Science.gov

Sample records for active living research

  1. Partnerships for progress in active living: from research to action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...

  2. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  3. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  4. Rural Active Living: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Moore, Justin B; Abildso, Christiaan; Edwards, Michael B; Gamble, Abigail; Baskin, Monica L

    2016-01-01

    Rural residents are less physically active than their urban counterparts and disproportionately affected by chronic diseases and conditions associated with insufficient activity. While the ecological model has been successful in promoting and translating active living research in urban settings, relatively little research has been conducted in rural settings. The resulting research gap prohibits a comprehensive understanding and application of solutions for active living in rural America. Therefore, the purpose of this article was to assess the evidence base for an ecological model of active living for rural populations and outline key scientific gaps that inhibit the development and application of solutions. Specifically, we reexamined the 4 domains conceptualized by the model and suggest that there is a dearth of research specific to rural communities across all areas of the framework. Considering the limited rural-specific efforts, we propose areas that need addressing to mobilize rural active living researchers and practitioners into action. PMID:26327514

  5. The Role of Physical Activity in the Lives of Researchers: A Body-Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders-Bustle, Lynn; Oliver, Kimberly L.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the authors' experiences in jogging together. States that, for them, the act of running became a perceptive starting point or practice for better understanding the world and their place in it. Adds that the running experience also informed the runners' research relationship. (Contains 28 references.) (NB)

  6. Automated system for neutron activation analysis determination of short lived isotopes at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieman, J. J.; Rigot, W. L.; Romick, J. D.; Quinn, T. J.; Kocher, C. W.

    1994-12-01

    An automated neutron activation analysis (NAA) system for the determination of short lived isotopes was constructed at The DOW Chemical Company's TRIGA Research Reactor in 1993. The NAA group of the Analytical Sciences Laboratory uses the reactor for thousands of analyses each year and therefore automation is important to achieve and maintain high throughput and precision (productivity). This project is complementary to automation of the long-lived counting facilities (see Romick et al., these Proceedings). Canberra/Nuclear Data Systems DEC-based software and electronics modules and an I/O mounting board are the basic commercial components. A Fortran program on a VAX computer controls I/O via ethernet to an Acquisition Interface Module (AIM). The AIM controls the γ spectrometer modules and is interfaced to a Remote Parallel Interface (RPI) module which controls the pneumatic transfer apparatus with TTL signals to the I/O mounting board. Near-infrared sensors are used to monitor key points in the transfer system. Spectra are acquired by a single HPGe detector mounted on a sliding rail to allow flexible and more reproducible counting geometries than with manual sample handling. The maximum sample size is 8 ml in a heat-sealed two dram vial. The sample vial is nested into a "rabbit" vial for irradiation which can be automatically removed prior to spectrum collection. The system was designed to be used by the reactor operator at the control console without the aid of an additional experimenter. Applications include the determination of selenium and silver in coal and water, fluorine in tetra-fluoro ethylene (TFE) coated membranes, aluminum and titanium in composite materials and trace fluorine in non-chlorinated cleaning solvents. Variable dead time software allows analysis for 77mSe despite high dead times from 16N encountered in samples.

  7. Measuring free-living physical activity in COPD patients: Deriving methodology standards for clinical trials through a review of research studies.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Bill; Rowe, David A

    2016-03-01

    This article presents a review of the research literature to identify the methodology used and outcome measures derived in the use of accelerometers to measure free-living activity in patients with COPD. Using this and existing empirical validity evidence we further identify standards for use, and recommended clinical outcome measures from continuous accelerometer data to describe pertinent measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in this and similar patient populations. We provide measures of the strength of evidence to support our recommendations and identify areas requiring continued research. Our findings support the use of accelerometry in clinical trials to understand and measure treatment-related changes in free-living physical activity and sedentary behaviour in patient populations with limited activity. PMID:26806669

  8. Teacher as Researcher: Teaching as Lived Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Marni

    2012-01-01

    Teacher inquiry can shape empirical inquiries by nonpracticing researchers, by allowing them to draw on the practical knowledge of those in the classroom. This recognition challenged the author to question what legitimized her role as a teacher-researcher and ask how she could have felt empowered as a researcher without higher education. In this…

  9. Developing a Research Agenda for Assisted Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Rosalie A.; Wilson, Keren Brown; Spector, William

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe an approach to identifying knowledge gaps, research questions, and methodological issues for assisted living (AL) research. Design and Methods: We undertook an inventory of AL literature and research in progress and commissioned background papers critiquing knowledge on selected subtopics. With an advisory committee, we…

  10. Memory, Space and Time: Researching Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the research approach in "Pathways through Childhood", a small qualitative study drawing on memories of childhood. The research explores how wider social arrangements and social change influence children's everyday lives. The article discusses the way that the concepts of social memory, space and time have been drawn on to…

  11. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  12. A living wage for research subjects.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. PMID:21561519

  13. Activity-driven fluctuations in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fodor, É.; Guo, M.; Gov, N. S.; Visco, P.; Weitz, D. A.; van Wijland, F.

    2015-05-01

    We propose a model for the dynamics of a probe embedded in a living cell, where both thermal fluctuations and nonequilibrium activity coexist. The model is based on a confining harmonic potential describing the elastic cytoskeletal matrix, which undergoes random active hops as a result of the nonequilibrium rearrangements within the cell. We describe the probe's statistics and we bring forth quantities affected by the nonequilibrium activity. We find an excellent agreement between the predictions of our model and experimental results for tracers inside living cells. Finally, we exploit our model to arrive at quantitative predictions for the parameters characterizing nonequilibrium activity, such as the typical time scale of the activity and the amplitude of the active fluctuations.

  14. Live Scale Active Shooter Exercise: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ervin, Randy

    2008-01-01

    On October 23, 2007, the Lake Land College Public Safety Department conducted a full-scale live exercise that simulated an active shooter and barricaded hostage. In this article, the author will emphasize what they learned, and how they intend to benefit from it. He will list the law enforcement issues and general issues they encountered, and then…

  15. Lived Observations: Linking the Researcher's Personal Experiences to Knowledge Development.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, Lisbeth; Öhlén, Joakim

    2015-11-01

    As researchers in palliative care, we recognize how involvement with seriously ill and dying persons has an impact on us. Using one's own senses, emotional and bodily responses in observations might open intersubjective dimensions of the research topic. The aim of the article is to highlight how phenomenological theories on intersubjectivity can be useful to develop rich and transparent data generation and analysis. We present three field note examples from observation in a hospice ward, which illuminate how researcher awareness of aspects of intersubjectivity can add valuable insights to data and analysis. Out of the examples, we elaborate on three arguments: (a) how the researcher's lived experience of time and space during fieldwork triggers new research questions, (b) how observations as an embodied activity can bring new insights and open new layers of meaning, and (c) the value of observations in gaining insight into relational aspects in a hospice. PMID:25711845

  16. Using Live Cases for Teaching, Industry Collaboration, and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukkanen, Mikko; Mattila, Pekka; Salo, Jari; Tikkanen, Henrikki

    2013-01-01

    The use of live cases in marketing teaching has been suggested as a way to provide students with interesting and relevant course work while collaborating on live case exercises also provides industry partners with valuable new ideas for innovation and development. When properly conducted, live cases can also be used for conducting research by the…

  17. Imaging CREB Activation in Living Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Michael W.; Aramuni, Gayane; Mank, Marco; Mackinnon, Jonathan A. G.; Griesbeck, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The Ca2+- and cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) and the related ATF-1 and CREM are stimulus-inducible transcription factors that link certain forms of cellular activity to changes in gene expression. They are attributed to complex integrative activation characteristics, but current biochemical technology does not allow dynamic imaging of CREB activation in single cells. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer between mutants of green fluorescent protein we here develop a signal-optimized genetically encoded indicator that enables imaging activation of CREB due to phosphorylation of the critical serine 133. The indicator of CREB activation due to phosphorylation (ICAP) was used to investigate the role of the scaffold and anchoring protein AKAP79/150 in regulating signal pathways converging on CREB. We show that disruption of AKAP79/150-mediated protein kinase A anchoring or knock-down of AKAP150 dramatically reduces the ability of protein kinase A to activate CREB. In contrast, AKAP79/150 regulation of CREB via L-type channels may only have minor importance. ICAP allows dynamic and reversible imaging in living cells and may become useful in studying molecular components and cell-type specificity of activity-dependent gene expression. PMID:20484048

  18. Living the Research: Stories from Homeless Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norum, Karen E.

    There is an alarming trend in homelessness: children aged 17 and younger are the most rapidly growing group of the homeless; families continue to be a growing group of the homeless; and many people who are homeless were raised or have lived in the suburbs. Homelessness is no longer an inner-city phenomenon. Three homeless youth were interviewed…

  19. NIH's National Institute of Nursing Research Is Changing Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues NIH's National Institute of Nursing Research Is Changing Lives Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... on. From childbirth to end-of-life care, nursing research is aimed at helping patients across the ...

  20. Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER).

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Agarwal, Siddharth Raj; Buckley, Robert M; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Corvalan, Carlos F; Ezeh, Alex Chika; Finkelstein, Ruth; Friel, Sharon; Harpham, Trudy; Hossain, Maharufa; de Faria Leao, Beatriz; Mboup, Gora; Montgomery, Mark R; Netherland, Julie C; Ompad, Danielle C; Prasad, Amit; Quinn, Andrew T; Rothman, Alexander; Satterthwaite, David E; Stansfield, Sally; Watson, Vanessa J

    2011-10-01

    For 18 months in 2009-2010, the Rockefeller Foundation provided support to establish the Roundtable on Urban Living Environment Research (RULER). Composed of leading experts in population health measurement from a variety of disciplines, sectors, and continents, RULER met for the purpose of reviewing existing methods of measurement for urban health in the context of recent reports from UN agencies on health inequities in urban settings. The audience for this report was identified as international, national, and local governing bodies; civil society; and donor agencies. The goal of the report was to identify gaps in measurement that must be filled in order to assess and evaluate population health in urban settings, especially in informal settlements (or slums) in low- and middle-income countries. Care must be taken to integrate recommendations with existing platforms (e.g., Health Metrics Network, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation) that could incorporate, mature, and sustain efforts to address these gaps and promote effective data for healthy urban management. RULER noted that these existing platforms focus primarily on health outcomes and systems, mainly at the national level. Although substantial reviews of health outcomes and health service measures had been conducted elsewhere, such reviews covered these in an aggregate and perhaps misleading way. For example, some spatial aspects of health inequities, such as those pointed to in the 2008 report from the WHO's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health, received limited attention. If RULER were to focus on health inequities in the urban environment, access to disaggregated data was a priority. RULER observed that some urban health metrics were already available, if not always appreciated and utilized in ongoing efforts (e.g., census data with granular data on households, water, and sanitation but with little attention paid to the spatial dimensions of these data). Other less obvious elements

  1. Transnational Lives in European Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawn, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Transnational collaboration by educational researchers in Europe has grown fast since the mid-1990s and the means to support it have become more easily accessible. A study of the growth of the European Educational Research Association (EERA) since its foundation in the mid-1990s shows how transnational research in European education began, and how…

  2. Living science: Science as an activity of living beings.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Bruce J

    2015-12-01

    The philosophy of science should accommodate itself to the facts of human existence, using all aspects of human experience to adapt more effectively, as individuals, species, and global ecosystem. This has several implications: (1) Our nature as sentient beings interacting with other sentient beings requires the use of phenomenological methods to investigate consciousness. (2) Our embodied, situated, purposeful physical interactions with the world are the foundation of scientific understanding. (3) Aristotle's four causes are essential for understanding living systems and, in particular, the final cause aids understanding the role of humankind, and especially science, in the global ecosystem. (4) In order to fulfill this role well, scientists need to employ the full panoply of human faculties. These include the consciousness faculties (thinking, sensation, feeling, intuition), and therefore, as advocated by many famous scientists, we should cultivate our aesthetic sense, emotions, imagination, and intuition. Our unconscious faculties include archetypal structures common to all humans, which can guide scientific discovery. By striving to engage the whole of human nature, science will fulfill better its function for humans and the global ecosystem. PMID:26276467

  3. Bronco Junction Proves Asthmatic Kids Can Live Active Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Scarlett Lee

    1980-01-01

    Camp Bronco Junction combines physical development, medical self-care knowledge, and fun in its eight-week program for asthmatic youngsters. In this environment, children are able to undertake activities that were formerly thought beyond their physical or emotional capabilities. (CJ)

  4. Research Administration as a Living System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Sharon Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this Delphi study was to gather expert opinions and recommendations for change in the research administration system to bring about growth and collaboration. This study was deemed important because at the heart of every system is the fact that individuals need each other to continue to exist. The results of the Delphi study give…

  5. Building Communities: Teachers Researching Literacy Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Drury, Rose

    2012-01-01

    In the light of wide recognition that the traffic between home and school is traditionally one-way, this article reports on a deliberately counter-cultural project that involved teachers in researching children's everyday literacy practices and "funds of knowledge" (Gonzalez, Moll, & Amanti, 2005) over a year. Eighteen primary teachers from 10…

  6. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  7. Kinase Activity Studied in Living Cells Using an Immunoassay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavec, Aljos?a

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise demonstrates the use of an immunoassay for studying kinase enzyme activity in living cells. The advantage over the classical method, in which students have to isolate the enzyme from cell material and measure its activity in vitro, is that enzyme activity is modulated and measured in living cells, providing a more…

  8. Student Perceptions on Live-Case Projects: Undergraduate Marketing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundala, Raghava Rao; Singh, Mandeep; Baldwin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an investigation into undergraduate students' perceptions on use of live projects as a teaching pedagogy in marketing research courses. Students in undergraduate marketing research courses from fall 2009 to spring 2013 completed an online questionnaire consisting of 17 items. The results suggested that student understanding of…

  9. "Living" Ethical Dilemmas for Researchers When Researching with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortari, Luigina; Harcourt, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore some of the ethical dilemmas that confront researchers when they seek to invite children's participation in research. It firstly tracks the historical landscape of ethical research and will examine the influence of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) on participatory research with children.…

  10. Promoting active living in healthy cities of Europe.

    PubMed

    Faskunger, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Local governments in Europe have a vital role in promoting physical activity in the daily life of citizens. However, explicit investment in active living has been limited. One of the four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) was to encourage local governments and their partners to implement programs in favor of active living. This study analyzes the performance of network cities during this period. Responses to a general evaluation questionnaire are analyzed by content according to a checklist, and categorized into themes and dimensions. Most cities viewed "active living" as an important issue for urban planning; to improve visual appeal, enhance social cohesion, create a more sustainable transport system to promote walkability and cyclability and to reduce inequalities in public health. Almost all member cities reported on existing policies that support the promotion of active living. However, only eight (of the 59) responding cities mentioned an integrated framework specific for active living. Many efforts to promote active living are nested in programs to prevent obesity among adults or children. Future challenges include establishing integrated policies specifically for active living, introducing a larger range of actions, as well as increasing funding and capacity to make a difference at the population level. PMID:22700323

  11. Learning from Our Lives: Women, Research, and Autobiography in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna, Ed.; Peterson, Penelope L., Ed.

    The autobiographical essays in this volume offer insights into how the field of education might change as women assume positions of intellectual leadership. After the "Foreword" (Mary Catherine Bateson), the 13 chapters are: (1) "Research Lives: Women, Scholarship, and Autobiography in Education" (Anna Neumann and Penelope L. Peterson); (2)…

  12. Activities of Daily Living of Spanish-Speaking Immigrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ailinger, Rita L.

    This anthropological study reports on some of the activities of daily living (ADL's) of 19 Spanish-speaking families living in a low income suburb of Washington, D.C. ADL's are defined as those functions which are performed on a usual day. Generically they include eating, sleeping, communicating, working, and recreating. In this paper, they…

  13. Manual of Alternative Procedures: Activities of Daily Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, James E.; And Others

    Intended for teachers and others providing services for moderately and severely physically and/or mentally handicapped children and young adults, the manual presents strategies, procedures, and task analyses for training in daily living skills. Section I provides an overview of tactics for teaching activities of daily living (ADL) skills,…

  14. Bioorthogonal Chemical Activation of Kinases in Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Selective manipulation of protein kinases under living conditions is highly desirable yet extremely challenging, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion. Here we employ our recently developed bioorthogonal cleavage reaction as a general strategy for intracellular activation of individual kinases. Site-specific incorporation of trans-cyclooctene-caged lysine in place of the conserved catalytic lysine, in conjunction with the cleavage partner dimethyl-tetrazine, allowed efficient lysine decaging with the kinase activity chemically rescued in living systems. PMID:27280167

  15. Venus lives!. [evidence for active volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Observational evidence which supports the contention that Venus is a volcanically and tectonically active planet is discussed. It is argued that, although there are no observations to date that would prove that Venus has been volcanically active during the last decade, planetological studies presented evidence for youthful volcanic mountains on Venus: the surface of the northern quarter of Venus is considered to be younger than 1 Gy, and some units are likely to be much younger. Because of the small sizes of likely volcanic manifestations and the long intervals expected between eruptions, it is unlikely that any direct evidence of eruptions will be detected with existing and planned spacecraft. It is suggested that future studies of the dynamics and the chemical mixing of the Venusian atmosphere might supply an unequivocal evidence for active volcanism on this planet.

  16. Different categories of living and non-living sound-sources activate distinct cortical networks

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Lauren R.; Frum, Chris; Puce, Aina; Walker, Nathan A.; Lewis, James W.

    2009-01-01

    With regard to hearing perception, it remains unclear as to whether, or the extent to which, different conceptual categories of real-world sounds and related categorical knowledge are differentially represented in the brain. Semantic knowledge representations are reported to include the major divisions of living versus non-living things, plus more specific categories including animals, tools, biological motion, faces, and places—categories typically defined by their characteristic visual features. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify brain regions showing preferential activity to four categories of action sounds, which included non-vocal human and animal actions (living), plus mechanical and environmental sound-producing actions (non-living). The results showed a striking antero-posterior division in cortical representations for sounds produced by living versus non-living sources. Additionally, there were several significant differences by category, depending on whether the task was category-specific (e.g. human or not) versus non-specific (detect end-of-sound). In general, (1) human-produced sounds yielded robust activation in the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci independent of task. Task demands modulated activation of left-lateralized fronto-parietal regions, bilateral insular cortices, and subcortical regions previously implicated in observation-execution matching, consistent with “embodied” and mirror-neuron network representations subserving recognition. (2) Animal action sounds preferentially activated the bilateral posterior insulae. (3) Mechanical sounds activated the anterior superior temporal gyri and parahippocampal cortices. (4) Environmental sounds preferentially activated dorsal occipital and medial parietal cortices. Overall, this multi-level dissociation of networks for preferentially representing distinct sound-source categories provides novel support for grounded cognition models that may

  17. NASA Research Being Shared Through Live, Interactive Video Tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Ruth A.; Zona, Kathleen A.

    2001-01-01

    On June 2, 2000, the NASA Glenn Research Center Learning Technologies Project (LTP) coordinated the first live remote videoconferencing broadcast from a Glenn facility. The historic event from Glenn's Icing Research Tunnel featured wind tunnel technicians and researchers performing an icing experiment, obtaining results, and discussing the relevance to everyday flight operations and safety. After a brief overview of its history, students were able to "walk through" the tunnel, stand in the control room, and observe a live icing experiment that demonstrated how ice would grow on an airplane wing in flight through an icing cloud. The tour was interactive, with a spirited exchange of questions and explanations between the students and presenters. The virtual tour of the oldest and largest refrigerated icing research tunnel in the world was the second of a series of videoconferencing connections with the AP Physics students at Bay Village High School, Bay Village, Ohio. The first connection, called Aircraft Safety and Icing Research, introduced the Tailplane Icing Program. In an effort to improve aircraft safety by reducing the number of in-flight icing events, Glenn's Icing Branch uses its icing research aircraft to conduct flight tests. The presenter engaged the students in discussions of basic aircraft flight mechanics and the function of the horizontal tailplane, as well as the effect of ice on airfoil (wing or tail) surfaces. A brief video of actual flight footage provided a view of the pilot's actions and reactions and of the horizon during tailplane icing conditions.

  18. Fathers' Activities with Their Kids. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.; Michelsen, Erik A.; Halle, Tamara G.; Moore, Kristin A.

    One of the critical elements of children's healthy development is the participation of parents in important activities in their children's lives. This research brief reports on the involvement of fathers in their children's lives. The brief focuses on the involvement of fathers who live with their children, including single fathers raising their…

  19. 1998 Gordon Research Conference on Gravitational Effects on Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS ON LIVING SYSTEMS was held at COLBY SAYWER 2 from 7/12/98 thru 7/17/98. The Conference was well-attended with 94 participants (attendees list attached). The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. Attached is a copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program. In addition to these formal interactions, "free time" was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field. As you know, in the interest of promoting the presentation of unpublished and frontier-breaking research, Gordon Research Conferences does not permit publication of meeting proceedings.

  20. The lived experience of serenity: using Parse's research method.

    PubMed

    Kruse, B G

    1999-04-01

    Parse's research method was used to investigate the meaning of serenity for survivors of a life-threatening illness or traumatic event. Ten survivors of cancer told their stories of the meaning of serenity as they had lived it in their lives. Descriptions were aided by photographs chosen by each participant to represent the meaning of serenity for them. The structure of serenity was generated through the extraction-synthesis process. Four main concepts--steering-yielding with the flow, savoring remembered visions of engaging surroundings, abiding with aloneness-togetherness, and attesting to a loving presence--emerged and led to a theoretical structure of serenity from the human becoming perspective. Findings confirm serenity as a multidimensional process. PMID:11847681

  1. Physical Activity among Older People Living Alone in Shanghai, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu; While, Alison E; Hicks, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate physical activity among older people living alone in Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and key factors contributing to their physical activity. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered in nine communities in Shanghai, using a stratified random cluster sample: 521 community-dwelling older…

  2. "Active Living" Related to the Rural-Urban Continuum: A Time-Use Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper assesses the degree to which "active living" varies along the rural-urban continuum, within the county-sized regional municipality of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Methods: Time-diary data from the Halifax Space-Time Activity Research project were used to compute daily participation rates (PRs) and time durations, at various physical…

  3. Biomarkers of basic activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hall, James R; Johnson, Leigh A; Barber, Robert C; Vo, Hoa T; Winter, A Scott; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2012-01-01

    Functional impairment is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related to increased caregiver burden and institutionalization. There is a dearth of research investigating the relationship between specific biomarkers and basic activities of daily living (BADLs) such as toileting, feeding, dressing, grooming, bathing, and ambulating. The present study examined the relationship between serum based biomarkers and specific ADLs in a sample of AD patients. Data were collected from 196 participants enrolled in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium Project and diagnosed with AD. BADLs were measured using the Lawton-Brody Physical Self-Maintenance Scale. A panel of 22 biomarkers previously found to be related to AD pathology was used for the analysis. Stepwise regression modeling was used to assess the link between the biomarkers and BADLs. Results were also examined by gender. Nine of the 22 biomarkers were significantly related to BADLs. When stratified by gender, the biomarkers accounted for 32% of the variance in the males and 27% in females. The pattern of significant biomarkers differed by gender with IL 7 and Tenascin C significantly related to BADLs for females and IL 15 significantly related to BADLs for males. The results of this study indicated that a small number of serum based biomarkers are related to BADLs, and these biomarkers differed by gender. PMID:22571981

  4. 1998 Gordon Research Conference on Gravitational Effects on Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS ON LIVING SYSTEMS was held at COLBY SAYWER 2 from 7/12/98 thru 7/17/98. The Conference was well-attended with 94 participants. The attendees represented the spectrum of endeavor in this field coming from academia, industry, and government laboratories, both U.S. and foreign scientists, senior researchers, young investigators, and students. In designing the formal speakers program, emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field. There was a conscious effort to stimulate lively discussion about the key issues in the field today. Time for formal presentations was limited in the interest of group discussions. In order that more scientists could communicate their most recent results, poster presentation time was scheduled. A copy of the formal schedule and speaker program and the poster program is included. In addition to these formal interactions, "free time" was scheduled to allow informal discussions. Such discussions are fostering new collaborations and joint efforts in the field.

  5. Living on Active Volcanoes - The Island of Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina; Stauffer, Peter H.; Hendley, James W., II

    1997-01-01

    People on the Island of Hawai'i face many hazards that come with living on or near active volcanoes. These include lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and tsunamis (giant seawaves). As the population of the island grows, the task of reducing the risk from volcano hazards becomes increasingly difficult. To help protect lives and property, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory closely monitor and study Hawai'i's volcanoes and issue timely warnings of hazardous activity.

  6. Lived experiences of self-care among older physically active urban-living individuals

    PubMed Central

    Sundsli, Kari; Espnes, Geir Arild; Söderhamn, Olle

    2013-01-01

    Background Promoting physical activity is a public health priority in most industrial countries, and physical function is an important factor when taking into consideration older people’s self-care and health. Despite the increasing challenges associated with urbanization and the aging population, urban life appears to be positive in many ways for urban dwellers. However, the manner in which older people live in urban settings and how this influences their ability to take care of themselves should be considered important knowledge for health professionals and politicians to acquire. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experiences of self-care and features that may influence health and self-care among older urban home-dwelling individuals who are physically active. Methods Ten subjects, three women and seven men, who were aged 65–82 years and identified to be physically active, were interviewed. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed according to the descriptive phenomenological method devised by Giorgi. Results Our findings showed beneficial self-care. The participants lived active everyday lives and were frequently physically active. They were part of a supportive, inclusive, and promoting fellowship, and they had the opportunity to travel. They utilized their competence and experienced making themselves useful. It was a privilege to be part of a family life as a husband, wife, parent, and/or a grandparent. They acknowledged physical and mental limitations, yet they felt they were in good health. Conclusion Health professionals and politicians should identify places where fellowship and relationships can be built, as well as encourage older people to use their competence by engagement in volunteering. These interventions are important to support older people’s self-care and health. This may also be a way to reduce ageism in Western societies. PMID:23390363

  7. A Study of Activities of Daily Living and Employment in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ling-Yi; Yu, Shu-Ning; Yu, Ya-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    Research on daily living activities and employment levels of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in Taiwan is limited. The aims of the study were to investigate outcomes related to functional independence and employment among people with ASD in Taiwan. We investigated the daily living activities and the employment status of 81 adults (age…

  8. Fostering Activities of Daily Living by Intact Nursing Home Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Charles E.; Glaister, Judy; Brown, Alston; Phillips, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    We assessed effectiveness of four education programs in providing nursing assistants with ability to produce a therapeutic milieu supportive of intact residents' activities of daily living, positive self-esteem and mood: (1) a combination of Orem's Systems of Nursing Care and Skinner's Applied Behavioral Analysis, (2) Applied Behavioral Analysis,…

  9. Physical Activity in the Lives of Hong Kong Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Amy S.; Macdonald, Doune; Pang, Bonnie O. H.

    2010-01-01

    To understand the physical activity culture in the lives of Hong Kong Chinese children and their parents, 48 young people between the ages 9 and 16 and their parents, with different socio-economic backgrounds and geographical locations, were interviewed for this study. By applying Confucianism and postcolonialism, this study aimed to investigate…

  10. Active living environment assessments in four rural Latino communities

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Nagel, Corey; Ko, Linda K.; Duggan, Catherine; Linde, Sandra; Rodriguez, Edgar A.; Thompson, Beti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Latinos and rural residents are less active and have a greater prevalence of overweight/obesity compared with their non-Latino white and urban counterparts. The objective of this study was to assess the active living environment in four rural, predominantly Latino communities. Methods Assessments were taken using the Rural Active Living Assessment (RALA) in four rural predominantly Latino communities in Central Washington from September–November 2013. Street Segment Assessments of town center, thoroughfare, neighborhood and school zones were assessed for features related to walkability. Physical activity amenities, programs and policies in each town were assessed. Scores were generated for amenities, programs and policies. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Results A total of 103 segments were assessed. Sidewalks in good condition were present in 32% of segments and shoulders in 44% of segments. Half of street segments were rated as walkable. Parks and playgrounds were available; however, half of these were rated in poor condition. All four districts offered after school physical activity programming but only two had a late bus option. Conclusions These four rural towns have some policies, programming and infrastructure in place that support active living. The information from the RALA can be used to inform program and policy development to enhance physical activity in these rural communities. PMID:26844156

  11. Imaging the coordination of multiple signaling activities in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Welch, Christopher M.; Elliott, Hunter; Danuser, Gaudenz; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Cellular signal transduction occurs in complex and redundant interaction networks that are best examined at the level of single cells by simultaneously monitoring the activation dynamics of multiple components. Recent advances in biosensor technology have made it possible to visualize and quantify the activation of multiple network nodes in the same living cell. The precision and scope of this approach has been greatly extended by novel computational approaches to determine the relationships between different networks, studied in separate cells. PMID:22016058

  12. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  13. [Measurement of activities of daily living in patients with dementia living at home: development of a questionnaire].

    PubMed

    Teunisse, S; Derix, M M

    1991-04-01

    In clinical practice and for scientific research a method is needed for the assessment of changes in functioning in daily life of dementia patients living at home. As existing methods have their limitations, a questionnaire was developed (the Interview for Deterioration in Daily life in Dementia: IDDD), to be answered by caregivers. The questionnaire concerns self-care and complex activities, that are usually performed by men as well as women. Attention is paid to the difference between lack of initiative and impaired performance itself. Caregivers are interviewed in a structured interview. A study among 30 caregivers of dementia patients living at home, showed the relevance and usefulness of the questions. The questionnaire shows high internal consistency, which may be the result of our structured interview technique. PMID:2042235

  14. Activity of Daily Living assessment through wireless sensor data.

    PubMed

    Qing Zhang; Karunanithi, Mohan; Bradford, Dana; van Kasteren, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Activity of Daily Living has become a clinical de facto instrument to assess daily functional status of older people living independently at home. Almost all ADLs scales are based on subjective assessment of clinical staff and self-reported responses of the elderly person. A great deal of variability in ADL assessment is likely due to the different cultural beliefs, language and education, and over-assessment of personal capability to potentially avoid negative consequences. This paper proposes automatic and objective ADLs assessment as key component of a technology platform that supports older people to live independently in their home, called Smarter Safer Homes. The objective ADL assessment is achieved through communicating data from simple non-intrusive, wireless sensors placed in a home environment. Pilot sensor data sets were collected over six months from nine independent living homes of participants aged 70+ year. The application of a clustering based, unsupervised learning method on these data sets demonstrates the potential to automatically detect five domains of activity contributing to functional independence. Furthermore, the method provides features that support elderlys self-monitoring of daily activities more regularly, that could provide the potential for timely and early intervention from family and carers. PMID:25570315

  15. "Live from IPY"--Connecting Students, Teachers and the Public to Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, K.; Warnick, W. K.; Warburton, J.; Fischer, K.; Wiggins, H.

    2007-12-01

    PolarTREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating is a three-year (2007-2009) teacher professional development program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) that pairs K-12 teachers with researchers to improve science education through authentic polar research experiences. Each year of PolarTREC, approximately 15 teachers spend two to six weeks in the Arctic or Antarctic, working closely with researchers investigating a wide range of topics such as sea-ice dynamics, terrestrial ecology, marine biology, atmospheric chemistry, and long-term climate change. PolarTREC is funded by the National Science Foundation. While in the field, teachers and researchers communicate extensively with their colleagues, communities, and hundreds of students of all ages across the globe, using a variety of communication technologies and tools to appeal to broad student and public engagement in polar science. Through the PolarTREC website (www.polartrec.com) teachers connect from the field through the use of online journals and forums, photo galleries, podcasts, and learning resources. "Live from IPY," a key activity of PolarTREC, is a free, interactive, distance-learning experience that virtually transports students and the public to unique and remote polar locations through a live Internet interface. Rather than relying solely on the asynchronous elements of online journals, forums, photo albums, and podcasts, "Live from IPY" allows real-time interaction by adding elements including live voice, video, chat, application sharing, polling, and whiteboards, but requires only telephone and/or Internet access for participants and presenters to connect. "Live from IPY" and the online outreach elements of PolarTREC convey the excitement of polar research experiences to a broad audience far beyond the classrooms of the PolarTREC teachers, allowing anyone to join a global network of scientists, teachers, students, and communities and actively participate in the

  16. [Functional disability in activities of daily living and instrumental or domestic activities of daily living in the elderly living at home in Bobo-Dioulasso (Burkina Faso)].

    PubMed

    Berthé, Abdramane; Berthé-Sanou, Lalla; Konaté, Blahima; Hien, Hervé; Tou, Fatoumata; Somda, Serge; Bayala, Éric; Drabo, Maxime; Badini-Kinda, Fatoumata; Macq, Jean

    2015-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, various studies have been conducted on severe disability in activities of daily living, instrumental or domestic activities. These studies have reported different rates without describing the social context for understanding their results. This study was conducted in Burkina Faso to fill the gaps in scientific information on disability in these areas. We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study in Bobo-Dioulasso among the older population, aged 60 and above. Their functional status was evaluated using the Functional Autonomy Measurement System (SMAF). Data analysis was done with the help of Stata. A systematic random sample of 351 aging adults was interviewed. Moderate to severe functional disability or the need for supervision or assistance was present in 7% in activities of daily living and 86% in instrumental or domestic activities of daily living. This need for assistance varied according to the different activities or items in each domain. The proportions of disability found in this study are higher than those of previous studies that measured the often severe disabilities. All persons with disability claimed to have stable human resources which help them to manage their disabilities. The social context instrumental or domestic activities of daily living are divided by generation and/or by sex. That explains some results. With this division, it's inacceptable in some family that elders and/or old men do instrumental or domestic activities of daily living as prepare meals, do laundry, carry water to wash. The variation of this division from one family to another complicates the assessment of functional disability. To best manage elders disabilities, strategies must develop to: 1) retard the resignation of the family in care of its elderly in functional disability, 2) anticipate the preparation of formal social networks, public structures to support the elderly. PMID:26707555

  17. Built Environments and Active Living in Rural and Remote Areas: a Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Anush Yousefian; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Lenardson, Jennifer D; Hartley, David

    2015-12-01

    Rural children and adults are more likely to have obesity than their urban counterparts even after adjustment for individual-level behaviors, suggesting that rural environments may promote obesity. The rural built environment may be an important area of research that can help us understand rural-urban disparities in obesity. The purpose of this review is to summarize the rural built environment and active living literature, and to address key issues, gaps, and observations in the field. A literature review was conducted in spring 2015 to identify research published from 2000 to 2015. Our review suggests that limited active living built environments in rural communities and unique rural barriers to physical activity may contribute to a higher prevalence of obesity compared to urban populations. More empirical research is needed to build the evidence-base for the association between rural built environments, active living, and obesity. School- and community-based policies that expand active living opportunities in rural areas should also be closely examined. PMID:26364307

  18. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  19. Gaining Research Access into the Lives of Muslim Girls: Researchers Negotiating "Muslimness", Modesty, "Inshallah", and "Haram"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamzeh, Manal Z.; Oliver, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of gaining research access into the lives of Muslim girls in the southwest USA. We discuss four emerging "entry markers" that challenged the process of gaining and sustaining access over a period of 14 months. These included being Muslim enough, being modest enough, "inshallah" ("Allah" or God willing), and "haram"…

  20. PM ACTIVITY PATTERN RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  1. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  2. A Feminine Care Clinical Research Program Transforms Women's Lives.

    PubMed

    Tzeghai, Ghebre E; Ajayi, Funmilayo O; Miller, Kenneth W; Imbescheid, Frank; Sobel, Jack D; Farage, Miranda A

    2015-01-01

    Feminine hygiene products and menstruation education have transformed the lives of women throughout the world. The P&G Feminine Care Clinical Innovation Research Program has played a key role by expanding scientific knowledge as well as developing technical insights and tools for the development of feminine hygiene products. The aim has been to meet the needs of women throughout their life stages, advancing their urogenital health beyond just menstruation, as well as helping to understand the role of sex hormones in various important health issues that women face. This review article highlights key contributions and research findings in female hygiene products, urogenital health research, and method development. The clinical research team focused on utilizing the results of clinical safety studies to advance the acceptance of feminine hygiene products world-wide. Key findings include that perception of skin sensitivity is not limited to the facial area, but is also relevant to the body and the genital area. Also, they shed light on the role of estrogen in autoimmune diseases as well as premenstrual syndrome. Efforts in the method development area focused on innovative tools that are reliable, predictive of clinical trial results and capable of measuring wear comfort, genital skin health, and the impact of product use on the consumer's quality of life. A novel method, behind-the-knee (BTK) test, developed to model irritation under normal wear conditions, was the first to account for both chemical and mechanical sources of irritation. The method has been accepted by the FDA as a substitute in clinical trials in some cases, and by American Society for Testing and Materials as a global standard test method. Additional proprietary methods were developed to enhance visual grading of irritation using cross-polarized light, to measure the amount of lotion transferred from sanitary pads, and to evaluate the skin mildness. Finally, the Farage Quality of Life tool was created

  3. Active Cellular Mechanics and Information Processing in the Living Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, M.

    2014-07-01

    I will present our recent work on the organization of signaling molecules on the surface of living cells. Using novel experimental and theoretical approaches we have found that many cell surface receptors are organized as dynamic clusters driven by active currents and stresses generated by the cortical cytoskeleton adjoining the cell surface. We have shown that this organization is optimal for both information processing and computation. In connecting active mechanics in the cell with information processing and computation, we bring together two of the seminal works of Alan Turing.

  4. Living Educational Theory Research as Transformational Continuing Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Jack; Huxtable, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Continuing professional development (CPD) living educational theory offers an approach to CPD that enables educators to enhance their own professional practice and enable them to offer as gifts the knowledge, expertise and talents they develop to extend the knowledge base of the profession. In this paper we briefly introduce living theory research…

  5. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  6. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  7. Interindividual synchronization of brain activity during live verbal communication.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Ohlendorf, Sabine; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Tebartz van Elst, Ludger; Weiller, Cornelius; Hennig, Jürgen; Berger, Mathias; Tüscher, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Verbal social interaction plays an important role both in the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, the neural basis of social interaction has primarily been studied in the individual brain, neglecting the inter-individual perspective. Here, we show inter-individual neuronal coupling of brain activity during live verbal interaction, by investigating 11 pairs of good female friends who were instructed to speak about autobiographical life events during simultaneous fMRI acquisition. The analysis revealed that the time course of neural activity in areas associated with speech production was coupled with the time course of neural activity in the interlocutor's auditory cortex. This shows the feasibility of the new methodology, which may help elucidate basic reciprocal mechanisms of social interaction and the underpinnings of disordered communication. In particular, it may serve to study the process of psychotherapy on a neuronal level. PMID:24144548

  8. Capturing community change: Active Living by Design's progress reporting system.

    PubMed

    Bors, Philip A

    2012-11-01

    The Active Living by Design (ALbD) National Program Office (NPO) developed an evaluation system to track progress of 25 community partnerships, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF). Between June 2004 and October 2008, partnerships documented their actions and accomplishments through ALbD's online Progress Reporting System (PRS) database. All entries were verified and analyzed by the NPO. Results from the PRS suggest that the ALbD partnerships were successful fundraisers, leveraging $256 million from grants, policy decisions, in-kind and direct sources. The partnerships also documented newspaper coverage, TV, and radio air time and they developed physical activity programs such as exercise clubs and "walking school buses." Partnerships were adept at influencing decision makers to create or rewrite policies and improve built environments. Selected policy examples included, but were not limited to, approvals for capital improvements, street design standards, and development ordinances. Partnerships also contributed to the completion and approval of influential planning products, such as comprehensive land use, neighborhood, and roadway corridor plans. The most common built-environment changes were street improvements for safer pedestrian and bicycle travel, including new crosswalks, bicycle facilities, and sidewalks. The ALbD community partnerships' accomplishments and challenges contribute to knowledge and best practices in the active living field. Five years after their grant began, RWJF's initial investment showed substantial and measurable results. PMID:23079260

  9. Determination of Long-Lived Neutron Activation Products in Reactor Shielding Concrete Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-10-15

    The results of activation studies of TRIGA research reactor concrete shielding are given. Samples made of ordinary and barytes concrete were irradiated in the reactor to simulate neutron activation in the shielding concrete. Long-lived neutron-induced gamma-ray-emitting radioactive nuclides were measured in the samples with a high-purity germanium detector. The most active long-lived radioactive nuclides in the ordinary concrete samples were found to be {sup 60}Co and {sup 152}Eu. In the barytes concrete samples, the most active long-lived radioactive nuclides were {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 152}Eu. Activation in the concrete was also calculated using the ORIGEN2 code and compared to experimental results. Simple radioactive nuclide generation and depletion calculation using one-group cross-section libraries provided together with the ORIGEN2 code did not give conservative results. Significant discrepancies were observed for some nuclides. For accurate long-lived radioactive nuclide generation in reactor shielding, material-specific cross-section libraries should be generated and verified by measurement.

  10. Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADL) Limitation Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Limitation This measure ... Age Group Percentage of People with at Least One Activities of Daily Living Limitation by Age Group ...

  11. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  12. Lower Acetylcholinesterase Activity among Children Living with Flower Plantation Workers

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R.; Jacobs, David R.; Himes, John H.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Lazovich, DeAnn; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Children of workers exposed to pesticides are at risk of secondary pesticide exposure. We evaluated the potential for lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children cohabiting with fresh-cut flower plantation workers, which would be expected from organophosphate and carbamate insecticide exposure. Parental home surveys were performed and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured in 277 children aged 4–9 years in the study of Secondary Exposure to Pesticides among Infants, Children and Adolescents (ESPINA). Participants lived in a rural county in Ecuador with substantial flower plantation activity. RESULTS Mean acetylcholinesterase activity was 3.14 U/ml, standard deviation (SD): 0.49. It was lower by 0.09 U/ml (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.19, −0.001) in children of flower workers (57% of participants) than non-flower workers’ children, after adjustment for gender, age, height-for-age, hemoglobin concentration, income, pesticide use within household lot, pesticide use by contiguous neighbors, examination date and residence distance to nearest flower plantation. Using a 4 level polychotomous acetylcholinesterase activity dependent variable, flower worker cohabitation (vs. not) had odds ratio 3.39 (95% CI 1.19, 9.64) for being <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. Children cohabitating for ≥5 years (vs. never) had OR of 4.11 (95% CI: 1.17, 14.38) of AChE activity within <15th percentile compared to the highest tertile. CONCLUSIONS Cohabitation with a flower worker was related to lower acetylcholinesterase activity in children. This supports the hypothesis that the amount of take-home pesticides from flower workers suffices to decrease acetylcholinesterase activity, with lower activity associated with longer exposure. PMID:22405996

  13. Lives in Context: The Art of Life History Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Ardra L., Ed.; Knowles, J. Gary, Ed.

    The reflexive turn in qualitative research has transformed the process of doing life history research. No longer are research subjects examined through the lens of the all-knowing but supposedly invisible researcher. According to this book, an introduction to conducting life history research, the process is now one of mutuality, empathy,…

  14. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  15. Safety and science at sea: connecting science research settings to the classroom through live video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, E.; Peart, L. W.

    2011-12-01

    Many science teachers start the year off with classroom safety topics. Annual repetition helps with mastery of this important and basic knowledge, while helping schools to meet their legal obligations for safe lab science. Although these lessons are necessary, they are often topical, rarely authentic and relatively dull. Interesting connections can, however, be drawn between the importance of safety in science classrooms and the importance of safety in academic laboratories, fieldwork, shipboard research, and commercial research. Teachers can leverage these connections through live video interactions with scientists in the field, thereby creating an authentic learning environment. During the School of Rock 2009, a professional teacher research experience aboard the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program's research vessel JOIDES Resolution, safety and nature-of-science curricula were created to help address this need. By experimenting with various topics and locations on the ship that were accessible and applicable to middle school learning, 43 highly visual "safety signs" and activities were identified and presented "live" by graduate students, teachers, scientists; the ship's mates, doctor and technical staff. Students were exposed to realistic science process skills along with safety content from the world's only riserless, deep-sea drilling research vessel. The once-in-a-lifetime experience caused the students' eyes to brighten behind their safety glasses, especially as they recognized the same eye wash station and safety gear they have to wear and attended a ship's fire and safety drill along side scientists in hard hats and personal floatation devices. This collaborative and replicable live vide approach will connect basic safety content and nature-of-science process skills for a memorable and authentic learning experience for students.

  16. Recent Research Activity at OECD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economics of Education Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research topics and activities at upcoming and past conferences involving the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Human resources activity is stressing partnerships and the adult learner. New policies and direction in teacher education are focusing on the new professionalism and training innovations. Imbalances in the…

  17. CURRENT AND KINETIC HELICITY OF LONG-LIVED ACTIVITY COMPLEXES

    SciTech Connect

    Komm, Rudolf; Gosain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We study long-lived activity complexes and their current helicity at the solar surface and their kinetic helicity below the surface. The current helicity has been determined from synoptic vector magnetograms from the NSO/SOLIS facility, and the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows has been determined with ring-diagram analysis applied to full-disk Dopplergrams from NSO/GONG and SDO/HMI. Current and kinetic helicity of activity complexes follow the hemispheric helicity rule with mainly positive values (78%; 78%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 31%) in the southern hemisphere and negative ones (80%; 93%, respectively, with a 95% confidence level of 22% and 14%, respectively) in the northern hemisphere. The locations with the dominant sign of kinetic helicity derived from Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and SDO/HMI data are more organized than those of the secondary sign even if they are not part of an activity complex, while locations with the secondary sign are more fragmented. This is the case for both hemispheres even for the northern one where it is not as obvious visually due to the large amount of magnetic activity present as compared to the southern hemisphere. The current helicity shows a similar behavior. The dominant sign of current helicity is the same as that of kinetic helicity for the majority of the activity complexes (83% with a 95% confidence level of 15%). During the 24 Carrington rotations analyzed here, there is at least one longitude in each hemisphere where activity complexes occur repeatedly throughout the epoch. These ''active'' longitudes are identifiable as locations of strong current and kinetic helicity of the same sign.

  18. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gloria; Martini, K. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE’s orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  19. High-throughput screening of phosphodiesterase activity in living cells.

    PubMed

    Rich, Thomas C; Karpen, Jeffrey W

    2005-01-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze the second messengers cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and play a crucial role in the termination and spatial segregation of cyclic nucleotide signals. Despite a wealth of molecular information, very little is known about how PDEs regulate cAMP and cGMP signals in living cells because conventional methods lack the necessary spatial and temporal resolution. We present here a sensitive optical method for monitoring cAMP levels and PDE activity near the membrane, using cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels as sensors. These channels are directly opened by the binding of cyclic nucleotides and allow cations to cross the membrane. The olfactory channel A subunit (CNGA2) has been genetically modified to improve its cAMP sensitivity and specificity. Channel activity is assessed by measuring Ca2+ influx using standard fluorometric techniques. In addition to studying PDEs in their native setting, the approach should be particularly useful in high-throughput screening assays to test for compounds that affect PDE activity, as well as the activities of the many G protein-coupled receptors that cause changes in intracellular cAMP. PMID:15988054

  20. Real-time transposable element activity in individual live cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Neil H; Lee, Gloria; Sherer, Nicholas A; Martini, K Michael; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Kuhlman, Thomas E

    2016-06-28

    The excision and reintegration of transposable elements (TEs) restructure their host genomes, generating cellular diversity involved in evolution, development, and the etiology of human diseases. Our current knowledge of TE behavior primarily results from bulk techniques that generate time and cell ensemble averages, but cannot capture cell-to-cell variation or local environmental and temporal variability. We have developed an experimental system based on the bacterial TE IS608 that uses fluorescent reporters to directly observe single TE excision events in individual cells in real time. We find that TE activity depends upon the TE's orientation in the genome and the amount of transposase protein in the cell. We also find that TE activity is highly variable throughout the lifetime of the cell. Upon entering stationary phase, TE activity increases in cells hereditarily predisposed to TE activity. These direct observations demonstrate that real-time live-cell imaging of evolution at the molecular and individual event level is a powerful tool for the exploration of genome plasticity in stressed cells. PMID:27298350

  1. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  2. Illuminating the Lived Experiences of Research with Indigenous Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnette, Catherine E.; Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Salois, Emily Matt

    2011-01-01

    The historical exploitation experienced by indigenous people in the United States has left a number of negative legacies, including distrust toward research. This distrust poses a barrier to progress made through culturally sensitive research. Given the complex history of research with indigenous groups, the purpose of this descriptive…

  3. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  4. Research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Marianne E; Nixon, Stephanie A

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to use a scoping review to investigate the extent, range, and nature of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsychINFO) and reference lists of the included articles were searched. Authors were emailed when possible for unavailable articles. A total of 897 titles and abstracts were retrieved. Thirty-three articles were included. There were 27 different rehabilitation interventions delivered by 18 professions. The studies were completed in four different countries. Most studies were published in 2008. A randomized-controlled trial was the most used method. The nature of the studies was analyzed according to the three-core concepts of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: 28 studies addressed impairments; six studies addressed activity limitations; and 14 studies addressed participation restrictions. This scoping study advances the knowledge of research on rehabilitation interventions for adults living with HIV. More research on rehabilitation interventions is needed in sub-Saharan Africa and other low-income and middle-income countries to ensure that these individuals are receiving the best possible care. There is a need for the HIV field to recognize the important contribution of rehabilitation toward the HIV care continuum. PMID:27028287

  5. Activities of daily living, instrumental activities for daily living and predictors of functional capacity of older men in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Paul Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background: An extensive search of the literature found no studies that have examined functional capacity [Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and Instrumental Activities for Daily Living (I) ADL)] of Jamaican older men as well as factors that determine their functional capacity. Aims: The current study examines 1) ADL, 2) (I) ADL), 3) self-reported health status, 4) functional capacity, and 5) factors that determine functional capacity of older men. Methods and Method: Stratified multistage probability sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 2,000 55+ year men. A132-item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics provide background information on the sample, cross tabulations were used to examine non-metric variables and logistic regression provides a model of predictors of functional capacity. Result: Fifty-five percent of sample indicated good current health status. Four percent was mostly satisfied with life; 21.7% had moderate dependence; 77.1% had high dependence (i.e. independence); 1.2% had low dependence; 21.9% were ages 75 years and older; 35.6% were ages 65 to 74 years and 42.6% reported ages 55 to 64 years. Functional capacity can be determined by church attendance (β=0.245; 95% CI: 0.264, 1.291); social support (β=0.129; 95% CI: 0.129, 0.258), area of residence (β=-0.060; 95% CI: -0.427, -0.061) and lastly by age of respondents. Conclusion: Ageing in explains deterioration in their (I) ADL, suggesting the challenges of ageing men's independence. More rural men were rarely satisfied with life; but more of them had a greater functional capacity than urban men. Depression was found to negatively relate to functional capacity, and church attendees had a greater functional status than non-attendees. PMID:22666693

  6. Breakthrough: NETL's Research Saving Lives with Coronary Stents

    ScienceCinema

    Turner, Paul

    2014-06-26

    NETL's Albany location is world renown for its expertise in materials research. One recent offshoot of this expertise was the assistance in developing a new material for coronary stents. This research led to the development of a stent which now has a 33% global market share and has produced over four hundred sustainable jobs in the United States.

  7. Breakthrough: NETL's Research Saving Lives with Coronary Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Paul

    2012-11-26

    NETL's Albany location is world renown for its expertise in materials research. One recent offshoot of this expertise was the assistance in developing a new material for coronary stents. This research led to the development of a stent which now has a 33% global market share and has produced over four hundred sustainable jobs in the United States.

  8. University Research. Touching the Lives of All Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses the social and economic benefits of university research, arguing that if funding for research programs is reduced, short-term savings could impose long-term costs, depriving Americans of scientific breakthroughs, economic growth, and improvements in international competitiveness. It provides over 100 brief summaries of…

  9. Formerly incarcerated women create healthy lives through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Mickey L; Warner-Robbins, Carmen

    2002-01-01

    The specific purpose of the participatory action research study was to facilitate formerly incarcerated women who participate in Welcome Home Ministries (WHM) to develop their own plans and specific strategies, and to take action to build their own healthy futures. The research had a duel purpose of joint generation of knowledge and intervention relative to women's capacity building. The research intervention was the creation, implementation, and follow-up of a future search conference. The outcomes, conclusions, and implications for practice are discussed. PMID:11845765

  10. Managing Everyday Ethics in Assisted Living: A Research-Based Case Analysis for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messikomer, Carla M.; Cirka, Carol C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a complex, but realistic, picture of the lived experience in assisted living (AL), and provokes thoughtful reflection about the operational and ethical challenges faced in the delivery of care to an increasingly frail population in a typical AL facility. Developed from the findings of a two-year qualitative research project,…

  11. Dynamic hyperinflation during activities of daily living in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Silva, Cláudia S; Nogueira, Fabiana R; Porto, Elias F; Gazzotti, Mariana R; Nascimento, Oliver A; Camelier, Aquiles; Jardim, José R

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether some activities of daily living (ADLs) usually related to dyspnea sensation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are associated with dynamic lung hyperinflation (DH) and whether the use of simple energy conservation techniques (ECTs) might reduce this possible hyperinflation. Eighteen patients (mean age: 65.8 ± 9.8 years) with moderate-to-severe COPD performed six ADLs (walking on a treadmill, storing pots, walking 56 meters carrying a 5-kilogram weight, climbing stairs, simulating taking a shower, and putting on shoes) and had their inspiratory capacity (IC) measured before and after each task. The patients were moderately obstructed with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1): 1.4 ± 0.4 L (50% ± 12.4); FEV1/forced vital capacity: 0.4 ± 8.1; residual volume/total lung capacity: 52.7 ± 10.2, and a reduction in IC was seen after all six activities (p < 0.05): (1) going upstairs, 170 mL; (2) walking 56 meters carrying 5 kilogram weight, 150 mL; (3) walking on a treadmill without and with ECT, respectively, 230 mL and 235 mL; (4) storing pots without and with ECT, respectively, 170 mL and 128 mL; (5) taking a shower without and with ECT, respectively, 172 mL and 118 mL; and (6) putting on shoes without and with ECT, respectively, 210 mL and 78 mL). Patients with moderate to severe COPD develop DH after performing common ADLs involving the upper and lower limbs. Simple ECTs may avoid DH in some of these ADLs. PMID:25896955

  12. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

  13. Free-Living Physical Activity in COPD: Assessment with Accelerometer and Activity Checklist

    PubMed Central

    MATTHESS, KIRBY; STOLZMANN, KELLY; REILLY, JOHN; GARSHICK, ERIC

    2009-01-01

    Rationale In order to assess participation in physical activities (PA) and disability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we evaluated the use of an accelerometer and checklist to measure free-living PA. Methods 17 males with stable COPD completed a daily activity checklist for 14 days. 10 subjects concurrently wore an accelerometer (FitSense, Southborough, MA) that records steps per day. Regression models assessed relationships between steps per day, number of daily checklist activities performed, and clinical measures of COPD status. Results The average steps per day ranged from 406 to 4,856. The median intra-subject coefficient of variation for steps per day was 0.52 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.41-0.58) and for number of daily checklist activities performed was 0.28 (IQR 0.22-0.32). A higher number of steps per day were associated with a greater distance walked on the 6-minute walk test and better health-related quality of life. A higher number of daily checklist activities performed was associated with a higher FEV1 % predicted and lower BODE index. Conclusions It is feasible to prospectively measure free-living PA in COPD using an unobtrusive accelerometer and simple activity checklist. There is low intra-subject variation in free-living PA, which is significantly associated with clinical measures of COPD status. PMID:19533541

  14. Research in Review. Children Living with the Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reifel, Stuart

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the literature on children and the threat of nuclear war, focusing on four areas: awareness of nuclear weapons, fear of the bomb, influences on personality, and denial of the threat. The research is briefly critiqued, and implications for early childhood are drawn. (RH)

  15. Teacher Inquiry: Living the Research in Everyday Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Anthony, Ed.; Erickson, Gaalen, Ed.

    This book includes 22 papers in three parts. After (1) "Teacher Inquiry: A Defining Feature of Professional Practice" (Anthony Clarke and Gaalen Erickson), Part 1, "Enacting Teacher Research in Practice Settings," includes (2) "Writing Matters: Exploring the Relationship between Writing Instruction and Assessment" (Kim Douillard); (3)…

  16. Reporting Actionable Research Results: Shared Secrets Can Save Lives

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Lawrence E.; Hopfer, Christian; Terry, Sharon F.; Coors, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    In this Commentary, we describe a cryptographic method for returning research results to individuals who participate in clinical studies. Controlled use of this method, which relaxes the typical anonymization guarantee, can ensure that clinically actionable results reach participants while also addressing most privacy concerns. PMID:22814848

  17. Living the Praxis of Teacher Education through Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Myriam N.; Mercado, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this self-study is to reflect and document the development of our own praxis by using teacher research in our teacher education courses. By praxis we mean an ongoing interdependent process in which reflection, including theoretical analysis, enlightens action, and in turn the transformed action changes our understanding of…

  18. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

  19. Joining the Game: Living and Learning as an Action Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…

  20. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G.; Theroux, Mary C.; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H.; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H.; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E.; Orii, Koji O.; Mason, Robert W.; Montaño, Adriana M.; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: “Movement,” “Movement with cognition,” and “Cognition.” Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10 years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of “Movement” and “Movement with cognition.” Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10 years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5 years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10 years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  1. Activity of daily living for Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Eriko; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sawamoto, Kazuki; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary C; Pizarro, Christian; Xie, Li; Miller, Freeman; Rahman, Tariq; Kecskemethy, Heidi H; Nagao, Kyoko; Morlet, Thierry; Shaffer, Thomas H; Chinen, Yasutsugu; Yabe, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Akemi; Shintaku, Haruo; Orii, Kenji E; Orii, Koji O; Mason, Robert W; Montaño, Adriana M; Fukao, Toshiyuki; Orii, Tadao; Tomatsu, Shunji

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of daily living (ADL) and surgical interventions in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA). The factor(s) that affect ADL are age, clinical phenotypes, surgical interventions, therapeutic effect, and body mass index. The ADL questionnaire comprises three domains: "Movement," "Movement with cognition," and "Cognition." Each domain has four subcategories rated on a 5-point scale based on the level of assistance. The questionnaire was collected from 145 healthy controls and 82 patients with MPS IVA. The patient cohort consisted of 63 severe and 17 attenuated phenotypes (2 were undefined); 4 patients treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), 33 patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for more than a year, and 45 untreated patients. MPS IVA patients show a decline in ADL scores after 10years of age. Patients with a severe phenotype have a lower ADL score than healthy control subjects, and lower scores than patients with an attenuated phenotype in domains of "Movement" and "Movement with cognition." Patients, who underwent HSCT and were followed up for over 10years, had higher ADL scores and fewer surgical interventions than untreated patients. ADL scores for ERT patients (2.5years follow-up on average) were similar with the-age-matched controls below 10years of age, but declined in older patients. Surgical frequency was higher for severe phenotypic patients than attenuated ones. Surgical frequency for patients treated with ERT was not decreased compared to untreated patients. In conclusion, we have shown the utility of the proposed ADL questionnaire and frequency of surgical interventions in patients with MPS IVA to evaluate the clinical severity and therapeutic efficacy compared with age-matched controls. PMID:27161890

  2. Troubling 'lived experience': a post-structural critique of mental health nursing qualitative research assumptions.

    PubMed

    Grant, A

    2014-08-01

    Qualitative studies in mental health nursing research deploying the 'lived experience' construct are often written on the basis of conventional qualitative inquiry assumptions. These include the presentation of the 'authentic voice' of research participants, related to their 'lived experience' and underpinned by a meta-assumption of the 'metaphysics of presence'. This set of assumptions is critiqued on the basis of contemporary post-structural qualitative scholarship. Implications for mental health nursing qualitative research emerging from this critique are described in relation to illustrative published work, and some benefits and challenges for researchers embracing post-structural sensibilities are outlined. PMID:24118139

  3. CoSEC: Connecting Living With a Star Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurlburt, N.; Freeland, S.; Bose, P.; Zimdars, A.; Slater, G.

    2006-12-01

    The Collaborative Sun-Earth Connector (CoSEC) provide the means for heliophysics researchers to compose the data sources and processing services published by their peers into processing workflows that reliably generate publication-worthy data. It includes: composition of computational and data services into easy-to- read workflows with data quality and version traceability; straightforward translation of existing services into workflow components, and advertisement of those components to other members of the CoSEC community; annotation of published services with functional attributes to enable discovery of capabilities required by particular workflows and identify peer subgroups in the CoSEC community; and annotation of published services with nonfunctional attributes to enable selection on the basis of quality of service (QoS). We present an overview and demonstration of the CoSEC system, discuss applications, the lessons learned and future developments.

  4. Measuring Disability: Application of the Rasch Model to Activities of Daily Living (ADL/IADL).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, T. Joseph; DeChello, Laurie M.; Garcia, Ramon; Fifield, Judith; Rothfield, Naomi; Reisine, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Performed a comparative analysis of Activities of Daily Living (ADL) items administered to 4,430 older adults and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living administered to 605 people with rheumatoid arthritis scoring both with Likert and Rasch measurement models. Findings show the superiority of the Rasch approach over the Likert method. (SLD)

  5. Live Theatre: A Dynamic Medium for Engaging with Intercultural Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Cynthia D.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss live theatre as a highly effective and dynamic medium for facilitating meaningful engagement with research on intercultural education. I make the case that ethnographic, or research-based, theatre can productively showcase challenging social issues and the sometimes confusing, poignant and humorous complexities of…

  6. Research and design of a new model for P2P live streaming system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Yang, Lijuan; Liu, Haiyan

    2013-07-01

    According to the research and analysis of typical models for P2P (Peer to Peer) live streaming system, we overview and summarize the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies. This paper proposes a new model for P2P live streaming system, which used a scheme combining unicast and multicast trees, and analysis the strategy of node management. The model combines advantages of easy maintenance of unicast tree and load balancing of multicast tree, and enhances the availability, stability and quality of service for live streaming system.

  7. Stigma, activism, and well-being among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, Valerie A; Rosenthal, Lisa; Lang, Shawn M

    2016-06-01

    Evidence demonstrates that HIV stigma undermines the psychological and physical health of people living with HIV (PLWH). Yet, PLWH describe engaging in HIV activism to challenge stigma, and research suggests that individuals may benefit from activism. We examine associations between experiences of HIV stigma and HIV activism, and test whether HIV activists benefit from greater well-being than non-activists. Participants include 93 PLWH recruited from drop-in centers, housing programs, and other organizations providing services to PLWH in the Northeastern USA between 2012 and 2013 (mean age = 50 years; 56% Black, 20% White, 18% Other; 61% non-Latino(a), 39% Latino(a); 59% male, 38% female, 3% transgender; 82% heterosexual, 15% sexual minority). Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Results of regression analyses suggest that PLWH who experienced greater enacted stigma engaged in greater HIV activism. Anticipated, internalized, and perceived public stigma, however, were unrelated to HIV activism. Moreover, results of a multivariate analysis of variance suggest that HIV activists reported greater social network integration, greater social well-being, greater engagement in active coping with discrimination, and greater meaning in life than non-activists. Yet, HIV activists also reported somewhat greater depressive symptoms than non-activists, suggesting that the association between HIV activism and well-being is complex. By differentiating between HIV stigma mechanisms, the current study provides a more nuanced understanding of which experiences of HIV stigma may be associated with HIV activism. It further suggests that engagement in activism may offer benefits to PLWH, while raising the possibility that activists could experience greater depressive symptoms than non-activists. Given the preliminary nature of this study, future research should continue to examine these complex associations between HIV stigma, activism, and well-being among PLWH

  8. Connecting Long Term Ecological Research to the Classroom: A Partnership Between ScienceLIVE and Niwot Ridge LTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafich, K. A.; Erb, P.; Ray, C.; Williams, M. W.

    2013-12-01

    Graduate students and researchers at Niwot Ridge LTER are working with a newly developed web-based program, ScienceLIVE, to create cutting edge curriculum that utilizes more than 60 years of publicly available climate data and 30 years of hydrologic and ecological data. The recently released Next Generation Science Standards focus on incorporating the scientific practices of developing and using models, analyzing and interpreting data, and obtaining, evaluating and communicating information. Teachers in Colorado have expressed difficulty in accessing datasets for classroom use, and lack the relationships and connections to university researchers needed to obtain such datasets. ScienceLIVE (www.science-live.org) serves as a bridge between scientists and the public by offering K-12 students and teachers the ability to interact with active field-science through live research updates, interactive web resources, and the use of lesson plans developed with the scientists, using their actual data. As students work through these exercises, the PIs and their field assistants will directly interact with classrooms via webinars to field questions from students. Evaluation and assessment tools are being developed to monitor the success of ScienceLIVE in the classroom after the initial launch in fall of 2013. The collaboration between researchers and outreach efforts faces challenges of sustainability due to turnover in graduate student and project PI involvement, and lack of training in curriculum development. We believe that creating an accessible platform for public outreach and streamlining researcher involvement will encourage a sustainable education and outreach program for Niwot Ridge LTER.

  9. The lived experience of physically active older prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Malcolm, Wanda; Keogh, Justin W L

    2014-03-01

    This study sought to explore the lived experiences of physically active prostate cancer survivors on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), who exercise individually. Three older men (74-88 years old) with prostate cancer, using ADT continuously for at least 12 months and regularly exercising for at least 6 months, participated in this qualitative pilot study, informed by interpretive phenomenology. Data were gathered using individual semi-structured interviews, audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Coherent stories were drawn from each transcript and analyzed using iterative and interpretive methods. van Manen's lifeworld existentials provided a framework for interpreting across the research text. Three notions emerged: Getting started, Having a routine and Being with music. Together they reveal what drew the participants to exercising regularly despite the challenges associated with their cancer and treatments. This study provides insights into the benefits of, and what it means for, older men with prostate cancer to regularly exercise individually. These findings may assist cancer clinicians and other allied health professionals to be more attuned to prostate cancer survivors' lived experiences when undergoing ADT, allowing clinicians to better promote regular exercise to their patients as a foundational component of living well. PMID:23862577

  10. Loneliness in elderly individuals, level of dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) and influential factors.

    PubMed

    Hacihasanoğlu, Rabia; Yildirim, Arzu; Karakurt, Papatya

    2012-01-01

    This study has been carried out to investigate the level of loneliness, determine the level of dependence in the ADL and influential factors in the elderly people. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Family Healthcare Centers (FHC) located in central Erzincan, Turkey between March and June 2010. The data of the research was collected using a questionnaire that determined the descriptive and UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-LS). Mean score of the UCLA-LS was determined as 51.59 ± 4.44. It was determined that 2% of the elderly ADL were completely dependent, 14.5% were semi-dependent. Factors such as being old, a widow/divorced, having a lower level of education and/or income, living alone, having a chronic disease, poor self-perceived health, lack of visits by relatives or acquaintances, dissatisfaction with the place of living, and being fully dependent while performing daily activities were determined as factors which increased the level of loneliness. Furthermore, factors such as being old, a female, a widow/divorced, living together with a daughter/son, having a chronic disease and poor self-perceived health were found to be influential in dependency. Elderly people who are alone and dependent in fulfilling their ADL should be monitored more closely. PMID:21514680

  11. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  12. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  13. Occupational therapy for patients with problems in personal activities of daily living after stroke: systematic review of randomised trials

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, Avril; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Gladman, J R F; Donkervoort, Mireille; Edmans, Judi; Gilbertson, Louise; Jongbloed, Lyn; Logan, Pip; Sackley, Catherine; Walker, Marion; Langhorne, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine whether occupational therapy focused specifically on personal activities of daily living improves recovery for patients after stroke. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources The Cochrane stroke group trials register, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycLIT, AMED, Wilson Social Sciences Abstracts, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation, Arts and Humanities Citation Index, Dissertations Abstracts register, Occupational Therapy Research Index, scanning reference lists, personal communication with authors, and hand searching. Review methods Trials were included if they evaluated the effect of occupational therapy focused on practice of personal activities of daily living or where performance in such activities was the target of the occupational therapy intervention in a stroke population. Original data were sought from trialists. Two reviewers independently reviewed each trial for methodological quality. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results Nine randomised controlled trials including 1258 participants met the inclusion criteria. Occupational therapy delivered to patients after stroke and targeted towards personal activities of daily living increased performance scores (standardised mean difference 0.18, 95% confidence interval 0.04 to 0.32, P=0.01) and reduced the risk of poor outcome (death, deterioration or dependency in personal activities of daily living) (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.51 to 0.87, P=0.003). For every 100 people who received occupational therapy focused on personal activities of daily living, 11 (95% confidence interval 7 to 30) would be spared a poor outcome. Conclusions Occupational therapy focused on improving personal activities of daily living after stroke can improve performance and reduce the risk of deterioration in these abilities. Focused occupational therapy should be available to everyone who has had a stroke. PMID

  14. Living in a Global Environment. Classroom Activities in Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fien, John, Ed.

    Forty classroom activities selected from New Internationalist Calendars published between 1984-1989 were collected. Each activity is presented in the form of a short story about a real-life person and a graphic spread of data consisting of maps, tables, photographs, diagrams, text, and student exercises. These activities have been written to…

  15. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  16. (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2011-01-01

    Daily living skills are important to ageing adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of these skills in older adults with ID and to investigate the influence of gender, age, level of ID and mobility on these skills. Daily living skills were measured with the Barthel Index (for Activities of…

  17. How Children Characterise Living Beings and the Activities in Which They Engage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez-Losada, Cristina; García-Barros, Susana; Garrido, María

    2014-01-01

    This study analysed the characteristics that children in the initial stages of schooling attribute to living beings. Interviews were conducted with 138 children aged 3-7 years in a school in the Spanish city of A Coruña, Galicia. Aspects found in pen-and-paper activities dealing with living beings, provided by the teachers (158 in total) at this…

  18. Live Soap: Stability, Order, and Fluctuations in Apolar Active Smectics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhyapak, Tapan Chandra; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Toner, John

    2013-03-01

    We construct a hydrodynamic theory of noisy, apolar active smectics in bulk suspension or on a substrate. Unlike purely orientationally ordered active fluids, active apolar smectics can be dynamically stable in Stokesian bulk suspensions. Smectic order in these systems is quasilong ranged in dimension d=2 and long ranged in d=3. We predict reentrant Kosterlitz-Thouless melting to an active nematic in our simplest model in d=2, a nonzero second-sound speed parallel to the layers in bulk suspensions, and that there are no giant number fluctuations in either case. We also briefly discuss possible instabilities in these systems.

  19. Foster Youths in Transition: Research Perspectives on Preparation for Independent Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mech, Edmund V.

    1994-01-01

    The child welfare field is uncertain how to best prepare older foster wards for independent living. Research priorities in this area are discussed in five categories: (1) education and school-to-work transitions; (2) formal assessments of readiness for self-sufficiency; (3) provision of transitional supports; (4) support networks; and (5)…

  20. When Worlds Collide: Identity, Culture and the Lived Experiences of Research When "Teaching-Led"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, John G.; Hemmings, Brian; Kay, Russell; Callinan, Carol

    2015-01-01

    This article presents detailed findings from the qualitative or interpretive phase of a mixed-methods case study focusing on the professional identities and lived experiences of research among six lecturers working in different capacities across the field of education in a "teaching-led" higher education institution. Building upon the…

  1. A National Program of Research for Rural Development and Family Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Task Force of the Dept. of Agriculture and the State Universities and Land Grant Colleges, Washington, DC.

    The suggested classification of basic research areas in rural development mentioned in this report were population and manpower, human resource development, improvement of community and area environment, and measurement of family and community well-being. The 4 broad categories suggested for improvement in the quality of family living were (1)…

  2. Learning to Live: A Manual of Environmental Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Natural Resources, St. Paul. Bureau of Information and Education.

    Contributions from a variety of sources are compiled in this manual to provide both students and teachers with environmental study activities. Several activities are suggested under each of the following topics: Ecology and Esthetics (emphasizing awareness); The Decision-Making Process (resource management problems); A Plea for an Alternative…

  3. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  4. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    highest expenses in beef cattle production. Senior research investigating the impact of livestock integration and multi-species cover crop grown within the crop rotation is studying changes in soil attributes resulting from the crop-animal integration by measuring bulk density and in-season soil fertility in the crop rotation. These responses are further contrasted with results from within the crop rotation and responses from perennial native range. Students that become engaged in the research represent a broad cross section of the consuming public and include high school junior and senior students, college undergraduate students that conduct research projects, postdoctoral research scientists engaged in senior level research, agricultural extension educators, and finally, farmer and rancher businessmen. The integrated nature of the research provides a wealth of learning opportunities for these various groups. For the high school students, visits to the living laboratory increase awareness and introduces students to a potential career path in agriculture, natural resource fields, and the many allied vocational fields that support agriculture. When college undergraduate students visit the living laboratory, they seek to address a researchable question or a problem in agriculture, while fulfilling requirements for graduation by conducting a research project. Because postdoctoral students want to be actively engaged in research and advanced learning, they are interested in conducting research in the living laboratory that can be published in peer reviewed journals. Agricultural extension educators, who advise farmers and ranchers, are looking for research results from the living laboratory that can be convey to their constituents. Farmers and ranchers participate in workshop events that give them face-to-face learning opportunities that they can use to effect change in their farm and ranch businesses. Each of these demographic groups are unique in their interest in the

  5. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  6. Dopa decarboxylase activity of the living human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gjedde, A.; Reith, J.; Dyve, S.; Leger, G.; Guttman, M.; Diksic, M.; Evans, A.; Kuwabara, H. )

    1991-04-01

    Monoaminergic neurons use dopa decarboxylase to form dopamine from L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa). We measured regional dopa decarboxylase activity in brains of six healthy volunteers with 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa and positron emission tomography. We calculated the enzyme activity, relative to its Km, with a kinetic model that yielded the relative rate of conversion of 6-({sup 18}F)fluoro-L-dopa to ({sup 18}F)fluorodopamine. Regional values of relative dopa decarboxylase activity ranged from nil in occipital cortex to 1.9 h-1 in caudate nucleus and putamen, in agreement with values obtained in vitro.

  7. Activities of Daily Living in Mexican American Caregivers: The Key to Continuing Informal Care

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Bronwynne C.; Belyea, Michael J.; Coon, David W.; Ume, Ebere

    2013-01-01

    La familia drives elder care in Mexican–American (MA) families, but nursing home placement can result from day-to-day caregiving demands that increase caregiver difficulty with activities of daily living (ADLs). Using life course perspective, this article describes the initial data wave of 31 MA caregivers from a descriptive, longitudinal, mixed-methods study of 110 MA caregivers and care recipients over 15 months in their caregiving trajectories. Fifteen of 31 caregivers consistently indicated “no help needed” on the Katz ADL, whereas all but one reported “help needed” during semistructured interviews with cultural brokers. In addition to the discrepancy between results on the Katz ADL and interviews, findings include consideration of nursing home placement by moderately acculturated caregivers and minimization of their illnesses by caregivers. Additional methods of MA caregiver assessment may be needed due to the questionable accuracy of the Katz ADL; additional research should explore minimization and acculturation in MA caregivers. PMID:22740307

  8. "Reality surgery"--a research ethics perspective on the live broadcast of surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Williams, Judson B; Mathews, Robin; D'Amico, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the live broadcasting of medical and surgical procedures has gained worldwide popularity. While the practice has appropriately been met with concerns for patient safety and privacy, many physicians tout the merits of real time viewing as a form of investigation, accelerating the process leading to adoption or abolition of newer techniques or technologies. This view introduces a new series of ethical considerations that need to be addressed. As such, this article considers, from a research ethics perspective, the use of live surgical procedure broadcast for investigative purposes. PMID:21292217

  9. Understanding the health impacts of urbanization in China: A living laboratory for urban biogeochemistry research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    China has the largest population in the world, and by 2011, more than 50% of its population are now living in cities. This ongoing societal change has profound impacts on environmental quality and population health. In addition to intensive discharges of waste, urbanization is not only changing the land use and land cover, but also inducing fundamental changes in biogeochemical processes. Unlike biogeochemistry in non-urban environment, the biological component of urban biogeochemistry is dominated by direct human activities, such as air pollution derived from transport, wastewater treatment, garbage disposal and increase in impervious surface etc. Managing urban biogeochemistry will include source control over waste discharge, eco-infrastructure (such as green space and eco-drainage), resource recovery from urban waste stream, and integration with peri-urban ecosystem, particularly with food production system. The overall goal of managing urban biogeochemistry is for human health and wellbeing, which is a global challenge. In this paper, the current status of urban biogeochemistry research in China will be briefly reviewed, and then it will focus on nutrient recycling and waste management, as these are the major driving forces of environmental quality changes in urban areas. This paper will take a holistic view on waste management, covering urban metabolism analysis, technological innovation and integration for resource recovery from urban waste stream, and risk management related to waste recycling and recovery.

  10. Energy Expended by Adults with and without Intellectual Disabilities during Activities of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lante, Kerrie; Reece, John; Walkley, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) determine the energy expenditure of adults with and without intellectual disabilities during common activities of daily living (ADL), (2) use these values to evaluate the accuracy of equivalent activity values reported in the Compendium of Physical Activities (CPA), and (3) identify ADL that may confer a health…

  11. Measuring Physical Activity in Children and Youth Living with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinckson, Erica Aneke; Curtis, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Accurate assessment of physical activity is necessary in determining levels of physical activity in children living with intellectual disability (ID) and assessing effectiveness of intervention programmes. A systematic review of measures of physical activity in children with ID was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE-PubMed, Scopus,…

  12. School Physical Education, Extracurricular Sports, and Lifelong Active Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bocarro, Jason; Kanters, Michael A.; Casper, Jonathan; Forrester, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the role of school-based extracurricular initiatives in facilitating immediate and long-term positive impact on physical activity, healthy behavior, and obesity in children. A critique of the role of various sports-related initiatives that have been developed to address the obesity epidemic currently…

  13. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  14. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  15. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  16. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  17. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    PubMed Central

    Gorely, Trish; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Marshall, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings) and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years) completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking) and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES) groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise. PMID:19519913

  18. Entangled active matter: from ants to living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brochard-Wyart, Francoise

    2015-03-01

    We introduce the field of ``Entangled Active Matter'' where the building blocks are transiently bound. We will point out strong similarities between aggregates of ants and cells! We will use multicellular aggregates, a model system for tissues. We characterize the tissue mechanical properties using pipette aspiration technique. The aggregate exhibits a viscoelastic response. We observe aggregate reinforcement with pressure, which may results in pulsed contractions or ``shivering.'' We interpret this reinforcement as a mechano-sensitive active response of the acto-myosin cortex. We describe the spreading of aggregates on rigid and soft substrates, varying both intercellular and substrate adhesion. We find both partial and complete wetting, with a precursor film forming a cellular monolayer in a liquid or gas phase. We model the dynamics of spreading from a balance between active cellular driving forces and permeation of cells to enter into the film. Finally we study the motility of aggregates induced by chemical or rigidity gradients, or spontaneous: on soft substrate, the precursor film is unstable, leading to a symmetry breaking and a global motion of the aggregate. We describe the shapes of migrating aggregates, the flow and the force field responsible of the motion. We monitored the center of mass motion and we characterize the stick-slip motions. LABEX CelTisPhyBio, Institut Curie, France

  19. Senior Research Connects Students with a Living Laboratory As Part of an Integrated Crop and Livestock System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senturklu, Songul; Landblom, Douglas; Brevik, Eric C.

    2015-04-01

    highest expenses in beef cattle production. Senior research investigating the impact of livestock integration and multi-species cover crop grown within the crop rotation is studying changes in soil attributes resulting from the crop-animal integration by measuring bulk density and in-season soil fertility in the crop rotation. These responses are further contrasted with results from within the crop rotation and responses from perennial native range. Students that become engaged in the research represent a broad cross section of the consuming public and include high school junior and senior students, college undergraduate students that conduct research projects, postdoctoral research scientists engaged in senior level research, agricultural extension educators, and finally, farmer and rancher businessmen. The integrated nature of the research provides a wealth of learning opportunities for these various groups. For the high school students, visits to the living laboratory increase awareness and introduces students to a potential career path in agriculture, natural resource fields, and the many allied vocational fields that support agriculture. When college undergraduate students visit the living laboratory, they seek to address a researchable question or a problem in agriculture, while fulfilling requirements for graduation by conducting a research project. Because postdoctoral students want to be actively engaged in research and advanced learning, they are interested in conducting research in the living laboratory that can be published in peer reviewed journals. Agricultural extension educators, who advise farmers and ranchers, are looking for research results from the living laboratory that can be convey to their constituents. Farmers and ranchers participate in workshop events that give them face-to-face learning opportunities that they can use to effect change in their farm and ranch businesses. Each of these demographic groups are unique in their interest in the

  20. Lively Earthquake Activity in North-Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2016-04-01

    The seismograph at the Danish military outpost, Station Nord (NOR) in North East Greenland, records many regional/local earthquakes every day. Most of these events originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. The plate boundary has a particularly active segment approximately 200 km from the seismograph. Additionally we find a seismically very active region 20-30 km from NOR on the Kronprins Christian Land peninsula. The BB seismograph at NOR was installed in 2002 and later upgraded with real-time telemetry as part of the GLISN-project. Since late 2013 data from NOR have been included in routine processing at GEUS. Phase readings on some of the older data, primarily 2002-2003, have been carried out previously in connection with other projects. As a result, phase readings for more than 6000 local events, recorded exclusively at NOR, were found in the GEUS data base. During the years 2004 to 2007 four locations were occupied by temporary BB seismographs on the North coast of Greenland as part of the Law of the Sea preparatory work. Data from these stations have not previously been analyzed for local and regional events. In this study we combine the recordings from NOR with phase readings from the temporary seismographs in Northern Greenland. The local events on Kronprins Christian Land range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event widely recorded in the region and felt by the personnel at Station Nord on August 30, 2005. Station Nord is located in the seismically most active region of Greenland.

  1. Accountability and pediatric physician-researchers: are theoretical models compatible with Canadian lived experience?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Physician-researchers are bound by professional obligations stemming from both the role of the physician and the role of the researcher. Currently, the dominant models for understanding the relationship between physician-researchers' clinical duties and research duties fit into three categories: the similarity position, the difference position and the middle ground. The law may be said to offer a fourth "model" that is independent from these three categories. These models frame the expectations placed upon physician-researchers by colleagues, regulators, patients and research participants. This paper examines the extent to which the data from semi-structured interviews with 30 physician-researchers at three major pediatric hospitals in Canada reflect these traditional models. It seeks to determine the extent to which existing models align with the described lived experience of the pediatric physician-researchers interviewed. Ultimately, we find that although some physician-researchers make references to something like the weak version of the similarity position, the pediatric-researchers interviewed in this study did not describe their dual roles in a way that tightly mirrors any of the existing theoretical frameworks. We thus conclude that either physician-researchers are in need of better training regarding the nature of the accountability relationships that flow from their dual roles or that models setting out these roles and relationships must be altered to better reflect what we can reasonably expect of physician-researchers in a real-world environment. PMID:21974866

  2. Active invasion of bacteria into living fungal cells

    PubMed Central

    Moebius, Nadine; Üzüm, Zerrin; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Lackner, Gerald; Hertweck, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The rice seedling blight fungus Rhizopus microsporus and its endosymbiont Burkholderia rhizoxinica form an unusual, highly specific alliance to produce the highly potent antimitotic phytotoxin rhizoxin. Yet, it has remained a riddle how bacteria invade the fungal cells. Genome mining for potential symbiosis factors and functional analyses revealed that a type 2 secretion system (T2SS) of the bacterial endosymbiont is required for the formation of the endosymbiosis. Comparative proteome analyses show that the T2SS releases chitinolytic enzymes (chitinase, chitosanase) and chitin-binding proteins. The genes responsible for chitinolytic proteins and T2SS components are highly expressed during infection. Through targeted gene knock-outs, sporulation assays and microscopic investigations we found that chitinase is essential for bacteria to enter hyphae. Unprecedented snapshots of the traceless bacterial intrusion were obtained using cryo-electron microscopy. Beyond unveiling the pivotal role of chitinolytic enzymes in the active invasion of a fungus by bacteria, these findings grant unprecedented insight into the fungal cell wall penetration and symbiosis formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03007.001 PMID:25182414

  3. Nano-engineered living bacterial motors for active microfluidic mixing.

    PubMed

    Al-Fandi, M; Jaradat, M A K; Fandi, K; Beech, J P; Tegenfeldt, J O; Yih, T C

    2010-09-01

    Active micromixers with rotating elements are attractive microfluidic actuators in many applications because of their mixing ability at a short distance. However, miniaturising the impeller design poses technical challenges including the fabrication and driving means. As a possible solution inspired by macro magnetic bar-stirrers, this study proposes the use of tethered, rotating bacteria as mixing elements. A tethered cell is a genetically engineered, harmless Escherichia coli (E. coli) attached to a surface by a single, shortened flagellum. The tethered flagellum acts as a pivot around which the entire cell body smoothly rotates. Videomicroscopy, image analysis and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are utilised to demonstrate a proof-of-concept for the micro mixing process. Flow visualisation experiments show that a approximately 3 microm long tethered E. coli rotating at approximately 240 rpm can circulate a 1 microm polystyrene bead in the adjacent area at an average speed of nearly 4 microm/s. The Peclet (Peb) number for the stirred bead is evaluated to approximately 4. CFD simulations show that the rotary motion of a tethered E. coli rotating at 240 rpm can generate fluid velocities, up to 37 microm/s bordering the cell envelop. Based on these simulations, the Strouhal number (St) is calculated to about 2. This hybrid bio-inorganic micromxer could be used as a local, disposable mixer. PMID:20726672

  4. SALSA : SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley; Orlando Edwards, Raul; McNeill, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA) was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (N = 50; M = 42 years) who participated were overweight (MBMI = 29.7 kg/m2; Mbody fat = 38.5%) and reported low levels of leisure time PA (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) and FV consumption (M = 4.2 servings/day). All were randomized to a four-week (1) semiweekly Latin dance group or (2) internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) to follow up (M = 34.0 MET-min/wk, P < .001), and FV consumption increased over time by group (P = .02). Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color. PMID:21234315

  5. NASA research activities in aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.; Weber, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is responsible for advancing technologies related to air transportation. A sampling of the work at NASA's Lewis Research Center aimed at improved aircraft propulsion systems is described. Particularly stressed are efforts related to reduced noise and fuel consumption of subsonic transports. Generic work in specific disciplines are reviewed including computational analysis, materials, structures, controls, diagnostics, alternative fuels, and high-speed propellers. Prospects for variable cycle engines are also discussed.

  6. Making It Better: Activities for Children Living in a Stressful World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlberg, Barbara

    Recognizing the need to empower children experiencing difficulties in their everyday lives, this book presents activities for healing and recovery designed for classroom or small group use with children ages 3 to 10 years. The activities are intended to guide children into self-directed understanding and processing of experiences and memories,…

  7. The Daily Lives of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Discretionary Time Use and Activity Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Kuo, Hsin-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the daily lives, particularly discretionary time, of adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We describe the activities and activity partners of adolescents, the factors associated with their discretionary time use, and the impact of time use on their autism symptoms. Mothers of 103 adolescents with an ASD completed…

  8. Techniques to measure free-living energy expenditure during pregnancy – A guide for clinicians and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Abeysekera, Minoli V; Morris, Jack A

    2014-01-01

    As maternal overweight and obesity increase in prevalence, the need to optimise gestational weight gain has entered the forefront due to the well-documented poor fetal and maternal outcomes associated with excess adipose tissue. Measurements of changes in energy expenditure form crucial components of effective weight management programmes, and they are also important for clarifying the energy requirements of pregnancy. This review evaluates the primary techniques for measuring free-living energy expenditure for use in pregnancy, with special consideration of the dynamic physiological changes that occur in this state. The methods that will be discussed include the doubly labelled water method, activity recall and activity logs, heart rate monitors and motion sensors. This article may be useful for clinicians seeking to implement active gestational weight management by enabling advice on increases in caloric intake linked to measured changes in energy expenditure, and for researchers studying energy metabolism in pregnancy.

  9. Nurturing transdisciplinary research - lessons from live experiments in prioritising and supporting novel risk science (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, J.; Armstrong, C.; Barclay, J.; Moores, A.; Whitaker, D.

    2013-12-01

    The benefits of specialization over the last 150 years have meant that science has evolved within several distinct disciplines, such as physical, social or environmental. These have generated their own cultures, languages, agendas, institutions, measures of success and cohorts of suitably branded scientists. However, we increasingly see that society and the environment are exposed to many complex, interdependent and rapidly changing risks - not only from natural hazards, but also those associated with fast expanding and ageing populations, highly interconnected and interdependent economies, rapid climate change, and increasingly limited resources. Risks derived from such interacting drivers commonly generate non-linear effects or repercussions and future risks may be very different to those of today; significantly, they span many traditional science disciplines. We thus need to have a fresh look at transdisciplinary risk science, bring in novel ideas and new blood. But what are the best practical ways of sowing the seeds and fertilizing such approaches? The presentation describes novel practical steps to achieve this, all related to building and resourcing transdisciplinary research which incorporates natural hazard science within the UK over the last 5 years. These comprise instruments to prioritise science gaps and provide funding for transdisciplinary research by a) Academic research funders - the Research Councils UK (RCUK) Risk Research Network and current research programmes; b) Government and non-governmental research funders - the Living with Environmental Change Initiative, and the UK Flooding and coastal erosion risk management research strategy - and the UK Collaborative for Development Science sponsored Disasters Research Group; and c) Business funding - through integrated risk modelling for the insurance industry. Whilst young, all these initiatives are healthy and seek to build a portfolio of small scale initiatives that will breed success and develop

  10. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  11. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  12. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  13. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  14. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  15. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  16. Recreating communities to support active living: a new role for social marketing.

    PubMed

    Maibach, Edward W

    2003-01-01

    The lack of routine physical activity has become an all too pervasive health threat in the United States. Social marketing can be used directly to promote increased physical activity among people who have access to active living options (e.g., safe and convenient sidewalks or bike paths). A second, albeit indirect, use of social marketing to promote physical activity--and the focus of this article--involves promoting behaviors that influence the built environment for the purpose of increasing people's access to active living options. This use of social marketing involves changing the behavior of consumers, developers, distribution channels (e.g., real estate agents) and policy makers. The approach offers public health and other organizations a disciplined, consumer-focused means of mobilizing their available resources in a manner that maximizes the odds of creating active living communities. These means include understanding the competition, understanding target markets, creating mutually beneficial exchanges, segmenting markets and targeting them based on anticipated return. This article identifies specific opportunities for applying the social marketing approach to create active living communities, and identifies opportunities at the state and national level that will enhance the effectiveness of local efforts. PMID:13677970

  17. Promoting ethical research with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nicole P; Bartgis, Jami; Demers, Deirdre

    2014-11-01

    Most health research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people has focused on tribal communities on reservation lands. Few studies have been conducted with AI/AN people living in urban settings despite their documented health disparities compared with other urban populations. There are unique considerations for working with this population. Engaging key stakeholders, including urban Indian health organization leaders, tribal leaders, research scientists and administrators, and policymakers, is critical to promoting ethical research and enhancing capacity of urban AI/AN communities. Recommendations for their involvement may facilitate an open dialogue and promote the development of implementation strategies. Future collaborations are also necessary for establishing research policies aimed at improving the health of the urban AI/AN population. PMID:25211730

  18. Ex utero: live human fetal research and the films of Davenport Hooker.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Emily K

    2014-01-01

    Between 1932 and 1963 University of Pittsburgh anatomist Davenport Hooker, Ph.D., performed and filmed noninvasive studies of reflexive movement on more than 150 surgically aborted human fetuses. The resulting imagery and information would contribute substantially to new visual and biomedical conceptions of fetuses as baby-like, autonomous human entities that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s. Hooker's methods, though broadly conforming to contemporary research practices and views of fetuses, would not have been feasible later. But while Hooker and the 1930s medical and general public viewed live fetuses as acceptable materials for nontherapeutic research, they also shared a regard for fetuses as developing humans with some degree of social value. Hooker's research and the various reactions to his work demonstrate the varied and changing perspectives on fetuses and fetal experimentation, and the influence those views can have on biomedical research. PMID:24769805

  19. Promoting Ethical Research With American Indian and Alaska Native People Living in Urban Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bartgis, Jami; Demers, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    Most health research with American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people has focused on tribal communities on reservation lands. Few studies have been conducted with AI/AN people living in urban settings despite their documented health disparities compared with other urban populations. There are unique considerations for working with this population. Engaging key stakeholders, including urban Indian health organization leaders, tribal leaders, research scientists and administrators, and policymakers, is critical to promoting ethical research and enhancing capacity of urban AI/AN communities. Recommendations for their involvement may facilitate an open dialogue and promote the development of implementation strategies. Future collaborations are also necessary for establishing research policies aimed at improving the health of the urban AI/AN population. PMID:25211730

  20. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  1. A smartphone-driven methodology for estimating physical activities and energy expenditure in free living conditions.

    PubMed

    Guidoux, Romain; Duclos, Martine; Fleury, Gérard; Lacomme, Philippe; Lamaudière, Nicolas; Manenq, Pierre-Henri; Paris, Ludivine; Ren, Libo; Rousset, Sylvie

    2014-12-01

    This paper introduces a function dedicated to the estimation of total energy expenditure (TEE) of daily activities based on data from accelerometers integrated into smartphones. The use of mass-market sensors such as accelerometers offers a promising solution for the general public due to the growing smartphone market over the last decade. The TEE estimation function quality was evaluated using data from intensive numerical experiments based, first, on 12 volunteers equipped with a smartphone and two research sensors (Armband and Actiheart) in controlled conditions (CC) and, then, on 30 other volunteers in free-living conditions (FLC). The TEE given by these two sensors in both conditions and estimated from the metabolic equivalent tasks (MET) in CC served as references during the creation and evaluation of the function. The TEE mean gap in absolute value between the function and the three references was 7.0%, 16.4% and 2.7% in CC, and 17.0% and 23.7% according to Armband and Actiheart, respectively, in FLC. This is the first step in the definition of a new feedback mechanism that promotes self-management and daily-efficiency evaluation of physical activity as part of an information system dedicated to the prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:25048352

  2. Ambient Information Systems to Support the Elderly in Carrying Out Their Activities of Daily Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vázquez, Juan Pablo; Rodríguez, Marcela D.

    As they age, older adult's present losses in their functional capabilities which cause them can't continue performing their activities of daily living (ADL) independently at home. We propose Ambient Information Systems (AIS) as appropriate pervasive devices to promote their independent living. Therefore our aim is to determine the utility and usability of AIS to support the independent life of older adults by helping them to perform their activities. In this paper we present preliminary results of a case study that we carried out for understanding the problems and needs that older adults face in doing some of their activities of daily living. In particular, we present results regarding the elderly problems to adhere to their medication prescription. Based on these results we propose AIS to support older adults to medicate. Finally, we present the design attributes incorporated into this AIS, which were identified from the design taxonomies of AIS reported in the literature.

  3. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  4. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  5. The use of animals in live-tissue trauma training and military medical research.

    PubMed

    Martinic, Gary

    2011-10-01

    Uncontrolled hemorrhage is the most common preventable cause of death for soldiers wounded in combat. In live-tissue trauma training (LTTT), animals (mostly goats and pigs) are used to train physicians and paramedical personnel in how to treat severe traumatic injuries, including severe blood loss. Military personnel insist that such realistic training is necessary and has to date saved countless lives of soldiers. Animal rights groups, however, argue that the practice is inhumane and should be replaced with alternative methods. In this essay, the author explains how and why animals are used for LTTT and in military medical research (MMR), as well as why he feels that the continued use of animals for LTTT and MMR is justified. The author hopes to encourage wider discussion of this topic within the scientific, defense and animal welfare circles, leading to further refinements in the welfare and protection of animals used for these important, though often controversial, purposes. PMID:22358209

  6. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  7. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children. PMID:22818486

  8. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  9. Targeted Research and Technology Within NASA's Living With a Star Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antiochos, Spiro; Baker, Kile; Bellaire, Paul; Blake, Bern; Crowley, Geoff; Eddy, Jack; Goodrich, Charles; Gopalswamy, Nat; Gosling, Jack; Hesse, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Targeted Research & Technology (TR&T) NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  10. Sexuality and intimacy among people living with serious mental illnesses: Factors contributing to sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Bonfils, Kelsey A.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Salyers, Michelle P.; Wright, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has focused on sexuality for those diagnosed with a severe mental illness. We aimed to extend existing work by exploring relationships between mastery (perception of control of one's life and future), sexual self-esteem (perceptions of one's capacity to engage in healthy sexual behavior), sexual attitudes (permissive ideas about sexuality), and perceived importance of relationships/sexuality and number of sexual partners. Methods A secondary analysis of survey data from adult participants living with a severe mental illness (N=401) in the Indiana Mental Health Services and HIV-Risk Study (Perry & Wright, 2006) was conducted. Analysis of covariance (controlling for marital status) compared those with zero partners, one partner, or multiple partners over the past three months on the dependent variables of mastery, sexual self-esteem, sexual attitudes, and perceived importance. Results Participants with more permissive attitudes, greater perceived importance, and higher mastery were more likely to be sexually active with multiple partners. Self-esteem did not differentiate groups. Conclusions and Implications for Practice Given the key role of sexual satisfaction in quality of life and the high rates of sexual risk behavior in this population, it is important that clinicians systematically assess mastery, perceived importance, and attitudes about sexuality when working with consumers diagnosed with a severe mental illness. Individually tailoring existing interventions based on consumers' levels of mastery, related to self-efficacy for implementing changes in life, could improve long-term outcomes for these programs. Future research should examine other constructs that may account for more variance in sexual activity, such as perceptions of risk, intentions for sexual safety, or romantic relationship functioning. PMID:25664756

  11. Educational Research Capacity Building in the European Union: A Critique of the Lived Experiences of Emerging Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Fiona; Fidalgo, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the extent to which European Union (EU) policies impact upon the activities of associations such as the European Educational Research Association (EERA) and the experiences of emerging researchers aligned to such associations. In essence, the authors explore potential tensions between policy and the lived…

  12. Recommendations on Physical Activity and Exercise for Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Taskforce Report.

    PubMed

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Morley, John E; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; H Pitkala, Kaisu; Weening-Djiksterhuis, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Barbagallo, Mario; Rosendahl, Erik; Sinclair, Alan; Landi, Francesco; Izquierdo, Mikel; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2016-05-01

    A taskforce, under the auspices of The International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics-Global Aging Research Network (IAGG-GARN) and the IAGG European Region Clinical Section, composed of experts from the fields of exercise science and geriatrics, met in Toulouse, in December 2015, with the aim of establishing recommendations of physical activity and exercise for older adults living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Due to the high heterogeneity in terms of functional ability and cognitive function that characterizes older adults living in LTCFs, taskforce members established 2 sets of recommendations: recommendations for reducing sedentary behaviors for all LTCF residents and recommendations for defining specific, evidence-based guidelines for exercise training for subgroups of LTCF residents. To promote a successful implementation of recommendations, taskforce experts highlighted the importance of promoting residents' motivation and pleasure, the key factors that can be increased when taking into account residents' desires, preferences, beliefs, and attitudes toward physical activity and exercise. The importance of organizational factors related to LTCFs and health care systems were recognized by the experts. In conclusion, this taskforce report proposes standards for the elaboration of strategies to increase physical activity as well as to prescribe exercise programs for older adults living in LTCFs. This report should be used as a guide for professionals working in LTCF settings. PMID:27012368

  13. Romantic relationships and sexual activities of the first generation of youth living with HIV since birth.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Mylène; Wong, Kimberly; Richard, Marie-Eve; Otis, Joanne; Lévy, Joseph J; Lapointe, Normand; Samson, Johanne; Morin, Guylaine; Thériault, Jocelyne; Trottier, Germain

    2011-04-01

    HIV-infected children, now maturing into adolescence and adulthood, must cope not only with adolescent developmental issues, but also with a chronic, socially stigmatised and sexually transmittable illness. Little research on this first generation of survivors has focused on romantic involvement and sexuality. This study, which employs a mixed-method embedded strategy (qualitative supported by quantitative), describes the perspectives of youth living with HIV since birth concerning: (1) romantic involvement and sexuality; and (2) risk management including the risk of HIV transmission and partner serostatus disclosure. Eighteen adolescents aged 13-22 from Montreal, Canada, participated in individual semi-structured interviews and completed self-report questionnaires. Most youths participated in non-penetrative sexual activities. Ten participants reported having had vaginal and three anal intercourses, at an average age of 14 for girls and 15 for boys. All sexually active youth reported having used a condom at least once. Of those who reported that their first sexual relationship was protected, over half had taken risks in subsequent relationships (e.g., unprotected sex, multiple partners, etc.). Interviews conducted with sexually inactive youths illustrate the interrelatedness of romantic involvement, sexual initiation and potential serostatus disclosure. Involvement in a sexual relationship would not be conceivable unless the partner was informed of their serostatus. For sexually active participants, risk management implies HIV transmission and partner disclosure. These youths have emotional issues regarding disclosure in romantic relationships and few risked potential rejection by disclosing. Condom use acts as a reminder of the infection and a barrier to intimacy. The narratives illustrate how risk perception changes and becomes relative with time and experience, especially when the viral load is undetectable and when past experience has convinced the adolescent

  14. Realizing the Living Paper using the ProvONE Model for Reproducible Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. B.; Jones, C. S.; Ludäscher, B.; Missier, P.; Walker, L.; Slaughter, P.; Schildhauer, M.; Cuevas-Vicenttín, V.

    2015-12-01

    Science has advanced through traditional publications that codify research results as a permenant part of the scientific record. But because publications are static and atomic, researchers can only cite and reference a whole work when building on prior work of colleagues. The open source software model has demonstrated a new approach in which strong version control in an open environment can nurture an open ecosystem of software. Developers now commonly fork and extend software giving proper credit, with less repetition, and with confidence in the relationship to original software. Through initiatives like 'Beyond the PDF', an analogous model has been imagined for open science, in which software, data, analyses, and derived products become first class objects within a publishing ecosystem that has evolved to be finer-grained and is realized through a web of linked open data. We have prototyped a Living Paper concept by developing the ProvONE provenance model for scientific workflows, with prototype deployments in DataONE. ProvONE promotes transparency and openness by describing the authenticity, origin, structure, and processing history of research artifacts and by detailing the steps in computational workflows that produce derived products. To realize the Living Paper, we decompose scientific papers into their constituent products and publish these as compound objects in the DataONE federation of archival repositories. Each individual finding and sub-product of a reseach project (such as a derived data table, a workflow or script, a figure, an image, or a finding) can be independently stored, versioned, and cited. ProvONE provenance traces link these fine-grained products within and across versions of a paper, and across related papers that extend an original analysis. This allows for open scientific publishing in which researchers extend and modify findings, creating a dynamic, evolving web of results that collectively represent the scientific enterprise. The

  15. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting of Live Versus Dead Bacterial Cells and Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernardini, James N.; LaDuc, Myron T.; Diamond, Rochelle; Verceles, Josh

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a coupled fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and fluorescent staining technology for purifying (removing cells from sampling matrices), separating (based on size, density, morphology, and live versus dead), and concentrating cells (spores, prokaryotic, eukaryotic) from an environmental sample.

  16. Strategies of Daily Living Rehabilitative Activities for Post Stroke Patients at Minia University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaky, Hend Elham Mohamed; EL-Lateef Mohammad, Zienab Abd; EL-Labban, Abdou Saad Taha; Ahmed, Gahen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stroke is a leading cause of disability. Rehabilitation aims to hasten and maximize recovery from stroke by treating the disabilities caused by the stroke. Therefore, the aim of this study determine the post stroke patients' knowledge and practices in relation to disease and activities of daily living before the implementation of…

  17. Ready, Steady, Action: What Enables Young People to Perceive Themselves as Active Agents in Their Lives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Government and educational priorities place importance on young people of secondary school age being active, having their voices heard, and participating in their community. This paper explores an understanding of the role of agency in young people's lives and how the concept is developing. Young people who perceive themselves as having…

  18. Evaluation of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Greek Patients with Advanced Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Parpa, Efi; Tsilika, Eleni; Panagiotoua, Irene; Roumeliotou, Anna; Symeonidi, Matina; Galanos, Antonis; Kouvaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Translation of the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was carried out and its psychometric properties were assessed in a Greek sample of patients with advanced cancer. The scale was translated with the forward-backward procedure into the Greek language. It was initially administered to 136 advanced cancer patients. To assess…

  19. The Elderly's Independent Living in Smart Homes: A Characterization of Activities and Sensing Infrastructure Survey to Facilitate Services Development.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qin; García Hernando, Ana Belén; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2015-01-01

    Human activity detection within smart homes is one of the basis of unobtrusive wellness monitoring of a rapidly aging population in developed countries. Most works in this area use the concept of "activity" as the building block with which to construct applications such as healthcare monitoring or ambient assisted living. The process of identifying a specific activity encompasses the selection of the appropriate set of sensors, the correct preprocessing of their provided raw data and the learning/reasoning using this information. If the selection of the sensors and the data processing methods are wrongly performed, the whole activity detection process may fail, leading to the consequent failure of the whole application. Related to this, the main contributions of this review are the following: first, we propose a classification of the main activities considered in smart home scenarios which are targeted to older people's independent living, as well as their characterization and formalized context representation; second, we perform a classification of sensors and data processing methods that are suitable for the detection of the aforementioned activities. Our aim is to help researchers and developers in these lower-level technical aspects that are nevertheless fundamental for the success of the complete application. PMID:26007717

  20. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  1. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  2. Disability in instrumental activities of daily living among older adults: gender differences

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Tiago da Silva; Corona, Ligiana Pires; Nunes, Daniella Pires; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze gender differences in the incidence and determinants of disability regarding instrumental activities of daily living among older adults. METHODS The data were extracted from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE – Health, Wellbeing and Ageing) study. In 2000, 1,034 older adults without difficulty in regarding instrumental activities of daily living were selected. The following characteristics were evaluated at the baseline: sociodemographic and behavioral variables, health status, falls, fractures, hospitalizations, depressive symptoms, cognition, strength, mobility, balance and perception of vision and hearing. Instrumental activities of daily living such as shopping and managing own money and medication, using transportation and using the telephone were reassessed in 2006, with incident cases of disability considered as the outcome. RESULTS The incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living was 44.7/1,000 person/years for women and 25.2/1,000 person/years for men. The incidence rate ratio between women and men was 1.77 (95%CI 1.75;1.80). After controlling for socioeconomic status and clinical conditions, the incidence rate ratio was 1.81 (95%CI 1.77;1.84), demonstrating that women with chronic disease and greater social vulnerability have a greater incidence density of disability in instrumental activities of daily living. The following were determinants of the incidence of disability: age ≥ 80 and worse perception of hearing in both genders; stroke in men; and being aged 70 to 79 in women. Better cognitive performance was a protective factor in both genders and better balance was a protective factor in women. CONCLUSIONS The higher incidence density of disability in older women remained even after controlling for adverse social and clinical conditions. In addition to age, poorer cognitive performance and conditions that adversely affect communication disable both genders. Acute events, such as a stroke

  3. Targeted Research and Technology Within NASA's Living With a Star Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hesse, Michael

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Living With a Star (LWS) initiative is a systematic, goal-oriented research program targeting those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that affect society. The Targeted Research and Technology (TR&T) component of LWS provides the theory, modeling, and data analysis necessary to enable an integrated, system-wide picture of Sun-Earth connection science with societal relevance. Recognizing the central and essential role that TR&T would have for the success of the LWS initiative, the LWS Science Architecture Team (SAT) recommended that a Science Definition Team (SDT), with the same status as a flight mission definition team, be formed to design and coordinate a TR&T program having prioritized goals and objectives that focused on practical societal benefits. This report details the SDT recommendations for the TR&T program.

  4. Academic rigour in the lived experience of researchers using phenomenological methods in nursing.

    PubMed

    Rose, P; Beeby, J; Parker, D

    1995-06-01

    In its quest for knowledge, nursing has relied heavily on the positivist approach to scientific enquiry. Phenomenological enquiry identifies the essence of a phenomenon and accurately describes it through the lived experience. Through consistency in the use of the methodology, and avoidance of method slurring, academic rigour can be maintained. It is advocated that the phenomenological method is congruent with nursing ideals where humanistic knowledge is valued. Nurses and phenomenologists share skills in observation, interviewing, interaction and interpersonal relationships in the appreciation of the individual's perception of an experience. Through the development of professional practice, nurses thus gain the tools to assist them in phenomenological research. It is suggested that, given appropriate attention to rigour, phenomenological methodology could become the basic instrument in the reform of nursing research as it moves from the positivist to the humanist paradigm. PMID:7665777

  5. Active mechanics in living oocytes reveal molecular-scale force kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Wylie; Fodor, Etienne; Almonacid, Maria; Bussonnier, Matthias; Verlhac, Marie-Helene; Gov, Nir; Visco, Paolo; van Wijland, Frederic; Betz, Timo

    Unlike traditional materials, living cells actively generate forces at the molecular scale that change their structure and mechanical properties. This nonequilibrium activity is essential for cellular function, and drives processes such as cell division. Single molecule studies have uncovered the detailed force kinetics of isolated motor proteins in-vitro, however their behavior in-vivo has been elusive due to the complex environment inside the cell. Here, we quantify active forces and intracellular mechanics in living oocytes using in-vivo optical trapping and laser interferometry of endogenous vesicles. We integrate an experimental and theoretical framework to connect mesoscopic measurements of nonequilibrium properties to the underlying molecular- scale force kinetics. Our results show that force generation by myosin-V drives the cytoplasmic-skeleton out-of-equilibrium (at frequencies below 300 Hz) and actively softens the environment. In vivo myosin-V activity generates a force of F ~ 0 . 4 pN, with a power-stroke of length Δx ~ 20 nm and duration τ ~ 300 μs, that drives vesicle motion at vv ~ 320 nm/s. This framework is widely applicable to characterize living cells and other soft active materials.

  6. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  7. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  8. Characteristics Associated with Fear of Falling and Activity Restriction in Community-Living Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Susan L.; Williams, Christianna S.; Gill, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To identify the characteristics associated with restricting activity because of fear of falling (activity restriction) and to determine which characteristics distinguish older persons who restrict activity from those who have fear of falling but do not restrict their activities (fear of falling alone). DESIGN Population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING General community. PARTICIPANTS One thousand sixty-four community-living persons aged 72 and older. MEASUREMENTS Candidate predictors were identified from the following domains: demographic, health status, physical, psychosocial, and fall-related. The outcome measure was the report of no fear of falling, fear of falling alone, or activity restriction. RESULTS Fifty-seven percent of the cohort reported no fear of falling, 24% reported fear of falling alone, and 19% reported restricting activity. The proportion of participants with poor health status, slow timed physical performance, activities of daily living disability, and poor psychosocial function was highest in those with activity restriction, intermediate in those with fear of falling alone, and lowest in those with no fear of falling. Of participants with fear of falling, characteristics independently associated with activity restriction were history of an injurious fall, slow timed physical performance, two or more chronic conditions, and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION Older persons who restrict activity are more physically frail and have a greater burden of chronic conditions and depressive symptoms than those who have fear of falling alone. These differences between persons with fear of falling may guide the refinement of clinical interventions and preventative programs. PMID:11943049

  9. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  10. Influence of peripheral arterial disease on daily living activities in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Franco, Fábio Gazelato de Mello; de Mattos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Wolosker, Nelson; Nasri, Fábio; Costa, Maria Luiza Monteiro; de Carvalho, José Antônio Maluf

    2016-06-01

    Aging has been associated with decreases in physical and cognitive functions. Peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been associated with further impairments in these functions, especially in women. However, no detailed information is available indicating whether PAD leads to further impairment in these functions in elderly women. Thus, the aims of this study were 1) to compare the capacity to perform daily living activities between elderly women with and without PAD and 2) to identify the factors related with the performance in daily activities. Twenty-seven elderly women with PAD and 22 elderly non-PAD women were surveyed in a geriatric hospital. Women aged ≥65 years and with no signal of dementia were included. PAD was identified by the ankle-brachial index ≤0.90, whereas elderly non-PAD women presented ankle-brachial index >1.0. Patients were interviewed to obtain information regarding basic (Katz questionnaire) and instrumental daily living activities (Lawton-Brody scale) and performed the mini-mental state examination, handgrip strength test, and timed up and go tests. PAD and non-PAD women had similar age, clinical characteristics, handgrip strength test, and cognitive function (P > 0.05). The capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily living activities was similar between PAD and non-PAD women (P > 0.05). In PAD and non-PAD, the instrumental daily living activities were significantly correlated with cognitive function (r = 0.44, P < 0.05 and r = 0.74 and P < 0.05, respectively). PAD elderly women present similar capacity to perform basic and instrumental daily activities than non-PAD women. In addition, in both groups, the capacity to perform instrumental daily activities was related with cognitive function. PMID:27210449

  11. AU4S: A novel synthetic peptide to measure the activity of ATG4 in living cells

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhenhong; Gong, Yi; Dai, Xufang; Ding, Wen; Wang, Bin; Gong, Haiyan; Qin, Liyan; Cheng, Panke; Li, Song; Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2015-01-01

    ATG4 plays a key role in autophagy induction, but the methods for monitoring ATG4 activity in living cells are limited. Here we designed a novel fluorescent peptide named AU4S for noninvasive detection of ATG4 activity in living cells, which consists of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), ATG4-recognized sequence “GTFG,” and the fluorophore FITC. Additionally, an ATG4-resistant peptide AG4R was used as a control. CPP can help AU4S or AG4R to penetrate cell membrane efficiently. AU4S but not AG4R can be recognized and cleaved by ATG4, leading to the change of fluorescence intensity. Therefore, the difference between AU4S- and AG4R-measured fluorescence values in the same sample, defined as “F-D value,” can reflect ATG4 activity. By detecting the F-D values, we found that ATG4 activity paralleled LC3B-II levels in rapamycin-treated cells, but neither paralleled LC3B-II levels in starved cells nor presented a correlation with LC3B-II accumulation in WBCs from healthy donors or leukemia patients. However, when DTT was added to the system, ATG4 activity not only paralleled LC3B-II levels in starved cells in the presence or absence of autophagy inhibitors, but also presented a positive correlation with LC3B-II accumulation in WBCs from leukemia patients (R2 = 0.5288). In conclusion, this study provides a convenient, rapid, and quantitative method to monitor ATG4 activity in living cells, which may be beneficial to basic and clinical research on autophagy. PMID:25831015

  12. AU4S: a novel synthetic peptide to measure the activity of ATG4 in living cells.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhenhong; Gong, Yi; Dai, Xufang; Ding, Wen; Wang, Bin; Gong, Haiyan; Qin, Liyan; Cheng, Panke; Li, Song; Lian, Jiqin; He, Fengtian

    2015-01-01

    ATG4 plays a key role in autophagy induction, but the methods for monitoring ATG4 activity in living cells are limited. Here we designed a novel fluorescent peptide named AU4S for noninvasive detection of ATG4 activity in living cells, which consists of the cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), ATG4-recognized sequence "GTFG," and the fluorophore FITC. Additionally, an ATG4-resistant peptide AG4R was used as a control. CPP can help AU4S or AG4R to penetrate cell membrane efficiently. AU4S but not AG4R can be recognized and cleaved by ATG4, leading to the change of fluorescence intensity. Therefore, the difference between AU4S- and AG4R-measured fluorescence values in the same sample, defined as "F-D value," can reflect ATG4 activity. By detecting the F-D values, we found that ATG4 activity paralleled LC3B-II levels in rapamycin-treated cells, but neither paralleled LC3B-II levels in starved cells nor presented a correlation with LC3B-II accumulation in WBCs from healthy donors or leukemia patients. However, when DTT was added to the system, ATG4 activity not only paralleled LC3B-II levels in starved cells in the presence or absence of autophagy inhibitors, but also presented a positive correlation with LC3B-II accumulation in WBCs from leukemia patients (R(2) = 0.5288). In conclusion, this study provides a convenient, rapid, and quantitative method to monitor ATG4 activity in living cells, which may be beneficial to basic and clinical research on autophagy. PMID:25831015

  13. Dependence for basic and instrumental activities of daily living after hip fractures.

    PubMed

    González-Zabaleta, Jorge; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Gonzalez-Zabaleta, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine basic activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and instrumental activities of daily living (Lawton-Brody Index) before and after hip fracture. Follow-up study of patients (n=100) with hip fracture, operated at Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de A Coruña (Spain). Period January/2009-December/2011. Demographic characteristic of the patients, Charlson Index, Glomerular filtration rate, Barthel index, Lawton index, type of proximal femur fracture and surgical treatment delay were recorded. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Before fracture were independent for activities of daily living (ADL) a 38.0%, at 90 days were 15.4%. The Barthel index score decreased from 75.2±28.2 to 56.5±31.8) (p<0.0001). If we consider the age, gender, comorbidity (Charlson index), renal function, fracture type and surgical delay objectify the only independent variable to predict dependency effect is age. If we also consider the Barthel score objectify the variable that significantly modifies that score at 90 days is the baseline value of the index. The prevalence of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) at the baseline moment is 11% and at 90 days is decreased to 2.2%. There is a decrease in the independence effect in all activities. The variable predictor of independence for all activities after taking into consideration age, sex, comorbidity, fracture type, surgical delay and renal function is the baseline score of the Barthel and Lawton index. PMID:25465506

  14. Effect of Cognitive Rehabilitation on Improving Cognitive Function and Activities of Daily Living among Elderly Patients with Stroke at Assiut University Hospital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abd-Elaziz, Saieda Abd-Elhameed; Khedr, Eman M.; Ahmed, Hanaa Abd Elhakiem; Ibrahim, Hoda Diab Fahmy

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a frequent consequence of stroke. The study aimed to measure the effect of cognitive rehabilitation of elderly patients with stroke on their cognitive function and activities of daily living. Quasi experimental research design were used in this study. This study was conducted at neuropsychiatric, physical medicine and…

  15. Perceived threat in childhood: a review of research and implications for children living in violent households.

    PubMed

    Miller, Laura E

    2015-04-01

    The current study is a review of existing literature on perceived threat across childhood (0-19 years). There is strong evidence from this body of research that threat detection emerges in infancy and is present throughout childhood, with meaningful links to child adjustment. The wide range of methodologies employed to assess threat include biological measures (event-related potential and functional magnetic resonance imaging), observational data (gaze duration and response time), and a range of ways of gathering cognitive data (threat appraisal). Across methodologies, a uniform finding is that children who have higher threat attenuation are at increased risk for the development of anxiety disorders. It also seems that children's attention to threatening stimuli may vary across development, with heightened attention in infancy and early childhood. These findings have meaningful extensions for children who are living in violent families. Since many children living in violent homes are exposed to the threat of violence beginning in infancy, these children may be at heightened risk as compared to their nonexposed peers for the development of maladaptive patterns of threat detection and response. There is some evidence that this long-standing pattern of vigilance toward threat in key developmental periods may in part explain the increased risk of the development of anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder following exposure to violence. PMID:24562723

  16. [Deep-sea research ground for the study of living matter properties in extreme conditions].

    PubMed

    Polikarpov, G G

    2011-01-01

    The Black Sea hollow bottom is a promising research ground in the field of deep-sea radiochemoecology and exobiology. It has turned out to be at the intersection of the earth and cosmic scientific interests such as deep-sea marine radiochemoecology from the perspective of the study of extreme biogeocenological properties of the Earth biosphere and exobiology from the standpoint of the study of life phenomena (living matter) outside the Earth biosphere, i.e. on other planets and during hypothetical transfer of spores in the outer space. The potential of this ground is substantiated with the data published by the author and co-workers on accumulation of 90Sr, 137Cs and Pu isotopes with silts of bathyal pelo-contour, on the quality of deep-sea hydrogen sulphide waters (after their contact with air) for vital functions of planktonic and benthic aerobes, as well as the species composition of marine, freshwater and terrestrial plants grown from the spores collected from the bottom sediments of the Black Sea bathyal. Discussion was based on V.I. Vernadsky's ideas about the living matter and biosphere, which allowed conclusions about the biospheric and outer space role of the described phenomena. PMID:22279770

  17. Draft Science Topics for ROSES 2017 NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Mark; Zesta, Eftyhia

    2016-05-01

    The NASA Living with a Star Targeted Research and Technology (LWS TR&T) steering committee would like to present a draft of the TR&T science topics being developed for ROSES 2017 to the science community for comment at this conference. These topics will be drafted before this conference at the May 2016 steering committee meeting, based on community input and LWS TR&T goals. The committee is seeking community comment on these draft topics before the topics are finalized at the committee's summer meeting and sent to NASA in the committee's 2016 report. The full text of these draft topics will be presented at this poster, and we aim to hold a town hall for community discussion of these topics during this conference. Please see http://lwstrt.gsfc.nasa.gov for more information on the TR&T program, the steering committee and the draft topics.This work was supported by the NASA Living with a Star program.

  18. Factors Associated with Past Research Participation Among Low-Income Persons Living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Kypriotakis, Georgios; Atkinson, John; Diamond, Pamela M.; Williams, Mark L.; Vidrine, Damon J.; Andrade, Roberto; Arduino, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We described influences on past research participation among low-income persons living with HIV (PLWH) and examined whether such influences differed by study type. We analyzed a convenience sample of individuals from a large, urban clinic specializing in treating low-income PLWH. Using a computer-assisted survey, we elicited perceptions of research and participating in research, barriers, benefits, “trigger” influences, and self-efficacy in participating in research. Of 193 participants, we excluded 14 who did not identify any type of study participation, and 17 who identified “other” as study type, resulting in 162 cases for analysis. We compared results among four groups (i.e., 6 comparisons): past medical participants (n=36, 22%), past behavioral participants (n=49, 30%), individuals with no past research participation (n=52, 32%), and persons who had participated in both medical and behavioral studies (n=25, 15%). Data were analyzed using chi-square tests for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. We employed a multinomial probit (MNP) model to examine the association of multiple factors with the outcome. Confidence in ability to keep appointments, and worry about being a ‘guinea pig’ showed statistical differences in bivariate analyses. The MNP regression analysis showed differences between and across all 6 comparison groups. Fewer differences were seen across groupings of medical participants, behavioral participants, and those with no past research experience, than in comparisons with the medical-behavioral group. In the MNP regression model ‘age’ and level of certainty regarding ‘keeping yourself from being a guinea pig’ showed significant differences between past medical participants and past behavioral participants. PMID:22686261

  19. Factors associated with past research participation among low-income persons living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Slomka, Jacquelyn; Kypriotakis, Georgios; Atkinson, John; Diamond, Pamela M; Williams, Mark L; Vidrine, Damon J; Andrade, Roberto; Arduino, Roberto

    2012-08-01

    We described influences on past research participation among low-income persons living with HIV (PLWH) and examined whether such influences differed by study type. We analyzed a convenience sample of individuals from a large, urban clinic specializing in treating low-income PLWH. Using a computer-assisted survey, we elicited perceptions of research and participating in research, barriers, benefits, "trigger" influences, and self-efficacy in participating in research. Of 193 participants, we excluded 14 who did not identify any type of study participation, and 17 who identified "other" as study type, resulting in 162 cases for analysis. We compared results among four groups (i.e., 6 comparisons): past medical participants (n=36, 22%), past behavioral participants (n=49, 30%), individuals with no past research participation (n=52, 32%), and persons who had participated in both medical and behavioral studies (n=25, 15%). Data were analyzed using chi-square tests for categorical variables and ANOVA for continuous variables. We employed a multinomial probit (MNP) model to examine the association of multiple factors with the outcome. Confidence in ability to keep appointments, and worry about being a 'guinea pig' showed statistical differences in bivariate analyses. The MNP regression analysis showed differences between and across all 6 comparison groups. Fewer differences were seen across groupings of medical participants, behavioral participants, and those with no past research experience, than in comparisons with the medical-behavioral group. In the MNP regression model 'age' and level of certainty regarding 'keeping yourself from being a guinea pig' showed significant differences between past medical participants and past behavioral participants. PMID:22686261

  20. Living With Ambiguity: A Metasynthesis of Qualitative Research on Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Gomersall, Tim; Astell, Arlene; Nygård, Louise; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Hwang, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a diagnosis proposed to describe an intermediate state between normal cognitive aging and dementia. MCI has been criticised for its conceptual fuzziness, its ambiguous relationship to dementia, and the tension it creates between medical and sociological understandings of “normal aging”. Design and Methods: We examined the published qualitative literature on experiences of being diagnosed and living with MCI using metasynthesis as the methodological framework. Results: Two overarching conceptual themes were developed. The first, MCI and myself-in-time, showed that a diagnosis of MCI could profoundly affect a person’s understanding of their place in the world. This impact appears to be mediated by multiple factors including a person’s social support networks, which daily activities are affected, and subjective interpretations of the meaning of MCI. The second theme, Living with Ambiguity, describes the difficulties people experienced in making sense of their diagnosis. Uncertainty arose, in part, from lack of clarity and consistency in the information received by people with MCI, including whether they are even told MCI is the diagnosis. Implications: We conclude by suggesting an ethical tension is always at play when a MCI diagnosis is made. Specifically, earlier support and services afforded by a diagnosis may come at the expense of a person’s anxiety about the future, with continued uncertainty about how his or her concerns and needs can be addressed. PMID:26315317

  1. Addressing Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: Priorities for Research and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Amy D.; Rodrigue, James R.; Purnell, Tanjala S.; Ladin, Keren; Boulware, L. Ebony

    2009-01-01

    One potential mechanism for reducing racial/ethnic disparities in the receipt of kidney transplants is to enhance minorities’ pursuit of living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Pursuit of LDKT is influenced by patients’ personal values, their extended social networks, the healthcare system, and the community at large. This review discusses research and interventions promoting LDKT, especially for minorities, including improving education for patients, donors, and providers, utilizing LDKT kidneys more efficiently, and reducing surgical and financial barriers to transplant. Future directions to increase awareness of LDKT for more racial/ethnic minorities are also discussed including developing culturally tailored transplant education, clarifying transplant-eligibility practice guidelines, strengthening partnerships between community kidney providers and transplant centers, and conducting general media campaigns and community outreach. PMID:20116653

  2. A FRET biosensor reveals spatiotemporal activation and functions of aurora kinase A in living cells.

    PubMed

    Bertolin, Giulia; Sizaire, Florian; Herbomel, Gaëtan; Reboutier, David; Prigent, Claude; Tramier, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of AURKA is a major hallmark of epithelial cancers. It encodes the multifunctional serine/threonine kinase aurora A, which is activated at metaphase and is required for cell cycle progression; assessing its activation in living cells is mandatory for next-generation drug design. We describe here a Förster's resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor detecting the conformational changes of aurora kinase A induced by its autophosphorylation on Thr288. The biosensor functionally replaces the endogenous kinase in cells and allows the activation of the kinase to be followed throughout the cell cycle. Inhibiting the catalytic activity of the kinase prevents the conformational changes of the biosensor. Using this approach, we discover that aurora kinase A activates during G1 to regulate the stability of microtubules in cooperation with TPX2 and CEP192. These results demonstrate that the aurora kinase A biosensor is a powerful tool to identify new regulatory pathways controlling aurora kinase A activation. PMID:27624869

  3. Chemoselective tarantula toxins report voltage activation of wild-type ion channels in live cells.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Drew C; Eum, Kenneth S; Fletcher-Taylor, Sebastian; Austin, Daniel C; Dupré, Christophe; Patrón, Lilian A; Garcia, Rita L; Lam, Kit; Yarov-Yarovoy, Vladimir; Cohen, Bruce E; Sack, Jon T

    2014-11-01

    Electrically excitable cells, such as neurons, exhibit tremendous diversity in their firing patterns, a consequence of the complex collection of ion channels present in any specific cell. Although numerous methods are capable of measuring cellular electrical signals, understanding which types of ion channels give rise to these signals remains a significant challenge. Here, we describe exogenous probes which use a novel mechanism to report activity of voltage-gated channels. We have synthesized chemoselective derivatives of the tarantula toxin guangxitoxin-1E (GxTX), an inhibitory cystine knot peptide that binds selectively to Kv2-type voltage gated potassium channels. We find that voltage activation of Kv2.1 channels triggers GxTX dissociation, and thus GxTX binding dynamically marks Kv2 activation. We identify GxTX residues that can be replaced by thiol- or alkyne-bearing amino acids, without disrupting toxin folding or activity, and chemoselectively ligate fluorophores or affinity probes to these sites. We find that GxTX-fluorophore conjugates colocalize with Kv2.1 clusters in live cells and are released from channels activated by voltage stimuli. Kv2.1 activation can be detected with concentrations of probe that have a trivial impact on cellular currents. Chemoselective GxTX mutants conjugated to dendrimeric beads likewise bind live cells expressing Kv2.1, and the beads are released by channel activation. These optical sensors of conformational change are prototype probes that can indicate when ion channels contribute to electrical signaling. PMID:25331865

  4. Eccentric Viewing Training in the Home Environment: Can It Improve the Performance of Activities of Daily Living?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukicevic, Meri; Fitzmaurice, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Macular degeneration has a severe impact on a person's ability to perform activities of daily living. This study investigated the impact of in-home training in eccentric viewing on near acuity and performance of activities of daily living. The results suggest that eccentric viewing can ameliorate the impact of the loss of vision that is due to…

  5. Reliability of Pedometer-Determined Free-Living Physical Activity Data in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Gwen M.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Burkett, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This study examined stability and reliability of free-living physical activity assessed by pedometer in 69 young female college students (M age = 18.7 years, SD = 1.2, range: 18-25 years; body mass index = 23.2 kg/m[superscript 2], SD = 0.6) for two complete weeks (Week 1 and Week 2) separated by 12 weeks. During Week 1, participants took an…

  6. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  7. Individual, social and environmental correlates of physical activity among women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie; Hume, Clare; Timperio, Anna; King, Abby C; Crawford, David

    2010-06-01

    Women living in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at heightened risk for physical inactivity, but little is known about the correlates of physical activity among this group. Using a social-ecological framework, this study aimed to determine the individual, social and neighbourhood environmental correlates of physical activity amongst women living in such neighbourhoods. During 2007-2008 women (n = 4108) aged 18-45 years randomly selected from urban and rural neighbourhoods of low socioeconomic status in Victoria, Australia completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long). They reported on individual (self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, outcome expectancies, skills), social (childcare, social support from family and friends/colleagues, dog ownership) and neighbourhood environmental (neighbourhood cohesion, aesthetics, personal safety, 'walking environment') factors. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the odds of increasing categories of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and transport-related physical activity (TRPA) for each individual, social and environmental factor. In partially adjusted analyses, all individual, social and environmental variables were positively associated with LTPA, while all individual factors, family and friend support and the walking environment were positively associated with TRPA. In fully adjusted multivariable models, all individual and social factors remained significantly associated with LTPA, while self-efficacy, enjoyment, intentions, social support, and neighbourhood 'walking environment' variables remained significantly associated with TRPA. In conclusion, individual and social factors were most important for LTPA, while individual, social and neighbourhood environmental factors were all associated with TRPA. Acknowledging the cross-sectional design, the findings highlight the importance of different levels of potential influence on physical activity in different domains

  8. Estimation of free-living energy expenditure using a novel activity monitor designed to minimize obtrusiveness.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, Alberto G; Plasqui, Guy; Goris, Annelies H C; Westerterp, Klass R

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a novel activity monitor designed to be minimally obtrusive in predicting free-living energy expenditure. Subjects were 18 men and 12 women (age: 41 +/- 11 years, BMI: 24.4 +/- 3 kg/m(2)). The habitual physical activity was monitored for 14 days using a DirectLife triaxial accelerometer for movement registration (Tracmor(D)) (Philips New Wellness Solutions, Lifestyle Incubator, the Netherlands). Tracmor(D) output was expressed as activity counts per day (Cnts/d). Simultaneously, total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured in free living conditions using doubly labeled water (DLW). Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and the physical activity level (PAL) were determined from TEE and sleeping metabolic rate (SMR). A multiple-linear regression model predicted 76% of the variance in TEE, using as independent variables SMR (partial-r(2) = 0.55, P < 0.001), and Cnts/d (partial r(2) = 0.21, P < 0.001). The s.e. of TEE estimates was 0.9 MJ/day or 7.4% of the average TEE. A model based on body mass (partial-r(2) = 0.31, P < 0.001) and Cnts/d (partial-r(2) = 0.23, P < 0.001) predicted 54% of the variance in TEE. Cnts/d were significantly and positively associated with AEE (r = 0.54, P < 0.01), PAL (r = 0.68, P < 0.001), and AEE corrected by body mass (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). This study showed that the Tracmor(D) is a highly accurate instrument for predicting free-living energy expenditure. The miniaturized design did not harm the ability of the instrument in measuring physical activity and in determining outcome parameters of physical activity such as TEE, AEE, and PAL. PMID:20186133

  9. Memory Performance, Health Literacy, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Community Residing Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Mackert, Michael; Becker, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Health literacy is associated with cognitive function across multiple domains in older adults, and these older adults may face special memory and cognitive challenges that can limit their health literacy and, in turn, their ability to live independently. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if an association existed among health literacy, memory performance, and performance-based functional ability in community-residing older adults. Methods Forty-five adults participated in this study. Designed to reflect everyday memory, the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) bridges laboratory-based measures of memory and assessments obtained by self-report and observation. The RBMT classifies individuals into four categories of memory performance: normal, poor, mildly impaired, and severely impaired. The participants were recruited in the two categories of normal (≥22) or impaired (≤16) category on the RBMT. The sample consisted of 14 who were in the impaired category and 31 in the normal group. Their average age was 77.11 years, and their average number of years of education was 15.33 years. Health literacy scores measured with the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine. Results Health literacy scores were high (M = 65.09, SD = 2.80). Thirty-four participants or 76% of the sample scored a 66 out of a possible score of 80. Pearson correlations were calculated for the study variables. Health literacy scores with education and cognition (.30), memory performance groups (normal vs. poor; .25), and performance-based instrumental activities (.50) were associated significantly. Discussion The development of a broader assortment of health literacy instruments would improve the ability of researchers to both compare studies and build on the knowledge and results of others. PMID:22166912

  10. Dynamic analysis of the upper limb during activities of daily living: comparison of methodologies.

    PubMed

    Masjedi, Milad; Duffell, Lynsey D

    2013-12-01

    Often researchers use kinematics and kinetics to evaluate the effect of limb pathology. The net forces and moments that cause motion depend on kinematics, body segment parameters and the external loads applied. This study aimed to evaluate the discrepancies caused by different methods and assumptions of kinetic analysis. Dynamic analysis was performed on 12 subjects with no known pathology while performing 12 activities of daily living. The recursive Newton-Euler method, along with two robotic models containing 7 and 14 degrees of freedom representing the upper limb, was used to calculate the net forces and moments across the shoulder. The data were calculated using different body segment parameter values from the literature and, in order to concentrate on the effects of kinematics only, these results were presented as both a percentage of the body weight and a novel technique using constant body segment parameter. The greatest net forces and moments on the glenohumeral joint were observed for lifting a 2-kg shopping bag task (forces: 60 ± 8 N and moments: 18 ± 2 N m) and the lowest was observed for drinking (forces: 40 ± 8 N and moments: 6 ± 1 N m). Overall, the results from different techniques (recursive Newton-Euler vs robotic 14 degrees of freedom) were similar, while the 7-DoF model showed less agreement. The use of different body segment parameter values resulted in a maximum increase of 25% in the glenohumeral moment. Following normalisation of the body segment parameter, dynamic parameters were found to have less variation. In order to focus on the effect of variation in movement in dynamic study, it is therefore necessary to normalise the body segment parameter. PMID:24006042

  11. Optimizing Populations of SAI Tactile Mechanoreceptors to Enable Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Rivest, Isabelle I; Gerling, Gregory J

    2011-07-11

    At present, the dense network of peripheral afferents between finger and brain and the large size of engineered sensors preclude the recreation of biologically observed afferent populations. This work uses a validated computational model of cutaneous skin and tactile afferents to evaluate sparse populations in performing tasks required in activities of daily living. Using a model (3D finite element representation of fingertip skin, linear bi-phasic transduction function, and leaky-integrate-and-fire neuronal model), we systematically varied populations of tactile receptors in dimensions of density (100, 45, 20, and 10 sensors/cm(2)) and size (diameter 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) to determine if a given modeled population can discriminate spheres and cylinders representative of objects used in activities of daily living. Using a scoring system which allows for direct comparisons between the populations, our results indicate that a population must have at least 20 sensors per cm(2) to maintain response resolution in these activities of daily living and that larger-sized sensors do not degrade response resolution. PMID:22582034

  12. Effect of activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Myoung-Ok; Jung, Bong-Keun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of the activities of daily living status on resuming driving after stroke. [Subjects] Thirty-one participants with stroke, who visited in Korean national rehabilitation centers, were included in this study. [Methods] The activities of daily living performance and the driving ability of the participants were assessed with the Korean-Modified Barthel Index in combination with the results obtained by using a driving simulator. [Results] Significant correlations were noted among the Korean-Modified Barthel Index, on-road driving total score, reaction time, speed anticipation tests, judgment tests, and steering wheel-pedal operation tests. Results of Stepwise multiple regression also revealed that the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation, with an R2 of 52.9%. In other words, as the Korean-Modified Barthel Index total score and speed anticipation score increased and the driving performance score also increased in patients who had suffered a stroke. [Conclusion] The activities of daily living status was positively correlated with the patients’ post stroke driving ability. PMID:26834346

  13. Neural correlates of reduced awareness in instrumental activities of daily living in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Amanzio, Martina; D'Agata, Federico; Palermo, Sara; Rubino, Elisa; Zucca, Milena; Galati, Antonello; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Castellano, Giancarlo; Rainero, Innocenzo

    2016-10-01

    A decline in instrumental activities of daily living has been described as the earliest functional deficit in patients with neurodegenerative disease. It embraces specific competencies such as: "recalling the date and telephone calls, orienting to new places, remembering the location of objects at home, understanding conversation and the plot of a movie, keeping belongings in order, doing mental calculations and handling money, remembering appointments and shopping lists and performing clerical work". Since changes in instrumental daily living activities are one of the descriptors of behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia, we decided to investigate the neural correlates of a reduced awareness in this specific domain in twenty-three consecutive behavioural-variant frontotemporal dementia patients. Gray matter volume changes associated with a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain, assessed using a validated caregiver-patient discrepancy questionnaire, were examined. Interestingly, we found disabilities in instrumental daily living activities and a reduced awareness of these to be related to medial prefrontal cortex atrophy, where the mid-cingulate cortices, dorsal anterior insula and cuneous play an important role. Importantly, if the executive system does not function correctly, the comparator mechanism of action self-monitoring does not detect mismatches between the current and previous performance states stored in the personal database, and produces a reduced awareness for the instrumental domain. PMID:27534380

  14. Optimizing Populations of SAI Tactile Mechanoreceptors to Enable Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Rivest, Isabelle I.; Gerling, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    At present, the dense network of peripheral afferents between finger and brain and the large size of engineered sensors preclude the recreation of biologically observed afferent populations. This work uses a validated computational model of cutaneous skin and tactile afferents to evaluate sparse populations in performing tasks required in activities of daily living. Using a model (3D finite element representation of fingertip skin, linear bi-phasic transduction function, and leaky-integrate-and-fire neuronal model), we systematically varied populations of tactile receptors in dimensions of density (100, 45, 20, and 10 sensors/cm2) and size (diameter 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mm) to determine if a given modeled population can discriminate spheres and cylinders representative of objects used in activities of daily living. Using a scoring system which allows for direct comparisons between the populations, our results indicate that a population must have at least 20 sensors per cm2 to maintain response resolution in these activities of daily living and that larger-sized sensors do not degrade response resolution. PMID:22582034

  15. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  16. Validation of a portable EMG device to assess muscle activity during free-living situations.

    PubMed

    Walters, T J; Kaschinske, K A; Strath, S J; Swartz, A M; Keenan, K G

    2013-10-01

    Portable amplifiers that record electromyograms (EMGs) for longer than four hours are commonly priced over $20,000 USD. This cost, and the technical challenges associated with recording EMGs during free-living situations, typically restrict EMG use to laboratory settings. A low-cost system (μEMG; OT Bioelecttronica, 100€), using specialized concentric bipolar electrodes, has been developed specifically for free-living situations. The purpose of this study was to validate the μEMG system by comparing EMGs from μEMG with a laboratory-based alternative (Telemyo 900; Noraxon USA, Inc.). Surface EMGs from biceps brachii (BB) and tibialis anterior (TA) of ten subjects were recorded simultaneously with both systems as subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs), submaximal contractions at 25%, 50%, and 75% MVC, seven simulated activities of daily living (ADLs), and >60min of simulated free-living inside the laboratory. In general, EMG parameters (e.g., average full-wave rectified EMG amplitude) derived from both systems were not significantly different for all outcome variables, except there were small differences across systems in baseline noise and absolute EMG amplitudes during MVCs. These results suggest that μEMG is a valid approach to the long-term recording of EMG. PMID:23830889

  17. African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives.

    PubMed

    Nies, M A; Vollman, M; Cook, T

    1999-02-01

    Sedentary behavior is a major public health problem for African American women. A qualitative study used focus groups to explore African American women's experiences with physical activity in their daily lives. Women aged 35-50 were recruited to participate in the focus groups. Transcripts from the focus groups were coded and analyzed. African American women's facilitators of physical activity were daily routine, practical and convenient activities, personal safety, child care, weight loss, stress reduction, knowledge and commitment, enjoyment, pets, family and peer support, home and work facilities, and daylight and climate conditions. Barriers to physical activity were lack of child care, no person to exercise with, competing responsibilities, lack of space in the home, inability to use exercise facilities at work, lack of motivation, fatigue, and unsafe neighborhood. This information will provide the basis for generating new strategies to increase physical activity for African American women in the community. PMID:10074819

  18. The Activity Chain Safety and Liveness Specification of Composite Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Huang, Xiaomei

    Web service composition is most impressing method for development and deployment of e-business. Description and modeling the behavior requirements of composite Web services for users and verifying composite Web service compliance to specific requirements is an important key in design of services. But most work does not address the issue of how to model the requirements that the BPEL4WS processes are supposed to satisfy. The specifications in verification works are general temporal relation based on activity or scenario in essence. Distinguish with these work, we propose a novel concept of behavior specification based on activity chain in which granularity is between activity and scenario. Chain existence mode, chain absence mode are designed to express such behavioral requirements based on activity chain that is similar with safety or liveness specification based on activity respectively. Encode them on Labeled Transition System LTS and then give them exact operation semantics. Finally, an example is illustrated.

  19. The role of entrepreneurial activities in academic pharmaceutical science research.

    PubMed

    Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2010-06-01

    Academic pharmaceutical science research is expanding further and further from the University setting to encompass the for-profit private company setting. This parallels the National Institutes of Health momentum to include multiple funding opportunities for University and private company collaboration. It has been recognized that the nonprofit and for-profit combination research model can accelerate the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, and therefore more efficiently improve human health. Entrepreneurial activities require unique considerations in the University environment, but can be modeled after the commercialization expansion of the academic healthcare enterprise. Challenges and barriers exist to starting a company as an entrepreneurial faculty member, but the rewards to one's personal and professional lives are incomparable. PMID:20017206

  20. The Role of Entrepreneurial Activities in Academic Pharmaceutical Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2010-01-01

    Academic pharmaceutical science research is expanding further and further from the University setting to encompass the for-profit private company setting. This parallels the National Institutes of Health momentum to include multiple funding opportunities for University and private company collaboration. It has been recognized that the non-profit and for-profit combination research model can accelerate the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, and therefore more efficiently improve human health. Entrepreneurial activities require unique considerations in the University environment, but can be modeled after the commercialization expansion of the academic healthcare enterprise. Challenges and barriers exist to starting a company as an entrepreneurial faculty member, but the rewards to one's personal and professional lives are incomparable. PMID:20017206

  1. Research Activities within NASA's Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Horta, Lucas G.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, smart technologies have become important enabling technologies that cut across traditional boundaries in science and engineering. Here smart is defined as the ability to respond to a stimulus in a predictable and reproducible manner. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart technologies to actual aircraft and spacecraft. The NASA Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff applications on aircraft and spacecraft. The program bridges research in several technical disciplines and combines the effort into applications that include active aerodynamic control, active aeroelastic control, and vehicle performance improvement. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft and spacecraft. This paper will discuss the overall goals of NASA's Morphing program, highlight some of the recent research efforts and discuss the multidisciplinary studies that support that research and some of the challenges associated with bringing the smart technologies to real applications on flight vehicles.

  2. Probabilistic learning from incomplete data for recognition of activities of daily living in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; McClean, Sally I; Scotney, Bryan W

    2012-05-01

    Learning behavioral patterns for activities of daily living in a smart home environment can be challenged by the limited number of training data that may be available. This may be due to the infrequent repetition of routine activities (e.g., once daily), the expense of using observers to label activities, and the intrusion that would be caused by the presence of observers over long time periods. It is important, therefore, to make as much use of any labeled data that are collected, however, incomplete these data may be. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for learning behavioral patterns for multi-inhabitants living in a single smart home environment, by making full use of all limited labeled activities, including incomplete data resulting from unreliable low-level sensors in this environment. Through maximum-likelihood estimation, using Expectation-Maximization, we build a model that captures both environmental uncertainties from sensor readings and user uncertainties, including variations in how individuals carry out activities. Our algorithm outperforms models that cannot handle data incompleteness, with increasing performance gains as incompleteness increases. The approach also enables the impact of particular sensors to be assessed and can thus inform sensor maintenance and deployment. PMID:22411044

  3. Living with HIV: Responses to a Mantram Intervention Using the Critical Incident Research Method

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Jill E.; Shively, Martha; Kelly, Ann; Becker, Sheryl; Bone, Patricia; Belding, Wendy; Gifford, Allen L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The objective of this study was to identify and describe ways that a spiritually based intervention of silently repeating a mantram—sacred word or phrase—was used as a coping strategy for managing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Design The design was a qualitative research method, the critical incident technique. Settings/location The study was conducted at an academically affiliated Veterans Affairs Hospital in southern California. Subjects The subjects were outpatient adults living with HIV (n=32) who were receiving care through HIV clinics, community agencies, and HIV providers. Interventions Subjects who participated in the intervention arm of a randomized controlled trial that tested the efficacy of a 5-weekly group mantram intervention were interviewed 2 months postintervention. Follow-up telephone interviews were specifically aimed at identifying instances of mantram use, and also participant perceptions of intervention usefulness or nonusefulness. Outcome measures The outcome measures comprised categorization and comparison of the types and frequency of incidents reported, describing ways that the intervention was “helpful” or “not helpful” in managing stressors of HIV disease. Results Participants reported a total of 185 incidents. Analysis and classification of the incidents resulted in eight mutually exclusive categories, including Increasing calm and/or peace, Mastering the technique, Changing my viewpoint, Increasing personal awareness, Adjusting behaviors, Managing physical symptoms, Increasing spirituality, and Enhancing relationships. Conclusions This study shows support for the benefits of the mantram intervention for adults with HIV. Additionally, the spiritually based mantram repetition intervention was found to be more helpful in providing a convenient, portable tool for managing a wide range of situations related to living with HIV disease. PMID:22268972

  4. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Praveen K; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  5. A novel live cell assay to measure diacylglycerol lipase α activity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Praveen K.; Markwick, Rachel; Howell, Fiona V.; Williams, Gareth; Doherty, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Diacylglycerol lipase α (DAGLα) hydrolyses DAG to generate the principal endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the central nervous system. DAGLα dependent cannabinoid (CB) signalling has been implicated in numerous processes including axonal growth and guidance, adult neurogenesis and retrograde signalling at the synapse. Recent studies have implicated DAGLα as an emerging drug target for several conditions including pain and obesity. Activity assays are critical to the drug discovery process; however, measurement of diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) activity using its native substrate generally involves low-throughput MS techniques. Some relatively high-throughput membrane based assays utilizing surrogate substrates have been reported, but these do not take into account the rate-limiting effects often associated with the ability of a drug to cross the cell membrane. In the present study, we report the development of a live cell assay to measure DAGLα activity. Two previously reported DAGLα surrogate substrates, p-nitrophenyl butyrate (PNPB) and 6,8-difluoro-4-methylumbelliferyl octanoate (DiFMUO), were evaluated for their ability to detect DAGLα activity in live cell assays using a human cell line stably expressing the human DAGLα transgene. Following optimization, the small molecule chromogenic substrate PNPB proved to be superior by providing lower background activity along with a larger signal window between transfected and parental cells when compared with the fluorogenic substrate DiFMUO. The assay was further validated using established DAGL inhibitors. In summary, the live cell DAGLα assay reported here offers an economical and convenient format to screen for novel inhibitors as part of drug discovery programmes and compliments previously reported high-throughput membrane based DAGL assays. PMID:27013337

  6. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  7. Recognition of Activities of Daily Living with Egocentric Vision: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi-Hoa-Cuc; Nebel, Jean-Christophe; Florez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Video-based recognition of activities of daily living (ADLs) is being used in ambient assisted living systems in order to support the independent living of older people. However, current systems based on cameras located in the environment present a number of problems, such as occlusions and a limited field of view. Recently, wearable cameras have begun to be exploited. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of egocentric vision systems for the recognition of ADLs following a hierarchical structure: motion, action and activity levels, where each level provides higher semantic information and involves a longer time frame. The current egocentric vision literature suggests that ADLs recognition is mainly driven by the objects present in the scene, especially those associated with specific tasks. However, although object-based approaches have proven popular, object recognition remains a challenge due to the intra-class variations found in unconstrained scenarios. As a consequence, the performance of current systems is far from satisfactory. PMID:26751452

  8. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (˜20 cells), medium (˜100 cells), and large (˜400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this.

  9. Size-dependent regulation of synchronized activity in living neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Kubota, Shigeru; Chida, Yudai; Morita, Mayu; Moriya, Satoshi; Akima, Hisanao; Sato, Shigeo; Hirano-Iwata, Ayumi; Tanii, Takashi; Niwano, Michio

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of network size on synchronized activity in living neuronal networks. Dissociated cortical neurons form synaptic connections in culture and generate synchronized spontaneous activity within 10 days in vitro. Using micropatterned surfaces to extrinsically control the size of neuronal networks, we show that synchronized activity can emerge in a network as small as 12 cells. Furthermore, a detailed comparison of small (∼20 cells), medium (∼100 cells), and large (∼400 cells) networks reveal that synchronized activity becomes destabilized in the small networks. A computational modeling of neural activity is then employed to explore the underlying mechanism responsible for the size effect. We find that the generation and maintenance of the synchronized activity can be minimally described by: (1) the stochastic firing of each neuron in the network, (2) enhancement in the network activity in a positive feedback loop of excitatory synapses, and (3) Ca-dependent suppression of bursting activity. The model further shows that the decrease in total synaptic input to a neuron that drives the positive feedback amplification of correlated activity is a key factor underlying the destabilization of synchrony in smaller networks. Spontaneous neural activity plays a critical role in cortical information processing, and our work constructively clarifies an aspect of the structural basis behind this. PMID:27575164

  10. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  11. Heuristic Programming of Educational - Research Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, Alexey

    HEURISTIC PROGRAMMING OF EDUCATIONAL - RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF THE STUDENTS OF ASTRONOMY AT PUBLIC ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES A.Stoev Yu. Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory Stara Zagora Bulgaria Seeking for optimal conditions of the students’ investigation skills development is exceptionally actual task in Astronomy school at Public astronomical observatory. The didactic plan of its solving is connected with a realization of the concept of the problematic approach in astronomical education. In addition different means of astronomical educative activity organization are used depending on the didactic task. In some cases they are algorithmic but in others - mainly heuristic. Educational - research skills are defined as skills of scientific method use in the conditions of seeking for educational problem solving the astronomical educational - research task. The influence of the system of heuristic programming didactic means on the process of teaching and the use of system of didactic means for out of the school education on astronomy aimed mainly to this activity rule are analyzed. In conclusion the process of optimization of the didactic conditions for students’ self-organization during the individual or collective completion of the educational - research astronomical tasks at the transition from secondary to high education.

  12. Ethical Issues in mHealth Research Involving Persons Living with HIV/AIDS and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Labrique, Alain B.; Kirk, Gregory D.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Merritt, Maria W.

    2013-01-01

    We aim to raise awareness and stimulate dialogue among investigators and research ethics committees regarding ethical issues that arise specifically in the design and conduct of mHealth research involving persons living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. Following a brief background discussion of mHealth research in general, we offer a case example to illustrate the characteristics of mHealth research involving people living with HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. With reference to a well-established systematic general ethical framework for biomedical research with human participants, we identify a range of ethical issues that have particular salience for the protection of participants in mHealth research on HIV/AIDS and substance abuse. PMID:24171110

  13. Assessment of glutamine synthetase activity by [13N]ammonia uptake in living rat brain.

    PubMed

    Momosaki, Sotaro; Ito, Miwa; Tonomura, Misato; Abe, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays an important role in glutamate neurotransmission or neurological disorder in the brain. [(13) N]Ammonia blood flow tracer has been reported to be metabolically trapped in the brain via the glutamate-glutamine pathway. The present study investigated the effect of an inhibitor of GS on [(13) N]ammonia uptake in order to clarify the feasibility of measuring GS activity in the living brain. l-Methionine sulfoximine (MSO), a selective GS inhibitor was microinjected into the ipsilateral striatum in rats. [(13) N]Ammonia uptake was quantified by autoradiography method as well as small animal positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The GS activity of the brain homogenate was assayed from the γ-glutamyl transferase reaction. Autoradiograms showed a decrease of [(13) N]ammonia radioactivity on the MSO-injected side compared with the saline-injected side of the striatum. This reduction could be detected with a small animal PET scanner. MSO had no effect on cerebral blood flow measured by uptake of [(15) O]H2 O. The reduction of [(13) N]ammonia uptake was closely related to the results of GS activity assay. These results indicated that [(13) N]ammonia may enable measurement of GS activity in the living brain. PMID:25196365

  14. High-Efficiency Capture of Drug Resistant-Influenza Virus by Live Imaging of Sialidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tamoto, Chihiro; Sahara, Keiji; Otsubo, Tadamune; Yokozawa, Tatsuya; Shibahara, Nona; Wada, Hirohisa; Minami, Akira; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses possess a neuraminidase protein that shows sialidase activity. Influenza virus-specific neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) are commonly used for clinical treatment of influenza. However, some influenza A and B viruses that are resistant to NAIs have emerged in nature. NAI-resistant viruses have been monitored in public hygiene surveys and the mechanism underlying the resistance has been studied. Here, we describe a new assay for selective detection and isolation of an NAI-resistant virus in a speedy and easy manner by live fluorescence imaging of viral sialidase activity, which we previously developed, in order to achieve high-efficiency capture of an NAI-resistant virus. An NAI-resistant virus maintains sialidase activity even at a concentration of NAI that leads to complete deactivation of the virus. Infected cells and focuses (infected cell populations) of an oseltamivir-resistant virus were selectively visualized by live fluorescence sialidase imaging in the presence of oseltamivir, resulting in high-efficiency isolation of the resistant viruses. The use of a combination of other NAIs (zanamivir, peramivir, and laninamivir) in the imaging showed that the oseltamivir-resistant virus isolated in 2008 was sensitive to zanamivir and laninamivir but resistant to peramivir. Fluorescence imaging in the presence of zanamivir also succeeded in selective live-cell visualization of cells that expressed zanamivir-resistant NA. Fluorescence imaging of NAI-resistant sialidase activity will be a powerful method for study of the NAI resistance mechanism, for public monitoring of NAI-resistant viruses, and for development of a new NAI that shows an effect on various NAI-resistant mutations. PMID:27232333

  15. The Australian Research Quality Framework: A Live Experiment in Capturing the Social, Economic, Environmental, and Cultural Returns of Publicly Funded Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Claire

    2008-01-01

    The author regards development of Australia's ill-fated Research Quality Framework (RQF) as a "live experiment" in determining the most appropriate approach to evaluating the extra-academic returns, or "impact," of a nation's publicly funded research. The RQF was at the forefront of an international movement toward richer qualitative,…

  16. A Feminine Care Clinical Research Program Transforms Women’s Lives

    PubMed Central

    Tzeghai, Ghebre E.; Ajayi, Funmilayo O.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Imbescheid, Frank; Sobel, Jack D.; Farage, Miranda A.

    2015-01-01

    Feminine hygiene products and menstruation education have transformed the lives of women throughout the world. The P&G Feminine Care Clinical Innovation Research Program has played a key role by expanding scientific knowledge as well as developing technical insights and tools for the development of feminine hygiene products. The aim has been to meet the needs of women throughout their life stages, advancing their urogenital health beyond just menstruation, as well as helping to understand the role of sex hormones in various important health issues that women face. This review article highlights key contributions and research findings in female hygiene products, urogenital health research, and method development. The clinical research team focused on utilizing the results of clinical safety studies to advance the acceptance of feminine hygiene products world-wide. Key findings include that perception of skin sensitivity is not limited to the facial area, but is also relevant to the body and the genital area. Also, they shed light on the role of estrogen in autoimmune diseases as well as premenstrual syndrome. Efforts in the method development area focused on innovative tools that are reliable, predictive of clinical trial results and capable of measuring wear comfort, genital skin health, and the impact of product use on the consumer’s quality of life. A novel method, behind-the-knee (BTK) test, developed to model irritation under normal wear conditions, was the first to account for both chemical and mechanical sources of irritation. The method has been accepted by the FDA as a substitute in clinical trials in some cases, and by American Society for Testing and Materials as a global standard test method. Additional proprietary methods were developed to enhance visual grading of irritation using cross-polarized light, to measure the amount of lotion transferred from sanitary pads, and to evaluate the skin mildness. Finally, the Farage Quality of Life tool was

  17. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition. PMID:27493966

  18. The Living Well By Faith Health and Wellness Program for African Americans: an Exemplar of Community-Based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Gaye; Levinson, Arnold H.; Jones, Grant; Kennedy, Ralph L.; Johnson, Lucille C.; Tran, Zung Vu; Gonzalez, Tondeleyo; Marcus, Alfred C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Using community-based participatory research (CBPR) as a guiding framework, a faith-based diet, nutrition and physical activity intervention for African Americans was implemented and evaluated as a small-scale randomized trial. Methods Five churches were recruited (intervention=3, control=2), resulting in an enrolled sample of 106 adults (intervention=74, control=32). The control group received a minimal intervention consisting of one educational workshop. The Living Well By Faith intervention group received a more intensive 8-week program. Classes were held twice a week and included educational workshops and exercise sessions. Both interventions were delivered at participating churches. Assessments for program evaluation occurred at baseline and 2-month follow-up. These included weight, blood pressure, percent body fat, and physical fitness using the step test. Results The sample was predominantly African American, female and well educated. At baseline, no significant differences between intervention and control groups were found for any of the primary endpoints. At 2-months follow up, the intervention group, compared to the control group, showed significant decreases in weight (P<.02), BMI (P<.05), and % body fat (P<.03), with a significant increase in physical fitness (P<.02). Systolic blood pressure also showed group differences in the predicted direction (P=.10). Conclusion This study provides an exemplar of CBPR. The results obtained are sufficiently promising to support more research involving similar interventions of longer duration and with longer-term follow-up for evaluation. PMID:23530305

  19. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  20. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  1. Wear Testing of Moderate Activities of Daily Living Using In Vivo Measured Knee Joint Loading

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Jörn; Sonntag, Robert; Vot, Leo; Gibney, Christian; Nowack, Moritz; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Resumption of daily living activities is a basic expectation for patients provided with total knee replacements. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the impact of different activities on the wear performance. In this study the wear performance under application of different daily activities has been analyzed. In vivo load data for walking, walking downstairs/upstairs, sitting down/standing up, and cycling (50 W & 120 W) has been standardized for wear testing. Wear testing of each activity was carried out on a knee wear simulator. Additionally, ISO walking was tested for reasons of comparison. Wear was assessed gravimetrically and wear particles were analyzed. In vivo walking produced the highest overall wear rates, which were determined to be three times higher than ISO walking. Moderate wear rates were determined for walking upstairs and downstairs. Low wear rates were determined for standing up/sitting down and cycling at power levels of 50 W and 120 W. The largest wear particles were observed for cycling. Walking based on in vivo data has been shown to be the most wear-relevant activity. Highly demanding activities (stair climbing) produced considerably less wear. Taking into account the expected number of loads, low-impact activities like cycling may have a greater impact on articular wear than highly demanding activities. PMID:25811996

  2. Influence of mental practice on upper limb muscle activity and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to determine the effects of mental practice on muscle activity of the upper extremity and performance of daily activities in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this research, mental practice was conducted by 2 chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. Mental practice was conducted 30 minutes a day, 5 times a week, for 2 weeks. Evaluation was conducted 4 times before and after intervention. Muscle activity was measured using a surface electromyogram test, and the Modified Barthel Index was used to measure changes in the ability to carry out daily activities. [Results] Both the muscle activity of the upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities showed improved outcomes after mental practice was conducted. [Conclusion] Through this research, mental practice was proven to be effective in improving the muscle activity of upper extremity and capability to perform daily activities in chronic hemiplegic stroke patients. PMID:27134412

  3. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  4. Identification and super-resolution imaging of ligand-activated receptor dimers in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winckler, Pascale; Lartigue, Lydia; Giannone, Gregory; de Giorgi, Francesca; Ichas, François; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2013-08-01

    Molecular interactions are key to many chemical and biological processes like protein function. In many signaling processes they occur in sub-cellular areas displaying nanoscale organizations and involving molecular assemblies. The nanometric dimensions and the dynamic nature of the interactions make their investigations complex in live cells. While super-resolution fluorescence microscopies offer live-cell molecular imaging with sub-wavelength resolutions, they lack specificity for distinguishing interacting molecule populations. Here we combine super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) to identify dimers of receptors induced by ligand binding and provide super-resolved images of their membrane distribution in live cells. By developing a two-color universal-Point-Accumulation-In-the-Nanoscale-Topography (uPAINT) method, dimers of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) activated by EGF are studied at ultra-high densities, revealing preferential cell-edge sub-localization. This methodology which is specifically devoted to the study of molecules in interaction, may find other applications in biological systems where understanding of molecular organization is crucial.

  5. Development and Psychometric Properties of the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Compensation Scale

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Lamb, Richard

    2014-01-01

    The Instrumental Activities of Daily Living – Compensation (IADL-C) scale was developed to capture early functional difficulties and to quantify compensatory strategy use that may mitigate functional decline in the aging population. The IADL-C was validated in a sample of cognitively healthy older adults (N=184) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N=92) and dementia (N=24). Factor analysis and Rasch item analysis led to the 27-item IADL-C informant questionnaire with four functional domain subscales (money and self-management, home daily living, travel and event memory, and social skills). The subscales demonstrated good internal consistency (Rasch reliability 0.80 to 0.93) and test-retest reliability (Spearman coefficients 0.70 to 0.91). The IADL-C total score and subscales showed convergent validity with other IADL measures, discriminant validity with psychosocial measures, and the ability to discriminate between diagnostic groups. The money and self management subscale showed notable difficulties for individuals with MCI, whereas difficulties with home daily living became more prominent for dementia participants. Compensatory strategy use increased in the MCI group and decreased in the dementia group. PMID:25344901

  6. Characterization of Activities of Daily Living in Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Byerly, Laura K.; Vanderhill, Susan; Lambe, Susan; Wong, Sarah; Ozonoff, Al; Karlawish, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) differ from cognitively normal (NC) older adults on traditional and novel informant-based measures of activities of daily living (ADL) and to identify cognitive correlates of ADLs among participants with MCI. Design Cross-sectional. Setting University medical setting. Participants Seventy-seven participants (NC: N = 39; MCI: N = 38), 60 to 90 years old (73.5 ± 6.6 years; 53% female). Measurements Neuropsychological and ADL measures. Methods Neuropsychological tests were administered to NC and MCI participants. Informants completed the Lawton and Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and Physical Self-Maintenance Scale, including instrumental (IADL) and basic ADL (BADL) scales, as well as the Functional Capacities for Activities of Daily Living (FC-ADL), an error-based ADL measure. Results No statistically or clinically significant between-group differences emerged for the BADL or IADL subscales. However, a robust difference was noted for the FC-ADL scale (MCI errors > NC errors; F(1,75) = 13.6, p <0.001; d = 0.84). Among MCI participants, correlations revealed that a measure of verbal learning was the only neuropsychological correlate of FC-ADL total score (r =-0.39, df = 36, p = 0.007). No neuropsychological measures were significantly associated with the IADL or BADL subscale score. Conclusion Traditional measures assessing global ADLs may not be sensitive to early functional changes related to MCI; however, error-based measures may capture the subtle evolving functional decline associated with MCI. Among MCI participants, early functional difficulties are associated with verbal learning performance, possibly secondary to the hallmark cognitive impairment associated with this cohort. PMID:18332397

  7. Opposite-polarity motors activate one another to trigger cargo transport in live cells.

    PubMed

    Ally, Shabeen; Larson, Adam G; Barlan, Kari; Rice, Sarah E; Gelfand, Vladimir I

    2009-12-28

    Intracellular transport is typically bidirectional, consisting of a series of back and forth movements. Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein require each other for bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules; i.e., inhibition or depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes dynein-driven cargo transport and vice versa. Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate that replacement of endogenous kinesin-1 or dynein with an unrelated, peroxisome-targeted motor of the same directionality activates peroxisome transport in the opposite direction. However, motility-deficient versions of motors, which retain the ability to bind microtubules and hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate, do not activate peroxisome motility. Thus, any pair of opposite-polarity motors, provided they move along microtubules, can activate one another. These results demonstrate that mechanical interactions between opposite-polarity motors are necessary and sufficient for bidirectional organelle transport in live cells. PMID:20038680

  8. Opposite-polarity motors activate one another to trigger cargo transport in live cells

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Shabeen; Larson, Adam G.; Barlan, Kari; Rice, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Intracellular transport is typically bidirectional, consisting of a series of back and forth movements. Kinesin-1 and cytoplasmic dynein require each other for bidirectional transport of intracellular cargo along microtubules; i.e., inhibition or depletion of kinesin-1 abolishes dynein-driven cargo transport and vice versa. Using Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, we demonstrate that replacement of endogenous kinesin-1 or dynein with an unrelated, peroxisome-targeted motor of the same directionality activates peroxisome transport in the opposite direction. However, motility-deficient versions of motors, which retain the ability to bind microtubules and hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate, do not activate peroxisome motility. Thus, any pair of opposite-polarity motors, provided they move along microtubules, can activate one another. These results demonstrate that mechanical interactions between opposite-polarity motors are necessary and sufficient for bidirectional organelle transport in live cells. PMID:20038680

  9. Predicting long-lived, neutron-induced activation of concrete in a cyclotron vault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, L. R.

    2001-07-01

    Many elements in concrete can become activated by neutrons in a cyclotron vault, but only a few of the activation products are long-lived. The most prominent of these are Eu-152, Eu-154, Co-60, and Cs-134 which build up over time from (n, γ) reactions in trace amounts of stable Europium, Cobalt, and Cesium that are normally present in concrete in concentrations of a few parts per million, or less, by weight. A retrospective analysis of data taken in connection with a previous decommissioning of a cyclotron vault, coupled with independent published data, gives us an estimate of the concentrations of these elements in concrete. With that estimate as a benchmark, we then employ a Monte Carlo Radiation Transport Code to estimate the long-term activation profile in concrete for arbitrary irradiation conditions.

  10. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ambikairajah, Eliathamby; Celler, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions. PMID:23710171

  11. Personalizing energy expenditure estimation using physiological signals normalization during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Altini, Marco; Penders, Julien; Vullers, Ruud; Amft, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    In this paper we propose a generic approach to reduce inter-individual variability of different physiological signals (HR, GSR and respiration) by automatically estimating normalization parameters (e.g. baseline and range). The proposed normalization procedure does not require a dedicated personal calibration during system setup. On the other hand, normalization parameters are estimated at system runtime from sedentary and low intensity activities of daily living (ADLs), such as lying and walking. When combined with activity-specific energy expenditure (EE) models, our normalization procedure improved EE estimation by 15 to 33% in a study group of 18 participants, compared to state of the art activity-specific EE models combining accelerometer and non-normalized physiological signals. PMID:25120177

  12. Development of an open technology sensor suite for assisted living: a student-led research project

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Josephine A. E.; Bonner, Oliver; Amjad, Omar A.; Levdik, Vitaly; Hall, Richard D.; Baekelandt, Géraldine; Hutter, Tanya; Kaminski, Clemens F.

    2016-01-01

    Many countries have a rapidly ageing population, placing strain on health services and creating a growing market for assistive technology for older people. We have, through a student-led, 12-week project for 10 students from a variety of science and engineering backgrounds, developed an integrated sensor system to enable older people, or those at risk, to live independently in their own homes for longer, while providing reassurance for their family and carers. We provide details on the design procedure and performance of our sensor system and the management and execution of a short-term, student-led research project. Detailed information on the design and use of our devices, including a door sensor, power monitor, fall detector, general in-house sensor unit and easy-to-use location-aware communications device, is given, with our open designs being contrasted with closed proprietary systems. A case study is presented for the use of our devices in a real-world context, along with a comparison with commercially available systems. We discuss how the system could lead to improvements in the quality of life of older users and increase the effectiveness of their associated care network. We reflect on how recent developments in open source technology and rapid prototyping increase the scope and potential for the development of powerful sensor systems and, finally, conclude with a student perspective on this team effort and highlight learning outcomes, arguing that open technologies will revolutionize the way in which technology will be deployed in academic research in the future. PMID:27499844

  13. Development of an open technology sensor suite for assisted living: a student-led research project.

    PubMed

    Manton, James D; Hughes, Josephine A E; Bonner, Oliver; Amjad, Omar A; Mair, Philip; Miele, Isabella; Wang, Tiesheng; Levdik, Vitaly; Hall, Richard D; Baekelandt, Géraldine; Vasconcellos, Fernando da Cruz; Hadeler, Oliver; Hutter, Tanya; Kaminski, Clemens F

    2016-08-01

    Many countries have a rapidly ageing population, placing strain on health services and creating a growing market for assistive technology for older people. We have, through a student-led, 12-week project for 10 students from a variety of science and engineering backgrounds, developed an integrated sensor system to enable older people, or those at risk, to live independently in their own homes for longer, while providing reassurance for their family and carers. We provide details on the design procedure and performance of our sensor system and the management and execution of a short-term, student-led research project. Detailed information on the design and use of our devices, including a door sensor, power monitor, fall detector, general in-house sensor unit and easy-to-use location-aware communications device, is given, with our open designs being contrasted with closed proprietary systems. A case study is presented for the use of our devices in a real-world context, along with a comparison with commercially available systems. We discuss how the system could lead to improvements in the quality of life of older users and increase the effectiveness of their associated care network. We reflect on how recent developments in open source technology and rapid prototyping increase the scope and potential for the development of powerful sensor systems and, finally, conclude with a student perspective on this team effort and highlight learning outcomes, arguing that open technologies will revolutionize the way in which technology will be deployed in academic research in the future. PMID:27499844

  14. Inertial measurements of free-living activities: assessing mobility to predict falls.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kejia; Lovell, Nigel H; Del Rosario, Michael B; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jingjing; Narayanan, Michael R; Brodie, Matthew A D; Delbaere, Kim; Menant, Jasmine; Lord, Stephen R; Redmond, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    An exploratory analysis was conducted into how simple features, from acceleration at the lower back and ankle during simulated free-living walking, stair ascent and descent, correlate with age, the overall fall risk from a clinically validated Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA), and its sub-components. Inertial data were captured from 92 older adults aged 78-95 (42 female, mean age 84.1, standard deviation 3.9 years). The dominant frequency, peak width from Welch's power spectral density estimate, and signal variance along each axis, from each sensor location and for each activity were calculated. Several correlations were found between these features and the physiological risk factors. The strongest correlations were from the dominant frequency at the ankle along the mediolateral direction during stair ascent (Spearman's correlation coefficient p = - 0.45) with anterioposterior sway, and signal variance of the anterioposterior acceleration at the lower back during stair descent (p = - 0.45) with age. These findings should aid future attempts to classify activities and predict falls in older adults, based on true free-living data from a range of activities. PMID:25571580

  15. Human and Drosophila Cryptochromes Are Light Activated by Flavin Photoreduction in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Nathalie; Schleicher, Erik; Kacprzak, Sylwia; Bouly, Jean-Pierre; Picot, Marie; Wu, William; Berndt, Albrecht; Wolf, Eva; Bittl, Robert; Ahmad, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Cryptochromes are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants, animals, and humans that control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. In plant cryptochromes, light activation is proposed to result from photoreduction of a protein-bound flavin chromophore through intramolecular electron transfer. However, although similar in structure to plant cryptochromes, the light-response mechanism of animal cryptochromes remains entirely unknown. To complicate matters further, there is currently a debate on whether mammalian cryptochromes respond to light at all or are instead activated by non–light-dependent mechanisms. To resolve these questions, we have expressed both human and Drosophila cryptochrome proteins to high levels in living Sf21 insect cells using a baculovirus-derived expression system. Intact cells are irradiated with blue light, and the resulting cryptochrome photoconversion is monitored by fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. We demonstrate that light induces a change in the redox state of flavin bound to the receptor in both human and Drosophila cryptochromes. Photoreduction from oxidized flavin and subsequent accumulation of a semiquinone intermediate signaling state occurs by a conserved mechanism that has been previously identified for plant cryptochromes. These results provide the first evidence of how animal-type cryptochromes are activated by light in living cells. Furthermore, human cryptochrome is also shown to undergo this light response. Therefore, human cryptochromes in exposed peripheral and/or visual tissues may have novel light-sensing roles that remain to be elucidated. PMID:18597555

  16. The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research

    PubMed Central

    Dosmann, Michael; Groover, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Living botanical collections include germplasm repositories, long-term experimental plantings, and botanical gardens. We present here a series of vignettes to illustrate the central role that living collections have played in plant biology research, including evo-devo research. Looking toward the future, living collections will become increasingly important in support of future evo-devo research. The driving force behind this trend is nucleic acid sequencing technologies, which are rapidly becoming more powerful and cost-effective, and which can be applied to virtually any species. This allows for more extensive sampling, including non-model organisms with unique biological features and plants from diverse phylogenetic positions. Importantly, a major challenge for sequencing-based evo-devo research is to identify, access, and propagate appropriate plant materials. We use a vignette of the ongoing 1,000 Transcriptomes project as an example of the challenges faced by such projects. We conclude by identifying some of the pinch points likely to be encountered by future evo-devo researchers, and how living collections can help address them. PMID:22737158

  17. Evaluation of a Smartphone-based Human Activity Recognition System in a Daily Living Environment.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; Tundo, Marco D; Baddour, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    An evaluation method that includes continuous activities in a daily-living environment was developed for Wearable Mobility Monitoring Systems (WMMS) that attempt to recognize user activities. Participants performed a pre-determined set of daily living actions within a continuous test circuit that included mobility activities (walking, standing, sitting, lying, ascending/descending stairs), daily living tasks (combing hair, brushing teeth, preparing food, eating, washing dishes), and subtle environment changes (opening doors, using an elevator, walking on inclines, traversing staircase landings, walking outdoors). To evaluate WMMS performance on this circuit, fifteen able-bodied participants completed the tasks while wearing a smartphone at their right front pelvis. The WMMS application used smartphone accelerometer and gyroscope signals to classify activity states. A gold standard comparison data set was created by video-recording each trial and manually logging activity onset times. Gold standard and WMMS data were analyzed offline. Three classification sets were calculated for each circuit: (i) mobility or immobility, ii) sit, stand, lie, or walking, and (iii) sit, stand, lie, walking, climbing stairs, or small standing movement. Sensitivities, specificities, and F-Scores for activity categorization and changes-of-state were calculated. The mobile versus immobile classification set had a sensitivity of 86.30% ± 7.2% and specificity of 98.96% ± 0.6%, while the second prediction set had a sensitivity of 88.35% ± 7.80% and specificity of 98.51% ± 0.62%. For the third classification set, sensitivity was 84.92% ± 6.38% and specificity was 98.17 ± 0.62. F1 scores for the first, second and third classification sets were 86.17 ± 6.3, 80.19 ± 6.36, and 78.42 ± 5.96, respectively. This demonstrates that WMMS performance depends on the evaluation protocol in addition to the algorithms. The demonstrated protocol can be used and tailored for evaluating human activity

  18. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  19. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  20. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  1. Minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery: A grounded theory on living with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.; Bergman, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a substantive theory, based on interviews with women with fibromyalgia, explaining how they manage their main concerns in daily life. The study has an inductive approach in line with classic grounded theory (Glaser, 1992). Twenty-three women living in the southwest region of Sweden were interviewed in-depth about their daily living with fibromyalgia and problems related to this. Probing and follow-up questions were asked by the interviewers when relevant. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analysed in line with guidelines for grounded theory. The results showed that the main concern for women with fibromyalgia was to reach a balance in daily life. This concern was resolved by them using different strategies aimed at minimizing the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery (core category). This imbalance includes that the women are forcing themselves to live a fast-paced life and thereby tax or exceed their physical and psychological abilities and limits. Generally, the fibromyalgia symptoms vary and are most often unpredictable to the women. Pain and fatigue are the most prominent symptoms. However, pain-free periods occur, often related to intense engagement in some activity, relaxation or joy, but mainly the “pain gaps” are unpredictable. To reach a balance in daily life and manage the dysfunctional interplay between activity and recovery the women use several strategies. They are avoiding unnecessary stress, utilizing good days, paying the price for allowing oneself too much activity, planning activities in advance, distracting oneself from the pain, engaging in alleviating physical activities, and ignoring pain sensations. Distracting from the pain seems to be an especially helpful strategy as it may lead to “pain gaps”. This strategy, meaning to divert attention from the pain, is possible to learn, or improve, in health promoting courses based on principles of cognitive

  2. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  3. Web site for St. Jude Children's is lively with media, volunteer info. 'Danny Thomas' hospital' helps children with research.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    The Web site for St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tenn., is lively with volunteer and fundraising information. The importance of media coverage is recognized in a section which provides a generous selection of radio, TV and print material. PMID:11467199

  4. Adventure-Based Programming and Social Skill Development in the Lives of Diverse Youth: Perspectives from Two Research Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirilla, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Social skill development is emerging as an important issue for educators and practitioners in their work with adolescent youth. This presentation will use the results from two ongoing research projects to examine the relationship between adventure-based programming and social skill development in the lives of diverse youth. The first project is…

  5. Decipher the dynamic coordination between enzymatic activity and structural modulation at focal adhesions in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaoying; Seong, Jihye; Wang, Yi; Chang, Shiou-Chi; Eichorst, John Paul; Ouyang, Mingxing; Li, Julie Y.-S.; Chien, Shu; Wang, Yingxiao

    2014-07-01

    Focal adhesions (FAs) are dynamic subcellular structures crucial for cell adhesion, migration and differentiation. It remains an enigma how enzymatic activities in these local complexes regulate their structural remodeling in live cells. Utilizing biosensors based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed a correlative FRET imaging microscopy (CFIM) approach to quantitatively analyze the subcellular coordination between the enzymatic Src activation and the structural FA disassembly. CFIM reveals that the Src kinase activity only within the microdomain of lipid rafts at the plasma membrane is coupled with FA dynamics. FA disassembly at cell periphery was linearly dependent on this raft-localized Src activity, although cells displayed heterogeneous levels of response to stimulation. Within lipid rafts, the time delay between Src activation and FA disassembly was 1.2 min in cells seeded on low fibronectin concentration ([FN]) and 4.3 min in cells on high [FN]. CFIM further showed that the level of Src-FA coupling, as well as the time delay, was regulated by cell-matrix interactions, as a tight enzyme-structure coupling occurred in FA populations mediated by integrin αvβ3, but not in those by integrin α5β1. Therefore, different FA subpopulations have distinctive regulation mechanisms between their local kinase activity and structural FA dynamics.

  6. Real-time visualization of heterotrimeric G protein Gq activation in living cells

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gq is a heterotrimeric G protein that plays an important role in numerous physiological processes. To delineate the molecular mechanisms and kinetics of signalling through this protein, its activation should be measurable in single living cells. Recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors have been developed for this purpose. Results In this paper, we describe the development of an improved FRET-based Gq activity sensor that consists of a yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-tagged Gγ2 subunit and a Gαq subunit with an inserted monomeric Turquoise (mTurquoise), the best cyan fluorescent protein variant currently available. This sensor enabled us to determine, for the first time, the kon (2/s) of Gq activation. In addition, we found that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor p63RhoGEF has a profound effect on the number of Gq proteins that become active upon stimulation of endogenous histamine H1 receptors. The sensor was also used to measure ligand-independent activation of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) upon addition of a hypotonic stimulus. Conclusions Our observations reveal that the application of a truncated mTurquoise as donor and a YFP-tagged Gγ2 as acceptor in FRET-based Gq activity sensors substantially improves their dynamic range. This optimization enables the real-time single cell quantification of Gq signalling dynamics, the influence of accessory proteins and allows future drug screening applications by virtue of its sensitivity. PMID:21619590

  7. Active living and biking: tracing the evolution of a biking system in Arlington, Virginia.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Royce; Young, Garry

    2008-06-01

    In Arlington, Virginia, a steady evolutionary change in biking policy during the last three decades has yielded some of the nation's best biking assets. It has a comprehensive, well-connected, highly integrated, well-mapped, and well-signed system of shared-use paved trails, bike lanes, bike routes, and other biking assets, such as workplace showers. Understanding the conditions that led to Arlington's current biking system can provide lessons in the strategy and tactics of active-living politics. One potentially effective political strategy that was successful in Arlington is for activists to pressure elected officials to select professional managers who see bike-ways as crucial to the overall transportation system. Then it is important to formalize the government-citizen relationship through an advisory panel. Also, in Arlington, the incremental creation of biking assets helped create demand for more and better facilities. In turn, this created political support for expanding and upgrading. Finally, Arlington used potentially negative circumstances (e.g., the building of highway corridors, the introduction of the Metro) as opportunities to change the built environment in ways that have encouraged more active living. PMID:18469167

  8. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  9. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations.

    PubMed

    Jansen, J; De Napoli, I E; Fedecostante, M; Schophuizen, C M S; Chevtchik, N V; Wilmer, M J; van Asbeck, A H; Croes, H J; Pertijs, J C; Wetzels, J F M; Hilbrands, L B; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Stamatialis, D; Masereeuw, R

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing 'living membranes' for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP(+)) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP(+) uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a 'living membrane' of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  10. Bioluminescence imaging to track real-time armadillo promoter activity in live Drosophila embryos.

    PubMed

    Akiyoshi, Ryutaro; Kaneuch, Taro; Aigaki, Toshiro; Suzuki, Hirobumi

    2014-09-01

    We established a method for bioluminescence imaging (BLI) to track real-time gene expression in live Drosophila embryos. We constructed a transgenesis vector containing multiple cloning sites and enhanced green-emitting luciferase (ELuc; Emerald Luc), a brighter and pH-insensitive luciferase for promoter analysis. To evaluate the utility of BLI using an ELuc reporter together with an optimized microscope system, we visualized the expression pattern of armadillo (arm), a member of the Wnt pathway in Drosophila, throughout embryogenesis. We generated transgenic flies carrying the arm:: ELuc fusion gene, and successfully performed BLI continuously for 22 h in the same embryos. Our study showed, for the first time, that arm::Eluc expression was dramatically increased in the anterior midgut rudiment, myoblasts of the dorsal/lateral musculature, and the posterior spiracle after stage 13, and the cephalic region at stage 17. To further demonstrate the application of our BLI system, we revealed that arm transcriptional activity in embryos was modulated inversely by treatment with ionomycin or 6-bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO), an inhibitor and activator of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, respectively. Therefore, our microscopic BLI system is useful for monitoring gene expression in live Drosophila embryos, and for investigating regulatory mechanisms by using chemicals and mutations that might affect expression. PMID:25023969

  11. Environmental Stressors: The Mental Health Impacts of Living Near Industrial Activity*

    PubMed Central

    DOWNEY, LIAM; VAN WILLIGEN, MARIEKE

    2011-01-01

    A growing literature examines whether the poor, the working class, and people of color are disproportionately likely to live in environmentally hazardous neighborhoods. This literature assumes that environmental characteristics such as industrial pollution and hazardous waste are detrimental to human health, an assumption that has not been well tested. Drawing upon the sociology of mental health and environmental inequality studies, we ask whether industrial activity has an impact on psychological well-being. We link individual-level survey data with data from the U.S. Census and the Toxic Release Inventory and find that residential proximity to industrial activity has a negative impact on mental health. This impact is both direct and mediated by individuals’ perceptions of neighborhood disorder and personal powerlessness, and the impact is greater for minorities and the poor than it is for whites and wealthier individuals. These results suggest that public health officials need to take seriously the mental health impacts of living near industrial facilities. PMID:16259150

  12. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells cultured on hollow fibers: living membranes that actively transport organic cations

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; De Napoli, I. E; Fedecostante, M.; Schophuizen, C. M. S.; Chevtchik, N. V.; Wilmer, M. J.; van Asbeck, A. H.; Croes, H. J.; Pertijs, J. C.; Wetzels, J. F. M.; Hilbrands, L. B.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Stamatialis, D.; Masereeuw, R.

    2015-01-01

    The bioartificial kidney (BAK) aims at improving dialysis by developing ‘living membranes’ for cells-aided removal of uremic metabolites. Here, unique human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cell (ciPTEC) monolayers were cultured on biofunctionalized MicroPES (polyethersulfone) hollow fiber membranes (HFM) and functionally tested using microfluidics. Tight monolayer formation was demonstrated by abundant zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) protein expression along the tight junctions of matured ciPTEC on HFM. A clear barrier function of the monolayer was confirmed by limited diffusion of FITC-inulin. The activity of the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) in ciPTEC was evaluated in real-time using a perfusion system by confocal microscopy using 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium iodide (ASP+) as a fluorescent substrate. Initial ASP+ uptake was inhibited by a cationic uremic metabolites mixture and by the histamine H2-receptor antagonist, cimetidine. In conclusion, a ‘living membrane’ of renal epithelial cells on MicroPES HFM with demonstrated active organic cation transport was successfully established as a first step in BAK engineering. PMID:26567716

  13. Real-time detecting gelatinases activity in living cells by FRET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Liu, Bifeng; Luo, Qingming

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) not only enhances tumor invasion, but also affects tumor cell behaviour and leads to cancer progression. To monitor gelatinases (contain MMP2 and MMP9) activity in living cells, we constructed a vector that encoded a gelatinases recognition site (GRS) between citrine (mutation of EYFP Q69M) in N terminal and ECFP in C terminal. Because Gelatinases are secretory proteins and act outside of cell, an expressing vector displayed the fusion protein on cellular surface was used for this FRET gene probe. On expression of YFP-GRS-ECFP in MCF-7 cells that expressed no gelatinases, we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited ECFP to YFP within the YFP-GRS-ECFP molecule. However, the fusion protein YFP-GRS-ECFP was expressed in MDA-MB 453s cell line with high secretory gelatinases, so YFP-GRS-ECFP was cleaved by gelatinases, no such transfer of energy was detected and fluorescence signal disappeared in YFP channel since YFP protein was cut down. Moreover, Doxycycline, a MMP inhibitor, could make FRET signal increase and fluorescence signal appeared in YFP channel. Thus, the FRET probe YFP-GRS-ECFP can sensitively and reliably monitor gelatinases activation in living cells and can be used for screening MMP inhibitors.

  14. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  15. A portable low-cost long-term live-cell imaging platform for biomedical research and education.

    PubMed

    Walzik, Maria P; Vollmar, Verena; Lachnit, Theresa; Dietz, Helmut; Haug, Susanne; Bachmann, Holger; Fath, Moritz; Aschenbrenner, Daniel; Abolpour Mofrad, Sepideh; Friedrich, Oliver; Gilbert, Daniel F

    2015-02-15

    Time-resolved visualization and analysis of slow dynamic processes in living cells has revolutionized many aspects of in vitro cellular studies. However, existing technology applied to time-resolved live-cell microscopy is often immobile, costly and requires a high level of skill to use and maintain. These factors limit its utility to field research and educational purposes. The recent availability of rapid prototyping technology makes it possible to quickly and easily engineer purpose-built alternatives to conventional research infrastructure which are low-cost and user-friendly. In this paper we describe the prototype of a fully automated low-cost, portable live-cell imaging system for time-resolved label-free visualization of dynamic processes in living cells. The device is light-weight (3.6 kg), small (22 × 22 × 22 cm) and extremely low-cost (<€1250). We demonstrate its potential for biomedical use by long-term imaging of recombinant HEK293 cells at varying culture conditions and validate its ability to generate time-resolved data of high quality allowing for analysis of time-dependent processes in living cells. While this work focuses on long-term imaging of mammalian cells, the presented technology could also be adapted for use with other biological specimen and provides a general example of rapidly prototyped low-cost biosensor technology for application in life sciences and education. PMID:25441413

  16. Fluorogenic Substrates for In Situ Monitoring of Caspase-3 Activity in Live Cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Ana M; Soria-Gila, M Lourdes; Marsden, Emma R; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Bradley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The in situ detection of caspase-3 activity has applications in the imaging and monitoring of multiple pathologies, notably cancer. A series of cell penetrating FRET-based fluorogenic substrates were designed and synthesised for the detection of caspase-3 in live cells. A variety of modifications of the classical caspase-3 and caspase-7 substrate sequence Asp-Glu-Val-Asp were carried out in order to increase caspase-3 affinity and eliminate caspase-7 cross-reactivity. To allow cellular uptake and good solubility, the substrates were conjugated to a cationic peptoid. The most selective fluorogenic substrate 27, FAM-Ahx-Asp-Leu-Pro-Asp-Lys(MR)-Ahx, conjugated to the cell penetrating peptoid at the C-terminus, was able to detect and quantify caspase-3 activity in apoptotic cells without cross-reactivity by caspase-7. PMID:27168077

  17. Behavioral Intention to Use a Virtual Instrumental Activities of Daily Living System Among People With Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behavioral intention to use (BIU) regarding a virtual system for practicing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among people with stroke. METHOD. Fourteen people who had sustained a stroke used a virtual world–based system over four sessions to participate in virtual occupations of preparing meals and putting away groceries. To investigate intention to use the technology, participants responded to a questionnaire based on the Technology Acceptance Model and were interviewed about the experience. RESULTS. Analysis of questionnaire responses revealed favorable attitudes toward the technology and statistically significant correlations between these attitudes and positive BIU. Analysis of qualitative data revealed four themes to support system use: Use of the affected arm increased, the virtual practice was enjoyable, the technology was user-friendly, and the system reflected real-life activities. CONCLUSION. This study shows that participants reported a positive BIU for the virtual system for practicing IADLs. PMID:25871604

  18. Vision based assistive technology for people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As'ari, M. A.; Sheikh, U. U.

    2012-04-01

    The rapid development of intelligent assistive technology for replacing a human caregiver in assisting people with dementia performing activities of daily living (ADLs) promises in the reduction of care cost especially in training and hiring human caregiver. The main problem however, is the various kinds of sensing agents used in such system and is dependent on the intent (types of ADLs) and environment where the activity is performed. In this paper on overview of the potential of computer vision based sensing agent in assistive system and how it can be generalized and be invariant to various kind of ADLs and environment. We find that there exists a gap from the existing vision based human action recognition method in designing such system due to cognitive and physical impairment of people with dementia.

  19. Small-molecule FRET probes for protein kinase activity monitoring in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vaasa, Angela; Lust, Marje; Terrin, Anna; Uri, Asko; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2010-07-09

    In this study, the applicability of fluorescently labeled adenosine analogue-oligoarginine conjugates (ARC-Photo probes) for monitoring of protein kinase A (PKA) activity in living cells was demonstrated. ARC-Photo probes possessing subnanomolar affinity towards the catalytic subunit of PKA (PKAc) and competitive with the regulatory subunit (PKAr), penetrate cell plasma membrane and associate with PKAc fused with yellow fluorescent protein (PKAc-YFP). Detection of inter-molecular Foerster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency between the fluorophores of the fusion protein and ARC-Photo probe can be used for both the evaluation of non-labeled inhibitors of PKAc and for monitoring of cAMP signaling via detection of changes in the activity of PKA as a cAMP downstream effector.

  20. Fluorogenic Substrates for In Situ Monitoring of Caspase-3 Activity in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-López, Ana M.; Soria-Gila, M. Lourdes; Marsden, Emma R.; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Bradley, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The in situ detection of caspase-3 activity has applications in the imaging and monitoring of multiple pathologies, notably cancer. A series of cell penetrating FRET-based fluorogenic substrates were designed and synthesised for the detection of caspase-3 in live cells. A variety of modifications of the classical caspase-3 and caspase-7 substrate sequence Asp-Glu-Val-Asp were carried out in order to increase caspase-3 affinity and eliminate caspase-7 cross-reactivity. To allow cellular uptake and good solubility, the substrates were conjugated to a cationic peptoid. The most selective fluorogenic substrate 27, FAM-Ahx-Asp-Leu-Pro-Asp-Lys(MR)-Ahx, conjugated to the cell penetrating peptoid at the C-terminus, was able to detect and quantify caspase-3 activity in apoptotic cells without cross-reactivity by caspase-7. PMID:27168077

  1. Relationship of Having Hobbies and a Purpose in Life With Mortality, Activities of Daily Living, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Among Community-Dwelling Elderly Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background This study’s aim was to clarify the relationship of having hobbies and a purpose in life (PIL; in Japanese, ikigai) with mortality and a decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) among the community-dwelling elderly. Methods Prospective observational data from residents aged ≥65 years who were at increased risk for death (n = 1853) and developing a decline in ADL (n = 1254) and IADL (n = 1162) were analyzed. Cox proportional hazard models were used for mortality analysis of data from February 2011 to November 2014. ADL and IADL were evaluated using the Barthel Index and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence, respectively. ADL and IADL were assessed at baseline and follow-up and were evaluated using logistic regression models. Fully adjusted models included terms for age, gender, BMI, income, alcohol intake, smoking history, number of chronic diseases, cognitive function, and depression. Results During the follow-up of eligible participants, 248 had died, 119 saw a decline in ADL, and 178 saw a decline in IADL. In fully adjusted models, having neither hobbies nor PIL was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47–2.94), decline in ADL (odds ratio 2.74; 95% CI, 1.44–5.21), and decline in IADL (odds ratio 1.89; 95% CI, 1.01–3.55) compared to having both hobbies and PIL. Conclusions Although effect modifications by cognitive functioning and depression cannot be ruled out, our findings suggest that having hobbies and PIL may extend not only longevity, but also healthy life expectancy among community-dwelling older adults. PMID:26947954

  2. Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Living With a Star is a NASA initiative employing the combination of dedicated spacecraft with targeted research and modeling efforts to improve what we know of solar effects of all kinds on the Earth and its surrounding space environment, with particular emphasis on those that have significant practical impacts on life and society. The highest priority among these concerns is the subject of this report: the potential effects of solar variability on regional and global climate, including the extent to which solar variability has contributed to the well-documented warming of the Earth in the last 100 years. Understanding how the climate system reacts to external forcing from the Sun will also greatly improve our knowledge of how climate will respond to other climate drivers, including those of anthropogenic origin. A parallel element of the LWS program addresses solar effects on space weather : the impulsive emissions of charged particles, short-wave electromagnetic radiation and magnetic disturbances in the upper atmosphere and near-Earth environment that also affect life and society. These include a wide variety of solar impacts on aeronautics, astronautics, electric power transmission, and national defense. Specific examples are (1) the impacts of potentially- damaging high energy radiation and atomic particles of solar origin on satellites and satellite operations, spacecraft electronics systems and components, electronic communications, electric power distribution grids, navigational and GPS systems, and high altitude aircraft; and (2) the threat of sporadic, high-energy solar radiation to astronauts and high altitude aircraft passengers and crews. Elements of the LWS program include an array of dedicated spacecraft in near- Earth and near-Sun orbits that will closely study and observe both the Sun itself and the impacts of its variations on the Earth's radiation belts and magnetosphere, the upper atmosphere, and ionosphere. These spacecraft, positioned to

  3. A Functionalized Sphingolipid Analogue for Studying Redistribution during Activation in Living T Cells.

    PubMed

    Collenburg, Lena; Walter, Tim; Burgert, Anne; Müller, Nora; Seibel, Jürgen; Japtok, Lukasz; Kleuser, Burkhard; Sauer, Markus; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2016-05-01

    Sphingolipids are major components of the plasma membrane. In particular, ceramide serves as an essential building hub for complex sphingolipids, but also as an organizer of membrane domains segregating receptors and signalosomes. Sphingomyelin breakdown as a result of sphingomyelinase activation after ligation of a variety of receptors is the predominant source of ceramides released at the plasma membrane. This especially applies to T lymphocytes where formation of ceramide-enriched membrane microdomains modulates TCR signaling. Because ceramide release and redistribution occur very rapidly in response to receptor ligation, novel tools to further study these processes in living T cells are urgently needed. To meet this demand, we synthesized nontoxic, azido-functionalized ceramides allowing for bio-orthogonal click-reactions to fluorescently label incorporated ceramides, and thus investigate formation of ceramide-enriched domains. Azido-functionalized C6-ceramides were incorporated into and localized within plasma membrane microdomains and proximal vesicles in T cells. They segregated into clusters after TCR, and especially CD28 ligation, indicating efficient sorting into plasma membrane domains associated with T cell activation; this was abolished upon sphingomyelinase inhibition. Importantly, T cell activation was not abrogated upon incorporation of the compound, which was efficiently excluded from the immune synapse center as has previously been seen in Ab-based studies using fixed cells. Therefore, the functionalized ceramides are novel, highly potent tools to study the subcellular redistribution of ceramides in the course of T cell activation. Moreover, they will certainly also be generally applicable to studies addressing rapid stimulation-mediated ceramide release in living cells. PMID:27036914

  4. Using Citizen Scientists to Gather, Analyze, and Disseminate Information About Neighborhood Features That Affect Active Living.

    PubMed

    Winter, Sandra J; Goldman Rosas, Lisa; Padilla Romero, Priscilla; Sheats, Jylana L; Buman, Matthew P; Baker, Cathleen; King, Abby C

    2016-10-01

    Many Latinos are insufficiently active, partly due to neighborhoods with little environmental support for physical activity. Multi-level approaches are needed to create health-promoting neighborhoods in disadvantaged communities. Participant "citizen scientists" were adolescent (n = 10, mean age = 12.8 ± 0.6 years) and older adult (n = 10, mean age = 71.3 ± 6.5 years), low income Latinos in North Fair Oaks, California. Citizen scientists conducted environmental assessments to document perceived barriers to active living using the Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool, which records GPS-tracked walking routes, photographs, audio narratives, and survey responses. Using a community-engaged approach, citizen scientists subsequently attended a community meeting to engage in advocacy training, review assessment data, prioritize issues to address and brainstorm potential solutions and partners. Citizen scientists each conducted a neighborhood environmental assessment and recorded 366 photographs and audio narratives. Adolescents (n = 4), older adults (n = 7) and community members (n = 4) collectively identified reducing trash and improving personal safety and sidewalk quality as the priority issues to address. Three adolescent and four older adult citizen scientists volunteered to present study findings to key stakeholders. This study demonstrated that with minimal training, low-income, Latino adolescent and older adult citizen scientists can: (1) use innovative technology to gather information about features of their neighborhood environment that influence active living, (2) analyze their information and identify potential solutions, and (3) engage with stakeholders to advocate for the development of healthier neighborhoods. PMID:26184398

  5. Prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function using diffusion tensor tractography in acute hemiparetic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Yuki; Inagawa, Tetsuji; Imada, Naoki; Izumi, Hiroaki; Emoto, Katsuya; Tani, Itaru; Yamasaki, Hiroyuki; Ota, Yuichiro; Oki, Shuichi; Maeda, Tadanori; Araki, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The efficacy of diffusion tensor imaging in the prediction of motor outcomes and activities of daily living function remains unclear. We evaluated the most appropriate diffusion tensor parameters and methodology to determine whether the region of interest- or tractography-based method was more useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Diffusion tensor imaging data within 10 days after stroke onset were collected and analyzed for 25 patients. The corticospinal tract was analyzed. Fractional anisotropy, number of fibers, and apparent diffusion coefficient were used as diffusion tensor parameters. Motor outcomes and activities of daily living function were evaluated on the same day as diffusion tensor imaging and at 1 month post-onset. [Results] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract significantly correlated with the motor outcome and activities of daily living function within 10 days post-onset and at 1 month post-onset. Tthere were no significant correlations between other diffusion tensor parameters and motor outcomes or activities of daily living function. [Conclusion] The fractional anisotropy value of the affected corticospinal tract obtained using the tractography-based method was useful for predicting motor outcomes and activities of daily living function in stroke patients. PMID:26157225

  6. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  7. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  8. Evaluating and Increasing In-Home Leisure Activity among Adults with Severe Disabilities in Supported Independent Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Philip G.; Reid, Dennis H.; Green, Carolyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Observations were conducted of the in-home leisure activity of three adults with severe disabilities in three supported independent living (SIL) sites. Results indicated a lack of leisure engagement. Potentially preferred, typical leisure activities were then identified by consulting lists of common leisure activities, surveying adults in…

  9. Doing Well: A SEM Analysis of the Relationships between Various Activities of Daily Living and Geriatric Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katt, James A.; Speranza, Linda; Shore, Wendy; Saenz, Karen H.; Witta, E. Lea

    2009-01-01

    An existing large data set, the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) with the subsequent addition of the Consumption and Activities Mail Survey (CAMS) data, provides a rich data set for the examination of the activities of older adults. In this study HRS and CAMS data are used to examine relationships between various activities of daily living (ADLs)…

  10. Development of an instrument for measuring activities of daily living in persons with suspected cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Maria M; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Background According to the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare, structured assessment of function and activity has high priority when evaluating suspected cognitive impairment or dementia. Aim/objectives The aim was to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure the ability to perform activities of daily living tasks in patients with suspected cognitive impairment. Material and methods The Cognitive Impairment in Daily Life (CID) instrument (for self-reported and informant-based assessments) has been developed in several phases. Content validity was achieved through five expert panels using a Content Validity Index (CVI). The content was tested further in a pilot study of 49 patients and 49 relatives from primary care or a specialist memory clinic. Results Content validity was good with a CVI index of 0.83. All patients considered that the included activities were relevant to them and reflected the difficulties they were experiencing. Most relatives considered the activities included in the instrument as adequate and captured the patients' difficulties in daily life. Some adjustments of the tasks and scale were suggested and these were implicated after each phase. In general, relatives reported that patients had more difficulties performing the activities than the patients reported themselves. Conclusion The CID instrument seems promising in terms of content validity. Further testing of reliability and construct validity is ongoing. PMID:26853384

  11. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  12. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice.

    PubMed

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  13. Measurement of Separase Proteolytic Activity in Single Living Cells by a Fluorogenic Flow Cytometry Assay

    PubMed Central

    Haaß, Wiltrud; Kleiner, Helga; Müller, Martin C.; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Fabarius, Alice; Seifarth, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110)-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110) as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90–180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic activity in leukemic

  14. Novel Bioluminescent Activatable Reporter for Src Tyrosine Kinase Activity in Living Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Weibing; Li, Dezhi; Chen, Liang; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Chen, Baoqin; Gong, Qiyong; Gao, Fabao; Bi, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the Src kinase is implicated in the development of a variety of human malignancies. However, it is almost impossible to monitor Src activity in an in vivo setting with current biochemical techniques. To facilitate the noninvasive investigation of the activity of Src kinase both in vitro and in vivo, we developed a genetically engineered, activatable bioluminescent reporter using split-luciferase complementation. The bioluminescence of this reporter can be used as a surrogate for Src activity in real time. This hybrid luciferase reporter was constructed by sandwiching a Src-dependent conformationally responsive unit (SH2 domain-Srcpep) between the split luciferase fragments. The complementation bioluminescence of this reporter was dependent on the Src activity status. In our study, Src kinase activity in cultured cells and tumor xenografts was monitored quantitatively and dynamically in response to clinical small-molecular kinase inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib. This system was also applied for high-throughput screening of Src inhibitors against a kinase inhibitor library in living cells. These results provide unique insights into drug development and pharmacokinetics/phoarmocodynamics of therapeutic drugs targeting Src signaling pathway enabling the optimization of drug administration schedules for maximum benefit. Using both Firefly and Renilla luciferase imaging, we have successfully monitored Src tyrosine kinase activity and Akt serine/threonine kinase activity concurrently in one tumor xenograft. This dual luciferase reporter imaging system will be helpful in exploring the complex signaling networks in vivo. The strategies reported here can also be extended to study and image other important kinases and the cross-talks among them. PMID:26941850

  15. Improving the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB among people living with HIV: the role of operational research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Operational research is necessary to improve the access to and delivery of tuberculosis prevention, diagnosis and treatment interventions for people living with HIV. We conducted an extensive review of the literature and reports from recent expert consultations and research-related meetings organized by the World Health Organization and the Stop TB Partnership to identify a TB/HIV operational research agenda. We present critical operational research questions in a series of key areas: optimizing TB prevention by enhancing the uptake of isoniazid preventive therapy and the implementation of infection control measures; assessing the effectiveness of existing diagnostic tools and scaling up new technologies; improving service delivery models; and reducing risk factors for mortality among TB patients living with HIV. We discuss the potential impact that addressing the operational research questions may have on improving programmes’ performance, assessing new strategies or interventions for TB control, or informing global or national policy formulation. Financial resources to implement these operational research questions should be mobilized from existing and new funding mechanisms. National TB and HIV/AIDS programmes should develop their operational research agendas based on these questions, and conduct the research that they consider crucial for improving TB and HIV control in their settings in collaboration with research stakeholders. PMID:21967874

  16. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  17. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Smart materials and structures based on electromechanically active polymers (EAPs) represent a fast growing and stimulating field of research and development. EAPs are materials capable of changing dimensions and/or shape in response to suitable electrical stimuli. They are commonly classified in two major families: ionic EAPs (activated by an electrically induced transport of ions and/or solvent) and electronic EAPs (activated by electrostatic forces). These polymers show interesting properties, such as sizable active strains and/or stresses in response to electrical driving, high mechanical flexibility, low density, structural simplicity, ease of processing and scalability, no acoustic noise and, in most cases, low costs. Since many of these characteristics can also describe natural muscle tissues from an engineering standpoint, it is not surprising that EAP transducers are sometimes also referred to as 'muscle-like smart materials' or 'artificial muscles'. They are used not only to generate motion, but also to sense or harvest energy from it. In particular, EAP electromechanical transducers are studied for applications that can benefit from their 'biomimetic' characteristics, with possible usages from the micro- to the macro-scale, spanning several disciplines, such as mechatronics, robotics, automation, biotechnology and biomedical engineering, haptics, fluidics, optics and acoustics. Currently, the EAP field is just undergoing its initial transition from academic research into commercialization, with companies starting to invest in this technology and the first products appearing on the market. This focus issue is intentionally aimed at gathering contributions from the most influential European groups working in the EAP field. In fact, today Europe hosts the broadest EAP community worldwide. The rapid expansion of the EAP field in Europe, where it historically has strong roots, has stimulated the creation of the 'European Scientific Network for Artificial

  18. Lessons from a Mixed-Methods Approach to Evaluating Active Living by Design

    PubMed Central

    Brownson, Ross C.; Brennan, Laura K.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leviton, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Beginning in 2003, Active Living by Design (ALbD) established innovative approaches across 25 communities to increase physical activity through community design, public policies, programming, and communication strategies. Purpose The complexity of the ALbD projects called for a mixed-methods evaluation to understand implementation as well as perceived and actual impacts of these efforts. Methods Six primary evaluation methods addressed three primary aims: (1) to assess impacts of physical projects and policy changes on community environments; (2) to document intervention strategies implemented, as well as intended and unintended consequences; and (3) to identify strengths and challenges in planning, developing, and implementing interventions. The ALbD evaluation included cross-site comparisons and more in-depth case studies. This article describes the methods used to address the three aims. Results Analysis of the strengths and challenges associated with the different methods, including partnership capacity surveys, Concept Mapping, an online Progress Reporting System (PRS), key informant interviews, focus groups, and photos and videos. Additional methods, including environmental audits and direct observation, were explored to specifically assess environmental changes. Several important challenges included the lack of baseline data, difficulty in evaluating natural experiments, the need for ongoing policy surveillance, and the need to capture longer-term endpoints. Conclusions The mixed-methods evaluation of ALbD advances implementation and evaluation science related to community-based efforts for promoting active living through identification of methods and measures to capture multicomponent and complex interventions as well as translation of a range of approaches to create community change across a variety of populations and settings. PMID:23079259

  19. Disabilities and Activities of Daily Living Among Veterans With Old Hip Disarticulation and Transpelvic Amputation

    PubMed Central

    Kachooei, Amir Reza; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohamad Hosein; Hallaj Moghadam, Mohamad; Fattahi, Asieh-sadat; Razi, Shiva; Salehi, Maryam; Azema, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Iran-Iraq imposed war lasted eight years and was one of the longest wars of the last century. Twenty-three years have passed since the war ended, but little has been discussed about the long-term results of war amputations in the literature. Objectives: In this long-term study, we have evaluated the activities of daily living among veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on Iran-Iraq war veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations in Iran. Eighty-four (96.5%) veterans out of 87 registered veterans with hip or hemipelvis amputations participated in the study. The degree of independence for activities of daily living (ADL) was assessed by the Barthel index. The degree of independence for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was assessed by the Lawton-Brody scale. Results: The average follow-up time was 26.6 ± 3.7 years. The average age of veterans was 44.1±7 years old. Of 84 amputees, 57 (67.85%) had limitations in at least one domain of the ADL. The most common single item that affected the patients was ascending and descending stairs seen in 45 (78.9%) veterans, followed by eating seen in 4 (7.01%) veterans. In addition, 70 (83.33%) had limitations in at least one domain of the IADL. The most common single item that affected the veterans was shopping seen in 56 (80%), followed by responsibility for own medications seen in 13 (18.57%) veterans. Spearman correlation coefficient of the sum scores of ADL and IADL showed an intermediate to strong correlation (r = 0.58). Conclusions: Increasing dependency in ADL is accompanied by increasing dependency in IADL. In the past, the duty of health care providers was saving the life of veterans due to injuries while at present, because these injuries occurred in young and healthy individuals, the need for increased function is being highlighted. PMID:25032170

  20. The 'Technology - Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire': a version with a technology-related subscale

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; López, Oscar L.; Riveros, Rodrigo; Nuñez-Huasaf, Javier; Flores, Patricia; Slachevsky, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background Information and communication technology (ICT) has become an increasingly important part of daily life. The ability to use technology is becoming essential for autonomous functioning in society. Current functional scales for patients with cognitive impairment do not evaluate the use of technology. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new version of the Activities of Daily Living Questionnaire (ADLQ) that incorporates an ICT subscale. Method A new technology-based subscale was incorporated into the Spanish Version of the ADLQ (SV-ADLQ), entitled The Technology Version of the ADLQ (T-ADLQ). The T-ADLQ was administered to 63 caregivers of dementia patients, 21 proxies of mild cognitive impairment patients and 44 proxies of normal elderly subjects (mean age of the sample ± SD: 73.5 ± 8.30). We analysed the convergent validity, internal consistency, reliability cut-off point, sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ. The results of the T-ADLQ were compared to the SV-ADLQ. Results The T-ADLQ showed significant correlations with the Mini-mental Test (MMSE), the Frontal Assesment Battery (FAB) as well as other measures of functional impairment and dementia severity (MMSE: r = −0.70; FAB: r = −0.65; Functional Assessment Questionnaire: r = 0.77; Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale: r = −0.75; Clinical Dementia Rating Scale: r = 0.72; p<0.001). The T-ADLQ showed a good reliability with a relatively high Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.861). When considering a functional impairment cut-off point greater than 29.25%, the sensitivity and specificity of the T-ADLQ were 82% and 90%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.937 for the T-ADLQ and 0.932 for the original version of the test. Conclusions The T-ADLQ revealed adequate indicators of validity and reliability for the functional assessment of activities of daily living in dementia patients. However, the inclusion of technology items in

  1. ACTIVE LONGITUDES REVEALED BY LARGE-SCALE AND LONG-LIVED CORONAL STREAMERS

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jing

    2011-07-10

    We use time-series ultraviolet full sun images to construct limb-synoptic maps of the Sun. On these maps, large-scale, long-lived coronal streamers appear as repetitive sinusoid-like arcs projected over the polar regions. They are caused by high altitude plasma produced from sunspot-rich regions at latitudes generally far from the poles. The non-uniform longitudinal distribution of these streamers reveals four longitudinal zones at the surface of the Sun from which sunspots erupt preferentially over the 5 year observing interval (2006 January to 2011 April). Spots in these zones (or clusters) have individual lifetimes short compared to the lifetimes of the coronal features which they sustain, and they erupt at different times. The four sunspot clusters contain >75% of all numbered sunspots in this period. They occupy two distinct longitudinal zones separated by {approx}180{sup 0} and each spanning {approx}100{sup 0} in longitude. The rotation rates of the spot clusters are {approx}5% faster than the rates at both the surface and the bottom of the convection zone. While no convincing theoretical framework exists to interpret the sunspot clusters in the longitude-time space, their persistent and nonuniform distribution indicates long-lived, azimuthal structures beneath the surface, and are compatible with the existence of previously reported active longitudes on the Sun.

  2. Assessment of executive dysfunction during activities of daily living in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Semkovska, Maria; Bédard, Marc-André; Godbout, Lucie; Limoge, Frédérique; Stip, Emmanuel

    2004-08-01

    Many neuropsychological studies have described deficits of memory and executive functions in patients with schizophrenia, and the severity of these deficits seems to be determinant in predicting the community outcome of these patients [Schizophr. Bull. 26 (2000) 119]. However, neuropsychological evaluation does not provide valuable information about how the cognitive deficits directly affect daily living, that is, which cognitive deficit affects which behavior. The present study aimed at determining whether executive dysfunction in schizophrenia could be directly measured by analyzing three activities of daily living (ADL), in addition to assessing the ecological validity of commonly used neuropsychological tests. Within specific ADL (choosing a menu, shopping the ingredients, cooking a meal), the sequences of behaviors that have been performed by 27 control subjects and 27 patients with schizophrenia were both analyzed by using a preset optimal sequence of behavior. When compared with control subjects, patients with schizophrenia showed more omissions when choosing the menu, more sequencing and repetitions errors during the shopping task, and more planning, sequencing, repetition and omission errors during the cooking task. These behavioral errors correlated significantly with negative, but not with positive symptoms of the patients. Furthermore, they also correlated with the poor performances on executive neuropsychological tests, especially those sensitive to shifting and sequencing abilities, but not with memory tests. These results suggest that executive deficits in schizophrenia may specifically affect ADL and that such deficits can be quantitatively assessed with a behavioral scale of action sequences. PMID:15469200

  3. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions–a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY505/515, and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  4. The coelacanth: Can a “living fossil” have active transposable elements in its genome?

    PubMed Central

    Naville, Magali; Chalopin, Domitille; Casane, Didier; Laurenti, Patrick; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    The coelacanth has long been regarded as a “living fossil,” with extant specimens looking very similar to fossils dating back to the Cretaceous period. The hypothesis of a slowly or even not evolving genome has been proposed to account for this apparent morphological stasis. While this assumption seems to be sustained by different evolutionary analyses on protein-coding genes, recent studies on transposable elements have provided more conflicting results. Indeed, the coelacanth genome contains many transposable elements and has been shaped by several major bursts of transposition during evolution. In addition, comparison of orthologous genomic regions from the genomes of the 2 extant coelacanth species L. chalumnae and L. menadoensis revealed multiple species-specific insertions, indicating transposable element recent activity and contribution to post-speciation genome divergence. These observations, which do not support the genome stasis hypothesis, challenge either the impact of transposable elements on organismal evolution or the status of the coelacanth as a “living fossil.” Closer inspection of fossil and molecular data indicate that, even if coelacanths might evolve more slowly than some other lineages due to demographic and/or ecological factors, this variation is still in the range of a “non-fossil” vertebrate species. PMID:26442185

  5. Efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich Euglena gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Takeuchi, Takuto; Kazama, Yusuke; Mitra, Sharbanee; Abe, Tomoko; Goda, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Iwata, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Euglena gracilis, a microalgal species of unicellular flagellate protists, has attracted much attention in both the industrial and academic sectors due to recent advances in the mass cultivation of E. gracilis that have enabled the cost-effective production of nutritional food and cosmetic commodities. In addition, it is known to produce paramylon (β-1,3-glucan in a crystalline form) as reserve polysaccharide and convert it to wax ester in hypoxic and anaerobic conditions-a promising feedstock for biodiesel and aviation biofuel. However, there remain a number of technical challenges to be solved before it can be deployed in the competitive fuel market. Here we present a method for efficient selective breeding of live oil-rich E. gracilis with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specifically, the selective breeding method is a repetitive procedure for one-week heterotrophic cultivation, staining intracellular lipids with BODIPY(505/515), and FACS-based isolation of top 0.5% lipid-rich E. gracilis cells with high viability, after inducing mutation with Fe-ion irradiation to the wild type (WT). Consequently, we acquire a live, stable, lipid-rich E. gracilis mutant strain, named B1ZFeL, with 40% more lipid content on average than the WT. Our method paves the way for rapid, cost-effective, energy-efficient production of biofuel. PMID:27212384

  6. Diversity and methane oxidation of active epibiotic methanotrophs on live Shinkaia crosnieri

    PubMed Central

    Watsuji, Tomo-o; Yamamoto, Asami; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Ueda, Kenji; Kawagucci, Shinsuke; Takai, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Shinkaia crosnieri is a galatheid crab that predominantly dwells in deep-sea hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. In this study, the phylogenetic diversity of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic microbial community on the setae of S. crosnieri was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a functional gene (pmoA) encoding a subunit of particulate methane monooxygenase. Phylogenetic analysis of pmoA transcript sequences revealed that the active epibiotic methanotrophs on S. crosnieri setae consisted of gammaproteobacterial type Ia and Ib methanotrophs. The effect of different RNA stabilization procedures on the abundance of pmoA and 16S rRNA transcripts in the epibiotic community was estimated by quantitative RT-PCR. Our novel RNA fixation method performed immediately after sampling effectively preserved cellular RNA assemblages, particularly labile mRNA populations, including pmoA mRNA. Methane consumption in live S. crosnieri was also estimated by continuous-flow incubation under atmospheric and in situ hydrostatic pressures, and provided a clear evidence of methane oxidation activity of the epibiotic microbial community, which was not significantly affected by hydrostatic pressure. Our study revealed the significant ecological function and nutritional contribution of epibiotic methanotrophs to the predominant S. crosnieri populations in the Okinawa Trough deep-sea hydrothermal systems. In conclusion, our study gave clear facts about diversity and methane oxidation of active methanotrophs in the epibiotic community associated with invertebrates. PMID:24401859

  7. Active In-Database Processing to Support Ambient Assisted Living Systems

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Wagner O.; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare. PMID:25120164

  8. Active in-database processing to support ambient assisted living systems.

    PubMed

    de Morais, Wagner O; Lundström, Jens; Wickström, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the existing software architectures that underpin the development of smart homes and ambient assisted living (AAL) systems, this work presents a database-centric architecture that takes advantage of active databases and in-database processing. Current platforms supporting AAL systems use database management systems (DBMSs) exclusively for data storage. Active databases employ database triggers to detect and react to events taking place inside or outside of the database. DBMSs can be extended with stored procedures and functions that enable in-database processing. This means that the data processing is integrated and performed within the DBMS. The feasibility and flexibility of the proposed approach were demonstrated with the implementation of three distinct AAL services. The active database was used to detect bed-exits and to discover common room transitions and deviations during the night. In-database machine learning methods were used to model early night behaviors. Consequently, active in-database processing avoids transferring sensitive data outside the database, and this improves performance, security and privacy. Furthermore, centralizing the computation into the DBMS facilitates code reuse, adaptation and maintenance. These are important system properties that take into account the evolving heterogeneity of users, their needs and the devices that are characteristic of smart homes and AAL systems. Therefore, DBMSs can provide capabilities to address requirements for scalability, security, privacy, dependability and personalization in applications of smart environments in healthcare. PMID:25120164

  9. Assessment of impairment in activities of daily living in mild cognitive impairment using an individualized scale.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Giseli de Fátima Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alexandra Martini; Chaves, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Aprahamian, Ivan; Nunes, Paula Villela

    2016-07-01

    Mild impairment in activities of daily living (ADL) can occur in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but the nature and extent of these difficulties need to be further explored. The Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM) is one of the few individualized scales designed to identify self-perceived difficulties in ADL. The present study investigated impairments in ADL using the COPM in elderly with MCI. A total of 58 MCI patients were submitted to the COPM for studies of its validity and reliability. The COPM proved a valid and consistent instrument for evaluating ADL in elderly MCI patients. A total of 74.6% of the MCI patients reported difficulties in ADL. Of these problems, 41.2% involved self-care, 31.4% productivity and 27.4% leisure. This data further corroborates recent reports of possible functional impairment in complex ADL in MCI. PMID:27487375

  10. Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Impairment Is Associated with Increased Amyloid Burden

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Olson, Lauren E.; Frey, Meghan T.; Maye, Jacqueline; Becker, J. Alex; Rentz, Dorene M.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) impairment in Alzheimer's disease has been associated with global amyloid deposition in postmortem studies. We sought to determine whether IADL impairment is associated with increased cortical Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) retention. Methods Fifty-five subjects (19 normal older controls, NC, and 36 with mild cognitive impairment, MCI) underwent clinical assessments and dynamic PiB positron emission tomography imaging. Results A linear multiple regression model showed that greater IADL impairment was associated with greater global PiB retention in all subjects (R2 = 0.40; unstandardized partial regression coefficient, β = 5.8; p = 0.0002) and in MCI subjects only (R2 = 0.28; β = 6.1; p = 0.003), but not in NC subjects only. Conclusion These results suggest that daily functional impairment is related to greater amyloid burden in MCI. PMID:21778725

  11. Motion analysis of the glenohumeral joint during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Lovern, B; Stroud, L A; Ferran, N A; Evans, S L; Evans, R O; Holt, C A

    2010-12-01

    The shoulder complex has a larger range of motion (ROM) than any other joint complex in the human body, leaving it prone to numerous injuries. Objective kinematic analysis could yield useful functional insights that may assist clinical practice. Non-invasive optoelectronic motion analysis techniques have been used to assess the shoulders of five healthy subjects performing ROM tasks and 10 functional tasks of daily living. The four most demanding tasks - touching the side and back of the head, brushing the opposite side of the head, lifting an object to shoulder height and lifting an object to head height, required 78%, 60%, 61% and 71%, respectively, of the glenohumeral elevation necessary for full abduction in the scapular plane for the 10 shoulders. This has implications for clinical practice where maximum arm elevation is commonly used to determine a patient's ability to return to work and other everyday activities. PMID:21153974

  12. Three-dimensional motion of the upper extremity joints during various activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Koyama, Takayuki; Nakamaru, Koji; Isozaki, Koji; Okawa, Atsushi; Morita, Sadao

    2010-11-16

    Highly reliable information on the range of motion (ROM) required to perform activities of daily living (ADL) is important to allow rehabilitation professionals to make appropriate clinical judgments of patients with limited ROM of the upper extremity joints. There are, however, no data available that take full account of corrections for gimbal-lock and soft tissue artifacts, which affect estimation errors for joint angles. We used an electromagnetic three-dimensional tracking system (FASTRAK) to measure the three-dimensional ROM of the upper extremity joints of healthy adults (N=20, age range 18-34) during 16 ADL movement tasks. The ROM required for the performance of each movement was shown in terms of the joint angle at the completion of the task, using a new definition of joint angle and regression analysis to compensate for estimation errors. The results of this study may be useful in setting goals for the treatment of upper extremity joint function. PMID:20727523

  13. Fast-neutron activation of long-lived nuclides in natural Pb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiseppe, V. E.; Elliott, S. R.; Fields, N. E.; Hixon, D.

    2015-04-01

    We measured the production of the long-lived nuclides 207 Bi, 202 Pb, and 194 Hg in a sample of natural Pb due to high-energy neutron interactions using a neutron beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The activated sample was counted by a HPGe detector to measure the amount of radioactive nuclides present. These nuclides are critical in understanding potential backgrounds in low background experiments utilizing large amounts of Pb shielding due to cosmogenic neutron interactions in the Pb while residing on the Earth's surface. By scaling the LANSCE neutron flux to a cosmic neutron flux, we measure the sea level cosmic ray production rates of 8.0 ± 1.3 atoms/kg/day of 194 Hg, 120 ± 25 atoms/kg/day 202 Pb, and <0.17 ± 0.04 atoms/kg/day 207 Bi.

  14. [Dependency for activities of daily living in the elderly in Catalonia, Spain].

    PubMed

    Brugulat-Guiteras, Pilar; Puig-Oriol, Xavier; Mompart-Penina, Anna; Séculi-Sánchez, Elisa; Salvà-Casanovas, Antoni

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the disabilty prevalence for the activities of daily living (ADL), the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and the use of health services, distinguishing between the population receiving assistance for ADL and not. Cross-sectional study (Encuesta de Salud de Cataluña [ESCA] 2006). We have analyzed 17 ADL. Differences among proportions are estimated with a 95% confidence interval to characterize the analysis groups. Logistic regression describes the explanatory variables about getting help or not. Disabilty prevalence for the ADL: 26.6% men and 48.2% in women. Of these, 79.6% is getting help. There is a socioeconomic gradient in prevalence, not being observed in relation to assistance or not. We must deepen our understanding of the phenomenon and its evolution to which the ESCA is an essential tool. PMID:22310361

  15. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Rotenberg, S A; Mirkin, M V

    2000-08-29

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransformed human breast epithelial cells, breast cells with a high level of motility (engendered by overexpression of protein kinase Calpha), and highly metastatic breast cancer cells. SECM analysis of the three cell lines reveals reproducible differences with respect to the kinetics of charge transfer by several redox mediators. PMID:10963658

  16. Scanning electrochemical microscopy of living cells: Different redox activities of nonmetastatic and metastatic human breast cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Biao; Rotenberg, Susan A.; Mirkin, Michael V.

    2000-01-01

    Electrochemical methods have been widely used to monitor physiologically important molecules in biological systems. This report describes the first application of the scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM) to probe the redox activity of individual living cells. The possibilities of measuring the rate and investigating the pathway of transmembrane charge transfer are demonstrated. By this approach, significant differences are detected in the redox responses given by nonmotile, nontransformed human breast epithelial cells, breast cells with a high level of motility (engendered by overexpression of protein kinase Cα), and highly metastatic breast cancer cells. SECM analysis of the three cell lines reveals reproducible differences with respect to the kinetics of charge transfer by several redox mediators. PMID:10963658

  17. A population-based profile of adult Canadians living with participation and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Marciniuk, Darcy; Rennie, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Currently, one out of every seven Canadians is affected by limitations to their participation and activity. This study describes the self-reported main causes of these limitations in a national sample. Methods: The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey was a two-phase stratified survey based on filter questions posed in the 2006 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada. Respondents to the survey represent 5 185 980 Canadian adults with activity and participation limitations. We used these data to develop a profile of our population of interest: adult Canadians with activity and participation limitations. Associations between demographic variables and self-reported causes of activity and participation limitations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Results: One quarter of participants did not attribute their disability to any medical cause. The most prevalent medical conditions to which disabilities were attributed were musculoskeletal (46.1%), cardio/cerebrovascular (12.3%), mental health (8.4%), neurologic (6.0%), endocrine (6.0%) and respiratory (4.5%) conditions. Significant associations were noted between sociodemographic variables and participants’ attributions of medical conditions as cause of disability. Multiple logistic regression with bootstrapping showed that people who reported a medical cause for their limitation were more likely (p < 0.05) to be female, widowed, 40 years of age or older, born in Canada or white and were less likely (p < 0.05) to be in the highest income category or to be employed (i.e., to work more than 0 h/w). Interpretation: Most people living with activity and participation limitations report having a musculoskeletal disorder. However, a significant proportion of respondants did not attribute their limitations to a medical cause. PMID:21825051

  18. Spatio-temporal imaging of EGF-induced activation of protein kinase A by FRET in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin Jun; Chen, Xiao-Chuan; Xing, Da

    2004-07-01

    Intracellular molecular interaction is important for the study of cell physiology, yet current relevant methods require fixation or microinjection and lack temporal or spatial resolution. We introduced a new method -- fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to detect molecular interaction in living cells. On the basis of FRET principle, A-kinase activity reporter (AKAR) protein was designed to consist of the fusions of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), a phosphoamino acid binding domain, a consensus substrate for protein kinase-A (PKA), and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In this study, the designed pAKAR plasmid was used to transfect a human lung cancer cell line (ASTC-a-1). When the AKAR-transfected cells were treated by forskolin (Fsk), we were able to observe the efficient transfer of energy from excited CFP to YFP within the AKAR molecule by fluorescence microcopy, whereas no FRET was detected in the transfected cells without the treatment of Fsk. When the cells were treated by Epidermal growth factor (EGF), the change of FRET was observed at different subcellular locations, reflecting PKA activation inside the cells upon EGF stimulation. The successful design of a fluorescence reporter of PKA activation and its application demonstrated the superiority of this technology in the research of intracellular protein-protein interaction.

  19. Building neuroscientific evidence and creating best practices for Active and Healthy Aging through ubiquitous exergaming and Living Labs.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-08-01

    Ageing is a major global demographic trend, which seems to be intensified. The earlier detection of risks associated with ageing, can enable earlier intervention to ameliorate their negative consequences. Many of these recent efforts are associated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the stemming from them innovations in the fight against this age related decline and frailty. Ubiquitous unobtrusive monitoring and training (recently much blended by means of exergames) has become reality due to the availability of new mobile sensors and devices and the emergence of new technologies and services. The current piece of work presents the different milestones we have achieved as best practices during the past seven years of piloting training and exergaming ICT components in an effort to support Active and Healthy Aging. Our impact verification and results validation methodologies are revisited here in an effort to outline best practices and build up neuroscientific evidence. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the construction of an Active and Healthy Aging Living Lab was materialised in an attempt to gauge evidence based research in the field of active and health aging. PMID:26738090

  20. Relationship Between Grip and Pinch Strength and Activities of Daily Living in Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Hyun; Seo, Kyung Mook; Kim, Don-Kyu; Shin, Hyun Iee; Shin, Hye Eun

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between grip and pinch strength and independence in activities of daily living (ADL) in stroke patients. Methods Medical records of 577 stroke patients from January 2010 to February 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients' grip and pinch strength of both hemiplegic and non-hemiplegic hands and the Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) score were collected. These patients were divided into three groups: group A (onset duration: ≤3 months), group B (onset duration: >3 months and <2 years), and group C (onset duration: ≥2 years). The correlation between grip and pinch strength and the K-MBI score was analyzed. Results In group A (95 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of both hands in patients with right hemiplegia. Significant (p<0.05) correlation between the K-MBI score and the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand was shown in patients with left hemiplegia. In group B (69 patients) and group C (73 patients), the K-MBI score was significantly (p<0.05) correlated with the grip and pinch strength of the hemiplegic hand. Conclusion Stroke patients in subacute stage mainly performed activities of daily living using their dominant hand. However, independence in ADL was associated with the strength of the affected dominant hand. For stroke patients in chronic and late chronic stages, their hand power of the affected hand was associated with independence in ADL regardless whether the dominant hand was affected. PMID:26605173

  1. Microscopy in Space Research: Learning More About Gravitational Effects on Living Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators are using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods to investigate the effects of microgravity on the development, maintenance and aging of biological systems. The capabilities of the spacelab for life sciences research in space will be described. Among the many results to be discussed are the effects of microgravity on amphibian fertilization and early development, and on the rodent musculoskeletal and neural systems. Xenopus laevis eggs fertilized in space developed normally during and after an eight day spaceflight. Ultrastructural studies of rodent tissue demonstrated that spaceflight-induced atrophy of antigravity skeletal muscles renders muscle fibers susceptible to structural failure upon return to weight bearing postflight. Principle TEM changes in neuromuscular junctions are the decrease or absence of synaptic vesicles and degeneration of axon terminals. In bone, architectural rather than compositional changes may be the primary perturbation. Thus, many techniques used on Earth (such as density determinations) would not detect significant changes in bone strength. An increment in synaptic number and changes in synapse distribution occur in peripheral gravity sensors. There is a decrease in muscarinic cholinergic receptor density in the striatum. Striatal receptor changes suggest spaceflight-related alterations in motor activity. Opportunities for future life sciences research in space will be discussed.

  2. Noninvasive imaging of sialyltransferase activity in living cells by chemoselective recognition.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Ding, Lin; Yang, Min; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the biological and pathological functions of sialyltransferases (STs), intracellular ST activity evaluation is necessary. Focusing on the lack of noninvasive methods for obtaining the dynamic activity information, this work designs a sensing platform for in situ FRET imaging of intracellular ST activity and tracing of sialylation process. The system uses tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeled asialofetuin (TRITC-AF) as a ST substrate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled 3-aminophenylboronic acid (FITC-APBA) as the chemoselective recognition probe of sialylation product, both of which are encapsulated in a liposome vesicle for cellular delivery. The recognition of FITC-APBA to sialylated TRITC-AF leads to the FRET signal that is analyzed by FRET efficiency images. This strategy has been used to evaluate the correlation of ST activity with malignancy and cell surface sialylation, and the sialylation inhibition activity of inhibitors. This work provides a powerful noninvasive tool for glycan biosynthesis mechanism research, cancer diagnostics and drug development. PMID:26046317

  3. Noninvasive imaging of sialyltransferase activity in living cells by chemoselective recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Lei; Ding, Lin; Yang, Min; Ju, Huangxian

    2015-06-01

    To elucidate the biological and pathological functions of sialyltransferases (STs), intracellular ST activity evaluation is necessary. Focusing on the lack of noninvasive methods for obtaining the dynamic activity information, this work designs a sensing platform for in situ FRET imaging of intracellular ST activity and tracing of sialylation process. The system uses tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate labeled asialofetuin (TRITC-AF) as a ST substrate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled 3-aminophenylboronic acid (FITC-APBA) as the chemoselective recognition probe of sialylation product, both of which are encapsulated in a liposome vesicle for cellular delivery. The recognition of FITC-APBA to sialylated TRITC-AF leads to the FRET signal that is analyzed by FRET efficiency images. This strategy has been used to evaluate the correlation of ST activity with malignancy and cell surface sialylation, and the sialylation inhibition activity of inhibitors. This work provides a powerful noninvasive tool for glycan biosynthesis mechanism research, cancer diagnostics and drug development.

  4. A FRET-Based Biosensor for Imaging SYK Activities in Living Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Xue; Sun, Jie; Wu, Jianhua; He, Hai-Tao; Wang, Yingxiao; Zhu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is crucial to cellular functions mediated by immunoreceptors and integrins. We have developed and characterized a new genetically-encoded Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biosensor for studying the dynamics of SYK activities in living cells at a subcellular level. It contains an N-terminal ECFP, SH2 domain, a peptide derived from a SYK substrate VAV2, and a C-terminal YPet. Upon the specific phosphorylation by SYK in vitro, the biosensor substrate peptide bound to the intramolecular SH2 domain to reduce the FRET efficiency. Transfection of the biosensor did not affect activation of the endogenous SYK in host cells. Phosphorylation of the biosensor followed the same kinetics as the endogenous VAV2. Using FRET imaging and ratiometric analysis with this SYK biosensor, we visualized and quantified the realtime activation of SYK in K562 cells upon IgG Fc engagement of Fcc receptor IIA and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts upon stimulation by the platelet derived growth factor. These results demonstrate our biosensor as a powerful tool for studying cellular signaling that involves SYK. PMID:25541586

  5. Comparison of distribution and activity of nanoparticles with short interfering DNA (Dbait) in various living systems.

    PubMed

    Berthault, N; Maury, B; Agrario, C; Herbette, A; Sun, J-S; Peyrieras, N; Dutreix, M

    2011-10-01

    Introducing small DNA molecules (Dbait) impairs the repair of damaged chromosomes and provides a new method for enhancing the efficiency of radiotherapy in radio-resistant tumors. The radiosensitizing activity is dependent upon the efficient delivery of Dbait molecules into the tumor cells. Different strategies have been compared, to improve this key step. We developed a pipeline of assays to select the most efficient nanoparticles and administration protocols before preclinical assays: (i) molecular analyses of complexes formed with Dbait molecules, (ii) cellular tests for Dbait uptake and activity, (iii) live zebrafish embryo confocal microscopy monitoring for in vivo distribution and biological activity of the nanoparticles and (iv) tumor growth and survival measurement on mice with xenografted tumors. Two classes of nanoparticles were compared, polycationic polymers with linear or branched polyethylenimine (PEI) and covalently attached cholesterol (coDbait). The most efficient Dbait transfection was observed with linear PEI complexes, in vitro and in vivo. Doses of coDbait ten-fold higher than PEI/Dbait nanoparticles, and pretreatment with chloroquine, were required to obtain the same antitumoral effect on xenografted melanoma. However, with a 22-fold lower 'efficacy dose/toxicity dose' ratio as compared with Dbait/PEI, coDbait was selected for clinical trials. PMID:21799529

  6. Detection of Mitochondrial Caspase Activity in Real Time In Situ in Live Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingpei; Haskins, Catherine; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Zhang, Jianhua; Centonze, Victoria E.; Herman, Brian

    2004-08-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes. The initiation and execution of the cell death program requires activation of multiple caspases in a stringently temporal order. Here we describe a method that allows real-time observation of caspase activation in situ in live cells based on fluorescent resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurement using the prism and reflector imaging spectroscopy system (PARISS). When a fusion protein consisting of CFP connected to YFP via an intervening caspase substrate that has been targeted to a specific subcellular location is excited with a light source whose wavelength matches the cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) excitation peak, the energy absorbed by the CFP fluorophore is not emitted as fluorescence. Instead, the excitation energy is absorbed by the nearby yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fluorophore that is covalently linked to CFP through a short peptide containing the caspase substrate. Cleavage of the linker peptide by caspases results in loss of FRET due to the separation of CFP and YFP fluorophores. Using a mitochondrially targeted CFP caspase 3 substrate YFP construct (mC3Y), we demonstrate for the first time that there is caspase-3-like activity in the mitochondrial matrix of some cells at very late stage of apoptosis.

  7. Garment-based detection of falls and activities of daily living using 3-axis MEMS accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyan, M. N.; Tay, Francis E. H.; Manimaran, M.; Seah, K. H. W.

    2006-04-01

    This paper studied the detection of falls and activities of daily living (ADL) with two objectives: (1) minimum number of sensors for a broad range of activities and (2) maximize the comfort of the wearer for long term use. We used a garment to provide long term comfort for the wearer, with a 3-axis MEMS accelerometer on the shoulder position, as a wearable platform. ADL were detected in time-frequency domain and summation of absolute peak values of 3-D acceleration signals was used as feature in fall detection. 6 male and female subjects performed approximately five-hour long experiment. Sensitivity of 94.98% and specificity of 98.83% for altogether 1495 activities were achieved. Our garment-based detection system fulfilled the objective of providing the comfort of the wearer in long term monitoring of falls and ADL with high sensitivity. In fall detection, our device can summon medical assistances via SMS (Short Message Service). This detection system can raise fall alarm (fall SMS) automatically to individuals to get a shortened interval of the arrival of assistance.

  8. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  9. Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta and Their Daily Living. Handicap Research Group Report No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodin, Jane

    The study examined aspects of daily living of Swedish children with osteogenesis imperfecta, a mineral deficiency in the skeleton which results in stunted growth and frequent fractures. A questionnaire was administered to 24 families with children under the age of 18 and 3 families were interviewed. The study found the families in great need of…

  10. Selected Resources on Adult Children Living at Home: An Annotated Bibliography for Researchers, Educators, and Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.; Hayes, Kathleen C.

    The resources in this annotated bibliography were selected to help readers better understand what is known about adult children living at home. Data on this subject are scarce. The bibliography is a literature review--a State-of-the-Art report--which is applicable to many professionals and students in the social sciences. It was developed by…

  11. Young People Living in Rural Australia in the 1990s. Research Report 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyn, Johanna; Stokes, Helen; Stafford, John

    This report examines the challenges facing young people living in rural Australia in relation to their health and well-being and explores the relevance of personal resilience to offset these challenges. Specifically, the report synthesizes the literature on rural Australian youth and the results of focus groups undertaken in five rural…

  12. Healthy Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environment Kids Health Kids Environment Kids Health Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games Brainteasers Puzzles Riddles Songs Activities Be ...

  13. Assisted Living

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recreational activities Security Transportation How to Choose a Facility A good match between a facility and a resident's needs depends as much on the philosophy and services of the assisted living facility as it does on the quality of care. ...

  14. Energy Expenditures for Activities of Daily Living in Korean Young Adults: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the energy expenditure (EE) of Korean young adults based on activities refined to a deskbound lifestyle. Methods Sixty-four healthy office workers aged between 25 and 46 years participated in this study. EE was expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET). Participants were evaluated in terms of their EE during physical activities of sleeping (n=22), typing (n=37), folding laundry (n=34), dishwashing (n=32), studying (n=18), mopping (n=35), walking (n=33), stair climbing (n=23), and running (n=29). Volume of oxygen consumption was measured by indirect calorimetry K4b2 (COSMED). The results were compared to the established Compendium MET. Results The MET of activities were: sleeping, 1.24±0.43; typing, 1.35±0.25; folding laundry, 1.58±0.51; dishwashing, 2.20±0.51; studying, 2.11±0.90; mopping, 2.72±0.69; walking at 4 km/hr, 3.48±0.65; stair climbing of five stories, 6.18±1.08; and running at 8 km/hr, 7.57±0.57. The values of typing and mopping were similar to those in the Compendium, whereas those of sleeping, folding laundry, dishwashing, studying, walking, stair climbing and running were different. Conclusion To our knowledge, this estimation of EE in MET during activities of daily living is the first data of young adults in Korea. These data could be used as a reference to modify the guidelines of physical activities for the age group examined in this study. PMID:27606280

  15. Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, Encarnación; Lázaro, Angelina; Sánchez-Sánchez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is today widely accepted that participation in social activities contributes towards successful ageing whilst, at the same time, maintaining independence in the activities of daily living (ADLs) is the sine qua non for achieving that end. This study looks at people aged 65 and over living in an urban area in Spain who retain the ability to attend Social Centres providing recreational facilities. The aim of this paper is to quantify independence and identify the risk factors involved in its deterioration. Methods The sample size was calculated using the equation for proportions in finite populations based on a random proportional sample type, absolute error (e) = 0.05, α = 0.05, β = 0.1, p = q = 0.5. Two-stage sampling was used. In the first place, the population was stratified by residence and a Social Centre was randomly chosen for each district. In the second stage, individuals were selected in a simple random sample without replacement in proportion to the number of members at each social centre. A multivariate logistical regression analysis takes functional ADL capacity as the dependent variable. The choice of predictive variables was made using a bivariate correlation matrix. Among the estimators obtained, Nagelkerke's R2 coefficient, and the Odds ratio (CI 95%) were considered. Sensitivity and 1-specificity were adopted to present the results in graphic form. Results Out of this sample, 63.7% were fully capable of carrying out ADLs, while the main factors contributing to deterioration, identified on the basis of a logistic regression model, are in order of importance, poor physical health, poor mental health, age (above 75 years) and gender (female). The model employed has a predictive value of 88% and 92% (depending on the age range considered) with regard to the independence in ADLs. Conclusion A review of the few Spanish works using similar methodology shows that the percentage of non-institutionalised persons who are independent enough to

  16. Public open space, physical activity, urban design and public health: Concepts, methods and research agenda.

    PubMed

    Koohsari, Mohammad Javad; Mavoa, Suzanne; Villanueva, Karen; Sugiyama, Takemi; Badland, Hannah; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Owen, Neville; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2015-05-01

    Public open spaces such as parks and green spaces are key built environment elements within neighbourhoods for encouraging a variety of physical activity behaviours. Over the past decade, there has been a burgeoning number of active living research studies examining the influence of public open space on physical activity. However, the evidence shows mixed associations between different aspects of public open space (e.g., proximity, size, quality) and physical activity. These inconsistencies hinder the development of specific evidence-based guidelines for urban designers and policy-makers for (re)designing public open space to encourage physical activity. This paper aims to move this research agenda forward, by identifying key conceptual and methodological issues that may contribute to inconsistencies in research examining relations between public open space and physical activity. PMID:25779691

  17. Relations of morale and physical function to advanced activities of daily living in health promotion class participants

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Masahide; Asakawa, Yasuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relations of morale and physical function to the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Subjects] The subjects were 86 elderly community residents participating in health promotion classes. [Methods] A questionnaire survey on age, gender, presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living, and Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale score was conducted, in addition to assessment of fitness, consisting of measurement of height, body weight, grip and knee extensor muscle strength, functional reach, one-leg standing time, and Timed Up and Go test. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed with the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living as a dependent variable. [Results] Grip strength and Timed Up and Go time were identified as variables influencing the presence/absence of advanced activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Physical function represented by grip strength and Timed Up and Go time was higher among subjects performing advanced activities of daily living. PMID:27065541

  18. [A statistical analysis of factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients].

    PubMed

    Nogaki, H

    1992-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate several factors influencing standing balance, activity of daily living and ambulation in hemiplegic patients after cerebro-vascular diseases. A statistical analysis of 121 hemiplegic patients with unilateral supratentorial lesions showed that age, severity of muscle weakness of involved or uninvolved extremities, unilateral spatial neglect and the sense of toe position had influence on standing balance, activity of daily living or ambulation. The patients were divided into five groups based on the degree of unilateral spatial neglect, evaluated by their copies of two daisies who omitted more than three quarters, three quarters, half, one quarter and none of the figures were defined as the USN-4, USN-3, USN-2, USN-1 and no involvement groups, respectively. Those who belonged to the USN-2 group had significantly lower scores for activity of daily living than those who belonged to the no involvement group. In the USN-2 group, 7 of the 8 patients could not keep standing for 50 seconds, while in the no involvement group, this was the case in only 1 of the 15 patients. Activity of daily living scores or sway area during standing showed no statistically significant differences between the USN-1 and no involvement groups. These results suggested that severe or moderate unilateral spatial neglect is one of the most important factors influencing standing balance and activity of daily living. PMID:1614008

  19. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  20. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001)…

  1. Nursing Research--Taking an Active Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverly, Dankay

    1998-01-01

    In Britain, nurses' attitudes toward research are changing. Schools of nursing must consider the following research issues: funding, contracts, support, publication, and staff recruitment and retention. (SK)

  2. Update on U.S.EPA Cookstove Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation includes background information on EPA's stove research, focuses on cookstove testing for air pollutant emissions and energy efficiency, and briefly describes current research activities. Ongoing activities are highlighted, and EPA contacts are provided.

  3. Palladium-triggered deprotection chemistry for protein activation in living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Yu, Juntao; Zhao, Jingyi; Wang, Jie; Zheng, Siqi; Lin, Shixian; Chen, Long; Yang, Maiyun; Jia, Shang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Chen, Peng R.

    2014-04-01

    Employing small molecules or chemical reagents to modulate the function of an intracellular protein, particularly in a gain-of-function fashion, remains a challenge. In contrast to inhibitor-based loss-of-function approaches, methods based on a gain of function enable specific signalling pathways to be activated inside a cell. Here we report a chemical rescue strategy that uses a palladium-mediated deprotection reaction to activate a protein within living cells. We identify biocompatible and efficient palladium catalysts that cleave the propargyl carbamate group of a protected lysine analogue to generate a free lysine. The lysine analogue can be genetically and site-specifically incorporated into a protein, which enables control over the reaction site. This deprotection strategy is shown to work with a range of different cell lines and proteins. We further applied this biocompatible protection group/catalyst pair for caging and subsequent release of a crucial lysine residue in a bacterial Type III effector protein within host cells, which reveals details of its virulence mechanism.

  4. Range of Motion Requirements for Upper-Limb Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Lisa Smurr; Cowley, Jeffrey; Wilken, Jason M.; Resnik, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. We quantified the range of motion (ROM) required for eight upper-extremity activities of daily living (ADLs) in healthy participants. METHOD. Fifteen right-handed participants completed several bimanual and unilateral basic ADLs while joint kinematics were monitored using a motion capture system. Peak motions of the pelvis, trunk, shoulder, elbow, and wrist were quantified for each task. RESULTS. To complete all activities tested, participants needed a minimum ROM of −65°/0°/105° for humeral plane angle (horizontal abduction–adduction), 0°–108° for humeral elevation, −55°/0°/79° for humeral rotation, 0°–121° for elbow flexion, −53°/0°/13° for forearm rotation, −40°/0°/38° for wrist flexion–extension, and −28°/0°/38° for wrist ulnar–radial deviation. Peak trunk ROM was 23° lean, 32° axial rotation, and 59° flexion–extension. CONCLUSION. Full upper-limb kinematics were calculated for several ADLs. This methodology can be used in future studies as a basis for developing normative databases of upper-extremity motions and evaluating pathology in populations. PMID:26709433

  5. Who's who in the crew? Exploring participant involvement in the Active Living Coalition.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Schaefer, Samantha; Middlestadt, Susan; Knoblock, Heidi

    2015-06-01

    Health coalitions serve as an important "vehicle" to strengthen horizontal and vertical ties between organizations, community groups, and individuals whose intent and purpose is to improve wellness. Having a strong and diverse group of participants is essential for highly effective coalitions to carry out their mission in an organized and participatory manner. However, the extent that individuals become involved in coalition operations and activities remains ambiguous. A grounded theory approach was used to explore expressions of participant involvement of a local health coalition known as the Active Living Coalition (ALC). Open, axial, as well as domain and taxonomic coding were used to analyze transcripts from four focus groups (n = 37 participants) in order to develop a participant continuum that captured six network aggregates within the coalition. Findings suggest that participation, for the most part, was heterogeneous and ever-changing given the expectations of the level of partnership that best individuals' personal and professional interests. Differentiating the type of participants in health coalitions can help coalition leaders more successfully "manage" new and existing relationships. Findings imply that health coalitions can maximize coalition capacity by drawing upon the full range of potential human and material resources by further understanding the types of individuals that make up their network. PMID:25812479

  6. First-passage-probability analysis of active transport in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenwright, David A.; Harrison, Andrew W.; Waigh, Thomas A.; Woodman, Philip G.; Allan, Victoria J.

    2012-09-01

    The first-passage-probability can be used as an unbiased method for determining the phases of motion of individual organelles within live cells. Using high speed microscopy, we observe individual lipid droplet tracks and analyze the motor protein driven motion. At short passage lengths (<10-2μm), a log-normal distribution in the first-passage-probability as a function of time is observed, which switches to a Gaussian distribution at longer passages due to the running motion of the motor proteins. The mean first-passage times () as a function of the passage length (L), averaged over a number of runs for a single lipid droplet, follow a power law distribution ˜Lα, α>2, at short times due to a passive subdiffusive process. This changes to another power law at long times where 1<α<2, corresponding to sub-ballistic superdiffusive motion, an active process. Subdiffusive passive mean square displacements are observed as a function of time, r2˜tβ, where 0<β<1 at short times again crossing over to an active sub-ballistic superdiffusive result 1<β<2 at longer times. Consecutive runs of the lipid droplets add additional independent Gaussian peaks to a cumulative first-passage-probability distribution indicating that the speeds of sequential phases of motion are independent and biochemically well regulated. As a result we propose a model for motor driven lipid droplets that exhibits a sequential run behavior with occasional pauses.

  7. Assessing Upper Extremity Motor Function in Practice of Virtual Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard J.; Lichter, Matthew D.; Krepkovich, Eileen T.; Ellington, Allison; White, Marga; Diamond, Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the criterion validity of measures of upper extremity (UE) motor function derived during practice of virtual activities of daily living (ADLs). Fourteen hemiparetic stroke patients employed a Virtual Occupational Therapy Assistant (VOTA), consisting of a high-fidelity virtual world and a Kinect™ sensor, in four sessions of approximately one hour in duration. An Unscented Kalman Filter-based human motion tracking algorithm estimated UE joint kinematics in real-time during performance of virtual ADL activities, enabling both animation of the user’s avatar and automated generation of metrics related to speed and smoothness of motion. These metrics, aggregated over discrete sub-task elements during performance of virtual ADLs, were compared to scores from an established assessment of UE motor performance, the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Spearman’s rank correlation analysis indicates a moderate correlation between VOTA-derived metrics and the time-based WMFT assessments, supporting the criterion validity of VOTA measures as a means of tracking patient progress during an UE rehabilitation program that includes practice of virtual ADLs. PMID:25265612

  8. Optical coherence tomography guided microinjections in live mouse embryos: high-resolution targeted manipulation for mouse embryonic research

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Garcia, Monica D.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The ability to conduct highly localized delivery of contrast agents, viral vectors, therapeutic or pharmacological agents, and signaling molecules or dyes to live mammalian embryos is greatly desired to enable a variety of studies in the field of developmental biology, such as investigating the molecular regulation of cardiovascular morphogenesis. To meet such a demand, we introduce, for the first time, the concept of employing optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guide microinjections in live mouse embryos, which provides precisely targeted manipulation with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale. The feasibility demonstration is performed with experimental studies on cultured live mouse embryos at E8.5 and E9.5. Additionally, we investigate the OCT-guided microinjection of gold–silica nanoshells to the yolk sac vasculature of live cultured mouse embryos at the stage when the heart just starts to beat, as a potential approach for dynamic assessment of cardiovascular form and function before the onset of blood cell circulation. Also, the capability of OCT to quantitatively monitor and measure injection volume is presented. Our results indicate that OCT-guided microinjection could be a useful tool for mouse embryonic research. PMID:25581495

  9. Does methodology matter in eyewitness identification research? The effect of live versus video exposure on eyewitness identification accuracy.

    PubMed

    Pozzulo, Joanna D; Crescini, Charmagne; Panton, Tasha

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of mode of target exposure (live versus video) on eyewitness identification accuracy. Adult participants (N=104) were exposed to a staged crime that they witnessed either live or on videotape. Participants were then asked to rate their stress and arousal levels prior to being presented with either a target-present or -absent simultaneous lineup. Across target-present and -absent lineups, mode of target exposure did not have a significant effect on identification accuracy. However, mode of target exposure was found to have a significant effect on stress and arousal levels. Participants who witnessed the crime live had higher levels of stress and arousal than those who were exposed to the videotaped crime. A higher level of arousal was significantly related to poorer identification accuracy for those in the video condition. For participants in the live condition however, stress and arousal had no effect on eyewitness identification accuracy. Implications of these findings in regards to the generalizability of laboratory-based research on eyewitness testimony to real-life crime are discussed. PMID:18790535

  10. Optical coherence tomography guided microinjections in live mouse embryos: high-resolution targeted manipulation for mouse embryonic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Saba H.; Coughlin, Andrew J.; Garcia, Monica D.; Wang, Shang; West, Jennifer L.; Larin, Kirill V.; Larina, Irina V.

    2015-05-01

    The ability to conduct highly localized delivery of contrast agents, viral vectors, therapeutic or pharmacological agents, and signaling molecules or dyes to live mammalian embryos is greatly desired to enable a variety of studies in the field of developmental biology, such as investigating the molecular regulation of cardiovascular morphogenesis. To meet such a demand, we introduce, for the first time, the concept of employing optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guide microinjections in live mouse embryos, which provides precisely targeted manipulation with spatial resolution at the micrometer scale. The feasibility demonstration is performed with experimental studies on cultured live mouse embryos at E8.5 and E9.5. Additionally, we investigate the OCT-guided microinjection of gold-silica nanoshells to the yolk sac vasculature of live cultured mouse embryos at the stage when the heart just starts to beat, as a potential approach for dynamic assessment of cardiovascular form and function before the onset of blood cell circulation. Also, the capability of OCT to quantitatively monitor and measure injection volume is presented. Our results indicate that OCT-guided microinjection could be a useful tool for mouse embryonic research.

  11. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  12. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  13. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  14. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  15. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  16. Restorative Care’s Effect on Activities of Daily Living Dependency in Long-stay Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Kristine M. C.; Wyman, Jean F.; Savik, Kay; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: (a) Identify the prevalence of nursing homes providing Medicare supported restorative care programs and of long stay participants, (b) compare characteristics between restorative care participants and nonparticipants, and (c) assess restorative care’s effect on change in activities of daily living (ADL) dependency. Design and Methods: Longitudinal analysis of Minimum Data Set assessments linked to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey using a sample of 7,735 residents, age ≥ 65 years living in 1,097 nursing homes for at least 6 months. Receipt of any restorative care was used as a time varying predictor to estimate change in ADL dependency over 18 months using linear mixed models. Results: The sample was 75% female, 89% non-Hispanic White, with a mean age of 85±8, and average length of stay of 3.2±3.4 years. Most nursing homes had restorative care programs (67%), but less than one-third of long-stay residents participated. After controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics, the predicted mean ADL dependency score (range 0–28) at baseline was 18 for restorative care participants and 14 for nonparticipants. Over 18 months, ADL dependency increased 1 point for both participants and nonparticipants (p = .12). Implications: A minority of long-stay residents participated in Medicare supported restorative care programs despite their availability and potential benefits. Even though participants had greater vulnerability for deterioration in physical, mental, and functional health than nonparticipants, both groups had similar rates of ADL decline. Future research is needed to determine if providing restorative care to less dependent long-stay residents is effective. PMID:26055785

  17. The importance of activities of daily living and social contact for loneliness: a survey among residents in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Drageset, Jorunn

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between functional ability to perform basic activities of daily living (ADL) functions (feeding, continence, going to the toilet, transferring from bed to chair, dressing and bathing), social contacts with family and friends/neighbours and emotional and social loneliness. A quantitative research approach, using a survey design, was performed. The sample comprised 113 subjects aged 65-101 years, living in nursing homes. Data were gathered through structured interviews by using the following measures: the modified Katz Index of ADL, the Revised Social Provisions Scale (SPS), and Family and Friendship Contacts Scale. Descriptive statistics, factor analyses, multiple correlation analyses and multiple regression analyses were used. Data showed a statistically significant relationship between dependence on the environment in carrying out ADL and low level of social loneliness. Likewise, high frequencies of social contact with sons, daughters and grandchildren had a statistically significant effect on low level of social loneliness. A confirmatory factor analysis (varimax rotation, eigenvalue 1.0) was employed to explore the two predefined dimensions (attachment and social integration) of the SPS. The results confirmed, to a very high degree, the two dimensions of the Weiss Model. Reliability (internal consistency), measured by Cronbach alpha, was 0.85 and 0.92, for attachment and social integration respectively. Based on this analysis, dependence in ADL function is important for a low level of social loneliness. From the present study it is concluded that ADL (feeding, continence, going to the toilet, transferring from bed to chair, dressing and bathing) and contact with a social network have a statistical effect on a low level of social loneliness. Hence, such associations may be of significance in nursing intervention and may influence the well-being of residents in nursing homes in different stages of life. PMID

  18. Ignored Discovery now Proven Capable of Saving Millions of Lives from Premature Cancer Death Demands Rethinking the Direction of Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    2008-06-01

    A discovery described in articles for the past ten years regarding the increase of 400 times efficiency over current PET has been validated by a third party (Siemens). Its importance lies in the possibility to save millions of lives from premature cancer death through early detection and use of low radiation enabling safe screening of high-risk patients. Because the discovery has been ignored for a decade and has now been validated, rethinking the direction of research is demanded. Technical-Scientific objectives should be consistent with social objectives. Grant assignments should be based on estimates and verification of the number of lives saved, cost per life saved, time to achieve those results and how well supported, with solid scientific arguments, is the research. A conservative estimated result is 100,000 lives saved per year in the U.S. alone at a cost less than half of the current $64 billion annual expense for cancer treatment: a cost to society of only $250,000 per additional life saved versus the current cost of $10 million. Benefits to the patient can be achieved immediately with no need to wait for additional discoveries. A plan to accelerate benefits to the patient is provided.

  19. The Research Base for Teacher Education: Metaphors We Live (and Die) By.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the current controversy in teacher education about whether or not there is a research base that justifies particular practices related to the preparation, certification, recruitment, retention, and entry routes of teachers, focusing on guiding metaphors for research underlying these discussions, which include: research as weapon,…

  20. Research from Professional Development Schools: Can We Live Up to the Potential?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Dorene; Brownell, Mary; Sindelar, Paul; Vandiver, Fran

    1999-01-01

    Examines findings of Professional Development School (PDS) researchers on the potential of PDSs to change and improve the quality of education, discussing Holmes Group research, describing barriers that have limited the contribution from PDS research, and arguing for greater focus on professional development, leadership, and policy if the PDS…

  1. Traversing the Chiasms of Lived Experiences: Phenomenological Illuminations for Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenchuk, Antonina

    2006-01-01

    This article juxtaposes Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of sense perception and practitioner research as well as demonstrating their potential to become integrated into powerful educational research and practice. The paper elaborates on Merleau-Ponty's metaphor of "chiasm", extends its symbolic meaning to practitioner research and illustrates its…

  2. What do you do for a living? Toward a more succinct definition of health services research.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    This commentary discusses the need for, and the advantages of, a more concise, revised definition of the field of health services research. It argues for a definition that includes not only the topics on which health services research focuses but also the goals of health services research. A number of condensed definitions are provided for consideration. PMID:16970822

  3. Action Research as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…

  4. Skill Activities for Independent Living (SAIL). A Curriculum for Developmentally Disabled Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Retardation.

    This curriculum for developmentally disabled adolescents and adults contains assessment conditions and performance criteria for evaluating client acquisition of a total of 646 independent living skills in five areas. While the content of the curriculum is in an area known as independent living, it is also prevocational in as much as it covers a…

  5. The loss of independence in activities of daily living: the role of low normal cognitive function in elderly nuns.

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, P A; Snowdon, D A; Schmitt, F A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of low normal cognitive function in the subsequent loss of independence in activities of daily living. METHODS. Of the 678 elderly nuns who-completed cognitive and physical function assessments in 1992/93, 575 were reassessed in 1993/94. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were divided into three categories and related to loss of independence in six activities of daily living. RESULTS. Participants with low normal cognitive function at first assessment had twice the risk of losing independence in three activities of daily living by second assessment relative to those with high normal cognitive function. This relationship was largely due to a progression from low normal cognitive function at first assessment to impaired cognitive function at second assessment and was associated with an elevated risk of losing independence in the six activities. CONCLUSIONS. Progression from low normal to impaired cognitive function was associated with loss of independence in activities of daily living. Thus low normal cognitive function could be viewed as an early warning of impending cognitive impairment and loss of physical function. PMID:8561244

  6. Relationship between Brazilian adolescents' physical activity and social and economic indicators of the cities where they live.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sufficient amounts of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents and the economic and social indicators of the cities where they live. Data from a large national survey including 109,104 boys and girls ages 13 to 15 yr. (47.8% boys, 52.2% girls) were analyzed. The economic and social indicators were the Human Development Index (HDI), which is a comparative measure to rank cities according to their degree of human development, the Gini index (income inequality), population density, and maternal education. Stepwise regression was used to identify associations between physical activity and economic and social indicators of the cities. The physical activity of Brazilian adolescents was associated with the social and economic conditions of the cities where they live. The amount of physical activity of girls was greater in the cities with fewer income inequalities. For boys, physical activity was greater in the cities with a higher HDI and fewer income inequalities. PMID:25799032

  7. Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Alaine Souza; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato; Gomes, Mayra Ruana de A.; de Almeida, Ludmila Remígio; de Souza, Gabriely Feitosa F.; Cunha, Samara Barreto; Pitangui, Ana Carolina R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living (ADL) in female adolescent students. METHODS: This descriptive cross-sectional study enrolled 228 female adolescents from a public school in the city of Petrolina, Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil, aged ten to 19 years. A self-administered structured questionnaire about socio-demographic characteristics, occurrence of headache and its characteristics was employed. Headaches were classified according to the International Headache Society criteria. The chi-square test was used to verify possible associations, being significant p<0.05. RESULTS: After the exclusion of 24 questionnaires that did not met the inclusion criteria, 204 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of the adolescents was 14.0±1.4 years. The prevalence of headache was 87.7%. Of the adolescents with headache, 0.5% presented migraine without pure menstrual aura; 6.7%, migraine without aura related to menstruation; 1.6%, non-menstrual migraine without aura; 11.7%, tension-type headache and 79.3%, other headaches. Significant associations were found between pain intensity and the following variables: absenteeism (p=0.001); interference in ADL (p<0.001); medication use (p<0.001); age (p=0.045) and seek for medical care (p<0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of headache in female adolescents observed in this study was high, with a negative impact in ADL and school attendance. PMID:25119759

  8. The Effects of Resident and Nursing Home Characteristics on Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jye; Kane, Robert L.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Virnig, Beth A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Existing studies on the relationships between impairments and activities of daily living (ADLs) in nursing home residents have serious limitations. This study examines the relationships among admission impairments, including pain, depression, incontinence, balance, and falls, and follow-up ADLs, as well as the effect of the nursing home on follow-up ADLs of extended-stay nursing home residents. Methods This longitudinal cohort study consisted of 4,942 extended-stay residents who were admitted into 377 Minnesota nursing homes during 2004. General linear mixed models were used for all analyses, with 14 resident-level and 8 facility-level control variables. Results Incontinence and balance function at admission were significantly associated with increases in ADL dependence at follow-up. Individual nursing homes had independent effects on all three ADL models. Similar findings were found after facility-level control variables were added. Conclusions Incontinence predicts subsequent ADL functional levels. The relationship between balance dysfunction and subsequent ADL dependence could be causal. Future studies of the causal relationships between impairments and ADL should examine the effectiveness of impairment interventions on ADL as well as these relationships in different subgroups of nursing home residents. PMID:19201787

  9. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  10. Physical strain during activities of daily living of patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenburg-van Tilborg, E M; Horstman, A M; Zwarts, B; de Groot, S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physical strain of activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) compared with healthy controls. Seventeen patients with CAD and 15 controls performed a graded exercise bicycle test and 5 ADL tasks: walking with/without load, vacuum cleaning, undressing, and walking stairs. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2) peak) were determined during the bicycle test. Heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) were continuously measured during all ADL tasks. Physical strain during ADL tasks was calculated using HR and VO(2) response, expressed relative to individual HR and VO(2) reserves (%HRR, %VO(2) R, respectively). Perceived strain was measured using the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale. HRpeak and VO(2) peak were lower (P<0·001) in patients. Patients performed the ADL tasks slower and with lower absolute VO(2), except for undressing. HR was only higher in patients during stair climbing. No differences in RPE scores were found between both groups, except for undressing. However, physical strain was significantly higher in patients (mean %VO(2) R ranged from 43% to 51%; mean %HRR ranged from 38% to 47%) compared with controls (mean %VO(2) R: 14% to 30%; mean %HRR: 14% to 29%) for all ADL tasks. In general, ADL tasks were performed slower and with higher physical strain in patients with CAD compared with controls. PMID:23815382

  11. Recognition-mediated activation of therapeutic gold nanoparticles inside living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chaekyu; Agasti, Sarit S.; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Isaacs, Lyle; Rotello, Vincent M.

    2010-11-01

    Supramolecular chemistry provides a versatile tool for the organization of molecular systems into functional structures and the actuation of these assemblies for applications through the reversible association between complementary components. Use of this methodology in living systems, however, represents a significant challenge owing to the chemical complexity of cellular environments and lack of selectivity of conventional supramolecular interactions. Herein, we present a host-guest system featuring diaminohexane-terminated gold nanoparticles (AuNP-NH2) and complementary cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]). In this system, threading of CB[7] on the particle surface reduces the cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2 through sequestration of the particle in endosomes. Intracellular triggering of the therapeutic effect of AuNP-NH2 was then achieved through the administration of 1-adamantylamine (ADA), removing CB[7] from the nanoparticle surface, causing the endosomal release and concomitant in situ cytotoxicity of AuNP-NH2. This supramolecular strategy for intracellular activation provides a new tool for potential therapeutic applications.

  12. Live diatom silica immobilization of multimeric and redox-active enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, V C; Scheffel, A; Poulsen, N; Kröger, N

    2012-01-01

    Living organisms are adept in forming inorganic materials (biominerals) with unique structures and properties that exceed the capabilities of engineered materials. Biomimetic materials syntheses are being developed that aim at replicating the advantageous properties of biominerals in vitro and endow them with additional functionalities. Recently, proof-of-concept was provided for an alternative approach that allows for the production of biomineral-based functional materials in vivo. In this approach, the cellular machinery for the biosynthesis of nano-/micropatterned SiO₂ (silica) structures in diatoms was genetically engineered to incorporate a monomeric, cofactor-independent ("simple") enzyme, HabB, into diatom silica. In the present work, it is demonstrated that this approach is also applicable for enzymes with "complex" activity requirements, including oligomerization, metal ions, organic redox cofactors, and posttranslational modifications. Functional expression of the enzymes β-glucuronidase, glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was accomplished, and 66 to 78% of the expressed enzymes were stably incorporated into the biosilica. The in vivo incorporated enzymes represent approximately 0.1% (wt/wt) of the diatom biosilica and are stabilized against denaturation and proteolytic degradation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the gene construct for in vivo immobilization of glucose oxidase can be utilized as the first negative selection marker for diatom genetic engineering. PMID:22057862

  13. Predicting functional outcome after stroke: the influence of neglect on basic activities in daily living.

    PubMed

    Nijboer, Tanja; van de Port, Ingrid; Schepers, Vera; Post, Marcel; Visser-Meily, Anne

    2013-01-01

    One prominent deficit resulting from stroke is visuo-spatial neglect, which has been associated with slower and more attenuated recovery patterns of sensory-motor impairment as well as limitations in activities of daily living (ADL). The aim of the current study was to further specify the relationship between neglect and recovery of different domains of ADL. One hundred eighty four patients were assessed with the Functional Independence Measure in the first week of inpatient rehabilitation, and again at 6, 12, and 36 months post-stroke. On average, neglect patients scored significantly lower on Self-care, Transfers, and Locomotion compared to non-neglect patients, but these differences became smaller with progress of time. Overall, no differences between groups were found for Sphincter control and Cognition. Patients with more severe neglect scored significantly lower on Self-care and Transfers compared to patients with mild neglect. During rehabilitation, it would be of importance to test for independence in ADL domains in neglect in order to define realistic treatment goals. The current findings could be taken into account in early multidisciplinary intervention planning in the sub-acute phase, to optimize regaining ADL. PMID:23675336

  14. FALL-RELATED ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING AND BEHAVIOUR DISTURBANCES IN DEMENTIA.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Taro; Hayashi, Akiko; Matsuo, Shinsuke; Shinoda, Kunihiko; Konishi, Isamu; Makio, Haruna; Tsuji, Miwa

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the activities of daily living and behaviour disturbances related to inpatients and outpatients with dementia experiencing falls. Patients diagnosed with dementia belonging to 18 facilities which consented to the study were subjected. The study involved "whether or not the patient has fallen in the past 12 months", "Barthel Index (B.I)", and "Dementia Behaviour Disturbance Scale (DBD)" and other data from 325 people in 18 facilities who had been diagnosed with dementia. The ratio of subjects who had fallen to those who had not was 113:212. The results of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the study items related to falls including the DBD item of "making unwarranted accusations" had an OR = 1.445, 95% CI (1.133-1.843), the DBD item of "refusing to eat" had an OR = 0.699, 95% CI (0.521- 0.938), the B.I item of "feeding" had OR = 1.115, 95% CI (1.032-1.204) and the B.I item of "bathing" had OR = 0.782, 95% CI (0.671-0.912). Integral characteristics of dementia patients who have fallen are assumed to be making unwarranted accusations, having a low rate of refusing to eat, being able to eat alone and requiring attention when bathing. PMID:27501537

  15. Is surviving enough? Coping and impact on activities of daily living among melanoma patients with lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs. PMID:25809989

  16. Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jin; Xiong, Cai-Hua; Xiong, Le; Huang, Xiao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Hand coordination can allow humans to have dexterous control with many degrees of freedom to perform various tasks in daily living. An important contributing factor to this important ability is the complex biomechanical architecture of the human hand. However, drawing a clear functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination is challenging. It is not understood which biomechanical characteristics are responsible for hand coordination and what specific effect each biomechanical characteristic has. To explore this link, we first inspected the characteristics of hand coordination during daily tasks through a statistical analysis of the kinematic data, which were collected from thirty right-handed subjects during a multitude of grasping tasks. Then, the functional link between biomechanical architecture and hand coordination was drawn by establishing the clear corresponding causality between the tendinous connective characteristics of the human hand and the coordinated characteristics during daily grasping activities. The explicit functional link indicates that the biomechanical characteristic of tendinous connective architecture between muscles and articulations is the proper design by the Creator to perform a multitude of daily tasks in a comfortable way. The clear link between the structure and the function of the human hand also suggests that the design of a multifunctional robotic hand should be able to better imitate such basic architecture. PMID:26730579

  17. A robotic system to train activities of daily living in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Guidali, Marco; Duschau-Wicke, Alexander; Broggi, Simon; Klamroth-Marganska, Verena; Nef, Tobias; Riener, Robert

    2011-10-01

    In the past decade, several arm rehabilitation robots have been developed to assist neurological patients during therapy. Early devices were limited in their number of degrees of freedom and range of motion, whereas newer robots such as the ARMin robot can support the entire arm. Often, these devices are combined with virtual environments to integrate motivating game-like scenarios. Several studies have shown a positive effect of game-playing on therapy outcome by increasing motivation. In addition, we assume that practicing highly functional movements can further enhance therapy outcome by facilitating the transfer of motor abilities acquired in therapy to daily life. Therefore, we present a rehabilitation system that enables the training of activities of daily living (ADL) with the support of an assistive robot. Important ADL tasks have been identified and implemented in a virtual environment. A patient-cooperative control strategy with adaptable freedom in timing and space was developed to assist the patient during the task. The technical feasibility and usability of the system was evaluated with seven healthy subjects and three chronic stroke patients. PMID:21796422

  18. Live Diatom Silica Immobilization of Multimeric and Redox-Active Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, V. C.; Scheffel, A.; Poulsen, N.

    2012-01-01

    Living organisms are adept in forming inorganic materials (biominerals) with unique structures and properties that exceed the capabilities of engineered materials. Biomimetic materials syntheses are being developed that aim at replicating the advantageous properties of biominerals in vitro and endow them with additional functionalities. Recently, proof-of-concept was provided for an alternative approach that allows for the production of biomineral-based functional materials in vivo. In this approach, the cellular machinery for the biosynthesis of nano-/micropatterned SiO2 (silica) structures in diatoms was genetically engineered to incorporate a monomeric, cofactor-independent (“simple”) enzyme, HabB, into diatom silica. In the present work, it is demonstrated that this approach is also applicable for enzymes with “complex” activity requirements, including oligomerization, metal ions, organic redox cofactors, and posttranslational modifications. Functional expression of the enzymes β-glucuronidase, glucose oxidase, galactose oxidase, and horseradish peroxidase in the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was accomplished, and 66 to 78% of the expressed enzymes were stably incorporated into the biosilica. The in vivo incorporated enzymes represent approximately 0.1% (wt/wt) of the diatom biosilica and are stabilized against denaturation and proteolytic degradation. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the gene construct for in vivo immobilization of glucose oxidase can be utilized as the first negative selection marker for diatom genetic engineering. PMID:22057862

  19. Disaggregating Activities of Daily Living Limitations for Predicting Nursing Home Admission

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Joelle H; Mitchell, Olivia S; Koh, Benedict S K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine whether disaggregated activities of daily living (ADL) limitations better predict the risk of nursing home admission compared to conventionally used ADL disability counts. Data Sources We used panel data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) for years 1998–2010. The HRS is a nationally representative survey of adults older than 50 years (n = 18,801). Study Design We fitted Cox regressions in a continuous time survival model with age at first nursing home admission as the outcome. Time-varying ADL disability types were the key explanatory variables. Principal Findings Of the six ADL limitations, bathing difficulty emerged as the strongest predictor of subsequent nursing home placement across cohorts. Eating and dressing limitations were also influential in driving admissions among more recent cohorts. Using simple ADL counts for analysis yielded similar adjusted R2s; however, the amount of explained variance doubled when we allowed the ADL disability measures to time-vary rather than remain static. Conclusions Looking beyond simple ADL counts can provide health professionals insights into which specific disability types trigger long-term nursing home use. Functional disabilities measured closer in time carry more prognostic power than static measures. PMID:25256014

  20. An introductory study of common grasps used by adults during performance of activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Margarita; Sancho-Bru, J L; Gracia-Ibáñez, V; Pérez-González, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a descriptive survey on human grasps. Sixty-four videos were selected to represent tasks performed in the main areas of activities of daily living (ADL) (personal care, meal preparation, eating, housekeeping, etc.). All the participants were right-handed. Elementary grasps were identified for each hand, and the grasp type (from a 9-type classification), the hands involved, and the duration were registered for each case. The results show that the most commonly used grasps are: pinch, non-prehensile, cylindrical, lateral pinch and lumbrical. The presence of these grasps in the areas of ADL is, however, very different (e.g., pinch is widely used in food preparation and very little in driving). Some grasps were used more frequently with one hand or when both hands were used simultaneously (e.g., special pinch was hardly used by the left hand). Knowing the grasp types most frequently used in ADL is essential to be able to assess grasp rehabilitation processes or hand prostheses development. PMID:24878351

  1. Kameleon Live: An Interactive Cloud Based Analysis and Visualization Platform for Space Weather Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pembroke, A. D.; Colbert, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) provides hosting for many of the simulations used by the space weather community of scientists, educators, and forecasters. CCMC users may submit model runs through the Runs on Request system, which produces static visualizations of model output in the browser, while further analysis may be performed off-line via Kameleon, CCMC's cross-language access and interpolation library. Off-line analysis may be suitable for power-users, but storage and coding requirements present a barrier to entry for non-experts. Moreover, a lack of a consistent framework for analysis hinders reproducibility of scientific findings. To that end, we have developed Kameleon Live, a cloud based interactive analysis and visualization platform. Kameleon Live allows users to create scientific studies built around selected runs from the Runs on Request database, perform analysis on those runs, collaborate with other users, and disseminate their findings among the space weather community. In addition to showcasing these novel collaborative analysis features, we invite feedback from CCMC users as we seek to advance and improve on the new platform.

  2. A living thick nanofibrous implant bifunctionalized with active growth factor and stem cells for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Eap, Sandy; Keller, Laetitia; Schiavi, Jessica; Huck, Olivier; Jacomine, Leandro; Fioretti, Florence; Gauthier, Christian; Sebastian, Victor; Schwinté, Pascale; Benkirane-Jessel, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    New-generation implants focus on robust, durable, and rapid tissue regeneration to shorten recovery times and decrease risks of postoperative complications for patients. Herein, we describe a new-generation thick nanofibrous implant functionalized with active containers of growth factors and stem cells for regenerative nanomedicine. A thick electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone) nanofibrous implant (from 700 μm to 1 cm thick) was functionalized with chitosan and bone morphogenetic protein BMP-7 as growth factor using layer-by-layer technology, producing fish scale-like chitosan/BMP-7 nanoreservoirs. This extracellular matrix-mimicking scaffold enabled in vitro colonization and bone regeneration by human primary osteoblasts, as shown by expression of osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein (BSPII), 21 days after seeding. In vivo implantation in mouse calvaria defects showed significantly more newly mineralized extracellular matrix in the functionalized implant compared to a bare scaffold after 30 days’ implantation, as shown by histological scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray microscopy study and calcein injection. We have as well bifunctionalized our BMP-7 therapeutic implant by adding human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The activity of this BMP-7-functionalized implant was again further enhanced by the addition of hMSCs to the implant (living materials), in vivo, as demonstrated by the analysis of new bone formation and calcification after 30 days’ implantation in mice with calvaria defects. Therefore, implants functionalized with BMP-7 nanocontainers associated with hMSCs can act as an accelerator of in vivo bone mineralization and regeneration. PMID:25709432

  3. Tobacco control among disadvantaged youth living in low-income communities in India: Introducing Project ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Stigler, Melissa; Gupta, Vinay; Bassi, Shalini; Dhavan, Poonam; Mathur, Neha; Tripathy, Vikal; Perry, Cheryl; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of Project ACTIVITY, a group randomized intervention trial designed to test the efficacy of a community-based, comprehensive approach to tobacco control for youth (10-19 years) living in low-income communities in India. In doing so, details regarding baseline characteristics of the study sample are provided. Methods Fourteen slum communities in Delhi, India were matched and randomized to intervention (n=7) and control (n=7) conditions. The intervention included multiple strategies to promote prevention and cessation of tobacco use among youth. A census was conducted in selected blocks in all study communities (n=78,133), as well as a baseline survey of eligible youth (n=6,023). Main outcomes measures on the survey included ever use, past six months use and current use of multiple forms of tobacco. Mixed effects regression models were used to examine differences between study conditions in (a) demographic characteristics and (b) the prevalence of tobacco consumption. Results Census data revealed that 31.9% of sampled population was in the age group of 10-19 years. No differences between study conditions in demographic characteristics (e.g. age, gender, religion, education, and occupation) among either adults or youth were noted (p>0.05). The baseline survey data revealed the prevalence of ever tobacco use among youth was 7.99%, past six months use was 5.70%, and current use was 4.88%. No differences between study conditions in these prevalence rates were observed, either (p>0.05). Conclusion The two study conditions in Project ACTIVITY are comparable. The evaluation should provide a robust test of this intervention's efficacy. PMID:20593929

  4. Patient-level improvements in pain and activities of daily living after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To study patient-level improvements in pain and limitations of key activities of daily living (ADLs) after primary or revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods. We analysed prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint Registry for improvements in index knee pain severity and limitations in three key ADLs (walking, climbing stairs and rising from a chair) from pre-operative to 2 and 5 years post-TKA. Results. The primary TKA cohort consisted of 7229 responders pre-operatively, 7139 at 2 years and 4234 at 5 years post-operatively. The revision TKA cohort consisted of 1206 responders pre-operatively, 1533 at 2 years and 881 at 5 years post-operatively. In the primary TKA cohort, important pain reduction to mild or no knee pain at 2 years was reported by 92% with moderate pre-operative pain and 93% with severe pre-operative pain; respective proportions were 91% and 91% at 5 years follow-up. For revision TKA, respective proportions were 71% and 66% at 2 years and 68% and 74% at 5 years. Three per cent with no/mild pre-operative overall limitation and 19% with moderate/severe pre-operative overall limitation had moderate/severe overall activity limitation 2 years post-operatively; at 5 years the respective proportions were 4% and 22%. Respective proportions for revision TKA were up to 3% and 32% at 2 years and 4% and 34% at 5 years. Conclusion. Our study provides comprehensive data for patient-level improvements in pain and key ADLs. These data can be used to inform patients pre-operatively of expected outcomes, based on pre-operative status, which may further help patients set realistic goals for improvements after TKA. PMID:24162150

  5. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  6. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  7. Validation and Comparison of Two Methods to Assess Human Energy Expenditure during Free-Living Activities

    PubMed Central

    Anastasopoulou, Panagiota; Tubic, Mirnes; Schmidt, Steffen; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Härtel, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    Background The measurement of activity energy expenditure (AEE) via accelerometry is the most commonly used objective method for assessing human daily physical activity and has gained increasing importance in the medical, sports and psychological science research in recent years. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine which of the following procedures is more accurate to determine the energy cost during the most common everyday life activities; a single regression or an activity based approach. For this we used a device that utilizes single regression models (GT3X, ActiGraph Manufacturing Technology Inc., FL., USA) and a device using activity-dependent calculation models (move II, movisens GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany). Material and Methods Nineteen adults (11 male, 8 female; 30.4±9.0 years) wore the activity monitors attached to the waist and a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) as reference measure for AEE while performing several typical daily activities. The accuracy of the two devices for estimating AEE was assessed as the mean differences between their output and the reference and evaluated using Bland-Altman analysis. Results The GT3X overestimated the AEE of walking (GT3X minus reference, 1.26 kcal/min), walking fast (1.72 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (1.45 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (1.92 kcal/min) and underestimated the AEE of jogging (−1.30 kcal/min) and walking upstairs (−2.46 kcal/min). The errors for move II were smaller than those for GT3X for all activities. The move II overestimated AEE of walking (move II minus reference, 0.21 kcal/min), walking up−/downhill (0.06 kcal/min) and stair walking (upstairs: 0.13 kcal/min; downstairs: 0.29 kcal/min) and underestimated AEE of walking fast (−0.11 kcal/min) and jogging (−0.93 kcal/min). Conclusions Our data suggest that the activity monitor using activity-dependent calculation models is more appropriate for predicting AEE in daily life than the activity monitor using a single

  8. Effects of living room, Snoezelen room, and outdoor activities on stereotypic behavior and engagement by adults with profound mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Cuvo, A J; May, M E; Post, T M

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effect of a room with sensory equipment, or Snoezelen room, on the stereotypic behavior and engagement of adults with profound mental retardation. In Experiment 1, participants were observed in their living room before and after attending the Snoezelen room. Results showed that there tended to be a reduction in stereotypy and increase in engagement when participants went from their living room to the Snoezelen room, and a return of these behaviors to pre-Snoezelen levels in the living room. Positive effects in the Snoezelen room did not carryover to the living room. In Experiment 2, the living and Snoezelen rooms were compared to an outdoor activity condition with the same participants and target behaviors. Results showed that the outdoor condition was superior, the Snoezelen condition intermediate, and the living room least effective in their impact on stereotypic behavior and engagement. Conceptualizations regarding factors that maintain stereotypic behavior and engagement were discussed in the context of the three experimental conditions. PMID:11380058

  9. Co-benefits of designing communities for active living: an exploration of literature.

    PubMed

    Sallis, James F; Spoon, Chad; Cavill, Nick; Engelberg, Jessa K; Gebel, Klaus; Parker, Mike; Thornton, Christina M; Lou, Debbie; Wilson, Amanda L; Cutter, Carmen L; Ding, Ding

    2015-01-01

    To reverse the global epidemic of physical inactivity that is responsible for more than 5 million deaths per year, many groups recommend creating "activity-friendly environments." Such environments may have other benefits, beyond facilitating physical activity, but these potential co-benefits have not been well described. The purpose of the present paper is to explore a wide range of literature and conduct an initial summary of evidence on co-benefits of activity-friendly environments. An extensive but non-systematic review of scientific and "gray" literature was conducted. Five physical activity settings were defined: parks/open space/trails, urban design, transportation, schools, and workplaces/buildings. Several evidence-based activity-friendly features were identified for each setting. Six potential outcomes/co-benefits were searched: physical health, mental health, social benefits, safety/injury prevention, environmental sustainability, and economics. A total of 418 higher-quality findings were summarized. The overall summary indicated 22 of 30 setting by outcome combinations showed "strong" evidence of co-benefits. Each setting had strong evidence of at least three co-benefits, with only one occurrence of a net negative effect. All settings showed the potential to contribute to environmental sustainability and economic benefits. Specific environmental features with the strongest evidence of multiple co-benefits were park proximity, mixed land use, trees/greenery, accessibility and street connectivity, building design, and workplace physical activity policies/programs. The exploration revealed substantial evidence that designing community environments that make physical activity attractive and convenient is likely to produce additional important benefits. The extent of the evidence justifies systematic reviews and additional research to fill gaps. PMID:25886356

  10. Conducting Action Research in Kenyan Primary Schools: A Narrative of Lived Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otienoh, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…

  11. Professing to Learn: Creating Tenured Lives and Careers in the American Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Research, teaching, service, and public outreach--all are aspects of being a tenured professor. But this list of responsibilities is missing a central component: actual scholarly learning--disciplinary knowledge that faculty teach, explore in research, and share with the academic community. How do professors pursue such learning when they must…

  12. Living the Questions: A Guide for Teacher-Researchers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagoury, Ruth; Power, Brenda Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teacher research is an extension of good teaching, observing students closely, analyzing their needs, and adjusting the curriculum to fit the needs of all. In this completely updated second edition of their definitive work, Ruth Shagoury and Brenda Miller Power present a framework for teacher research along with an extensive collection of…

  13. Computers in the Lives of Our Children: The Legacy of Television Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Milton

    This comparative examination considers a new era of research on children's learning. How children learn from microcomputers is studied, in light of research on children and television; and such issues are illuminated as how television and computers differ in their historical and economic contexts, how such differences affect their ability to serve…

  14. Impact of depression and activities of daily living on the fear of falling in Korean community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Kang, Younhee; Kim, Mi Young; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Jeong Soo; Hong, Chong Min; Yun, Eun Suk; Ma, Rye Won

    2010-12-01

    This study determined the predictors of the fear of falling (FOF) in 213 South Korean community-dwelling elderly. The Fall Efficacy Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Korean Geriatric Depression Screening Scale, and Barthel Index were used to measure the FOF, sleep quality, depression, and activities of daily living, respectively. In addition, information regarding the participants' demographic details and the number of types of medication was collected. The data were analyzed by using hierarchical regression. The general regression model, with the FOF as a dependent variable, was statistically significant. The FOF variance was partially explained. Depression and activities of daily living significantly influenced the FOF. Thus, the results indicate that the FOF in community-dwelling elderly Koreans is affected by depression and activities of daily living. Therefore, an older adult with recognized signs of depression must be provided with more appropriate care and the allocation of specific interventional strategies in order to maintain activities of daily living should be developed to manage the FOF. PMID:21210929

  15. Post-stroke depression inhibits improvement in activities of daily living in patients in a convalescent rehabilitation ward

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Kenji; Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Daisuke; Midorikawa, Manabu; Makiyama, Yasushi; Shimoda, Kaori; Tozato, Fusae

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] There have been no investigations into the improvement of activities of daily living among patients suffering from post-stroke depression on admission to convalescent rehabilitation wards in Japan. This study aimed to assess the improvement of activities in daily living in patients with or without post-stroke depression at the time of admission to a convalescent rehabilitation ward. [Subjects and Methods] This retrospective study included 108 stroke patients divided into two groups according to their Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item short form scores. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Functional Independence Measure. The degree of improvement on the Functional Independence Measure was defined as the difference between scores on admission and at discharge. [Results] The Functional Independence Measure gain score was significantly different from the Functional Independence Measure total score. There was a significant interaction between time period and post-stroke depression factors for the Functional Independence Measure total score. A multiple regression analysis revealed a significant association between Geriatric Depression Scale score and Functional Independence Measure total score. [Conclusion] The present study suggests that post-stroke depression has a negative impact on recovery of activities of daily living and on rehabilitation outcomes in a convalescent rehabilitation ward setting.

  16. What Might Work? Exploring the Perceived Feasibility of Strategies to Promote Physical Activity among Women Living in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Neighbourhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Verity; Ball, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate preferences for, perceived feasibility of and barriers to uptake of hypothetical physical activity promotion strategies among women from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively recruited women (18-45 years) living in socioeconomically…

  17. From Passive to Active Learners: The "Lived Experience" of Nurses in a Specialist Nephrology Nursing Education Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridger, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore the lived experience of learning for a group of staff nurses in the Middle East, who undertook a post-registration nursing education programme in the speciality of nephrology nursing (the NNP) between 2001 and 2002. The broad-based curriculum seeks to develop the staff nurses into active learners, able to…

  18. Examining Success of Communication Strategies Used by Formal Caregivers Assisting Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease during an Activity of Daily Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how formal (i.e., employed) caregivers' use verbal and nonverbal communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during the successful completion of an activity of daily living (ADL). Based on the literature, the authors hypothesized that caregivers' use of 1 proposition,…

  19. The effect of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Young; Chang, Moonyoung; Kim, Kyeong-Mi; Kim, Hee-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of mirror therapy on upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen subjects were each assigned to a mirror therapy group and a sham therapy group. The Fugl-Meyer Motor Function Assessment and the Box and Block Test were performed to compare paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities. The functional independence measurement was conducted to compare abilities to perform activities of daily living. [Results] Paretic upper-extremity function and hand coordination abilities were significantly different between the mirror therapy and sham therapy groups. Intervention in the mirror therapy group was more effective than in the sham therapy group for improving the ability to perform activities of daily living. Self-care showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. [Conclusion] Mirror therapy is effective in improving paretic upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in chronic stroke patients. PMID:26180297

  20. My House Is Covered with Papers! Reflections on a Generation of Active Citizenship. Community Supported Living Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Connie Lyle; O'Brien, John

    This booklet highlights some of the insights that five mothers of children with developmental disabilities have gained after a generation of working together to improve the lives of people with developmental disabilities in Wisconsin. It discusses civic activism, the critical importance of organized parent support, difficulties in collaborating…

  1. Contribution of abdominal muscle strength to various activities of daily living of stroke patients with mild paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Togashi, Yui; Kasahara, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamamoto, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The trunk muscles frequently become weak after stroke, thus impacting overall activities of daily living. However, activities of daily living items closely related with trunk strength remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify the influence of trunk muscle weakness on activities of daily living items. [Subjects] The subjects were 24 stroke patients who fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: first stroke and the absence of severe paralysis, marked cognitive function deterioration, unilateral spatial neglect or apathy. [Methods] According to abdominal strength, the 24 patients were divided into a nonweakness group and a weakness group. For the assessment, we used the stroke impairment assessment set, the Berg balance scale, a simple test for evaluating hand function, grip strength, and functional independence measure scale scores and the results were compared between the groups. [Results] The Berg balance scale score and scores for dressing, toilet use, transfer to bed, and walk items of the functional independence measure were significantly lower in the weakness group than in the nonweakness group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that weakness of the abdominal muscles adversely impacts the balance of patients with mild stroke as well as their ability to dress, use a toilet, transfer, and walk. Trunk training, including abdominal muscle exercises, can effectively improve the performance of these activities of daily living items. PMID:25931737

  2. 76 FR 35950 - Agency Information Collection Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activity (Living Will and Durable Power of Attorney for Health Care... Health Care, VA Form 10-0137. OMB Control Number: 2900-0556. Type of Review: Extension of a currently... appoint a health care agent to make decision about his or her medical treat and to record...

  3. Changes in Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors across Seven Semesters of College: Living on or off Campus Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Meg; Bailey-Davis, Lisa; Morgan, Nicole; Maggs, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood is an important period for establishing behavioral patterns that affect long-term health and chronic disease risk. Nelson and colleagues speculated that developmental changes and changes in living situation may play an important role in the nutrition and physical activity behaviors of college students.…

  4. Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living). Grades 5 and 9. Assessment Annotations for the Curriculum Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Elementary and Secondary Education, Jefferson City.

    This document provides supplemental assessment information to "Missouri's Framework for Curriculum Development in Health Education and Physical Education (Healthy, Active Living) K-12." The assessment annotations found in the third column of this document are intended to provide information for administrators, curriculum directors, and teachers…

  5. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: p<0.001; APT-Bank: p=0

  6. [RESEARCHES ON EMBRYO: THE RISKS OF EUGENIC DRIFTS AND LIVING MATTER UNDER PATENT].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    As a result of scientific progress, embryo, once classified as part of the maternal body, gained recognition in particular with medically assisted reproduction. It became a genuine topic of study, from being analyzed in its development to its characteristics of being a reserchers's object of desire due to its multiple possibilities of reserch and study. Despite belonging to the human species, and even though they are not completely classified as objects, supernumerary embryos, out of parental projects, were gradually reified in order to become the object of all genetic engineering fantasies, especially the quest of the perfect child, free of diseases and anomalies. Notwithstanding all the precautions taken by the legislator and the European institutions, future drifts concerning the enlargement of prenatal diagnostics and of living matter under patent possibilities are to be feared. PMID:27356354

  7. RESEARCH REPORT: Teaching of biological inheritance and evolution of living beings in secondary school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banet, E.; Ayuso, G. E.

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine some solutions to the problems involved in the learning and teaching of biological inheritance and the evolution of living beings at the secondary school level. For this, we implemented a teaching programme which takes into account a constructivist approach to learning and analysed the progress in students' knowledge at different times (pre-test, post-test and retention test). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results show that the programme instilled a knowledge close to what might be considered adequate for this educational level. As a follow up, we propose certain disciplinary criteria for selecting and sequencing the content to be taught and discuss the educational circumstances which favour the construction of student knowledge on these topics.

  8. Excitotoxic Insult Results in a Long-Lasting Activation of CaMKIIα and Mitochondrial Damage in Living Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Otmakhov, Nikolai; Gorbacheva, Elena V.; Regmi, Shaurav; Yasuda, Ryohei; Hudmon, Andy; Lisman, John

    2015-01-01

    Over-activation of excitatory NMDA receptors and the resulting Ca2+ overload is the main cause of neuronal toxicity during stroke. CaMKII becomes misregulated during such events. Biochemical studies show either a dramatic loss of CaMKII activity or its persistent autonomous activation after stroke, with both of these processes being implicated in cell toxicity. To complement the biochemical data, we monitored CaMKII activation in living hippocampal neurons in slice cultures using high spatial/temporal resolution two-photon imaging of the CaMKIIα FRET sensor, Camui. CaMKII activation state was estimated by measuring Camui fluorescence lifetime. Short NMDA insult resulted in Camui activation followed by a redistribution of its protein localization: an increase in spines, a decrease in dendritic shafts, and concentration into numerous clusters in the cell soma. Camui activation was either persistent (> 1–3 hours) or transient (~20 min) and, in general, correlated with its protein redistribution. After longer NMDA insult, however, Camui redistribution persisted longer than its activation, suggesting distinct regulation/phases of these processes. Mutational and pharmacological analysis suggested that persistent Camui activation was due to prolonged Ca2+ elevation, with little impact of autonomous states produced by T286 autophosphorylation and/or by C280/M281 oxidation. Cell injury was monitored using expressible mitochondrial marker mito-dsRed. Shortly after Camui activation and clustering, NMDA treatment resulted in mitochondrial swelling, with persistence of the swelling temporarily linked to the persistence of Camui activation. The results suggest that in living neurons excitotoxic insult produces long-lasting Ca2+-dependent active state of CaMKII temporarily linked to cell injury. CaMKII function, however, is to be restricted due to strong clustering. The study provides the first characterization of CaMKII activation dynamics in living neurons during excitotoxic

  9. Improving the Nutritional Resource Environment for Healthy Living Through Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, David C; Diamant, Allison L; Lewis, LaVonna B; Yancey, Antronette K; Flynn, Gwendolyn; Nascimento, Lori Miller; McCarthy, William J; Guinyard, Joyce Jones; Cousineau, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To build health promotion capacity among community residents through a community-based participatory model, and to apply this model to study the nutritional environment of an urban area to better understand the role of such resources in residents' efforts to live a healthy life. DESIGN A multiphase collaborative study that inventoried selected markets in targeted areas of high African-American concentration in comparison with markets in a contrasting wealthier area with fewer African Americans. SETTING A community study set in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS African-American community organizations and community residents in the target areas. INTERVENTIONS Two surveys of market inventories were conducted. The first was a single-sheet form profiling store conditions and the availability of a small selection of healthy foods. The second provided detailed information on whether the store offered fruit, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, dried goods and other items necessary for residents to consume a nutritious diet. RESULTS The targeted areas were significantly less likely to have important items for living a healthier life. The variety and quality of fresh fruit and vegetable produce was significantly lower in the target areas. Such products as 1% milk, skim milk, low-fat and nonfat cheese, soy milk, tofu, whole grain pasta and breads, and low-fat meat and poultry items were sig-nificantly less available. CONCLUSIONS Healthy food products were significantly less available in the target areas. The authors conclude from these results that the health disparities experienced by African-American communities have origins that extend beyond the health delivery system and individual behaviors inasmuch as adherence to the healthy lifestyle associated with low chronic disease risk is more difficult in resource-poor neighborhoods than in resource-rich ones. PMID:12848840

  10. Improving food and fluid intake for older adults living in long-term care: a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather; Beck, Anne Marie; Namasivayam, Ashwini

    2015-02-01

    Poor food and fluid intake and malnutrition are endemic among older adults in long-term care (LTC), yet feasible and sustainable interventions that target key determinants and improve person-centered outcomes remain elusive. Without a comprehensive study addressing a range of determinants to identify those that are of greatest importance for targeting with interventions, expert consensus can be used to develop a research agenda. International experts and stakeholders convened for a 2-day meeting to participate in a nominal group process to identify and prioritize determinants of food and fluid intake for persons living in LTC. Top determinants to address with intervention research included social interactions of residents at mealtime; self-feeding ability; the dining environment; the attitudes, knowledge, and skills of staff; adequate time to eat/availability of staff to provide assistance; sensory properties of the food; hospitality and mealtime logistics; choice and variety in the dining experience; and nutrient density of food. Multimodal interventions that could target these prioritized determinants were also suggested. This consensus process has resulted in a prioritized research agenda for the development and testing of interventions to improve food and fluid intake of older adults living in LTC. PMID:25481747

  11. Effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Nam; Lee, Dong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of horse-riding exercise on balance, gait, and activities of daily living (ADLs) in stroke patients. [Subjects] Among 20 participants with stroke, 10 were randomly assigned to the experimental group, and 10 were randomly assigned to the control group. The experimental group participated in horse-riding exercise for 30 minutes per day, 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Balance was tested with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Gait was measured using the 10-Meter Walk Test (10MWT). ADLs were tested with the Modified Barthel Index (MBI). Differences between pre- and post-experiment values within the two groups were compared using paired t-tests. Between-group differences were compared using independent t-tests. [Results] The experimental group showed significant improvements in balance, gait, and ADLs following horse-riding exercise. Additionally, the experimental group showed significant differences in balance, gait, and ADLs compared with in the control group. [Conclusion] These results support that horse-riding exercise enhances balance, gait, and ADLs in stroke patients. This study supports the need for further research on horse-riding exercise programs. PMID:25931690

  12. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  13. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  14. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  15. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that...

  16. Engaging Students in Qualitative Research through Experiential Class Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Piercy, Fred P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the experiential activities that are used in a graduate course on qualitative research that addresses focus groups, observation, data collection, cultural sensitivity, ethnomethodology, data analysis, and morals and ethics in research. Explains that students participate in an activity in which they defend qualitative research. (CMK)

  17. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  18. Long Live Rock! Exploring Active Microbial Populations in North Pond Subsurface Basalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, H. J.; Lehne, J.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial life should be considered as an active source for subsurface alterations of crustal material. Over the past several decades, microbial populations have been qualitatively and quantitatively characterized in marine sediments from the near shore to gyre centers, from the surface to two kilometers below the surface. Recent exploration of the underlying basement has revealed bacterial populations within the basalt. Initial cultivation-based and in situ analysis of subsurface basalt has produced some structural identification of populations that have the potential to alter the crust. Within this study, we have advanced this understanding by characterizing the metabolically active fraction of these populations. A 16S rRNA gene transcript approach was conducted using high throughput sequencing on RNA extracted from breccia, glass basalts and ultramafic basalts of the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Previous research has shown that the fluid within the basement is oxic. As expected, populations associated with aerobic metabolism were detected. In addition, iron-utilizing populations were observed to be metabolically active within the basalt samples characterized. Future characterization will reveal overlap between previous studies to determine the total versus metabolically active populations.

  19. Diversity and activity of free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria and total bacteria in organic and conventionally managed soils.

    PubMed

    Orr, Caroline H; James, Angela; Leifert, Carlo; Cooper, Julia M; Cummings, Stephen P

    2011-02-01

    Agricultural soils are heterogeneous environments in which conditions affecting microbial growth and diversity fluctuate widely in space and time. In this study, the molecular ecology of the total bacterial and free-living nitrogen-fixing communities in soils from the Nafferton Factorial Systems Comparison (NFSC) study in northeast England were examined. The field experiment was factorial in design, with organic versus conventional crop rotation, crop protection, and fertility management factors. Soils were sampled on three dates (March, June, and September) in 2007. Total RNA was extracted from all soil samples and reverse transcribed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to analyze nifH and 16S rRNA genes in order to study free-living diazotrophs and the total bacterial community, respectively. Crop rotation was shown to have a significant effect on total bacterial diversity (and that of free-living N fixers) (P ≤ 0.001). On all three dates, nifH activity was higher in the conventional crop rotation. In contrast, qPCR analysis of free-living N fixers indicated significantly higher levels of activity in conventionally fertilized plots in June (P = 0.0324) and in plots with organic crop protection in September (P = 0.0143). To our knowledge, the effects of organic and conventional farming systems on free-living diazotrophs have never been studied. An increased understanding of the impacts of management practices on free-living N fixers could allow modifications in soil management practices to optimize the activity of these organisms. PMID:21131514

  20. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  1. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  2. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  3. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scientific research activity, exempted...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries § 600.745 Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity. (a) Scientific research activity. Nothing in this...

  4. Using Claims Data to Predict Dependency in Activities of Daily Living as a Proxy for Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Faurot, Keturah R.; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Pate, Virginia; Brookhart, M. Alan; Patrick, Amanda; Hanson, Laura C.; Castillo, Wendy Camelo; Stürmer, Til

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Estimating drug effectiveness and safety among older adults in population-based studies using administrative healthcare claims can be hampered by unmeasured confounding due to frailty. A claims-based algorithm that identifies patients likely to be dependent, a proxy for frailty, may improve confounding control. Our objective was to develop an algorithm to predict dependency in activities of daily living (ADL) in a sample of Medicare beneficiaries. Methods Community-dwelling respondents to the 2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, >65 years old, with Medicare Part A, B, home health, and hospice claims were included. ADL dependency was defined as needing help with bathing, eating, walking, dressing, toileting, or transferring. Potential predictors were demographics, ICD-9 diagnosis/procedure and durable medical equipment codes for frailty-associated conditions. Multivariable logistic regression was to predict ADL dependency. Cox models estimated hazard ratios for death as a function of observed and predicted ADL dependency. Results Of 6391 respondents, 57% were female, 88% white, and 38% were ≥80. The prevalence of ADL dependency was 9.5%. Strong predictors of ADL dependency were charges for a home hospital bed (OR=5.44, 95% CI=3.28–9.03) and wheelchair (OR=3.91, 95% CI=2.78–5.51). The c-statistic of the final model was 0.845. Model-predicted ADL dependency of 20% or greater was associated with a hazard ratio for death of 3.19 (95% CI: 2.78, 3.68). Conclusions An algorithm for predicting ADL dependency using healthcare claims was developed to measure some aspects of frailty. Accounting for variation in frailty among older adults could lead to more valid conclusions about treatment use, safety, and effectiveness. PMID:25335470

  5. Temperature fluctuations in the lower limbs of young and elderly individuals during activities of daily living.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vladimir V; Lin, David C

    2014-09-01

    Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that elderly individuals have lower plantarflexor temperatures than their younger counterparts. Skin temperatures above the plantarflexors of elderly and young individuals were continuously recorded during ADL in the winter months and compared under three conditions: quiescent indoor temperature, during a cold challenge, and the recovery period subsequent to the cold challenge. For quiescent indoor periods, differences in skin temperature between the two groups were not statistically significant. During cold exposures, both age and exposure duration were statistically significant factors related to the decrease in skin temperature, with the elderly group maintaining warmer temperatures. In the recovery period following short duration cold exposures, a statistically significant difference between the two groups for the decrease in skin temperature persisted for the first 9min of recovery. The results do not support the hypothesis that the lower limbs of elderly participants are colder. Higher limb temperatures observed in elderly participants were consistent with previous studies of age-related thermoregulatory changes, indicating that deficiencies in vasoconstriction are persistent in ADL. PMID:24909351

  6. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  7. S-20 photocathode research activity. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Gex, F.; Huen, T.; Kalibjian, R.

    1983-11-22

    The goal of this activity has been to develop and implement S-20 photocathode processing techniques at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to study the physical properties of the photocathode films. The present work is the initial phase of a planned activity in understanding cathode fabrication techniques and the optical/electrical characterization of these films.

  8. Translating the Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and assessing their concurrent validity with VAS measures of pain and activities in daily living

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Dutch Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires are three validated instruments to measure physical activity and limitations in daily living in patients with lower extremity disorders living at home of which no German equivalents are available. Our scope was to translate the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires into German and to verify its concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Methods We translated the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires according to published guidelines. Demographic data and validity were assessed in 52 consecutive patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 of the lower extremity. Information on age, duration of symptoms, type of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and type of initiating event were obtained. We assessed the concurrent validity in the two domains pain and activities in daily living by comparing them with the corresponding measures on the Visual Analogue Scale. Results We found that variability in the German Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Rising and Sitting Questionnaires was largely explained by measures of pain and activities in daily living on the Visual Analogue Scale. Conclusion Our study shows that the domains pain and activities in daily living are properly represented in the German versions of the Walking Stairs, Walking Ability and Raising and Sitting Questionnaires. We would like to propagate their use in clinical practice and research alike. PMID:20515456

  9. Active Aging: Exploration into Self-Ratings of "Being Active," Out-of-Home Physical Activity, and Participation among Older Australian Adults Living in Four Different Settings.

    PubMed

    Aird, Rosemary L; Buys, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether self-ratings of "being active" among older people living in four different settings (major city high and lower density suburbs, a regional city, and a rural area) were associated with out-of-home participation and outdoor physical activity. A mixed-methods approach (survey, travel diary, and GPS tracking over a one-week period) was used to gather data from 48 individuals aged over 55 years. Self-ratings of "being active" were found to be positively correlated with the number of days older people spent time away from home but unrelated to time traveled by active means (walking and biking). No significant differences in active travel were found between the four study locations, despite differences in their respective built environments. The findings suggest that additional strategies to the creation of "age-friendly" environments are needed if older people are to increase their levels of outdoor physical activity. "Active aging" promotion campaigns may need to explicitly identify the benefits of walking outdoors to ambulatory older people as a means of maintaining their overall health, functional ability, and participation within society in the long-term and also encourage the development of community-based programs in order to facilitate regular walking for this group. PMID:26346381

  10. Physical Activity and Sport in the Lives of Girls. Physical & Mental Health Dimensions from an Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Research on Girls and Women in Sport.

    This report highlights relevant research and expert opinion on girls' involvement in physical activity and sport. Research findings revealed: (1) more girls are participating in a wider array of physical activities than ever before; (2) regular physical activity in adolescence can reduce risk for obesity and hyperlipidemia, increase bone mass and…

  11. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cosponsored research and....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research... objectives of the contract. Since the purpose of the cosponsored research and development, the...

  12. Telling Moments and Everyday Experience: Multiple Methods Research on Couple Relationships and Personal Lives

    PubMed Central

    Gabb, Jacqui; Fink, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Everyday moments and ordinary gestures create the texture of long-term couple relationships. In this article we demonstrate how, by refining our research tools and conceptual imagination, we can better understand these vibrant and visceral relationships. The ‘moments approach’ that we propose provides a lens through which to focus in on couples’ everyday experiences, to gain insight on processes, meanings and cross-cutting analytical themes whilst ensuring that feelings and emotionality remain firmly attached. Calling attention to everyday relationship practices, we draw on empirical research to illustrate and advance our conceptual and methodological argument. The Enduring Love? study included an online survey (n = 5445) and multi-sensory qualitative research with couples (n = 50) to interrogate how they experience, understand and sustain their long-term relationships. PMID:26456983

  13. The Elderly’s Independent Living in Smart Homes: A Characterization of Activities and Sensing Infrastructure Survey to Facilitate Services Development

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Qin; García Hernando, Ana Belén; de la Cruz, Iván Pau

    2015-01-01

    Human activity detection within smart homes is one of the basis of unobtrusive wellness monitoring of a rapidly aging population in developed countries. Most works in this area use the concept of “activity” as the building block with which to construct applications such as healthcare monitoring or ambient assisted living. The process of identifying a specific activity encompasses the selection of the appropriate set of sensors, the correct preprocessing of their provided raw data and the learning/reasoning using this information. If the selection of the sensors and the data processing methods are wrongly performed, the whole activity detection process may fail, leading to the consequent failure of the whole application. Related to this, the main contributions of this review are the following: first, we propose a classification of the main activities considered in smart home scenarios which are targeted to older people’s independent living, as well as their characterization and formalized context representation; second, we perform a classification of sensors and data processing methods that are suitable for the detection of the aforementioned activities. Our aim is to help researchers and developers in these lower-level technical aspects that are nevertheless fundamental for the success of the complete application. PMID:26007717

  14. An overview of TPV research activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2004-11-01

    The thermophotovoltaic (TPV) research activity in Japan has prospered from the second half of the 90s. In this paper, we will present an overview of TPV research activities in Japan. TPV technologies have been surveyed by research committees in NEDO as a part of the research activity of the New Sunshine Project. The TPV is considered as a new application of non-conventional solar cells, and the situation of TPV technologies, especially TPV cells, in USA and EU is surveyed. Systematic investigative research on TPV systems was performed by ENAA on FY1997 and 1998. In this investigative research on potential market for a TPV power source in Japan has been focused on how TPV can contribute to energy conservation and environmental protection and harmony, compared with conventional engine or turbine generators and underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, etc. In addition to the investigative research, the technical research activities are introduced in this paper.

  15. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections.

    PubMed

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  16. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    PubMed Central

    Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. Rick; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R.; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is “to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind.” Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections. PMID:26092453

  17. The United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN): Enhancing Microbial Genomics Research through Living Microbe Culture Collections

    SciTech Connect

    Boundy-Mills, K.; Hess, Matthias; Bennett, A. R.; Ryan, Matthew; Kang, Seogchan; Nobles, David; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Sitepu, Irnayuli R.; Torok, Tamas; Brown, Daniel R; Cho, Juliana; Wertz, John E.; Mukherjee, Supratim; Cady, Sherry L.; McCluskey, Kevin

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Culture Collection Network (USCCN; http://usccn.org) is "to facilitate the safe and responsible utilization of microbial resources for research, education, industry, medicine, and agriculture for the betterment of human kind." Microbial culture collections are a key component of life science research, biotechnology, and emerging global biobased economies. Representatives and users of several microbial culture collections from the United States and Europe gathered at the University of California, Davis, to discuss how collections of microorganisms can better serve users and stakeholders and to showcase existing resources available in public culture collections.

  18. Living Together in Commercial Harmony: Research as a Catalyst for Cooperative "Town-Gown" Relations. Research Report 17-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balenger, Victoria J.; And Others

    In some communities, commercial activity by the local university is perceived as a threat to the reciprocity of the "town-gown" exchange relationship. This study was designed to provide an information base from which negotiations in this area could proceed. Students (N=200) and faculty/staff (N=100) at the University of Maryland, College Park,…

  19. Boost-phase discrimination research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David M.; Deiwert, George S.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical research in two areas was performed. The aerothermodynamics research focused on the hard-body and rocket plume flows. Analytical real gas models to describe finite rate chemistry were developed and incorporated into the three-dimensional flow codes. New numerical algorithms capable of treating multi-species reacting gas equations and treating flows with large gradients were also developed. The computational chemistry research focused on the determination of spectral radiative intensity factors, transport properties and reaction rates. Ab initio solutions to the Schrodinger equation provided potential energy curves transition moments (radiative probabilities and strengths) and potential energy surfaces. These surfaces were then coupled with classical particle reactive trajectories to compute reaction cross-sections and rates.

  20. Seeking New Ways of Living Community in the Classroom and the World: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Action research is a method of examining one's own practice through reflection and critical self-study. In this paper, the author considers her experience teaching a two-day lesson on connections and relationships in William Forsythe's dance "One Flat Thing, reproduced" (2000) and the accompanying website, Synchronous Objects. The author reviews…

  1. How Faculty at Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions Incorporate Undergraduate Research in Their Work Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Frances Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines why and how science and social science faculty at predominantly undergraduate colleges engage in undergraduate research (UR) while successfully attending to their scholarly and professional responsibilities. Given the increase in attention to UR as an innovative practice enhancing undergraduate education, most studies have…

  2. Infants as Others: Uncertainties, Difficulties and (Im)possibilities in Researching Infants' Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Sheena; Bradley, Ben; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are trying to understand what daily life is like for infants in non-parental care from the perspectives of the infants themselves. In this article, we argue that it is profoundly difficult, if not impossible, to know how infants experience their worlds with any certainty and, indeed, whether they do or do not possess…

  3. On Food, Farming and Land Management: Towards a Research Agenda to Reconnect Urban and Rural Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Justin; Rickinson, Mark; Sanders, Dawn; Teamey, Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Science education has a key role to play in helping people to develop their understanding of the local and global dimensions of food, farming and land management. Based on a review of the literature on what is known about young people's (3-19) views towards and learning about these topics, a research agenda is outlined for consideration by the…

  4. Ecological Momentary Assessment: A Research Method for Studying the Daily Lives of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Weiss, Howard M.; Templin, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as an effective approach for capturing teachers' emotional states and behaviours over time. Although the implementation of EMA has a rich and successful history among social science researchers in general, traditional retrospective, self-report methods for collecting…

  5. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Technical progress report, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents research on radiopharmaceuticals. The following topics are discussed: antibody labeling with positron-emitting radionuclides; antibody modification for radioimmune imaging; labeling antibodies; evaluation of technetium acetlyacetonates as potential cerebral blood flow agents; and studies in technetium chemistry. (CBS)

  6. Design for Living: The Theoretical and Practical Relevance of HCI to Communication Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Kevin; Dillon, Andrew

    Viewed through an investigation of the cultural and social impact of Information Technology (IT), this paper attempts to illustrate the theoretical and practical utility of HCI (Human Computer Interaction) to communication research. Informed by the full integration hypothesis, which suggests that information technologies have become part of the…

  7. Regional Educational Laboratories 2002 Annual Report: Improving the Lives of Children through Education Research & Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Lab. at Brown Univ., Providence, RI.

    This report, the second annual report of the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) system's current 5-year contract, shows the progress laboratories have made in meeting regional challenges and establishing national leadership in critical areas. The report also illustrates who the labs are using research and development to gain knowledge about how…

  8. Optimizing Social Network Support to Families Living With Parental Cancer: Research Protocol for the Cancer-PEPSONE Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    first results are anticipated to be finished by November 2015. Conclusions To our knowledge, this will be the first RCT study to optimize social network support through a psycho-educational program for families living with parental cancer and their network members, as well as provide an evidence basis for social network support. The results may provide important knowledge that is useful for clinical practice and further research. The trial is reported according to the CONSORT checklist. ClinicalTrial International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 15982171; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN15982171/15982171 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6cg9zunS0) PMID:26733339

  9. Activities of the Research Laboratory of Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Jonathan; Kleppner, Daniel

    1991-08-01

    This progress report contains both a statement of research objectives and a summary of research efforts for research projects listed. Partial contents include: (1) submicron structures technology and research; (2) microstructural evolution in thin films of electronic materials; (3) focused ion beam fabrication; (4) chemical reaction dynamics at surfaces; (5) measurement of electron-phonon interactions through large-amplitude phonon excitation; (6) chemical beam epitaxy of compound semiconductors; (7) high-frequency InAlAs/InGaAs metal-insulator-doped semiconductor field-effect transistors for telecommunications; (8) novel superconducting tunneling structures; (9) optics and quantum electronics; (10) superconducting electronic devices; (11) synchrotron X ray studies of surface disordering; (12) semiconductor surface studies; (13) single electron transistors; (14) quantum optics and photonics; (15) plasma dynamics; (16) electromagnetic wave theory and applications; (17) radio astronomy; (18) digital signal processing; (19) speech processing; (20) custom integrated circuits; (21) speech communication; (22) sensory communications; (23) signal transmission in the auditory system; and (24) linguistics.

  10. Action Research: Conducting Activities for Third Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Lorinda

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the action research conducted on whether the use of conducting patterns will not only help students understand meter, but also assist them in grasping certain expressive qualities of music. Finds that the posttest showed a 10 percent gain overall in the understanding of meter, tempo, dynamics, and style. (CMK)

  11. Live-cell Imaging of Pol II Promoter Activity to Monitor Gene expression with RNA IMAGEtag reporters

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ilchung; Ray, Judhajeet; Gupta, Vinayak; Ilgu, Muslum; Beasley, Jonathan; Bendickson, Lee; Mehanovic, Samir; Kraus, George A.; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit

    2014-04-20

    We describe a ribonucleic acid (RNA) reporter system for live-cell imaging of gene expression to detect changes in polymerase II activity on individual promoters in individual cells. The reporters use strings of RNA aptamers that constitute IMAGEtags (Intracellular MultiAptamer GEnetic tags) that can be expressed from a promoter of choice. For imaging, the cells are incubated with their ligands that are separately conjugated with one of the FRET pair, Cy3 and Cy5. The IMAGEtags were expressed in yeast from the GAL1, ADH1 or ACT1 promoters. Transcription from all three promoters was imaged in live cells and transcriptional increases from the GAL1 promoter were observed with time after adding galactose. Expression of the IMAGEtags did not affect cell proliferation or endogenous gene expression. Advantages of this method are that no foreign proteins are produced in the cells that could be toxic or otherwise influence the cellular response as they accumulate, the IMAGEtags are short lived and oxygen is not required to generate their signals. The IMAGEtag RNA reporter system provides a means of tracking changes in transcriptional activity in live cells and in real time.

  12. Alkyne-tag Raman imaging of bio-active small molecules in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Jun; Palonpon, Almar F.; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Kawata, Satoshi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-12-01

    Raman microscopy is useful for molecular imaging and analysis of biological specimens. Here, we used alkyne containing a carbon-carbon triple bond as a Raman tag for observing small molecules in live cells. Alkyne tags can maintain original properties of target molecules with providing high chemical specificity owing to its distinct peak in a Raman-silent window of biomolecules. For demonstrations, alkyne-tagged thymidine and coenzyme Q analogue in live cells were visualized with high-spatial resolution. We extended the application of alkyne-tag imaging to visualize cell organelles and specific lipid components in artificial monolayer membranes.

  13. Trends in intrusive and eruptive activity during Kilauea's long-lived east rift zone eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.; Heliker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Kilauea Volcano's Pu`u `O`o eruption, continuing for nearly three decades, offers a unique opportunity to study trends in eruptive behavior. One such trend, that of uprift intrusion ± eruption, accompanied by crater floor collapse and eruptive hiatus, has been repeated several times at Pu`u `O`o. This includes the February 7, 1993, intrusion; the January 29, 1997, intrusion and eruption; the September 12, 1999, intrusion; and the June 17, 2007, intrusion and eruption. Activity resumed within Pu`u `O`o following each of these events, and crater refilling culminated eventually in the outbreak of lava from new vents on the flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone. The pattern was repeated again in 2011, when a brief fissure eruption uprift from Pu`u `O`o started on March 5. The Pu`u `O`o crater floor dropped about 115 m in response to the eruption, which ceased on March 9. After a short hiatus, lava reappeared in Pu`u `O`o on March 26, and the crater began to fill slowly thereafter by overflow from a central lava lake. Starting in late June 2011, however, the crater floor began to uplift in a wholesale fashion, suggesting an increase in the pressure beneath the Pu`u `O`o edifice. By late July, the lava within the crater had reached its highest level since early 2004, and lava had begun to overflow from the southwestern side of the crater. On August 3, the west side of the Pu`u `O`o cone was abruptly thrust upward as a sill was injected beneath that portion of the cone. Within minutes, lava began to erupt from a crack on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o, completing the pattern of intrusion, crater collapse, refilling, and breakout. During a long-lived eruption, maintaining a detailed observational and geophysical record is essential for recognizing patterns that may emerge. Recognizing such a pattern allowed Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists to prepare a response well in advance of the August 3, 2011 event, and provides guidance for responding to future eruption crises at Pu`u `O

  14. Active and long-lived permanent forearc deformation driven by the subduction seismic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aron Melo, Felipe Alejandro

    I have used geological, geophysical and engineering methods to explore mechanisms of upper plate, brittle deformation at active forearc regions. My dissertation particularly addresses the permanent deformation style experienced by the forearc following great subduction ruptures, such as the 2010 M w8.8 Maule, Chile and 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquakes. These events triggered large, shallow seismicity on upper plate normal faults above the rupture reaching Mw7.0. First I present new structural data from the Chilean Coastal Cordillera over the rupture zone of the Maule earthquake. The study area contains the Pichilemu normal fault, which produced the large crustal aftershocks of the megathrust event. Normal faults are the major neotectonic structural elements but reverse faults also exist. Crustal seismicity and GPS surface displacements show that the forearc experiences pulses of rapid coseismic extension, parallel to the heave of the megathrust, and slow interseismic, convergence-parallel shortening. These cycles, over geologic time, build the forearc structural grain, reactivating structures properly-oriented respect to the deformation field of each stage of the interplate cycle. Great subduction events may play a fundamental role in constructing the crustal architecture of extensional forearc regions. Static mechanical models of coseismic and interseismic upper plate deformation are used to explore for distinct features that could result from brittle fracturing over the two stages of the interplate cycle. I show that the semi-elliptical outline of the first-order normal faults along the Coastal Cordillera may define the location of a characteristic, long-lived megathrust segment. Finally, using data from the Global CMT catalog I analyzed the seismic behavior through time of forearc regions that have experienced great subduction ruptures >Mw7.7 worldwide. Between 61% and 83% of the cases where upper plate earthquakes exhibited periods of increased seismicity

  15. From Data Acquisition to Data Fusion: A Comprehensive Review and a Roadmap for the Identification of Activities of Daily Living Using Mobile Devices

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Ivan Miguel; Garcia, Nuno M.; Pombo, Nuno; Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the research on the state of the art for sensor fusion techniques, applied to the sensors embedded in mobile devices, as a means to help identify the mobile device user’s daily activities. Sensor data fusion techniques are used to consolidate the data collected from several sensors, increasing the reliability of the algorithms for the identification of the different activities. However, mobile devices have several constraints, e.g., low memory, low battery life and low processing power, and some data fusion techniques are not suited to this scenario. The main purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the state of the art to identify examples of sensor data fusion techniques that can be applied to the sensors available in mobile devices aiming to identify activities of daily living (ADLs). PMID:26848664

  16. Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

  17. Research activities of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography are discussed. The NASA programs, include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), and the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  18. Understanding barriers and facilitators to healthy eating and active living in rural communities.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Rebecca; Connor, Leah; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea; Eldridge, Galen

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8-15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30-84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  19. Understanding Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and Active Living in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, Rebecca; Nelson, Miriam; LaCroix, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studies demonstrate that people's food and physical activity (PA) environments influence behavior, yet research examining this in rural communities is limited. Methods. Focus groups of 8–15 women were conducted in rural communities in seven US states. Questions were designed to identify factors within residents' food and PA environments they felt helped or hindered them from eating healthfully and being physically active. Results. Participants were aged 30–84 years; mean (SD) = 61 (14) (N = 95). On average, communities had fewer than 5,000 residents. Limited time, social norms, and distances from or lack of exercise facilities were common PA barriers. Facilitators for PA included social support, dog walking, and availability of affordable facilities. Healthy eating barriers included the perception that healthy foods were too expensive; calorically dense large portion sizes served at family meals; and frequency of eating foods away from home, which were perceived as generally unhealthy. Healthy eating supports included culture/value around local food gathering (e.g., hunting and gardening) and preservation (e.g., canning and smoking). Friends and family were frequently identified as key influencers of eating and PA behavior. Conclusions. Targeting both social and built environment factors, particularly those unique to rural locales, may enhance support for healthy eating and PA behavior change interventions. PMID:25574386

  20. Living longer with adult high-grade glioma: setting a research agenda for patients and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Russell, Bethany; Collins, Anna; Dally, Michael; Dowling, Anthony; Gold, Michelle; Murphy, Michael; Philip, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    The long-term survival of patients with adult high-grade glioma (HGG) remains poor, but for those who do live longer functional status and neurocognitive ability may be influenced by residual or recurrent tumour, or treatment-related complications. The aim of this review was to examine the current literature regarding the quality of life and experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers, with a view to understanding the burden of treatment on patient abilities and deficits over time. Medline, PsychINFO and CINAHL databases were searched for the core concept of HGG in combination with an aspect of quality of long-term survival. Key findings of the 12 included studies were identified and synthesised thematically. There is a paucity of dedicated studies which have investigated the experiences of this cohort. The strength of existing literature is limited by the systematic exclusion of the poorest functioning patients and the under-representation of caregiver perspectives. Discrepancies in how patients view their quality of life were highlighted, despite consistent findings of significant physical and functional impairment. This review confirmed the presence of important differences between patient and caregiver views regarding patient abilities following treatment. Caregiver burden was found to be high, due to multiple dynamic and relentless stressors. The true experience of patients living longer with adult HGG and their caregivers remains unclear, particularly for patients with poorer neurocognitive and functional outcomes. Further research is required to clarify and replicate findings, explore discrepancies between patient and caregiver views, and to specifically investigate how caregiver needs and experiences may evolve over time. PMID:24980038

  1. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  2. Corrosion Research And Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2001-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  3. Corrosion Research and Web Site Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidersbach, Robert H.

    2002-01-01

    This report covers corrosion-related activities at the NASA Kennedy Space Center during the summer of 2000. The NASA Kennedy Space Center's corrosion web site, corrosion.ksc.nasa.gov, was updated with new information based on feedback over the past two years. The methodology for a two-year atmospheric exposure testing program to study the effectiveness of commercial chemicals sold for rinsing aircraft and other equipment was developed and some preliminary laboratory chemical analyses are presented.

  4. Drosophotoxicology: An Emerging Research Area for Assessing Nanoparticles Interaction with Living Organisms.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Ratiu, Attila Cristian; Popa, Marcela; Ecovoiu, Alexandru Al

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology allowed the fabrication of a wide range of different nanomaterials, raising many questions about their safety and potential risks for the human health and environment. Most of the current nanotoxicology research is not standardized, hampering any comparison or reproducibility of the obtained results. Drosophotoxicology encompasses the plethora of methodological approaches addressing the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a choice organism in toxicology studies. Drosophila melanogaster model offers several important advantages, such as a relatively simple genome structure, short lifespan, low maintenance cost, readiness of experimental manipulation comparative to vertebrate models from both ethical and technical points of view, relevant gene homology with higher organisms, and ease of obtaining mutant phenotypes. The molecular pathways, as well as multiple behavioral and developmental parameters, can be evaluated using this model in lower, medium or high throughput type assays, allowing a systematic classification of the toxicity levels of different nanomaterials. The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on the applications of Drosophila melanogaster model for the in vivo assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and to reveal the huge potential of this model system to provide results that could enable a proper selection of different nanostructures for a certain biomedical application. PMID:26907252

  5. Drosophotoxicology: An Emerging Research Area for Assessing Nanoparticles Interaction with Living Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Ratiu, Attila Cristian; Popa, Marcela; Ecovoiu, Alexandru Al.

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of nanotechnology allowed the fabrication of a wide range of different nanomaterials, raising many questions about their safety and potential risks for the human health and environment. Most of the current nanotoxicology research is not standardized, hampering any comparison or reproducibility of the obtained results. Drosophotoxicology encompasses the plethora of methodological approaches addressing the use of Drosophila melanogaster as a choice organism in toxicology studies. Drosophila melanogaster model offers several important advantages, such as a relatively simple genome structure, short lifespan, low maintenance cost, readiness of experimental manipulation comparative to vertebrate models from both ethical and technical points of view, relevant gene homology with higher organisms, and ease of obtaining mutant phenotypes. The molecular pathways, as well as multiple behavioral and developmental parameters, can be evaluated using this model in lower, medium or high throughput type assays, allowing a systematic classification of the toxicity levels of different nanomaterials. The purpose of this paper is to review the current research on the applications of Drosophila melanogaster model for the in vivo assessment of nanoparticles toxicity and to reveal the huge potential of this model system to provide results that could enable a proper selection of different nanostructures for a certain biomedical application. PMID:26907252

  6. Living in contained environments: Research implications from undersea habitats. [undersea habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1986-01-01

    A cost-reward model is used to frame a discussion of differences in observed behavior of individuals and groups in confined environments. It has been observed that the high cost of functioning in a stressful environment is likely to produce poor performance when anticipated rewards are low but that participants can manage the stress and achieve high performance if they anticipate high rewards. The high-reward environment is exemplified by early undersea habitats such as Sealab and Tektite and by early space missions. Other aspects of behavior occur in all confined environments and point to an important area for future research. Of particular interest are intergroup conflicts arising between the confined group and its external control. Also, individual differences in personality seem always to have an impact in confined environments. Recent research has focused on: (1) predicting performance and adjustment based on instrumental and expressive aspects of the self; (2) the differential predictive power of achievement striving and irritation/irritability in Type A personalities; and (3) the nature and role of leadership in small, isolated groups.

  7. Functional Status Assessment of COPD Based on Ability to Perform Daily Living Activities: A Systematic Review of Paper and Pencil Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Monjazebi, Fateme; Dalvandi, Asghar; Ebadi, Abbas; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Richter, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Context: Activity of daily living (ADL) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increasing ADL is important in patients with COPD and assessment of ADL is one of the best ways to evaluate the status of COPD patients. Objectives: The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of paper and pencil instruments measuring ADL in patients with COPD. Data Sources: English papers published from 1980 to 2014 regarding ADL in patients with COPD were searched in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “COPD”, “ADL”, “activities of daily living”, “daily activities”, “instrument”, “questionnaire”, “paper-and-pencil instruments”, and “measure”. Following the Internet search, manual search was also done to find article references. Study Selection: A total of 186 articles were found. Of those, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Full texts of articles meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments”(COSMIN) were used to assess the quality of the studies. Data Extraction: Data extraction form based on research aims developed by researchers and psychometric experts, with 17 questions was used. Results: In these articles, 14 pen and paper instruments were identified for examining ADL in patients with COPD; of which, 4 dealt directly with ADL while 9 assessed other criteria i.e. dyspnea as ADL indicator. The majority of instruments only dealt with two main dimensions of ADL: Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and did not consider Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL), which is influenced by cultural and motivational factors. Conclusion: Despite several ADL instruments identified, complete psychometric processes have only been done in

  8. Activities of Daily Living Curriculum for Handicapped Adults. Materials Development Center Reprint #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. - Stout, Menomonie. Dept. of Rehabilitation and Manpower Services. Materials Development Center.

    Designed for use in group and shelter homes, this curriculum is intended to impart the necessary skills for independent living. It should also better prepare mentally and physically handicapped individuals with the training required to handle the responsibilities accompanying competitive employment. These fourteen courses are included: money…

  9. Making It Better: Activities for Children Living in a Stressful World, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oehlberg, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Children living with uncertainty and insecurity often have difficulty focusing on learning. They might demonstrate disrespectful or defiant behaviors, act out, or act with aggression. As an educator, you may provide the only stability in their otherwise turbulent world. "Making It Better" explains trauma-­informed education, an approach…

  10. Impairment in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and the Geriatric Syndrome of Self-Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naik, Aanand D.; Burnett, Jason; Pickens-Pace, Sabrina; Dyer, Carmel B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to characterize self-neglect definitively as a geriatric syndrome by identifying an association with functional impairment. Design and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional home evaluation of 100 community-living older adults referred by Adult Protective Services for geriatric self-neglect and 100 matched adults from a…

  11. Effects of a cognitive-enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Chung, JaeYeop; Park, JuHyung; You, HeeCheon; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of a cognitive enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly population of a local Korean community were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 22 elderly subjects who were 65 years of age or older, had been diagnosed with dementia, and were attending a daily care center in K City, Republic of Korea. Eleven subjects participated in the program, which was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks for a total of 16 sessions. Eleven subjects in a non-training group did not receive any interventions. [Results] The MMSE-K, MBI and KDS scores of all of the eleven subjects who participated in the program improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Cognitive enhancement group training programs may have positive effects on daily living activities, cognition, and depression. PMID:25931707

  12. Impact of Sativex(®) on quality of life and activities of daily living in patients with multiple sclerosis spasticity.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Rafael; Vila, Carlos; Dechant, Kerry L

    2014-07-01

    In individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity, associated symptoms such as spasms, pain, mobility restrictions and sleep disturbances can interfere with the ability to perform activities of daily living and reduce quality of life (QoL). Recent cross-sectional studies from Europe have confirmed that advancing severity of MS spasticity correlates directly with worsening QoL. The treatment effect of Sativex(®) (GW Pharmaceuticals PLC, Porton Down, UK; Laboratorios Almirall, SA, Barcelona, Spain) on QoL has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials, observational studies conducted under everyday clinical practice conditions and a survey in long-term users. Symptomatic relief of MS spasticity in responders to Sativex was associated with quantifiable improvements in QoL and activities of daily living that were maintained over time. Benefits were perceived by both patients and caregivers. PMID:25275238

  13. Effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung-beom; Kim, Young-dong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of kinesiology taping on the upper-extremity function and activities of daily living of patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects] The experimental group and control group comprised 15 hemiplegia patients each. [Methods] This study was performed from June 4 to December 22, 2012, involving 30 hemiplegia patients. The experimental and controls groups performed task practices for 30 minutes, 3 times per week for 28 weeks with and without taping, respectively. [Results] After treatment, there were significant differences in every outcome measures within each group except for the Brunnstrom recovery stage of the hand. However, there was a significant difference in functional independence movements between the groups. [Conclusion] Task practice has the same effectiveness regardless of the taping of the upper extremities. Nevertheless, taping is helpful for improving both the functions and activities of daily living in patients with hemiplegia. PMID:26157239

  14. Ecological Validity of Virtual Reality Daily Living Activities Screening for Early Dementia: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Schlee, Winfried; Tsolaki, Magda; Müri, René; Mosimann, Urs; Nef, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    , and chair stands separately and while performing VR-DOTs in order to correlate performance in these measures with VR-DOTs because performance while navigating a virtual environment is a valid and reliable indicator of cognitive decline in elderly persons. Results The mild AD group was more impaired than the amnestic MCI group, and both were more impaired than healthy controls. The novel VR-DOT functional index correlated strongly with standard cognitive and functional measurements, such as mini-mental state examination (MMSE; rho=0.26, P=.01) and Bristol Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale scores (rho=0.32, P=.001). Conclusions Functional impairment is a defining characteristic of predementia and is partly dependent on the degree of cognitive impairment. The novel virtual reality measures of functional ability seem more sensitive to functional impairment than qualitative measures in predementia, thus accurately differentiating from healthy controls. We conclude that VR-DOT is an effective tool for discriminating predementia and mild AD from controls by detecting differences in terms of errors, omissions, and perseverations while measuring ADL functional ability. PMID:25658491

  15. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) OIL SHALE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activ...

  16. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  17. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  18. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  19. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  20. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... development activities. 27.408 Section 27.408 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research and development that require the contractor to make substantial contributions of funds or resources...

  1. Outdoor Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Kathy

    Course objectives and learning activities are contained in this curriculum guide for a 16-week home economics course which teaches cooking and sewing skills applicable to outdoor living. The course goals include increasing male enrollment in the home economics program, developing students' self-confidence and ability to work in groups, and…

  2. Research suggests that one in two women, possibly more, experience violence in their lives.

    PubMed

    1999-03-01

    This editorial discusses domestic violence, which is the main topic of articles in this issue of Links. All contributing authors participated in Oxfam's workshop on violence against women held in Sarajevo. The workshop included 60 women from 25 countries who shared experiences and exchanged strategies for overcoming violence against women. Plans in 1999 include the domestic violence meeting in March of the Preparatory Committee for the International Criminal Court (ICC). Progress in changing social acceptance of domestic violence and in changing laws will depend upon governments' willingness to sign UN conventions and withdraw reservations. The UN Commission on the Status of Women will meet to review and appraise implementation of the Beijing Plan of Action. Oxfam has been active in pressuring the ICC to prosecute all forms of sexual violence as war crimes and as crimes against humanity. The first such prosecution in a Rwanda case is included in this issue. This issue also includes articles that reveal the experiences of women's organizations which are active in ending violence against women. These groups have used awareness-raising strategies, information gathering, lobbying for the creation and implementation of national and international laws, and establishment of services such as shelters and telephone support lines. The common thread regardless of country of origin is the suffering in silence and sense of isolation experienced by victims of violence and the difficulty of leaving violent domestic situations due to traditional values and social structures. PMID:12295031

  3. Living with a Star: New Opportunities in Sun-Climate Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eddy, John Allen

    2003-01-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the last quarter century in all of these needed areas, covering the two essential halves of the Sun-Climate question: in what we know of solar variations and, equally important, in what we know of the climate system and of climatic changes. These research achievements allow us to examine all aspects of the question more directly and quantitatively than was ever possible before, and in the brighter light and more objective context of other known or suspected climate change mechanisms, including human-induced global greenhouse warming. Brief summaries of present status and current understanding are given below for nine facets of Sun-Climate science in which major progress has been made in recent years. At the same time it will be seen that in every instance, significant elements of uncertainty still remain, Some of the most important of these unanswered questions are considered later, in Section IV.

  4. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  5. Qualitative research and its methods in epilepsy: Contributing to an understanding of patients' lived experiences of the disease.

    PubMed

    Rapport, Frances; Clement, Clare; Doel, Marcus A; Hutchings, Hayley A

    2015-04-01

    This review paper makes the case for the usefulness of qualitative research methods in the context of epilepsy research. It begins with an assessment of the current state of epilepsy literature and identifies gaps especially in the following: research in 'developing' countries and research around surgery for adults with epilepsy. It makes the case that disclosure of people's behaviors, actions, and reactions in different, often complex health-care situations can indicate how they bring meaning to their disease experiences and support needs. It shows the value of encouraging work that clarifies how patients manage their illness and how they understand changes in their health and well-being over the life course of their illness and how health-care professionals and other stakeholder groups care for those with epilepsy. The paper suggests a range of methods for addressing gaps in the literature and highlights a range of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation and synthesis techniques that are appropriate in this context. It pays particular attention to the strengths of qualitative applications in mixed-methods research using an example from a recent ulcerative colitis drug trial that indicates how they can be integrated into study findings, add rich description, and enhance study outcomes. Ethnographic methodology is also presented, as a way of offering rare access to the 'lived experience' dimension, before the paper concludes with an assessment of the qualitative criteria of credibility, dependability, transferability, and confirmability for judging a study's 'trustworthiness'. The criteria evidence not only the trustworthiness of data and findings but also the ways in which a study has approached any challenges inherent in its research design. PMID:25847427

  6. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  7. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  8. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research and... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration,...

  9. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  10. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cosponsored research and... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration,...

  11. Rational protection of subjects in research and quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Beth; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Berlant, Jeffrey; Dulit, Rebecca A; Hackman, Ann; Oslin, David W; Siris, Samuel G; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-02-01

    This Open Forum illuminates shortcomings with the basis for determining degree of oversight of health services research and quality improvement activities. Using a federally regulated definition of research rather than a direct appraisal of risk to patients can misallocate effort from activities with higher risk for patients to those with lower risk. The case of the Johns Hopkins multicenter study of central line safety checklists in intensive care units is cited. Definitions of research promulgated by the Office of Human Research Protection are reviewed, and an alternative model based on patient risk is proposed. Suggestions for how quality improvement work fits into the larger paradigm of research are made. PMID:20123824

  12. Facile, Fast-Responsive, and Photostable Imaging of Telomerase Activity in Living Cells with a Fluorescence Turn-On Manner.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Yuan; Huang, Fujian; Xu, Qi; Zhang, Mengshi; Lou, Xiaoding; Xia, Fan

    2016-03-15

    In situ detecting and monitoring intracellular telomerase activity is significant for cancer diagnosis. In this work, we report a facile and fast-responsive bioprobe for in situ detection and imaging of intracellular telomerase activity with superior photostability. After transfected into living cells, quencher group labeled TS primer (QP) can be extended in the presence of intracellular telomerase. Positive charged TPE-Py molecules (AIE dye) will bind to the primer as well as extension repeated units, producing a telomerase activity-related turn-on fluorescence signal. By incorporating positive charged AIE dye and substrate oligonucleotides, in situ light-up imaging and detection of intracellular telomerase activity were achieved. This strategy exhibits good performance for sensitive in situ tracking of telomerase activity in living cells. The practicality of this facile and fast-responsive telomerase detection method was demonstrated by using it to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells and to monitor the change of telomerase activity during treatment with antitumor drugs, which shows its potential in clinical diagnostic and therapeutic monitoring. PMID:26867868

  13. Living with chronic low back pain: a metasynthesis of qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Snelgrove, Sherrill; Liossi, Christina

    2013-12-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this qualitative metasynthesis is to articulate the knowledge gained from a review of qualitative studies of patients' experiences of chronic low back pain. METHODS Meta-ethnographic methodology guided the review of 33 articles representing 28 studies published in English in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2012. A systematic comparison of the main themes from each study was conducted and 'synthesised' to create superordinate themes. RESULTS Three overarching interrelated themes were identified: the impact of chronic low back pain on self; relationships with significant others that incorporated two streams - health professionals and the organisation of care and relationships with family and friends; coping with chronic low back pain. Coping strategies were predominantly physical therapies, medication and avoidance behaviours with very few successful strategies reported. Professional and family support, self-efficacy, motivation, work conditions and exercise opportunities influenced pain experiences. Review authors' recommendations included psychological therapies, education, the facilitation of self-management strategies and support groups. DISCUSSION The review substantiates chronic low back pain as complex, dynamic and multidimensional, underpinned by experiences of persistent distressing pain, loss, and lowered self-worth, stigma, depression, premature aging, fear of the future. Future research should address the paucity of longitudinal studies, loss and issues of ethnicity, gender, ageing. PMID:23585633

  14. Racemization and the origin of optically active organic compounds in living organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bada, J. L.; Miller, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    The organic compounds synthesized in prebiotic experiments are racemic mixtures. A number of proposals have been offered to explain how asymmetric organic compounds formed on the Earth before life arose, with the influence of chiral weak nuclear interactions being the most frequent proposal. This and other proposed asymmetric syntheses give only sight enantiomeric excess and any slight excess will be degraded by racemization. This applies particularly to amino acids where half-lives of 10(5)-10(6) years are to be expected at temperatures characteristic of the Earth's surface. Since the generation of chiral molecules could not have been a significant process under geological conditions, the origins of this asymmetry must have occurred at the time of the origin of life or shortly thereafter. It is possible that the compounds in the first living organisms were prochiral rather than chiral; this is unlikely for amino acids, but it is possible for the monomers of RNA-like molecules.

  15. [Brain Bioelectrical Activity in Early Childhood Specific for Children Living in Orphanages].

    PubMed

    Kulenkova, A A; Dyagileva, Yu O; Pavlenko, V B; Belalov, V V; Kochukhova, O M

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether the electroencephalogram (EEG) during visual fixation in institutionalized children shows the altered oscillation properties. EEG was recorded in the "eyes open" situation with visual attention fixed on a cartoon in 51 2-3.5 years old children living in Simferopol orphanage, Crimea and in 53 age-matched children living in families. Oscillation properties were measured using the relative power (RP) indices of theta-, alpha-, beta- and gamma-rhythms. Institutionalized children showed higher RP of alpha rhythm in seven loci (frontal polar, anterior temporal, posterior temporal and left occipital derivations), lower RP of theta rhythm in eight loci (frontal polar, frontal, anterior temporal and posterior temporal derivations). In addition, RP of beta- and gamma-rhythms were decreased in the left anterior temporal area. These results suggest that institutionalized children show impaired development of CNS, in particular development of limbic system and neocortex, probably are caused by early social deprivation. PMID:26860003

  16. [Activities of Bay Area Research Corporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    During the final year of this effort the HALFSHEL code was converted to work on a fast single processor workstation from it s parallel configuration. This was done because NASA Ames NAS facility stopped supporting space science and we no longer had access to parallel computer time. The single processor version of HALFSHEL was upgraded to address low density cells by using a a 3-D SOR solver to solve the equation Delta central dot E = 0. We then upgraded the ionospheric load packages to provide a multiple species load of the ionosphere out to 1.4 Rm. With these new tools we began to perform a series of simulations to address the major topic of this research effort; determining the loss rate of O(sup +) and O2(sup +) from Mars. The simulations used the nominal Parker spiral field and in one case used a field perpendicular to the solar wind flow. The simulations were performed for three different solar EUV fluxes consistent with the different solar evolutionary states believed to exist before today. The 1 EUV case is the nominal flux of today. The 3 EUV flux is called Epoch 2 and has three times the flux of todays. The 6 EUV case is Epoch 3 and has 6 times the EUV flux of today.

  17. Observations of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in an active Bald Eagle nest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anthony, R.G.; Faris, J.T.

    2003-01-01

    We report an apparent nonlethal predation attempt on and subsequent adoption of a Glaucous-winged Gull (Larus glaucescens) chick by a pair of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a live Glaucous-winged Gull chick in a Bald Eagle nest. We describe our observations of this occurrence and offer explanations on how it may have occurred.

  18. Relationships between Interlibrary Loan and Research Activity in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duy, Joanna; Larivière, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Interlibrary Loan borrowing rates in academic libraries are influenced by an array of factors. This article explores the relationship between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and research activity at 42 Canadian academic institutions. A significant positive correlation was found between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and measures of…

  19. Imaging lysosomal enzyme activity in live cells using self-quenched substrates

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, William. H.; Payne, Christine K.

    2012-01-01

    Endocytosis, the internalization and transport of extracellular cargo, is an essential cellular process. The ultimate step in endocytosis is the intracellular degradation of extracellular cargo for use by the cell. While live cell imaging and single particle tracking have been well-utilized to study the internalization and transport of cargo, the final degradation step has required separate biochemical assays. We describe the use of self-quenched endocytic cargo to image the intracellular transport and degradation of endocytic cargo directly in live cells. We first outline the fluorescent labeling and quantification of two common endocytic cargos; a protein, bovine serum albumin, and a lipid nanoparticle, low-density lipoprotein. In vitro measurements confirm that self-quenching is a function of the number of fluorophores bound to the protein or particle and that recovery of the fluorescent signal occurs in response to enzymatic degradation. We then use confocal fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to demonstrate the use of self-quenched bovine serum albumin with standard fluorescence techniques. Using live cell imaging and single particle tracking, we find that the degradation of bovine serum albumin occurs in an endo-lysosomal vesicle that is positive for LAMP1. PMID:22387398

  20. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480