monoxenic liquid culture on Escherichia coli and parameters, like nematode density, population dynamics and biomass were recorded and compared with life history table data. A mean maximum nematode density of 174,278 mL(-1) and a maximum of 251,000 mL(-1) were recorded on day 17 after inoculation. Highest average biomass was 40 g L(-1) at day 13. The comparison with life history table data indicated that the hypothetical potential of liquid culture is much higher than documented during this investigation. Nematode development is delayed in liquid culture and egg production per female is more than five times lower than reported from life history trait analysis. The latter assessed a nematode generation time of 7.1 days, whereas the process time at maximum nematode density in liquid culture was 16 days indicating that a reduction of the process time can be achieved by further investigating the influence of nematode inoculum density on population development. The results challenge future research to reduce process time and variability and improve population dynamics also during scale-up of the liquid culture process.

  4. Potential for a live red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) vaccine in rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus at a low rearing temperature.

    PubMed

    Oh, So-Young; Oh, Myung-Joo; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2014-01-09

    Serious economic losses have occurred in fingerlings and market-sized rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus in Korea due to red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) infection. We demonstrated previously that viral multiplication in fish is downregulated by maintaining fish at far from optimum temperatures at the onset of disease. We applied this concept to develop a live RSIV vaccine in rock bream. Mortalities in rock bream that were inoculated with RSIV and reared at 21-30°C were ≥90%, whereas no mortality was observed in fish that received an RSIV inoculation and were reared at ≤18°C. RSIV kinetics revealed that RSIV multiplied rapidly in fish reared at 24.3±1.3°C, and achieved the critical level for rock bream (approximately 10(9.0) genomes/mg) within 28 days. In contrast, the RSIV genome was detected on day 10 in fish that received an RSIV inoculation at 15.5°C, and peaked on day 28 at 10(5.91±0.54) genomes/mg, then decreasing gradually, and were then maintained under the detection level beginning on day 84 after RSIV inoculation. Furthermore, the fish surviving the RSIV infection at low rearing temperature were strongly protected from re-challenge with homologous RSIV; the threshold level of RSIV for rock bream to mount a protective immune response was ≤10(5.4) genomes/mg. Cohabitation experiments revealed that the spread of RSIV from rock bream vaccinated with a live RSIV could be low if it is limited to fish in the late stage (≥84 days of elapse) after vaccination. Thus, it was concluded that when rock bream are reared at ≤18°C and inoculated with RSIV, the survivors can mount a protective immune response against RSIV, suggesting a positive effect of a live RSIV vaccine for rock bream.

  5. Moving towards acceleration for estimates of activity-specific metabolic rate in free-living animals: the case of the cormorant.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Rory P; White, Craig R; Quintana, Flavio; Halsey, Lewis G; Liebsch, Nikolai; Martin, Graham R; Butler, Patrick J

    2006-09-01

    1. Time and energy are key currencies in animal ecology, and judicious management of these is a primary focus for natural selection. At present, however, there are only two main methods for estimation of rate of energy expenditure in the field, heart rate and doubly labelled water, both of which have been used with success; but both also have their limitations. 2. The deployment of data loggers that measure acceleration is emerging as a powerful tool for quantifying the behaviour of free-living animals. Given that animal movement requires the use of energy, the accelerometry technique potentially has application in the quantification of rate of energy expenditure during activity. 3. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that acceleration can serve as a proxy for rate of energy expenditure in free-living animals. We measured rate of energy expenditure as rates of O2 consumption (VO2) and CO2 production (VCO2) in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) at rest and during pedestrian exercise. VO2 and VCO2 were then related to overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) measured with an externally attached three-axis accelerometer. 4. Both VO2 and VCO2 were significantly positively associated with ODBA in great cormorants. This suggests that accelerometric measurements of ODBA can be used to estimate VO2 and VCO2 and, with some additional assumptions regarding metabolic substrate use and the energy equivalence of O2 and CO2, that ODBA can be used to estimate the activity specific rate of energy expenditure of free-living cormorants. 5. To verify that the approach identifies expected trends in from situations with variable power requirements, we measured ODBA in free-living imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps) during foraging trips. We compared ODBA during return and outward foraging flights, when birds are expected to be laden and not laden with captured fish, respectively. We also examined changes in ODBA during the descent phase of diving, when power

  6. Potential ergogenic activity of grape juice in runners.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Lydiane Tavares; Tavares, Renata Leite; Toscano, Luciana Tavares; Silva, Cássia Surama Oliveira da; Almeida, Antônio Eduardo Monteiro de; Biasoto, Aline Camarão Telles; Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição Rodrigues; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have indicated that certain food products have ergogenic potential similar to that of sports supplements. The present study aimed to investigate the potential ergogenic effect of integral purple grape juice on the performance of recreational runners. Twenty-eight volunteers of both sexes (age, 39.8 ± 8.5 years; peak oxygen consumption, 43.2 ± 8.5 mL/(kg·min)) were randomized into either a group that received grape juice (grape juice group (GJG), n = 15; 10 mL/(kg·min) for 28 days) or a group that received an isocaloric, isoglycemic, and isovolumetric control beverage (control group (CG), n = 13). A time-to-exhaustion exercise test, anaerobic threshold test, and aerobic capacity test were performed, together with assessments of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, immune response, and muscle injury, performed at baseline and 48 h after the supplementation protocol. The GJG showed a significant increase (15.3%) in running time-to-exhaustion (p = 0.002) without significant improvements in either anaerobic threshold (3.6%; p = 0.511) or aerobic capacity (2.2%; p = 0.605). In addition, GJG exhibited significant increases in total antioxidant capacity (38.7%; p = 0.009), vitamin A (11.8%; p = 0.016), and uric acid (28.2%; p = 0.005), whereas α-1-acid glycoprotein significantly decreased (20.2%; p = 0.006) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels remained unchanged. In contrast, no significant changes occurred in any of these variables in the CG. In conclusion, supplementation with purple grape juice shows an ergogenic effect in recreational runners by promoting increased time-to-exhaustion, accompanied by increased antioxidant activity and a possible reduction in inflammatory markers.

  7. More Active Living-oriented County and Municipal Zoning is Associated with Increased Adult Leisure Time Physical Activity-United States, 2011.

    PubMed

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Nicholson, Lisa M; Thrun, Emily; Leider, Julien; Slater, Sandy J

    2016-01-01

    Although zoning is recognized for its role in facilitating healthy communities, no study has examined whether active living-oriented zoning codes are associated with adult leisure time physical activity (PA). This study sought to fill this gap and hypothesized that adult leisure time PA would be greater in communities with more progressive zoning code reforms and more active living-oriented zoning. Zoning codes for 1,617 county and municipal jurisdictions located in 30 states (covering ~40% of the U.S. population) were evaluated for code reform zoning and 11 active living markers. County-aggregated zoning measures were created for linking with five adult PA behaviors obtained from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System controlling for individual and county sociodemographics. Zoning elements most associated with adult PA included requirements for mixed use, active and passive recreation, bike parking/street furniture, and bike-pedestrian trails/paths. This study provides new insights as to the role that zoning can play in facilitating adult PA.

  8. Tsunamigenic potential of Mediterranean fault systems and active subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petricca, Patrizio; Babeyko, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Since the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean Tsunami Warning System (NEAMTWS) is under development by the European scientific community, it becomes necessary to define guidelines for the characterization of the numerous parameters must be taken into account in a fair assessment of the risk. Definition of possible tectonic sources and evaluation of their potential is one of the principal issues. In this study we systematically evaluate tsunamigenic potential of up-to-now known real fault systems and active subduction interfaces in the NEAMTWS region. The task is accomplished by means of numerical modeling of tsunami generation and propagation. We have simulated all possible uniform-slip ruptures populating fault and subduction interfaces with magnitudes ranging from 6.5 up to expected Mmax. A total of 15810 individual ruptures were processed. For each rupture, a tsunami propagation scenario was computed in linear shallow-water approximation on 1-arc minute bathymetric grid (Gebco_08) implying normal reflection boundary conditions. Maximum wave heights at coastal positions (totally - 23236 points of interest) were recorded for four hours of simulation and then classified according to currently adopted warning level thresholds. The resulting dataset allowed us to classify the sources in terms of their tsunamigenic potential as well as to estimate their minimum tsunamigenic magnitude. Our analysis shows that almost every source in the Mediterranean Sea is capable to produce local tsunami at the advisory level (i.e., wave height > 20 cm) starting from magnitude values of Mw=6.6. In respect to the watch level (wave height > 50 cm), the picture is less homogeneous: crustal sources in south-west Mediterranean as well as East-Hellenic arc need larger magnitudes (around Mw=7.0) to trigger watch levels even at the nearby coasts. In the context of the regional warning (i.e., source-to-coast distance > 100 km) faults also behave more heterogeneously in respect to the minimum

  9. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living

    PubMed Central

    BERRIDGE, CLARA

    2016-01-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative ‘misuse’. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults’ decisions and practices. PMID:28239211

  10. Active subjects of passive monitoring: responses to a passive monitoring system in low-income independent living.

    PubMed

    Berridge, Clara

    2017-03-01

    Passive monitoring technology is beginning to be reimbursed by third-party payers in the United States of America. Given the low voluntary uptake of these technologies on the market, it is important to understand the concerns and perspectives of users, former users and non-users. In this paper, the range of ways older adults relate to passive monitoring in low-income independent-living residences is presented. This includes experiences of adoption, non-adoption, discontinuation and creative 'misuse'. The analysis of interviews reveals three key insights. First, assumptions built into the technology about how older adults live present a problem for many users who experience unwanted disruptions and threats to their behavioural autonomy. Second, resident response is varied and challenges the dominant image of residents as passive subjects of a passive monitoring system. Third, the priorities of older adults (e.g. safety, autonomy, privacy, control, contact) are more diverse and multi-faceted than those of the housing organisation staff and family members (e.g. safety, efficiency) who drive the passive monitoring intervention. The tension between needs, desires and the daily lives of older adults and the technological solutions offered to them is made visible by their active responses, including resistance to them. This exposes the active and meaningful qualities of older adults' decisions and practices.

  11. The Relationship between Activities of Daily Living and Life Satisfaction in the Elderly: Active Engagement as Compared to Passive Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannuzzelli, Jena; England, Eileen M.

    Daily activities and social contact were studied as influences on the life satisfaction of elderly people. It was considered that all activities might not be equal and that individuals who participate in more active activities and who have more active social contacts would score higher in life satisfaction than those who engage in inactive…

  12. Aram Chaos: a Long Lived Subsurface Aqueous Environment with Strong Water Resources Potential for Human Missions on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, L.; Mueller, R.; Niles, P. B.; Glotch, T.; Archer, P. D.; Bell, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    preliminary indications of their potential use in civil engineering activities that involve regolith moving and hauling, while further study is needed to assess traverse-ability challenges. The widespread distribution of sulfates is also of interest as a resource for the use of sulfur as a binding compound in regolith-based concrete for constructions. The terrain depressions caused by the rock fracturing events may challenge surface mobility but also suggest the possibility of using such natural features for additional shielding from space radiation and as emplacement of nuclear surface power reactors for the same reason. The high concentration of hematite (up to 16 percent) in some of the smoother recent terrains of the central part of Aram Chaos [2] is a favorable attribute for metal extraction ISRU to create iron-based feedstock for in-situ fabrication of replacement parts or their repairs. Preliminary data on Aram Chaos indicate that it offers a combination of many critical criteria for human missions to the surface of Mars: equatorial region at low Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), evidence of hydrated minerals over large areas and at high concentrations tied to historic evidence of liquid water over long periods.

  13. Active axial spondyloarthritis: potential role of certolizumab pegol

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, Sriya; Miller, Anne V

    2014-01-01

    The axial spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that predominantly affect the axial joints. This group includes ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathy. While the pathogenesis of axial spondyloarthropathies is not clear, immunologically active tissues primarily include the entheses, ie, the areas where ligaments, tendons, and joint capsules attach to bone and to the annulus fibrosis at the vertebrae. One of the major mediators of the immune response in this group of diseases is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). Blockade of TNFα results in reduced vascularity and inflammatory cell infiltration in the synovial tissues of affected joints. Certolizumab pegol (CZP) is an Fc-free, PEGylated anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody. CZP has unique properties that differ from other available TNFα inhibitors by virtue of its lack of an Fc region, which minimizes potential Fc-mediated effects, and its PEGylation, which improves drug pharmacokinetics and bioavailability. It has been shown in clinical trials that CZP improves patient outcomes and reduces inflammation in the sacroiliac joints and spine in both ankylosing spondylitis and nonradiographic axial spondyloarthropathies. These data support CZP as a treatment option for axial spondyloarthropathies. PMID:24611014

  14. Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, K

    2014-01-01

    Excessive free radical generation overbalancing the rate of their removal leads to oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular disease, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Antioxidants are compounds that hinder the oxidative processes and thereby delay or suppress oxidative stress. There is a growing interest in natural antioxidants found in plants. Herbs and spices are most important targets to search for natural antioxidants from the point of view of safety. A wide variety of phenolic compounds present in spices that are extensively used as food adjuncts possess potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, and cancer preventive activities. This paper reviews a host of spice compounds as exogenous antioxidants that are experimentally evidenced to control cellular oxidative stress, both in vitro and in vivo, and their beneficial role in preventing or ameliorating oxidative-stress-mediated diseases, from atherosclerosis to diabetes to cataract to cancer. The antioxidative effects of turmeric/curcumin, clove/eugenol, red pepper/capsaicin, black pepper/piperine, ginger/gingerol, garlic, onion, and fenugreek, which have been extensively studied and evidenced as potential antioxidants, are specifically reviewed in this treatise.

  15. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F. V.; Valentine, G. A.; Smistad, E.

    2005-12-01

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgement, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 X 10-8 per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 X 10-8 be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered; 1) igneous intrusion-groundwater transport case and 2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the contents of

  16. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cline; F. Perry; G. Valentine; E. Smistad

    2005-05-26

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10{sup -8} be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the

  17. Potential and limitations of microscopy and Raman spectroscopy for live-cell analysis of 3D cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Charwat, Verena; Schütze, Karin; Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Gangnus, Rainer; Hofbauer, Pablo; Hoffmann, Claudia; Angres, Brigitte; Kasper, Cornelia

    2015-07-10

    Today highly complex 3D cell culture formats that closely mimic the in vivo situation are increasingly available. Despite their wide use, the development of analytical methods and tools that can work within the depth of 3D-tissue constructs lags behind. In order to get the most information from a 3D cell sample, adequate and reliable assays are required. However, the majority of tools and methods used today have been originally designed for 2D cell cultures and translation to a 3D environment is in general not trivial. Ideally, an analytical method should be non-invasive and allow for repeated observation of living cells in order to detect dynamic changes in individual cells within the 3D cell culture. Although well-established laser confocal microscopy can be used for these purposes, this technique has serious limitations including penetration depth and availability. Focusing on two relevant analytical methods for live-cell monitoring, we discuss the current challenges of analyzing living 3D samples: microscopy, which is the most widely used technology to observe and examine cell cultures, has been successfully adapted for 3D samples by recording of so-called "z-stacks". However the required equipment is generally very expensive and therefore access is often limited. Consequently alternative and less advanced approaches are often applied that cannot capture the full structural complexity of a 3D sample. Similarly, image analysis tools for quantification of microscopic images range from highly specialized and costly to simplified and inexpensive. Depending on the actual sample composition and scientific question the best approach needs to be assessed individually. Another more recently introduced technology for non-invasive cell analysis is Raman micro-spectroscopy. It enables label-free identification of cellular metabolic changes with high sensitivity and has already been successful applied to 2D and 3D cell cultures. However, its future significance for cell

  18. Interest in, concerns about, and preferences for potential video-group delivery of an effective behavioral intervention among women living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Marhefka, Stephanie L; Fuhrmann, Hollie J; Gilliam, Patricia; Lopez, Bernice; Baldwin, Julie

    2012-10-01

    Novel strategies are needed to expand access to effective behavioral interventions for HIV prevention. Delivering effective group-based interventions to people living with HIV using video-conferencing technology is an innovative approach that may address this need, but has not been explored. Twenty-seven women living with HIV (WLH) who had just completed Healthy Relationships, a group-based behavioral program for WLH, participated in focus groups to share their thoughts about potentially participating in Healthy Relationships via a video-conferencing group. Overall, WLH supported the idea of video-group delivery of the program. They had numerous questions about logistics, expressed concerns about safety and confidentiality, and indicated a preference for accessing video-groups via special video-phones versus computers. Findings warrant further research into the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of video-group delivery of HIV prevention interventions and suggest important considerations for researchers and practitioners who may employ video-conferencing for intervention delivery.

  19. Perceptions of participating in high-intensity functional exercise among older people dependent in activities of daily living (ADL).

    PubMed

    Lindelöf, N; Rosendahl, E; Gustafsson, S; Nygaard, J; Gustafson, Y; Nyberg, L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate how older people, dependent in ADL perceive their participation in a high-intensity, functional exercise program compared to the perceptions of those participating in a control activity. Forty-eight older people living in residential care facilities answered a questionnaire about their perceptions of participating in an activity for three months. They were aged 65-98, had a mean score of 24 on Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and 14 on Barthel ADL Index. The participants had been randomized to exercise (n=20) or control activity (n=28). Differences in responses between exercise and control activity were evaluated using logistic and ordinal regression analyses. The results show that a majority of the exercise group perceived positive changes in lower limb strength, balance, and in the ability to move more safely and securely compared to a minority of the control group (p<0.001). Significantly more respondents in the exercise activity answered that they felt less tired due to the activity (p=0.027) and that they prioritized this activity above other activities (p=0.010). More exercise participants reported that meeting for three months was too short, and fewer that it was too long compared to the control group (p=0.038). This study shows that older people living in residential care facilities, dependent in ADL, and with mild or no cognitive impairment had positive perceptions about participating in high-intensity functional exercise. The findings support the use of a high-intensity exercise program in this population of older people.

  20. Free-living ciliates as potential reservoirs for eukaryotic parasites: occurrence of a trypanosomatid in the macronucleus of Euplotes encysticus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Flagellates of the family Trypanosomatidae are obligate endoparasites, which can be found in various hosts. Several genera infect insects and occur as monoxenous parasites especially in representatives of Diptera and Hemiptera. These trypanosomatid flagellates probably share the worldwide distribution of their hosts, which are often infested by large numbers of endoparasites. Traditionally, their taxonomy was based on morphology, host origin, and life cycle. Here we report the characterization of a trypanosomatid infection detected in a protozoan, a ciliate collected from a polluted freshwater pond in a suburb of New Delhi (India). Methods Live observations and morphological studies applying light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy were conducted. Molecular analyses of host and parasite were performed and used for phylogenetic reconstructions and species (host) or genus level (parasite) identification. Results Although the morphological characteristics were not revealing, a high similarity of the trypanosomatids 18S rRNA gene sequence to Herpetomonas ztiplika and Herpetomonas trimorpha (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae), both parasites of biting midges (Culicoides kibunensis and Culicoides truncorum, respectively) allowed the assignment to this genus. The majority of the host population displayed a heavy infection that significantly affected the shape of the host macronucleus, which was the main site of parasite localization. In addition, the growth rate of host cultures, identified as Euplotes encysticus according to cell morphology and 18S rRNA gene sequence, was severely impacted by the infection. Conclusions The host-parasite system described here represents a recent example of free-living protists acting as environmental reservoirs for parasitic eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:24774858

  1. Facile synthesis of fluorescent porous zinc sulfide nanospheres and their application for potential drug delivery and live cell imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Ruimin; Liu, Shanhu

    2012-05-01

    Fabrication of intrinsically fluorescent porous nanocarriers that are simultaneously stable in aqueous solutions and photostable is critical for their application in drug delivery and optical imaging but remains a challenge. In this study, fluorescent porous zinc sulfide nanospheres were synthesized by a facile gum arabic-assisted hydrothermal procedure. The morphology, composition and properties of the nanospheres have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, fourier transform infrared spectrograph, optical measurement, dynamic light scattering, and cytotoxicity assay. They exhibit larger surface area, excellent colloidal stability, photostable fluorescent signals, and good biocompatibility, which makes them promising hosts for drug delivery and cellular imaging. The fluorescent dye safranine-T was employed as a drug model and loaded into the porous nanospheres, which were delivered to human cervical cancer HeLa cells in vitro for live cell imaging.Fabrication of intrinsically fluorescent porous nanocarriers that are simultaneously stable in aqueous solutions and photostable is critical for their application in drug delivery and optical imaging but remains a challenge. In this study, fluorescent porous zinc sulfide nanospheres were synthesized by a facile gum arabic-assisted hydrothermal procedure. The morphology, composition and properties of the nanospheres have been characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption analysis, thermal gravimetric analysis, fourier transform infrared spectrograph, optical measurement, dynamic light scattering, and cytotoxicity assay. They exhibit larger surface area, excellent colloidal stability, photostable fluorescent signals, and good biocompatibility, which makes them promising

  2. Balamuthia mandrillaris, free-living ameba and opportunistic agent of encephalitis, is a potential host for Legionella pneumophila bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shadrach, Winlet Sheba; Rydzewski, Kerstin; Laube, Ulrike; Holland, Gudrun; Ozel, Muhsin; Kiderlen, Albrecht F; Flieger, Antje

    2005-05-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living ameba and an opportunistic agent of granulomatous encephalitis in humans and other mammalian species. Other free-living amebas, such as Acanthamoeba and Hartmannella, can provide a niche for intracellular survival of bacteria, including the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, Legionella pneumophila. Infection of amebas by L. pneumophila enhances the bacterial infectivity for mammalian cells and lung tissues. Likewise, the pathogenicity of amebas may be enhanced when they host bacteria. So far, the colonization of B. mandrillaris by bacteria has not been convincingly shown. In this study, we investigated whether this ameba could host L. pneumophila bacteria. Our experiments showed that L. pneumophila could initiate uptake by B. mandrillaris and could replicate within the ameba about 4 to 5 log cycles from 24 to 72 h after infection. On the other hand, a dotA mutant, known to be unable to propagate in Acanthamoeba castellanii, also did not replicate within B. mandrillaris. Approaching completion of the intracellular cycle, L. pneumophila wild-type bacteria were able to destroy their ameboid hosts. Observations by light microscopy paralleled our quantitative data and revealed the rounding, collapse, clumping, and complete destruction of the infected amebas. Electron microscopic studies unveiled the replication of the bacteria in a compartment surrounded by a structure resembling rough endoplasmic reticulum. The course of intracellular infection, the degree of bacterial multiplication, and the ultrastructural features of a L. pneumophila-infected B. mandrillaris ameba resembled those described for other amebas hosting Legionella bacteria. We hence speculate that B. mandrillaris might serve as a host for bacteria in its natural environment.

  3. Quantifying Force and Viscoelasticity Inside Living Cells Using an Active-Passive Calibrated Optical Trap.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Christine M; Mas, Josep; Oddershede, Lene; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    As described in the previous chapters, optical tweezers have become a tool of precision for in vitro single-molecule investigations, where the single molecule of interest most often is studied in purified form in an experimental assay with a well-controlled fluidic environment. A well-controlled fluidic environment implies that the physical properties of the liquid, most notably the viscosity, are known and the fluidic environment can, for calibrational purposes, be treated as a simple liquid.In vivo, however, optical tweezers have primarily been used as a tool of manipulation and not so often for precise quantitative force measurements, due to the unknown value of the spring constant of the optical trap formed within the cell's viscoelastic cytoplasm. Here, we describe a method for utilizing optical tweezers for quantitative in vivo force measurements. The experimental protocol and the protocol for data analysis rely on two types of experiments, passive observation of the thermal motion of a trapped object inside a living cell, followed by observations of the response of the trapped object when subject to controlled oscillations of the optical trap. One advantage of this calibration method is that the size and refractive properties of the trapped object and the viscoelastic properties of its environment need not be known. We explain the protocol and demonstrate its use with experiments of trapped granules inside live S. pombe cells.

  4. Region-specific network plasticity in simulated and living cortical networks: comparison of the center of activity trajectory (CAT) with other statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zenas C.; Bakkum, Douglas J.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    Electrically interfaced cortical networks cultured in vitro can be used as a model for studying the network mechanisms of learning and memory. Lasting changes in functional connectivity have been difficult to detect with extracellular multi-electrode arrays using standard firing rate statistics. We used both simulated and living networks to compare the ability of various statistics to quantify functional plasticity at the network level. Using a simulated integrate-and-fire neural network, we compared five established statistical methods to one of our own design, called center of activity trajectory (CAT). CAT, which depicts dynamics of the location-weighted average of spatiotemporal patterns of action potentials across the physical space of the neuronal circuitry, was the most sensitive statistic for detecting tetanus-induced plasticity in both simulated and living networks. By reducing the dimensionality of multi-unit data while still including spatial information, CAT allows efficient real-time computation of spatiotemporal activity patterns. Thus, CAT will be useful for studies in vivo or in vitro in which the locations of recording sites on multi-electrode probes are important.

  5. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Increases NMDA-Activated Current in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Qu, Weijun; Zhou, Libin; Lu, Zihong; Jie, Pinghui; Chen, Lei; Chen, Ling

    2013-01-01

    The glutamate excitotoxicity, mediated through N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), plays an important role in cerebral ischemia injury. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) can be activated by multiple stimuli that may happen during stroke. The present study evaluated the effect of TRPV4 activation on NMDA-activated current (INMDA) and that of blocking TRPV4 on brain injury after focal cerebral ischemia in mice. We herein report that activation of TRPV4 by 4α-PDD and hypotonic stimulation increased INMDA in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, which was sensitive to TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 and NMDAR antagonist AP-5, indicating that TRPV4 activation potentiates NMDAR response. In addition, the increase in INMDA by hypotonicity was sensitive to the antagonist of NMDAR NR2B subunit, but not of NR2A subunit. Furthermore, antagonists of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) significantly attenuated hypotonicity-induced increase in INMDA, while antagonists of protein kinase C or casein kinase II had no such effect, indicating that phosphorylation of NR2B subunit by CaMKII is responsible for TRPV4-potentiated NMDAR response. Finally, we found that intracerebroventricular injection of HC-067047 after 60 min middle cerebral artery occlusion reduced the cerebral infarction with at least a 12 h efficacious time-window. These findings indicate that activation of TRPV4 increases NMDAR function, which may facilitate glutamate excitotoxicity. Closing TRPV4 may exert potent neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia injury through many mechanisms at least including the prevention of NMDAR-mediated glutamate excitotoxicity. PMID:23459987

  6. Living with the Active Alert Child: Groundbreaking Strategies for Parents. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budd, Linda S.

    Bright, controlling, fearful, and highly energetic, active alert children are frequently misdiagnosed as hyperactive or learning disabled. This book offers guidance for the special challenge of parenting the active alert infant, child, and adolescent. Part 1 of the book profiles the active alert child and examines 11 traits that characterize…

  7. Changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in older adults living in the community.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunhwan; Kim, Jinhee; Han, Eun Sook; Chae, Songi; Ryu, Mikyung; Ahn, Kwang Ho; Park, Eun Ju

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that physical activity may be beneficial in preserving cognition in late life. This study examined the association between baseline and changes in physical activity and cognitive decline in community-dwelling older people. Data were from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, with 2605 aged 65 years and older subjects interviewed in 2006 and followed up for 2 years. Cognitive decline was defined by calculating the Reliable Change Index using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Physical activity levels were categorized as sedentary, low, or high. Changes in physical activity were classified as inactive, decreaser, increaser, or active. Logistic regression analysis of baseline and changes in physical activity with cognitive decline was performed. Compared with the sedentary group at baseline, both the low and high activity groups were less likely to experience cognitive decline. The active (odds ratio [OR] = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.68) and increaser (OR = 0.45, 95 % CI 0.27-0.74) group, compared with the inactive counterpart, demonstrated a significantly lower likelihood of cognitive decline. Older adults who remained active or increased activity over time had a reduced risk of cognitive decline. Engagement in physical activity in late life may have cognitive health benefits.

  8. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London—Olympic Park cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Participants Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Findings to date Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. Future plans The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a ‘natural experiment’, provided by the building and rapid occupation of East

  9. Daily life in very old age: everyday activities as expression of successful living.

    PubMed

    Horgas, A L; Wilms, H U; Baltes, M M

    1998-10-01

    The goals of this article are (a) to describe the daily life of the very old in terms of frequency, duration, variety, and social and physical contexts of activities, and (b) to examine the effects of background variables (e.g., age, sex, residential and marital status, income, and education) on late life activity engagement. A representative sample of 516 adults aged 70-105 was interviewed about their activities using the Yesterday Interview. In contrast to most research on activity engagement, this measurement approach allows for assessment of both the type and context of activities engaged in during the day preceding the interview. The results indicated high frequencies of obligatory activities but also showed substantial time spent in discretionary activities, with television viewing occupying most of the participants' leisure time. Most activities were done alone and at home. In bivariate and multiple regression analyses, age and residential status had the strongest association with activity frequency, duration, and variety; the oldest-old and those residing in long-term care facilities had lower levels of activity engagement. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance for successful aging.

  10. Surface-bound phosphatase activity in living hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi of Nothofagus obliqua.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Maricel; Godoy, Roberto; Heyser, Wolfgang; Härtel, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    We determined the location and the activity of surface-bound phosphomonoesterase (SBP) of five ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi of Nothofagus oblique. EM fungal mycelium of Paxillus involutus, Austropaxillus boletinoides, Descolea antartica, Cenococcum geophilum and Pisolithus tinctorius was grown in media with varying concentrations of dissolved phosphorus. SBP activity was detected at different pH values (3-7) under each growth regimen. SBP activity was assessed using a colorimetric method based on the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) to p-nitrophenol phosphate (pNP) + P. A new technique involving confocal laser-scanning microscopy (LSM) was used to locate and quantify SBP activity on the hyphal surface. EM fungi showed two fundamentally different patterns of SBP activity in relation to varying environmental conditions (P-concentrations and pH). In the cases of D. antartica, A. boletinoides and C. geophilum, changes in SBP activity were induced primarily by changes in the number of SBP-active centers on the hyphae. In the cases of P. tinctorius and P. involutus, the number of SBP-active centers per μm hyphal length changed much less than the intensity of the SBP-active centers on the hyphae. Our findings not only contribute to the discussion about the role of SBP-active centers in EM fungi but also introduce LSM as a valuable method for studying EM fungi.

  11. Oral temperatures of the elderly in nursing homes in summer and winter in relation to activities of daily living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Motohashi, Yutaka; Maeda, Akira

    This study was conducted to clarify the seasonal difference in body temperature in summer and winter, and to document the thermal environment of the elderly living in nursing homes. The subjects were 57 healthy elderly people aged >=63 years living in two nursing homes in Japan. One of the homes was characterized by subjects with low levels of activities of daily living (ADL). Oral temperatures were measured in the morning and afternoon, with simultaneous recording of ambient temperature and relative humidity. Oral temperatures in summer were higher than in winter, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) of 0.25 (SD 0.61) °C in the morning and 0.24 (SD 0.50) °C in the afternoon. Differences between oral temperatures in summer and winter tended to be greater in subjects with low ADL scores, even when their room temperature was well-controlled. In conclusion, the oral temperatures of the elderly are lower in winter than summer, particularly in physically inactive people. It appears that those with low levels of ADL are more vulnerable to large changes in ambient temperature.

  12. Invitations to Interdependence: Caught in the Web. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about ecosystems which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  13. Invitations to Heredity: Generation to Generation. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about heredity and genetics which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish),…

  14. Invitations to Cells: Life's Building Blocks. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about cells which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials, procedures,…

  15. Invitations to the Matter-Energy Cycle. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about matter and energy which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  16. Invitations to Evolving. Teacher-Friendly Science Activities with Reproducible Handouts in English and Spanish. Grades 3-5. Living Things Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Carole Ann, Ed.

    This booklet, one of six in the Living Things Science series, presents activities about evolution which address basic "Benchmarks" suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science for the Living Environment for grades 3-5. Contents include background information, vocabulary (in English and Spanish), materials,…

  17. Live-bird market closure activities in the northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Mullaney, R

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) viruses have been isolated from the live-bird markets (LBMs) of the Northeast. Despite educational efforts, surveillance, and increased state regulatory efforts, the number of positive markets has persisted and increased. In an effort to address the continued levels of LPAI in the retail LBM and address the question of persistence and circulation of the virus within the LBM system itself, these markets were closed for a continuous 3-day period. This effort was a cooperative effort between the State Departments of Agriculture and coordinated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and led to the first successful system-wide closure of the retail LBMs in the Northeast.

  18. A preliminary census of engineering activities located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisi, Marco; Briffa, Emanuela; Cannata, Andrea; Cannavò, Flavio; Gambino, Salvatore; Maiolino, Vincenza; Maugeri, Roberto; Palano, Mimmo; Privitera, Eugenio; Scaltrito, Antonio; Spampinato, Salvatore; Ursino, Andrea; Velardita, Rosanna

    2015-04-01

    The seismic events caused by human engineering activities are commonly termed as "triggered" and "induced". This class of earthquakes, though characterized by low-to-moderate magnitude, have significant social and economical implications since they occur close to the engineering activity responsible for triggering/inducing them and can be felt by the inhabitants living nearby, and may even produce damage. One of the first well-documented examples of induced seismicity was observed in 1932 in Algeria, when a shallow magnitude 3.0 earthquake occurred close to the Oued Fodda Dam. By the continuous global improvement of seismic monitoring networks, numerous other examples of human-induced earthquakes have been identified. Induced earthquakes occur at shallow depths and are related to a number of human activities, such as fluid injection under high pressure (e.g. waste-water disposal in deep wells, hydrofracturing activities in enhanced geothermal systems and oil recovery, shale-gas fracking, natural and CO2 gas storage), hydrocarbon exploitation, groundwater extraction, deep underground mining, large water impoundments and underground nuclear tests. In Italy, induced/triggered seismicity is suspected to have contributed to the disaster of the Vajont dam in 1963. Despite this suspected case and the presence in the Italian territory of a large amount of engineering activities "capable" of inducing seismicity, no extensive researches on this topic have been conducted to date. Hence, in order to improve knowledge and correctly assess the potential hazard at a specific location in the future, here we started a preliminary study on the entire range of engineering activities currently located in Sicily (Southern Italy) which may "potentially" induce seismicity. To this end, we performed: • a preliminary census of all engineering activities located in the study area by collecting all the useful information coming from available on-line catalogues; • a detailed compilation

  19. Active reassortment of H9 influenza viruses between wild birds and live-poultry markets in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ho Jin; Song, Min Suk; Cruz, Deu John M; Park, Kuk Jin; Pascua, Philippe Noriel Q; Lee, Jun Han; Baek, Yun Hee; Choi, Dong Ho; Choi, Young Ki; Kim, Chul Joong

    2010-02-01

    Surveillance of H9 avian influenza viruses in Korean live-poultry markets from September 2004 through October 2007 was carried out to investigate active reassortment between wild migratory birds and domestic poultry in Korea. Antigenic and phylogenetic analyses showed that most of the isolates belong to the previous Korean H9N2-like lineage and differ from the southeastern Chinese strains. Interestingly, the Ck/Korea/LPM77/06 group (genotype B) and Dk/Korea/LPM248/07 group (genotype C) showed unique properties distinct from those of other Korean H9N2 strains. Although the HA genes of these two groups belong to Korean H9N2-like lineage, the PA genes closely resemble those of the Chinese Y280-like lineage. In addition, the PB2 genes of the Dk/Korea/LPM248/07 group were closely related to those isolated from migratory birds. Several other isolates also clustered within the H9N2 B genotype, an indication that there are at least two predominant H9N2 influenza genotypes in Korea. Another isolate, Dk/Korea/LPM71/06, was identified as an H9N1 subtype, the first ever discovered in Korean live-poultry markets. These findings reveal that reassortment of Korean H9 influenza viruses has occurred frequently in live-poultry markets and may have been mediated by introduction of genetic material from viruses circulating among migratory wild birds to domestic birds. Consequently, the new dominant H9N2 genotypes have become established in Korean live-poultry markets through continued reassortment.

  20. Your garden hose: a potential health risk due to Legionella spp. growth facilitated by free-living amoebae.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jacqueline M; Thomas, Torsten; Stuetz, Richard M; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-09-02

    Common garden hoses may generate aerosols of inhalable size (≤10 μm) during use. If humans inhale aerosols containing Legionella bacteria, Legionnaires' disease or Pontiac fever may result. Clinical cases of these illnesses have been linked to garden hose use. The hose environment is ideal for the growth and interaction of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) due to biofilm formation, elevated temperatures, and stagnation of water. However, the microbial densities and hose conditions necessary to quantify the human health risks have not been reported. Here we present data on FLA and Legionella spp. detected in water and biofilm from two types of garden hoses over 18 months. By culturing and qPCR, two genera of FLA were introduced via the drinking water supply and reached mean densities of 2.5 log10 amoebae·mL(-1) in garden hose water. Legionella spp. densities (likely including pathogenic L. pneumophila) were significantly higher in one type of hose (3.8 log10 cells·mL(-1), p < 0.0001). A positive correlation existed between Vermamoebae vermiformis densities and Legionella spp. densities (r = 0.83, p < 0.028). The densities of Legionella spp. identified in the hoses were similar to those reported during legionellosis outbreaks in other situations. Therefore, we conclude that there is a health risk to susceptible users from the inhalation of garden hose aerosols.

  1. The Potential Role of the Thorium Fuel Cycle in Reducing the Radiotoxicity of Long-Lived Waste - 13477

    SciTech Connect

    Hesketh, Kevin; Thomas, Mike

    2013-07-01

    The thorium (or more accurately the Th-232/U-233) fuel cycle is attracting growing interest world wide and one reason for this is the reduced radiotoxicity of long-lived waste, with the Th- 232/U-233 fuel cycle often being justified partly on the grounds of low radiotoxicity for long cooling times. This paper considers the evolution of heavy metal radiotoxicity in a Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) operating a closed Th-232/U-233 cycle during different operational phases. The paper shows that even in the MSFR core, the equilibrium radiotoxicity of the thorium fuel cycle is only reached after almost 100 years of operation. MSFR was chosen because it has many theoretical advantages that favour the Th-232/U-233 fuel cycle. Conventional solid fuel systems would be expected to behave similarly, but with even longer timescales and therefore the MSFR cycle can be used to define the limits of what is practically achievable. The results are used to argue the case that a fair approach to justifying the Th-232/U-233 breeder cycle should not quote the long term equilibrium radiotoxicity, but rather the somewhat less favourable radiotoxicity that could be achieved within the operational lifetime of the first generation of Th-232/U-233 breeder reactors. (authors)

  2. Differences in Physical Activity between Black and White Girls Living in Rural and Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen M.; Dowda, Marsha; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.; Saunders, Ruth; Pate, Russell R.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship of race and rural/urban setting to physical, behavioral, psychosocial, and environmental factors associated with physical activity among eighth grade girls. More differences related to race than setting. Black girls were less active and more heavy than white girls. Enjoyment of physical education and family involvement in…

  3. The Green Pages Environmental Education Activities K-12: Gardens for Young Growing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jan

    1997-01-01

    Describes several gardening activities that can be kept simple or used as a foundation for more in-depth projects. Activities include setting up an indoor garden spot, making compost which helps students understand the terms "decompose" and "compost", watching plants drink in which students measure water movement in plants, making herb gardens,…

  4. Recent Advances in Free-Living Physical Activity Monitoring: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Andre, David; Wolf, Donna L.

    2007-01-01

    It has become clear recently that the epidemic of type 2 diabetes sweeping the globe is associated with decreased levels of physical activity and an increase in obesity. Incorporating appropriate and sufficient physical activity into one's life is an essential component of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and overall health, especially for those with type II diabetes mellitus. Regular physical activity can have a positive impact by lowering blood glucose, helping the body to be more efficient at using insulin. There are other substantial benefits for patients with diabetes, including prevention of cardiovascular disease, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several complications of utilizing a self-care treatment methodology involving exercise include (1) patients may not know how much activity that they engage in and (2) health-care providers do not have objective measurements of how much activity their patients perform. However, several technological advances have brought a variety of activity monitoring devices to the market that can address these concerns. Ranging from simple pedometers to multisensor devices, the different technologies offer varying levels of accuracy, comfort, and reliability. The key notion is that by providing feedback to the patient, motivation can be increased and targets can be set and aimed toward. Although these devices are not specific to the treatment of diabetes, the importance of physical activity in treating the disease makes an understanding of these devices important. This article reviews these physical activity monitors and describes the advantages and disadvantages of each. PMID:19885145

  5. Earth Child: Games, Stories, Activities, Experiments & Ideas about Living Lightly on Planet Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Kathryn; Waidner, Mary

    This book is a collection of activities, stories, ideas, and games designed to help adults and young children develop a shared awareness of their environment. The material is presented in eight chapters. Activities and stories are interwoven throughout each chapter to provide a holistic view of the topic covered. The end of each chapter contains…

  6. Potential biological activities and bioavailability of alfrutamide and caffedymine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alfrutamide and caffedymine are clovamide-type phenolic amides whose analogues are found in numerous plants including garlic and cocoa. However, potential health effects of the amides are largely unknown. For last ten years, several amides have been synthesized and their potential biological activi...

  7. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Frantz, J M; Murenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity.

  8. Memoryless self-reinforcing directionality in endosomal active transport within living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kejia; Wang, Bo; Granick, Steve

    2015-06-01

    In contrast to Brownian transport, the active motility of microbes, cells, animals and even humans often follows another random process known as truncated Lévy walk. These stochastic motions are characterized by clustered small steps and intermittent longer jumps that often extend towards the size of the entire system. As there are repeated suggestions, although disagreement, that Lévy walks have functional advantages over Brownian motion in random searching and transport kinetics, their intentional engineering into active materials could be useful. Here, we show experimentally in the classic active matter system of intracellular trafficking that Brownian-like steps self-organize into truncated Lévy walks through an apparent time-independent positive feedback such that directional persistence increases with the distance travelled persistently. A molecular model that allows the maximum output of the active propelling forces to fluctuate slowly fits the experiments quantitatively. Our findings offer design principles for programming efficient transport in active materials.

  9. Noninvasive imaging of sialyltransferase activity in living cells by chemoselective recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lei; Ding, Lin; Yang, Min; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-06-01

    To elucidate the biological and pathological functions of sialyltransferases (STs), intracellular ST activity evaluation is necessary. Focusing on the lack of noninvasive methods for obtaining the dynamic activity information, this work designs a sensing platform for in situ FRET imaging of intracellular ST activity and tracing of sialylation process. The system uses tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeled asialofetuin (TRITC-AF) as a ST substrate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled 3-aminophenylboronic acid (FITC-APBA) as the chemoselective recognition probe of sialylation product, both of which are encapsulated in a liposome vesicle for cellular delivery. The recognition of FITC-APBA to sialylated TRITC-AF leads to the FRET signal that is analyzed by FRET efficiency images. This strategy has been used to evaluate the correlation of ST activity with malignancy and cell surface sialylation, and the sialylation inhibition activity of inhibitors. This work provides a powerful noninvasive tool for glycan biosynthesis mechanism research, cancer diagnostics and drug development.

  10. Investigations of fungal secondary metabolites with potential anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Balde, ElHadj Saidou; Andolfi, Anna; Bruyère, Céline; Cimmino, Alessio; Lamoral-Theys, Delphine; Vurro, Maurizio; Damme, Marc Van; Altomare, Claudio; Mathieu, Véronique; Kiss, Robert; Evidente, Antonio

    2010-05-28

    Fourteen metabolites, isolated from phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, were evaluated for their in vitro antigrowth activity for six distinct cancer cell lines, using the MTT colorimetric assay. Bislongiquinolide (1) and dihydrotrichodimerol (5), which belong to the bisorbicillinoid structural class, displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the six cancer cell lines studied, while the remaining compounds displayed weak or no activity. The data show that 1 and 5 have similar growth inhibitory activities with respect to those cancer cell lines that display certain levels of resistance to pro-apoptotic stimuli or those that are sensitive to apoptosis. Quantitative videomicroscopy analysis revealed that 1 and 5 exert their antiproliferative effect through cytostatic and not cytotoxic activity. The preliminary results from the current study have stimulated further structure-activity investigations with respect to the growth inhibitory activity of compounds belonging to the bisorbicillinoid group.

  11. Construction and characterization of a potential live oral carrier-based vaccine against Vibrio cholerae O139.

    PubMed Central

    Favre, D; Cryz, S J; Viret, J F

    1996-01-01

    The rfb region from Vibrio cholerae O139 strain MO45 was cloned from cosmid gene banks established in Escherichia coli HB101, using an immunoblot assay for screening of the correct clones. Immunoblot analysis of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preparations revealed the presence of two types of positive clones: (i) those expressing only a short core-linked O polysaccharide (SOPS) and (ii) those also expressing a highly polymerized capsular polysaccharide (CPS) not bound to the E. coli K-12 LPS core. In addition, the latter clones appear to contain a locus which may encode a putative regulator of SOPS and CPS chain length. Further characterization in E. coli showed that CPS constitutes a barrier against large particles such as the bacteriophage Ffm but not against bacteriophage lambda or P1. In addition, a portion of the K-12 LPS core may not be substituted with SOPS. Loci associated with the two clonal types were transferred into V. cholerae CH19, an rfbAB deletion mutant of CVD103-HgR deficient in the production of the homologous Inaba O polysaccharide. This resulted in the stable expression of SOPS, alone or together with CPS, that was indistinguishable from that of wild-type V. cholerae O139. Strains CH25 and CH26, which correspond to CH19 bearing the V. cholerae O139 rfb region integrated into the chromosome, were found to be genetically stable and essentially identical to the parent CVD103-HgR with respect to physiological properties such as cell motility, mercury resistance, toxicity, and production of the cholera toxin B subunit. Rabbits immunized with CH25 elicited high titers of anti-O139 SOPS- and CPS-specific serum antibodies. These strains possess characteristics desirable in candidate live oral vaccines against V. cholerae O139. PMID:8751900

  12. The Living Ocean. SeaWiFS: Studying Ocean Color from Space. Teacher's Guide with Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document, designed for grades 9 to 10, discusses the observation of oceans from space. Topics covered include ocean color, the role of phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and the greenhouse effect. Activities and discussion questions are presented.

  13. Organelle-Specific Activity-Based Protein Profiling in Living Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Susan D.; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Chrisler, William B.; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-02-06

    A multimodal acidic organelle targeting activity-based probe was developed for analysis of subcellular native enzymatic activity of cells by fluorescent microscopy and mass spectrometry. A cathepsin reactive warhead was conjugated to an acidotropic amine, and a clickable alkyne for appendage of AlexaFluor 488 or biotin reporter tags. This probe accumulated in punctate vesicles surrounded by LAMP1, a lysosome marker, as observed by Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM) in J774 mouse macrophage cells. Biotin conjugation, affinity purification, and analysis of in vivo labeled J774 by mass spectrometry showed that the probe was very selective for Cathepsins B and Z, two lysosomal cysteine proteases. Analysis of starvation induced autophagy, which is an increase in cell component catabolism involving lysosomes, showed a large increase in tagged protein number and an increase in cathepsin activity. Organelle targeting activity-based probes and subsequent analysis of resident proteins by mass spectrometry is enabled by tuning the physicochemical properties of the probe.

  14. α/β-Peptide Foldamers Targeting Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions with Activity in Living Cells.

    PubMed

    Checco, James W; Lee, Erinna F; Evangelista, Marco; Sleebs, Nerida J; Rogers, Kelly; Pettikiriarachchi, Anne; Kershaw, Nadia J; Eddinger, Geoffrey A; Belair, David G; Wilson, Julia L; Eller, Chelcie H; Raines, Ronald T; Murphy, William L; Smith, Brian J; Gellman, Samuel H; Fairlie, W Douglas

    2015-09-09

    Peptides can be developed as effective antagonists of protein-protein interactions, but conventional peptides (i.e., oligomers of l-α-amino acids) suffer from significant limitations in vivo. Short half-lives due to rapid proteolytic degradation and an inability to cross cell membranes often preclude biological applications of peptides. Oligomers that contain both α- and β-amino acid residues ("α/β-peptides") manifest decreased susceptibility to proteolytic degradation, and when properly designed these unnatural oligomers can mimic the protein-recognition properties of analogous "α-peptides". This report documents an extension of the α/β-peptide approach to target intracellular protein-protein interactions. Specifically, we have generated α/β-peptides based on a "stapled" Bim BH3 α-peptide, which contains a hydrocarbon cross-link to enhance α-helix stability. We show that a stapled α/β-peptide can structurally and functionally mimic the parent stapled α-peptide in its ability to enter certain types of cells and block protein-protein interactions associated with apoptotic signaling. However, the α/β-peptide is nearly 100-fold more resistant to proteolysis than is the parent stapled α-peptide. These results show that backbone modification, a strategy that has received relatively little attention in terms of peptide engineering for biomedical applications, can be combined with more commonly deployed peripheral modifications such as side chain cross-linking to produce synergistic benefits.

  15. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Wadley, Antonia L; Mitchell, Duncan; Kamerman, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity.

  16. Resilience does not explain the dissociation between chronic pain and physical activity in South Africans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Pain burden is high in people living with HIV (PLWH), but the effect of this pain on functionality is equivocal. Resilience, the ability to cope with adversity, may promote adaptation to pain, so we hypothesised that higher resilience would correlate with less pain-related impairment of activity. We recruited 197 black South African PLWH, 99 with chronic pain (CP) and 98 patients without. We measured pain intensity and interference using the Brief Pain Inventory, and resilience using the Resilience Scale. Participants were generally highly resilient. Greater resilience correlated with better health-related quality of life, but not with pain intensity or interference. We also measured physical activity objectively, by actigraphy, in a subset of patients (37 with chronic pain and 31 without chronic pain), who wore accelerometers for two weeks. There was no difference in duration or intensity of activity between those with and without pain, and activity was not associated with resilience. In this sample, pain was not associated with altered physical activity. Resilience did not explain differences in pain intensity or pain interference but was associated with improved quality of life. Financial stresses and the fear of HIV stigma may have driven patients to conceal pain and to suppress its expected impairment of activity. PMID:27672513

  17. The living building

    SciTech Connect

    McLennan, J.F.

    1998-07-01

    If one is to increase the energy performance of buildings beyond what is now possible, one can no longer afford to think of a building's systems and components as independent of one another. With emerging trends in building technology, it is becoming possible to design buildings (or groups of buildings) that respond to their environments as naturally as do living organisms. The living building integrates advances in glazing technology, photovoltaics, daylight-integrated lighting controls, HVAC and ecological waste management in conjunction with direct digital controls to respond actively to temperature, humidity, heat gain, cooling, lighting levels, and ventilation. This revolutionary building is the building of the future; it maximizes energy savings due to the inherent efficiency of an intelligent, interconnected system in which the envelope, lighting, and HVAC are always aware of and responding to each other's needs. While some of the technologies for such a system are already in use and resulting energy savings documented, it is not until advances such as electrochromic glazing reach the market that the level of integration necessary to produce the living building will be possible. This paper explores the limits of the living building's capacity to learn from environmental forces and regulate itself; the paper then examines emerging technologies that have demonstrated the potential to make such systemic integration and unprecedented energy savings possible.

  18. Physical Activity Measurement by Accelerometry Among Older Malay Adults Living in Semi-Rural Areas-A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Zainol Abidin, Nurdiana; Brown, Wendy J; Clark, Bronwyn; Muhamed, Ahmad Munir Che; Singh, Rabindarjeet

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated feasibility of physical activity measurement by accelerometry among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas in Malaysia. Results showed that 95% of 146 participants (aged [SD] 67.6 [6.4] years) were compliant in wearing the accelerometer for at least five days. Fifteen participants were asked for re-wear the accelerometer because they did not have enough valid days during the first assessment. Participants wore the accelerometer an average of 15.3 hr in a 24-hr day, with 6.5 (1.2) valid wear days. No significant difference in valid wear day and time was found between men and women. Participants who are single provide more valid wear days compared with married participants (p < .05), and participants with higher levels of education provide longer periods of accelerometer wearing hours (p < .01). Eighty-seven percent of participants reported 'no issues' with wearing the meter. This study suggests that accelerometry is a feasible method to assess the physical activity level among older Malay adults living in semi-rural areas.

  19. 'A tale of two cases:' the health, illness, and physical activity stories of two children living with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Moola, Fiona J; Faulkner, Guy E J

    2014-01-01

    Storytelling is perennial, and central to the human condition. Although illness may shatter identity and one's role and place in the broader social world, narrative may aid in the process of self-reparation. Despite the merits of the narrative approach, it has been underutilized with children who are living with cystic fibrosis (CF). The role that illness narratives may play in influencing CF youths' physical activity also remains poorly investigated. This article drew on the qualitative case study methodological tradition to narrate the stories of two children living with CF at a children's hospital in Canada. The findings beg researchers to consider (a) how children with life-limiting diseases borrow multiple illness narrative types, (b) the role of development in influencing the kinds of stories that children can tell, and (c) the impact of illness narratives on physical activity. By rendering the tales of two CF youth in this study, we respond to Aurthur Frank's call; taking a multiple narrative turn, we listen to stories of a different kind of suffering.

  20. Patient Mood and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Alzheimer Disease: Relationship Between Patient and Caregiver Reports.

    PubMed

    Votruba, Kristen L; Persad, Carol; Giordani, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective study investigated the relationship between self-reports and caregiver perceptions of patients' depressive symptoms and the respective ability of these reports to predict instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) beyond what is accounted for by cognitive abilities in 71 patients with mild Alzheimer disease. Patients completed the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form, and caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia assessing their perception of patients' depressive symptoms. Caregivers also completed IADL items from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory. Cognitive measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination, Logical Memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale III, and Trail Making Test, Part B. The relationship between self-reported depressive symptoms and caregiver report of patients' depressive symptoms showed a trend toward significance (r = .22, P = .06). Measures of depressive symptoms significantly predicted 12.5% of the variance in IADLs performance, beyond that accounted for by patient demographics and cognitive functioning. Interestingly, patients' reports, rather than caregivers', were particularly useful in this prediction.

  1. The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy on Cognition, Depression, and Activities of Daily Living for Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Duru Aşiret, Güler; Kapucu, Sevgisun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was, conducted with experimental design, to investigate the effect of reminiscence therapy on cognition, depression, activities of daily living of institutionalized mild and moderate Alzheimer patients. The study was conducted with a total of 62 patients (31 intervention group and 31 control group) in four home care in Ankara, Turkey. Study was done between the July 1, 2013 and December 20, 2014. Reminiscence therapy sessions were held with groups consists of 4-5 patients, once a week with 30-35 minute duration for 12 weeks. Standardized Mini Mental Test was used in sample selection. Patients were listed through their mini mental test scores, and randomized as odd numbers to control group and even numbers to intervention group. Data were collected with forms developed by researcher 'Data Sheet' and 'Activities of Daily Living Follow-up Form' as well as scales 'Standardized Mini Mental Test' and 'Geriatric Depression Scale'. Chi-square, Mann Whitney-U test, variance analyses in repeated measures and Bonferroni tests were used for analysis. The increase in mean Standardized Mini Mental Test score and the decrease in mean Geriatric Depression Scale score of the individuals in the intervention group compared to the control group at the end of the reminiscence therapy was statistically significant (P < 0.05). At the end of reminiscence therapy sessions, increase in cognition and decrease in depression were found statistically significant in intervention group.

  2. [Practical experience on improving activities of daily living competence in Parkinson's patients treated with ropinirole. Results of a ap