Science.gov

Sample records for active magnesium chelatase

  1. ATPases and phosphate exchange activities in magnesium chelatase subunits of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Hansson, M; Kannangara, C G

    1997-11-25

    Three separate proteins, BchD, BchH, and BchI, together with ATP, insert magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. An analysis of ATP utilization by the subunits revealed the following: BchH catalyzed ATP hydrolysis at the rate of 0.9 nmol per min per mg of protein. BchI and BchD, tested individually, had no ATPase activity but, when combined, hydrolyzed ATP at the rate of 117.9 nmol/min per mg of protein. Magnesium ions were required for the ATPase activities of both BchH and BchI+D, and these activities were inhibited 50% by 2 mM o-phenanthroline. BchI additionally catalyzed a phosphate exchange reaction from ATP and ADP. We conclude that ATP hydrolysis by BchI+D is required for an activation step in the magnesium chelatase reaction, whereas ATPase activity of BchH and the phosphate exchange activity of BchI participate in subsequent reactions leading to the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX.

  2. Reduced chlorophyll biosynthesis in heterozygous barley magnesium chelatase mutants.

    PubMed

    Braumann, Ilka; Stein, Nils; Hansson, Mats

    2014-05-01

    Chlorophyll biosynthesis is initiated by magnesium chelatase, an enzyme composed of three proteins, which catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX to produce Mg-protoporphyrin IX. In barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the three proteins are encoded by Xantha-f, Xantha-g and Xantha-h. Two of the gene products, XanH and XanG, belong to the structurally conserved family of AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and form a complex involving six subunits of each protein. The complex functions as an ATP-fueled motor of the magnesium chelatase that uses XanF as substrate, which is the catalytic subunit responsible for the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. Previous studies have shown that semi-dominant Xantha-h mutations result in non-functional XanH subunits that participate in the formation of inactive AAA complexes. In the present study, we identify severe mutations in the barley mutants xantha-h.38, -h.56 and -h.57. A truncated form of the protein is seen in xantha-h.38, whereas no XanH is detected in xantha-h.56 and -h.57. Heterozygous mutants show a reduction in chlorophyll content by 14-18% suggesting a slight semi-dominance of xantha-h.38, -h.56 and -h.57, which otherwise have been regarded as recessive mutations.

  3. Reconstitution of an active magnesium chelatase enzyme complex from the bchI, -D, and -H gene products of the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B L; Jensen, P E; Gibson, L C; Stummann, B M; Hunter, C N; Henningsen, K W

    1998-02-01

    Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase, the first enzyme unique to the (bacterio)chlorophyll-specific branch of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway, catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. Three genes, designated bchI, -D, and -H, from the strictly anaerobic and obligately phototrophic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme show a significant level of homology to the magnesium chelatase-encoding genes bchI, -D, and -H and chlI, -D, and -H of Rhodobacter sphaeroides and Synechocystis strain PCC6803, respectively. These three genes were expressed in Escherichia coli; the subsequent purification of overproduced BchI and -H proteins on an Ni2+-agarose affinity column and denaturation of insoluble BchD protein in 6 M urea were required for reconstitution of Mg-chelatase activity in vitro. This work therefore establishes that the magnesium chelatase of C. vibrioforme is similar to the magnesium chelatases of the distantly related bacteria R. sphaeroides and Synechocystis strain PCC6803 with respect to number of subunits and ATP requirement. In addition, reconstitution of an active heterologous magnesium chelatase enzyme complex was obtained by combining the C. vibrioforme BchI and -D proteins and the Synechocystis strain PCC6803 ChlH protein. Furthermore, two versions, with respect to the N-terminal start of the bchI gene product, were expressed in E. coli, yielding ca. 38- and ca. 42-kDa versions of the BchI protein, both of which proved to be active. Western blot analysis of these proteins indicated that two forms of BchI, corresponding to the 38- and the 42-kDa expressed proteins, are also present in C. vibrioforme.

  4. The magnesium-chelatase in developing cucumber cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1990-05-01

    Mg-chelatase in chloroplasts catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin. This step is the first in the tetrapyrrole pathway unique to chlorophyll biosynthesis. Mg-chelatase was assayed in semi-green cucumber cotyledons by an adaptation of the method of Fuesler at al, (1984) Plant Physiol. 74, 928-933. Plastid intactness was essential for Mg-chelatase activity. The estimated Km for the protoporphyrin substrate was between 0.5 and 1.0 {mu}M. In the presence of 4 mM ATP and an ATP regenerating system, activities of 500 pmol Mg-Protoporphyrin/mg protein/20 min were routinely recorded. In greening cotyledons, the specific activity of the Mg-chelatase increased steadily until the chlorophyll content of the plastids reached about 30 nmol/mg plastid protein, at which point further greening caused a decrease in Mg-chelatase activity. The total heme content of the plastids also rose with greening and paralleled the increase in Mg-chelatase activity. The regulation of heme levels and Mg-chelatase activity in greening cotyledons will be discussed. Substrate specificity studies showed that mesoporphyrin and deuteroporphyrin were active substrates for Mg chelation. The Mg-chelatase was not inhibited by its product, Mg-Protoporphyrin, but was inhibited by N-methyl mesoporphyrin (I{sub 50} = 2.5 {mu}M). Mg-chelatase activity was also measured in fully mature pea and corn chloroplasts (grown under diurnal light); the specific activities were comparable with those in cucumber.

  5. Three separate proteins constitute the magnesium chelatase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Gibson, L C; Kanangara, C G; Hunter, C N; von Wettstein, D

    1996-01-15

    The insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX is the first step unique to chlorophyll production and is catalyzed by magnesium chelatase. The Rhodobacter sphaeroides genes, bchI and bchD together, and bchH alone, were cloned and expressed with the pET3a vector in Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3). The 40-kDa BchI protein was synthesized in greater abundance compared to the 70-kDa BchD protein when both were expressed together from the same plasmid. The production of large amounts of the 140-kDa BchH protein in E. coli was accompanied by an accumulation of protoporphyrin IX. The accumulated protoporphyrin IX was bound specifically to BchH in an approximate molar ratio of 1:1. All three recombinant proteins were soluble; BchH was monomeric, Bchl was dimeric, while BchD appeared to be polymeric with a molecular mass of approximately 550 kDa. The BchH and BchI proteins were purified to apparent homogeneity while BchD was separated from BchI and partially purified. Magnesium was inserted into protoporphyrin IX and deuteroporphyrin by combining these three proteins in the presence of ATP. One monomer of BchH to one dimer of BchI gave the optimal magnesium chelatase activity and the activity was dependent on the amount of partially purified BchD added to the assay at the optimum BchH:BchI ratio. The reaction was dissected into two parts with an activation step requiring BchI, BchD, and Mg2+-ATP, and a metal-insertion step which in addition requires Mg2+, protoporphyrin IX, and BchH. The stoichiometric binding of protoporphyrin IX to BchH in vitro is direct evidence for BchH carrying out such a role in vivo whereas the other two proteins are involved in ATP activation and magnesium insertion.

  6. Catalytic turnover triggers exchange of subunits of the magnesium chelatase AAA+ motor unit.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Braumann, Ilka; Kurowska, Marzena; Müller, André H; Hansson, Mats

    2013-08-16

    The ATP-dependent insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX is the first committed step in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The reaction is catalyzed by magnesium chelatase, which consists of three gene products: BchI, BchD, and BchH. The BchI and BchD subunits belong to the family of AAA+ proteins (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and form a two-ring complex with six BchI subunits in one layer and six BchD subunits in the other layer. This BchID complex is a two-layered trimer of dimers with the ATP binding site located at the interface between two neighboring BchI subunits. ATP hydrolysis by the BchID motor unit fuels the insertion of Mg(2+) into the porphyrin by the BchH subunit. In the present study, we explored mutations that were originally identified in semidominant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants. The resulting recombinant BchI proteins have marginal ATPase activity and cannot contribute to magnesium chelatase activity although they apparently form structurally correct complexes with BchD. Mixing experiments with modified and wild-type BchI in various combinations showed that an exchange of BchI subunits in magnesium chelatase occurs during the catalytic cycle, which indicates that dissociation of the complex may be part of the reaction mechanism related to product release. Mixing experiments also showed that more than three functional interfaces in the BchI ring structure are required for magnesium chelatase activity.

  7. Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase of Rhodobacter sphaeroides: reconstitution of activity by combining the products of the bchH, -I, and -D genes expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L C; Willows, R D; Kannangara, C G; von Wettstein, D; Hunter, C N

    1995-03-14

    Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase lies at the branch point of the heme and (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthetic pathways. In this work, the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been used as a model system for the study of this reaction. The bchH and the bchI and -D genes from R. sphaeroides were expressed in Escherichia coli. When cell-free extracts from strains expressing BchH, BchI, and BchD were combined, the mixture was able to catalyze the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin IX in an ATP-dependent manner. This was possible only when all three genes were expressed. The bchH, -I, and -D gene products are therefore assigned to the Mg chelatase step in bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. The mechanism of the Mg chelation reaction and the implications for chlorophyll biosynthesis in plants are discussed.

  8. Magnesium chelatase subunit D from pea: characterization of the cDNA, heterologous expression of an enzymatically active protein and immunoassay of the native protein.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Weinstein, J D; Walker, C J

    1999-12-01

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin and lies at the branchpoint of heme and (bacterio)chlorophyll synthesis. In prokaryotes, three genes--BchI, D and H--encode subunits for Mg-chelatase. In higher plants, homologous cDNAs for the I, D and H subunits have been characterized. Since the N-terminal half of the D subunit is homologous to the I subunit, the C-terminal portion of the pea D was used for antigen production. The antibody recognized the chloroplast D subunit and was used to demonstrate that this subunit associated with the membranes in the presence of MgCl2. The antibody immunoprecipitated the native protein and inhibited Mg-chelatase activity. Expression in Escherichia coli with a construct for the full-length protein (minus the putative transit peptide) resulted in induction of 24.5 kDa (major) and 89 kDa (minor) proteins which could only be solubilized in 6 M urea. However, when host cells were co-transformed with expression vectors for the full-length D subunit and for the 70 kDa HSP chaperonin protein, a substantial portion of the 89 kDa protein was expressed in a soluble form which was active in a Mg-chelatase reconstitution assay.

  9. Further characterization of the magnesium chelatase in isolated developing cucumber chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-04-01

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the first step unique to the chlorophyll branch of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, namely the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Mg-chelatase was assayed in intact chloroplasts from semi-green cucumber (Cucumis sativus, cv Sumter) cotyledons. In the presence of Proto and MgATP, enzyme activity was linear for 50 minutes. Plastid intactness was directly related to (and necessary for) Mg-chelatase activity. Uncouplers and ionophores did not inhibit Mg-chelatase in the presence of ATP. The nonhydrolyzable ATP analogs, {beta},{gamma}-methylene ATP and adenylylimidodiphosphate, could not sustain Mg-chelatase activity alone and were inhibitory in the presence of ATP (I{sub 50} 10 and 3 millimolar, respectively). Mg-chelatase was also inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 50 micromolar) and the metal ion chelators 2,2{prime}-dipyridyl and 1,10 phenanthroline (but not to the same degree by their nonchelating analogs). In addition to Proto, the following porphyrins acted as Mg-chelatase substrates, giving comparable specific activities: deuteroporphyrin, mesoporphyrin, 2-ethyl, 4-vinyl Proto and 2-vinyl, 4-ethyl Proto. Mg-chelatase activity and freely exchangeable heme levels increased steadily with greening, reaching a maximum and leveling off after 15 hours in the light. Exogenous protochlorophyllide, chlorophyllide, heme, and Mg-Proto had no measurable effect on Mg-chelatase activity. The potent ferrochelatase inhibitors, N-methylmesoporphyrin and N-methylprotoporphyrin, inhibited Mg-chelatase at micromolar concentrations.

  10. Characterization of three homologs of the large subunit of the magnesium chelatase from Chlorobaculum tepidum and interaction with the magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ethan T; Schmidt-Dannert, Claudia

    2008-10-10

    Green bacteria synthesize several types of (bacterio)chlorophylls for the assembly of functional photosynthetic reaction centers and antenna complexes. A distinctive feature of green bacteria compared with other photosynthetic microbes is that their genomes contain multiple homologs of the large subunit (BchH) of the magnesium chelatase which is a three-subunit enzyme complex (BchH, BchD, and BchI) that inserts magnesium into protoporphyrin IX as the first committed step of (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis. There is speculation that the additional BchH homologs may regulate the biosynthesis of each type of chlorophyll, although the biochemical properties of the different magnesium chelatase complexes from a single species of green bacteria have not yet been compared. In this study, we investigated the activities of all three chelatase complexes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum and interactions with the next enzyme in the pathway, magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (BchM). Although all three chelatase complexes insert magnesium into protoporphyrin IX, the activities range by a factor of 10(5). Further, there are differences in the interactions between the BchH homologs and BchM; two of the subunits increase the methyltransferase activity by 30-60%, and the third decreases it by 30%. Expression of the chelatase complexes alone and together with BchM in Escherichia coli overproducing protoporphyrin IX suggests that the chelatase is the rate-limiting enzyme. We observed that BchM uses protoporphyrin IX without bound metal as a substrate. Our results conflict with expectations generated by previous gene inactivation studies and suggest a complex regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis in green bacteria.

  11. Kinetic analyses of the magnesium chelatase provide insights into the mechanism, structure, and formation of the complex.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Artur; Willows, Robert D

    2008-11-14

    The metabolic pathway known as (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis is initiated by magnesium chelatase (BchI, BchD, BchH). This first step involves insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX (proto), a process requiring ATP hydrolysis. Structural information shows that the BchI and BchD subunits form a double hexameric enzyme complex, whereas BchH binds proto and can be purified as BchH-proto. We utilized the Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase subunits using continuous magnesium chelatase assays and treated the BchD subunit as the enzyme with both BchI and BchH-proto as substrates. Michaelis-Menten kinetics was observed with the BchI subunit, whereas the BchH subunit exhibited sigmoidal kinetics (Hill coefficient of 1.85). The BchI.BchD complex had intrinsic ATPase activity, and addition of BchH greatly increased ATPase activity. This was concentration-dependent and gave sigmoidal kinetics, indicating there is more than one binding site for the BchH subunit on the BchI.BchD complex. ATPase activity was approximately 40-fold higher than magnesium chelatase activity and continued despite cessation of magnesium chelation, implying one or more secondary roles for ATP hydrolysis and possibly an as yet unknown switch required to terminate ATPase activity. One of the secondary roles for BchH-stimulated ATP hydrolysis by a BchI.BchD complex is priming of BchH to facilitate correct binding of proto to BchH in a form capable of participating in magnesium chelation. This porphyrin binding is the rate-limiting step in catalysis. These data suggest that ATP hydrolysis by the BchI.BchD complex causes a series of conformational changes in BchH to effect substrate binding, magnesium chelation, and product release.

  12. Three semidominant barley mutants with single amino acid substitutions in the smallest magnesium chelatase subunit form defective AAA+ hexamers.

    PubMed

    Hansson, A; Willows, R D; Roberts, T H; Hansson, M

    2002-10-15

    Many enzymes of the bacteriochlorophyll and chlorophyll biosynthesis pathways have been conserved throughout evolution, but the molecular mechanisms of the key steps remain unclear. The magnesium chelatase reaction is one of these steps, and it requires the proteins BchI, BchD, and BchH to catalyze the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Structural analyses have shown that BchI forms hexamers and belongs to the ATPases associated with various cellular activities (AAA(+)) family of proteins. AAA(+) proteins are Mg(2+)-dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring structures in the presence of ATP. By using ATPase-deficient BchI subunits, we demonstrate that binding of ATP is sufficient to form BchI oligomers. Further, ATPase-deficient BchI proteins can form mixed oligomers with WT BchI. The formation of BchI oligomers is not sufficient for magnesium chelatase activity when combined with BchD and BchH. Combining WT BchI with ATPase-deficient BchI in an assay disrupts the chelatase reaction, but the presence of deficient BchI does not inhibit ATPase activity of the WT BchI. Thus, the ATPase of every WT segment of the hexamer is autonomous, but all segments of the hexamer must be capable of ATP hydrolysis for magnesium chelatase activity. We suggest that ATP hydrolysis of each BchI within the hexamer causes a conformational change of the hexamer as a whole. However, hexamers containing ATPase-deficient BchI are unable to perform this ATP-dependent conformational change, and the magnesium chelatase reaction is stalled in an early stage.

  13. BchJ and BchM interact in a 1 : 1 ratio with the magnesium chelatase BchH subunit of Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Sawicki, Artur; Willows, Robert D

    2010-11-01

    Substrate channeling between the enzymatic steps in the (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by magnesium chelatase (BchI/ChlI, BchD/ChlD and BchH/ChlH subunits) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine:magnesium-protoporphyrin IX O-methyltransferase (BchM/ChlM) has been suggested. This involves delivery of magnesium-protoporphyrin IX from the BchH/ChlH subunit of magnesium chelatase to BchM/ChlM. Stimulation of BchM/ChlM activity by BchH/ChlH has previously been shown, and physical interaction of the two proteins has been demonstrated. In plants and cyanobacteria, there is an added layer of complexity, as Gun4 serves as a porphyrin (protoporphyrin IX and magnesium-protoporphyrin IX) carrier, but this protein does not exist in anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. BchJ may play a similar role to Gun4 in Rhodobacter, as it has no currently assigned function in the established pathway. Purified recombinant Rhodobacter capsulatus BchJ and BchM were found to cause a shift in the equilibrium amount of Mg-protoporphyrin IX formed in a magnesium chelatase assay. Analysis of this shift revealed that it was always in a 1 : 1 ratio with either of these proteins and the BchH subunit of the magnesium chelatase. The establishment of the new equilibrium was faster with BchM than with BchJ in a coupled magnesium chelatase assay. BchJ bound magnesium-protoporphyrin IX or formed a ternary complex with BchH and magnesium-protoporphyrin IX. These results suggest that BchJ may play a role as a general magnesium porphyrin carrier, similar to one of the roles of GUN4 in oxygenic organisms.

  14. An organelle-free assay for pea chloroplast Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Mg-chelatase, which catalyzes the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin, lies at the branchpoint of heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in chloroplasts. Since magnesium chelation is the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis, one would expect this step to be highly regulated. However, to date little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase due mostly to an inability to assay it's activity outside of the intact plastid. Here the authors report the first truly in vitro i.e. organelle-free, assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts which is 3 to 4 fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts, survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated, by centrifugation, into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity and both were inactivated by boiling; indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane bound protein(s). The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol Mg-Deuteroporphyrin/h/mg protein and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity. The soluble component could be fractionated with ammonium sulfate. The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. Crude separation of chloroplast membranes into thylakoids and envelopes, suggested that the membrane-bound component of Mg-chelatase is probably located in the envelope.

  15. Expression of the chlI, chlD, and chlH genes from the Cyanobacterium synechocystis PCC6803 in Escherichia coli and demonstration that the three cognate proteins are required for magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase activity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P E; Gibson, L C; Henningsen, K W; Hunter, C N

    1996-07-12

    Magnesium-protoporphyrin chelatase catalyzes the first step unique to chlorophyll synthesis: the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX. Genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 with homology to the bchI and bchD genes of Rhodobacter sp. were cloned using degenerate oligonucleotides. The function of these genes, putatively encoding subunits of magnesium chelatase, was established by overexpression in Escherichia coli, including the overexpression of Synechocystis chlH, previously cloned as a homolog of the Rhodobacter bchH gene. The combined cell-free extracts were able to catalyze the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX in an ATP-dependent manner and only when the products of all three genes were present. The ChlH, ChlI, and ChlD gene products are therefore assigned to the magnesium chelatase step in chlorophyll a biosynthesis in Synechocystis PCC6803. The primary structure of the Synechocystis ChlD protein reveals some interesting features; the N-terminal half of the protein shows 40-41% identity to Rhodobacter BchI and Synechocystis ChlI, whereas the C-terminal half displays 33% identity to Rhodobacter BchD. This suggests a functional as well as an evolutionary relationship between the "I" and "D" genes.

  16. Interplay between an AAA module and an integrin I domain may regulate the function of magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Fodje, M N; Hansson, A; Hansson, M; Olsen, J G; Gough, S; Willows, R D; Al-Karadaghi, S

    2001-08-03

    In chlorophyll biosynthesis, insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX is catalysed in an ATP-dependent reaction by a three-subunit (BchI, BchD and BchH) enzyme magnesium chelatase. In this work we present the three-dimensional structure of the ATP-binding subunit BchI. The structure has been solved by the multiple wavelength anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.1 A resolution to the crystallographic R-factor of 22.2 % (R(free)=24.5 %). It belongs to the chaperone-like "ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities" (AAA) family of ATPases, with a novel arrangement of domains: the C-terminal helical domain is located behind the nucleotide-binding site, while in other known AAA module structures it is located on the top. Examination by electron microscopy of BchI solutions in the presence of ATP demonstrated that BchI, like other AAA proteins, forms oligomeric ring structures. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of subunit BchD revealed an AAA module at the N-terminal portion of the sequence and an integrin I domain at the C terminus. An acidic, proline-rich region linking these two domains is suggested to contribute to the association of BchI and BchD by binding to a positively charged cleft at the surface of the nucleotide-binding domain of BchI. Analysis of the amino acid sequences of BchI and BchH revealed integrin I domain-binding sequence motifs. These are proposed to bind the integrin I domain of BchD during the functional cycle of magnesium chelatase, linking porphyrin metallation by BchH to ATP hydrolysis by BchI. An integrin I domain and an acidic and proline-rich region have been identified in subunit CobT of cobalt chelatase, clearly demonstrating its homology to BchD. These findings, for the first time, provide an insight into the subunit organisation of magnesium chelatase and the homologous colbalt chelatase.

  17. Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase subunit BchH contains an oxygen sensitive iron-sulfur cluster.

    PubMed

    Sirijovski, Nick; Mamedov, Fikret; Olsson, Ulf; Styring, Stenbjörn; Hansson, Mats

    2007-12-01

    Magnesium chelatase is the first unique enzyme of the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. It consists of three subunits (BchI, BchD, and BchH). Amino acid sequence analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus BchH revealed a novel cysteine motif (393CX2CX3CX14C) that was found in only six other proteobacteria (CX2CX3CX11-14C). The cysteine motif is likely to coordinate an unprecedented [Fe-S] cluster. Purified BchH demonstrated absorbance in the 460 nm region. This absorbance was abolished in BchH proteins with alanine substitutions at positions Cys396 and Cys414. These modified proteins were also EPR silent. In contrast, wild type BchH protein in the reduced state showed EPR signals resembling those of a [4Fe-4S] cluster with rhombic symmetry and g values at 1.90, 1.93, and 2.09, superimposed with a [3Fe-4S] cluster centered at g = 2.02. The [3Fe-4S] signal was observed independently of the [4Fe-4S] signal under oxidizing conditions. Mg-chelatase activity assays showed that the cluster is not catalytic. We suggest that the [4Fe-4S] and [3Fe-4S] signals originate from a single coordination site on the monomeric BchH protein and that the [4Fe-4S] cluster is sensitive to oxidation. It is speculated that the cluster participates in the switching between aerobic and anaerobic life of the proteobacteria.

  18. In vitro assay of the chlorophyll biosynthetic enzyme Mg-chelatase: Resolution of the activity into soluble and membrane-bound fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, C.J.; Weinstein, J.D. )

    1991-07-01

    The first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis is the Mg-chelatase-catalyzed insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX. Since iron insertion into protoporphyrin leads to heme formation, Mg-chelatase lies at the branch point of heme and chlorophyll synthesis in chloroplasts. Little is known about the enzymology or regulation of Mg-chelatase, as it has been assayed only in intact cucumber chloroplasts. In this report we describe an in vitro assay for Mg-chelatase. Mg-chelatase activity in intact pea chloroplasts was 3- to 4-fold higher than in cucumber chloroplasts. This activity survived chloroplast lysis and could be fractionated by centrifugation into supernatant and pellet components. Both of these fractions were required to reconstitute Mg-chelatase activity, and both were inactivated by boiling indicating that the enzyme is composed of soluble and membrane-bound protein(s). The product of the reaction was confirmed fluorometrically as the magnesium chelate of the porphyrin substrate. The specific activity of the reconstituted system was typically 1 nmol of Mg-deuteroporphyrin per h per mg of protein, and activity was linear for at least 60 min under our assay conditions. ATP and magnesium were required for Mg-chelatase activity and the enzymen was sensitive to the sulfhydryl reagent N-ethylmaleimide (I{sub 50}, 20 {mu}M). Broken and reconstituted cucumber chloroplasts were unable to maintain Mg-chelatase activity. However, the cucumber supernatant fraction was active when combined with the pellet fraction of peas; the converse was not true, which suggested that the cucumber pellet was the component that lost activity during lysis.

  19. ATP-induced conformational dynamics in the AAA+ motor unit of magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Joakim; Elmlund, Hans; Wulff, Ragna Peterson; Berglund, Lisa; Elmlund, Dominika; Emanuelsson, Cecilia; Hebert, Hans; Willows, Robert D; Hansson, Mats; Lindahl, Martin; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2010-03-10

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the first committed step of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway, the ATP-dependent insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Here we report the reconstruction using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy of the complex between subunits BchD and BchI of Rhodobacter capsulatus Mg-chelatase in the presence of ADP, the nonhydrolyzable ATP analog AMPPNP, and ATP at 7.5 A, 14 A, and 13 A resolution, respectively. We show that the two AAA+ modules of the subunits form a unique complex of 3 dimers related by a three-fold axis. The reconstructions demonstrate substantial differences between the conformations of the complex in the presence of ATP and ADP, and suggest that the C-terminal integrin-I domains of the BchD subunits play a central role in transmitting conformational changes of BchI to BchD. Based on these data a model for the function of magnesium chelatase is proposed.

  20. Heterologous expression of the Rhodobacter capsulatus BchI, -D, and -H genes that encode magnesium chelatase subunits and characterization of the reconstituted enzyme.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Beale, S I

    1998-12-18

    Magnesium chelatase inserts Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX in the chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathways. In photosynthetic bacteria, the products of three genes, bchI, bchD, and bchH, are required for magnesium chelatase activity. These genes from Rhodobacter capsulatus were cloned separately into expression plasmids pET3a and pET15b. The pET15b constructs produced NH2-terminally His6-tagged proteins. All proteins were highly expressed and were purified to near homogeneity. The BchI and BchH proteins were soluble. BchD proteins were insoluble, inactive inclusion bodies that were renatured by rapid dilution from 6 M urea. The presence of BchI in the solution into which the urea solution of BchD was diluted increased the yield of active BchD. A molar ratio of 1 BchI:1 BchD was sufficient for maximum renaturation of BchD. All of the proteins were active in the magnesium chelatase assay except His-tagged BchI, which was inactive and inhibited in incubations containing non-His-tagged BchI. Expressed BchH proteins contained tightly bound protoporphyrin IX, and they were susceptible to inactivation by light. Maximum magnesium chelatase activity per mol of BchD occurred at a stoichiometry of 4 BchI:1 BchD. The optimum reaction pH was 8.0. The reaction exhibited Michaelis-Menten kinetics with respect to protoporphyrin IX and BchH.

  1. Magnesium insertion by magnesium chelatase in the biosynthesis of zinc bacteriochlorophyll a in an aerobic acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Inoue, K; Masuda, M; Nagayama, M; Tamaki, A; Ohta, H; Shimada, H; Takamiya, K

    1999-11-19

    To elucidate the mechanism for formation of zinc-containing bacteriochlorophyll a in the photosynthetic bacterium Acidiphilium rubrum, we isolated homologs of magnesium chelatase subunits (bchI, -D, and -H). A. rubrum bchI and -H were encoded by single genes located on the clusters bchP-orf168-bchI-bchD-orf320-crtI and bchF-N-B-H-L as in Rhodobacter capsulatus, respectively. The deduced sequences of A. rubrum bchI, -D, and -H had overall identities of 59. 8, 40.5, and 50.7% to those from Rba. capsulatus, respectively. When these genes were introduced into bchI, bchD, and bchH mutants of Rba. capsulatus for functional complementation, all mutants were complemented with concomitant synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll a. Analyses of bacteriochlorophyll intermediates showed that A. rubrum cells accumulate magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester without detectable accumulation of zinc protoporphyrin IX or its monomethyl ester. These results indicate that a single set of magnesium chelatase homologs in A. rubrum catalyzes the insertion of only Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX to yield magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester. Consequently, it is most likely that zinc-containing bacteriochlorophyll a is formed by a substitution of Zn(2+) for Mg(2+) at a step in the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis after formation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester.

  2. Five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain of the ChlD subunit play a major role in conferring Mg(2+) cooperativity upon magnesium chelatase.

    PubMed

    Brindley, Amanda A; Adams, Nathan B P; Hunter, C Neil; Reid, James D

    2015-11-10

    Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll biosynthesis by inserting a Mg(2+) ion into protoporphyrin IX in an ATP-dependent manner. The cyanobacterial (Synechocystis) and higher-plant chelatases exhibit a complex cooperative response to free magnesium, while the chelatases from Thermosynechococcus elongatus and photosynthetic bacteria do not. To investigate the basis for this cooperativity, we constructed a series of chimeric ChlD proteins using N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains from Synechocystis and Thermosynechococcus. We show that five glutamic acid residues in the C-terminal domain play a major role in this process.

  3. Magnesium chelatase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides: initial characterization of the enzyme using purified subunits and evidence for a BchI-BchD complex.

    PubMed

    Gibson, L C; Jensen, P E; Hunter, C N

    1999-01-15

    The enzyme magnesium-protoporphyrin IX chelatase (Mg chelatase) catalyses the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin IX, the first committed step in (bacterio)chlorophyll biosynthesis. In the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, this reaction is catalysed by the products of the bchI, bchD and bchH genes. These genes have been expressed in Escherichia coli so that the BchI, BchD and BchH proteins are produced with N-terminal His6 affinity tags, which has led to the production of large amounts of highly purified, highly active Mg chelatase subunits from a single chromatography step. Furthermore, BchD has been purifed free of contamination with the chaperone GroEL, which had proven to be a problem in the past. BchD, present largely as an insoluble protein in E. coli, was purified in 6 M urea and refolded by addition of BchI, MgCl2 and ATP, yielding highly active protein. BchI/BchD mixtures prepared in this way were used in conjunction with BchH to determine the kinetic parameters of R. sphaeroides Mg chelatase for its natural substrates. We have been able to demonstrate for the first time that BchI and BchD form a complex, and that Mg2+ and ATP are required to establish and maintain this complex. Gel filtration data suggest that BchI and BchD form a complex of molecular mass 200 kDa in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP. Our data suggest that, in vivo, BchD is only folded correctly and maintained in its correct conformation in the presence of BchI, Mg2+ and ATP.

  4. Magnesium chelatase: association with ribosomes and mutant complementation studies identify barley subunit Xantha-G as a functional counterpart of Rhodobacter subunit BchD.

    PubMed

    Kannangara, C G; Vothknecht, U C; Hansson, M; von Wettstein, D

    1997-03-18

    Magnesium chelatase catalyses the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin and is found exclusively in organisms which synthesise chlorophyll or bacteriochlorophyll. Soluble protein preparations containing >10 mg protein/ml, obtained by gentle lysis of barley plastids and Rhodobacter sphaeroplasts, inserted Mg2+ into deuteroporphyrin IX in the presence of ATP at rates of 40 and 8 pmoles/mg protein per min, respectively. With barley extracts optimal activity was observed with 40 mM Mg2+. The activity was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of chloramphenicol. Mutations in each of three genetic loci, Xantha-f, -g and -h, in barley destroyed the activity. However, Mg-chelatase activity was reconstituted in vitro by combining pairwise the plastid stroma protein preparations from non-leaky xantha-f -g and -h mutants. This establishes that, as in Rhodobacter, three proteins are required for the insertion of magnesium into protoporphyrin IX in barley. These three proteins, Xantha-F, -G and -H, are referred to as Mg-chelatase subunits and they appear to exist separate from each other in vivo. Active preparations from barley and Rhodobacter yielded pellet and supernatant fractions upon centrifugation for 90 min at 272,000 x g. The pellet and the supernatant were inactive when assayed separately, but when they were combined activity was restored. Differential distribution of the Mg-chelatase subunits in the fractions was established by in vitro complementation assays using stroma protein from the xantha-f, -g, and -h mutants. Xantha-G protein was confined to the pellet fraction, while Xantha-H was confined to the supernatant. Reconstitution assays using purified recombinant BchH, BchI and partially purified BchD revealed that the pellet fraction from Rhodobacter contained the BchD subunit. The pellet fractions from both barley and Rhodobacter contained ribosomes and had an A260:A280 ratio of 1.8. On sucrose density gradients both Xantha-G and BchD subunits migrated with the

  5. EM single particle analysis of the ATP-dependent BchI complex of magnesium chelatase: an AAA+ hexamer.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Hansson, A; Birch, D; Al-Karadaghi, S; Hansson, M

    2004-01-01

    BchI, belonging to the AAA+ -protein family, forms the enzyme magnesium chelatase together with BchD and BchH. This enzyme catalyses the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX upon ATP hydrolysis. Previous studies have indicated that BchI forms ATP-dependent complexes and it is a member of the AAA+ -protein family (ATPases associated with various cellular activities) and it was suggested based on structural homology that the BchI formed hexameric complexes. AAA+ -proteins are Mg2+ -dependent ATPases that normally form oligomeric ring complexes in the presence of ATP. Single particle analysis of fully formed ring complexes of BchI observed by negative staining EM indicate that the BchI has strong 6- and 2-fold rotational symmetries and a weaker 4-fold rotational symmetry which are reminiscent of DNA helicase. A 2D average of the fully formed BchI-ATP ring complex is presented here from images of the complex obtained from negative staining EM. Other complexes are also observed in the EM micrographs and the class averages of these are indicative of the fragility and dynamic nature of the BchI complex which has been reported and they are suggestive of partially circular complexes with six or less protomers per particle. The resolution of the average circular complex is estimated at approximately 30A and it is similar in shape and size to an atomic resolution hexameric model of BchI rendered at 30A.

  6. Substrate-binding model of the chlorophyll biosynthetic magnesium chelatase BchH subunit.

    PubMed

    Sirijovski, Nickolche; Lundqvist, Joakim; Rosenbäck, Matilda; Elmlund, Hans; Al-Karadaghi, Salam; Willows, Robert D; Hansson, Mats

    2008-04-25

    Photosynthetic organisms require chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll to harness light energy and to transform water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. The biosynthesis of these pigments is initiated by magnesium chelatase, an enzyme composed of BchI, BchD, and BchH proteins, which catalyzes the insertion of Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX (Proto) to produce Mg-protoporphyrin IX. BchI and BchD form an ATP-dependent AAA(+) complex that transiently interacts with the Proto-binding BchH subunit, at which point Mg(2+) is chelated. In this study, controlled proteolysis, electron microscopy of negatively stained specimens, and single-particle three-dimensional reconstruction have been used to probe the structure and substrate-binding mechanism of the BchH subunit to a resolution of 25A(.) The apo structure contains three major lobe-shaped domains connected at a single point with additional densities at the tip of two lobes termed the "thumb" and "finger." With the independent reconstruction of a substrate-bound BchH complex (BchH.Proto), we observed a distinct conformational change in the thumb and finger subdomains. Prolonged proteolysis of native apo-BchH produced a stable C-terminal fragment of 45 kDa, and Proto was shown to protect the full-length polypeptide from degradation. Fitting of a truncated BchH polypeptide reconstruction identified the N- and C-terminal domains. Our results show that the N- and C-terminal domains play crucial roles in the substrate-binding mechanism.

  7. Cloning, subcellular localization and expression of CHL1, a subunit of magnesium-chelatase in soybean.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, M; Masuda, T; Sato, N; Yamagata, H; Bowler, C; Ohta, H; Shioi, Y; Takamiya, K

    1995-10-04

    Mg-insertion is the first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis and is catalyzed by Mg-chelatase. In photosynthetic bacteria, bchI gene product was suggested to be a subunit of Mg-chelatase. We isolated a bchI homolog from a soybean cDNA library and designated it as chlI. CHLI consisted of 421 amino acid residues and the sequence exhibited a high similarity to other BchI homologs. CHLI contained an ATP-binding motif found in other BchI homologs. CHLI was localized in the soluble fraction in soybean chloroplasts, suggesting that it was a stromal subunit of Mg-chelatase. chlI mRNA in cell culture (SB-P) of soybean was reversibly induced by light.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Rhodobacter capsulatus magnesium chelatase BchI subunit.

    PubMed

    Willows, R D; Hansson, M; Beale, S I; Laurberg, M; Al-Karadaghi, S

    1999-03-01

    The Rhodobacter capsulatus BchI protein is one of three subunits of Mg chelatase, the enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step of chlorophyll and bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis. The BchI protein was produced with an inducible T7 RNA polymerase expression system in Escherichia coli. The protein was purified from the soluble cell-extract fraction and crystallized from polyethylene glycol solution. The crystals diffract to a minimum Bragg spacing of 2.1 A. The space group is P63 with unit-cell dimensions a = b = 90.6, c = 84.1 A.

  9. Phosphorylation of GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 Alters Stimulation of Mg Chelatase Activity in Angiosperms1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hochheuser, Caroline; Fufezan, Christian; Heinze, Laura

    2016-01-01

    GENOMES UNCOUPLED 4 (GUN4) is a positive regulator of light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis. GUN4 activates Mg chelatase (MgCh) that catalyzes the insertion of an Mg2+ ion into protoporphyrin IX. We show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) GUN4 is phosphorylated at Ser 264 (S264), the penultimate amino acid residue at the C terminus. While GUN4 is preferentially phosphorylated in darkness, phosphorylation is reduced upon accumulation of Mg porphyrins. Expression of a phosphomimicking GUN4(S264D) results in an incomplete complementation of the white gun4-2 null mutant and a chlorotic phenotype comparable to gun4 knockdown mutants. Phosphorylated GUN4 has a reduced stimulatory effect on MgCh in vitro and in vivo but retains its protein stability and tetrapyrrole binding capacity. Analysis of GUN4 found in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms reveals the evolution of a C-terminal extension, which harbors the phosphorylation site of GUN4 expressed in angiosperms. Homologs of GUN4 from Synechocystis and Chlamydomonas lack the conserved phosphorylation site found in a C-terminal extension of angiosperm GUN4. Biochemical studies proved the importance of the C-terminal extension for MgCh stimulation and inactivation of GUN4 by phosphorylation in angiosperms. An additional mechanism regulating MgCh activity is proposed. In conjunction with the dark repression of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis, GUN4 phosphorylation minimizes the flow of intermediates into the Mg branch of the tetrapyrrole metabolic pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis. PMID:27688621

  10. The Magnesium-Chelatase H Subunit Binds Abscisic Acid and Functions in Abscisic Acid Signaling: New Evidence in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fu-Qing; Xin, Qi; Cao, Zheng; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Du, Shu-Yuan; Mei, Chao; Zhao, Chen-Xi; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Shang, Yi; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Yan, Lu; Zhao, Rui; Cui, Zi-Ning; Liu, Rui; Sun, Hai-Li; Yang, Xin-Ling; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Da-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Using a newly developed abscisic acid (ABA)-affinity chromatography technique, we showed that the magnesium-chelatase H subunit ABAR/CHLH (for putative abscisic acid receptor/chelatase H subunit) specifically binds ABA through the C-terminal half but not the N-terminal half. A set of potential agonists/antagonists to ABA, including 2-trans,4-trans-ABA, gibberellin, cytokinin-like regulator 6-benzylaminopurine, auxin indole-3-acetic acid, auxin-like substance naphthalene acetic acid, and jasmonic acid methyl ester, did not bind ABAR/CHLH. A C-terminal C370 truncated ABAR with 369 amino acid residues (631–999) was shown to bind ABA, which may be a core of the ABA-binding domain in the C-terminal half. Consistently, expression of the ABAR/CHLH C-terminal half truncated proteins fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wild-type plants conferred ABA hypersensitivity in all major ABA responses, including seed germination, postgermination growth, and stomatal movement, and the expression of the same truncated proteins fused with GFP in an ABA-insensitive cch mutant of the ABAR/CHLH gene restored the ABA sensitivity of the mutant in all of the ABA responses. However, the effect of expression of the ABAR N-terminal half fused with GFP in the wild-type plants was limited to seedling growth, and the restoring effect of the ABA sensitivity of the cch mutant was limited to seed germination. In addition, we identified two new mutant alleles of ABAR/CHLH from the mutant pool in the Arabidopsis Biological Resource Center via Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Targeting-Induced Local Lesions in Genomes. The abar-2 mutant has a point mutation resulting in the N-terminal Leu-348→Phe, and the abar-3 mutant has a point mutation resulting in the N-terminal Ser-183→Phe. The two mutants show altered ABA-related phenotypes in seed germination and postgermination growth but not in stomatal movement. These findings support the idea that ABAR/CHLH is an ABA receptor and reveal

  11. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins and lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX. Insertion of iron leads to heme, while insertion of magnesium leads to chlorophyll. The Mg-chelatase from intact cucumber chloroplasts has been characterized with regard to substrate specificity, regulation, ATP requirement, and a requirement for intact chloroplasts. Mg-chelatase was isolated from maize, barley and peas and characterized in order to circumvent the intact chloroplast requirement of cucumber Mg-chelatase. Pea Mg-chelatase activity is higher than cucumber Mg-chelatase activity, and lacks the requirement for intact chloroplasts. Studies on isolated pea Mg-chelatase have shown more cofactors are required for the reaction than are seen with ferrochelatase, indicating a greater opportunity for regulatory control of this pathway. Two of the cofactors are proteins, and there appears to be a requirement for a protease-sensitive component which is outside the outer envelope. We are developing a continuous spectrophotometric assay for Mg-chelatase activity, and an assay for free heme which has shown heme efflux from intact chloroplasts. 18 refs. (MHB)

  12. Color formation in nitrite-free dried hams as related to Zn-protoporphyrin IX and Zn-chelatase activity.

    PubMed

    Parolari, Giovanni; Benedini, Riccardo; Toscani, Tania

    2009-08-01

    The development of red pigment Zn-protoporphyrin IX (ZPP) in nitrite-free Parma hams was investigated in 5 leg muscles at several stages of processing and the activity of muscle Zn-chelatase was concurrently assayed for its potential role in ZPP formation. A steady increase of the pigment was observed throughout the manufacturing stages at mild temperatures while no development was observed during the prior cold resting phase. The enzyme was partly inactivated according to a muscle-dependent pattern, resulting in similar ZPP contents, hence color, in finished hams. It is concluded that enzyme-dependent synthesis of ZPP in nitrite-free dried hams contributes to color development, enabling muscles in dried hams to become more similar in redness than in green thighs. Therefore, checking raw meat for the enzyme content may be a means to control color formation in nitrite-free dry-cured meat derivatives.

  13. Mg-chelatase of tobacco: identification of a Chl D cDNA sequence encoding a third subunit, analysis of the interaction of the three subunits with the yeast two-hybrid system, and reconstitution of the enzyme activity by co-expression of recombinant CHL D, CHL H and CHL I.

    PubMed

    Papenbrock, J; Gräfe, S; Kruse, E; Hänel, F; Grimm, B

    1997-11-01

    Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase catalyzes insertion of the magnesium ion into protoporphyrin IX, the last common intermediate precursor in chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis, to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Synechocystis, the three open reading frames bchD/chID, bchH/chIH and bchI/chII encode proteins which are required for in vitro Mg-chelatase activity. In higher plants also, three proteins are necessary for the Mg chelation, and genes homologous to bchH and bchI have been isolated previously. In this study, a novel tobacco cDNA sequence homologous to bchD is isolated and initially characterized. Together with the tobacco clones encoding the other two subunits, full-length cDNAs are now available for the first time for all three subunits of one plant species. The CHL D polypeptide deduced from the open reading frame encodes a protein of 758 aa (82.9 kDa) with an amino terminal extension that resembles a plastid transit peptide. Sequence comparison of tobacco CHL D revealed similarities to the D subunit of Rhodobacter and Synechocystis of 44% and 75%. The amino terminal half of CHL D shows significant similarity (46%) to the entire CHL I peptide sequence, indicating a gene duplication from an ancestral gene. The carboxy terminal half seemed to be unique. Both parts of CHL D are linked with a glutamine/asparagine/proline-rich region flanked by a highly acid-rich segment. Protein-protein interaction among the three subunits CHL D, H and I was studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. Physical interaction was demonstrated between CHL D and CHL I indicating that CHL D is part of the Mg-chelatase. Heterodimer formation of CHL H with CHL I or CHL D could not be demonstrated by transactivation of the lacZ reporter gene. Homodimerization of the CHL D subunit was indicated in the more sensitive assay on X-Gal-containing agar plates. In vitro Mg2+ insertion into protoporphyrin IX was demonstrated in protein extracts of yeast strains expressing

  14. Inactivation of Mg chelatase during transition from anaerobic to aerobic growth in Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Willows, Robert D; Lake, Vanessa; Roberts, Thomas Hugh; Beale, Samuel I

    2003-06-01

    The facultative photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus can adapt from an anaerobic photosynthetic mode of growth to aerobic heterotrophic metabolism. As this adaptation occurs, the cells must rapidly halt bacteriochlorophyll synthesis to prevent phototoxic tetrapyrroles from accumulating, while still allowing heme synthesis to continue. A likely control point is Mg chelatase, the enzyme that diverts protoporphyrin IX from heme biosynthesis toward the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthetic pathway by inserting Mg(2+) to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. Mg chelatase is composed of three subunits that are encoded by the bchI, bchD, and bchH genes in R. capsulatus. We report that BchH is the rate-limiting component of Mg chelatase activity in cell extracts. BchH binds protoporphyrin IX, and BchH that has been expressed and purified from Escherichia coli is red in color due to the bound protoporphyrin IX. Recombinant BchH is rapidly inactivated by light in the presence of O(2), and the inactivation results in the formation of a covalent adduct between the protein and the bound protoporphyrin IX. When photosynthetically growing R. capsulatus cells are transferred to aerobic conditions, Mg chelatase is rapidly inactivated, and BchH is the component that is most rapidly inactivated in vivo when cells are exposed to aerobic conditions. The light- and O(2)-stimulated inactivation of BchH could account for the rapid inactivation of Mg chelatase in vivo and provide a mechanism for inhibiting the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll during adaptation of photosynthetically grown cells to aerobic conditions while still allowing heme synthesis to occur for aerobic respiration.

  15. A Magnesium-Activated Carbon Hybrid Capacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, HD; Shterenberg, I; Gofer, Y; Doe, RE; Fischer, CC; Ceder, G; Aurbach, D

    2013-12-11

    Prototype cells of hybrid capacitor were developed, comprising activated carbon (AC) cloth and magnesium (Mg) foil as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. The electrolyte solution included ether solvent (TBF) and a magnesium organo-halo-aluminate complex 0.25 M Mg2Cl3+-Ph2AlCl2-. In this solution Mg can be deposited/dissolved reversibly for thousands of cycles with high reversibility (100% cycling efficiency). The main barrier for integrating porous AC electrodes with this electrolyte solution was the saturation of the pores with the large ions in the AC prior to reaching the potential limit. This is due to the existence of bulky Mg and Al based ionic complexes consisting Cl, alkyl or aryl (R), and THF ligands. This problem was resolved by adding 0.5 M of lithium chloride (LiCl), thus introducing smaller ionic species to the solution. This Mg hybrid capacitor system demonstrated a stable cycle performance for many thousands of cycles with a specific capacitance of 90 Fg(-1) for the AC positive electrodes along a potential range of 2.4 V. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Magnesium Based Materials and their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Duane Allan

    The overall goals of this body of work were to characterize the antimicrobial properties of magnesium (Mg) metal and nano-magnesium oxide (nMgO) in vitro, to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg metal, and to incorporate MgO nanoparticles into a polymeric implant coating and evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial properties. In the course of this work it was found that Mg metal, Mg-mesh, and nMgO have in vitro antimicrobial properties that are similar to a bactericidal antibiotic. For Mg metal, the mechanism of this activity appears to be related to an increase in pH (i.e. a more alkaline environment) and not an increase in Mg2+. Given that Mg-mesh is a Mg metal powder, the assumption is that it has the same mechanism of activity as Mg metal. The mechanism of activity for nMgO remains to be elucidated and may be related to a combination of interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacteria and the alkaline pH. It was further demonstrated that supernatants from suspensions of Mg-mesh and nMgO had the same antimicrobial effect as was noted when the particles were used. The supernatant from Mg-mesh and nMgO was also noted to prevent biofilm formation for two Staphylococcus strains. Finally, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) composites of Mg-mesh (PCL+Mg-mesh) and nMgO (PCL+nMgO) were produced. Coatings applied to screws inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in thin disc format inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in addition to the E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Pure Mg metal was noted to have some cytotoxic effect on murine fibroblast and osteoblast cell lines, although this effect needs to be characterized further. To address the need for an in vivo model for evaluating implant associated infections, a new closed fracture osteomyelitis model in the femur of the rat was developed. Magnesium, a readily available and inexpensive metal was shown to have antimicrobial properties that appear to be related to its corrosion products and

  17. Structure and organization of a 25 kbp region of the genome of the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme containing Mg-chelatase encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Petersen, B L; Møller, M G; Stummann, B M; Henningsen, K W

    1998-01-01

    A region comprising approximately 25 kbp of the genome of the strictly anaerobic and obligate photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium vibrioforme has been mapped, subcloned and partly sequenced. Approximately 15 kbp have been sequenced in it's entirety and three genes with significant homology and feature similarity to the bchI, -D and -H genes and the chlI, -D and -H genes of Rhodobacter and Synechocystis strain PCC6803, respectively, which encode magnesium chelatase subunits, have been identified. Magnesium chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin IX, and is the first enzyme unique to the (bacterio)chlorophyll specific branch of the porphyrin biosynthetic pathway. The organization of the three Mg-chelatase encoding genes is unique to Chlorobium and suggests that the magnesium chelatase of C. vibrioforme is encoded by a single operon. The analyzed 25 kbp region contains five additional open reading frames, two of which display significant homology and feature similarity to genes encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase and genes with function in purine synthesis, and another three display significant homology to open reading frames with unknown function in distantly related bacteria. Putative E. coli sigma 70-like promoter sequences, ribosome binding sequences and rho-independent transcriptional stop signals within the sequenced 15 kbp region are related to the identified genes and orfs. Southern analysis, restriction mapping and partial sequencing of the remaining ca. 10 kbp of the analyzed 25 kbp region have shown that this part includes the hemA, -C, -D and -B genes (MOBERG and AVISSAR 1994), which encode enzymes with function in the early part of the biosynthetic pathway of porphyrins.

  18. Structural genes for Mg-chelatase subunits in barley: Xantha-f, -g and -h.

    PubMed

    Jensen, P E; Willows, R D; Petersen, B L; Vothknecht, U C; Stummann, B M; Kannangara, C G; von Wettstein, D; Henningsen, K W

    1996-03-07

    Barley mutants in the loci Xantha-f, Xantha-g and Xantha-h, when fed with 5-aminolevulinate in the dark, accumulate protoporphyrin IX. Mutant alleles at these loci that are completely blocked in protochlorophyllide synthesis are also blocked in development of prolamellar bodies in etioplasts. In contrast to wild type, the xan-f, -g and -h mutants had no detectable Mg-chelatase activity, whereas they all had methyltransferase activity for synthesis of Mg-protoporphyrin monomethyl ester. Antibodies recognising the CH42 protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and the OLIVE (OLI) protein of Antirrhinum majus immunoreacted in wild-type barley with 42 and 150 kDa proteins, respectively. The xan-h mutants lacked the protein reacting with antibodies raised against the CH42 protein. Two xan-f mutants lacked the 150 kDa protein recognised by the anti-OLI antibody. Barley genes homologous to the A. majus olive and the A. thaliana Ch-42 genes were cloned using PCR and screening of cDNA and genomic libraries. Probes for these genes were applied to Northern blots of RNA from the xantha mutants and confirmed the results of the Western analysis. The mutants xan-f27, -f40, -h56 and -h57 are defective in transcript accumulation while -h38 is defective in translation. Southern blot analysis established that h38 has a deletion of part of the gene. Mutants xan-f10 and -f41 produce both transcript and protein and it is suggested that these mutations are in the catalytic sites of the protein. It is concluded that X an-f -h genes encode two subunits of the barley Mg-chelatase and that X an-g is likely to encode a third subunit. The XAN-F protein displays 82% amino acid sequence identity to the OLI protein of Antirrhinum, 66% to the Synechocystis homologue and 34% identity to the Rhodobacter BchH subunit of Mg-chelatase. The XAN-H protein has 85% amino acid sequence identity to the Arabidopsis CH42 protein, 69% identity to the Euglena CCS protein, 70% identity to the Cryptomonas BchA and

  19. Mechanism of the Mg-chelatase step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, Jon

    2002-05-02

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg2+ into protoporphyrin-IX (Proto) in the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. This is the first step unique to the chlorophyll pathway and is at the branchpoint between heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that the enzyme from pea chloroplasts requires three distinct protein fractions (now known to contain the D, I and H subunits). The reaction requires ATP in two distinct steps: activation requiring two of the fractions (I and D) and metal ion insertion, requiring all three fractions. Work covered in this granting period includes the cloning and expression of the active form of one of the pea subunits and demonstration of the change in chromatographic behavior of the subunits upon activation with ATP.

  20. Regulation of Chloroplast Photosynthetic Activity by Exogenous Magnesium 1

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Steven C.

    1978-01-01

    Magnesium was most inhibitory to photosynthetic reactions by intact chloroplasts when the magnesium was added in the dark before illumination. Two millimolar MgCl2, added in the dark, inhibited CO2-dependent O2 evolution by Hordeum vulgare L. and Spinacia oleracea L. (C3 plants) chloroplasts 70 to 100% and inhibited (pyruvate + oxaloacetate)-dependent O2 evolution by Digitaria sanguinalis L. (C4 plant) mesophyll chloroplasts from 80 to 100%. When Mg2+ was added in the light, O2 evolution was reduced only slightly. O2 evolution in the presence of phosphoglycerate was less sensitive to Mg2+ inhibition than was CO2-dependent O2 evolution. Magnesium prevented the light activation of several photosynthetic enzymes. Two millimolar Mg2+ blocked the light activation of NADP-malate dehydrogenase in D. sanguinalis mesophyll chloroplasts, and the light activation of phosphoribulokinase, NADP-linked glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in barley chloroplasts. The results suggest that Mg2+ inhibits chloroplast photosynthesis by preventing the light activation of certain enzymes. PMID:16660509

  1. Magnesium Modulates Doxorubicin Activity through Drug Lysosomal Sequestration and Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Trapani, Valentina; Luongo, Francesca; Arduini, Daniela; Wolf, Federica I

    2016-03-21

    Magnesium is directly involved in the control of cell growth and survival, but its role in cancer biology and therapy is multifaceted; in particular, it is highly controversial whether magnesium levels can affect therapy outcomes. Here we investigated whether magnesium availability can modulate cellular responses to the widely used chemotherapeutic doxorubicin. We used an in vitro model consisting of mammary epithelial HC11 cells and found that high magnesium availability was correlated with diminished sensitivity both in cells chronically adapted to high magnesium concentrations and in acutely magnesium-supplemented cells. This decrease in sensitivity resulted from reduced intracellular doxorubicin accumulation in the face of a similar drug uptake rate. We observed that high-magnesium conditions caused a decrease in intracellular drug retention by altering drug lysosomal sequestration and trafficking. In our model, magnesium supplementation correspondingly modulated expression of the TRPM7 channel, which is known to control cytoskeletal organization and dynamics and may be involved in the proposed mechanism. Our findings suggest that magnesium supplementation in hypomagnesemic cancer patients may hinder response to therapy.

  2. Hemin/G-quadruplex structure and activity alteration induced by magnesium cations.

    PubMed

    Kosman, J; Juskowiak, B

    2016-04-01

    The influence of metal cations on G-quadruplex structure and peroxidase-mimicking DNAzyme activity was investigated. Experiments revealed a significant role of magnesium ion, which in the presence of potassium cation influenced DNAzyme activity. This ability has been associated with alteration of G-quadruplex topology and consequently affinity to bind hemin molecule. It has been demonstrated that G-quadruplex based on PS2.M sequence under these conditions formed parallel topology, which exhibited lower activity than that observed in standard potassium-containing solution. On the other hand DNAzyme/magnesium ion system based on telomeric sequence, which did not undergo significant structural changes, exhibited higher peroxidase activity upon magnesium ion addition. In both cases, the stabilization effect of magnesium cations on G-quadruplex structure was observed. The mechanism of DNAzyme activity alteration by magnesium ion can be explained by its influence on the pKa value of DNAzyme. Magnesium ion decreased pKa for PS2.M based system but increased it for telomeric DNAzyme. Magnesium cation effect on G-quadruplex structure as well as DNAzyme activity is particularly important since this ion is one of the most common metal cations in biological samples.

  3. Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet activity of magnesium in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsiao, George; Shen, Ming-Yi; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chen, Yi-Win; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chou, Duen-Suey

    2002-12-01

    In this study, magnesium sulphate dose-dependently (0.6-3.0 mmol/l) inhibited platelet aggregation in human platelets stimulated by agonists. Furthermore, magnesium sulphate (3.0 mmol/l) markedly interfered with the binding of fluorescein isothiocanate-triflavin to the glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa complex in platelets stimulated by collagen. Magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) also inhibited phosphoinositide breakdown and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization in human platelets stimulated by collagen. Magnesium sulphate (3.0 mmol/l) significantly inhibited thromboxane A2 formation stimulated by collagen in platelets. Moreover, magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) obviously increased the fluorescence of platelet membranes tagged with diphenylhexatriene. In addition, magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) increased the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in platelets. Phosphorylation of a protein of Mr 47 000 (P47) was markedly inhibited by magnesium sulphate (1.5 mmol/l). In conclusion, the antiplatelet activity of magnesium sulphate may involve the following two pathways. (1) Magnesium sulphate may initially induce membrane fluidity changes with resulting interference of fibrinogen binding to the GPIIb/IIIa complex, followed by inhibition of phosphoinositide breakdown and thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of both intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and phosphorylation of P47. (2) Magnesium sulphate might also trigger the formation of cyclic AM, ultimately resulting in inhibition of the phosphorylation of P47 and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and study of antioxidant activity of quercetin-magnesium complex.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nilanjan; Chakraborty, Tania; Mallick, Sougata; Mana, Supriya; Singha, Deepanwita; Ghosh, Balaram; Roy, Souvik

    2015-12-05

    Quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) one of the most abundant dietary flavonoids, has been investigated in the presence of magnesium (II) in methanol. The complex formation between quercetin and magnesium (II) was examined under UV-visible, Infra-red and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques. The spectroscopic data denoted that quercetin can reacts with magnesium cation (Mg(+2)) through the chelation site in the quercetin molecule. The free radical antioxidant activity of the complex with respect to the parent molecule was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. It was observed that the free radical scavenging activity of quercetin was increased after complexation of magnesium (Mg(+2)) cation.

  5. Magnesium ions increase the activity of Bacillus deramificans pullulanase expressed by Brevibacillus choshinensis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chun; Duan, Xuguo; Wu, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Addition of MgCl2 to the culture medium has been found to dramatically increase the activity of Bacillus deramificans pullulanase expressed by Brevibacillus choshinensis. The specific activity of the pullulanase obtained from medium supplemented with MgCl2 was also higher than that obtained in culture medium without added magnesium ions. In this work, the mechanism of this increase was studied. When cultured in medium without added magnesium ions, B. choshinensis mainly produced a thermolabile, inactive form of pullulanase. The addition of magnesium ions led to the production of a thermostable, active form of pullulanase. Circular dichroism assays revealed considerable differences in secondary structure between the active and inactive pullulanase forms. Transmission electron microscopy suggested that magnesium ion addition inhibits the shedding of cell wall protein (HWP) layers from the cell surface. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that magnesium ion addition represses transcription of HWP. Because the pullulanase gene and HWP have identical promoters, pullulanase gene transcription was also inhibited. These results suggest that when pullulanase is expressed slowly, it tends to fold into an active form.

  6. Magnesium Excretion in C. elegans Requires the Activity of the GTL-2 TRPM Channel

    PubMed Central

    Teramoto, Takayuki; Sternick, Laura A.; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Sajjadi, Shirine; Siembida, Jakub; Mitani, Shohei; Iwasaki, Kouichi; Lambie, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic magnesium homeostasis in mammals is primarily governed by the activities of the TRPM6 and TRPM7 cation channels, which mediate both uptake by the intestinal epithelial cells and reabsorption by the distal convoluted tubule cells in the kidney. In the nematode, C. elegans, intestinal magnesium uptake is dependent on the activities of the TRPM channel proteins, GON-2 and GTL-1. In this paper we provide evidence that another member of the TRPM protein family, GTL-2, acts within the C. elegans excretory cell to mediate the excretion of excess magnesium. Thus, the activity of GTL-2 balances the activities of the paralogous TRPM channel proteins, GON-2 and GTL-1. PMID:20221407

  7. Identical substitutions in magnesium chelatase paralogs result in chlorophyll deficient soybean mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) chlorophyll deficient line MinnGold is a spontaneous mutant characterized by yellow foliage. Map-based cloning and transgenic complementation revealed that the mutant phenotype is caused by a non-synonymous nucleotide substitution in the third exon of a Mg-chelat...

  8. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achievin...

  9. The magnesium transporter A is activated by cardiolipin and is highly sensitive to free magnesium in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Subramani, Saranya; Perdreau-Dahl, Harmonie; Morth, Jens Preben

    2016-01-01

    The magnesium transporter A (MgtA) is a specialized P-type ATPase, believed to import Mg2+ into the cytoplasm. In Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the virulence determining two-component system PhoQ/PhoP regulates the transcription of mgtA gene by sensing Mg2+ concentrations in the periplasm. However, the factors that affect MgtA function are not known. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MgtA is highly dependent on anionic phospholipids and in particular, cardiolipin. Colocalization studies confirm that MgtA is found in the cardiolipin lipid domains in the membrane. The head group of cardiolipin plays major role in activation of MgtA suggesting that cardiolipin may act as a Mg2+ chaperone for MgtA. We further show that MgtA is highly sensitive to free Mg2+ (Mg2+free) levels in the solution. MgtA is activated when the Mg2+free concentration is reduced below 10 μM and is strongly inhibited above 1 mM, indicating that Mg2+free acts as product inhibitor. Combined, our findings conclude that MgtA may act as a sensor as well as a transporter of Mg2+. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11407.001 PMID:26780187

  10. The magnesium transporter A is activated by cardiolipin and is highly sensitive to free magnesium in vitro.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Saranya; Perdreau-Dahl, Harmonie; Morth, Jens Preben

    2016-01-18

    The magnesium transporter A (MgtA) is a specialized P-type ATPase, believed to import Mg(2+) into the cytoplasm. In Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, the virulence determining two-component system PhoQ/PhoP regulates the transcription of mgtA gene by sensing Mg(2+) concentrations in the periplasm. However, the factors that affect MgtA function are not known. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that MgtA is highly dependent on anionic phospholipids and in particular, cardiolipin. Colocalization studies confirm that MgtA is found in the cardiolipin lipid domains in the membrane. The head group of cardiolipin plays major role in activation of MgtA suggesting that cardiolipin may act as a Mg(2+) chaperone for MgtA. We further show that MgtA is highly sensitive to free Mg(2+) (Mg(2+)free) levels in the solution. MgtA is activated when the Mg(2+)free concentration is reduced below 10 μM and is strongly inhibited above 1 mM, indicating that Mg(2+)free acts as product inhibitor. Combined, our findings conclude that MgtA may act as a sensor as well as a transporter of Mg(2+).

  11. Involvement of the antiplatelet activity of magnesium sulfate in suppression of protein kinase C and the Na+/H+ exchanger.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, George; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chou, Duen-Suey; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chen, Tzeng-Fu; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2004-01-01

    Magnesium sulfate is widely used to prevent seizures in pregnant women with hypertension. The aim of this study was to examine the inhibitory mechanisms of magnesium sulfate in platelet aggregation in vitro. In this study, magnesium sulfate concentration-dependently (0.6-3.0 mM) inhibited platelet aggregation in human platelets stimulated by agonists. Magnesium sulfate (1.5 and 3.0 mM) also concentration-dependently inhibited phosphoinositide breakdown and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization in human platelets stimulated by thrombin. Rapid phosphorylation of a platelet protein of M(r) 47,000 (P47), a marker of protein kinase C activation, was triggered by phorbol-12-13-dibutyrate (PDBu, 50 nM). This phosphorylation was markedly inhibited by magnesium sulfate (3.0 mM). Magnesium sulfate (1.5 and 3.0 mM) further inhibited PDBu-stimulated platelet aggregation in human platelets. The thrombin-evoked increase in pHi was markedly inhibited in the presence of magnesium sulfate (3.0 mM). In conclusion, these results indicate that the antiplatelet activity of magnesium sulfate may be involved in the following two pathways: (1) Magnesium sulfate may inhibit the activation of protein kinase C, followed by inhibition of phosphoinositide breakdown and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization, thereby leading to inhibition of the phosphorylation of P47. (2) On the other hand, magnesium sulfate inhibits the Na+/H+ exchanger, leading to reduced intracellular Ca+2 mobilization, and ultimately to inhibition of platelet aggregation and the ATP-release reaction.

  12. Allosteric regulation of SecA: magnesium-mediated control of conformation and activity.

    PubMed

    Gold, Vicki A M; Robson, Alice; Clarke, Anthony R; Collinson, Ian

    2007-06-15

    In bacteria, the SecA protein associates with a ubiquitous protein channel SecYEG where it drives the post-translational secretion of pre-proteins across the plasma membrane. The high-resolution structures of both proteins have been determined in their resting states; however, the mechanism that couples ATP hydrolysis to active transport of substrate proteins through the membrane is not well understood. An analysis of the steady-state ATPase activity of the enzyme reveals that there is an allosteric binding site for magnesium distinct from that associated with hydrolysis of ATP. We have demonstrated that this regulation involves a large conformational change to the SecA dimer, which exerts a strong influence on the turnover and affinity for ATP, as well as the affinity for ADP. The strong inhibitory influence of magnesium on the ATPase activity can be countered by cardiolipin and conditions that promote protein translocation.

  13. Enhancement of antidepressant-like activity by joint administration of imipramine and magnesium in the forced swim test: Behavioral and pharmacokinetic studies in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kedzierska, Ewa; Wyska, Elzbieta; Librowski, Tadeusz; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2005-07-01

    The effect of joint administration of imipramine (IMI) and magnesium (Mg) on antidepressant-like activity was studied in mice using forced swim test (FST). Mg doses ineffective per se (5 and 10 mg/kg) given jointly with IMI also at ineffective doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) resulted in a potent reduction in the immobility time. Since these combined treatments did not influence locomotor activity, the antidepressant-like activity was not due to non-specific behavioral activation. Moreover, we estimated the effect of joint administration of magnesium and IMI in FST on serum and brain magnesium, IMI and its active metabolite desipramine (DMI) concentrations in mice. Swim stress (mice subjected to FST) increased the magnesium concentration in serum and decreased it in the brain compared to naive animals. Moreover administration of IMI increased (normalized) magnesium brain concentration, without influence on the serum level. Joint administration of IMI and magnesium did not influence magnesium (compared with FST) or IMI and DMI (compared with IMI treatment alone) concentrations in both examined tissues. The present data demonstrated an enhancement of the antidepressant-like effect by joint administration of IMI and magnesium in the FST, and further indicate the particular role of magnesium in the antidepressant action. Since there was no increase in IMI, DMI or magnesium concentration after joint administration of magnesium and IMI, the data suggest that pharmacodynamic rather than pharmacokinetic interaction between magnesium and IMI is accountable for behavioral effect in the FST.

  14. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+), propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (H4 APP cells) and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity. PMID:22901676

  15. Magnesium Inhibits Wnt/β-Catenin Activity and Reverses the Osteogenic Transformation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Montes de Oca, Addy; Guerrero, Fatima; Martinez-Moreno, Julio M.; Madueño, Juan A.; Herencia, Carmen; Peralta, Alan; Almaden, Yolanda; Lopez, Ignacio; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Gundlach, Kristina; Büchel, Janine; Peter, Mirjam E.; Passlick-Deetjen, Jutta; Rodriguez, Mariano; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium reduces vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro but the mechanism has not been revealed so far. This work used only slightly increased magnesium levels and aimed at determining: a) whether inhibition of magnesium transport into the cell influences VSMC calcification, b) whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling, a key mediator of osteogenic differentiation, is modified by magnesium and c) whether magnesium can influence already established vascular calcification. Human VSMC incubated with high phosphate (3.3 mM) and moderately elevated magnesium (1.4 mM) significantly reduced VSMC calcification and expression of the osteogenic transcription factors Cbfa-1 and osterix, and up-regulated expression of the natural calcification inhibitors matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteoprotegerin (OPG). The protective effects of magnesium on calcification and expression of osteogenic markers were no longer observed in VSMC cultured with an inhibitor of cellular magnesium transport (2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate [2-APB]). High phosphate induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway as demonstrated by the translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, increased expression of the frizzled-3 gene, and downregulation of Dkk-1 gene, a specific antagonist of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The addition of magnesium however inhibited phosphate-induced activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, TRPM7 silencing using siRNA resulted in activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Additional experiments were performed to test the ability of magnesium to halt the progression of already established VSMC calcification in vitro. The delayed addition of magnesium decreased calcium content, down-regulated Cbfa-1 and osterix and up-regulated MGP and OPG, when compared with a control group. This effect was not observed when 2-APB was added. In conclusion, magnesium transport through the cell membrane is important to inhibit VSMC calcification in vitro

  16. Mg-chelatase I subunit 1 and Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase affect the stomatal aperture in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Masakazu; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Tsuzuki, Tomo; Soda, Midori; Morimoto, Sayuri; Okigaki, Yukiko; Ohishi, Takaya; Mochizuki, Nobuyoshi; Takahashi, Koji; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2014-07-01

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of stomatal opening and closure, we performed a genetic screen using infrared thermography to isolate stomatal aperture mutants. We identified a mutant designated low temperature with open-stomata 1 (lost1), which exhibited reduced leaf temperature, wider stomatal aperture, and a pale green phenotype. Map-based analysis of the LOST1 locus revealed that the lost1 mutant resulted from a missense mutation in the Mg-chelatase I subunit 1 (CHLI1) gene, which encodes a subunit of the Mg-chelatase complex involved in chlorophyll synthesis. Transformation of the wild-type CHLI1 gene into lost1 complemented all lost1 phenotypes. Stomata in lost1 exhibited a partial ABA-insensitive phenotype similar to that of rtl1, a Mg-chelatase H subunit missense mutant. The Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (CHLM) gene encodes a subsequent enzyme in the chlorophyll synthesis pathway. We examined stomatal movement in a CHLM knockdown mutant, chlm, and found that it also exhibited an ABA-insensitive phenotype. However, lost1 and chlm seedlings all showed normal expression of ABA-induced genes, such as RAB18 and RD29B, in response to ABA. These results suggest that the chlorophyll synthesis enzymes, Mg-chelatase complex and CHLM, specifically affect ABA signaling in the control of stomatal aperture and have no effect on ABA-induced gene expression.

  17. Mg chelatase in chlorophyll synthesis and retrograde signaling in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: CHLI2 cannot substitute for CHLI1

    PubMed Central

    Brzezowski, Pawel; Sharifi, Marina N.; Dent, Rachel M.; Morhard, Marius K.; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The oligomeric Mg chelatase (MgCh), consisting of the subunits CHLH, CHLI, and CHLD, is located at the central site of chlorophyll synthesis, but is also thought to have an additional function in regulatory feedback control of the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis pathway and in chloroplast retrograde signaling. In Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, two genes have been proposed to encode the CHLI subunit of MgCh. While the role of CHLI1 in A. thaliana MgCh has been substantially elucidated, different reports provide inconsistent results with regard to the function of CHLI2 in Mg chelation and retrograde signaling. In the present report, the possible functions of both isoforms were analyzed in C. reinhardtii. Knockout of the CHLI1 gene resulted in complete loss of MgCh activity, absence of chlorophyll, acute light sensitivity, and, as a consequence, down-regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes. These observations indicate a phenotypical resemblance of chli1 to the chlh and chld C. reinhardtii mutants previously reported. The key role of CHLI1 for MgCh reaction in comparison with the second isoform was confirmed by the rescue of chli1 with genomic CHLI1. Because CHLI2 in C. reinhardtii shows lower expression than CHLI1, strains overexpressing CHLI2 were produced in the chli1 background. However, no complementation of the chli1 phenotype was observed. Silencing of CHLI2 in the wild-type background did not result in any changes in the accumulation of tetrapyrrole intermediates or of chlorophyll. The results suggest that, unlike in A. thaliana, changes in CHLI2 content observed in the present studies do not affect formation and activity of MgCh in C. reinhardtii. PMID:26809558

  18. Influence of increased adrenergic activity and magnesium depletion on cardiac rhythm in alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed Central

    Denison, H; Jern, S; Jagenburg, R; Wendestam, C; Wallerstedt, S

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the prevalence of arrhythmias in alcoholic men during detoxification and its relation to neuroendocrine activation and electrolyte disturbances. DESIGN--Consecutive case-control study. SETTING--Primary and secondary care, detoxification ward. PATIENTS AND CONTROLS--19 otherwise healthy alcoholic men (DSM-III-R) with withdrawal symptoms necessitating detoxification in hospital. 19 age matched, healthy non-alcoholic men as controls for Holter recordings. INTERVENTIONS--Treatment with chlomethiazole; additional treatment with carbamazepine in patients with previous seizures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Computer based analyses of mean heart rate and arrhythmias from 24 hour Holter recordings, 24 hour urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline, magnesium retention measured by means of intravenous loading test, and serum concentrations of electrolytes. RESULTS--The 24 hour mean heart rate was higher in the alcoholic men (97.4 beats/minute, 95% confidence interval (CI) 91.2 to 103.6) than in the controls (69.6 beats/minute, 95% CI 65.4 to 73.8, P < 0.001). However, there was no difference in diurnal heart rate variation. The prevalence of premature supraventricular depolarisations was lower in the alcoholic men (P < 0.05). Neither atrial fibrillation nor malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred. The sinus tachycardia in the alcoholic men correlated with the concomitant urinary excretion of catecholamines (P < 0.05). The mean serum magnesium concentration was 0.78 mmol/l (95% CI 0.73 to 0.83) in the alcoholic men and 0.83 mmol/l (95% CI 0.81 to 0.85) in a reference population of 55 men aged 40. Magnesium depletion (defined as magnesium retention > 30%) was detected in 10 alcoholic men (53%). Three alcoholic men had serum potassium concentrations < or = 3.3 mmol/l on admission. CONCLUSION--Increased adrenergic activity, magnesium depletion, and hypokalaemia are often seen after heavy drinking, but in alcoholic men without clinical heart disease

  19. Ultrasound-assisted activation of zero-valent magnesium for nitrate denitrification: identification of reaction by-products and pathways.

    PubMed

    Ileri, Burcu; Ayyildiz, Onder; Apaydin, Omer

    2015-07-15

    Zero-valent magnesium (Mg(0)) was activated by ultrasound (US) in an aim to promote its potential use in water treatment without pH control. In this context, nitrate reduction was studied at batch conditions using various doses of magnesium powder and ultrasound power. While neither ultrasound nor zero-valent magnesium alone was effective for reducing nitrate in water, their combination removed up to 90% of 50 mg/L NO3-N within 60 min. The rate of nitrate reduction by US/Mg(0) enhanced with increasing ultrasonic power and magnesium dose. Nitrogen gas (N2) and nitrite (NO2(-)) were detected as the major reduction by-products, while magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2 and hydroxide ions (OH(-)) were identified as the main oxidation products. The results from SEM-EDS measurements revealed that the surface oxide level decreased significantly when the samples of Mg(0) particles were exposed to ultrasonic treatment. The surface passivation of magnesium particles was successfully minimized by mechanical forces of ultrasound, which in turn paved the way to sustain the catalyst activity toward nitrate reduction.

  20. Magnesium as Novel Material for Active Plasmonics in the Visible Wavelength Range.

    PubMed

    Sterl, Florian; Strohfeldt, Nikolai; Walter, Ramon; Griessen, Ronald; Tittl, Andreas; Giessen, Harald

    2015-12-09

    Investigating new materials plays an important role for advancing the field of nanoplasmonics. In this work, we fabricate nanodisks from magnesium and demonstrate tuning of their plasmon resonance throughout the whole visible wavelength range by changing the disk diameter. Furthermore, we employ a catalytic palladium cap layer to transform the metallic Mg particles into dielectric MgH2 particles when exposed to hydrogen gas. We prove that this transition can be reversed in the presence of oxygen. This yields plasmonic nanostructures with an extinction spectrum that can be repeatedly switched on or off or kept at any intermediate state, offering new perspectives for active plasmonic metamaterials.

  1. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  2. Influence of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, sildenafil, on antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in the forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium, which acts as an antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptors, exerts antidepressant-like activity in animal models of depression. The present study was undertaken to elucidate the influence of sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, on the anti-immobility action of magnesium in the forced swim test in mice. Swim sessions were conducted by placing mice in glass cylinders filled with water for 6 min and the duration of the behavioral immobility during the last 4 min of the test was evaluated. Locomotor activity was measured with photoresistor actimeters. Serum and brain magnesium levels were assayed spectrophotometrically. Magnesium at a dose of 30 mg/kg, i.p. significantly decreased the immobility time while sildenafil (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in a dose-dependent manner reduced the antidepressant-like activity of magnesium. The co-administration of magnesium with sildenafil at the highest dose entirely abolished the antidepressant-like effect of magnesium and caused a statistically significant increase in immobility duration as compared to the control group. Combination of magnesium with sildenafil resulted in a potent reduction (80%) of locomotor activity and pharmacokinetic studies showed a significant increase of magnesium concentration in serum (as compared to magnesium treatment alone) without changes within brain tissue in mice treated with magnesium and sildenafil. When given alone, sildenafil caused a significant increase in magnesium levels in both serum and brain. Our results indicate that a simultaneous treatment with magnesium and sildenafil results in hypermagnesemia in laboratory animals. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains elusive.

  3. Mutation of Gly195 of the ChlH Subunit of Mg-chelatase Reduces Chlorophyll and Further Disrupts PS II Assembly in a Ycf48-Deficient Strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Tim S.; Eaton-Rye, Julian J.; Summerfield, Tina C.

    2016-01-01

    Biogenesis of the photosystems in oxygenic phototrophs requires co-translational insertion of chlorophyll a. The first committed step of chlorophyll a biosynthesis is the insertion of a Mg2+ ion into the tetrapyrrole intermediate protoporphyrin IX, catalyzed by Mg-chelatase. We have identified a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 strain with a spontaneous mutation in chlH that results in a Gly195 to Glu substitution in a conserved region of the catalytic subunit of Mg-chelatase. Mutant strains containing the ChlH Gly195 to Glu mutation were generated using a two-step protocol that introduced the chlH gene into a putative neutral site in the chromosome prior to deletion of the native gene. The Gly195 to Glu mutation resulted in strains with decreased chlorophyll a. Deletion of the PS II assembly factor Ycf48 in a strain carrying the ChlH Gly195 to Glu mutation did not grow photoautotrophically. In addition, the ChlH-G195E:ΔYcf48 strain showed impaired PS II activity and decreased assembly of PS II centers in comparison to a ΔYcf48 strain. We suggest decreased chlorophyll in the ChlH-G195E mutant provides a background to screen for the role of assembly factors that are not essential under optimal growth conditions. PMID:27489555

  4. Effect of magnesium cations on the activity and stability of β-galactosidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atyaksheva, L. F.; Pilipenko, O. S.; Poltorak, O. M.; Chukhrai, E. S.

    2007-07-01

    It was shown that the presence of magnesium cations in the reaction mixture increases, approximately twofold, the activity of bacterial Escherichia coli and yeast Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidases but does not affect the activity of bovine liver and fungous Penicillium canescens β-galactosidases. The catalytic constants for E. coli and yeast K. lactis β-galactosidases in the presence of 0.01 M and in the absence of Mg2+ cations were determined (490 and 220 s-1 and 59.8 and 37.4 s-1, respectively). It was shown that the Michaelis constants for these two enzymes are higher in the presence of Mg2+ cations, that the thermal stability of E. coli and K. Lactis β-galactosidases is higher in the presence of 0.01 M Mg2+, and that the effective rate constants of thermal inactivation of the enzymes are two-to eightfold lower, depending on conditions, in the presence of Mg2+ cations. The maximum stabilizing effect of magnesium cations was observed at weak alkaline pH values (7.5-8.5).

  5. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  6. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R L; Hurley, M F; Kvryan, A; Williams, G; Scully, J R; Birbilis, N

    2016-06-28

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  7. Exogenous Magnesium Chloride Reduces the Activated Partial Thromboplastin Times of Lupus Anticoagulant-Positive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tokutake, Takayoshi; Baba, Hisami; Shimada, Yuji; Takeda, Wataru; Sato, Keijiro; Hiroshima, Yuki; Kirihara, Takehiko; Shimizu, Ikuo; Nakazawa, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro

    2016-01-01

    The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay is a basic hemostatic assay based on the time it takes for clots to form in plasma samples after the addition of calcium chloride. It is used to screen for various coagulation disorders. Several previous reports have suggested that magnesium (Mg) might contribute to coagulation reactions by binding to specific coagulation proteins. We investigated the effects of Mg on the APTT. In healthy controls, the APTT was significantly prolonged in proportion to the increase in the concentration of magnesium chloride in the range from 2.1 to 16.7 mmol/L. Among eight samples from patients with various disorders that exhibited prolonged APTT, two samples demonstrated shorter APTT when Mg was added, both of which were from patients that were positive for lupus anticoagulant. When we examined 206 clinical APTT samples, we found that Mg shortened the APTT of two samples. These two samples were also from lupus anticoagulant-positive patients (p-value: <0.003). Our findings regarding the unique effects of exogenous Mg on the APTT of lupus anticoagulant-positive patients might shed light on the role of Mg in APTT assays and lead to the development of a novel screening method for lupus anticoagulant. PMID:27355205

  8. Magnesium sulfate treatment against sarin poisoning: dissociation between overt convulsions and recorded cortical seizure activity.

    PubMed

    Katalan, Shahaf; Lazar, Shlomi; Brandeis, Rachel; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Egoz, Inbal; Grauer, Ettie; Bloch-Shilderman, Eugenia; Raveh, Lily

    2013-02-01

    Sarin, a potent organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor, induces an array of toxic effects including convulsions. Many antidotal treatments contain anticonvulsants to block seizure activity and the ensuing brain damage. Magnesium sulfate (MGS) is used to suppress eclamptic seizures in pregnant women with hypertension and was shown to block kainate-induced convulsions. Magnesium sulfate was evaluated herein as an anticonvulsant against sarin poisoning and its efficacy was compared with the potent anticonvulsants midazolam (MDZ) and caramiphen (CRM). Rats were exposed to a convulsant dose of sarin (96 μg/kg, im) and 1 min later treated with the oxime TMB4 and atropine to increase survival. Five minutes after initiation of convulsions, MGS, CRM, or MDZ were administered. Attenuation of tonic-clonic convulsions was observed following all these treatments. However, radio-telemetric electro-corticography (ECoG) monitoring demonstrated sustained seizure activity in MGS-injected animals while this activity was completely blocked by MDZ and CRM. This disrupted brain activity was associated with marked increase in brain translocator protein levels, a marker for brain damage, measured 1 week following exposure. Additionally, histopathological analyses of MGS-treated group showed typical sarin-induced brain injury excluding the hippocampus that was partially protected. Our results clearly show that MGS demonstrated misleading features as an anticonvulsant against sarin-induced seizures. This stems from the dissociation observed between overt convulsions and seizure activity. Thus, the presence or absence of motor convulsions may be an unreliable indicator in the assessment of clinical status and in directing adequate antidotal treatments following exposure to nerve agents in battle field or terror attacks.

  9. Magnesium basics

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed. PMID:26069819

  10. Magnesium alloys and graphite wastes encapsulated in cementitious materials: Reduction of galvanic corrosion using alkali hydroxide activated blast furnace slag.

    PubMed

    Chartier, D; Muzeau, B; Stefan, L; Sanchez-Canet, J; Monguillon, C

    2017-03-15

    Magnesium alloys and graphite from spent nuclear fuel have been stored together in La Hague plant. The packaging of these wastes is under consideration. These wastes could be mixed in a grout composed of industrially available cement (Portland, calcium aluminate…). Within the alkaline pore solution of these matrixes, magnesium alloys are imperfectly protected by a layer of Brucite resulting in a slow corrosion releasing hydrogen. As the production of this gas must be considered for the storage safety, and the quality of wasteform, it is important to select a cement matrix capable of lowering the corrosion kinetics. Many types of calcium based cements have been tested and most of them have caused strong hydrogen production when magnesium alloys and graphite are conditioned together because of galvanic corrosion. Exceptions are binders based on alkali hydroxide activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) which are presented in this article.

  11. Convenient method of simultaneously analyzing aluminum and magnesium in pharmaceutical dosage forms using californium-252 thermal neutron activation.

    PubMed

    Landolt, R R; Hem, S L

    1983-05-01

    A commercial antacid suspension containing aluminum hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide products was used as a model sample to study the use of a californium-252 thermal neutron activation as a method for quantifying aluminum content as well as for the simultaneous assay of aluminum and magnesium. A 3.5-micrograms californium-252 source was used for the activation, and the induced aluminum-28 and magnesium-27 activity was simultaneously measured by sodium iodide crystal gamma-ray spectrometry using dual single-channel analyzers and scalers. The antacid suspension was contained in a chamber designed with the unique capability of serving as the container for counting the induced radioactivity in addition to being the irradiation chamber itself. Ten replicate irradiations were performed, and the precision was compared with 10 replicate analyses of the antacid suspension using the official ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method. For aluminum the precision was 1.4 versus 0.62% for the titration method. For the magnesium the precision was 5.3 versus 0.79% for the titration method. This pilot study demonstrated that use of more intense californium-252 sources, which are commonly available, would provide a method that is competitive with the ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid titration method in precision and in other aspects as well.

  12. Effect of magnesium ions on the activity of the cytosolic NADH/cytochrome c electron transport system.

    PubMed

    La Piana, Gianluigi; Gorgoglione, Vincenza; Laraspata, Daniela; Marzulli, Domenico; Lofrumento, Nicola E

    2008-12-01

    Cytochrome c (cyto-c), added to isolated mitochondria, activates the oxidation of extramitochondrial NADH and the generation of a membrane potential, both linked to the activity of the cytosolic NADH/cyto-c electron transport pathway. The data presented in this article show that the protective effect of magnesium ions on the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane, supported by previously published data, correlates with the finding that, in hypotonic but not isotonic medium, magnesium promotes a differential effect on both the additional release of endogenous cyto-c and on the increased rate of NADH oxidation, depending on whether it is added before or after the mitochondria. At the same time, magnesium prevents or almost completely removes the binding of exogenously added cyto-c. We suggest that, in physiological low-amplitude swelling, magnesium ions may have the function, together with other factors, of modulating the amount of cyto-c molecules transferred from the mitochondrial intermembrane space into the cytosol, required for the correct execution of the apoptotic programme and/or the activation of the NADH/cyto-c electron transport pathway.

  13. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Tony; He, Yiping

    2011-12-01

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achieving more than 7 log reductions in bacterial counts. The antibacterial activity of MgO NP increased as the concentrations of MgO increased. A synergistic effect of MgO in combination with nisin was observed as well. However, the addition of ZnO NP to MgO NP did not enhance the antibacterial activity of MgO against both pathogens. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the morphological changes of E. coli O157:H7 before and after antimicrobial treatments. It was revealed that MgO NP treatments distort and damage the cell membrane, resulting in a leakage of intracellular contents and eventually the death of bacterial cells. These results suggest that MgO NP alone or in combination with nisin could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent to enhance food safety.

  14. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  15. Effect of Food Thickener on Dissolution and Laxative Activity of Magnesium Oxide Tablets in Mice.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Yoshimura, Yuya; Kato, Kazushige; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Sumiya, Kenji; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the dissolution of magnesium oxide (MgO) from MgO tablets placed in a food thickening agent (food thickener) and its effects on laxative activity. We prepared mixtures of MgO tablets suspended in an aqueous suspension and food thickeners in order to evaluate the dissolution of MgO. The results of the dissolution tests revealed that agar-based food thickeners did not affect the MgO dissolution. In contrast, some xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates with certain mixtures containing disintegrated MgO tablets suspended in a food thickener that decrease over time. However, other xanthan gum-based food-thickener products show dissolution rates that decrease immediately after mixing, regardless of the time they were allowed to stand. In order to investigate the laxative activity of MgO, we orally administered a mixture of MgO suspension and food thickener to mice and observed their bowel movements. The animal experiments showed that when agar-based food thickeners were used, the laxative activity of MgO was not affected, but it decreased when xanthan gum-based food thickeners were used.

  16. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  17. The Surface Modification and Antimicrobial Activity of Basic Magnesium Hypochlorite Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijian; Tang, Zengmin; Xu, Jianxiong; Zhang, Jide; Du, Jingjing; Li, Na

    2015-02-01

    The basic magnesium hypochlorite (BMH) nanoparticles were prepared by two micro-emulsion techniques and modified with sodium stearate. The influences of the main technical parameters such as the addition amount of sodium stearate, reaction temperature and reaction time on the Lipophilic degree (LD) of the modified BMH nanoparticles were investigated. The characteristics of the BMH nanoparticles were analysed by means of Malvern Instruments, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), water contact angle measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The antimicrobial activity of the modified BMH nanoparticles was investigated with the antibacterial circle test. The results showed that the average size of the BMH nanoparticles was 305 nm. The BMH nanoparticles had been successfully modified by sodium stearate and the LD of.the modified BMH nanoparticles was 8.4% when the addition amount of sodium stearate was 0.15 g, the reaction temperature was 10 °C and the reaction time was 5 h. The dispersibility and hydrophobicity of the modified BMH nanoparticles were improved and the contact angle was up to 103 °, the modified BMH nanoparticles still had excellent antimicrobial activity after modification.

  18. Inhibition of beta-amylase activity by calcium, magnesium and zinc ions determined by spectrophotometry and isothermal titration calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Dahot, M Umar; Saboury, A A; Moosavi-Movahedi, A A

    2004-04-01

    The inhibition effect of metal ions on beta amylase activity was studied. The inhibitor-binding constant (Ki) was determined by spectrophotometric and isothermal titration calorimetric (ITC) methods. The binding of calcium, magnesium and zinc ion as inhibitors at the active site of barley beta amylase was studied at pH = 4.8 (sodium acetate 16 mM) and T = 300K. The Ki and enthalpy of binding for calcium (13.4, 13.1 mM and -14.3 kJ/mol), magnesium (18.6, 17.8mM and -17.7 kJ/mol) and zinc (17.5, 17.7 mM and -20.0 kJ/mol) were found by spectrophotometric and ITC methods respectively.

  19. In vitro anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus activity of magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rafiei, Solmaz; Rezatofighi, Seyedeh Elham; Ardakani, Mohammad Roayaei; Madadgar, Omid

    2015-10-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals that can lead to huge economic losses in the livestock production. No antiviral therapies are available for treating FMD virus (FMDV) infections in animals. The antiviral effects of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) on the FMDV were investigated in cell culture. The viability of the cells after MgO NP treatment was determined using the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The direct effects of MgO NPs on the FMDV in extracellular (virucidal assay) and also different stages of virus replication (antiviral assay) were evaluated by plaque reduction assay. The results showed that MgO NPs were safe at concentrations up to 250 µg/ml in the Razi Bovine kidney cell line. The treatments with NPs indicated that the MgO NPs exerted in vitro virucidal and antiviral activities. Plaque reduction assay revealed that MgO NPs can inhibit FMDV by more than 90% at the early stages of infection such as attachment and penetration but not after penetration. The results of this study suggested that NPs might be applied locally as an antiviral agent in early stages of infection in susceptible animals.

  20. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO2 adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-01

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO2 adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were - 117.5 kJṡmol-1 and - 65.4 kJṡmol-1, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD-CO2. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m2/g and 702.5 m2/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm3/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO2 emissions as well as better CO2 adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO2 adsorbent.

  1. Abundance ratios of oxygen, neon, and magnesium in solar active regions and flares: The FIP effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widing, K. G.; Feldman, U.

    1995-01-01

    Relative abundances of oxygen, neon, and magnesium have been derived for a sample of nine solar active regions, flares, and an erupting prominance by combining plots of the ion differential emission measures. The observations were photographed in the 300-600 A range by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) spectroheliograph on Skylab. Methods for deriving the Mg/Ne abundance ratio-which measures the separation between the low- first ionization potential (FIP) and high-FIP abundnace plateaus-have been described in previous papers. In this paper we describe the spectroscopic methods for deriving the O/Ne abundance ratio, which gives the ratio between two high-FIP elements. The plot of the O/Ne ratio versus the Mg/Ne ratio in the sample of nine Skylab events is shown. The variation in the Mg/Ne ratio by a factor of 6 is associated with a much smaller range in the O/Ne ratio. This is broadly consistent with the presence of the standard FIP pattern of abundances in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. However, a real change in the relative abundances of oxygen and neon by a factor of 1.5 cannot be excluded.

  2. Magnesium oxide nanoparticles on green activated carbon as efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Wan Isahak, Wan Nor Roslam; Ramli, Zatil Amali Che; Mohamed Hisham, Mohamed Wahab; Yarmo, Mohd Ambar

    2013-11-27

    This study was focused on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) adsorption ability using Magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported activated carbon based bamboo (BAC). The suitability of MgO as a good CO{sub 2} adsorbent was clarified using Thermodynamic considerations (Gibbs-Helmholtz relationship). The ΔH and ΔG of this reaction were − 117.5 kJ⋅mol{sup −1} and − 65.4 kJ⋅mol{sup −1}, respectively, at standard condition (298 K and 1 atm). The complete characterization of these adsorbent were conducted by using BET, XRD, FTIR, TEM and TPD−CO{sub 2}. The surface areas for MgO nanoparticles and MgO nanoparticles supported BAC were 297.1 m{sup 2}/g and 702.5 m{sup 2}/g, respectively. The MgO nanoparticles supported BAC shown better physical and chemical adsorption ability with 39.8 cm{sup 3}/g and 6.5 mmol/g, respectively. The combination of MgO nanoparticle and BAC which previously prepared by chemical method can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions as well as better CO{sub 2} adsorption behavior. Overall, our results indicate that nanoparticles of MgO on BAC posses unique surface chemistry and their high surface reactivity coupled with high surface area allowed them to approach the goal as an efficient CO{sub 2} adsorbent.

  3. Magnesium deficiency and metabolic syndrome: stress and inflammation may reflect calcium activation.

    PubMed

    Rayssiguier, Yves; Libako, Patrycja; Nowacki, Wojciech; Rock, Edmond

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) intake is inadequate in the western diet and metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in populations around the world. Epidemiological studies suggest that high Mg intake may reduce the risk but the possibility of confounding factors exists, given the strong association between Mg and other beneficial nutriments (vegetables, fibers, cereals). The concept that metabolic syndrome is an inflammatory condition may explain the role of Mg.Mg deficiency results in a stress effect and increased susceptibility to physiological damage produced by stress. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system. The activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a factor in the development of insulin resistance by increasing oxidative stress. In both humans and rats, aldosteronism results in an immunostimulatory state and leads to an inflammatory phenotype. Stress response induces the release of large quantities of excitatory amino acids and activates the nuclear factor NFkappaB, promoting translation of molecules involved in cell regulation, metabolism and apoptosis. The rise in neuropeptides is also well documented. Stress-induced HPA activation has been identified to play an important role in the preferential body fat accumulation but evidence that Mg is involved in body weight regulation is lacking. One of the earliest events in the acute response to stress is endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells actively contribute to inflammation by elaborating cytokines, synthesizing chemical mediators and expressing adhesion molecules. Experimental Mg deficiency in rats induces a clinical inflammatory syndrome characterized by leukocyte and macrophage activation, synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins, extensive production of free radicals. An increase in extracellular Mg concentration decreases inflammatory effects, while reduction in extracellular Mg results in cell activation. The

  4. Magnesium impacts myosin V motor activity by altering key conformational changes in the mechanochemical cycle.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Darshan V; Muretta, Joseph M; Swenson, Anja M; Thomas, David D; Yengo, Christopher M

    2013-07-09

    We investigated how magnesium (Mg) impacts key conformational changes during the ADP binding/release steps in myosin V and how these alterations impact the actomyosin mechanochemical cycle. The conformation of the nucleotide binding pocket was examined with our established FRET system in which myosin V labeled with FlAsH in the upper 50 kDa domain participates in energy transfer with mant labeled nucleotides. We examined the maximum actin-activated ATPase activity of MV FlAsH at a range of free Mg concentrations (0.1-9 mM) and found that the highest activity occurs at low Mg (0.1-0.3 mM), while there is a 50-60% reduction in activity at high Mg (3-9 mM). The motor activity examined with the in vitro motility assay followed a similar Mg-dependence, and the trend was similar with dimeric myosin V. Transient kinetic FRET studies of mantdADP binding/release from actomyosin V FlAsH demonstrate that the transition between the weak and strong actomyosin.ADP states is coupled to movement of the upper 50 kDa domain and is dependent on Mg with the strong state stabilized by Mg. We find that the kinetics of the upper 50 kDa conformational change monitored by FRET correlates well with the ATPase and motility results over a wide range of Mg concentrations. Our results suggest the conformation of the upper 50 kDa domain is highly dynamic in the Mg free actomyosin.ADP state, which is in agreement with ADP binding being entropy driven in the absence of Mg. Overall, our results demonstrate that Mg is a key factor in coupling the nucleotide- and actin-binding regions. In addition, Mg concentrations in the physiological range can alter the structural transition that limits ADP dissociation from actomyosin V, which explains the impact of Mg on actin-activated ATPase activity and in vitro motility.

  5. Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium in geological matrices by delayed neutron activation analysis based on k0 instrumental neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Baidoo, I K; Dampare, S B; Opata, N S; Nyarko, B J B; Akaho, E H K; Quagraine, R E

    2013-12-01

    In this work, concentrations of silicon, aluminium and magnesium in geological matrices were determined by Neutron Activation Analysis based on k0-IAEA software. The optimum activation and delay times were found to be 5 min and 15-20 min respectively for the determination of Si via (29)Si (n,p) (29)Al reaction. The adopted irradiation scheme did not work for the determination of magnesium. Each sample was irradiated under a thermal neutron flux density of 5.0 × 10(11) ncm(-2)s(-1). Cadmium covered activation indicated that a permanent epithermal irradiation site for research reactors would be very useful for routine determination of silicon in environmental samples.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  7. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  8. Comparative study for the removal and destruction of pentachlorophenol using activated magnesium treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garbou, Amel M; Clausen, Christian A; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2017-01-01

    Chlorophenols are highly toxic, environmentally-persistent compounds which have been classified as probable human carcinogens by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Due to the high toxicity of these compounds, it is necessary to treat water and soils with concentrations of chlorophenols above the detection limit set by regulatory agencies. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the capabilities of using ball-milled magnesium for the dechlorination of PCP. Comparison of dechlorination processes were performed in an attempt to determine the most effective system for degradation of PCP to phenol. Three systems with powerful capabilities of treatment were studied: ball-milled zero-valent magnesium (ZVMg), ball-milled zero-valent magnesium carbon (ZVMg/C), and ball-milled zero-valent magnesium with palladium (ZVMg/Pd). In addition to measuring PCP disappearance, all byproducts were identified and quantified for each degradation system. The results of these studies indicate that all three of the systems degrade PCP within 30 min. The most rapid and complete PCP dechlorination is achieved using ball-milled Mg/Pd and a matrix consisting of at least 0.02 g Mg0/mL ethanol, and 10 μL acetic acid/mL ethanol, in which case 20 ng/μL of PCP was dechlorinated to chlorophenols in approximately 15 min with complete dechlorination achieved in six days. Carbon mass balances of 90.16% for Mg, 94.76% (Mg/C) and 97.05% (Mg/Pd) verify dechlorination was responsible for declining concentrations of PCP. The reactions of PCP degradation and phenol formation were found to follow pseudo-first order kinetics for all systems. Further work will consist of optimization and development of field-scale applications.

  9. Evidence for a hydroxide ion bridging two magnesium ions at the active site of the hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, T; Auffinger, P; Scott, W G; Westhof, E

    1997-01-01

    In the presence of magnesium ions, cleavage by the hammerhead ribozyme RNA at a specific residue leads to 2'3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH extremities. In the cleavage reaction an activated ribose 2'-hydroxyl group attacks its attached 3'-phosphate. Molecular dynamics simulations of the crystal structure of the hammerhead ribozyme, obtained after flash-freezing of crystals under conditions where the ribozyme is active, provide evidence that a mu-bridging OH-ion is located between two Mg2+ions close to the cleavable phosphate. Constrained simulations show further that a flip from the C3'- endo to the C2'- endo conformation of the ribose at the cleavable phosphate brings the 2'-hydroxyl in proximity to both the attacked phosphorous atom and the mu-bridging OH-ion. Thus, the simulations lead to a detailed new insight into the mechanism of hammerhead ribozyme cleavage where a mu-hydroxo bridged magnesium cluster, located on the deep groove side, provides an OH-ion that is able to activate the 2'-hydroxyl nucleophile after a minor and localized conformational change in the RNA. PMID:9254698

  10. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  11. Magnesium Elevation Promotes Neuronal Differentiation While Suppressing Glial Differentiation of Primary Cultured Adult Mouse Neural Progenitor Cells through ERK/CREB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wang; Jiang, Mujun; Li, Mei; Jin, Congli; Xiao, Songhua; Fan, Shengnuo; Fang, Wenli; Zheng, Yuqiu; Liu, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the influence of magnesium elevation on fate determination of adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs) and the underlying mechanism in vitro. Adult neurogenesis, which is the generation of functional neurons from neural precursors, occurs throughout life in restricted anatomical regions in mammals. Magnesium is the fourth most abundant ion in mammals, and its elevation in the brain has been shown to enhance memory and synaptic plasticity in vivo. However, the effects of magnesium on fate determination of aNPCs, which are vital processes in neurogenesis, remain unknown. NPCs isolated from the dentate gyrus of adult C57/BL6 mice were induced to differentiate in a medium with varying magnesium concentrations (0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 mM) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD0325901. The proportion of cells that differentiated into neurons and glial cells was evaluated using immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods were used to determine the expression of β-III tubulin (Tuj1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The activation of ERK and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was examined by Western blot to reveal the underlying mechanism. Magnesium elevation increased the proportion of Tju1-positive cells and decreased the proportion of GFAP-positive cells. Also, the expression of Tuj1 was upregulated, whereas the expression of GFAP was downregulated. Moreover, magnesium elevation enhanced the activation of both ERK and CREB. Treatment with PD0325901 reversed these effects in a dose-dependent manner. Magnesium elevation promoted neural differentiation while suppressing glial cell differentiation, possibly via ERK-induced CREB activation. PMID:28280456

  12. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  15. Magnesium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much. Deficiencies are typically seen with: Low dietary intake (seen in the elderly, malnourished , and with alcoholism ) Gastrointestinal disorders (such as Crohn's disease) Uncontrolled ... blood levels of magnesium are rarely due to dietary sources but are usually the result of an ...

  16. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  18. Effects of manganese, calcium, magnesium and zinc on nickel-induced suppression of murine natural killer cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Smialowicz, R.J.; Rogers, R.R.; Riddle, M.M.; Luebke, R.W.; Fogelson, L.D.; Rowe, D.G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects that divalent metals have on nickel-induced suppression of natural killer (NK) cell activity were studied in mice. Male CBA/J mice were given a single intramuscular injection of the following: nickel chloride, 4.5-36 ..mu..g/g; manganese chloride, 20-80 ..mu..g/g; magnesium acetate, 50-200 ..mu..g/g; zinc acetate, 2-8 ..mu..g/g; or calcium acetate, 12.5-50 ..mu..g/g. Twenty-four hours after metal injection, splenic NK cell activity was assessed using a /sup 51/Cr-release assay. Ni significantly suppressed NK activity, while Mn significantly enhanced NK activity. No alteration in NK activity was observed in mice injected with Mg, Ca, or Zn. The injection of Ni and Mn in combination at a single site resulted in the enhancement of NK activity, although this enhancement was at a level below that observed following the injection of Mn alone. Injection of Mg, Zn, or Ca in combination with Ni did not affect NK activity compared to saline controls. In contrast, the injection of Ni in one thigh followed immediately by Mn, Mg, Ca, or Zn into the other thigh resulted in significant suppression of NK activity for all metals compared with saline controls. An interesting finding was that the injection of Ni followed immediately by Mn into the opposite thigh resulted in even greater reduction in NK activity than Ni alone. Suppression of NK activity by Ni and Mn injected at separate sites was not seen when Mn injection preceded Ni injection by 1 h.

  19. Biophysical characterization and activity analysis of nano-magnesium supplemented cellulase obtained from a psychrobacterium following graphene oxide immobilization.

    PubMed

    Dutta, N; Biswas, S; Saha, M K

    2016-12-01

    Cellulase enzyme was purified from a psychrophilic strain of Bacillus subtilis obtained from east Himalayan mountains. The native enzyme showed optimum activity at 15°C and pH 8.0.The Magnesium oxide nanoparticle (MgN) supplemented enzyme when immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport (GO), via glutaraldehyde as cross linker, showed 2.98 folds increase in enzymatic activity at 8°C and more than 3.5 folds activity increment at 90°C. The MgN-cel on graphene (GO-MgN-cel) showed a decrease in Km by 6.7 folds at 8°C and 34 folds at 90°C. GO-MgN-cel showed 5 fold and 4.7 fold increase in Vmax at 8°C and 90°C respectively than the untreated enzyme.When compared to native enzyme, GO-MgN-cel had t1/2 (half life) and Ed increased by 72.5 fold and 2.48 fold respectively at 90°C; and 41.6 fold and 2.19 fold respectively at 8°C. Enzymatic activity of GO-MgN-cel was retained even after 12 repeated uses and showed storage stability at 4°C for more than 120days. This nanoparticle assisted immobilization technique can be utilized in bioprocessing industries which require functioning at these extreme ranges of temperature.

  20. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  1. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  2. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... sources of magnesium: Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas, dried apricots, and avocados) Nuts (such as almonds ... Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium . ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer . ...

  3. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  4. Magnesium(I) Dimers Bearing Tripodal Diimine-Enolate Ligands: Proficient Reagents for the Controlled Reductive Activation of CO2 and SO2.

    PubMed

    Boutland, Aaron J; Pernik, Indrek; Stasch, Andreas; Jones, Cameron

    2015-10-26

    The first examples of magnesium(I) dimers bearing tripodal ligands, [(Mg{κ(3) -N,N',O-(ArNCMe)2 (OCCPh2 )CH})2 ] [Ar=2,6-iPr2 C6 H3 (Dip) 7, 2,6-Et2 C6 H3 (Dep) 8, or mesityl (Mes) 9] have been prepared by post-synthetic modification of the β-diketiminato ligands of previously reported magnesium(I) systems, using diphenylketene, OCCPh2 . In contrast, related reactions between β-diketiminato magnesium(I) dimers and the isoelectronic ketenimine, MesNCCPh2 , resulted in reductive insertion of the substrate into the MgMg bond of the magnesium(I) reactant, and formation of [{(Nacnac)Mg}2 {μ-κ(2) -N,C-(Mes)NCCPh2 }] (Nacnac=[(ArNCMe)2 CH](-) ; Ar=Dep 10 or Mes 11). Reactions of the four-coordinate magnesium(I) dimer 8 with excess CO2 are readily controlled, and cleanly give carbonate [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -CO3 )] 12 (L=[κ(3) -N,N',O-(DepNCMe)2 (OCCPh2 )CH](-) ; thermodynamic product), or oxalate [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -C2 O4 )] 13 (kinetic product), depending on the reaction temperature. Compound 12 and CO are formed by reductive disproportionation of CO2 , whereas 13 results from reductive coupling of two molecules of the gas. Treatment of 8 with an excess of N2 O cleanly gives the μ-oxo complex [(LMg)2 (μ-O)] 14, which reacts facilely with CO2 to give 12. This result presents the possibility that 14 is an intermediate in the formation of 12 from the reaction of 8 and CO2 . In contrast to its reactions with CO2 , 8 reacts with SO2 over a wide temperature range to give only one product; the first example of a magnesium dithionite complex, [(LMg)2 (μ-κ(2) :κ(2) -S2 O4 )] 16, which is formed by reductive coupling of two molecules of SO2 , and is closely related to f-block metal dithionite complexes derived from similar SO2 reductive coupling processes. On the whole, this study strengthens previously proposed analogies between the reactivities of magnesium(I) systems and low-valent f-block metal complexes, especially with respect to small

  5. Sulla carnosa modulates root invertase activity in response to the inhibition of long-distance sucrose transport under magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Farhat, N; Smaoui, A; Maurousset, L; Porcheron, B; Lemoine, R; Abdelly, C; Rabhi, M

    2016-11-01

    Being the principal product of photosynthesis, sucrose is involved in many metabolic processes in plants. As magnesium (Mg) is phloem mobile, an inverse relationship between Mg shortage and sugar accumulation in leaves is often observed. Mg deficiency effects on carbohydrate contents and invertase activities were determined in Sulla carnosa Desf. Plants were grown hydroponically at different Mg concentrations (0.00, 0.01, 0.05 and 1.50 mM Mg) for one month. Mineral analysis showed that Mg contents were drastically diminished in shoots and roots mainly at 0.01 and 0.00 mM Mg. This decline was adversely associated with a significant increase of sucrose, fructose and mainly glucose in shoots of plants exposed to severe deficiency. By contrast, sugar contents were severely reduced in roots of these plants indicating an alteration of carbohydrate partitioning between shoots and roots of Mg-deficient plants. Cell wall invertase activity was highly enhanced in roots of Mg-deficient plants, while the vacuolar invertase activity was reduced at 0.00 mM Mg. This decrease of vacuolar invertase activity may indicate the sensibility of roots to Mg starvation resulting from sucrose transport inhibition. (14) CO2 labeling experiments were in accordance with these findings showing an inhibition of sucrose transport from source leaves to sink tissues (roots) under Mg depletion. The obtained results confirm previous findings about Mg involvement in photosynthate loading into phloem and add new insights into mechanisms evolved by S. carnosa to cope with Mg shortage in particular the increase of the activity of cell wall invertase.

  6. The TMS Magnesium Committee: Committed to the Advancement of Global Magnesium Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sillekens, Wim H.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2011-04-21

    The TMS Magnesium Committee was established in the year 2000 as a spin-off of the Reactive Metals Committee, triggered by the strong global growth of magnesium being used in a variety of structural lightweight applications since the mid-1990’s. Since then the committee has seen a distinct development in terms of size, participation and focus. The article at hand outlines this development by recapitulating the output of its two main activities: the annual Magnesium Technology Symposia and the JOM Special Issues dedicated to magnesium research and development. Further records on the Magnesium Committee are available from the committee homepage (accessible through http://members.tms.org).

  7. Nano-magnesium aided activity enhancement and biophysical characterization of a psychrophilic α-amylase immobilized on graphene oxide nanosupport.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Nalok; Biswas, Subrata; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2017-03-03

    In the current literature we have devised an immobilization technique for conferring psychrostability to a cold active α-amylase (amy) enzyme by the use of magnesium nanoparticle (MgNP) and graphene oxide (GO). The GO-MgNP-amy nanocomposite showed enhanced enzymatic activity and thermostability at both upper (90°C) and lower (8°C) temperature extremes. The GO-MgNP-amy showed increased affinity towards substrate, reflected in the decrease in its Km by 2.35 and 14.9-fold at 8°C and 90°C, respectively, than the untreated enzyme. GO-MgNP-amy showed 2.34-fold and 4.29-fold increase in Vmax at 8°C and 90°C, respectively, than the untreated enzyme. When compared to native enzyme at 90°C, GO-MgNP-amy had t1/2 (half life) increased by 44-fold with simultaneous increase in Ed by 1.9-fold. Again at 8°C, GO-MgNP-amy had t1/2 increased by 6.48-fold with simultaneous increase in Ed by 2.21-fold when compared to the native enzyme. The enzymatic activity of GO-MgNP-amy was retained even after 12 repeated uses and showed storage stability at 4°C for more than 120 days. The ability of GO-MgNP to sustain and aggravate enzyme activity and stability at temperatures beyond the optimal range can be utilized in bioprocessing industries which requires functioning at these extreme ranges of temperature.

  8. Dual ions implantation of zirconium and nitrogen into magnesium alloys for enhanced corrosion resistance, antimicrobial activity and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mengqi; Qiao, Yuqin; Wang, Qi; Qin, Hui; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-12-01

    Biodegradable magnesium-based alloys have shown great potential for medical applications due to their superior biological performances and mechanical properties. However, on one hand, some side effects including inferior biocompatibility, a local high-alkaline environment and gas cavities caused by a rapid corrosion rate, hinder their clinical application. On the other hand, it is also necessary to endow Mg alloys with antibacterial properties, which are crucial for clinic orthopedic applications. In this study, Zr and N ions are simultaneously implanted into AZ91 Mg alloys by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). A modified layer with a thickness of approximately 80nm is formed on the surface of AZ91 Mg alloys, and the hydrophobicity and roughness of these AZ91 Mg alloys obviously increase after Zr and N implantation. The in vitro evaluations including corrosion resistance tests, antimicrobial tests and cytocompatibility and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity tests, revealed that the dual ions implantation of Zr and N not only enhanced the corrosion resistance of the AZ91 Mg alloy but also provided better antimicrobial properties in vitro. Furthermore, the formation of biocompatible metal nitrides and metal oxides layer in the near surface of the Zr-N-implanted AZ91 Mg alloy provided a favorable implantation surface for cell adhesion and growth, which in return further promoted the bone formation in vivo. These promising results suggest that the Zr-N-implanted AZ91 Mg alloy shows potential for future application in the orthopedic field.

  9. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  10. Alkalization is responsible for antibacterial effects of corroding magnesium.

    PubMed

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Eifler, Rainer; Rais, Bushra; Mueller, Peter P

    2015-11-01

    Magnesium alloys are presently investigated as potential medical implant materials for temporary applications. Magnesium has been reported to have antibacterial activities and could therefore be used to prevent antibiotic treatment-resistant bacterial implant infections. For characterizing the effects of magnesium on infectious bacteria, bioluminescent S. aureus or P. aeruginosa were employed. The proliferation of both types of bacteria was suppressed in the presence of metallic magnesium and also in aqueous magnesium corrosion extracts. Of the two soluble corrosion products, magnesium ions were well tolerated while antibacterial activities correlated with increased pH levels of the supernatants. The alkaline pH alone was sufficient for the antibacterial effects which were completely abolished when the pH of the corrosion supernatants was neutralized. These results demonstrate that pH increases are necessary and sufficient for the antibacterial activity of metallic magnesium. In an animal model magnesium implants showed an enhanced but variable resistance to bacterial colonization.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) controls magnesium gatekeeper TRPM6 activity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jia; Sun, Baonan; Du, Jianyang; Yang, Wenzhong; Chen, Hsiang-Chin; Overton, Jeffrey D; Runnels, Loren W; Yue, Lixia

    2011-01-01

    TRPM6 is crucial for human Mg2+ homeostasis as patients carrying TRPM6 mutations develop hypomagnesemia and secondary hypocalcemia (HSH). However, the activation mechanism of TRPM6 has remained unknown. Here we demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphophate (PIP2) controls TRPM6 activation and Mg2+ influx. Stimulation of PLC-coupled M1-receptors to deplete PIP2 potently inactivates TRPM6. Translocation of over-expressed 5-phosphatase to cell membrane to specifically hydrolyze PIP2 also completely inhibits TRPM6. Moreover, depolarization-induced-activation of the voltage-sensitive-phosphatase (Ci-VSP) simultaneously depletes PIP2 and inhibits TRPM6. PLC-activation induced PIP2-depletion not only inhibits TRPM6, but also abolishes TRPM6-mediated Mg2+ influx.Furthermore, neutralization of basic residues in the TRP domain leads to nonfunctional or dysfunctional mutants with reduced activity by PIP2, suggesting that they are likely to participate in interactions with PIP2.Our data indicate that PIP2 is required for TRPM6 channel function; hydrolysis of PIP2 by PLC-coupled hormones/agonists may constitute an important pathway for TRPM6 gating, and perhaps Mg2+ homeostasis.

  12. The chlorophyll-deficient golden leaf mutation in cucumber is due to a single nucleotide substitution in CsChlI for magnesium chelatase I subunit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chlorophyll gives the green color in plants. Any mutations in chloroplhyll biosynthesis or regulation may result in colr changes. Leaf color mutants are common in higher plants, which can be used as markers in crop breeding or as a tool in understanding regulatory mechanisms in chlorophyll biosy...

  13. Magnesium-Dependent Active-Site Conformational Selection in the Diels-Alderase Ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Berezniak, Tomasz; Zahran, Mai; Imhof, Petra; Jaeschke, Andres; Smith, Jeremy C

    2010-10-01

    The Diels-Alderase ribozyme, an in vitro-evolved ribonucleic acid enzyme, accelerates the formation of carbon-carbon bonds between an anthracene diene and a maleimide dienophile in a [4 + 2] cycloaddition, a reaction with broad application in organic chemistry. Here, the Diels-Alderase ribozyme is examined via molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in both crystalline and aqueous solution environments. The simulations indicate that the catalytic pocket is highly dynamic. At low Mg(2+) ion concentrations, inactive states with the catalytic pocket closed dominate. Stabilization of the enzymatically active, open state of the catalytic pocket requires a high concentration of Mg(2+) ions (e.g., 54 mM), with cations binding to specific phosphate sites on the backbone of the residues bridging the opposite strands of the pocket. The free energy profile for pocket opening at high Mg(2+) cation concentration exhibits a double minimum, with a barrier to opening of approximately 5.5 kJ/mol and the closed state approximately 3 kJ/mol lower than the open state. Selection of the open state on substrate binding leads to the catalytic activity of the ribozyme. The simulation results explain structurally the experimental observation that full catalytic activity depends on the Mg(2+) ion concentration

  14. Differential effects of zinc and magnesium ions on mineralization activity of phosphatidylserine calcium phosphate complexes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Licia N Y; Genge, Brian R; Wuthier, Roy E

    2009-07-01

    Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) are present in the mineral of matrix vesicles (MVs) and biological apatites, and are known to influence the onset and progression of mineral formation by amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP). However, neither has been studied systematically for its effect on mineral formation by phosphatidylserine-Ca(2+)-Pi complexes (PS-CPLX), an important constituent of the MV nucleation core. Presented here are studies on the effects of increasing levels of Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) on the process of mineral formation, either when present in synthetic cartilage lymph (SCL), or when incorporated during the formation of PS-CPLX. Pure HAP and PS-CPLX proved to be powerful nucleators, but ACP took much longer to induce mineral formation. In SCL, Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) had significantly different inhibitory effects on the onset and amount of mineral formation; HAP and PS-CPLX were less affected than ACP. Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) caused similar reductions in the rate and length of rapid mineral formation, but Zn(2+) was a more potent inhibitor on a molar basis. When incorporated into PS-CPLX, Mg(2+) and Zn(2+) caused significantly different effects than when present in SCL. Even low, subphysiological levels of Mg(2+) altered the inherent structure of PS-CPLX and markedly reduced its ability to induce and propagate mineral formation. Incorporated Zn(2+) caused significantly less effect, low (<20 microM) levels causing almost no inhibition. Levels of Zn(2+) present in MVs do not appear to inhibit their nucleational activity.

  15. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis ... painful shoulder. It is also used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in ...

  16. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  17. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  18. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  19. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Kulik, Kamila; Ordak, Michał; Sasinowska-Motyl, Małgorzata; Gąsińska, Emilia; de Corde, Anna; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception. Methods In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride) in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm) and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions) in the porcine gut sac model were also compared. Results Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1) enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate). Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts. Conclusions The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice. PMID:27792736

  20. Superplasticity in Thermomechanically Processed High Magnesium Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    California DTIC EECTE JL I 1984 THESIS SUPERPLASTICITY IN THERMOMECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOYS C:L by CD) John J. Becker...High Magnesium Aluminum- March 1984 Magnesium Alloys S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(@) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) John J. Becker 9...magnesium, aluminum-magnesium alloys were investigated. The thermomechanical processing itself included warm rolling at 300°C to 94% reduction

  1. The Magnesium Branch of the Tetrapyrrole Biosynthetic Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Beale, S. I.

    2004-05-11

    It should be noted that the focus of the research changed somewhat during the course of the current award. The initial focus is indicated by the title of the current grant, ''The Magnesium Branch of the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway''. During the current grant period, Dr. Robert Willows, a postdoctoral associate, joined the faculty of McQuarie University in Australia. When he left my lab, we decided that he should independently pursue research on structure/function relationships in Mg chelatase and that our laboratories would collaborate on regulatory studies of this enzyme. Also, during the current award period, I began collaborating with Dr. Ariane Atteia and Mr. Robert van Lis, who were at the time located at the Autonomous University of Mexico. Dr. Atteia has since joined my laboratory and Mr. van Lis will also do so when he obtains his Ph.D. in the near future. These individuals bring to the laboratory their interests and expertise in the respiratory components of Chlamydomonas and their desire to become experts in tetrapyrrole metabolism. Recently, in a collaboration with Dr. David Bollivar, a former postdoctoral associate who is now at Illinois Wesleyan University, and Dr. Caroline Walker, who was at Clemson University but has since left this research area, we recently made a major breakthrough on the oxygen-independent cyclase reaction, which has now become an important component of the current proposal. Finally, our research on phycobilin biosynthesis in Synechucystis has revealed that this organism can grow at very low oxygen concentrations and its genome contains several genes that may encode for enzymes that catalyze alternative oxygen-independent reactions for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, so characterizing the genes, their enzymes, and regulation of expression have also become parts of the current proposal.

  2. On the effect of food magnesium level on the activity of BASP, ALAT, ASAT and LD in pig serum.

    PubMed

    Nuoranne, P

    1978-02-01

    Studies were made to investigate the effect of food Mg level on ALAT, ASAT, LD and BASP values in pigs. The following conclusions were drawn:--a high food Mg level (0.31% in ordinary pig food) can cause an increase in serum BASP values.--leg weakness, at the primary stage, is hardly caused by disturbances in bone.--an ordinary diet low in Mg may cause an abnormal rise in ALAT values in pigs.--when feeding pigs on an ordinary diet, pigs may suffer from Mg deficiency despite the fact that the food Mg content is distinctly higher than that recommended by international norms for feeding.--a prompt lowering of food Mg level can cause a manifest increase in ASAT, LD and BASP values within 2 to 3 days in pigs. Heart and liver injuries caused by low Mg diets and the individual ability of pits to utilize magnesium were discussed.

  3. Oxalate metabolism in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Rattan, V; Thind, S K; Jethi, R K; Sidhu, H; Nath, R

    1993-06-01

    Male weanling rats were maintained on magnesium-deficient diet for 30 d and compared with pair-fed control rats fed magnesium-supplemented diet. Magnesium deficiency led to slow growth and finally to a significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) accompanied by a significant hypomagnesaemia, hypomagnesuria and hyperoxaluria (P < 0.001 in each case) in experimental rats as compared to the control rats. Magnesium deficiency altered the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver and kidney mitochondria by significantly decreasing glyoxylate oxidation (by 26 per cent in liver and 17 per cent in kidney) and activity of alpha-ketoglutarate:glyoxylate carboligase enzyme (by 35 per cent in liver and 27 per cent in kidney) in the experimental animals. A significant increase in the specific activities of glycolic acid oxidase (P < 0.001) and glycolic acid dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in alanine transaminase (P < 0.01) was also observed in magnesium-deficient rats. No change in liver and kidney lactate dehydrogenase was observed. Thus magnesium deficiency in rats leads to accumulation of glyoxylate in the tissues, a part of which is converted into oxalate, thereby promoting hyperoxaluria.

  4. Transport of Magnesium by a Bacterial Nramp-Related Gene

    PubMed Central

    Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Freedman, Benjamin G.; Senger, Ryan S.; Winkler, Wade C.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5–2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes. PMID:24968120

  5. Transport of magnesium by a bacterial Nramp-related gene.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Ho; Wakeman, Catherine A; Goodson, Jonathan R; Rodionov, Dmitry A; Freedman, Benjamin G; Senger, Ryan S; Winkler, Wade C

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium is an essential divalent metal that serves many cellular functions. While most divalent cations are maintained at relatively low intracellular concentrations, magnesium is maintained at a higher level (∼0.5-2.0 mM). Three families of transport proteins were previously identified for magnesium import: CorA, MgtE, and MgtA/MgtB P-type ATPases. In the current study, we find that expression of a bacterial protein unrelated to these transporters can fully restore growth to a bacterial mutant that lacks known magnesium transporters, suggesting it is a new importer for magnesium. We demonstrate that this transport activity is likely to be specific rather than resulting from substrate promiscuity because the proteins are incapable of manganese import. This magnesium transport protein is distantly related to the Nramp family of proteins, which have been shown to transport divalent cations but have never been shown to recognize magnesium. We also find gene expression of the new magnesium transporter to be controlled by a magnesium-sensing riboswitch. Importantly, we find additional examples of riboswitch-regulated homologues, suggesting that they are a frequent occurrence in bacteria. Therefore, our aggregate data discover a new and perhaps broadly important path for magnesium import and highlight how identification of riboswitch RNAs can help shed light on new, and sometimes unexpected, functions of their downstream genes.

  6. Natural killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine profile in tumor-bearing mice treated with MAPA, a magnesium aggregated polymer from Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Justo, G Z; Durán, N; Queiroz, M L S

    2003-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of MAPA, an antitumor aggregated polymer of protein magnesium ammonium phospholinoleate-palmitoleate anhydride, isolated from Aspergillus oryzae, on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced spleen cell proliferation, cytokine production and on natural killer (NK) cell activity in Ehrlich ascites tumor-bearing mice. The Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) growth led to diminished mitogen-induced expansion of spleen cell populations and total NK activity. This was accompanied by striking spleen enlargement, with a marked increase in total cell counts. Moreover, a substantial enhancement in IL-10 levels, paralleled by a significant decrease in IL-2 was observed, while production of IL-4 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) was not altered. Treatment of mice with 5 mg/kg MAPA for 7 days promoted spleen cell proliferation, IL-2 production and NK cell activity regardless of tumor outgrowth. In addition, MAPA treatment markedly enhanced IFN-gamma levels and reduced IL-10 production relative to EAT mice. A 35% reduction in splenomegaly with normal number of nucleated cells was also found. Altogether, our results suggest that MAPA directly and/or indirectly modulates immune cell activity, and probably disengages tumor-induced suppression of these responses. Clearly, MAPA has an impact and may delay tumor outgrowth through immunotherapeutic mechanisms.

  7. Struvite precipitation from urine with electrochemical magnesium dosage.

    PubMed

    Hug, Alexandra; Udert, Kai M

    2013-01-01

    When magnesium is added to source-separated urine, struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) precipitates and phosphorus can be recovered. Up to now, magnesium salts have been used as the main source of magnesium. Struvite precipitation with these salts works well but is challenging in decentralized reactors, where high automation of the dosage and small reactor sizes are required. In this study, we investigated a novel approach for magnesium dosage: magnesium was electrochemically dissolved from a sacrificial magnesium electrode. We demonstrated that this process is technically simple and economically feasible and thus interesting for decentralized reactors. Linear voltammetry and batch experiments at different anode potentials revealed that the anode potential must be higher than -0.9 V vs. NHE (normal hydrogen electrode) to overcome the strong passivation of the anode. An anode potential of -0.6 V vs. NHE seemed to be suitable for active magnesium dissolution. For 13 subsequent cycles at this potential, we achieved an average phosphate removal rate of 3.7 mg P cm(-2) h(-1), a current density of 5.5 mA cm(-2) and a current efficiency of 118%. Some magnesium carbonate (nesquehonite) accumulated on the anode surface; as a consequence, the current density decreased slightly, but the current efficiency was not affected. The energy consumption for these experiments was 1.7 W h g P(-1). A cost comparison showed that sacrificial magnesium electrodes are competitive with easily soluble magnesium salts such as MgCl(2) and MgSO(4), but are more expensive than dosing with MgO. Energy costs for the electrochemical process were insignificant. Dosing magnesium electrochemically could thus be a worthwhile alternative to dosing magnesium salts. Due to the simple reactor and handling of magnesium, this may well be a particularly interesting approach for decentralized urine treatment.

  8. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  9. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  10. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  11. Magnesium toxicosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    Henninger, R W; Horst, J

    1997-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate, a saline laxative, is often used for treatment of intestinal impactions in horses. Clinical signs of hypermagnesemia are an uncommon complication following oral administration of magnesium sulfate. Overdose of magnesium sulfate in combination with renal insufficiency, hypocalcemia, or compromise of intestinal integrity may predispose horses to magnesium toxicosis. Establishment of diuresis with fluids and IV administration of calcium may provide successful treatment of magnesium toxicosis in horses.

  12. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  13. Interstellar magnesium abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, M. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An improved evaluation of the Mg II 1240 A doublet oscillator strength is used in conjunction with recently published Copernicus observations to derive accurate Mg II column densities toward 74 stars. These imply an average of 40 percent of interstellar magnesium is in the gaseous phase. Magnesium depletion is examined as a function of various interstellar extinction and density parameters, and the results are briefly discussed in terms of current depletion theories.

  14. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  15. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  16. Magnesium for Future Autos

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Luo, Alan A.; Sadayappan, Kumar; Shi, Wenfang

    2008-10-01

    In the quest for better fuel economy and improved environmental performance, magnesium may well become a metal of choice for constructing lighter, more efficient vehicles. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, yet it has a high strength-to-weight ratio makes it comparable to steel in many applications. The world’s automakers already use magnesium for individual components. But new alloys and processing methods are needed before the metal can become economically and technologically feasible as a major automotive structural material. This article will explore the formation, challenges and initial results of an international collaboration—the Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project—that is leveraging the expertise and resources of Canada, China and the United States to advance the creation of magnesium-intensive vehicles. The MFERD project aims to develop the enabling technologies and knowledge base that will lead to a vehicles that are 50-60 percent lighter, equally affordable, more recyclable and of equal or better quality when compared to today’s vehicles. Databases of information also will be captured in models to enable further alloy and manufacturing process optimization. Finally, a life-cycle analysis of the magnesium used will be conducted.

  17. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  18. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  19. Absence of correlation between magnesium and riboflavin status.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, J; Clairet, D; Brue, F; Ayavou, T

    1993-06-01

    Erythrocyte magnesium and glutathione reductase activity coefficient (EGR-AC), reflecting vitamin B-2 status, were assessed in 11 athletes, 20 patients with fibromyalgia, 18 patients with hypothyroidism, and 13 controls. No correlation was demonstrated between erythrocyte magnesium and EGR-AC.

  20. Magnesium alloy ingots: Chemical and metallographic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglia, John M.; Swartz, Robert E.; Bentz, Rodney L.; Howard, Jane H.

    2001-11-01

    The quality of a magnesium die casting is likely dependent on the quality of the feed stockingot material. Therefore, both Daimler-Chrysler and General Motors have established quality assurance measures that include analysis of magnesium ingots. These processes include chemical analysis, corrosion testing, fast neutron activation analysis, and metallography. Optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and gravimetric analysis are several methods for determining the chemical composition of the material. Fast neutron activation analysis, image analysis and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are used to quantify ingot cleanliness. These experimental techniques are described and discussed in this paper, and example case studies are presented for illustration.

  1. The Association Between Effective Dose of Magnesium and Mild Compulsive Exercise on Spatial Learning, Memory, and Motor Activity of Adult Male Rats.

    PubMed

    Hajizade Ghonsulakandi, Shahnaz; Sheikh, Mahmuod; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Chopani, Samira; Naghdi, Nasser

    2017-01-25

    One of the most important survival mechanisms is learning and memory processes. To emphasize the role of physical exercises and magnesium (Mg) in improvement of cognitive performance, we planned to investigate the effect of Mg and mild compulsive exercise on spatial learning and memory of adult male rats. Accordingly, we divided male Wistar rats into four groups: (I) control, (II) Mg treatment, (III) exercise, and (IV) Mg-exercise in the different dosages of Mg (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 mmol/kbw) were injected in the form of gavage during 1 week. Also, 1-week mild running on treadmill was used for exercise treatment. The Morris water maze (MWM) test and open field tool were used to evaluate spatial learning, memory, and motor activity, respectively. Our results clearly showed that 1 mmol/kbw Mg was applied as an effective dosage. Strikingly, 1-week mild exercise on treadmill had no significant effect on spatial motor activity, learning, and memory. Feeding 1 mmol/kbw Mg for a week showed a significant difference in learning and exploration stages. Compared to control animals, these results reveal exercise and Mg simultaneously had effect on learning and reminding. As a consequence, although mild exercise had no effect on motor activity and memory, Mg intake improved spatial learning, memory, and locomotor activity. The Mg feeding could be a promising supplemental treatment in the neurodegenerative disease. It is worthwhile to mention consumption of Mg leads to enhancement of memory, so animals find the hidden platform with the highest velocity.

  2. Porphyrin Binding to Gun4 Protein, Facilitated by a Flexible Loop, Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway.

    PubMed

    Kopečná, Jana; Cabeza de Vaca, Israel; Adams, Nathan B P; Davison, Paul A; Brindley, Amanda A; Hunter, C Neil; Guallar, Victor; Sobotka, Roman

    2015-11-20

    In oxygenic phototrophs, chlorophylls, hemes, and bilins are synthesized by a common branched pathway. Given the phototoxic nature of tetrapyrroles, this pathway must be tightly regulated, and an important regulatory role is attributed to magnesium chelatase enzyme at the branching between the heme and chlorophyll pathway. Gun4 is a porphyrin-binding protein known to stimulate in vitro the magnesium chelatase activity, but how the Gun4-porphyrin complex acts in the cell was unknown. To address this issue, we first performed simulations to determine the porphyrin-docking mechanism to the cyanobacterial Gun4 structure. After correcting crystallographic loop contacts, we determined the binding site for magnesium protoporphyrin IX. Molecular modeling revealed that the orientation of α6/α7 loop is critical for the binding, and the magnesium ion held within the porphyrin is coordinated by Asn-211 residue. We also identified the basis for stronger binding in the Gun4-1 variant and for weaker binding in the W192A mutant. The W192A-Gun4 was further characterized in magnesium chelatase assay showing that tight porphyrin binding in Gun4 facilitates its interaction with the magnesium chelatase ChlH subunit. Finally, we introduced the W192A mutation into cells and show that the Gun4-porphyrin complex is important for the accumulation of ChlH and for channeling metabolites into the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway.

  3. Porphyrin Binding to Gun4 Protein, Facilitated by a Flexible Loop, Controls Metabolite Flow through the Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kopečná, Jana; Cabeza de Vaca, Israel; Adams, Nathan B. P.; Davison, Paul A.; Brindley, Amanda A.; Hunter, C. Neil; Guallar, Victor; Sobotka, Roman

    2015-01-01

    In oxygenic phototrophs, chlorophylls, hemes, and bilins are synthesized by a common branched pathway. Given the phototoxic nature of tetrapyrroles, this pathway must be tightly regulated, and an important regulatory role is attributed to magnesium chelatase enzyme at the branching between the heme and chlorophyll pathway. Gun4 is a porphyrin-binding protein known to stimulate in vitro the magnesium chelatase activity, but how the Gun4-porphyrin complex acts in the cell was unknown. To address this issue, we first performed simulations to determine the porphyrin-docking mechanism to the cyanobacterial Gun4 structure. After correcting crystallographic loop contacts, we determined the binding site for magnesium protoporphyrin IX. Molecular modeling revealed that the orientation of α6/α7 loop is critical for the binding, and the magnesium ion held within the porphyrin is coordinated by Asn-211 residue. We also identified the basis for stronger binding in the Gun4-1 variant and for weaker binding in the W192A mutant. The W192A-Gun4 was further characterized in magnesium chelatase assay showing that tight porphyrin binding in Gun4 facilitates its interaction with the magnesium chelatase ChlH subunit. Finally, we introduced the W192A mutation into cells and show that the Gun4-porphyrin complex is important for the accumulation of ChlH and for channeling metabolites into the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. PMID:26446792

  4. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  7. Magnesium inhibition of calcite dissolution kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Arvidson, Rolf S.; Collier, Martin; Davis, Kevin J.; Vinson, Michael D.; Amonette, James E.; Luttge, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    We present evidence of inhibition of calcite dissolution by dissolved magnesium through direct observations of the (104) surface using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). Far from equilibrium, the pattern of magnesium inhibition is dependent on solution composition and specific to surface step geometry. In CO2-free solutions (pH 8.8), dissolved magnesium brings about little inhibition even at concentrations of 0.8 x 10-3 molal. At the same pH, magnesium concentrations of less than 0.05 x 10-3 molal in carbonate-buffered solutions generate significant inhibition, although no changes in surface and etch pit morphology are observed. As concentrations exceed magnesite saturation, the dissolution rate shows little additional decrease; however, selective pinning of step edges results in unique etch-pit profiles, seen in both AFM and VSI datasets. Despite the decreases in step velocity, magnesium addition in carbonated solutions also appears to activate the surface by increasing the nucleation rate of new defects. These relationships suggest that the modest depression of the bulk rate measured by VSI reflects a balance between competing reaction mechanisms that simultaneously depress the rate through selective inhibition of step movement, but also enhance reactivity on terraces by lowering the energy barrier to new etch-pit formation.

  8. Improvement of hydrogen storage properties of magnesium alloys by cold rolling and forging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Jacques; Amira, Sofiene; Lang, Julien; Skryabina, Nataliya; Fruchart, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    In this talk we show that cold rolling (CR) could be used to enhance hydrogen sorption properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys. In particular, cold rolling could reduce the first hydrogenation time, the so-called activation. Pure magnesium, commercial AZ91D alloy, and an experimental creep resistant magnesium alloy MRI153 in the as-cast and die-cast states were investigated. We found that both MRI and AZ91 alloys present faster activation kinetic than pure magnesium. This could be explained by the texture, higher number of defects, and nanostructure in CR materials but also precipitates at the grain boundaries. The effect of filing was also investigated.

  9. Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, R

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood. Magnesium deficiency is a common problem in hospital patients, with a prevalence of about 10%. There are no readily available and easy methods to assess magnesium status. Serum magnesium and the magnesium tolerance test are the most widely used. Measurement of ionised magnesium may become more widely available with the availability of ion selective electrodes. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesaemia can result from a variety of causes including gastrointestinal and renal losses. Magnesium deficiency can cause a wide variety of features including hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and cardiac and neurological manifestations. Chronic low magnesium state has been associated with a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. The use of magnesium as a therapeutic agent in asthma, myocardial infarction, and pre-eclampsia is also discussed. Hypermagnesaemia is less frequent than hypomagnesaemia and results from failure of excretion or increased intake. Hypermagnesaemia can lead to hypotension and other cardiovascular effects as well as neuromuscular manifestations. Causes and management of hypermagnesaemia are discussed. PMID:18568054

  10. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  11. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-02-11

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca(2+) nor Mg(2+) lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones.

  12. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones. PMID:26865182

  13. Calcium and Magnesium Ions Are Membrane-Active against Stationary-Phase Staphylococcus aureus with High Specificity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2016-02-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is notorious for its ability to acquire antibiotic-resistance, and antibiotic-resistant S. aureus has become a wide-spread cause of high mortality rate. Novel antimicrobials capable of eradicating S. aureus cells including antibiotic-resistant ones are thus highly desired. Membrane-active bactericides and species-specific antimicrobials are two promising sources of novel anti-infective agents for fighting against bacterial antibiotic-resistance. We herein show that Ca2+ and Mg2+, two alkaline-earth-metal ions physiologically essential for diverse living organisms, both disrupt model S. aureus membranes and kill stationary-phase S. aureus cells, indicative of membrane-activity. In contrast to S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis exhibit unaffected survival after similar treatment with these two cations, indicative of species-specific activity against S. aureus. Moreover, neither Ca2+ nor Mg2+ lyses mouse red blood cells, indicative of hemo-compatibility. This works suggests that Ca2+ and Mg2+ may have implications in targeted eradication of S. aureus pathogen including the antibiotic-resistant ones.

  14. Electrochemical Film Formation on Magnesium Metal in an Ionic Liquid That Dissolves Metal Triflate and Its Application to an Active Material with Anion Charge Carrier.

    PubMed

    Shiga, Tohru; Kato, Yuichi; Inoue, Masae

    2016-11-16

    Irregular metallic growth at the anode during recharging of batteries can seriously influence the safety of batteries. To address this problem, we have attempted to design active anode materials with anion charge carriers and recently observed the formation and dissolution of an electrochemical film by triflate anions (CF3SO3(-)) at the surface of magnesium in an ionic liquid (IL) electrolyte of Mg(CF3SO3)2, which represents a rare anode material. The effect of heterogeneous cations on film formation was examined in this work. In an IL that dissolves NaCF3SO3, sodium ions with a lower reduction potential than Mg(2+)/Mg would not be expected to assist film formation. However, to our surprise, we discovered that some sodium ions are involved in film formation. The sodium ions are believed to act as a cross-linking point for the formation of a film network, which resulted in fairly good reversibility for film formation. In a Ce(CF3SO3)3-IL electrolyte, an electrochemically formed film free of Ce(3+) was obtained. The trivalent cerium cations were deactivated and transformed to an oxide on Mg metal. However, the reversibility of film formation in the Ce(CF3SO3)3 system did not meet the expected level. By coupling the film formation and dissolution behavior with a V2O5 cathode, a rechargeable battery was fabricated with dual ion transport species of Na(+) or Ce(3+) for the cathode and CF3SO3(-) for the anode. The unique battery with NaCF3SO3 is demonstrated to exhibit good discharge/charge performance with long-term cyclability.

  15. Preparation and hydriding behavior of magnesium metal clusters formed in low-temperature cocondensation: application of magnesium for hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, H.; Nobunaga, T.; Kawahigashi, M.; Tsuchiya, S.

    1984-08-01

    Magnesium metal clusters formed in low-temperature matrices were investigated with a view to forming the metal hydride. In practice, magnesium readily absorbed large amounts of hydrogen under more moderate conditions (P/sub H/sub 2// = 460 torr, T = 200-250/sup 0/C) when it had been transformed into tetrahydrofuran- (THF-) solvated small particles formed by the cocondensation reaction of magnesium atoms with THF molecules at -196/sup 0/C. To elucidate the characteristics of hydrogen sorption of Mg-THF, a comparative study with pure magnesium powder was carried out. It is believed from the H/sub 2/-D/sub 2/ isotope scrambling measurements that the high activity of the present Mg-THF system for hydrogen absorption is due to a rapid surface process in comparison with the case of the pure magnesium. This identification is reinforced by the employment of surface modification. 19 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  16. Mechanistic studies of copper(II)-aminoglycoside mediated DNA damage and magnesium catalyzed nuclease activity of hammerhead ribozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patwardhan, Anjali A.

    The antibacterial activity of aminoglycosides stems from their high affinity binding to the 16S rRNA in bacteria resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. Used to treat acute bacterial infections these antibiotics have limited applications due to their high dosage requirements and the emergence of resistant strains. We have synthesized and characterized Cu(II) derivatives of the aminoglycosides, kanamycin A, tobramycin, neamine, kanamycin B, neomycin B, and paromomycin. The first three exhibit preferential and tight binding to Cu(II) as against neomycin B and kanamycin B and paromomycin. EPR of frozen solutions and UV-visible spectroscopy suggest a change in geometry around the Cu(II) but the stabilities of the complexes in water differ. These copper derivatives efficiently cleave plasmid DNA at micromolar concentrations (hydrolytic) and at nanomolar concentrations in the presence co-reactants like hydrogen peroxide or ascorbic acid. Hydrolysis is multi turnover and exhibits Michelis-Menten kinetics with enzyme-like behavior whereas oxidative cleavage is highly specific with C-4' H abstraction resulting in characteristic base propenal and nucleotide base products. Hydroxyl radicals generated are copper based and are generated in close proximity of the substrate. Hammerhead ribozymes are selectively hydrolyzed in the presence of divalent ions with Mg2+ being the metal ion of choice in vivo . Our studies with complex ions like cobalt hexaammine and fac-triamminetriaquochromium(III) establish outer sphere interactions of Mg2+ with the hammerhead in the catalytic site. There are two sets of sites, one structural and one catalytic. Complex ions in the catalytic site and divalent ions in the structural site result in a slow but active hammerhead ribozyme suggesting that the complex ions are not inhibitory, contrary to what was suggested previously.

  17. Cerium relieves the inhibition of nitrogen metabolism of spinach caused by magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yin, Sitao; Ze, Yuguan; Liu, Chao; Li, Na; Zhou, Min; Duan, Yanmei; Hong, Fashui

    2009-12-01

    Magnesium is one of the essential elements for plant growth and cerium is a beneficial element for plant growth. However, the effects of the fact that cerium improves the nitrogen metabolism of plants under magnesium deficiency is poorly understood. The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of magnesium-deficiency effects in spinach plants. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to magnesium deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the magnesium-present media and magnesium-deficient media. Spinach plants grown in the magnesium-present media and magnesium-deficient media were measured for key enzyme activities involved in nitrogen metabolism such as nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamate synthase, urease, glutamic–pyruvic transaminase, and glutamic–oxaloace protease transaminase. As the nitrogen metabolism in spinach was significantly inhibited by magnesium deficiency, it caused a significant reduction of spinach plant weight, leaf turning chlorosis. However, cerium treatment grown in magnesium-deficiency media significantly promoted the activities of the key enzymes as well as the contents of the free amino acids, chlorophyll, soluble protein, and spinach growth. It implied that Ce3+ could partly substitute for magnesium to facilitate the transformation from inorganic nitrogen to organic nitrogen, leading to the improvement of spinach growth, although the metabolism needs to be investigated further.

  18. The Magnesium Chelation Step in Chlorophyll Biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory L. Dilworth, Ph.D Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences Division Office of Basis Energy Sciences, greg.dilworth@science.doe.gov

    2001-01-17

    The progress described in this report encompasses work supported by DOE grant DE-FG09-89ER13989 for the period 2/15/92 to the present 6/14/94. The goals of the project were to continue investigating the enzymology of Mg-chelatase and to investigate the co-regulation of heme and chlorophyll formation in intact plastids. During this period the laboratory had additional support (two years) from USDA to investigate heme metabolism in chloroplasts. This report is arranged so that the progress is described by reference to manuscripts which are published, under review or in preparation.

  19. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  20. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  1. Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Schrag, D. P.

    2010-09-01

    Magnesium concentrations in deep-sea sediment pore-fluids typically decrease down core due to net precipitation of dolomite or clay minerals in the sediments or underlying crust. To better characterize and differentiate these processes, we have measured magnesium isotopes in pore-fluids and sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program sites (1082, 1086, 1012, 984, 1219, and 925) that span a range of oceanographic settings. At all sites, magnesium concentrations decrease with depth. At sites where diagenetic reactions are dominated by the respiration of organic carbon, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values increase with depth by as much as 2‰. Because carbonates preferentially incorporate 24Mg (low δ 26Mg), the increase in pore-fluid δ 26Mg values at these sites is consistent with the removal of magnesium in Mg-carbonate (dolomite). In contrast, at sites where the respiration of organic carbon is not important and/or weatherable minerals are abundant, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values decrease with depth by up to 2‰. The decline in pore-fluid δ 26Mg at these sites is consistent with a magnesium sink that is isotopically enriched relative to the pore-fluid. The identity of this enriched magnesium sink is likely clay minerals. Using a simple 1D diffusion-advection-reaction model of pore-fluid magnesium, we estimate rates of net magnesium uptake/removal and associated net magnesium isotope fractionation factors for sources and sinks at all sites. Independent estimates of magnesium isotope fractionation during dolomite precipitation from measured δ 26Mg values of dolomite samples from sites 1082 and 1012 are very similar to modeled net fractionation factors at these sites, suggesting that local exchange of magnesium between sediment and pore-fluid at these sites can be neglected. Our results indicate that the magnesium incorporated in dolomite is 2.0-2.7‰ depleted in δ 26Mg relative to the precipitating fluid. Assuming local exchange of magnesium is minor at the rest of the

  2. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  3. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-09-23

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  4. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Aslam; Pejovic-Milic, A.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Chettle, D. R.

    2008-02-15

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the {sup 26}Mg(n,{gamma}){sup 27}Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4{pi} geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when {sup 27}Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1{sigma}). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96{+-}1.25 ({+-}1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several

  5. In vivo assessment of magnesium status in human body using accelerator-based neutron activation measurement of hands: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Aslam; Pejović-Milić, A; McNeill, F E; Byun, S H; Prestwich, W V; Chettle, D R

    2008-02-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is an element essential for many enzymatic reactions in the human body. Various human and animal studies suggest that changes in Mg status are linked to diseases such as cardiac arrhythmia, coronary heart disease, hypertension, premenstrual syndrome, and diabetes mellitus. Thus, knowledge of Mg levels in the human body is needed. A direct measurement of human blood serum, which contains only 0.3% of the total body Mg, is generally used to infer information about the status of Mg in the body. However, in many clinical situations, Mg stored in large levels, for example in bones, muscles, and soft tissues, needs to be monitored either to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment or to study the progression of diseases associated with the deficiency of total body Mg. This work presents a feasibility study of a noninvasive, in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) technique using the 26Mg (n, gamma) 27Mg reaction to measure Mg levels in human hands. The technique employs the McMaster University high beam current Tandetron accelerator hand irradiation facility and an array of eight NaI (T1) detectors arranged in a 4 pi geometry for delayed counting of the 0.844 and 1.014 MeV gamma rays emitted when 27Mg decays in the irradiated hand. Mg determination in humans using IVNAA of hands has been demonstrated to be feasible, with effective doses as low as one-quarter of those delivered in chest x rays. The overall experimental uncertainty in the measurements is estimated to be approximately 5% (1 sigma). The results are found to be in the range of the in vitro measurements reported for other cortical bones collected from different sites of the human skeleton, which confirms that this technique mainly provides a measure of the amount of Mg in hand bones. The average concentration of Mg determined in human hands is 10.96 +/- 1.25 (+/- 1 SD) mg Mg/g Ca. The coefficient of variation (11%) observed in this study is comparable with or lower than several studies using in

  6. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.; Levine, S.R.; Helpern, J.A.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  7. [Magnesium disorder in metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility.

  8. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?12

    PubMed Central

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2–2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study. PMID:26773013

  9. Essential Nutrient Interactions: Does Low or Suboptimal Magnesium Status Interact with Vitamin D and/or Calcium Status?

    PubMed

    Rosanoff, Andrea; Dai, Qi; Shapses, Sue A

    2016-01-01

    Although much is known about magnesium, its interactions with calcium and vitamin D are less well studied. Magnesium intake is low in populations who consume modern processed-food diets. Low magnesium intake is associated with chronic diseases of global concern [e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and skeletal disorders], as is low vitamin D status. No simple, reliable biomarker for whole-body magnesium status is currently available, which makes clinical assessment and interpretation of human magnesium research difficult. Between 1977 and 2012, US calcium intakes increased at a rate 2-2.5 times that of magnesium intakes, resulting in a dietary calcium to magnesium intake ratio of >3.0. Calcium to magnesium ratios <1.7 and >2.8 can be detrimental, and optimal ratios may be ∼2.0. Background calcium to magnesium ratios can affect studies of either mineral alone. For example, US studies (background Ca:Mg >3.0) showed benefits of high dietary or supplemental magnesium for CVD, whereas similar Chinese studies (background Ca:Mg <1.7) showed increased risks of CVD. Oral vitamin D is widely recommended in US age-sex groups with low dietary magnesium. Magnesium is a cofactor for vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and activation; and vitamin D and magnesium studies both showed associations with several of the same chronic diseases. Research on possible magnesium and vitamin D interactions in these human diseases is currently rare. Increasing calcium to magnesium intake ratios, coupled with calcium and vitamin D supplementation coincident with suboptimal magnesium intakes, may have unknown health implications. Interactions of low magnesium status with calcium and vitamin D, especially during supplementation, require further study.

  10. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  11. Transition metal (Co, Ni) nanoparticles wrapped with carbon and their superior catalytic activities for the reversible hydrogen storage of magnesium hydride.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xu; Xiao, Xuezhang; Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiulin; Zhang, Liuting; Cheng, Changjun; Li, Shouquan; Ge, Hongwei; Wang, Qidong; Chen, Lixin

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium hydride (MgH2) exhibits long-term stability and has recently been developed as a safe alternative to store hydrogen in the solid state, due to its high capacity of 7.6 wt% H2 and low cost compared to other metal hydrides. However, the high activation energy and poor kinetics of MgH2 lead to inadequate hydrogen storage properties, resulting in low energy efficiency. Nano-catalysis is deemed to be the most effective strategy in improving the kinetics performance of hydrogen storage materials. In this work, robust and efficient architectures of carbon-wrapped transition metal (Co/C, Ni/C) nanoparticles (8-16 nm) were prepared and used as catalysts in the MgH2 system via ball milling to improve its de/rehydrogenation kinetics. Between the two kinds of nano-catalysts, the Ni/C nanoparticles exhibit a better catalytic efficiency. MgH2 doped with 6% Ni/C (MgH2-6%Ni/C) exhibits a peak dehydrogenation temperature of 275.7 °C, which is 142.7, 54.2 and 32.5 °C lower than that of commercial MgH2, milled MgH2 and MgH2 doped with 6% Co/C (MgH2-6%Co/C), respectively. MgH2 doped with 6% Ni/C can release about 6.1 wt% H2 at 250 °C. More importantly, the dehydrogenated MgH2-6%Ni/C is even able to uptake 5.0 wt% H2 at 100 °C within 20 s. Moreover, a cycling test of MgH2 doped with 8% Ni/C demonstrates its excellent hydrogen absorption/desorption stability with respect to both capacity (up to 6.5 wt%) and kinetics (within 8 min at 275 °C for dehydrogenation and within 10 s at 200 °C for rehydrogenation). Mechanistic research reveals that the in situ formed Mg2Ni and Mg2NiH4 nanoparticles can be regarded as advanced catalytically active species in the MgH2-Ni/C system. Meanwhile, the carbon attached around the surface of transition metal nanoparticles can successfully inhibit the aggregation of the catalysts and achieve the steadily, prompting de/rehydrogenation during the subsequent cycling process. The intrinsic catalytic effects and the uniform distributions of Mg2Ni

  12. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  13. Briefly Bound to Activate: Transient Binding of a Second Catalytic Magnesium Activates the Structure and Dynamics of CDK2 Kinase for Catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Zhao Qin; Jacobsen, Douglas M.; Young, Matthew A.

    2014-10-02

    We have determined high-resolution crystal structures of a CDK2/Cyclin A transition state complex bound to ADP, substrate peptide, and MgF{sub 3}{sup -}. Compared to previous structures of active CDK2, the catalytic subunit of the kinase adopts a more closed conformation around the active site and now allows observation of a second Mg{sup 2+} ion in the active site. Coupled with a strong [Mg{sup 2+}] effect on in vitro kinase activity, the structures suggest that the transient binding of the second Mg{sup 2+} ion is necessary to achieve maximum rate enhancement of the chemical reaction, and Mg{sup 2+} concentration could represent an important regulator of CDK2 activity in vivo. Molecular dynamics simulations illustrate how the simultaneous binding of substrate peptide, ATP, and two Mg{sup 2+} ions is able to induce a more rigid and closed organization of the active site that functions to orient the phosphates, stabilize the buildup of negative charge, and shield the subsequently activated {gamma}-phosphate from solvent.

  14. Magnesium reduction of uranium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.B.

    1985-08-13

    A method and apparatus are provided for reducing uranium oxide with magnesium to form uranium metal. The reduction is carried out in a molten-salt solution of density greater than 3.4 grams per cubic centimeter, thereby allowing the uranium product to sink and the magnesium oxide byproduct to float, consequently allowing separation of product and byproduct.

  15. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  16. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  17. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOEpatents

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  18. Expanding Mg-Zn hybrid chemistry: inorganic salt effects in addition reactions of organozinc reagents to trifluoroacetophenone and the implications for a synergistic lithium-magnesium-zinc activation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, David R; Clegg, William; García-Álvarez, Pablo; Kennedy, Alan R; McCall, Matthew D; Russo, Luca; Hevia, Eva

    2011-07-18

    Numerous organic transformations rely on organozinc compounds made through salt-metathesis (exchange) reactions from organolithium or Grignard reagents with a suitable zinc precursor. By combining X-ray crystallography, NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations, this study sheds new light on the constitution of the organometallic species involved in this important synthetic tool. Investigations into the metathesis reactions of equimolar amounts of Grignard reagents (RMgX) and ZnCl(2) in THF led to the isolation of novel magnesium-zinc hybrids, [{(thf)(2)Mg(μ-Cl)(3)ZnR}(2)] (R=Et, tBu, nBu or o-OMe-C(6)H(4)), which exhibit an unprecedented structural motif in mixed magnesium-zinc chemistry. Furthermore, theoretical modelling of the reaction of EtMgCl with ZnCl(2) reveals that formation of the mixed-metal compound is thermodynamically preferred to that of the expected homometallic products, RZnCl and MgCl(2). This study also assesses the alkylating ability of hybrid 3 towards the sensitive ketone trifluoroacetophenone, revealing a dramatic increase in the chemoselectivity of the reaction when LiCl is introduced as an additive. This observation, combined with recent related breakthroughs in synthesis, points towards the existence of a trilateral Li/Mg/Zn synergistic effect.

  19. Dietary magnesium and urolithiasis in growing calves.

    PubMed

    Kallfelz, F A; Ahmed, A S; Wallace, R J; Sasangka, B H; Warner, R G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high levels of dietary magnesium (1.4%) alone or in combination with elevated calcium (1.8%) or phosphorus (1.6%) on growth and health of male calves was evaluated during a nine week feeding trial after weaning. Twenty calves were randomly divided into 4 feeding groups consisting of controls, high magnesium, high magnesium and calcium or high magnesium and phosphorus. Elevated dietary minerals caused decreased feed intake and growth rate. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were greatly elevated in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus and serum urea nitrogen was moderately elevated in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. These elevations suggested the occurrence of renal damage as a result of microcrystalline obstruction of renal tubules. Serum magnesium levels were three times normal in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus, but only twice normal in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. High dietary magnesium resulted in a significant depression in blood calcium level. This effect was somewhat overcome by additional dietary calcium Three calves fed the high magnesium diet and two calves fed the high magnesium and phosphorus diet developed urinary tract obstruction. The chemical composition of uroliths recovered from these calves was calcium apatite. Elevated dietary magnesium has been shown to be a cause of urolithiasis in growing male calves. Additional dietary calcium, but not phosphorus, appears to protect calves against urolithiasis induced by elevated dietary magnesium.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  3. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  4. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4) occurs naturally as... a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate. Heating...

  16. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  17. [Magnesium: a kardio-renal viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Vincent Matthias; Kaesler, Nadine; Kramann, Rafael; Floege, Jürgen; Marx, Nikolaus

    2016-10-01

    Disturbances in magnesium homeostasis are frequent clinical conditions, particularly the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high. However, it remains an open question which laboratory method is optimal to assess the magnesium level in the body. Most frequently physicians measure total magnesium in serum. Many associative data from observational studies point towards an association between low magnesium levels and increased cardiovascular risk as well as increased mortality. Vice versa, normal-to-high magnesium levels in patients with advanced renal failure translate to a better outcome. The present review summarizes our knowledge on protective effects of magnesium. Additionally, we address the limited evidence supporting targeted magnesium supplementation.

  18. Physicochemical action of potassium-magnesium citrate in nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, C. Y.; Koenig, K.; Khan, R.; Haynes, S.; Padalino, P.

    1992-01-01

    Effect of potassium-magnesium citrate on urinary biochemistry and crystallization of stone-forming salts was compared with that of potassium citrate at same dose of potassium in five normal subjects and five patients with calcium nephrolithiasis. Compared to the placebo phase, urinary pH rose significantly from 6.06 +/- 0.27 to 6.48 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SD, p less than 0.0167) during treatment with potassium citrate (50 mEq/day for 7 days) and to 6.68 +/- 0.31 during therapy with potassium-magnesium citrate (containing 49 mEq K, 24.5 mEq Mg, and 73.5 mEq citrate per day). Urinary pH was significantly higher during potassium-magnesium citrate than during potassium citrate therapy. Thus, the amount of undissociated uric acid declined from 118 +/- 61 mg/day during the placebo phase to 68 +/- 54 mg/day during potassium citrate treatment and, more prominently, to 41 +/- 46 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy. Urinary magnesium rose significantly from 102 +/- 25 to 146 +/- 37 mg/day during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy but not during potassium citrate therapy. Urinary citrate rose more prominently during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy (to 1027 +/- 478 mg/day from 638 +/- 252 mg/day) than during potassium citrate treatment (to 932 +/- 297 mg/day). Consequently, urinary saturation (activity product) of calcium oxalate declined significantly (from 1.49 x 10(-8) to 1.03 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium-magnesium citrate therapy and marginally (to 1.14 x 10(-8) M2) during potassium citrate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  19. Confession of a Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Claudiu B; Gregory, Thomas; Oliver, Allen G; Muldoon, John

    2015-09-17

    Magnesium is an ideal metal anode that has nearly double the volumetric capacity of lithium metal with a very negative reduction potential of -2.37 vs SHE. A significant advantage of magnesium is the apparent lack of dendrite formation during charging, which overcomes major safety and performance challenges encountered with using lithium metal anodes. Here, we highlight major recent advances in nonaqueous Mg electrochemistry, notably the development of electrolytes and cathodes, and discuss some of the challenges that must be overcome to realize a practical magnesium battery.

  20. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  1. Analysis of magnesium from magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical tablet formulations using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with nano quantity analyte detection.

    PubMed

    Risley, Donald S; Magnusson, Lars-Erik; Morow, Paul R; Aburub, Aktham

    2013-05-05

    This study demonstrates the use of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with a nano quantity analyte detector for the retention, separation and detection of magnesium from magnesium stearate in tablet formulations for a drug product formulation blend containing a hydrochloride salt of a weakly basic compound as the active ingredient. The nano quantity analyte detector can provide direct detection of inactive excipients and inorganic salts lacking ultraviolet chromophores, as well as, all non-volatile compounds. The separation was accomplished using a SeQuant ZIC-HILIC column and mobile phase consisting of 32.5:32.5:35 of acetone/methanol/ammonium formate buffer (150 mM, pH 4.5). Common validation parameters were evaluated to assess the method's quantitative potential for magnesium (from magnesium stearate) including: linearity, accuracy, specificity, solution stability, repeatability, and intermediate precision. Overall, the method described in this report proved to be very robust and represents a novel technique to conveniently separate and detect magnesium from magnesium stearate in pharmaceutical preparations both quickly and accurately.

  2. Thallium magnesium chloride: A high light yield, large effective atomic number, intrinsically activated crystalline scintillator for X-ray and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Yutaka; Koshimizu, Masanori; Yanagida, Takayuki; Okada, Go; Saeki, Keiichiro; Asai, Keisuke

    2016-09-01

    We report the luminescence and the scintillation properties of a newly developed thallium magnesium chloride (TlMgCl3) crystal. The crystal sample can be easily fabricated from the melt using the Bridgman method. The photoluminescence band appeared near the wavelength of 405 nm under excitation at 230 nm. An X-ray-induced scintillation spectrum showed an intense emission band near the wavelength of 405 nm. The decay time constant was estimated to be approximately 60 ns (∼25%) and 350 ns (∼75%) using a bi-exponential fitting. The scintillation light yield reached 46,000 photons/MeV with an energy resolution of 5% at 662 keV.

  3. NMDA/glutamate mechanism of antidepressant-like action of magnesium in forced swim test in mice.

    PubMed

    Poleszak, Ewa; Wlaź, Piotr; Kedzierska, Ewa; Nieoczym, Dorota; Wróbel, Andrzej; Fidecka, Sylwia; Pilc, Andrzej; Nowak, Gabriel

    2007-12-01

    Antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in forced swim test (FST) was demonstrated previously. Also, enhancement of such activity by joint administration of magnesium and antidepressants was shown. However, the mechanism(s) involved in such activity remain to be established. In the present study we examined the involvement of NMDA/glutamate pathway in the magnesium activity in FST in mice. In the present study we investigated the effect of NMDA agonists on magnesium-induced activity in FST and the influence of NMDA antagonists with sub-effective doses of magnesium in this test. Magnesium-induced antidepressant-like activity was antagonized by N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA). Moreover, low, ineffective doses of NMDA antagonists (CGP 37849, L-701,324, d-cycloserine, and MK-801) administered together with low and ineffective doses of magnesium exhibit significant reduction of immobility time in FST. The active in FST doses of examined agents did not alter the locomotor activity (with an exception of increased activity induced by MK-801). The present study indicates the involvement of NMDA/glutamate pathway in the antidepressant-like activity of magnesium in mouse FST and further suggests antidepressant properties of magnesium.

  4. In defense of magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John P; Lewis, David F; Morrison, John C; Garite, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium sulfate has been used by obstetricians for more than 25 years to treat preterm labor. Magnesium sulfate is effective in delaying delivery for at least 48 hours in patients with preterm labor when used in higher dosages. There do not seem to be any harmful effects of the drug on the fetus, and indeed there is a neuroprotective effect in reducing the incidence of cerebral palsy in premature newborns weighing less than 1,500 g.

  5. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    were conducted using microstructural analysis, hardness, bond strength, and corrosion testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cold spray, magnesium, aluminum ... corrosion pitting are the primary causes for removing the components from service. In addition, any repair must be confined to nonstructural areas of...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army has experienced significant corrosion problems with magnesium alloys that are used to

  6. Facile and fast fabrication of superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongwei; Li, Qing; She, Zuxin; Chen, Funan; Li, Longqin; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Zhang, Peng

    2013-04-01

    Superhydrophobic surface has many special functions and is widely investigated by researchers. Magnesium alloy is one of the lightest metal materials among the practice metals. It plays an important role in automobile, airplane and digital product for reducing devices weight. But due to the low standard potential, magnesium alloy has a high chemical activity and easily be corroded. That seriously impedes the application of magnesium alloy. In the process of fabrication a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium alloy, there are two ineluctable problems that must be solved: (1) high chemical activity and (2) the chemical activity is inhomogeneous on surface. In this study, we solved those problems by using the two characters to gain a rough surface on magnesium alloy and obtained a superhydrophobic surface after following modification process. The results show that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has obvious anti-corrosion effect in typically corrosive solution and naturally humid air. The delay-icing and self-cleaning effects are also investigated. The presented method is low-cost, fast and has great potential value in large-scale industry production.

  7. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  8. Magnesium and Dialysis: The Neglected Cation.

    PubMed

    Alhosaini, Mohamad; Leehey, David J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription. Further interventional studies to determine the effect of normalization of plasma magnesium concentration on clinical outcomes are needed. At the present time, we recommend that predialysis plasma magnesium be measured on a regular basis, with the dialysate magnesium concentration adjusted to maintain plasma magnesium concentration within the normal range.

  9. Leaf Senescence by Magnesium Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Kobayashi, Natsuko I.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium ions (Mg2+) are the second most abundant cations in living plant cells, and they are involved in various functions, including photosynthesis, enzyme catalysis, and nucleic acid synthesis. Low availability of Mg2+ in an agricultural field leads to a decrease in yield, which follows the appearance of Mg-deficient symptoms such as chlorosis, necrotic spots on the leaves, and droop. During the last decade, a variety of physiological and molecular responses to Mg2+ deficiency that potentially link to leaf senescence have been recognized, allowing us to reconsider the mechanisms of Mg2+ deficiency. This review focuses on the current knowledge about the physiological responses to Mg2+ deficiency including a decline in transpiration, accumulation of sugars and starch in source leaves, change in redox states, increased oxidative stress, metabolite alterations, and a decline in photosynthetic activity. In addition, we refer to the molecular responses that are thought to be related to leaf senescence. With these current data, we give an overview of leaf senescence induced by Mg deficiency. PMID:27135350

  10. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited.

  11. An efficient and economical treatment for batik textile wastewater containing high levels of silicate and organic pollutants using a sequential process of acidification, magnesium oxide, and palm shell-based activated carbon application.

    PubMed

    Birgani, Payam Moradi; Ranjbar, Navid; Abdullah, Rosniah Che; Wong, Kien Tiek; Lee, Gooyong; Ibrahim, Shaliza; Park, Chulhwan; Yoon, Yeomin; Jang, Min

    2016-12-15

    Considering the chemical properties of batik effluents, an efficient and economical treatment process was established to treat batik wastewater containing not only high levels of Si and chemical oxygen demand (COD), but also toxic heavy metals. After mixing the effluents obtained from the boiling and soaking steps in the batik process, acidification using concentrated hydrochloric acid (conc. HCl) was conducted to polymerize the silicate under acidic conditions. Consequently, sludge was produced and floated. XRD and FT-IR analyses showed that wax molecules were coordinated by hydrogen bonding with silica (SiO2). The acidification process removed ∼78-95% of COD and ∼45-50% of Si, depending on the pH. In the next stage, magnesium oxide (MgO) was applied to remove heavy metals completely and almost 90% of the Si in the liquid phase. During this step, about 70% of COD was removed in the hydrogel that arose as a consequence of the crosslinking characteristics of the formed nano-composite, such as magnesium silicate or montmorillonite. The hydrogel was composed mainly of waxes with polymeric properties. Then, the remaining Si (∼300 mg/L) in the wastewater combined with the effluents from the rinsing steps was further treated using 50 mg/L MgO. As a final step, palm-shell activated carbon (PSAC) was used to remove the remaining COD to < 50 mg/L at pH 3. Overall, the sequential process of acidification and MgO/PSAC application developed could serve as an economical and effective treatment option for treating heavily polluted batik effluents.

  12. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    DOEpatents

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  13. [Development of biodegradable magnesium-based biomaterials].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengfa; Xu, Li; Huang, Nan

    2009-04-01

    Magnesium is a macroelement which is indispensable to human bodies. As a lightweight metal with high specific strength and favorable biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have been introduced in the field of biomedical materials research and have a broad application prospect. It is possible to develop new type of biodegradable medical magnesium alloys by use of the poor corrosion resistance of magnesium. Bioabsorbable magnesium stents implanted in vivo could mechanically support the vessel in a short term, effectly prevent the acute coronary occlusion and in-stent restenosis, and then be gradully biodegraded and completely absorbed in a long term. Osteoconductive bioactivity in magnesium-based alloys could promote the apposition growth of bone tissue. This paper reviews the progress of magnesium and its alloys applied in bone tissue and cardiovascular stents, and the prospect of the future research of magnesium-based biomaterials is discussed.

  14. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  15. Effects of dietary magnesium on sodium-potassium pump action in the heart of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.W.; Giroux, A.

    1987-12-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a basal AIN-76 diet containing 80, 200, 350, 500 or 650 mg of magnesium per kilogram of diet for 6 wk. Ventricular slices, as well as microsomal fractions, were prepared from the hearts and were used to determine sodium-potassium pump activity. Sodium-potassium pump activity was assessed in the microsomal membranes by determining the ouabain-inhibitable Na+, K+-ATPase activity and (/sup 3/H)ouabain binding, and in the ventricular slices, by determining ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake under K+-free conditions. The ATPase activity increased with increasing dietary magnesium, so that in the hearts of those animals that were fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet, it was significantly greater than the activity in the hearts of the animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. Similarly, /sup 86/Rb uptake by heart slices from rats fed 500 and 650 mg of magnesium/kg diet was significantly greater than the uptake by heart slices from animals fed 80 and 200 mg/kg diet. (/sup 3/H)Ouabain binding did not change with increasing dietary magnesium. Thus, magnesium deficiency appears to have no effect on the number of sodium-potassium pump sites, but does decrease the activity of the pump. It is suggested that this leads to an increase in intracellular Na+, resulting in a change in the membrane potential, and may contribute to the arrhythmias associated with magnesium deficiency.

  16. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  17. Deleterious effects of magnesium intoxication upon the domestic broiler chick

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.R.

    1984-01-01

    Dietary levels of 0.6 to 0.8% magnesium in a corn-soy basal were rachitogenic. These rickets appeared most like phosphorus deficiency. Bone Ca/P ratios were numerically quite low implying a lack of transformation from amorphous calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite. Bone alkaline phosphatase activity was elevated. Additional dietary phosphorus ameliorated, but could not overcome the rachitogenic effects of magnesium. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), induced by elevated dietary P, was decreased by high levels of dietary Mg, but with no decrease in plasma phosphorus. Anticoccidial ionophores fed in conjunction with a moderate dietary challenge of Mg (0.48%) produced no clear changes in plasma calcium or Mg, but did interact to reduce body weight. The diarrhea caused by magnesium intoxication is not due to hyperosmotic loads of Mg per se. Rather, Cl was observed to be the major ionic constituent of the gut osmotic load implying different gut ionic fluxes in control versus magnesium intoxicated chicks. These data imply that the cathartic action of Mg is due to hypersecretion of the gut. Effects mediated or modified by the CNS changed in magnesium intoxicated chicks. Such chicks appeared cold and stayed near the heat. When startled, they exhibited extreme avoidance behavior and seizures similar to epilepsy and/or Cl deficiency. Brain tissue Mg content did not concomitantly increase. Whether these effects are due to central signals is unclear.

  18. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate hydroxide. It is a...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  8. The UK geochemical environment and cardiovascular diseases: magnesium in food and water.

    PubMed

    Davies, B E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute approximately one-third to noncommunicable diseases in the UK. The central role of magnesium in CVDs (enzyme activity, cardiac signalling, etc.) is well established. Mortality and morbidity rates for CVDs may be inversely related to water hardness, suggesting a role for environmental magnesium. Published official and quasi-official data sources were evaluated to establish a model magnesium intake for a representative adult: standardised reference individual (SRI), standardised reference male (SRM) or standardised reference female (SRF). For typical dietary constituents, only tap water is probably locally derived and bottled water may not be. Fruits and vegetables are imported from many countries, while meat, dairy and cereal products represent a composite of UK source areas. Alcoholic beverages provide magnesium, there is doubt about its absorptive efficiency, and they are not locally derived. A simple model was devised to examine the effect of varying dietary contributions to total daily intake of magnesium. Omitting tap or bottled water, the combined intake, solid food plus alcoholic beverages, is 10.57 mmol Mg (84.5 % RNI) for the SRM and for the SRF, 8.10 mmol Mg (71.7 % RNI). Consumers drinking water derived from reservoirs or rivers, or supplementing it with the purest bottled water, improve their magnesium intake only slightly compared with water containing no magnesium. Choosing bottled water with high magnesium content when the public supply derives from rivers or reservoirs partially satisfies magnesium needs. Real improvement in SRI magnesium nutrition is seen only where water is hard. However, this conclusion cannot be validated until new measurement technologies for body magnesium become available.

  9. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  10. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  19. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  7. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  10. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  11. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  15. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. High Strength and Thermally Stable Nanostructured Magnesium Alloys and Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Wei

    Magnesium and its alloys are currently in the spotlight of global research because of the need to limit energy consumption and reduce the environmental impact. In particular, their low densities compared to other structural metals make them a very attractive alternative in the automobile and aerospace industries. However, their low strength compared to other structural materials (e.g. Al and steels) has limited their widespread application. This dissertation presents the results of developing and investigation of a high strength nanostructured magnesium-aluminum alloy and composite. The nanostructured magnesium alloy is prepared by cryomilling and consolidated by spark-plasma-sintering. Focused ion beam is used to prepare micropillars with different diameters ranging from 1.5 to 8 mum and micro-compression test is conducted by nanoindenter in order to evaluate the mechanical properties. The yield strength obtained in the present study is around three times higher than conventional magnesium alloys (120 MPa vs. 370 MPa). The yield strength of the nanostructured magnesium alloy is further improved through hot extrusion, resulting in a yield strength of 550 MPa and an ultimate strength of 580 MPa. The nanostructured magnesium alloy exhibits a strong size-dependence, and a significant improvement in strength is observed when the pillar diameter is reduced to below 3.5 mum. The deformation mechanisms of the compressed pillars were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The size-induced strengthening is attributed to a less number of dislocation sources along with a higher activity of non-basal deformation mechanisms. We have also developed a high strength and thermally stable nanostructured magnesium composite by adding diamantane. A yield strength of 500 MPa is achieved, moreover, excellent thermal stability is demonstrated in the magnesium alloy containing diamantanes. The strength and grain size are thermally stable after annealing at 400°C for 100

  4. Intravenous magnesium in experimental stent thrombosis in swine.

    PubMed

    Rukshin, V; Azarbal, B; Shah, P K; Tsang, V T; Shechter, M; Finkelstein, A; Cercek, B; Kaul, S

    2001-09-01

    We investigated the effects of magnesium on acute platelet-dependent stent thrombosis in an ex vivo porcine arteriovenous shunt model of high-shear blood flow. Control nitinol stents were expanded to 2 mm in diameter in a tubular perfusion chamber interposed in the shunt and exposed to flowing arterial blood at a shear rate of 2100 s(-1) for 20 minutes (n=156 perfusion runs in 10 swine). Animals were treated with intravenous heparin or MgSO(4) alone (2 g bolus over 20 minutes, followed by 2 g/h infusion) and combined heparin plus MgSO(4) in random fashion. Effects on thrombus weight (TW), platelet aggregation, bleeding time, activated clotting time, mean arterial blood pressure, and heart rate were quantified. Data points in the magnesium-treated animals were examined within 20 minutes after bolus (Mg-early) and >40 minutes after bolus (Mg-late). Stent TW (20+/-3 mg, pretreatment) was reduced by 42+/-21%, 47+/-19%, 48+/-16%, 67+/-12%, and 86+/-8% in the groups treated with Mg-early alone, Mg-late alone, heparin alone, heparin+Mg-early, and heparin+Mg-late, respectively (all P<0.001 versus pretreatment, P<0.001 for heparin+Mg-early and Mg-late versus heparin or magnesium alone, and P<0.05 for heparin+Mg-late versus heparin+Mg-early, ANOVA). Magnesium had no significant effect on platelet aggregation, activated clotting time, or bleeding time. There were no significant effects on heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure. The serum magnesium level was inversely correlated with TW (r=-0.70, P=0.002). In conclusion, treatment with intravenous MgSO(4) produced a time-dependent inhibition of acute stent thrombosis under high-shear flow conditions without any hemostatic or significant hemodynamic complications. Thus, magnesium may be an effective agent for preventing stent thrombosis.

  5. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  6. Combustion Synthesis of Magnesium Aluminate

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, M. A.; Joshi, C. P.; Moharil, S. V.

    2011-10-20

    In the system MgO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, three compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}, MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10}(also expressed as-Mg{sub 0.4}Al{sub 2.4}O{sub 4}) and MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} are well known. Importance of the first two is well established. Magnesium aluminate (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel is a technologically important material due to its interesting thermal properties. The MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramics also find application as humidity sensors. Apart from the luminescence studies, the interest in MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} is due to various applications such as humidity-sensing and PEM fuel cells, TL/OSL dosimetry of the ionizing radiations, white light source. Interest in the MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} has aroused due to possible use as a substrate for GaN growth. Attempt was made to synthesize these compounds by the combustion synthesis using metal nitrates as oxidizer and urea as a fuel. Compounds MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} were formed in a single step, while MgAl{sub 26}O{sub 40} was not formed by this procedure. Activation of MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} by rare earth ions like Ce{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and ns{sup 2} ion Pb{sup 2+} could be achieved. Excitation bands for MgAl{sub 6}O{sub 10} are at slightly shorter wavelengths compared to those reported for MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}.

  7. Intracellular sodium, potassium and magnesium concentration, ouabain-sensitive 86rubidium-uptake and sodium-efflux and Na+, K+-cotransport activity in erythrocytes of normal male subjects studied on two occasions.

    PubMed

    Lijnen, P; Hespel, P; Lommelen, G; Laermans, M; M'Buyamba-Kabangu, J R; Amery, A

    1986-09-01

    The red cell Na+,K+-ATPase pump activity estimated by the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb-uptake or Na+-efflux, the Na+,K+-cotransport activity measured either by the furosemide-sensitive K+- or Na+- efflux or by the ethacrynic acid-sensitive 86Rb-uptake as well as the intraerythrocyte concentration of sodium, potassium and magnesium were studied in 29 normal male subjects with one to three weeks interval between the first and second blood sampling. Both the red cell sodium and potassium concentration, the erythrocyte ouabain-sensitive 86Rb-uptake and Na+-efflux, the furosemide-sensitive Na+- and K+-efflux and the ethacrynic acid-sensitive 86Rb-uptake are stable over time in the same individual. The furosemide-sensitive Na+-and K+-efflux is significantly related to the ethacrynic acid-sensitive 86Rb-uptake. The intraerythrocyte Na+ concentration was negatively related to the ouabain-sensitive 86Rb-uptake, but not to the ouabain-sensitive Na+-efflux; it was, however, negatively related to the rate constant for the ouabain-sensitive Na+-efflux.

  8. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-02-20

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  9. Attenuation of Magnesium Sulfate on CoCl₂-Induced Cell Death by Activating ERK1/2/MAPK and Inhibiting HIF-1α via Mitochondrial Apoptotic Signaling Suppression in a Neuronal Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Hsieh, You-Liang; Ju, Da-Tong; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Liou, Yi-Fan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lin, Jing-Ying

    2015-08-31

    Magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia-induced neuronal apoptosis in a rat model. This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms governing the anti-apoptotic effect of MgSO₄ on cobalt chloride (CoCl₂)-exposed NB41A3 mouse neuroblastoma cells. MgSO₄ increased the viability of NB41A3 cells treated with CoCl₂ in a dose-dependent manner. MgSO₄ treatment was shown to lead to an increase in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, with a concomitant decrease in the pro-apoptotic proteins. MgSO₄ also attenuated the CoCl₂-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) and reduced the release of cytochrome c form the mitochondria to the cytosol. Furthermore, exposure to CoCl₂ caused activation of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). On the other hand, MgSO₄ markedly reduced CoCl₂-induced HIF-1α activation and suppressed HIF-1α downstream protein BNIP3. MgSO₄ treatment induced ERK1/2 activation and attenuated CoCl₂-induced activation of p38 and JNK. Addition of the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 significantly reduced the ability of MgSO₄ to protect neurons from CoCl₂-induced mitochondrial apoptotic events. However, incubation of cultures with the p38 and JNK inhibitors did not significantly affect MgSO₄-mediated neuroprotection. MgSO₄ appears to suppress CoCl₂-induced NB41A3 cell death by activating ERK1/2/ MAPK pathways, which further modulates the role of Bcl-2 family proteins and mitochondria in NB41A3 cells. Our data suggest that MgSO₄ may act as a survival factor that preserves mitochondrial integrity and inhibits apoptotic pathways.

  10. Magnesium therapy in a hypocalcemic African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus).

    PubMed

    Kirchgessner, Megan S; Tully, Thomas N; Nevarez, Javier; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J

    2012-03-01

    Hypocalcemic-induced seizure activity is a clinical entity that is commonly diagnosed in neurologic African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Plasma calcium levels are typically less than 6.0 mg/dL at the time of seizure activity, and although the underlying cause of the hypocalcemia has not yet been determined, many theories have been proposed. An African grey parrot that had been fed a seed diet for 8 years was presented with hypocalcemia and seizures and exhibited precipitously declining plasma calcium levels, despite aggressive calcium and vitamin A, D, and E supplementation for 4 days. Baseline magnesium levels in this parrot were determined to be 1.9 mg/dL; therefore, magnesium sulfate was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg IM once. Twenty-four hours after supplementation, the plasma magnesium level was 3.3 mg/dL, and no further seizure activity was observed. We believe that a primary dietary magnesium deficiency may have been present in this African grey parrot, similar to a syndrome in leghorn chicks, which is frequently characterized by progressive hypocalcemia that is unable to be corrected by calcium supplementation alone.

  11. Measuring Serum Level of Ionized Magnesium in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    ASSARZADEGAN, Farhad; ASADOLLAHI, Mostafa; DERAKHSHANFAR, Hojjat; KASHEFIZADEH, Azam; ARYANI, Omid; KHORSHIDI, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Objective Migraine is known as one of the most disabling types of headache. Among the variety of theories to explain mechanism of migraine, role of serum magnesium is of great importance. Serum magnesium, as a pathogenesis factor, was considerably lower in patients with migraine. We established this study to see if serum ionized magnesium, not its total serum level, was different in migraineurs from normal individuals. Materials & Methods In this case control study, all participants were recruited from Neurology Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Ninety-six people were entered in the study, 48 for each of case and control groups. The two groups were matched by age and sex. Migrainous patients were selected according to the criteria of International Headache Society. Various characteristics of headache were recorded based on patients’ report. Controls had no history of migraine or any significant chronic headaches. Serum ionized magnesium level was measured in both of the case and control groups and the results were compared to each other. P value of <0.05 was considered as significant. Results Case group consisted of 13 males, 35 females, and control group included 14 males, as well as 34 females. Mean age was 33.47± 10.32 yr for case and 30.45 ±7.12 yr for control group. Twenty-eight patients described the intensity of their headaches as moderate; 15 patients had severe and the 5 remainders had only mild headaches. Mean serum level of ionized Mg was 1.16± 0.08 in case group and 1.13± 0.11 in control group of no significant difference (P >0.05). Conclusion Serum ionized magnesium, which is the active form of this ion, was not significantly different in migraineurs and those without migraine. This may propose a revision regarding pathogenesis of migraine and question the role of magnesium in this type of headache. PMID:26401148

  12. Magnesium-Based Corrosion Nano-Cells For Reductive Transformation Of Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnesium, with its potential to reduce a variety of aqueous contaminants, unique self-limiting corrosion behavior affording long active life times, natural abundance, low cost, and environmentally friendly nature, promises to be an effective technology. However, nanoparticles o...

  13. Electrical characterization of magnesium implanted gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krtschil, A.; Kielburg, A.; Witte, H.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Wenzel, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2002-01-01

    Gallium nitride layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on c axis oriented sapphire substrates were implanted with 180 keV magnesium ions with ion doses between 1×1014 and 1×1016cm-2. The implantation induced defect states were investigated by temperature dependent conductivity (TDC) as well as by thermal and optical admittance spectroscopy (TAS, OAS) measurements. Dominant carrier emissions having thermal activation energies between 360 and 800 meV were found in TAS and TDC. These states are assigned to implantation induced electron traps since they do not appear in the nonimplanted reference sample. Defect states with similar transition energies were also observed in OAS resulting in an enhancement of defect-to-band transitions in the near band-gap region around 3.45 eV, in the blue band around 3.0 eV, as well as in the midgap range for photon energies between 2.5 and 1.80 eV, respectively. In addition, new transitions were found at 2.1 and 1.95 eV. Furthermore, transitions from implantation induced shallow states were observed, i.e., the magnesium acceptor as well as a new donor level at about 70 meV, tentatively discussed as nitrogen vacancy. The critical ion dose for amorphization was determined to be between 5×1015 and 1×1016Mg+ cm-2 using x-ray diffraction.

  14. The biological effects of magnesium-leached chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, A.; Davies, P.; Wagner, J. C.; Berry, G.; Holmes, A.

    1977-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos was leached in N hydrochloric acid for varying times to produce a range of magnesium-depleted samples. The protein adsorptive capacity, the haemolytic activity, and the capacity to cause selective release of acid hydrolases from macrophages were measured for the various samples in vitro. The carcinogenicity of the same materials was determined following intrapleural inoculation in rats. The adsorptive capacity for albumin decreased linearly with magnesium removal. The haemolytic activity also declined until about half the magnesium had been removed, after which there was little further change. The selective release of acid hydrolases from macrophages in culture increased up to the point at which half the magnesium had been removed but by 90% depletion had declined rapidly. The carcinogenicity of 50% -depleted chrysotile was similar to that of intact, but at 90% depletion the incidence of mesothelial tumours had fallen considerably. There was no evidence that the leached samples fragmented more than the unleached in vivo. Images Fig. 1 PMID:588440

  15. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.

    1990-11-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins, and various lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX (Proto). Insertion of iron leads to the formation of hemes, while insertion of magnesium is the first step unique to chlorophyll formation. This project is directed toward identifying the enzyme(s) responsible for magnesium chelation and elucidating the mechanism which regulates the flux of precursors through the branch point enzymes in isolated chloroplasts. Using intact chloroplasts from greening cucumber cotyledons, we have confirmed the ATP requirement for Mg-Proto formation. Use of non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs, uncouplers and ionophores has led to the conclusions that ATP hydrolysis is necessary, but that this hydrolysis is not linked to the requirement for membrane intactness by transmembrane ion gradients or electrical potentials. The enzyme(s) are flexible with respect to the porphyrin substrate specificity, accepting porphyrins with -vinyl, -ethyl, or -H substituents at the 2 and 4 positions. The activity increases approximately four-fold during greening. Possible physiological feedback inhibitors such as heme, protochlorophyllide, and chlorophyllide had no specific effect on the activity. The activity has now been assayed in barely, corn and peas, with the system from peas almost ten-fold more active than the cucumber system. Work is continuing in pea chloroplasts with the development of a continuous assay and investigation of the feasibility of characterizing an active, organelle-free preparation. 6 figs.

  16. Effects of cerium on key enzymes of carbon assimilation of spinach under magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yuguan, Ze; Min, Zhou; Luyang, Luo; Zhe, Ji; Chao, Liu; Sitao, Yin; Yanmei, Duan; Na, Li; Fashui, Hong

    2009-11-01

    The mechanism of the fact that cerium improves the photosynthesis of plants under magnesium deficiency is poorly understood. The main aim of the study was to determine the role of cerium in the amelioration of magnesium deficiency effects in CO(2) assimilation of spinach. Spinach plants were cultivated in Hoagland's solution. They were subjected to magnesium deficiency and to cerium chloride administered in the magnesium-present Hoagland's media and magnesium-deficient Hoagland's media. The results showed that the chlorophyll synthesis and oxygen evolution was destroyed, and the activities of Rubisco carboxylasae and Rubisco activase and the expression of Rubisco large subunit (rbcL), Rubisco small subunit (rbcS), and Rubisco activase subunit (rca) were significantly inhibited, then plant growth was inhibited by magnesium deficiency. However, cerium promotes the chlorophyll synthesis, the activities of two key enzymes in CO(2) assimilation, and the expression of rbcL, rbcS, and rca, thus leading to the enhancement of spinach growth under magnesium-deficient conditions.

  17. Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Urszula; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation ofADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary

  18. Low extracellular magnesium ions induce lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: possible relation to traumatic brain injury and strokes.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa; Zhang, Aimin; Altura, Bella T

    2003-05-08

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that administration of low extracellular levels of magnesium ions ([Mg(2+)](o)) to primary cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells will cause lipid peroxidation, degradation of IkappaB-alpha, and activation of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. Low [Mg(2+)](o) (0, 0.15, 0.3 and 0.48 mM) resulted in concentration-dependent rises in malondialdehyde (MDA) in as little as 3 h after exposure to low [Mg(2+)](o), rising to levels 3-12xnormal after 18-24 h; the lower the [Mg(2+)](o), the higher the MDA level. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and specific antibodies, low [Mg(2+)](o) caused two DNA-binding proteins (p50, p65) to rise in nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. High [Mg(2+)](o) (i.e. 4.8 mM) downregulated p50 and p65. Using a rabbit antibody, IkappaB phosphorylation (and degradation) was stimulated by low [Mg(2+)](o) (in a concentration-dependent manner) and inhibited by a low concentration of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These new biochemical and molecular data indicate that low [Mg(2+)](o), in concentrations found in the blood of patients, after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and diverse types of strokes, can elicit rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB in cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells. The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that low [Mg(2+)](o)-induced lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB play important roles in TBI and diverse types of strokes.

  19. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  20. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  1. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert E.; Downie, Craig M.; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George H.; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin A.; Eaglesham, David

    2016-01-19

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  2. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    DOEpatents

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2015-10-27

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqeuous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  3. Layered materials with improved magnesium intercalation for rechargeable magnesium ion cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doe, Robert Ellis; Downie, Craig Michael; Fischer, Christopher; Lane, George Hamilton; Morgan, Dane; Nevin, Josh; Ceder, Gerbrand; Persson, Kristin Aslaug; Eaglesham, David

    2016-07-26

    Electrochemical devices which incorporate cathode materials that include layered crystalline compounds for which a structural modification has been achieved which increases the diffusion rate of multi-valent ions into and out of the cathode materials. Examples in which the layer spacing of the layered electrode materials is modified to have a specific spacing range such that the spacing is optimal for diffusion of magnesium ions are presented. An electrochemical cell comprised of a positive intercalation electrode, a negative metal electrode, and a separator impregnated with a nonaqueous electrolyte solution containing multi-valent ions and arranged between the positive electrode and the negative electrode active material is described.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil contaminated soil treatment with calcium and magnesium peroxides.

    PubMed

    Goi, Anna; Viisimaa, Marika; Trapido, Marina; Munter, Rein

    2011-02-01

    Calcium and magnesium peroxides were applied for the treatment of soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls-containing electrical insulating oil (Aroclor 1016). The removal of PCB-containing electrical insulating oil was achieved with the addition of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide alone and dependent on dosages of the chemical. A 21-d treatment of 60% watered soil with the moderate addition (chemical/oil weight ratio of 0.005/1) of either calcium peroxide or magnesium peroxide resulted in nearly complete (96 ± 2%) oil removal, unsubstantial increase in soil pH and almost no changes in oxygen consumption and dehydrogenase activity, making it suitable for the soil decontamination.

  5. [Magnesium deficiency and therapy in cardiac arrhythmias: recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research].

    PubMed

    Vierling, W; Liebscher, D-H; Micke, O; von Ehrlich, B; Kisters, K

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research: Recognition and compensation of magnesium deficiency in patients with risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias or manifest rhythm disturbances. Prevention of arrhythmias by administration of magnesium. Therapeutic administration of magnesium in patients with arrhythmias with and without magnesium deficiency. The current state of knowledge claims for considering the status of magnesium and the possibility of a therapeutic intervention with magnesium within the concept of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The use of magnesium as single agent or as an adjunct to other therapeutic actions in the prevention and therapy of cardiac arrhythmias can be effective and, in case of oral administration, very safe. In case of parenteral administration, it is important to use adequate doses, monitor cardiovascular and neuromuscular parameters and to consider contraindications.

  6. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  7. Microstructural Effects on the Spall Properties of ECAE Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium and magnesium alloys are light weight materials and hence, are being increasingly employed as light armor in military applications. However, because of its limited slip systems (HCP) magnesium and magnesium alloys are relatively brittle as compared to FCC and BCC lattice structures. For this study, the effects of microstructure on the spall properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys processed using Equi-Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) were investigated using a 51 mm and 105 mm bore gas guns. Symmetric spall and recovery plate impact experiments were performed at impact velocities ranging from approximately 100 m/s and 400 m/s. Free surface velocity profiles of the shocked samples were obtained using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) were extracted from the free surface velocity profiles. In addition, the microstructures of the pre-shocked and post-shocked magnesium and magnesium alloys were acquired using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

  8. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  9. Magnesium alloy applications in automotive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Mark; Beer, Aiden; Barnett, Matthew; Davies, Chris; Dunlop, Gordon; Durandet, Yvonne; Blacket, Stuart; Hilditch, Tim; Beggs, Peter

    2008-11-01

    The use of magnesium alloys in structural applications has great potential for the lightweighting of transportation vehicles. Research within the CAST Cooperative Research Centre has tackled some of the important issues related to the use of magnesium in structural applications. To this end, a new alloy with extrudability and properties similar to 6000 series aluminum alloys has been developed. Furthermore, a method of laser heating magnesium alloys before self-piercing riveting has enabled high-integrity joining between magnesium components or between magnesium and dissimilar metals. In this paper, new technologies and improved understanding of the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys are discussed in light of key metallurgical features such as alloy composition, grain size, and work hardening rate.

  10. Catalysts comprising magnesium and a transition metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bujadoux, K.

    1984-10-09

    A catalyst comprising the product obtained by bringing into contact a compound of magnesium comprising at least one species selected from the group consisting of magnesium monohalides (MgX), halo-magnesium hydrides (HMgX) and magnesium hydride (MgH/sub 2/), X being a halogen and the said species MgX or HMgX being obtained by thermal decomposition of a powdery organo-magnesium halide R/sub 1/MgX wherein R/sub 1/ is an organic radical; and at least one halide of a transistion metal selected from the group consisting of titanium and vanadium, the valency of said metal in said halide being lower than or equal to 3, the quantities being such that the atomic ratio of magnesium to said transistion metal is between 1 and 25, and a catalyst system including the catalyst that is suitable for use in the polymerization of olefins and particularly ethylene.

  11. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration.

  12. Magnesium ion implantation on a micro/nanostructured titanium surface promotes its bioactivity and osteogenic differentiation function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guifang; Li, Jinhua; Zhang, Wenjie; Xu, Lianyi; Pan, Hongya; Wen, Jin; Wu, Qianju; She, Wenjun; Jiao, Ting; Liu, Xuanyong; Jiang, Xinquan

    2014-01-01

    As one of the important ions associated with bone osseointegration, magnesium was incorporated into a micro/nanostructured titanium surface using a magnesium plasma immersion ion-implantation method. Hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 30 minutes (Mg30) and hierarchical hybrid micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces followed by magnesium ion implantation for 60 minutes (Mg60) were used as test groups. The surface morphology, chemical properties, and amount of magnesium ions released were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field-emission transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMMSCs) were used to evaluate cell responses, including proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation on the surface of the material or in their medium extraction. Greater increases in the spreading and proliferation ability of rBMMSCs were observed on the surfaces of magnesium-implanted micro/nanostructures compared with the control plates. Furthermore, the osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) genes were upregulated on both surfaces and in their medium extractions. The enhanced cell responses were correlated with increasing concentrations of magnesium ions, indicating that the osteoblastic differentiation of rBMMSCs was stimulated through the magnesium ion function. The magnesium ion-implanted micro/nanostructured titanium surfaces could enhance the proliferation, spreading, and osteogenic differentiation activity of rBMMSCs, suggesting they have potential application in improving bone-titanium integration. PMID:24940056

  13. Effect of magnesium complexation by fluoroquinolones on their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed

    Lecomte, S; Baron, M H; Chenon, M T; Coupry, C; Moreau, N J

    1994-12-01

    By using infrared and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, we localized the binding site and measured the affinity of magnesium for six fluoroquinolones. It was proven that magnesium is situated between the ketone and the carboxylate groups. We determined the binding constants for the 1:1 Mg(2+)-drug complex in solution. Sparfloxacin and pefloxacin, with affinity constants (Ka) of (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(2) M-1 and (21 +/- 1) x 10(2) M-1, respectively, were the least and the most bound, respectively. The trend of the affinities of the assayed fluoroquinolones for magnesium was correlated with their antimicrobial activities against four bacteria and with their accumulation by these bacteria. The reference strain, Escherichia coli KL16, and two resistant mutants, NalA (gyrase mutation) and NalB (uptake defect), plus Staphylococcus aureus 209P were used. It appeared that, in every case, an impairment of accumulation is responsible for the increase in the MICs observed upon the addition of magnesium.

  14. Effect of magnesium complexation by fluoroquinolones on their antibacterial properties.

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, S; Baron, M H; Chenon, M T; Coupry, C; Moreau, N J

    1994-01-01

    By using infrared and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, we localized the binding site and measured the affinity of magnesium for six fluoroquinolones. It was proven that magnesium is situated between the ketone and the carboxylate groups. We determined the binding constants for the 1:1 Mg(2+)-drug complex in solution. Sparfloxacin and pefloxacin, with affinity constants (Ka) of (10.1 +/- 0.6) x 10(2) M-1 and (21 +/- 1) x 10(2) M-1, respectively, were the least and the most bound, respectively. The trend of the affinities of the assayed fluoroquinolones for magnesium was correlated with their antimicrobial activities against four bacteria and with their accumulation by these bacteria. The reference strain, Escherichia coli KL16, and two resistant mutants, NalA (gyrase mutation) and NalB (uptake defect), plus Staphylococcus aureus 209P were used. It appeared that, in every case, an impairment of accumulation is responsible for the increase in the MICs observed upon the addition of magnesium. Images PMID:7695267

  15. Surface characterization and cytotoxicity response of biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Pompa, Luis; Rahman, Zia Ur; Munoz, Edgar; Haider, Waseem

    2015-04-01

    Magnesium alloys have raised an immense amount of interest to many researchers because of their evolution as a new kind of third generation materials. Due to their biocompatibility, density, and mechanical properties, magnesium alloys are frequently reported as prospective biodegradable implant materials. Moreover, magnesium alloys experience a natural phenomenon to biodegrade in aqueous solutions due to its corrosion activity, which is excellent for orthopedic and cardiovascular applications. However, a major concern with such alloys is fast and non-uniform corrosion degradation. Controlling the degradation rate in the physiological environment determines the success of biodegradable implants. In this investigation, three different grades of magnesium alloys: AZ31B, AZ91E and ZK60A were studied for their corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and contact angle meter are used to study surface morphology, chemistry, roughness and wettability, respectively. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the leached metal ions was evaluated by using a tetrazolium based bio-assay, MTS.

  16. Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys AMS-SAE-M-3171, Type IV Replacement on AZ91D Glycolic Nitrate Pickle (GNP) (1 min) PT-60 (3 min) 0 hr SST 1 4 3 2...Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys Mr. Jules F. Senske and Mr. Daniel Schmidt Army Research Development and...SUBTITLE Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  17. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  18. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  1. Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants

    PubMed Central

    Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia

    2014-01-01

    In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4 mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

  2. Magnesium prevents β-glycerophosphate-induced calcification in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaling; Zhang, Junxia; Xu, Jinsheng; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran; Zhang, Shenglei; Feng, Xunwei

    2015-07-01

    Vascular calcification (VC), in which high serum phosphate plays a critical role, is one major problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. Clinical studies report that magnesium has a protective effect on VC. However, the studies regarding the impact of high serum magnesium on VC at a cellular level are few and require further investigation. Therefore, the present study explored the effect of magnesium on calcification induced by β-glycerophosphate (BGP) in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RAVSMCs). In the present study, the addition of magnesium decreased calcium deposition, which was increased by BGP. Higher magnesium levels inhibited BGP-induced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and decreased the expression of core-binding factor α-1 (Cbfα1). In conclusion, higher magnesium levels prevented BGP-induced calcification in RAVSMCs and inhibited the expression of Cbfα1 and ALP. Thus, magnesium is influencing the expression of Cbfα1 and ALP associated with VC and may have the potential to serve as a role for VC in clinical situations.

  3. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  8. Evidence for bicarbonate-dependent magnesium reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A; Langberg, H; Dibona, G; Kiil, F

    1983-01-01

    During ethacrynic acid administration about 50% of the filtered load of magnesium is reabsorbed. To examine whether the remaining component of magnesium reabsorption is bicarbonate-dependent, i.e. varies with factors known to alter passive reabsorption, experiments were performed in anesthetized dogs. During ethacrynic acid administration MgCl2 infusion raised the plasma concentration of magnesium (PMg) from 0.64 +/- 0.05 to 3.06 +/- 0.27 mM and doubled magnesium reabsorption. The infusion of acetazolamide at high PMg reduced bicarbonate reabsorption by 41 +/- 3% and magnesium reabsorption by 31 +/- 16%. When plasma pH was reduced to 7.04 +/- 0.02 and increased to 7.83 +/- 0.02 by altering PCO2 at a constant plasma bicarbonate concentration of 31.2 +/- 0.8 mM, magnesium and bicarbonate reabsorption were correlated (r = 0.82). The infusion of mannitol, which acts by reducing passive solute transport without affecting bicarbonate reabsorption, halved magnesium reabsorption. By combining mannitol and acetazolamide infusions, only 6 +/- 4% of the filtered magnesium was still reabsorbed. These results indicate that the reabsorption of magnesium remaining after the infusion of ethacrynic acid and after raising PMg varies with changes in PCO2 and is inhibited by the infusion of acetazolamide and mannitol as expected for bicarbonate-dependent passive reabsorption.

  9. The effect of feeding with a tryptophan-free amino acid mixture on rat liver magnesium ion-activated deoxyribonucleic acid-dependent ribonucleic acid polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, A. R.

    1970-01-01

    1. The Widnell & Tata (1966) assay method for Mg2+-activated DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was used for initial-velocity determinations of rat liver nuclear RNA polymerase. One unit (U) of RNA polymerase was defined as that amount of enzyme required for 1 mmol of [3H]GMP incorporation/min at 37°C. 2. Colony fed rats were found to have a mean RNA polymerase activity of 65.9μU/mg of DNA and 18h-starved rats had a mean activity of 53.2μU/mg of DNA. Longer periods of starvation did not significantly decrease RNA polymerase activity further. 3. Rats that had been starved for 18h were used for all feeding experiments. Complete and tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixtures were given by stomach tube and the animals were killed 15–120min later. The response of RNA polymerase to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture was rapid and almost linear over the first hour of feeding, resulting in a doubling of activity. The activity was still elevated above the starvation value at 120min after feeding. The tryptophan-deficient amino acid mixture produced a much less vigorous response about 45min after the feeding, and the activity had returned to the starvation value by 120min after the feeding. 4. The response of RNA polymerase to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture was shown to occur within a period of less than 5min to about 10min after the feeding. 5. Pretreatment of the animals with puromycin or cycloheximide was found to abolish the 15min RNA polymerase response to the feeding with the complete amino acid mixture, but the activity of the controls was unaffected. 6. The characteristics of the RNA polymerase from 18h-starved animals and animals fed with the complete or incomplete amino acid mixtures for 1h were examined. The effects of Mg2+ ions, pH, actinomycin D and nucleoside triphosphate omissions were determined. The [Mg2+]– and pH–activity profiles of the RNA polymerase from the animal fed with the complete mixture appeared to differ from

  10. Laser-induced Magnesium Production from Magnesium Oxide for Renewable Magnesium Energy Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shi-Hua; Yabe, Takashi; Baasandash, Choijil; Sato, Yuji; Ichikawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Masashi; Fukushima, Chika; Uchida, Shigeaki; Ohkubo, Tomomasa

    2010-10-01

    We succeeded in reducing magnesium [Mg] from magnesium oxide [MgO] by laser irradiation. The laser-induced vapor temperature was measured to be approximately 5000 K on the irradiating spot, where MgO separated into Mg and oxygen [O] atoms through thermal dissociation. The Mg vapor was intercepted a cooper plate, forming solid deposits on it. However, the presence of oxygen, resulting from MgO dissociation, leads to Mg oxidization in the course of vapor cooling. The deoxidization process results in lower Mg fraction in the deposits and degrades energy recovery efficiency from laser irradiation. To quench this recombination, we also employed silicon as reducing agents to capture oxygen in favor of Mg extraction. In these experiments, the molar ratio effect (MgO:Si = 1:0-1) on the magnesium fractions and energy efficiencies were measured by means of a chemical reaction. The maximal energy efficiency, %, was obtained at the ratio of MgO:Si = 1:0.5. This ratio is lower than that of the Pidgeon process with Mg:Si = 1:1 resulting in a lower energy efficiency of %. This implies laser-induced Mg production is a economical process of using reducing agents with large throughput. The usage of laser radiation generated from solar energy for Mg metallurgy will significantly reduce CO2 emission.

  11. Magnesium carbonate precipitate strengthened aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Lee, Duu-Jong; Chen, Yu-You

    2015-05-01

    Aerobic granules were precipitated internally with magnesium carbonate to enhance their structural stability under shear. The strengthened granules were tested in continuous-flow reactors for 220 days at organic loadings of 6-39 kg/m(3)/day, hydraulic retention times of 0.44-19 h, and temperatures of 10 or 28°C. The carbonate salt had markedly improved the granule strength without significant changes in granule morphology or microbial communities (with persistent strains Streptomyces sp., Rhizobium sp., Brevundimonas sp., and Nitratireductor sp.), or sacrifice in biological activity for organic degradation. MgCO3 precipitated granules could be used in continuous-flow reactor for wastewater treatment at low cost and with easy processing efforts.

  12. Mechanochemistry of magnesium oxide revisited: facile derivatisation of pharmaceuticals using coordination and supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Chow, Ernest H H; Strobridge, Fiona C; Friscić, Tomislav

    2010-09-14

    Liquid-assisted grinding allows the rapid, waste-free and one-pot synthesis of a variety of magnesium drug derivatives directly from the excipient MgO; such reactivity is relevant for the behaviour of ibuprofen formulations involving MgO and can be used for oxide-based mechanosynthesis of metal-organic salts, discrete complexes and carboxylate clusters involving magnesium and pharmaceutically active ingredients.

  13. The protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-2 interacts with the magnesium transporter CNNM3 to promote oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, S; Uetani, N; Wong, N; Kostantin, E; Labbé, D P; Bégin, L R; Mes-Masson, A; Miranda-Saavedra, D; Tremblay, M L

    2015-02-19

    The three PRL (phosphatases of regenerating liver) protein tyrosine phosphatases (PRL-1, -2 and -3) have been identified as key contributors to metastasis in several human cancers, yet the molecular basis of their pro-oncogenic property is unclear. Among the subfamily of PRL phosphatases, overexpression of PRL-2 in breast cancer cells has been shown to promote tumor growth by a mechanism that remains to be uncovered. Here we show that PRL-2 regulates intracellular magnesium levels by forming a functional heterodimer with the magnesium transporter CNNM3. We further reveal that CNNM3 is not a phosphorylated substrate of PRL-2, and that the interaction occurs through a loop unique to the CBS pair domains of CNNM3 that exists only in organisms having PRL orthologs. Supporting the role of PRL-2 in cellular magnesium transport is the observation that PRL-2 knockdown results in a substantial decrease of cellular magnesium influx. Furthermore, in PRL-2 knockout mice, serum magnesium levels were significantly elevated as compared with control animals, indicating a pivotal role for PRL-2 in regulating cellular magnesium homeostasis. Although the expression levels of CNNM3 remained unchanged after magnesium depletion of various cancer cell lines, the interaction between endogenous PRL-2 and CNNM3 was markedly increased. Importantly, xenograft tumor assays with CNNM3 and a mutant form that does not associate with PRL-2 confirm that CNNM3 is itself pro-oncogenic, and that the PRL-2/CNNM3 association is important for conferring transforming activities. This finding is further confirmed from data in human breast cancer tissues showing that CNNM3 levels correlate positively with both PRL-2 expression and the tumor proliferative index. In summary, we demonstrate that oncogenic PRL-2 controls tumor growth by modulating intracellular magnesium levels through binding with the CNNM3 magnesium transporter.

  14. Quantitative analysis of EEG effects following experimental marginal magnesium and boron deprivation.

    PubMed

    Penland, J G

    1995-12-01

    Magnesium (115 and 315 mg/d) and boron (0.23 and 3.23 mg/d) were fed in a double-blind Latin squares design to 13 healthy postmenopausal women (aged 50-78 years) living on a metabolic unit. An eight-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded during the last week of each of four 6-week dietary periods. Power and coherence measures were determined for each of four EEG frequency bands: delta (1-3 Hz), theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (13-18 Hz). Compared to high dietary magnesium, the low magnesium intake increased total power in the frontal regions and right temporal and parietal regions and resulted in frequency-specific increases in left occipital delta power, theta power in all but the left temporal region, alpha power in the right frontal and right temporal regions, and beta power in the frontal regions. The proportion of theta to total power in the parietal regions also increased with the low magnesium intake. While magnesium effects were observed primarily during eyes-closed conditions, effects of dietary boron on EEG power were found only during eyes-open conditions. Relative to high dietary boron, the low boron intake increased delta power in the left parietal and left occipital regions, increased the proportion of delta to total power in the frontal regions, and decreased relative right frontal theta, right frontal alpha, and left frontal beta power. Additional magnesium and boron effects were evident in the measures of EEG coherence. Thus relatively short periods of marginal magnesium and boron deprivation can affect brain function in healthy older women. The findings extend previous qualitative observations of increased CNS activity following severe magnesium deprivation and deficiency to cases of experimentally induced marginal magnesium deficiency, and verify CNS hyperexcitability by quantitative analysis of the EEG.

  15. Interdiffusion of magnesium and iron dopants in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomonobu; Kitatani, Takeshi; Terano, Akihisa; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The interdiffusion of magnesium and iron in gallium nitride (GaN), i.e., magnesium-iron interdiffusion, was investigated using magnesium-doped GaN layers on iron-doped GaN substrates. The investigation confirms that the magnesium-iron interdiffusion strongly depends on the concentrations of magnesium and iron, that is, it occurs when the iron and magnesium concentrations are high (magnesium: 2 × 1020 cm-3 iron: 2 × 1019 cm-3). It also confirms that diffused iron in the magnesium-doped GaN layer acts as a nonradiative recombination center in GaN.

  16. Deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of wrought magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shouren; Song, Linghui; Kang, Sukbong; Cho, Jaehyung; Wang, Yingzi

    2013-05-01

    There are many researches on the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys, such as AZ31, AZ80, AZ91, and ZK60 magnesium alloys at different temperatures and strain rates, but few of them focuses on the deformation behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys, especially under the twin-roll casting (TRC) state. Meanwhile, the existing researches only focus on the grain refinement law of the magnesium alloys under deformation conditions, the deformation mechanism has not been revealed yet. The hot compression behavior of AZ41M and ZK60M magnesium alloys under the temperature and strain rate ranges of 250-400 °C and 0.001-1 s-1 are studied by thermal simulation methods using Gleeble 1500 machine and virtual simulation using finite element analysis software. Simulation results show that sine hyperbolic law is the most suitable flow stress model for wider deformation conditions. The most reasonable selected deformation conditions of ZK60M alloy is 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/1 s-1 for conventional casting (CC), while AZ41M alloy is 300 °C/0.01 s-1 for TRC and 350 °C/0.1 s-1 for CC. Deformation behavior and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) mechanism of them are analyzed at the same deformation conditions. The microstructures of AZ41M and ZK60M alloys are observed at different deformed conditions by optical microscopy (OM) and electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and it reveals the flow behavior and deformation mechanism of them. Working harden and work soften contribute to the activation of basal, non-basal slip systems which promote DRX. The proposed research reveals the deformation behavior and mechanism of the AZ41M and ZK 60M magnesium alloys and concludes their optimized deformation parameters and processes and provides a theory basis for their manufacturing and application.

  17. Effect of magnesium infusion on thoracic epidural analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sampa Dutta; Mitra, Koel; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Roy, Suddhadeb; Sarkar, Aniruddha; Kundu, Sudeshna; Goswami, Anupam; Sarkar, Uday Narayan; Sanki, Prakash; Mitra, Ritabrata

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Patients of lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) having an ASA status III or more are likely to be further downgraded by surgery to critical levels of pulmonary function. Aim: To compare the efficacy of thoracic epidural block with (0.125%) bupivacaine, fentanyl combination and (0.125%) bupivacaine, fentanyl combination with adjunctive intravenous magnesium infusion for the relief of postoperative pain in patients undergoing LVRS. Methods: Patients were operated under general anesthesia. Thirty minutes before the anticipated completion of skin closure in both groups, (Group A and Group B) 7 ml of (0.125%) bupivacaine calculated as 1.5 ml/thoracic segment space for achieving analgesia in dermatomes of T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8 segments, along with fentanyl 50 μg (0.5 ml), was administered through the catheter, activating the epidural block, and the time was noted. Thereafter, in patients of Group A, magnesium sulfate injection 30 mg/kg i.v. bolus was followed by infusion of magnesium sulfate at 10 mg/kg/hr and continued up to 24 hours. Group B was treated as control. Results and Analysis: A significant increase in the mean and maximum duration of analgesia in Group A in comparison with Group B (P<0.05) was observed. Total epidural dose of fentanyl and bupivacaine required in Group A was significantly lower in comparison with Group B in 24 hours. Discussion: Requirement of total doses of local anesthetics along with opioids could be minimized by magnesium infusion; therefore, the further downgradation of patients of LVRS may be prevented. Conclusion: Intravenous magnesium can prolong opioid-induced analgesia while minimizing nausea, pruritus, and somnolence. PMID:21655018

  18. Intraoperative Magnesium Administration Does Not Improve Neurocognitive Function Following Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Joseph P.; White, William D.; Schinderle, David B.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.; Berger, Miles; Milano, Carmelo A.; Laskowitz, Daniel T.; Stafford-Smith, Mark; Blumenthal, James A.; Newman, Mark F.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neurocognitive decline occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and persists in a significant number of patients. Magnesium is thought to provide neuroprotection through preservation of cellular energy metabolism, blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, diminution of the inflammatory response, and inhibition of platelet activation. We therefore hypothesized that intraoperative magnesium administration would decrease postoperative cognitive impairment. Methods Following IRB approval, 389 patients undergoing cardiac surgery were enrolled into this prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial. Subjects were randomized to receive: 1) Magnesium as a 50 mg/kg bolus followed by another 50 mg/kg infusion over 3 hours or 2) Placebo bolus and infusion. Cognitive function was assessed preoperatively and again at 6 weeks postoperatively using a standardized test battery. Mean CD11b fluorescence and percentage of platelets expressing CD62P, markers of leukocyte and platelet activation respectively, were assessed by flow cytometry as a secondary outcome. The effect of magnesium on postoperative cognition was tested using multivariable regression modeling, adjusting for age, years of education, baseline cognition, gender, race and weight. Results Among the 389 allocated subjects (Magnesium: N=198; Placebo: N=191), the incidence of cognitive deficit in the magnesium group was 44.4% compared to 44.9% in the placebo group (p=0.93). The cognitive change score and platelet and leukocyte activation were also not different between groups. Multivariable analysis revealed a marginal interaction between treatment group and weight, such that heavier subjects receiving magnesium were less likely to suffer cognitive deficit (p=0.06). Conclusions Magnesium administered intravenously during cardiac surgery does not reduce postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Clinical Trials Registration–URL http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique identifier

  19. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product....

  20. Magnesium: Is It a Viable Option?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    strike - High alkalinity • Magnesium strike – High alkalinity • Electroless Nickel - formulated to prevent attach of magnesium. Success Stories...ionic palladium, palladium reducer, electroless copper and electroless nickel. The initial results were encouraging: We were able to Get the parts

  1. Natural and synthetic modulators of SK (Kca2) potassium channels inhibit magnesium-dependent activity of the kinase-coupled cation channel TRPM7

    PubMed Central

    Chubanov, V; Mederos y Schnitzler, M; Meißner, M; Schäfer, S; Abstiens, K; Hofmann, T; Gudermann, T

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 (TRPM7) is a bifunctional protein comprising a TRP ion channel segment linked to an α-type protein kinase domain. TRPM7 is essential for proliferation and cell growth. Up-regulation of TRPM7 function is involved in anoxic neuronal death, cardiac fibrosis and tumour cell proliferation. The goal of this work was to identify non-toxic inhibitors of the TRPM7 channel and to assess the effect of blocking endogenous TRPM7 currents on the phenotype of living cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We developed an aequorin bioluminescence-based assay of TRPM7 channel activity and performed a hypothesis-driven screen for inhibitors of the channel. The candidates identified were further assessed electrophysiologically and in cell biological experiments. KEY RESULTS TRPM7 currents were inhibited by modulators of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (KCa2.1–2.3; SK) channels, including the antimalarial plant alkaloid quinine, CyPPA, dequalinium, NS8593, SKA31 and UCL 1684. The most potent compound NS8593 (IC50 1.6 µM) specifically targeted TRPM7 as compared with other TRP channels, interfered with Mg2+-dependent regulation of TRPM7 channel and inhibited the motility of cultured cells. NS8593 exhibited full and reversible block of native TRPM7-like currents in HEK 293 cells, freshly isolated smooth muscle cells, primary podocytes and ventricular myocytes. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study reveals a tight overlap in the pharmacological profiles of TRPM7 and KCa2.1–2.3 channels. NS8593 acts as a negative gating modulator of TRPM7 and is well-suited to study functional features and cellular roles of endogenous TRPM7. PMID:22242975

  2. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: influence of calcium and magnesium ions on yeast resistance to dehydration-rehydration.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Yuliya; Walker, Graeme; Rapoport, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells' resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries.

  3. Determination of oxygen content in magnesium and its alloys by inert gas fusion-infrared absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Akira; Achiwa, Hatsumi; Morikawa, Hisashi; Uemoto, Michihisa; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2011-01-01

    A method for the determination of the oxygen content in magnesium and magnesium alloys has been developed. Inert gas fusion-infrared absorptiometry was modified by introducing a multistep heating process; a sample containing oxygen is fused with tin to form an eutectic mixture at 900°C in a graphite crucible, followed by a subsequent gradual temperature increase of up to 2000°C, which enables the evaporation of magnesium from the mixture, and subsequent solidification at the rim of the crucible. Residual tin including magnesium oxide remained at the bottom of the crucible. The oxygen in the tin is measured by a conventional inert gas fusion (IGF) method. From a comparison with the results of charged particle activation analysis, the IGF method is considered to be an attractive candidate for measuring the oxygen content in Mg and its alloys.

  4. Magnesium in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Kutlesic, Marija S; Kutlesic, Ranko M; Mostic-Ilic, Tatjana

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium, one of the essential elements in the human body, has numerous favorable effects that offer a variety of possibilities for its use in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care. Administered as a single intravenous bolus dose or a bolus followed by continuous infusion during surgery, magnesium attenuates stress response to endotracheal intubation, and reduces intraoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic requirements, while at the same time preserving favorable hemodynamics. Applied as part of an intrathecal or epidural anesthetic mixture, magnesium prolongs the duration of anesthesia and diminishes total postoperative analgesic consumption with no adverse maternal or neonatal effects. In obstetric intensive care, magnesium represents a first-choice medication in the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures. If used in recommended doses with close monitoring, magnesium is a safe and effective medication.

  5. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, p<0.001 and 34.7±2 versus 35.4±2 mEq/L, p=0.097; respectively), reduced total cholesterol (201±37 versus 186±27 mg/dL, p=0.016 and 187±28 versus 187±25 mg/dL, p=0.978; respectively) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (128±22 versus 120±25 mg/dL, p=0.042 and 120±23 versus 121±22 mg/dL, p=0.622; respectively). Noteworthy is that both treatments significantly reduced epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation (78.9±16% versus 71.7±23%, p=0.013 and 81.3±15% versus 73.3±23%, p=0.036; respectively). Thus, oral magnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  6. Conserved Chloroplast Open-reading Frame ycf54 Is Required for Activity of the Magnesium Protoporphyrin Monomethylester Oxidative Cyclase in Synechocystis PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Hollingshead, Sarah; Kopečná, Jana; Jackson, Philip J.; Canniffe, Daniel P.; Davison, Paul A.; Dickman, Mark J.; Sobotka, Roman; Hunter, C. Neil

    2012-01-01

    The cyclase step in chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis has not been characterized biochemically, although there are some plausible candidates for cyclase subunits. Two of these, Sll1214 and Sll1874 from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis 6803, were FLAG-tagged in vivo and used as bait in separate pulldown experiments. Mass spectrometry identified Ycf54 as an interaction partner in each case, and this interaction was confirmed by a reciprocal pulldown using FLAG-tagged Ycf54 as bait. Inactivation of the ycf54 gene (slr1780) in Synechocystis 6803 resulted in a strain that exhibited significantly reduced Chl levels. A detailed analysis of Chl precursors in the ycf54 mutant revealed accumulation of very high levels of Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyl ester and only traces of protochlorophyllide, the product of the cyclase, were detected. Western blotting demonstrated that levels of the cyclase component Sll1214 and the Chl biosynthesis enzymes Mg-protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase and protochlorophyllide reductase are significantly impaired in the ycf54 mutant. Ycf54 is, therefore, essential for the activity and stability of the oxidative cyclase. We discuss a possible role of Ycf54 as an auxiliary factor essential for the assembly of a cyclase complex or even a large multienzyme catalytic center. PMID:22711541

  7. Interactions between magnesium and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Nechifor, Mihai

    2008-06-01

    Psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, antimanic drugs, antipsychotics, analgesic opioids, and others) are among the most frequently used medicines. Between these drugs and magnesium there are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Erythrocyte magnesium is decreased in patients with severe major depression (MD) vs normal subjects (44 +/- 2.7 mg/L in MD group vs 59.1 +/- 3.2 mg/L in control group, p < 0.01). Therapy with sertraline, 150 mg/day p.o. -21 days or with amitryptiline 3 x 25 mg/day p.o. 28 days increases significantly erythrocyte concentration of magnesium (56.9 +/- 5.22 mg/L after sertraline vs 44 +/- 2.7 mg/L before sertraline, p < 0.01). In patients with acute paranoid schizophrenia, erythrocyte magnesium concentration is decreased vs healthy subjects. Haloperidol, 8 mg/day, p.o. for 21 days or risperidone, 6 mg/day p.o. for 21 days have increased significantly erythrocyte magnesium concentration (46.21 +/- 3.1 mg/L before haloperidol and 54.6 +/- 2.7 mg/L after haloperidol, p < 0.05). Antimanic drugs (mood stabilizers) as carbamazepine, 600 mg/day, p.o., 4 weeks and sodium valproate, 900 mg/day p.o., 4 weeks, increased significantly magnesium in patients with bipolar disorder type I. Increased magnesium status positively correlated with enhancement of the clinical state. The existent data sustain the idea that an increase of erythrocyte magnesium is involved in the mechanism of action of some psychotropic drugs. Magnesium supply decreased the intensity of morphine-induced physical drug dependence. In heroin addicts, the plasma magnesium concentration is decreased.

  8. Analysis Methods of Magnesium Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmann, Sven; Ditze, André; Scharf, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The quality of recycled magnesium from chips depends strongly on their exposure to inorganic and organic impurities that are added during the production processes. Different kinds of magnesium chips from these processes were analyzed by several methods. In addition, the accuracy and effectiveness of the methods are discussed. The results show that the chips belong either to the AZ91, AZ31, AM50/60, or AJ62 alloy. Some kinds of chips show deviations from the above-mentioned normations. Different impurities result mainly from transition metals and lime. The water and oil content does not exceed 25%, and the chip size is not more than 4 mm in the diameter. The sieve analysis shows good results for oily and wet chips. The determination of oil and water shows better results for the application of a Soxhlet compared with the addition of lime and vacuum distillation. The most accurate values for the determination of water and oil are obtained by drying at 110°C (for water) and washing with acetone (for oil) by hand.

  9. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  10. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  11. Proposed formation mechanism and active species of hydrogen molecules generated from a novel magnesium-citric acid-hydroxypropyl cellulose coating (MgCC) material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Chiba, Kazuyoshi; Tsuchiya, Daisuke; Hirai, Tomomitsu

    2016-02-01

    The presence of acids is known to accelerate the reaction (Mg + 2H2O = Mg(OH)2 + H2). We developed a novel Mg-citric acid coating (MgCC) material produced by milling Mg powder coated with hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC); because of its H2 generation, this material could be used in antioxidant therapy and antiaging applications. After milling in the presence of citric acid, this material produced H2-rich water upon addition to cooled water. Although the reaction was considered to involve a two-electron transfer from Mg to 2H2O, the role of the acid in H2 generation remains incompletely understood. To clarify the reaction mechanism, we performed studies on the deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) and electron spin resonance (ESR). We observed differences in the concentration ratios, such as H2/D2 > 1 and H2/(H2 + D2 + HD) > 1, involved in H2, D2, and (H2 + D2 + HD) production, and found that adducts with hydrogen atoms (Hrad) were not obtained from the spin-trapping reaction between 5-(2, 2-Dimethyl-1,3-propoxy cyclophosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (CYPMPO) and the MgCC material. The H2, D2, and HD produced from MgCC were identified by using a gas chromatograph connected to a mass spectrometer. The spin-trapping techniques showed that the Hrad adducts formed by the reaction of NaBH4 with CYPMPO could not be observed from reaction of MGCC with CYPMPO in H2O. The data suggest that the rate-controlling step and proposed transition state (TS) exist in the reaction pathway of the O-H bond cleavage and H-H bond formation. A TS of a structure such as [Mg(OH2)2]∗ could be expected in the reaction pathway between Mg and 2H2O by density functional theory calculations. Also, these results show that H2 generation is accelerated in the presence of acids because the activation energy of the TS is significantly smaller than that of H2O.

  12. Magnesium status and the effect of magnesium supplementation in feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Smith, F W; Rush, J E

    1997-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in several species. Cats may be predisposed to alterations in magnesium status because of recent changes in the composition of commercial feline diets. The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the dietary history of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 2) to study magnesium status of cats with HCM compared to normal cats, and 3) to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation in cats with HCM. In part 1 of the study, diets of 65 cats with HCM were examined retrospectively. Forty of the 45 cats for which diets could be determined (89%) ate a diet designed to be magnesium-restricted and/or to produce an acidic urine. In part 2 of the study, 10 cats with HCM were compared to 10 healthy control cats for serum creatinine and magnesium; urine creatinine and magnesium, urine specific gravity and pH, and fractional excretion of magnesium. Urine creatinine and specific gravity were higher in control cats than in cats with HCM. No other differences were found between the 2 groups. In part 3, cats with HCM were supplemented with either 210 mg magnesium chloride (n = 15) or 210 mg lactose (n = 15) for 12 wk. No differences between the 2 groups were found for changes in either magnesium status or echocardiographic parameters. However, the 30 cats with HCM, as a group, did show significant improvements in measures of cardiac hypertrophy over the 12-week period. This was likely the result of treatment with other medications, rather than the magnesium supplementation. The results of this study suggest that cats with HCM are likely to be fed magnesium-restricted diets, but that they do not appear to have altered magnesium status compared to healthy controls. PMID:9243004

  13. Cobalt-Magnesium and Iron-Magnesium Complexes with Weakened Dinitrogen Bridges

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Thomas R.; MacLeod, K. Cory; Brennessel, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The cooperative binding of N2 by late transition metals and main-group metals is a promising strategy for N-N bond weakening and activation. We report the use of activated Rieke magnesium for reduction of iron and cobalt complexes supported by bulky β-diketiminate ligands. Binding of N2 is accompanied by assembly of a linear M-NN-Mg-NN-M (M = Co, Fe) core with N-N bonds that are weakened, as judged by infrared spectroscopy. Both the cobalt and iron complexes require THF solvent, because of Mg-THF binding. The cobalt complex can be isolated as a pure solid, but the iron complex is stable only in solution. These results demonstrate the correlation between the binding mode and N-N weakening in heterobimetallic N2 complexes. PMID:24367236

  14. Microstructure-Property Correlation in Magnesium-based Hydrogen Storage Systems: The Case for Ball-milled Magnesium Hydride Powder and Magnesium-based Multilayered Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danaie, Mohsen

    The main focus of this thesis is the characterization of defects and microstructure in high-energy ball milled magnesium hydride powder and magnesium-based multilayered composites. Enhancement in kinetics of hydrogen cycling in magnesium can be achieved by applying severe plastic deformation. A literature survey reveals that, due to extreme instability of alpha-MgH 2 in transmission electron microscope (TEM), the physical parameters that researchers have studied are limited to particle size and grain size. By utilizing a cryogenic TEM sample holder, we extended the stability time of the hydride phase during TEM characterization. Milling for only 30 minutes resulted in a significant enhancement in desorption kinetics. A subsequent annealing cycle under pressurized hydrogen reverted the kinetics to its initial sluggish state. Cryo-TEM analysis of the milled hydride revealed that mechanical milling induces deformation twinning in the hydride microstructure. Milling did not alter the thermodynamics of desorption. Twins can enhance the kinetics by acting as preferential locations for the heterogeneous nucleation of metallic magnesium. We also looked at the phase transformation characteristics of desorption in MgH2. By using energy-filtered TEM, we investigated the morphology of the phases in a partially desorbed state. Our observations prove that desorption phase transformation in MgH2 is of "nucleation and growth" type, with a substantial energy barrier for nucleation. This is contrary to the generally assumed "core-shell" structure in most of the simulation models for this system. We also tested the hydrogen storage cycling behavior of bulk centimeter-scale Mg-Ti and Mg-SS multilayer composites synthesized by accumulative roll-bonding. Addition of either phase (Ti or SS) allows the reversible hydrogen sorption at 350°C, whereas identically roll-bonded pure magnesium cannot be absorbed. In the composites the first cycle of absorption (also called "activation

  15. Electrical transport behavior of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite

    SciTech Connect

    Ghatak, S.; Sinha, M.; Meikap, A.K.; Pradhan, S.K.

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the direct current conductivity, alternate current conductivity and dielectric properties of nonstoichiometric magnesium-zinc ferrite below room temperature. The frequency exponent (s) of conductivity shows an anomalous temperature dependency. The magnitude of the temperature exponent (n) of dielectric permittivity strongly depends on frequency and its value decreases with increasing frequency. The grain boundary contribution is dominating over the grain contribution in conduction process and the temperature dependence of resistance due to grain and grain boundary contribution exhibits two activation regions. The ferrite shows positive alternating current magnetoconductivity. The solid state processing technique was used for the preparation of nanocrystalline ferrite powder from oxides of magnesium, zinc and iron. The X-ray diffraction methods were used in determining the structure and composition of obtained ferrite, while multimeter, impedance analyzer, liquid nitrogen cryostat and electromagnet were used in the study of conducting and dielectric properties of ferrite.

  16. Chemical conversion coating for protecting magnesium alloys from corrosion

    DOEpatents

    Bhargava, Gaurang; Allen, Fred M.; Skandan, Ganesh; Hornish, Peter; Jain, Mohit

    2016-01-05

    A chromate-free, self-healing conversion coating solution for magnesium alloy substrates, composed of 10-20 wt. % Mg(NO.sub.3).sub.2.6H.sub.2O, 1-5 wt. % Al(NO.sub.3).sub.3.9H.sub.2O, and less than 1 wt. % of [V.sub.10O.sub.28].sup.6- or VO.sub.3.sup.- dissolved in water. The corrosion resistance offered by the resulting coating is in several hundreds of hours in salt-spray testing. This prolonged corrosion protection is attributed to the creation of a unique structure and morphology of the conversion coating that serves as a barrier coating with self-healing properties. Hydroxoaluminates form the backbone of the barrier protection offered while the magnesium hydroxide domains facilitate the "slow release" of vanadium compounds as self-healing moieties to defect sites, thus providing active corrosion protection.

  17. Monitoring Biodegradation of Magnesium Implants with Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Daoli; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Xuefei; Kuhlmann, Julia; Doepke, Amos; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Heineman, William R.

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium and its alloys exhibit properties such as high strength, light weight, and in vivo corrosion that make them promising candidates for the development of biodegradable metallic implant materials for bone repair, stents and other medical applications. Sensors have been used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium and its alloys by measuring the concentrations of the following corrosion products: magnesium ions, hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. The corrosion characterization system with home-made capillary pH and Mg2+ microsensors has been developed for real-time detection of magnesium corrosion in vitro. A hydrogen gas sensor was used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium by measuring the concentration of the hydrogen gas reaction product in vivo. The high permeability of hydrogen through skin allows transdermal monitoring of the biodegradation of a magnesium alloy implanted beneath the skin by detecting hydrogen gas at the skin surface. The sensor was used to map hydrogen concentration in the vicinity of an implanted magnesium alloy.

  18. Thermal analysis of magnesium reactions with nitrogen/oxygen gas mixtures.

    PubMed

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Lifu, Yu; Chang, Li; Gang, Li; Shengjun, Zhong

    2013-09-15

    The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of magnesium powder subjected to a nitrogen-rich atmosphere was investigated in thermogravimetric (TG) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments with oxygen/nitrogen mixtures heated at rates of 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min. At higher temperature increase rates, the observed oxidation or nitridation steps shifted toward higher temperatures. The comparison of mass gain and heat of reaction in different nitrogen concentrations is helpful in interpreting the inerting effect of nitrogen on magnesium powder explosion in closed vessels. Activation energies for oxidation in air calculated by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) method are generally consistent with previously published reports, but the method was not successful for the entire nitridation process. The change of activation energy with temperature was related to protective properties of the corresponding coating layer at particle surfaces. Two main coating layer growth processes were found in magnesium oxidation and nitridation using a modified Dreizin method which was also employed to determine activation energy for both magnesium oxidation and nitridation. For magnesium powder oxidation, activation energy calculated by the Dreizin method was close to that by KAS. Variation in activation energies was a function of different mechanisms inherent in the two methods.

  19. Room temperature magnesium electrorefining by using non-aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Dilasari, Bonita; Ku, Heesuk; Kim, Hansu; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    The increasing usage of magnesium inevitably leads to a fast increase in magnesium scrap, and magnesium recycling appears extremely beneficial for cost reduction, preservation of natural resources and protection of the environment. Magnesium refining for the recovery of high purity magnesium from metal scrap alloy (AZ31B composed of magnesium, aluminum, zinc, manganese and copper) at room temperature is investigated with a non-aqueous electrolyte (tetrahydrofuran with ethyl magnesium bromide). A high purity (99.999%) of electrorefined magneisum with a smooth and dense surface is obtained after potentiostatic electrolysis with an applied voltage of 2 V. The selective dissolution of magnesium from magnesium alloy is possible by applying an adequate potential considering the tolerable impurity level in electrorefined magnesium and processing time. The purity estimation method suggested in this study can be useful in evaluating the maximum content of impurity elements.

  20. Direct writing of polymeric coatings on magnesium alloy for tracheal stent applications.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jessica; Xu, Zhigang; Smith, Christopher; Roy, Abhijit; Kumta, Prashant N; Waterman, Jenora; Conklin, Dawn; Desai, Salil

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the direct-write inkjet method for depositing multi-layer coatings of biodegradable polymers on magnesium alloy surface. Immersion studies were conducted on Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and poly-ester urethane urea (PEUU) coatings to determine the corrosion behavior of different samples based on their varying degradation properties. Using the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, a reduction in magnesium ion concentration was observed from the polymer-coated samples indicative of the lower corrosion rates as compared to the uncoated Mg substrate. Findings also showed correlation between the release of the magnesium ions and the health of fully differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells via evaluation of key biomarkers of inflammation and toxicity, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), respectively. The induction of COX-2 gene expression was proportional to the increase in magnesium exposure. In addition, the release of higher magnesium content from uncoated and PCL polymer coated samples resulted in lower LDH activity based on the favorable response of the NHBE cells. PEUU and PLGA polymer coatings provided good barrier layer corrosion protection. This research evaluates candidate polymer coatings as a source for therapeutic agents and barrier layer to control the corrosion of magnesium alloys for tracheal applications.

  1. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  2. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  3. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  4. Struvite precipitation and phosphorus removal using magnesium sacrificial anode.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Damian J; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Struvite precipitation using magnesium sacrificial anode as the only source of magnesium is presented. High-purity magnesium alloy cast anode was found to be very effective in recovery of high-quality struvite from water solutions and from supernatant of fermented waste activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant that does not practice enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Struvite purity was strongly dependent on the pH and the electric current density. Optimum pH of the 24 mM phosphorus and 46 mM ammonia solution (1:1.9 P:N ratio) was in the broad range between 7.5 and 9.3, with struvite purity exceeding 90%. Increasing the current density resulted in elevated struvite purity. No upper limits were observed in the studied current range of 0.05-0.2 A. Phosphorus removal rate was proportional to the current density and comparable for tests with water solutions and with the supernatant from fermented sludge. The highest P-removal rate achieved was 4.0 mg PO4-P cm(-2) h(-1) at electric current density of 45 A m(-2). Initial substrate concentrations affected the rate of phosphorus removal. The precipitated struvite accumulated in bulk liquid with significant portions attached to the anode surface from which regular detachment occurred.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  7. Magnesium-titanium alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ilona

    Magnesium has been identified as a promising biodegradable implant material because it does not cause systemic toxicity and can reduce stress shielding. However, it corrodes too quickly in the body. Titanium, which is already used ubiquitously for implants, was chosen as the alloying element because of its proven biocompatibility and corrosion resistance in physiological environments. Thus, alloying magnesium with titanium is expected to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Mg-Ti alloys with a titanium content ranging from 5 to 35 at.-% were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. Spark plasma sintering was identified as a processing route to consolidate the alloy powders made by ball-milling into bulk material without destroying the alloy structure. This is an important finding as this metastable Mg-Ti alloy can only be heated up to max. 200C° for a limited time without reaching the stable state of separated magnesium and titanium. The superior corrosion behavior of Mg 80-Ti20 alloy in a simulated physiological environment was shown through hydrogen evolution tests, where the corrosion rate was drastically reduced compared to pure magnesium and electrochemical measurements revealed an increased potential and resistance compared to pure magnesium. Cytotoxicity tests on murine pre-osteoblastic cells in vitro confirmed that supernatants made from Mg-Ti alloy were no more cytotoxic than supernatants prepared with pure magnesium. Mg and Mg-Ti alloys can also be used to make novel polymer-metal composites, e.g., with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to avoid the polymer's detrimental pH drop during degradation and alter its degradation pattern. Thus, Mg-Ti alloys can be fabricated and consolidated while achieving improved corrosion resistance and maintaining cytocompatibility. This work opens up the possibility of using Mg-Ti alloys for fracture fixation implants and other biomedical applications. KEYWORDS: Magnesium, titanium, corrosion

  8. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  9. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity. PMID:27327435

  10. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  11. Improvement of bioactivity, degradability, and cytocompatibility of biocement by addition of mesoporous magnesium silicate into sodium-magnesium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingyang; Tang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jie; Tang, Tingting; Guo, Han; Tang, Songchao; Zhao, Liming; Ma, Xuhui; Hong, Hua; Wei, Jie

    2015-09-01

    A novel mesoporous magnesium-based cement (MBC) was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and mesoporous magnesium silicate (m-MS). The results indicate that the setting time and water absorption of the MBC increased as a function of increasing m-MS content, while compressive strength decreased. In addition, the degradability of the MBC in a solution of Tris-HCl and the ability of apatite formation on the MBC were significantly improved with the increase in m-MS content. In cell culture experiments, the results show that the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells on the MBC were significantly enhanced with the increase of the content of m-MS. It can be suggested that the MBC with good cytocompatibility could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells. In short, our findings indicate that the MBC containing m-MS had promising potential as a new biocement for bone regeneration and repair applications.

  12. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono-and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  13. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, Toshifumi; Kukacka, Lawrence E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  14. Magnesium-phosphate-glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    DOEpatents

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1982-09-23

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate, exhibits rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono- and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.

  15. Gestational magnesium deficiency is deleterious to fetal outcome.

    PubMed

    Almonte, R A; Heath, D L; Whitehall, J; Russell, M J; Patole, S; Vink, R

    1999-07-01

    A number of recent epidemiological findings have implicated magnesium as being essential to fetal well-being. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between maternal requirements for dietary magnesium and subsequent mortality and morbidity in offspring. The present study uses a rodent model of dietary-induced hypomagnesemia to investigate the effects of magnesium deficiency prior to and during gestation on neonatal morbidity and mortality. Magnesium deficiency during gestation significantly increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Such increases were associated with a reduced free magnesium concentration in both maternal and offspring blood and an increased incidence of periventricular hemorrhage and edema in newborn pups as observed by magnetic resonance imaging and histology. Animals fed a magnesium-deficient diet before mating but given magnesium supplementation during gestation did not demonstrate a significant change in neonatal mortality and morbidity when compared to control animals. The significant improvement in fetal outcome with dietary magnesium supports the concept of magnesium supplementation during pregnancy.

  16. Magnesium modulates the expression levels of calcification-associated factors to inhibit calcification in a time-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinsheng; Bai, Yaling; Jin, Jingjing; Zhang, Junxia; Zhang, Shenglei; Cui, Liwen; Zhang, Huiran

    2015-03-01

    Vascular calcification, a common complication in patients with chronic kidney disease, involves a variety of mechanisms associated with the regulation of calcification-associated factors. Previous clinical studies have indicated that magnesium is involved in the reduction of vascular calcification; however, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of magnesium on β-glycerophosphate (β-GP)-induced calcification and the underlying mechanisms. Primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were exposed to 10 mM β-GP in medium with or without the addition of 3 mM magnesium or 2-aminoethoxy-diphenylborate (2-APB; an inhibitor of magnesium transport), for a 14-day period. Calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured by Alizarin red staining, quantification of calcium and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression levels of core-binding factor α-1 (Cbfα1), matrix Gla protein (MGP) and osteopontin (OPN) were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction or western blot analysis, following incubation for 0, 3, 6, 10 and 14 days with the different media. VSMC calcification and ALP activity was reduced significantly in the high-magnesium medium compared with the calcification medium, during the 14-day incubation. The magnesium-induced changes in the VSMCs included a β-GP-induced downregulation of Cbfα1 by day 3 of incubation, an effect that was gradually enhanced over the 14-day period. By contrast, magnesium produced notable increases in MGP and OPN expression levels, with an opposite pattern to that observed in the Cbfα1 expression levels. However, the addition of 2-APB appeared to inhibit the protective effect of magnesium on the VSMCs. Therefore, magnesium was able to effectively reduce β-GP-induced calcification in rat VSMCs by regulating the expression levels of calcification-associated factors in a time-dependent manner.

  17. Magnesium isotopic composition of achondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedaghatpour, Fatemeh; Teng, Fang-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Magnesium isotopic compositions of 22 well-characterized differentiated meteorites including 7 types of achondrites and pallasite meteorites were measured to estimate the average Mg isotopic composition of their parent bodies and evaluate Mg isotopic heterogeneity of the solar system. The δ26Mg values are -0.236‰ and -0.190‰ for acapulcoite-lodranite and angrite meteorites, respectively and vary from -0.267‰ to -0.222‰ in the winonaite-IAB-iron silicate group, -0.369‰ to -0.292‰ in aubrites, -0.269‰ to -0.158‰ in HEDs, -0.299‰ to -0.209‰ in ureilites, -0.307‰ to -0.237‰ in mesosiderites, and -0.303‰ to -0.238‰ in pallasites. Magnesium isotopic compositions of most achondrites and pallasite meteorites analyzed here are similar and reveal no significant isotopic fractionation. However, Mg isotopic compositions of D‧Orbigny (angrite) and some HEDs are slightly heavier than chondrites and the other achondrites studied here. The slightly heavier Mg isotopic compositions of angrites and some HEDs most likely resulted from either impact-induced evaporation or higher abundance of clinopyroxene with the Mg isotopic composition slightly heavier than olivine and orthopyroxene. The average Mg isotopic composition of achondrites (δ26Mg = -0.246 ± 0.082‰, 2SD, n = 22) estimated here is indistinguishable from those of the Earth (δ26Mg = -0.25 ± 0.07‰; 2SD, n = 139), chondrites (δ26Mg = -0.28 ± 0.06‰; 2SD, n = 38), and the Moon (δ26Mg = -0.26 ± 0.16‰; 2SD, n = 47) reported from the same laboratory. The chondritic Mg isotopic composition of achondrites, the Moon, and the Earth further reflects homogeneity of Mg isotopes in the solar system and the lack of Mg isotope fractionation during the planetary accretion process and impact events.

  18. Research of magnesium phosphosilicate cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Zhu

    Magnesium phosphosilicate cement (MPSC) is a novel phosphate bonded cement, which consists mainly of magnesia, phosphate and silicate minerals. The traditional magnesium phosphate cements (MPCs) usually composed by ammonium phosphate, and gaseous ammonia will emit during mixing and in service. There is no noxious ammonia released from MPSC, furthermore, it can recycle a large volume of the non-hazardous waste. The goal of this research is to investigate the composition, reaction products, reaction mechanism, microstructure, properties, durability and applications of the MPSC. MPSC sets rapidly and has high early strength. It reacts better with solid industrial waste when compared to Portland cement. Many solid industrial wastes, such as fly ash, steel slag, coal gangue, red coal gangue, red mud, barium-bearing slag, copper slag, silica fume, and ground granulated blast furnace slag, have been used as the main component (40% by weight) in MPSC. The research has found that these aluminosilicate (or ironsilicate, or calciumsilicate) minerals with an amorphous or glass structure can enhance the performance of MPSC. The disorganized internal structure of amorphous materials may make it possess higher reactivity compared to the crystalline phases. Chemical reaction between phosphate and these minerals may form an amorphous gel, which is favorable to the cementing. Borax, boric acid and sodium tripolyphosphate have been used as retardants in the MPSC system. It is found that boric acid has a higher retarding effect on the setting of cement, than borax does. However, sodium polyphosphate accelerates the reaction of MPSC. The hydration of MPSC is exothermic reaction. The heat evolution may prompt hydrates formation, and shorten the setting process. Modern materials characterization techniques, XRD, DSC, TG-DTA FTIR, XPS, MAS-NMR, SEM, TEM, MIP, etc. were used to analyze the phase composition, micro morphology, and microstructure of hardened MPSC. The main hydration product

  19. Isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24 is prepared from magnesium-24 oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chellew, N. R.; Schilb, J. D.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus is used to prepare isotopically pure magnesium isotope-24, suitable for use in neutron scattering and polarization experiments. The apparatus permits thermal reduction of magnesium-24 oxide with aluminum and calcium oxide, and subsequent vaporization of the product metal in vacuum. It uses a resistance-heated furnace tube and cap assembly.

  20. Update on the assessment of magnesium status.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Maurice J

    2008-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body and the most abundant intracellular divalent cation, with essential roles in many physiological functions. Consequently, the assessment of Mg status is important for the study of diseases associated with chronic deficiency. In spite of intense research activities there is still no simple, rapid, and accurate laboratory test to determine total body Mg status in humans. However, serum Mg < 0.75 mmol/l is a useful measurement for severe deficiency, and for values between 0.75 and 0.85 mmol/l a loading test can identify deficient subjects. The loading test seems to be the gold standard for Mg status, but is unsuitable in patients with disturbed kidney and intestinal functions when administered orally. There is also a need to reach a consensus on a standardized protocol in order to compare results obtained in different clinical units. Other cellular Mg measurements, such as total or ionized Mg, frequently disagree and more research and systematic evaluations are needed. Muscle Mg appears to be a good marker, but biopsies limit its usefulness, as is the case with bone Mg, the most important but heterogeneous Mg compartment. The development of new and non invasive techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) may provide valuable tools for routinely analysing ionized Mg in tissues. With the development of molecular genetics techniques, the recent discovery of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin channels offers new possibilities for the sensitive and rapid evaluation of Mg status in humans.

  1. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  2. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  3. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies... treatment works from the manufacturing of magnesium anode batteries....

  4. Laser-induced magnesium production from magnesium oxide using reducing agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M. S.; Yabe, T.; Baasandash, C.; Sato, Y.; Mori, Y.; Shi-Hua, Liao; Sato, H.; Uchida, S.

    2008-12-01

    Experiments for laser induced production of magnesium (Mg) from magnesium oxide (MgO) using reducing agents (R) were conducted. In these experiments, continuous wave CO2 focused laser is focused on a mixture of magnesium oxide and reducing agent. High power density of focused laser leads to high temperature and the reduction reaction resulting in Mg production. The resultant vapor is collected on a copper plate and analyzed in terms of magnesium deposition efficiency. Deposition efficiencies with various reducing agents such as Zr, C, and Si have been measured to be 60, 9.2, and 12.1 mg/kJ respectively. An excess addition of reducing agent over their corresponding reaction stoichiometric amounts is found to be optimum condition for the most of performed laser induced reactions. In addition, utilizing solar-pumped laser in Mg production with reducing agent will reduce CO2 emission and produce magnesium with high-energy efficiency and large throughput.

  5. Production of Magnesium by Vacuum Aluminothermic Reduction with Magnesium Aluminate Spinel as a By-Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaowu; You, Jing; Peng, Jianping; Di, Yuezhong

    2016-06-01

    The Pidgeon process currently accounts for 85% of the world's magnesium production. Although the Pidgeon process has been greatly improved over the past 10 years, such production still consumes much energy and material and creates much pollution. The present study investigates the process of producing magnesium by employing vacuum aluminothermic reduction and by using magnesite as material and obtaining magnesium aluminate spinel as a by-product. The results show that compared with the Pidgeon process, producing magnesium by vacuum aluminothermic reduction can save materials by as much as 50%, increase productivity up to 100%, and save energy by more than 50%. It can also reduce CO2 emission by up to 60% and realize zero discharge of waste residue. Vacuum aluminothermic reduction is a highly efficient, low-energy-consumption, and environmentally friendly method of producing magnesium.

  6. Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced depressive-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenjiao; Chen, Qianying; Li, Peijin; Lu, Qianfeng; Pei, Xue; Sun, Yilin; Wang, Guangji; Hao, Kun

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) is a magnesium salt of 18α-GA stereoisomer which has been reported to exert hepatoprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the underlying mechanisms behind the action of Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate on neuroinflammatation and oxidative stress in LPS-stimulated mice. Mice were pretreated with Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI, 25, 50mg/kg) as well as fluoxetine (Flu, positive control, 20mg/kg) once daily for one week before intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0.83mg/kg). Pretreatments with MI and Flu significantly improved immobility time in tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) as well as locomotor activity in open-field test (OFT). In addition, the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress in serum and hippocampus were also suppressed effectively by MI and Flu administrations. Western blot analysis showed the up-regulated levels of p-Jak3, p-STAT3, p-NF-κBp65, and p-IκBα in mice exposed to LPS, while different degrees of down-regulation in these expression were observed in MI (25, 50mg/kg) and Flu (20mg/kg) groups respectively. Taken together, our obtained results demonstrated that Magnesium Isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) exhibited an antidepressant-like effect in LPS-induced mice, which might be mediated by JAK/STAT/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Increased anthocyanin accumulation in aster flowers at elevated temperatures due to magnesium treatment.

    PubMed

    Shaked-Sachray, Liat; Weiss, David; Reuveni, Moshe; Nissim-Levi, Ada; Oren-Shamir, Michal

    2002-04-01

    Temperature is one of the main external factors affecting anthocyanin accumulation in plant tissues: low temperatures cause an increase and elevated temperatures cause a decrease in anthocyanin concentration. Several metals have been shown to increase the half-life time of anthocyanins, by forming complexes with them. We studied the combined effect of elevated temperatures and increased metal concentrations on the accumulation of anthocyanins in aster 'Sungal' flowers. It has been found that magnesium treatment of aster plants or detached flower buds, partially prevents colour fading at elevated temperatures. Anthocyanin concentration of aster 'Sungal' flowers grown at 29 degrees C/21 degrees C day/night, respectively, was about half that of flowers grown at 17 degrees C/9 degrees C. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and chalcone isomerase (CHI) decreased as the temperature increased. Treatment of both whole plants and detached flower buds grown at elevated temperatures in the presence of magnesium salts, increased flower anthocyanin concentration by up to 80%. Measurement of magnesium following these treatments revealed an increased level of the metal in the petals, suggesting a direct effect. Magnesium treatment does not seem to cause increased synthesis of anthocyanin through a stress-related reaction, since the activities of both PAL and CHI did not increase due to this treatment. The results of this study show that increasing magnesium levels in aster petals prevents the deleterious effect of elevated temperatures on anthocyanin accumulation, thus enhancing flower colour.

  8. Strontium- and magnesium-enriched biomimetic β-TCP macrospheres with potential for bone tissue morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chou, J; Valenzuela, S M; Santos, J; Bishop, D; Milthorpe, B; Green, D W; Otsuka, M; Ben-Nissan, B

    2014-10-01

    During the last two decades, biogenic mineral ions have become important additives in treatments for bone regeneration and repair. Prominent among these is strontium, which is a potent suppressor of osteoclast bone resorption. Another is magnesium, which has a key influence in mineralization processes. The shells of benthic foraminiferans, hydrothermally converted into β-TCP, have been shown to effectively release a number of bone-promoting drugs at clinically relevant levels. In this study we characterized the effects of converted foraminiferan calcium dissolution and the concomitant release profile of intrinsic strontium and magnesium. We tested the effects of strontium- and magnesium-enriched macrospheres on human osteoblast (SaOS-2) and monocytoid (U937) cell lines, which can be induced to express equivalent phagocytic activities to osteoclasts. On dissolution in a biomimetic physiological solution, the macrospheres released biologically significant quantities of calcium and phosphate ions in the first 18 days. At 3 days, during which biogenic mineral ions are released, the number of U937 osteoclast-like monocyte cells decreased, while 4 days later the osteoblast cell number increased. These results show that strontium and magnesium naturally enriched macrospheres are capable of altering the metabolic activities of the cells regulating bone homeostasis. These unique macrospheres are natural origin bone void filler particles that resorb, and release physiologically significant levels of incorporated strontium, magnesium and calcium, which together make a uniquely multifunctional in situ remedy for bone regeneration and repair and the treatment of bone-wasting diseases.

  9. Grosnaja ABCs: Magnesium isotope compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, J. N.; Srinivasan, G.; Ulyanov, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Three CAI's from the Grosnaja CV3 chondrite were analyzed for their magnesium isotopic compositions by the ion microprobe. The selected CAI's represent three distinct types: GR4(compact Type A), GR7(Type B) and GR2(Type C). Petrographic studies indicate that all three Grosnaja inclusions were subjected to secondary alterations. The Type A CAI GR4 is primarily composed of melilite with spinel and pyroxene occurring as minor phases. The rim of the inclusion does not exhibit distinct layered structure and secondary alteration products (garnet, Fe-rich olivine and Na-rich plagioclase) are present in some localized areas near the rim region. The average major element compositions of different mineral phases in GR4 are given. Preliminary REE data suggest a depletion of HREE relative to LREE by about a factor of 3 without any clear indication of interelement fractionation. The CAI GR7 has textural and minerological characteristics similar to Type B inclusions. The REE data show a pattern that is similar to Group 6 with enrichment in Eu and Yb. In addition, a depletion of HREE compared to LREE is also evident in this object. Melilite composition shows a broad range of akermanite content (Ak(sub 15-55)). Detailed petrographic study is in progress. GR2 is a anorthite-rich Type C inclusion with large plagioclase laths intergrown with Ti-rich pyroxene. The average plagioclase composition is close to pure anorthite (An99).

  10. Efficacy of intra-articular magnesium for postoperative analgesia in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinxian; Wen, Hong; Hu, Yuezheng; Liu, Zhongtang; Pan, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular magnesium sulphate and a saline placebo for postoperative pain control following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Sixty patients underwent THA and were randomly allocated into two groups to receive intra-articular injections of either 10 ml magnesium sulphate (100 mg/ml; magnesium group, n=30) or 10 ml normal saline solution (control group, n=30). Postoperative analgesia was maintained by intravenous morphine injection. The outcome measurements were visual analogue score (VAS), morphine consumption and Harris hip score (HHS). The two groups were well matched. The outcome of VAS at rest was significantly lower at postoperative hours 6 and 12 in the magnesium group as compared with the control group, although the difference was insignificant preoperatively and at postoperative hours 2, 4, 24 and 48, and days 3, 7 and 14. This indicator during activity was also lower in the magnesium group at postoperative hour 24 than that of the control group, although the difference was insignificant preoperatively and at hour 48, and days 7 and 14. The consumption of morphine (the total quantity) at 0–6, 6–12 and 0–48 h in the magnesium group was significantly lower than in the control group, although no significant differences were observed at 12–24 and 24–48 h between the groups. The improvements of HHS from preoperative to postoperative scores were statistically significant, however, no significant differences were identified between groups. Thus, the findings indicate that intra-articular magnesium sulphate injections provided improved pain control and reduced the need for morphine when compared with a saline placebo following THA. PMID:28357078

  11. MDP-1: A novel eukaryotic magnesium-dependent phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Selengut, J D; Levine, R L

    2000-07-18

    We report here the purification, cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel phosphatase, MDP-1. In the course of investigating the reported acid phosphatase activity of carbonic anhydrase III preparations, several discrete phosphatases were discerned. One of these, a magnesium-dependent species of 18.6 kDa, was purified to homogeneity and yielded several peptide sequences from which the parent gene was identified by database searching. Although orthologous genes were identified in fungi and plants as well as mammalian species, there was no apparent homology to any known family of phosphatases. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli with a fusion tag and purified by affinity methods. The recombinant enzyme showed magnesium-dependent acid phosphatase activity comparable to the originally isolated rabbit protein. The enzyme catalyzes the rapid hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, ribose-5-phosphate, and phosphotyrosine. The selectivity for phosphotyrosine over phosphoserine or phosphothreonine is considerable, but the enzyme did not show activity toward five phosphotyrosine-containing peptides. None of the various substrates assayed (including various nucleotide, sugar, amino acid and peptide phosphates, phosphoinositides, and phosphodiesters) exhibited K(M) values lower than 1 mM, and many showed negligible rates of hydrolysis. The enzyme is inhibited by vanadate and fluoride but not by azide, cyanide, calcium, lithium, or tartaric acid. Chemical labeling, refolding, dialysis, and mutagenesis experiments suggest that the enzymatic mechanism is not dependent on cysteine, histidine, or nonmagnesium metal ions. In recognition of these observations, the enzyme has been given the name magnesium-dependent phosphatase-1 (MDP-1).

  12. Implant-derived magnesium induces local neuronal production of CGRP to improve bone-fracture healing in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yifeng; Xu, Jiankun; Ruan, Ye Chun; Yu, Mei Kuen; O’Laughlin, Micheal; Wise, Helen; Chen, Di; Tian, Li; Shi, Dufang; Wang, Jiali; Chen, Sihui; Feng, Jian Q; Chow, Dick Ho Kiu; Xie, Xinhui; Zheng, Lizhen; Huang, Le; Huang, Shuo; Leung, Kwoksui; Lu, Na; Zhao, Lan; Li, Huafang; Zhao, Dewei; Guo, Xia; Chan, Kaiming; Witte, Frank; Chan, Hsiao Chang; Zheng, Yufeng; Qin, Ling

    2017-01-01

    Orthopedic implants containing biodegradable magnesium have been used for fracture repair with considerable efficacy; however, the underlying mechanisms by which these implants improve fracture healing remain elusive. Here we show the formation of abundant new bone at peripheral cortical sites after intramedullary implantation of a pin containing ultrapure magnesium into the intact distal femur in rats. This response was accompanied by substantial increases of neuronal calcitonin gene-related polypeptide-α (CGRP) in both the peripheral cortex of the femur and the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Surgical removal of the periosteum, capsaicin denervation of sensory nerves or knockdown in vivo of the CGRP-receptor-encoding genes Calcrl or Ramp1 substantially reversed the magnesium-induced osteogenesis that we observed in this model. Overexpression of these genes, however, enhanced magnesium-induced osteogenesis. We further found that an elevation of extracellular magnesium induces magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1)-dependent and transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 7 (TRPM7)-dependent magnesium entry, as well as an increase in intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the accumulation of terminal synaptic vesicles in isolated rat DRG neurons. In isolated rat periosteum-derived stem cells, CGRP induces CALCRL-and RAMP1-dependent activation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB1) and SP7 (also known as osterix), and thus enhances osteogenic differentiation of these stem cells. Furthermore, we have developed an innovative, magnesium-containing intramedullary nail that facilitates femur fracture repair in rats with ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis. Taken together, these findings reveal a previously undefined role of magnesium in promoting CGRP-mediated osteogenic differentiation, which suggests the therapeutic potential of this ion in orthopedics. PMID:27571347

  13. Exact Model of Vacancy-Mediated Solute Transport in Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ravi; Trinkle, Dallas R.

    2017-03-01

    Most substitutional solutes in solids diffuse via vacancies. However, widely used analytic models for diffusivity make uncontrolled approximations in the relations between atomic jump rates that reduce accuracy. Symmetry analysis of the hexagonal close packed crystal identifies more distinct vacancy transitions than prior models, and a Green function approach computes diffusivity exactly for solutes in magnesium. We find large differences for the solute drag of Al, Zn, and rare earth solutes, and improved diffusion activation energies—highlighting the need for exact analytic transport models.

  14. Biocorrosion rate and mechanism of metallic magnesium in model arterial environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Patrick K.

    A new paradigm in biomedical engineering calls for biologically active implants that are absorbed by the body over time. One popular application for this concept is in the engineering of endovascular stents that are delivered concurrently with balloon angioplasty. These devices enable the injured vessels to remain patent during healing, but are not needed for more than a few months after the procedure. Early studies of iron- and magnesium-based stents have concluded that magnesium is a potentially suitable base material for such a device; alloys can achieve acceptable mechanical properties and do not seem to harm the artery during degradation. Research done up to the onset of research contained in this dissertation, for the most part, failed to define realistic physiological corrosion mechanisms, and failed to correlate degradation rates between in vitro and in vivo environments. Six previously published works form the basis of this dissertation. The topics of these papers include (1) a method by which tensile testing may be applied to evaluate biomaterial degradation; (2) a suite of approaches that can be used to screen candidate absorbable magnesium biomaterials; (3) in vivo-in vitro environmental correlations based on mechanical behavior; (4) a similar correlation on the basis of penetration rate; (5) a mid-to-late stage physiological corrosion mechanism for magnesium in an arterial environment; and (6) the identification of corrosion products in degradable magnesium using transmission electron microscopy.

  15. Magnesium for automotive applications: Primary production cost assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sujit

    2003-11-01

    Production technologies must be cost effective for primary magnesium to become an economically viable alternative material for wide spread automotive applications. In this article, the prices at which magnesium becomes competitive with aluminum and steel are examined, including magnesium production cost estimates for current and future scenarios using electrolytic and thermal processes. The economic viability of the industry for automotive applications is also examined in the context of magnesium market price, taking into consideration the dynamics of its supply and demand as well.

  16. Simulating the dynamic response of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Jeffrey; Becker, Richard

    Unlike several conventional metals, the mechanical response of magnesium is severely anisotropic for quasistatic and dynamic loading conditions. In this work we present a crystal-based strength model that is the same order of magnitude in computational cost as rate-dependent isotropic strength models, yet is able to capture essential features exhibited by textured magnesium polycrystals. The model demarcates plastic deformation into contributions from basal slip, extension twinning, and non-basal slip mechanisms. Comparisons are made between model predictions and experiments for two magnesium alloys with differing processing histories. The model is then used to explore and quantify the dependence of metallurgical and processing variations for several dynamic experiments that probe propensity for localization and failure under complex loading conditions.

  17. Solubility of magnesium carbonate in natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, R.C.

    1915-01-01

    (1) Under atmospheric conditions it appears possible to attain practically the same state in a solution saturated with MgCO33H2O, whether one starts with a solution containing an excess of magnesium bicarbonate or with the pure trihydrate and water, but the adjustment occurs very slowly. The solution finally contains 0.36 g. magnesium and 1.01 g. carbon dioxide per liter at 20??. (2) The solubility found for magnesite, however, is much smaller, viz., 0.02 g. magnesium and 0.07 g. carbon dioxide per liter. (3) Certain natural waters, freely exposed to the atmosphere, appear to be supersaturated with respect to magnesite but none approaches very closely to the point of saturation of the trihydrate MgCO3.3H2O.

  18. Controlled morphological structure of magnesium oxide particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradita, T.; Aji, B. B.; Shih, S. J.; Sudibyo

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium Oxide (MgO) based material have been widely used as catalyst, paints, flame retardants, semiconductors, additives in refractory and solid adsorbent. Morphology of a particle has significant influence towards their application. MgO particles were prepared from Magnesium Acetate (MgAc) and Magnesium Nitrate (MgN) precursors using ultrasonic spray pyrolysis method (SP). The MgO particles were characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD), Field Emission-Secondary Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). This experimental study results each precursor could have more than one morphologies. It also suggests that the morphology of the MgO particles were controlled by the selection of the precursor, each precursor possess different particle formation characteristic, including the different crystallization rate and also related from the different decomposition behavior during the heating process of SP.

  19. 75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ] ACTION: Institution of five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia... antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...

  20. 75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION... orders on magnesium from China and Russia. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will...)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and...

  1. 77 FR 59979 - Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium (Granular) From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on pure magnesium (granular) from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...), entitled Pure Magnesium (Granular) from China: Investigation No.731-TA- 895 (Second Review)....

  2. 75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of full five-year reviews concerning the antidumping duty orders on alloy magnesium from China and...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on alloy magnesium from China and...

  3. Preparation of petaloid microspheres of basic magnesium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Takahiro; Suzuki, Sei; Mitsuhashi, Kohei; Ogura, Taku; Iwanaga, Shinichi; Sakai, Hideki; Koishi, Masumi; Abe, Masahiko

    2007-05-22

    The synthesis of basic magnesium carbonate was examined under ultrasonic irradiation and was performed by the soda ash method using magnesium sulfate and sodium carbonate as starting materials. The particulate product was evaluated using SEM observations. Ultrasonic irradiation in the preparation of basic magnesium carbonate was found to give fine petaloid microspheres of about 3 mum in primary particle size.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  9. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9513 - Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Modified magnesium silicate polymer... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9513 Modified magnesium silicate polymer (generic). (a) Chemical... as modified magnesium silicate polymer (PMN P-98-604) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. Magnesium, zinc, and copper status in women involved in different sports.

    PubMed

    Nuviala, R J; Lapieza, M G; Bernal, E

    1999-09-01

    The dietary intake, serum levels, and urinary excretion of magnesium, zinc, and copper were studied in 78 women involved in different sports (karate, handball, basketball, and running) and in 65 sedentary women. Seven-day, weighed-food dietary reports revealed that no group of female athletes reached the minimal intake recommended for magnesium (280 mg/day) and zinc (12 mg/day), although their values were superior to those of the control group. The estimated safe and adequate minimal intake of copper (1.5 mg/day) was amply surpassed by the basketball players and runners but was not reached by the handball players. Serum levels and urinary excretion of magnesium, zinc and copper di not seem related either to their intake or to the type of physical activity performed. The influence of other factors such as nutritional status, bioavailability, intestinal absorption mechanisms, and muscle-level modifications might explain the differences between the different groups of female athletes.

  12. Process Influences on Laser-beam Melting of the Magnesium Alloy AZ91

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Dominik; Renza, Johanna; Zaeh, Michael F.; Glasschroeder, Johannes

    Magnesium's great lightweight potential and high biocompatibility render laser-beam melting of this metal increasingly interesting. Despite recent research activities in this field, the properties thereby achieved are still inadequate for industrial or medical use. Low surface quality caused by powder sintered to parts' boundaries is one of the main problems. This effect is discussed theoretically and examined on single tracks of the magnesium alloy AZ91. Welding-penetration depth and width was measured on a magnesium plate with and without a powder layer. For the derivation of suitable process parameters, structures with incrementally increasing hatch distances were built and microscopically analyzed. The influence on defect percentage and hardness of the parts was determined based on specimens manufactured with different layer thicknesses. The influence of the oxygen content on solids was analyzed by varying the process atmosphere.

  13. Structure and compatibility of a magnesium electrolyte with a sulphur cathode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Soo; Arthur, Timothy S; Allred, Gary D; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Newman, John G; Rodnyansky, Alexander E; Oliver, Allen G; Boggess, William C; Muldoon, John

    2011-08-09

    Magnesium metal is an ideal rechargeable battery anode material because of its high volumetric energy density, high negative reduction potential and natural abundance. Coupling Mg with high capacity, low-cost cathode materials such as electrophilic sulphur is only possible with a non-nucleophilic electrolyte. Here we show how the crystallization of the electrochemically active species formed from the reaction between hexamethyldisilazide magnesium chloride and aluminum trichloride enables the synthesis of a non-nucleophilic electrolyte. Furthermore, crystallization was essential in the identification of the electroactive species, [Mg(2)(μ-Cl)(3)·6THF](+), and vital to improvements in the voltage stability and coulombic efficiency of the electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the sulphur electrode confirmed that the electrochemical conversion between sulphur and magnesium sulfide can be successfully performed using this electrolyte.

  14. Structure and compatibility of a magnesium electrolyte with a sulphur cathode

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Soo; Arthur, Timothy S.; Allred, Gary D.; Zajicek, Jaroslav; Newman, John G.; Rodnyansky, Alexander E.; Oliver, Allen G.; Boggess, William C.; Muldoon, John

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium metal is an ideal rechargeable battery anode material because of its high volumetric energy density, high negative reduction potential and natural abundance. Coupling Mg with high capacity, low-cost cathode materials such as electrophilic sulphur is only possible with a non-nucleophilic electrolyte. Here we show how the crystallization of the electrochemically active species formed from the reaction between hexamethyldisilazide magnesium chloride and aluminum trichloride enables the synthesis of a non-nucleophilic electrolyte. Furthermore, crystallization was essential in the identification of the electroactive species, [Mg2(μ-Cl)3·6THF]+, and vital to improvements in the voltage stability and coulombic efficiency of the electrolyte. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the sulphur electrode confirmed that the electrochemical conversion between sulphur and magnesium sulfide can be successfully performed using this electrolyte. PMID:21829189

  15. SOLID STATE JOINING OF MAGNESIUM TO STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Field, David P.; Yu, Hao; Pan, Tsung-Yu; Santella, M. L.

    2012-06-04

    Friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding techniques were applied to join automotive magnesium alloys to steel sheet. The effect of tooling and process parameters on the post-weld microstructure, texture and mechanical properties was investigated. Static and dynamic loading were utilized to investigate the joint strength of both cast and wrought magnesium alloys including their susceptibility and degradation under corrosive media. The conditions required to produce joint strengths in excess of 75% of the base metal strength were determined, and the effects of surface coatings, tooling and weld parameters on weld properties are presented.

  16. Silicon and magnesium in planetary nebulae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, J. P.; Marionni, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    The IUE satellite spectra of some planetary nebulae show features due to silicon and magnesium: Si III wavelengths 1883, 1892; Si IV wavelengths 1394, 1403; Mg II wavelengths 2796, 2804 and Mg V wavelengths 2784, 2929. With the aid of modeling techniques, the corresponding elemental abundances are found. In addition to previous observations of NGC 7662 and IC 418, data were found for NGC 2440, Hu 1-2, IC 2003 and IC 2165. Silicon appears depleted by up to an order of magnitude relative to the sun. Large variations of magnesium abundance are found, which are likely to reflect differing degrees of depletion due to grain formation.

  17. Chemically Prepared Lead Magnesium Niobate Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces fine uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions.

  18. Free and total magnesium in lymphocytes of migraine patients - effect of magnesium-rich mineral water intake.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Millot, J M; Sebille, S; Delabroise, A M; Thomas, E; Manfait, M; Arnaud, M J

    2000-05-01

    Dietary surveys performed in Western countries show magnesium intakes lower than the recommended dietary allowances, suggesting a large prevalence of magnesium deficiency. Low brain magnesium as well as impaired magnesium metabolism have also been reported in various diseases such as migraine. To detect these deficiencies, a non-invasive and sensitive test assessing magnesium status is needed. Because magnesium is an intracellular cation, either total or ionized magnesium (Mg(2+)) of blood cells were suggested as the most adequate tests. Total magnesium levels in plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes and Mg(2+) in lymphocytes were analyzed in a group of 29 migraine patients and 18 control subjects. Results show significantly lower concentrations of total magnesium in erythrocytes (50.7+/-4.7 vs. 53.5+/-2.9 mg/l; P<0.01) and of Mg(2+) in lymphocytes (12.0+/-3.5 vs. 14.2+/-3.8 mg/l; P<0.05) in migraine patients as compared to controls. While a significant difference of mean values was noted between migraine patients and controls, an overlap of individual values was observed. These analyses were repeated on migraine patients before and after a 2-week intake of a mineral water containing 110 mg/l magnesium, and a significant increase in all intracellular magnesium concentrations with no effect on plasma magnesium was observed. These increased intracellular magnesium concentrations demonstrate the bioavailability of magnesium from this mineral water. Among the analyzed parameters, Mg(2+) in lymphocytes appears to be the most sensitive index of magnesium deficiency with a 15% decrease in migraine patients when compared to controls and a 16% increase after 2 weeks of a magnesium-rich mineral water intake.

  19. NADH fluorescence lifetime analysis of the effect of magnesium ions on ALDH2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ALDH2 catalyzes oxidation of toxic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Magnesium ions influence enzyme activity in part by increasing NADH binding affinity. Traditional fluorescence measurements have monitored the blue shift of the NADH fluorescence spectrum to elucidate the extent of...

  20. Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20 nm) have strong antibacterial activities against several important foodborne pathogens. Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. Th...

  1. Correcting magnesium deficiencies may prolong life

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, William J

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station provides an extraordinary facility to study the accelerated aging process in microgravity, which could be triggered by significant reductions in magnesium (Mg) ion levels with, in turn, elevations of catecholamines and vicious cycles between the two. With space flight there are significant reductions of serum Mg (P < 0.0001) that have been shown in large studies of astronauts and cosmonauts. The loss of the functional capacity of the cardiovascular system with space flight is over ten times faster than the course of aging on Earth. Mg is an antioxidant and calcium blocker and in space there is oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and inflammatory conditions with evidence in experimental animals of significant endothelial injuries and damage to mitochondria. The aging process is associated with progressive shortening of telomeres, repetitive DNA sequences, and proteins that cap and protect the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase can elongate pre-existing telomeres to maintain length and chromosome stability. Low telomerase triggers increased catecholamines while the sensitivity of telomere synthesis to Mg ions is primarily seen for the longer elongation products. Mg stabilizes DNA and promotes DNA replication and transcription, whereas low Mg might accelerate cellular senescence by reducing DNA stability, protein synthesis, and function of mitochondria. Telomerase, in binding to short DNAs, is Mg dependent. On Earth, in humans, a year might be required to detect changes in telomeres, but in space there is a predictably much shorter duration required for detection, which is therefore more reasonable in time and cost. Before and after a space mission, telomere lengths and telomerase enzyme activity can be determined and compared with age-matched control rats on Earth. The effect of Mg supplementation, both on maintaining telomere length and extending the life span, can be evaluated. Similar studies in astronauts would be fruitful. PMID

  2. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Eby, George A; Eby, Karen L

    2010-04-01

    Sixty percent of cases of clinical depression are considered to be treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Magnesium-deficiency causes N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) coupled calcium channels to be biased towards opening, causing neuronal injury and neurological dysfunction, which may appear to humans as major depression. Oral administration of magnesium to animals led to anti-depressant-like effects that were comparable to those of strong anti-depressant drugs. Cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) magnesium has been found low in treatment-resistant suicidal depression and in patients that have attempted suicide. Brain magnesium has been found low in TRD using phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, an accurate means for measuring brain magnesium. Blood and CSF magnesium do not appear well correlated with major depression. Although the first report of magnesium treatment for agitated depression was published in 1921 showing success in 220 out of 250 cases, and there are modern case reports showing rapid terminating of TRD, only a few modern clinical trials were found. A 2008 randomized clinical trial showed that magnesium was as effective as the tricyclic anti-depressant imipramine in treating depression in diabetics and without any of the side effects of imipramine. Intravenous and oral magnesium in specific protocols have been reported to rapidly terminate TRD safely and without side effects. Magnesium has been largely removed from processed foods, potentially harming the brain. Calcium, glutamate and aspartate are common food additives that may worsen affective disorders. We hypothesize that - when taken together - there is more than sufficient evidence to implicate inadequate dietary magnesium as the main cause of TRD, and that physicians should prescribe magnesium for TRD. Since inadequate brain magnesium appears to reduce serotonin levels, and since anti-depressants have been shown to have the action of raising brain magnesium, we further hypothesize that

  3. Magnesium Ethylenediamine Borohydride as Solid-State Electrolyte for Magnesium Batteries

    PubMed Central

    Roedern, Elsa; Kühnel, Ruben-Simon; Remhof, Arndt; Battaglia, Corsin

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state magnesium ion conductors with exceptionally high ionic conductivity at low temperatures, 5 × 10−8 Scm−1 at 30 °C and 6 × 10−5 Scm−1 at 70 °C, are prepared by mechanochemical reaction of magnesium borohydride and ethylenediamine. The coordination complexes are crystalline, support cycling in a potential window of 1.2 V, and allow magnesium plating/stripping. While the electrochemical stability, limited by the ethylenediamine ligand, must be improved to reach competitive energy densities, our results demonstrate that partially chelated Mg2+ complexes represent a promising platform for the development of an all-solid-state magnesium battery. PMID:28387305

  4. Magnesium substitution in the structure of orthopedic nanoparticles: A comparison between amorphous magnesium phosphates, calcium magnesium phosphates, and hydroxyapatites.

    PubMed

    Nabiyouni, Maryam; Ren, Yufu; Bhaduri, Sarit B

    2015-01-01

    As biocompatible materials, magnesium phosphates have received a lot of attention for orthopedic applications. During the last decade multiple studies have shown advantages for magnesium phosphate such as lack of cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, strong mechanical properties, and high biodegradability. The present study investigates the role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in the structure of magnesium phosphate and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. To directly compare the effect of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions on structure of nanoparticles and their biological behavior, three groups of nanoparticles including amorphous magnesium phosphates (AMPs) which release Mg(+2), calcium magnesium phosphates (CMPs) which release Mg(+2) and Ca(+2), and hydroxyapatites (HAs) which release Ca(+2) were studied. SEM, TEM, XRD, and FTIR were used to evaluate the morphology, crystallinity, and chemical properties of the particles. AMP particles were homogeneous nanospheres, whereas CMPs were combinations of heterogeneous nanorods and nanospheres, and HAs which contained heterogeneous nanosphere particles. Cell compatibility was monitored in all groups to determine the cytotoxicity effect of particles on studied MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. AMPs showed significantly higher attachment rate than the HAs after 1 day and both AMPs and CMPs showed significantly higher proliferation rate when compared to HAs after 7days. Gene expression level of osteoblastic markers ALP, COL I, OCN, OPN, RUNX2 were monitored and they were normalized to GAPDH housekeeping gene. Beta actin expression level was monitored as the second housekeeping gene to confirm the accuracy of results. In general, AMPs and CMPs showed higher expression level of osteoblastic genes after 7 days which can further confirm the stimulating role of Mg(+2) and Ca(+2) ions in increasing the proliferation rate, differentiation, and mineralization of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts.

  5. The Effect of Alloy Additions on Superplasticity in Thermomechanically Processed High Magnesium Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    AD-Ri55 142 THE EFFECT OF ALLOY ADDITIONS ON SUPERPLASTICITY IN I/2 THERMOMECHANICALLY PR-.(U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL UNCLSSIIED MONTEREY CA R J...Ln Monterey, California DTr J U N 1985 * THESIS THE EFFECT OF ALLOY ADDITIONS ON SUPERPLASTICITY IN THERMOMECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH MAGNESIUM *0...ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOYS >by 0 (Richard J. Self December 1984 C-31 Thesis Advisor: Terry McNelley Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited

  6. Effects of cation concentration on photocatalytic performance over magnesium vanadates

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Peng; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Defa; Umezawa, Naoto E-mail: ABE.Hideki@nims.go.jp; Abe, Hideki E-mail: ABE.Hideki@nims.go.jp; Ye, Jinhua

    2015-10-01

    A series of magnesium vanadates (MgV {sub 2}O{sub 6}, Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7}, and Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8}) were synthesized to investigate the effect of cation concentration on photocatalytic performance. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The photocatalytic O{sub 2} evolution experiments under visible light irradiation showed Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7} exhibits the best performance, while Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8} has the lowest activity. The density functional theory calculations indicated that the lowest unoccupied states of Mg{sub 3}V {sub 2}O{sub 8} are the mostly localized by the cation layers. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves gave evident performances of excited states of magnesium vanadates and pointed out MgV {sub 2}O{sub 6} has a very short excited electron lift-time. Mg{sub 2}V {sub 2}O{sub 7} performs high photocatalytic activity because of its high electron mobility and long electron life-time.

  7. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  11. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  2. Constitutive Modeling of Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. G.; Piao, K.; Wagoner, R. H.; Lee, J. K.; Chung, K.; Kim, H. Y.

    2007-05-17

    Magnesium alloy sheets have unique mechanical properties: high in-plane anisotropy/asymmetry of yield stress and hardening response, which have not been thoroughly studied. The unusual mechanical behavior of magnesium alloys has been understood by the limited symmetry crystal structure of h.c.p metals and thus by deformation twinning. In this paper, the phenomenological continuum plasticity models considering the unusual plastic behavior of magnesium alloy sheet were developed for a finite element analysis. A new hardening law based on two-surface model was developed to consider the general stress-strain response of metal sheets such as Bauschinger effect, transient behavior and the unusual asymmetry. Three deformation modes observed during the continuous tension/compression tests were mathematically formulated with simplified relations between the state of deformation and their histories. In terms of the anisotropy and asymmetry of the initial yield stress, the Drucker-Prager's pressure dependent yield surface was modified to include the anisotropy of magnesium alloys. Also, characterization procedures of material parameters for the constitutive equations were presented and finally the correlation of simulation with measurements was performed to validate the proposed theory.

  3. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biochemical and physiological functions and consequences of deficient intakes, which show the nutritional importance of calcium, magnesium and potassium for humans, are reviewed. The dietary recommendations and food sources for these essential mineral elements for humans are presented. Factors t...

  4. Friction Stir & Ultrasonic Solid State Joining Magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, Glenn J.; Hovanski, Yuri; Santella, M. L.

    2009-12-30

    Solid state joining between automotive sheet steel and magnesium alloys was investigated. Both friction stir welding and ultrasonic welding were utilized to study the potential for creating structural bonds between these dissimilar materials. A detailed investigation into the joint characteristics was undertaken including an evaluation of joint strength, microstructure, chemical structures, and alloy formation.

  5. Preparation of thorium magnesium-zinc reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hariharan, A. V.; Knighton, J. B.; Steunenberg, R. K.

    1969-01-01

    Magnesium-zinc reduction of thorium dioxide is used for the preparation of thorium metal. Potential economic advantages of this technique include use of relatively inexpensive reagents for the metal and flux phases, and production of metal of acceptable quality in good yield.

  6. Nanostructured magnesium has fewer detrimental effects on osteoblast function

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Efforts have been made recently to implement nanoscale surface features on magnesium, a biodegradable metal, to increase bone formation. Compared with normal magnesium, nanostructured magnesium has unique characteristics, including increased grain boundary properties, surface to volume ratio, surface roughness, and surface energy, which may influence the initial adsorption of proteins known to promote the function of osteoblasts (bone-forming cells). Previous studies have shown that one way to increase nanosurface roughness on magnesium is to soak the metal in NaOH. However, it has not been determined if degradation of magnesium is altered by creating nanoscale features on its surface to influence osteoblast density. The aim of the present in vitro study was to determine the influence of degradation of nanostructured magnesium, created by soaking in NaOH, on osteoblast density. Our results showed a less detrimental effect of magnesium degradation on osteoblast density when magnesium was treated with NaOH to create nanoscale surface features. The detrimental degradation products of magnesium are of significant concern when considering use of magnesium as an orthopedic implant material, and this study identified a surface treatment, ie, soaking in NaOH to create nanoscale features for magnesium that can improve its use in numerous orthopedic applications. PMID:23674891

  7. Assessment of the magnesium primary production technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, M.C.; Kenney, G.B.; Sadoway, D.R.; Clark, J.P.; Szekely, J.

    1981-02-01

    At current production levels, direct energy savings achievable in primary magnesium production are 1.2 milliquads of energy per annum. Were magnesium to penetrate the automotive market to an average level of 50 pounds per vehicle, the resultant energy savings at the production stage would be somewhat larger, but the resulting savings in gasoline would conserve an estimated 325 milliquads of energy per year. The principal barrier to more widespread use of magnesium in the immediate future is its price. A price reduction of magnesium of 10% would lead to widespread conversion of aluminum die and permanent mold castings to magnesium. This report addresses the technology of electrolytic and thermic magnesium production and the economics of expanded magnesium production and use.

  8. Possible role of water structure in biological magnesium systems.

    PubMed

    Theophanides, T; Angiboust, J F; Polissiou, M; Anastassopoulou, J; Manfait, M

    1990-03-01

    Magnesium chloride-water solutions have been studied by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the near infrared region, 5000-10,000 cm-1. The effect of the concentration of magnesium chloride and temperature on the solutions has been studied from the spectra and it is concluded that magnesium chloride modifies the structure of the bulk water. The important absorption bands of water at 5200 and 7020 cm-1 may be assigned to combination vibrations and overtones. They are shifted either by increasing the magnesium chloride concentration or the temperature. The hydrated magnesium ions, [Mg(H2O)6]2+, will most probably break important hydrogen bonds in the clusters of water (H2O)n, where n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.../forming new hydrogen bonds in the presence of hexa-aquated magnesium cations. FAB mass spectra also suggest the formation of hydrated magnesium cations, Mg (H2O)6(2+).

  9. Fabrication and characterization of AZ91/CNT magnesium matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Yong-Ha; Park, Yong-Ho; Park, Ik-Min; Oak, Jeong-jung; Kimura, Hisamichi; Cho, Kyung-Mox

    2008-12-01

    Carbon Nano Tube (CNT) reinforced AZ91 metal matrix composites (MMC) were fabricated by the squeeze infiltrated method. Properties of magnesium alloys have been improved by impurity reduction, surface treatment and alloy design, and thus the usage for the magnesium alloys has been extended recently. However there still remain barriers for the adaption of magnesium alloys for engineering materials. In this study, we report light-weight, high strength heat resistant magnesium matrix composites. Microstructural study and tensile test were performed for the squeeze infiltrated magnesium matrix composites. The wear properties were characterized and the possibility for the application to automotive power train and engine parts was investigated. It was found that the squeeze infiltration technique is a proper method to fabricate magnesium matrix composites reducing casting defects such as pores and matrix/reinforcement interface separation etc. Improved tensile and mechanical properties were obtained with CNT reinforcing magnesium alloys

  10. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin

  11. Magnesium intake and depression: the SUN cohort.

    PubMed

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena

    2016-03-01

    A higher magnesium intake may reduce the risk of depression. We analyzed this association in the SUN Mediterranean cohort with an expanded sample size (n = 15,836) and a long follow-up (median = 10.2 y). We followed 9,289 women (age = 34.8, SD = 10.4) and 6,547 men (age = 42.8, SD = 13.1) initially free of any history of depression for a new-onset of medically diagnosed depression (maximum follow-up = 15.9 y). All participants in this cohort were university educated. We systematically reviewed previous studies relating magnesium to depression. We observed 837 incident cases of depression during 147,915 person-years of follow-up in the SUN cohort. No significant association of magnesium intake with the risk of depression was found, with a fully-adjusted hazard ratio = 0.85 (95% confidence interval = 0.60-1.22, for fifth versus first quintile). When we used a more restrictive definition for depression (both a medical diagnosis and habitual use of antidepressants), this HR was 0.63 (0.35-1.14). No significant association was found in our systematic review. No conclusive evidence for an association between magnesium dietary intake and depression incidence was found. Further longitudinal studies with a larger sample size and a better assessment of confounders and of depression cases are needed to try to identify potential protection against depression by magnesium.

  12. Modulation of cholestasis-induced antinociception in rats by two NMDA receptor antagonists: MK-801 and magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Hasanein, Parisa; Parviz, Mohsen; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Javanmardi, Kazem; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Ghaseminejad, Majid

    2007-01-12

    Acute cholestasis is associated with increased activity of the endogenous opioid system that results to changes including analgesia. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in the nociceptive pathway and play a major role in the development of morphine induced analgesia. The magnesium acts as a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist by blocking the NMDA receptor channel. Considering the reported antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate as a NMDA receptor antagonist and the existence of close functional links between NMDA receptor antagonists and magnesium with the opioid system, we studied the effect of acute and chronic administration of MK-801 as a NMDA antagonist and magnesium sulfate on modulation of nociception in an experimental model of elevated endogenous opioid tone, acute cholestasis, using the tail-flick paradigm. Cholestasis was induced by ligation of the main bile duct using two ligatures and then transsection of the duct at the midpoint between them. A significant increase (P<0.001) in nociception threshold was observed in bile duct ligated rats compared to unoperated and sham-operated animals. In acute treatment, MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg, b.i.d), but not magnesium (150 mg/kg magnesium sulfate, i.e. 30 mg/kg of Mg(+2), i.p., b.i.d.) increased antinociception in cholestatic rats compared to saline treated cholestatics (P<0.05). In chronic treatment, administration of MK-801 or magnesium sulfate for 7 consecutive days, increased tail-flick latency (P<0.05, P<0.01) in cholestatic animals compared to saline treated cholestatics. These data showed that NMDA receptor pathway is involved in modulation of cholestasis-induced antinociception in rats and that repeated dosages of magnesium sulfate similar to MK-801 is able to modulate nociception in cholestasis.

  13. Corrosion resistance enhancement of magnesium ZK60/SiC composite by Nd:YAG laser cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, T.M.; Wang, A.H.; Man, H.C.

    1999-01-08

    Magnesium-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) which possess high specific stiffness and strength are attractive in applications where it is advantageous to employ low density structural materials, such as in aerospace, automotive and sports industries. However, it is well known that magnesium is one of the most active structural metals, and is usually susceptible to galvanic corrosion when in contact with other materials, especially, in wet and salt-laden environments. The corrosion is enhanced when an additional phase is added to magnesium alloys because most of the magnesium/reinforcement systems are electrochemically unstable. Previous investigations have revealed that high power laser surface treatment is an efficient way to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys and their composite materials, without resulting in significant adverse effects on the properties of the bulk materials. In the present study, laser cladding of an Al-Si eutectic alloy on magnesium ZK60/SiC composite was performed using a multiwave Nd:YAG laser. In order to avoid excessive oxidation, argon shielding gas was blown directly into the laser-generated molten pool instead of using a vacuum condition.

  14. Controllable degradation of medical magnesium by electrodeposited composite films of mussel adhesive protein (Mefp-1) and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ping-Li; Hou, Rui-Qing; Chen, Cheng-Dong; Sun, Lan; Dong, Shi-Gang; Pan, Jin-Shan; Lin, Chang-Jian

    2016-09-15

    To control the degradation rate of medical magnesium in body fluid environment, biocompatible films composed of Mussel Adhesive Protein (Mefp-1) and chitosan were electrodeposited on magnesium surface in cathodic constant current mode. The compositions and structures of the films were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS). And the corrosion protection performance was investigated using electrochemical measurements and immersion tests in simulated body fluid (Hanks' solution). The results revealed that Mefp-1 and chitosan successfully adhered on the magnesium surface and formed a protective film. Compared with either single Mefp-1 or single chitosan film, the composite film of chitosan/Mefp-1/chitosan (CPC (chitosan/Mefp-1/chitosan)) exhibited lower corrosion current density, higher polarization resistance and more homogenous corrosion morphology and thus was able to effectively control the degradation rate of magnesium in simulated body environment. In addition, the active attachment and spreading of MC3T3-E1 cells on the CPC film coated magnesium indicated that the CPC film was significantly able to improve the biocompatibility of the medical magnesium.

  15. Ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intake variations: effects on calcium, phosphorus and magnesium utilization by human adults

    SciTech Connect

    Kies, C.; Brennan, M.A.; Parks, S.K.; Stauffer, D.J.; Wang, H.Y.; Young, S.F.; Fox, H.M.

    1986-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding two levels of ascorbic acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and ascorbic acid on the apparent utilization of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium by healthy, human adult subjects. During 4 randomly-arranged experimental periods of 7 days each, a laboratory-controlled diet alone or with supplements of ascorbic acid, dicalcium phosphate or magnesium oxide was fed to the 18 subjects. Results indicated that ascorbic acid supplementation tended to reduce urinary phosphorus loss and to slightly increase fecal phosphorus loss so that overall phosphorus balances became more positive. Conversely, under these conditions, urinary calcium losses were little affected but fecal calcium losses were increased resulting in an overall decrease in calcium balance with ascorbic acid supplementation. Ascorbic acid supplementation resulted in decreased urine and fecal losses of magnesium and more positive magnesium balances. Magnesium supplementation resulted in more positive calcium and phosphorus balances as did calcium phosphate supplementation on magnesium balance.

  16. Endothelial responses of magnesium and other alloying elements in magnesium-based stent materials

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable tailored magnesium (Mg) alloys are some of the most promising scaffolds for cardiovascular stents. During the course of degradation after implantation, all the alloying elements in the scaffold will be released to the surrounding vascular tissues. However, fundamental questions regarding the toxicity of alloying elements towards vascular cells, the maximum amount of each element that could be used in alloy design, or how each of the alloying elements affects vascular cellular activity and gene expression, are still not fully answered. This work systematically addressed these questions by revealing how application of different alloying elements commonly used in Mg stent materials influences several indices of human endothelial cell health, i.e., viability, proliferations, cytoskeletal reorganizations, migration, and the gene expression profile. The overall cell viability and proliferation showed a decreasing trend with increasing concentrations of the ions, and the half maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for each element were determined. When applied at a low concentration of around 10 mM, Mg had no adverse effects but improved cell proliferation and migration instead. Mg ions also altered endothelial gene expression significantly in a dose dependent manner. Most of the changed genes are related to angiogenesis and the cell adhesion signaling pathways. Findings from this work provide useful information on maximum safe doses of these ions for endothelial cells, endothelial responses towards these metal ions, and some guidance for future Mg stent design. PMID:25363018

  17. The Association Between Calcium, Magnesium, and Ratio of Calcium/Magnesium in Seminal Plasma and Sperm Quality.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hong; Miao, Maohua; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Kanglian; Wu, Bin; Dai, Qi; Wang, Jian; Sun, Fei; Shi, Huijuan; Yuan, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationships between calcium, magnesium, and calcium/magnesium ratio in semen plasma and sperm quality. It was a cross-sectional study based on a program aiming at promoting the reproductive health in less-developed areas. A total of 515 men aged between 18 and 55 years provided semen specimens at family planning clinics in Sandu County, Guizhou Province, China. Total calcium and magnesium concentrations in semen plasma were measured with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Sperm quality, including sperm motility and concentration, was evaluated by using a computer-assisted sperm analysis method. The medians of seminal plasma calcium, magnesium, and zinc concentrations were 9.61, 4.41, and 2.23 mmol/l, respectively. Calcium concentration and calcium/magnesium ratio were negatively associated with sperm concentrations (β = -0.47, P = 0.0123 for calcium; β = -0.25, P = 0.0393 for calcium/magnesium ratio) after adjusting for zinc and other covariates. In stratified analyses, the association between calcium and sperm concentrations only persisted among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of ≤2.5 (β = -0.71, P = 0.0268). In the same stratum, magnesium was associated with increased sperm concentration (β = 0.73, P = 0.0386). Among subjects with a calcium/magnesium ratio of >2.5, neither calcium nor magnesium was associated with sperm concentration. In conclusion, total calcium and magnesium concentrations were associated with sperm concentration among subjects with a lower calcium/magnesium ratio. The calcium and magnesium ratio had a modifying effect on the associations of calcium and magnesium with sperm concentration.

  18. Investigation of Deformation Dynamics in a Wrought Magnesium Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei; Qiao, Hua; An, Ke; Wu, Peidong; Liaw, Peter K

    2014-11-01

    In the present research, the deformation dynamics and the effect of the deformation history on plastic deformation in a wrought magnesium alloy have been studied using real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements under a continuous loading condition and elastic-viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) polycrystal modeling. The experimental results reveal that the pre-deformation delayed the activation of the tensile twinning during subsequent compression, mainly resulting from the residual strain. No apparent detwinning occurred during unloading and even in the elastic region during reverse loading. It is believed that the grain rotation played an important role in the elastic region during reverse loading. The EVPSC model, which has been recently updated by implementing the twinning and detwinning model, was employed to characterize the deformation mechanism during the strain-path changes. The simulation result predicts well the experimental observation from the real-time in-situ neutron diffraction measurements. The present study provides a deep insight of the nature of deformation mechanisms in a hexagonal close-packed structured polycrystalline wrought magnesium alloy, which might lead to a new era of deformation-mechanism research.

  19. Iron-magnesium silicate bioweathering on Earth (and Mars?).

    PubMed

    Fisk, M R; Popa, R; Mason, O U; Storrie-Lombardi, M C; Vicenzi, E P

    2006-02-01

    We examined the common, iron-magnesium silicate minerals olivine and pyroxene in basalt and in mantle rocks to determine if they exhibit textures similar to bioweathering textures found in glass. Our results show that weathering in olivine may occur as long, narrow tunnels (1-3 microm in diameter and up to 100 microm long) and as larger irregular galleries, both of which have distinctive characteristics consistent with biological activity. These weathering textures are associated with clay mineral by-products and nucleic acids. We also examined olivine and pyroxene in martian meteorites, some of which experienced preterrestrial aqueous alteration. Some olivines and pyroxenes in the martian meteorite Nakhla were found to contain tunnels that are similar in size and shape to tunnels in terrestrial iron-magnesium silicates that contain nucleic acids. Though the tunnels found in Nakhla are similar to the biosignatures found in terrestrial minerals, their presence cannot be used to prove that the martian alteration features had a biogenic origin. The abundance and wide distribution of olivine and pyroxene on Earth and in the Solar System make bioweathering features in these minerals potentially important new biosignatures that may play a significant role in evaluating whether life ever existed on Mars.

  20. Development of magnesium calcium phosphate biocement for bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Junfeng; Zhou, Huanjun; Wei, Jie; Jiang, Xin; Hua, Hong; Chen, Fangping; Wei, Shicheng; Shin, Jung-Woog; Liu, Changsheng

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium calcium phosphate biocement (MCPB) with rapid-setting characteristics was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide (MgO) and calcium dihydrogen phosphate (Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O). The results revealed that the MCPB hardened after mixing the powders with water for about 7 min, and the compressive strength reached 43 MPa after setting for 1 h, indicating that the MCPB had a short setting time and high initial mechanical strength. After the acid–base reaction of MCPB containing MgO and Ca(H2PO4)2·H2O in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, the final hydrated products were Mg3(PO4)2 and Ca3(PO4)2. The MCPB was degradable in Tris–HCl solution and the degradation ratio was obviously higher than calcium phosphate biocement (CPB) because of its fast dissolution. The attachment and proliferation of the MG63 cells on the MCPB were significantly enhanced in comparison with CPB, and the alkaline phosphatase activity of MG63 cells on the MCPB was significantly higher than on the CPB at 7 and 14 days. The MG63 cells with normal phenotype spread well on the MCPB surfaces, and were attached in close proximity to the substrate, as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results demonstrated that the MCPB had a good ability to support cell attachment, proliferation and differentiation, and exhibited good cytocompatibility. PMID:20181560

  1. A fundamental study on the structural integrity of magnesium alloys joined by friction stir welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Harish Mangebettu

    The goal of this research is to study the factors that influence the physical and mechanical properties of lap-shear joints produced using friction stir welding. This study focuses on understanding the effect of tool geometry and weld process parameters including the tool rotation rate, tool plunge depth and dwell time on the mechanical performance of similar magnesium alloy and dissimilar magnesium to aluminum alloy weld joints. A variety of experimental activities were conducted including tensile and fatigue testing, fracture surface and failure analysis, microstructure characterization, hardness measurements and chemical composition analysis. An investigation on the effect of weld process conditions in friction stir spot welding of magnesium to magnesium produced in a manner that had a large effective sheet thickness and smaller interfacial hook height exhibited superior weld strength. Furthermore, in fatigue testing of friction stir spot welded of magnesium to magnesium alloy, lap-shear welds produced using a triangular tool pin profile exhibited better fatigue life properties compared to lap-shear welds produced using a cylindrical tool pin profile. In friction stir spot welding of dissimilar magnesium to aluminum, formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone of the weld had a dominant effect on the weld strength. Lap-shear dissimilar welds with good material mixture and discontinues intermetallic compounds in the stir zone exhibited superior weld strength compared to lap-shear dissimilar welds with continuous formation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone. The weld structural geometry like the interfacial hook, hook orientation and bond width also played a major role in influencing the weld strength of the dissimilar lap-shear friction stir spot welds. A wide scatter in fatigue test results was observed in friction stir linear welds of aluminum to magnesium alloys. Different modes of failure were observed under fatigue loading including crack

  2. Magnesium limitation and its role in apparent toxicity of ethanol during yeast fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dombek, K.M.; Ingram, L.O.

    1986-11-01

    The rate of ethanol per milligram of cell protein begins to decline in the early stage of batch fermentation before high concentrations of ethanol have accumulated. In yeast extract-peptone medium (20% glucose), this initial decline appears to be related to growth and to result in part from a nutrient deficiency. The addition of yeast extract, peptone, and ashed preparations of these restored the ability of glucose-reconstituted medium (in which cells had been previously grown) to support vigorous growth. Magnesium was identified as the active component. Supplementing fermentations with 0.5 mM magnesium prolonged exponential growth, resulting in increased yeast cell mass. The addition of magnesium also reduced the decline in fermentative activity (micromoles of CO/sub 2/ evolved per hour per milligram of protein) during the completion of batch fermentations. These two effects reduced the time required for the conversion of 20% glucose into ethanol by 1/3 with no measurable loss in ethanol yield (98% of theoretical maximum yield). It is possible that some of the reported beneficial effects of complex nutrients (soy flour and yeast extract) for ethanol production also result from the correction of a simple inorganic ion deficiency, such as magnesium.

  3. Magnesium degradation products: effects on tissue and human metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seitz, J-M; Eifler, R; Bach, Fr-W; Maier, H J

    2014-10-01

    Owing to their mechanical properties, metallic materials present a promising solution in the field of resorbable implants. The magnesium metabolism in humans differs depending on its introduction. The natural, oral administration of magnesium via, for example, food, essentially leads to an intracellular enrichment of Mg(2+) . In contrast, introducing magnesium-rich substances or implants into the tissue results in a different decomposition behavior. Here, exposing magnesium to artificial body electrolytes resulted in the formation of the following products: magnesium hydroxide, magnesium oxide, and magnesium chloride, as well as calcium and magnesium apatites. Moreover, it can be assumed that Mg(2+) , OH(-) ions, and gaseous hydrogen are also present and result from the reaction for magnesium in an aqueous environment. With the aid of physiological metabolic processes, the organism succeeds in either excreting the above mentioned products or integrating them into the natural metabolic process. Only a burst release of these products is to be considered a problem. A multitude of general tissue effects and responses from the Mg's degradation products is considered within this review, which is not targeting specific implant classes. Furthermore, common alloying elements of magnesium and their hazardous potential in vivo are taken into account.

  4. Effects of magnesium salts in preventing experimental oxalate urolithiasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Y; Yamaguchi, K; Morozumi, M

    1990-08-01

    Magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, magnesium sulfate, magnesium trisilicate, and magnesium citrate were added to a calcium-oxalate lithogenic diet in order to determine their effects in preventing lithogenesis. Male Wistar-strain rats which had been fed the glycolic-acid diet developed marked urinary calculi within four weeks. Rats in the magnesium-hydroxide, magnesium-citrate, and magnesium-trisilicate groups, however, had almost no stones in the urinary system. Rats in the magnesium-oxide and magnesium-sulfate groups showed significantly less effect than those in the former three groups. During the experimental period, the 24-hour urinary oxalate excretion and concentration were higher in the glycolic-acid group than in the other groups. The urinary citrate excretion and concentration were the highest in the magnesium-hydroxide and magnesium-citrate groups and higher in the magnesium-trisilicate and magnesium-oxide groups than in the magnesium-sulfate and glycolic-acid groups. Similar trends were observed in the urinary magnesium excretion and in its concentration. The urinary calcium excretion and concentration were higher in the experimental groups than in the glycolic-acid group. The urinary calcium/magnesium ratio remained mostly unchanged. Therefore, it can be concluded that alkaline magnesium salts increase the urinary calcium and magnesium concentrations, without changing the calcium/magnesium ratio, and inhibit urinary calculi formation, most likely by increasing the urinary citrate concentration.

  5. 76 FR 72172 - Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order: Pure Magnesium From the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ..., zirconium and rare earths. Excluded from the scope of the order are alloy primary magnesium (that meets... order. Pure magnesium is a metal or alloy containing by weight primarily the element magnesium and produced by decomposing raw materials into magnesium metal. Pure primary magnesium is used primarily as...

  6. Thermal conductivities of nanostructured magnesium oxide coatings deposited on magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinwei; Nie, Xueyuan; Hu, Henry

    2014-10-01

    The resistances of magnesium alloys to wear, friction and corrosion can be effectively improved by depositing coatings on their surfaces. However, the coatings can also reduce the heat transfer from the coated components to the surroundings (e.g., coated cylinder bores for internal combustion of engine blocks). In this paper, nanostructured magnesium oxides were produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process on the magnesium alloy AJ62 under different current densities. The guarded comparative heat flow method was adopted to measure the thermal conductivities of such coatings which possess gradient nanoscale grain sizes. The aim of the paper is to explore how the current density in the PEO process affects the thermal conductivity of the nanostructured magnesium coatings. The experimental results show that, as the current density rises from 4 to 20 A/mm2, the thermal conductivity has a slight increase from 0.94 to 1.21 W/m x K, which is significantly smaller than that of the corresponding bulk magnesium oxide materials (29.4 W/m x K). This mostly attributed to the variation of the nanoscale grain sizes of the PEO coatings.

  7. The Corrosion of Magnesium and of the Magnesium Aluminum Alloys Containing Manganese

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyer, J A

    1927-01-01

    The extensive use of magnesium and its alloys in aircraft has been seriously handicapped by the uncertainties surrounding their resistance to corrosion. This problem has been given intense study by the American Magnesium Corporation and at the request of the Subcommittee on Materials for Aircraft of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics this report was prepared on the corrosion of magnesium. The tentative conclusions drawn from the experimental facts of this investigation are as follows: the overvoltage of pure magnesium is quite high. On immersion in salt water the metal corrodes with the liberation of hydrogen until the film of corrosion product lowers the potential to a critical value. When the potential reaches this value it no longer exceeds the theoretical hydrogen potential plus the overvoltage of the metal. Rapid corrosion consequently ceases. When aluminum is added, especially when in large amounts, the overvoltage is decreased and hydrogen plates out at a much lower potential than with pure magnesium. The addition of small amount of manganese raises the overvoltage back to practically that of pure metal, and the film is again negative.

  8. Enhancements in Magnesium Die Casting Impact Properties

    SciTech Connect

    David Schwam; John F. Wallace; Yulong Zhu; Srinath Viswanathan; Shafik Iskander

    2000-06-30

    The need to produce lighter components in transportation equipment is the main driver in the increasing demand for magnesium castings. In many automotive applications, components can be made of magnesium or aluminum. While being lighter, often times the magnesium parts have lower impact and fatigue properties than the aluminum. The main objective of this study was to identify potential improvements in the impact resistance of magnesium alloys. The most common magnesium alloys in automotive applications are AZ91D, AM50 and AM60. Accordingly, these alloys were selected as the main candidates for the study. Experimental quantities of these alloys were melted in an electrical furnace under a protective atmosphere comprising sulfur hexafluoride, carbon dioxide and dry air. The alloys were cast both in a permanent mold and in a UBE 315 Ton squeeze caster. Extensive evaluation of tensile, impact and fatigue properties was conducted at CWRU on permanent mold and squeeze cast test bars of AZ91, AM60 and AM50. Ultimate tensile strength values between 20ksi and 30ksi were obtained. The respective elongations varied between 25 and 115. the Charpy V-notch impact strength varied between 1.6 ft-lb and 5 ft-lb depending on the alloy and processing conditions. Preliminary bending fatigue evaluation indicates a fatigue limit of 11-12 ksi for AM50 and AM60. This is about 0.4 of the UTS, typical for these alloys. The microstructures of the cast specimens were investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Concomitantly, a study of the fracture toughness in AM60 was conducted at ORNL as part of the study. The results are in line with values published in the literature and are representative of current state of the art in casting magnesium alloys. The experimental results confirm the strong relationship between aluminum content of the alloys and the mechanical properties, in particular the impact strength and the elongation. As the aluminum content increases from about 5

  9. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Charles D.; Bergum, John W.

    1994-01-01

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  10. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  11. PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, M.; Jesus, A. P.; Luís, H.; Mateus, R.; Cruz, J.; Gasques, L.; Galaviz, D.; Ribeiro, J. P.

    2010-06-01

    In this work, we present an alternative method for PIGE analysis of magnesium and beryllium in thick samples. This method is based on the ERYA - Emitted Radiation Yield Analysis - code, which integrates the nuclear reaction excitation function along the depth of the sample. For this purpose, the excitations functions of the 25Mg(p,p'γ) 25Mg ( Eγ = 585 keV) and 9Be(p,γ) 10B ( Eγ = 718 keV) reactions were employed. Calculated gamma-ray yields were compared, at several proton energy values, with experimental yields for thick samples made of inorganic compounds containing magnesium or beryllium. The agreement is better than 5%. Taking into consideration the experimental uncertainty of the measured yields and the errors related to the stopping power values, this agreement shows that effects as the beam energy straggling, ignored in the calculation, seem to play a minor role.

  12. Chemically prepared lead magnesium niobate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.

    1998-11-01

    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces first, uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions. Chem-prep PMN dielectrics with peak dielectric constants greater than 22,000 and polarizations in excess of 29 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} were obtained for 1,100 C firing treatments. Substantial decreases in dielectric constant and polarization were measured for chemically prepared PMN ceramics fired at lower temperatures, consistent with previous work on mixed oxide materials.

  13. Disulfide-Bridged (Mo3S11) Cluster Polymer: Molecular Dynamics and Application as Electrode Material for a Rechargeable Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Truong, Quang Duc; Kempaiah Devaraju, Murukanahally; Nguyen, Duc N; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Nayuki, Keiichiro; Sasaki, Yoshikazu; Tran, Phong D; Honma, Itaru

    2016-09-14

    Exploring novel electrode materials is critical for the development of a next-generation rechargeable magnesium battery with high volumetric capacity. Here, we showed that a distinct amorphous molybdenum sulfide, being a coordination polymer of disulfide-bridged (Mo3S11) clusters, has great potential as a rechargeable magnesium battery cathode. This material provided good reversible capacity, attributed to its unique structure with high flexibility and capability of deformation upon Mg insertion. Free-terminal disulfide moiety may act as the active site for reversible insertion and extraction of magnesium.

  14. A Study on Factors Affecting the Degradation of Magnesium and a Magnesium-Yttrium Alloy for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  15. A study on factors affecting the degradation of magnesium and a magnesium-yttrium alloy for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ian; Liu, Huinan

    2013-01-01

    Controlling degradation of magnesium or its alloys in physiological saline solutions is essential for their potential applications in clinically viable implants. Rapid degradation of magnesium-based materials reduces the mechanical properties of implants prematurely and severely increases alkalinity of the local environment. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the effects of three interactive factors on magnesium degradation, specifically, the addition of yttrium to form a magnesium-yttrium alloy versus pure magnesium, the metallic versus oxide surfaces, and the presence versus absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution. In the immersion solution of phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the slowest, followed by pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface degraded the fastest. However, in deionized (DI) water, the degradation rate showed a different trend. Specifically, pure magnesium with metallic or oxide surfaces degraded the slowest, followed by the magnesium-yttrium alloy with oxide surface, and the magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded the fastest. Interestingly, only magnesium-yttrium alloy with metallic surface degraded slower in PBS than in DI water, while all the other samples degraded faster in PBS than in DI water. Clearly, the results showed that the alloy composition, presence or absence of surface oxide layer, and presence or absence of physiological salt ions in the immersion solution all influenced the degradation rate and mode. Moreover, these three factors showed statistically significant interactions. This study revealed the complex interrelationships among these factors and their respective contributions to degradation for the first time. The results of this study not only improved our understanding of magnesium degradation in physiological environment, but also presented the key

  16. Serum ionized magnesium in post-traumatic headaches.

    PubMed

    Marcus, J C; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the values of serum ionized magnesium, total magnesium, and ionized calcium/ionized magnesium ratios in children with headaches. One hundred thirty-five children with primary complaints of headaches were classified according to the criteria of the International Headache Society. Blood samples were obtained and tested for ionized magnesium (IMg(2+)), total magnesium, ionized calcium (ICa(2+)), and pH. The ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratio was calculated. Nine children were given a diagnosis of post-traumatic headache. Six of them had statistically significant (P <.05) lowered IMg(2+) levels and high ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratios. Abnormalities in serum IMg(2+) concentrations and ICa(2+)/IMg(2+) ratios were found in children with post-traumatic headaches, but total magnesium levels were normal.

  17. Adsorption of β-carotene on modified magnesium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shanshan; Guo, Ning; Fu, Yongfeng

    2016-02-01

    Modified flocculation magnesium silicate is prepared by a hydrothermal process at 120°C for 18 h after adding Al2(SO4)3 into the magnesium silicate gel. Compared with standard magnesium silicate with 328.116 m2 g-1 surface area, this modified magnesium silicate has a bigger BET surface area of 536.803 m2 g-1 and a lower interlayer water content. Modified magnesium silicate exhibits high β-carotene adsorption with a maximum adsorption capacity of 364.96 mg g-1. It is shown that when suspended in organic solvent, this material can be used effectively for carotenoid separation. Furthermore, our results suggest that modified magnesium silicate may be a promising candidate as an absorbent in the decoloring of oil.

  18. Blood compatibility of a ferulic acid (FA)-eluting PHBHHx system for biodegradable magnesium stent application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium stent has shown potential application as a new biodegradable stent. However, the fast degradation of magnesium stent limited its clinic application. Recently, a biodegradable and drug-eluting coating system was designed to prevent magnesium from fast degradation by adding ferulic acid (FA) in poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) by a physical method. In vitro study has demonstrated that the FA-eluting system exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization, which might be a choice for the stent application. In this paper, the hemolysis rate, the plasma recalcification time (PRT), the plasma prothrombin time (PT) and the kinetic clotting time of the FA-eluting films were investigated and the platelet adhesion was observed in order to assess the blood compatibility of the FA-eluting PHBHHx films in comparison with PHBHHx film. The results have shown that the addition of FA had no influence on the hemolysis, but prolonged PRT, PT and the clotting time and reduced the platelet adhesion and activation, displaying that the FA-eluting PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PHBHHx. In addition, the effect of alkali treatment on the blood compatibility of FA-eluting PHBHHx was also studied. It was indicated that alkali treatment had no effect on the hemolysis and the coagulation time, but enhanced slightly the platelet adhesion. All these demonstrated that FA-eluting PHBHHx film had good blood compatibility and might be a candidate surface coating for the biodegradable magnesium stent.

  19. Structural Studies on Cytosolic Domain of Magnesium Transporter MgtE from Enterococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Ragumani, S.; Sauder, J; Burley, S; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg{sup 2+}) is an essential element for growth and maintenance of living cells. It acts as a cofactor for many enzymes and is also essential for stability of the plasma membrane. There are two distinct classes of magnesium transporters identified in bacteria that convey Mg{sup 2+} from periplasm to cytoplasm [ATPase-dependent (MgtA and MgtB) and constitutively active (CorA and MgtE)]. Previously published work on Mg{sup 2+} transporters yielded structures of full length MgtE from Thermus thermophilus, determined at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, and its cytoplasmic domain with and without bond Mg{sup 2+} determined at 2.3 and 3.9 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Here, they report the crystal structure of the Mg{sup 2+} bound form of the cytosolic portion of MgtE (residues 6-262) from Enterococcus faecalis at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution. The present structure and magnesium bound cytosolic domain structure from T. thermophilus (PDB ID: 2YVY) are structurally similar. Three magnesium binding sites are common to both MgtE full length and the present structure. Their work revealed an additional Mg{sup 2+} binding site in the E. faecalis structure. In this report, they discuss the functional significance of Mg{sup 2+} binding sites in the cytosolic domains of MgtE transporters.

  20. Ion transport properties of magnesium bromide/dimethyl sulfoxide non-aqueous liquid electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Sheha, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nonaqueous liquid electrolyte system based dimethyl sulfoxide DMSO and magnesium bromide (MgBr2) is synthesized via ‘Solvent-in-Salt’ method for the application in magnesium battery. Optimized composition of MgBr2/DMSO electrolyte exhibits high ionic conductivity of 10−2 S/cm at ambient temperature. This study discusses different concentrations from 0 to 5.4 M of magnesium salt, representing low, intermediate and high concentrations of magnesium salt which are examined in frequency dependence conductivity studies. The temperature dependent conductivity measurements have also been carried out to compute activation energy (Ea) by least square linear fitting of Arrhenius plot: ‘log σ − 1/T. The transport number of Mg2+ ion determined by means of a combination of d.c. and a.c. techniques is ∼0.7. A prototype cell was constructed using nonaqueous liquid electrolyte with Mg anode and graphite cathode. The Mg/graphite cell shows promising cycling. PMID:26843967

  1. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man

    PubMed Central

    Petrović, Jelena; Stanić, Dušanka; Dmitrašinović, Gordana; Plećaš-Solarović, Bosiljka; Ignjatović, Svetlana; Batinić, Bojan; Popović, Dejana

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle is highly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. It is known that regular physical activity has positive effects on health; however several studies have shown that acute and strenuous exercise can induce oxidative stress and lead to DNA damage. As magnesium is essential in maintaining DNA integrity, the aim of this study was to determine whether four-week-long magnesium supplementation in students with sedentary lifestyle and rugby players could prevent or diminish impairment of DNA. By using the comet assay, our study demonstrated that the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) with basal endogenous DNA damage is significantly higher in rugby players compared to students with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, magnesium supplementation significantly decreased the number of cells with high DNA damage, in the presence of exogenous H2O2, in PBL from both students and rugby players, and markedly reduced the number of cells with medium DNA damage in rugby players compared to corresponding control nonsupplemented group. Accordingly, the results of our study suggest that four-week-long magnesium supplementation has marked effects in protecting the DNA from oxidative damage in both rugby players and in young men with sedentary lifestyle. Clinical trial is registered at ANZCTR Trial Id: ACTRN12615001237572. PMID:27042258

  2. Parenteral magnesium load testing with /sup 28/Mg in weanling and young adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Caddell, J.L.; Calhoun, N.R.; Howard, M.P.; Patterson, K.Y.; Smith, J.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    A sound diagnostic test for Mg deficiency is needed. This is a report of the parenteral Mg load test conducted in weanling and young adult rats fed a purified basal diet containing 3 mg magnesium/100 g with 150 mg of added magnesium/100 g (control) or 0 added magnesium (deficient). Weanlings were studied at about 1 week of dietary treatment and young adults at 2 weeks. The protocol included: a) a 6-hour preload urinary collection; b) an intraperitoneal load of 15 mg of magnesium/kg (weanlings) or 12 mg/kg (young adults) with 2 microCi 28Mg given simultaneously with each load; c) a 6-hour postload urinary collection; d) chemical analysis of selected tissues and urine for Mg; and e) 28Mg counting 6 and 24 hours postload. Controls all excreted large amounts of Mg pre- and postload, retaining less than 26% of nonradioactive loads. They had high urinary 28Mg counts. In Mg-deficient animals, the concentration of Mg in bone more than halved. These animals avidly conserved Mg and retained over 85% of nonradioactive Mg loads. Their 28Mg activity in vital organs was 3--6 times greater than in controls. We concluded that the parenteral Mg load test reliably identifies severe Mg deficiency.

  3. Reversible Dehydrogenation of Magnesium Borohydride to Magnesium Triborane in the Solid State Under Moderate Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Marina; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Autrey, Thomas; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Jalisatgi, Satish; Jensen, Craig M.

    2011-02-17

    Thermal decomposition of magnesium borohydride, Mg(BH4)2, in the solid state was studied by a combination of PCT, TGA/MS and NMR spectroscopy. Dehydrogenation of Mg(BH4)2 at 200 °C, results in the highly selective formation of magnesium triborane, Mg(B3H8)2. This process is reversible at 250 °C under 120 atm H2. Dehydrogenation at higher temperature, > 300 °C, produces a complex mixture of polyborane species. Solution phase 11B NMR spectra of the hydrolyzed decomposition products reveals the formation of the B3H8 anion, boric acid from hydrolysis of the unstable polyboranes (BnHx) (n = 3-11, x >8), and the closoborane B12H12 dianion as a minor product. A BH condensation mechanism involving metal hydride formation is proposed to explain the limited reversible hydrogen storage in magnesium borohydride.

  4. Design Considerations of a Condensing System for Vaporized Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witzke, Walter R; Prok, George M; Keller, Thomas A

    1955-01-01

    The effect of the design characteristics of various condensing chambers on magnesium build-up at the chamber inlet was investigated. The condensing chambers are used in the vapor-condensation process for making magnesium slurries. A complete description of the various chamber designs and the procedure used in testing the chambers is given. The results are evaluated on the basis of clogging and total magnesium distilled per run. Orifice design was also considered.

  5. A New Coating Process for Production of Coated Magnesium Powders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-16

    TGA data for magnesium hydroxide content. TGA analysis of the as-coated powders is a reproducible and accurate method for the determination of... TGA analysis of the as-coated powder, there is approximately 3wt% magnesium hydroxide present in the material due to the process variation compared...11: Magnesium hydroxide content as measured by TGA analysis for the 1-lb batches of as-coated ground powder Figure 12: Nitrometer analysis of

  6. Mechanical Properties of Several Magnesium and Aluminum Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    34AD-A262 481 ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Mechanical Properties of Several Magnesium and Aluminum Composites Nikos Tsangarakis and Barmac Taleghani ARL...ESJEI L .PwmOM N.ajmns Mechanical Properties of Several Magnesium and Aluminum Composites 2.AUIwORU Nikos Tsangarakis and Barmac Taleghani 7. PERONUMMN...Several composites of magnesiumn and aluminum alloys were tested In order to assess and evaluate their mechanical properties . The magnesium alloys were

  7. Impurity control and corrosion resistance of magnesium-aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, M.; Song, GuangLing

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is very sensitive to the contents of impurity elements such as iron. In this study, a series of diecast AXJ530 magnesium alloy samples were prepared with additions of Mn and Fe. Through a comprehensive phase diagram calculation and corrosion evaluation, the mechanisms for the tolerance limit of Fe in magnesium alloy are discussed. This adds a new dimension to control the alloying impurity in terms of alloying composition design and casting conditions.

  8. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    received AZ31B, a magnesium (Mg) alloy that contains approximately 3% aluminum and 1% zinc. In particular, we investigated the ability to roll AZ31B to...ARL-TR-7277 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets by...7277 ● JUNE 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets by Laszlo Kecskes, Heidi

  9. Initial observations on using magnesium metal in peripheral nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Vennemeyer, J J; Hopkins, T; Hershcovitch, M; Little, K D; Hagen, M C; Minteer, D; Hom, D B; Marra, K; Pixley, S K

    2015-03-01

    Biodegradable magnesium metal filaments placed inside biodegradable nerve conduits might provide the physical guidance support needed to improve the rate and extent of regeneration of peripheral nerves across injury gaps. In this study, we examined basic issues of magnesium metal resorption and biocompatibility by repairing sub-critical size gap injuries (6 mm) in one sciatic nerve of 24 adult male Lewis rats. Separated nerve stumps were connected with poly(caprolactone) nerve conduits, with and without magnesium filaments (0.25 mm diameter, 10 mm length), with two different conduit filler substances (saline and keratin hydrogel). At 6 weeks after implantation, magnesium degradation was examined by micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. Magnesium degradation was significantly greater when the conduits were filled with an acidic keratin hydrogel than with saline (p < 0.05). But magnesium filaments in some animals remained intact for 6 weeks. Using histological and immunocytochemical analyses, good biocompatibility of the magnesium implants was observed at 6 weeks, as shown by good development of regenerating nerve mini-fascicles and only mild inflammation in tissues even after complete degradation of the magnesium. Nerve regeneration was not interrupted by complete magnesium degradation. An initial functional evaluation, determination of size recovery of the gastrocnemius muscle, showed a slight improvement due to magnesium with the saline but not the keratin filler, compared with respective control conduits without magnesium. These results suggest that magnesium filament implants have the potential to improve repair of injured peripheral nerve defects in this rodent model.

  10. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies...

  11. 40 CFR 461.60 - Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... magnesium subcategory. 461.60 Section 461.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS BATTERY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Magnesium Subcategory § 461.60 Applicability; description of the magnesium subcategory. This subpart applies...

  12. Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis of Loading-Unloading Behaviour in Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Hama, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Hitoshi; Takuda, Hirohiko

    2010-06-15

    Magnesium alloy sheets exhibit strong inelastic response during unloading. In this study crystal plasticity finite element analysis of loading-unloading behaviour during uniaxial tension in a rolled magnesium alloy sheet was carried out, and the mechanism of this inelastic response was examined in detail in terms of macroscopic and mesoscopic deformations. The unloading behaviour obtained by the simulation was in good agreement with the experiment in terms of variation with stress of instantaneous tangent modulus during unloading. Variations of activities of each family of slip systems during the deformation showed that the activation of basal slip systems is the largest during unloading, and the slip direction during unloading is opposite from during loading. These results indicated that one of the factors of the inelastic behaviour during unloading is the fact that the basal slip systems are easily activated during unloading because of their low strengths.

  13. Role of magnesium on the biomimetic deposition of calcium phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Bimal K.; Sarma, Bikash

    2016-10-01

    Biomimetic depositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) are carried out using simulated body fluid (SBF), calcifying solution and newly developed magnesium containing calcifying solution. Calcium phosphate has a rich phase diagram and is well known for its excellent biocompatibility and bioactivity. The most common phase is hydroxyapatite (HAp), an integral component of human bone and tooth, widely used in orthopedic and dental applications. In addition, calcium phosphate nanoparticles show promise for the targeted drug delivery. The doping of calcium phosphate by magnesium, zinc, strontium etc. can change the protein uptake by CaP nanocrystals. This work describes the role of magnesium on the nucleation and growth of CaP on Ti and its oxide substrates. X-ray diffraction studies confirm formation of HAp nanocrystals which closely resemble the structure of bone apatite when grown using SBF and calcifying solution. It has been observed that magnesium plays crucial role in the nucleation and growth of calcium phosphate. A low magnesium level enhances the crystallinity of HAp while higher magnesium content leads to the formation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) phase. Interestingly, the deposition of ACP phase is rapid when magnesium ion concentration in the solution is 40% of calcium plus magnesium ions concentration. Moreover, high magnesium content alters the morphology of CaP films.

  14. Improved biological performance of magnesium by micro-arc oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have recently been used in the development of lightweight, biodegradable implant materials. However, the corrosion properties of magnesium limit its clinical application. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the degradation behavior and biomechanical properties of magnesium materials treated with micro-arc oxidation (MAO), which is a new promising surface treatment for developing corrosion resistance in magnesium, and to provide a theoretical basis for its further optimization and clinical application. The degradation behavior of MAO-treated magnesium was studied systematically by immersion and electrochemical tests, and its biomechanical performance when exposed to simulated body fluids was evaluated by tensile tests. In addition, the cell toxicity of MAO-treated magnesium samples during the corrosion process was evaluated, and its biocompatibility was investigated under in vivo conditions. The results of this study showed that the oxide coating layers could elevate the corrosion potential of magnesium and reduce its degradation rate. In addition, the MAO-coated sample showed no cytotoxicity and more new bone was formed around it during in vivo degradation. MAO treatment could effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of the magnesium specimen and help to keep its original mechanical properties. The MAO-coated magnesium material had good cytocompatibility and biocompatibility. This technique has an advantage for developing novel implant materials and may potentially be used for future clinical applications. PMID:25517917

  15. Magnesium, aluminum and lead in various brain areas

    SciTech Connect

    Zumkley, H.; Bertram, H.P.; Brandt, M.; Roedig, M.; Spieker, C.

    1986-01-01

    Whereas the lead concentrations were increased in brain tissue of patients with chronic alcoholism, the aluminum concentrations remained within the normal range. The magnesium concentrations were found decreased in patients with chronic alcoholism compared to normal controls. The sources for the elevated lead levels seem to be the increased intake of alcohol. The decreased magnesium levels are probably caused by an increased loss of magnesium with the urine, malnutrition, malabsorption, hormonal factors and drugs. Various neurological disorders which often accompanied chronic alcoholism may be caused or aggravated by lead encephalopathy and hypomagnesemia. Therapeutical implications may be the early substitution of magnesium deficiency in chronic alcoholism. 10 references, 5 figures.

  16. [The role of alimentary magnesium deficiency in development of nephrolithiasis and its correction with magnesium salts in rats].

    PubMed

    Spasov, A A; Iezhitsa, I N; Kharitonova, M V; Kravchenko, M S; Snigur, G L

    2008-01-01

    Aims of our work were to appraise the quantity and nature of renal calcifications and mineral metabolism in the magnesium-deficient rats; and to find out whether the combination of pyridoxine with Mg L-aspartate or Mg chloride will reduce the length of the treatment needed to recover rats from magnesium deficient condition and urolithiasis state. To induce hypomagnesemia, fifty rats were placed on a magnesium-deficient diet (magnesium content < or = 15 mg/kg) and demineralized water for 10 weeks. On the forty-ninth day of magnesium-deficient diet, rats were treated one of the six supplementations: MgCl2, Mg-L-Asp or their combinations with pyridoxine hydrochloride, magnesium sulfate, magne B6.

  17. Recent advances in research on magnesium alloys and magnesium-calcium phosphate composites as biodegradable implant materials.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierczyk, Katarzyna; Basista, Michał

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium alloys are modern biocompatible materials suitable for orthopaedic implants due to their biodegradability in biological environment. Many studies indicate that there is a high demand to design magnesium alloys with controllable in vivo corrosion rates and required mechanical properties. A solution to this challenge can be sought in the development of metal matrix composites based on magnesium alloys with addition of relevant alloying elements and bioceramic particles. In this study, the corrosion mechanisms along with corrosion protection methods in magnesium alloys are discussed. The recently developed magnesium alloys for biomedical applications are reviewed. Special attention is given to the newest research results in metal matrix composites composed of magnesium alloy matrix and calcium phosphates, especially hydroxyapatite or tricalcium phosphate, as the second phase with emphasis on the biodegradation behavior, microstructure and mechanical properties in view of potential application of these materials in bone implants.

  18. Application of alkaline phosphatases from different sources in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis for the determination of their cofactors; zinc and magnesium ions.

    PubMed

    Muginova, Svetlana V; Zhavoronkova, Anna M; Polyakov, Alexei E; Shekhovtsova, Tatyana N

    2007-03-01

    Prospects of using different alkaline phosphatases bearing zinc and magnesium ions in their catalytic and allosteric sites, respectively, in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis were demonstrated. Also their application for the determination of zinc in insulin to control injection quality and magnesium in human urine for the diagnosis and treatment of magnesium deficiency was shown. The reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate hydrolysis was chosen as an indicator. The choice of appropriate alkaline phosphatase was substantiated, the influence of the nature of buffer solutions on the behavior of the enzyme-metal systems was studied, and the conditions of the indicator reaction proceeding in the presence of sample matrixes were optimized. Simple, rapid, sensitive, and selective enzymatic procedures for determining zinc and magnesium based on their inhibiting and activating effects on the catalytic activity of alkaline phosphatases from seal and chicken intestine, respectively, were developed.

  19. New data on the bioavailability of bread magnesium.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Leenhardt, F; Remesy, C

    2004-12-01

    Whole cereal products are the main source of magnesium in human nutrition. Even if wholemeal bread is an important source of Mg, it also contains considerable amounts of phytic acid (PA), a natural chelator that lowers the absorption of trace elements such as Fe or Zn as well as Ca or Mg in cereal products. Significant Mg bioavailability improvement in bread could be supplied by the choice of raw materials and the baking processes of cereals. Improvement in the Mg content of wheat grain was proved possible by traditional plant selection. Bread making using sourdough improves the nutritional properties of bread by reducing the amounts of phytic acid and phytate breakdown, which is mainly explained by the acidity level in the sourdough process that promotes greater efficiency in the wheat phytase activity. A slight acidification due to sourdough effectively reduces the phytate content and improves Mg bioavaibility.

  20. Crystallization Kinetics of Calcium-magnesium Aluminosilicate (CMAS) Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesner, Valerie L.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    2015-01-01

    The crystallization kinetics of a calcium-magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass with composition relevant for aerospace applications, like air-breathing engines, were evaluated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) in powder and bulk forms. Activation energy and frequency factor values for crystallization of the glass were evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to investigate the onset of crystallization and the phases that developed after heat treating bulk glass at temperatures ranging from 690 to 960 deg for various times. Samples annealed at temperatures below 900 deg remained amorphous, while specimens heat treated at and above 900 deg exhibited crystallinity originating at the surface. The crystalline phases were identified as wollastonite (CaSiO3) and aluminum diopside (Ca(Mg,Al) (Si,Al)2O6). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to examine the microstructure and chemical compositions of crystalline phases formed after heat treatment.

  1. Magnesium dietary intake modulates blood lipid levels and atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Altura, B T; Brust, M; Bloom, S; Barbour, R L; Stempak, J G; Altura, B M

    1990-01-01

    In this study, we have examined the effects of variation in dietary Mg on the atherogenic process. Oral supplementation of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet (1% or 2%) with the Mg salt magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) (i) lowers the level of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in normal (25-35%) as well as atherosclerotic (20-40%) animals and (ii) attenuates the atherosclerotic process markedly. In addition, we found that dietary deficiency of Mg augments atherogenesis markedly and stimulates (or activates) macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Evidence is presented to indicate that the hypercholesterolemic state may cause the loss of Mg from soft tissues to the serum, thereby masking an underlying Mg deficiency. PMID:2308944

  2. Magnesium, zinc, and copper status of US Navy SEAL trainees.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Day, B A; DeBolt, J E; Trostmann, U H; Bernier, L L; Deuster, P A

    1989-04-01

    Magnesium, zinc, and copper status of 270 US Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) trainees was determined from dietary intakes and biochemical profiles. Although mean intakes exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances or the Estimated Safe and Adequate Intake range, intakes of 34%, 44%, and 37% of the trainees were below the recommendations for Mg, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Mean plasma concentrations were 0.85 +/- 0.004 mmol/L, 13.4 +/- 0.2 mumol/L, and 16.5 +/- 0.2 mumol/L for Mg, Zn, and Cu respectively. Mean 24-h urinary excretions were 5.7 +/- 0.2 mmol, 11.1 +/- 0.3 mumol, and 0.05 +/- 0.003 mumol, for Mg, Zn, and Cu, respectively. The data provided by the present study should be useful for comparing other physically active male populations.

  3. Mechanisms of cataractogenesis in the presence of magnesium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Renu; Iezhitsa, Igor N; Agarwal, Puneet; Spasov, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    Senile cataract is the most common cause of bilateral blindness and results from the loss of transparency of the lens. Maintenance of the unique tissue architecture of the lens is vital for keeping the lens transparent. Membrane transport mechanisms utilizing several magnesium (Mg)-dependent ATPases, play an important role in maintaining lens homeostasis. Therefore, in Mg-deficiency states, ATPase dysfunctions lead to intracellular depletion of K(+) and accumulation of Na(+) and Ca(2+). High intracellular Ca(2+) causes activation of the enzyme calpain II, which leads to the denaturation of crystallin, the soluble lens protein required for maintaining the transparency of the lens. Mg deficiency also interferes with ATPase functions by causing cellular ATP depletion. Furthermore, Mg deficiency enhances lenticular oxidative stress by increased production of free radicals and depletion of antioxidant defenses. Therefore, Mg supplementation may be of therapeutic value in preventing the onset and progression of cataracts in conditions associated with Mg deficiency.

  4. Microstructural stability after severe plastic deformation of AZ31 Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. P.; Askari, H.; Hovanski, Y.; Heiden, M. J.; Field, D. P.

    2014-08-01

    Friction stir processing (FSP) and equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) were used to modify the microstructure of twin roll cast (TRC) AZ31 magnesium. The influence of these processes on the microstructural properties of the material was investigated. It was found that both processes produced microstructures with an average grain size of less than 10 pm, suggesting that they have the potential for superplastic deformation. Heat treatments were performed on the TRC, ECAP and FSP materials to assess their microstructural stability. Both the ECAP and TRC material were found to be fairly stable, showing normal grain growth while the FSP material grew substantially at temperatures above 200°C. The activation energy of grain boundary motion of the TRC material was calculated to be 167 kJ/mol.

  5. ALUMINUM IMPURITY DIFFUSION IN MAGNESIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, Sarah; Warren, Andrew; Coffey, Kevin; Kulkarni, Nagraj S; Todd, Peter J; Sohn, Yong Ho; Klimov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    The Al impurity diffusion in polycrystalline Mg (99.9%) via depth profiling with secondary ion mass spectrometry was studied in the temperature range of 673-573K, utilizing the thin film method and thin film solution to the diffusion equation. Multiple samples were utilized and multiple profiles were obtained to determine statistically confident coefficient with maximum standard deviation of 16%. Activation energy and pre-exponential factor of Al impurity diffusion in Mg was determined as 155 kJ/mole and 3.9 x 10-3 m2/sec.

  6. Increasing Growth Yield and Decreasing Acetylation in Escherichia coli by Optimizing the Carbon-to-Magnesium Ratio in Peptide-Based Media.

    PubMed

    Christensen, David G; Orr, James S; Rao, Christopher V; Wolfe, Alan J

    2017-03-15

    Complex media are routinely used to cultivate diverse bacteria. However, this complexity can obscure the factors that govern cell growth. While studying protein acetylation in buffered tryptone broth supplemented with glucose (TB7-glucose), we observed that Escherichia coli did not fully consume glucose prior to stationary phase. However, when we supplemented this medium with magnesium, the glucose was completely consumed during exponential growth, with concomitant increases in cell number and biomass but reduced cell size. Similar results were observed with other sugars and other peptide-based media, including lysogeny broth. Magnesium also limited cell growth for Vibrio fischeri and Bacillus subtilis in TB7-glucose. Finally, magnesium supplementation reduced protein acetylation. Based on these results, we conclude that growth in peptide-based media is magnesium limited. We further conclude that magnesium supplementation can be used to tune protein acetylation without genetic manipulation. These results have the potential to reduce potentially deleterious acetylated isoforms of recombinant proteins without negatively affecting cell growth.IMPORTANCE Bacteria are often grown in complex media. These media are thought to provide the nutrients necessary to grow bacteria to high cell densities. In this work, we found that peptide-based media containing a sugar are magnesium limited for bacterial growth. In particular, magnesium supplementation is necessary for the bacteria to use the sugar for cell growth. Interestingly, in the absence of magnesium supplementation, the bacteria still consume the sugar. However, rather than use it for cell growth, the bacteria instead use the sugar to acetylate lysines on proteins. As lysine acetylation may alter the activity of proteins, this work demonstrates how lysine acetylation can be tuned through magnesium supplementation. These findings may be useful for recombinant protein production, when acetylated isoforms are to be avoided

  7. Modelisation et simulation du comportement des alliages de magnesium lors de la deformation a chaud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Julie

    Les alliages de magnesium sont de plus en plus utilises dans l'industrie automobile. Leur faible masse volumique permet d'alleger les vehicules, donc de diminuer l'utilisation de carburant et les emissions de gaz a effet de serre. La ductilite du magnesium a temperature ambiante est faible, mais une augmentation de celle-ci permet l'activation de systemes de glissement supplementaires et une meilleure formabilite. L'hydroformage a chaud pourrait donc permettre de fabriquer des pieces en alliages de magnesium destinees a l'industrie automobile. L'objectif de ce travail etait de developper un modele numerique permettant de simuler le comportement des alliages de magnesium deformes a temperature moderee (200°C). Les principales difficultes resident dans le fait que le magnesium ne se deforme pas seulement par glissement, mais aussi par maclage. En plus de reorienter les mailles cristallines, le maclage amene egalement un schema de durcissement complexe. Le modele utilise en est un de plasticite cristalline, qui tient compte de l'evolution de la texture lors de la deformation. Le modele de depart a ete adapte au magnesium en y incluant le maclage. Il tient compte de la reorientation des mailles cristallines, ainsi que du durcissement cause par les joints de macles. Le modele a d'abord ete calibre grace aux courbes de traction et de compression uniaxiale, puis a ete valide par la simulation de l'essai de deformation circonferentielle. L'evolution de texture observee a aussi permis de valider le modele. Des equations permettant d'ajuster les parametres du modele en fonction du taux de deformation ont egalement ete developpees. Les diagrammes des limites de formage dans les directions conventionnelle et d'hydroformage ont ete traces. Le maclage semble contribuer legerement a la formabilite des alliages de magnesium a la temperature etudiee. Une augmentation de l'index de sensibilite a la vitesse de deformation a aussi un effet positif sur la formabilite. Les resultats

  8. [Effects of low magnesium on photosynthesis characteristics and antioxidant system in cucumber seedlings under low temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuai; Wu, Guo-xiu; Cai, Huan; Liu, Zhang-lei; Liu, Jing; Yang, Rui; Ai, Xi-zhen

    2015-05-01

    The effects of low magnesium (30% Mg) stress on photosynthesis characteristics and antioxidant system in 'Jinyou 3' cucumber ( Cucumis sativa) seedlings under low temperature (day/ night temperature was 12 °C/8 °C) were investigated, with Hoagland nutrient solution treatment as the control. The results showed that the 30% Mg treatment showed a significantly lower Mg content in leaves, compared with the control. However, no marked difference in roots between the 30% Mg treatment and the control was found. Low temperature significantly decreased the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (g(s)), and carboxylation efficiency (CE), while increased the intercelluar CO2 concentration (Ci). The 30% Mg treatment showed significantly lower chlorophyll content, Pn, g(s) and CE, compared with the control. No marked change was found in Ci between the 30% Mg treatment and the control. Low magnesium stress resulted in a more serious damage in chloroplast membrane under low temperature, and showed lower chloroplasts, grains and lamellas, while more and larger starch grains in cucumber seedlings. Low magnesium stress also led to an increase in MDA content, while a decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , peroxidase (POD) , catalase ( CAT) , ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR). These data suggested that magnesium deficiency caused by its hindered transportation under low temperature was the main reason for the chlorosis of cucumber leaves. The decrease in Pn was mainly caused by the non-stomatal limitation. Low magnesium stress increased the influence of low temperature on Pn, and the resulting decline in Pn was caused by the stomatal limitation.

  9. An in vitro study on the biocompatibility of WE magnesium alloys.

    PubMed

    Ge, Shuping; Wang, Yi; Tian, Jie; Lei, Daoxi; Yu, Qingsong; Wang, Guixue

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium alloys are being actively studied for intravascular stent applications because of their good mechanical strength and biocompatibility. To rule out the high allergenicity of nickel and neurotoxicity of aluminum element, four kinds of WE magnesium alloys (where "W" represents the metallic element Y and "E" represents mixed rare earth (RE) elements; Y: 2.5, 5.0, 6.5, and 7.5 wt %; Nd: 1.0, 2.6, 2.5, and 4.2 wt %; Zr: 0.8 wt %) were chosen for in vitro investigation of their biocompatibility using cell culture. The results showed that, with the increase of rare earth elements in WE magnesium alloys, fibrinogen adsorption decreased and coagulation function was improved. It was also found that WE magnesium alloys promoted the adhesion of endothelial cells. With the increase of adhesion time, adhered cell numbers increased gradually. With 25% extracts, all the WE alloys promoted cell migration, while 100% extracts were not conducive to cell migration. Based on the above results, WE magnesium alloys 5.0WE (5.0Y-2.6Nd-0.8Zr) and 6.5WE (6.5Y-2.5Nd-0.8Zr) have better biocompatibility as compared with that with 2.5WE (2.5Y-1.0Nd-0.8Zr) and 7.5WE (7.5Y-4.2Nd-0.8Zr), and could be as the promising candidate materials for medical stent applications.

  10. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia; Wang, Yaming; Han, Zhiwu; Ren, Luquan

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO3 solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH3(CH2)11Si(OCH3)3). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro-nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  11. Cryogenic Thermoelectric Properties of the Bismuth-Magnesium and Bismuth-Antimony-Magnesium Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orovets, Christine; Jin, Hyungyu; Wiendlocha, Bartlomiej; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    There is a need to increase the Figure of Merit of thermoelectric materials used in low temperature cooling applications. Band structure calculations show that substitutional magnesium in bismuth can form sharp density of states peaks, suggesting the presence of a resonant level. Single crystal samples of (Bi1-xSbx)1-yMgy (0 <= x <= 12% and 0 <= y <= 0.7% nominally) were synthesized in evacuated ampoules. The composition of each ingot was analyzed using x-ray diffraction, and transport properties were measured using a Thermal Transport Option (TTO) in a Physical Properties Measurement System (PPMS) from 300K to 2K. It is apparent that the addition of magnesium strongly influences thermopower; the data for Bi90Sb10Mg0.7 shows a second minimum in thermopower at 20K, in addition to the expected minimum at approximately 50-60K. This could be due to the resonant scattering at the cryogenic temperatures which arises from the excess density of states. The addition of magnesium also appears to decrease thermal conductivity below 30K. We present systematic experimental approaches and the results to elucidate the role of magnesium in bismuth and bismuth-antimony systems.

  12. Magnesium and metabolic syndrome: The role of magnesium in health and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of conditions associated with elevated risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Magnesium, the fourth most abundant cation in the human body and required in over 300 enzymatic reactions, has been shown in experimental, observational, and clinical studies to ...

  13. Performance characteristics of magnesium/para-nitrophenol cells in 2:1 magnesium electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, G.; Sivashanugam, A.; Sridharan, R. )

    1993-11-01

    1 V/1 Ah magnesium/para-nitrophenol (PNP) reserve cells were fabricated and their performance was evaluated in different electrolytes [2M aqueous solutions of Mg(C1O[sub 4])[sub 2], MgCl[sub 2], and MgBr[sub 2

  14. Magnesium Battery Electrolytes in Ionic Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Tylan Strike

    A lack of adequate energy storage technologies is arguably the greatest hindrance to a modern sustainable energy infrastructure. Chemical energy storage, in the form of batteries, is an obvious solution to the problem. Unfortunately, today's state of the art battery technologies fail to meet the desired metrics for full scale electric grid and/or electric vehicle role out. Considerable effort from scientists and engineers has gone into the pursuit of battery chemistries theoretically capable of far outperforming leading technologies like Li-ion cells. For instance, an anode of the relatively abundant and cheap metal, magnesium, would boost the specific energy by over 4.6 times that of the current Li-ion anode (LiC6). The work presented here explores the compatibility of magnesium electrolytes in TFSI---based ionic liquids with a Mg anode (TFSI = bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide). Correlations are made between the Mg2+ speciation conditions in bulk solutions (as determined via Raman spectroscopy) and the corresponding electrochemical behavior of the electrolytes. It was found that by creating specific chelating conditions, with an appropriate Mg salt, the desired electrochemical behavior could be obtained, i.e. reversible electrodeposition and dissolution. Removal of TFSI -- contact ion pairs from the Mg2+ solvation shell was found to be essential for reversible electrodeposition. Ionic liquids with polyethylene glycol chains pendent from a parent pyrrolidinium cation were synthesized and used to create the necessary complexes with Mg 2+, from Mg(BH4)2, so that reversible electrodeposition from a purely ionic liquid medium was achieved. The following document discusses findings from several electrochemical experiments on magnesium electrolytes in ionic liquids. Explanations for the failure of many of these systems to produce reversible Mg electrodeposition are provided. The key characteristics of ionic liquid systems that are capable of achieving reversible Mg

  15. Recent data on the evaluation of magnesium bioavailability in humans.

    PubMed

    Benech, H; Grognet, J M

    1995-09-01

    Assessment of the bioavailability of exogenous ions present in a large amounts in the body, such as magnesium, cannot be performed by the conventional measurement of plasma levels after intravenous and/or oral administration. In the case of magnesium, this is emphasized by the fact that plasma levels are quickly regulated, mainly by the kidney and in storage compartments such as bone, after exogenous administration. Magnesium bioavailability and absorption are studied by indirect methods or by using radioactive or stable isotopes as tracers. Indirect methods are the metabolic balance method and comparison of urinary excretion between a treatment and a placebo period, often after magnesium load. However, the former only measures magnesium absorption and the latter is subject to the fragile balance of magnesium urinary excretion. Isotope studies, in particular with stable isotope probes, have benefited from the developments in mass spectrometry, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It is possible to follow exogenous magnesium in plasma after oral and intravenous administrations using 25Mg and 26Mg as tracers, and to calculate the absolute bioavailability of magnesium.

  16. 76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of... China and Russia: Investigation Nos.731-TA- 1071-1072 (Review). By order of the Commission....

  17. Mechanisms of magnesium-induced vasodilation in cerebral penetrating arterioles.

    PubMed

    Murata, Takahiro; Dietrich, Hans H; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro; Dacey, Ralph G

    2016-06-01

    We investigated in cerebral penetrating arterioles the signaling mechanisms and dose-dependency of extracellular magnesium-induced vasodilation and also its vasodilatory effects in vessels preconstricted with agonists associated with delayed cerebral vasospasm following SAH. Male rat penetrating arterioles were cannulated. Their internal diameters were monitored. To investigate mechanisms of magnesium-induced vasodilation, inhibitors of endothelial function, potassium channels and endothelial impairment were tested. To simulate cerebral vasospasm we applied several spasmogenic agonists. Increased extracellular magnesium concentration produced concentration-dependent vasodilation, which was partially attenuated by non-specific calcium-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium, but not by other potassium channel inhibitors. Neither the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NNA nor endothelial impairment induced by air embolism reduced the dilation. Although the magnesium-induced vasodilation was slightly attenuated by the spasmogen ET-1, neither application of PF2α nor TXA2 analog effect the vasodilation. Magnesium induced a concentration- and smooth muscle cell-dependent dilation in cerebral penetrating arterioles. Calcium-sensitive potassium channels of smooth muscle cells may play a key role in magnesium-induced vasodilation. Magnesium also dilated endothelium-impaired vessels as well as vessels preconstricted with spasmogenic agonists. These results provide a fundamental background for the clinical use of magnesium, especially in treatment against delayed cerebral ischemia or vasospasm following SAH.

  18. Corrosion-Mitigating, Bondable, Fluorinated Barrier Coating for Anodized Magnesium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    isopropyl alcohol (Sigma-Aldrich, ≥99.5%), and sodium chloride (NaCl) (VWR, 99%–100.5%). Water was purified to 18 MΩ cm using a Millipore system. Magnesium...spectroscopy HV high voltage Mg magnesium NaCl sodium chloride OD outer diameter PEO plasma electrolytic oxidation SAM self-assembled monolayer SCE

  19. Association of Cord Blood Magnesium Concentration and Neonatal Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lynn H.; Mapp, Delicia C.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Spong, Catherine Y.; Mercer, Brian M.; Leveno, Kenneth J.; Varner, Michael W.; Iams, Jay D.; Sorokin, Yoram; Ramin, Susan M.; Miodovnik, Menachem; O'Sullivan, Mary J.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Caritis, Steve N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Assess the relationship between umbilical cord blood magnesium concentration and level of delivery room resuscitation received by neonates. Study design Secondary analysis of a controlled fetal neuroprotection trial that enrolled women at imminent risk for delivery between 24 and 31 weeks’ gestation and randomly allocated them to receive intravenous magnesium sulfate or placebo. The cohort included 1507 infants for whom total cord blood magnesium concentration and delivery room resuscitation information were available. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the association between cord blood magnesium concentration and highest level of delivery room resuscitation, using the following hierarchy: none, oxygen only, bag-mask ventilation with oxygen, intubation or chest compressions. Results There was no relationship between cord blood magnesium and delivery room resuscitation (odds ratio [OR] 0.92 for each 1.0 mEq/L increase in magnesium; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.03). Maternal general anesthesia was associated with increased neonatal resuscitation (OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.72-3.68). Each 1-week increase in gestational age at birth was associated with decreased neonatal resuscitation (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.60 – 0.66). Conclusion Cord blood magnesium concentration does not correlate with the level of delivery room resuscitation of infants exposed to magnesium sulfate for fetal neuroprotection. PMID:22056282

  20. 40 CFR 721.10021 - Magnesium potassium titanium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Magnesium potassium titanium oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10021 Magnesium potassium titanium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and... titanium oxide (PMN P-01-764; CAS No. 39290-90-9) is subject to reporting under this section for...