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Sample records for active male subjects

  1. PFC Activity Pattern During Verbal WM Task in Healthy Male and Female Subjects: A NIRS Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chenyang; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Dewu; Liu, Dan; Gong, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), as a non-invasive optical imaging method, has been widely used in psychology research. Working memory (WM) is an extensively researched psychological concept related to the temporary storage and processing of information. Many neuropsychological studies demonstrate that several brain areas of prefrontal cortex (PFC) are engaged during verbal WM tasks. The gender-based differences in WM remains under dispute. To better understand the active module and gender differences in PFC activity patterns during verbal WM tasks, we investigated the blood oxygenation changes of the PFC in 15 healthy subjects using a homemade multichannel continuous-wave NIRS instrument, while performing a verbal n-back task. We employed traditional activation and novel connectivity analyses simultaneously. Males had a higher level of oxygenation activity and connectivity in PFC than females. Only the results of females revealed a leftward lateralization in the 2-back task. PMID:27526142

  2. Increase of plasma renin activity in male and female rabbits subjected to dysbaric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chryssanthou, C.; Kircikoglu, H.; Strugar, J.

    1985-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be implicated in hemodynamic alterations occurring in dysbaric disorders. This report concerns changes in plasma renin activity (PRA) induced by exposure of rabbits to a compression-decompression schedule that does not normally produce clinical manifestations of decompression sickness. The results revealed a significant increase in PRA in 19 of 23 animals following dysbaric exposure. Mean PRA rose from 1.18 ng ang I/ml hr (preexposure) to 2.40 ng ang I/ml hr (postexposure). The increase was particularly pronounced in female animals (217 percent). Asymptomatic intravascular gas bubbles (silent bubbles) were detected by gross or microscopic examination in the majority of the animals. Renin elaboration and secretion in asymptomatic dysbaric exposures may be mediated by bradykinin and/or prostaglandins released or activated in a chain reaction triggered by silent gas bubbles. This hypothesis is also applicable to increased PRA in altitude decompression. Alternatively elevation of PRA may result from decreased renal perfusion when dysbaric disorders are complicated by significant hypovolemia.

  3. Long-term total sleep deprivation decreases the default spontaneous activity and connectivity pattern in healthy male subjects: a resting-state fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xi-Jian; Liu, Chun-Lei; Zhou, Ren-Lai; Gong, Hong-Han; Wu, Bin; Gao, Lei; Wang, Yi-Xiang J

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to use resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) methods to explore intrinsic default-mode network (DMN) impairment after sleep deprivation (SD) and its relationships with clinical features. Methods Twelve healthy male subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging twice: once following rested wakefulness (RW) and the other following 72 hours of total SD. Before the scans, all subjects underwent the attention network test (ANT). The independent component analysis (ICA), rsFC, and ALFF methods were used to examine intrinsic DMN impairment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to distinguish SD status from RW status. Results Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed a lower accuracy rate (RW =96.83%, SD =77.67%; P<0.001), a slower reaction time (RW =695.92 ms; SD =799.18 ms; P=0.003), a higher lapse rate (RW =0.69%, SD =19.29%; P<0.001), and a higher intraindividual coefficient of variability in reaction time (RW =0.26, SD =0.33; P=0.021). The ICA method showed that, compared with RW subjects, SD subjects had decreased rsFC in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL, BA40) and in the left precuneus (PrC)/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) (BA30, 31). The two different areas were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) for future rsFC analysis. Compared with the same in RW subjects, in SD subjects, the right IPL showed decreased rsFC with the left PrC (BA7) and increased rsFC with the left fusiform gyrus (BA37) and the left cluster of middle temporal gyrus and inferior temporal gyrus (BA37). However, the left PrC/PCC did not show any connectivity differences. Compared with RW subjects, SD subjects showed lower ALFF area in the left IPL (BA39, 40). The left IPL, as an ROI, showed decreased rsFC with the right cluster of IPL and superior temporal gyrus (BA39, 40). ROC curve analysis showed that the area under the curve (AUC) value of the

  4. Rights and representations: querying the male-to-male sexual subject in India.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Paul; Khanna, Akshay

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex sexualities in India have been portrayed in research and activism as socially marginal and minoritarian. Whilst proceeding from a commitment to the political utility of such a view, this paper questions such a standpoint. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted in different sites, the paper considers male-to-male sexualities as enacted and implicated in the production of ostensibly heteronormative spaces. This, in turn, raises questions about the representation of the queer or same-sex sexual subject in law and HIV prevention, especially in the context of post-colonial perspectives on sexuality.

  5. Insulin resistance in young, lean male subjects with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Penesova, A; Cizmarova, E; Belan, V; Blazicek, P; Imrich, R; Vlcek, M; Vigas, M; Selko, D; Koska, J; Radikova, Z

    2011-06-01

    Impaired insulin action, frequently found in essential hypertension (HT), is modified by other factors, such as higher age, accumulation of body fat, dyslipidaemia, impaired glucose metabolism and endothelial dysfunction. In addition, antihypertensive and insulin-sensitizing medication itself may significantly affect cardiovascular and metabolic milieu. The aim of this study was to assess insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response, lipidaemic status and the adipokines' concentrations with regard to abdominal fat distribution in young, lean male subjects with treatment-naïve essential HT and in matched healthy normotensive (NT) subjects. We studied 27 HT patients (age: 19.9±0.6 years; body mass index (BMI): 22.9±0.5 kg m(-2)) and 15 NT controls (age: 22.3±1.0 years; BMI: 23.7±0.6 kg m(-2)). The subjects underwent an oral and an intravenous glucose tolerance test (OGTT, IVGTT) on separate days in random order. Higher fasting insulin (P<0.001), non-esterified fatty acids (P<0.05) and plasminogen activator inhibitor factor 1 concentrations (P<0.05) were found in HT patients when compared with NT patients. Despite comparable anthropometric parameters and body fat distribution assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in both groups, newly diagnosed untreated young hypertensive male subjects showed decreased insulin sensitivity, augmented insulin response to both oral and intravenous glucose load (P<0.01; P<0.05 respectively) and 'higher still normal' 2-h plasma glucose levels during OGTT. Untreated, young, lean hypertensive male subjects, with distribution of abdominal adipose tissue and lipid profile comparable with their healthy NT matched counterparts, showed considerable signs of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia. We hypothesize that insulin resistance is the initial feature, which is influenced by several environmental factors, and HT is one of their common consequences. PMID:20631738

  6. Anaerobic Endurance of Young Untrained Male and Female Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sienkiewicz-Dianzenza, Edyta; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Iwanska, Dagmara; Stupnicki, Romuald

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the anaerobic endurance of untrained male and female subjects by applying repeated maximal exercises. Material and methods: Untrained male subjects aged 23-27 years (n = 17, body height 170-197 cm, body mass 65-110 kg) and female ones aged 20-25 years (n = 10, body height 168-184 cm, body mass 55-86 kg) performed 6 maximal…

  7. Normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) characteristics of Brazilian male subjects.

    PubMed

    Pegoraro-Krook, M I; Castro, V C

    1994-07-01

    The present study was carried out in order to obtain normative Speaking Fundamental Frequency (SFF) data for 150 Brazilian Portuguese-speaking male subjects (mean age, 19.4; range, 17-30) in two different vocal tasks, i.e., oral reading and counting. Mean (+/- SD) SFF was 134.9 +/- 17.9 Hz for oral reading and 130.5 +/- 18.5 Hz for counting. The mean SFF values obtained in this investigation were similar to data reported in previous studies.

  8. Variability in Hoffmann and tendon reflexes in healthy male subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Good, E.; Do, S.; Jaweed, M.

    1992-01-01

    There is a time dependent decrease in amplitude of H- and T-reflexes during Zero-G exposure and subsequently an increase in the amplitude of the H-reflex 2-4 hours after return to a 1-G environment. These alterations have been attributed to the adaptation of the human neurosensory system to gravity. The Hoffman reflex (H-reflex) is an acknowledged method to determine the integrity of the monosynaptic reflex arc. However deep tendon reflexes (DTR's or T-reflexes), elicited by striking the tendon also utilize the entire reflex arc. The objective of this study was to compare the variability in latency and amplitude of the two reflexes in healthy subjects. Methods: Nine healthy male subjects, 27-43 years in age, 161-175 cm in height plus 60-86 Kg in weight, underwent weekly testing for four weeks with a Dan-Tec EMG counterpoint EMG system. Subjects were studied prone and surface EMG electrodes were placed on the right and left soleus muscles. The H-reflex was obtained by stimulating the tibial nerve in the politeal fossa with a 0.2 msec square wave pulse delivered at 2 Hz until the maximum H-reflex was obtained. The T-reflex was invoked by tapping the achilles tendon with a self triggering reflex hammer connected to the EMG system. The latencies and amplitudes for the H- and T-reflexes were measured. Results: These data indicate that the amplitudes of these reflexes varied considerably. However, latencies to invoked responses were consistent. The latency of the T-reflex was approximately 3-5 msec longer than the H-reflex. Conclusion: The T-reflex is easily obtained, requires less time, and is more comfortable to perform. Qualitative data can be obtained by deploying self triggering, force plated reflex hammers both in the 1-G and Zero-G environment.

  9. Salivary Stress-Related Responses in Tinnitus: A Preliminary Study in Young Male Subjects with Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Alsalman, Ola A.; Tucker, Denise; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This preliminary study examined if baseline measures of stress-related biomarkers as measured by salivary secretions of specific autonomic [measured by salivary α-amylase (sAA)], endocrine (measured by salivary cortisol), and immune (measured by salivary neopterin) responses are greater in male subjects with tinnitus in response to an induced-stress task. Method: Twenty male subjects with no significant hearing loss, 10 with tinnitus, and 10 without tinnitus were enrolled in this study.Salivary secretions were collected before and after the induced stress task at four different time intervals. Results: sAA levels were lower in the tinnitus group in comparison to subjects without tinnitus, suggesting impaired sympathetic activity in the subjects with tinnitus although these levels remained stable throughout the stress experiment.While no significant effects could be obtained for salivary cortisol or neopterin, salivary neopterin levels were trending toward significance over all measurements. Behavioral measures of stress were found to correlate negatively with measures of sAA and salivary neopterin. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest impaired stress-related sAA mechanisms in male subjects with tinnitus, as evidenced by the different stress reactions induced in the endocrine system (as measured by salivary cortisol) and the immune system (as measured by salivary neopterin). PMID:27489534

  10. Psychology of male and female communicative activity.

    PubMed

    Vasyura, Svetlana A

    2008-05-01

    The article features a brief overview of theoretical and empirical studies in communication psychology and sociability of men and women, boys and girls. Russian and foreign studies are summarized to point out that girls and women place greater emphasis on communication and interpersonal relations than do boys and men. Moreover, female communication is more emotional. The article presents the results of the author's own empirical study of male and female communicative activity. Communicative activity is viewed as a complex psychological phenomenon, a degree of the subject's willingness to interact. Communicative activity was studied with the test proposed by the Russian psychologist, Krupnov, and designed to detect the following components of communicative activity: dynamic (natural), emotional, motivational, cognitive, regulatory, productive, and two sorts of communication difficulties (operational and personal). Gender differences in communicative activity are shown on a sample of 480 participants aged 18-40 (240 men and 240 women). The article then describes communicative styles of adolescents (130 boys and 130 girls, aged 19-24). Various communicative styles are featured, including "energetic, businesslike," "conformal, emotional," "diplomatic, externally oriented" for boys and "energetic, sociable," "emotional, difficult," and "complaisant, expressive" for girls. Every person's individuality and gender identity are shown to impact their communicative style.

  11. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  12. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  13. Can activity be understood out of subjectivity?

    PubMed

    Hubault, F; Sznelwar, L I

    2012-01-01

    The PSR echo a crisis of the relation of the organization with the subjectivity, which is at the same time a crisis of the relation of the organization with the reality that subjectivity is confronting through activity. Thus, they also raise, with ergonomics, the question to know which place it grants itself to subjectivity in the relation health-effectiveness. PMID:22316695

  14. Differences in personality traits between male-to-female and female-to-male gender identity disorder subjects.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Eiichi; Taira, Naoki; Koda, Munenaga; Kondo, Tsuyoshi

    2014-12-15

    The present study aimed to investigate differences in personality traits among male-to-female (MtF), female-to-male (FtM) gender identity disorder (GID) subjects and non-transsexual male (M) and female (F) controls. Subjects were 72 MtF and 187 FtM GID subjects without psychiatric comorbidities together with 184 male and 159 female non-transsexual controls. Personality traits were assessed using a short version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Group comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA. Statistical significances were observed as follows: 1) lower novelty seeking in FtM than in M or MtF, 2) higher reward dependence in FtM than in M, 3) higher cooperativeness in FtM than in M or MtF, 4) the highest self-transcendence in MtF among all the groups. The highest self-transcendence in MtF subjects may reflect their vulnerable identity and constrained adaptation to society as the minority. Nevertheless, higher reward dependence and cooperativeness in FtM subjects can be related to more determined motivation for the treatments of GID and might promise better social functioning and adjustment than MtF subjects.

  15. Declining stroke burden among white and black male veteran subjects.

    PubMed

    Kamalesh, Masoor; Shen, Jianzhao; Tierney, William

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension and diabetes is increasing. We hypothesized that this could contribute to increasing burden of stroke-the third leading cause of mortality-and investigated national trends in stroke burden among blacks and whites. From October 1990 to October 1997, 55,094 veterans were admitted with diagnosis of ischemic stroke (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] code 434 or 436) at any veterans hospital in the country were included in the study. We extracted demographic data from Veterans' Administration administrative databases. Discharge ICD-9 codes were used to assess stroke risk factors. Patients were classified as white or black, and prevalence of stroke was calculated and stratified according to age. Overall annual incidence rate fell from 2.7 per 1,000 in 1991 to 1.67 per 1,000 in 1997. Annual incidence number of stroke declined steadily in both the white and black groups from 1991 to 1997. Incidence numbers fell for all ages with greater decrease in younger age groups. Our data indicate that the burden of stroke among male veterans is decreasing. This appears to be true for both blacks and whites and across all age groups.

  16. MORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIVE MALE SUBJECTS' THYROID BODY IN THE REPUBLIC SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN DIFFERENT SEASONS.

    PubMed

    Egorova, A; Garmayeva, D

    2015-01-01

    Morphological analysis of macro-, microstructures of native male subjects' thyroid gland in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) in different seasons has been conducted. Macromorphometric indicators of native male subjects' thyroid gland (specific weight, total capacity, linear indicators were specified in summer and winter seasons. Micromorphometric characteristics of structural components of native male subjects' thyroid gland tissue was given in relation to different seasons. In this case native male subjects' thyroid gland was as curtained as normoplastic mixed type of structure, indicators of outer and inner thyroid gland follicles diameter in winter period were slightly bigger than in summer period. The same tendency was observed when thyroid gland follicular-colloidal index was calculated. On the data obtained the attempt to assess season temperature factor impact on the thyroid gland structural indicators were made. This assessment might be used as morphological equivalent of the body adaptation processes in northern regions.

  17. Personality in free-ranging Hanuman langur (Semnopithecus entellus) males: subjective ratings and recorded behavior.

    PubMed

    Konecná, Martina; Lhota, Stanislav; Weiss, Alexander; Urbánek, Tomás; Adamová, Tereza; Pluhácek, Jan

    2008-11-01

    The authors obtained behavioral observations and personality ratings for 27 free-ranging Hanuman langur males. Subjects were rated using a questionnaire based on the human Five-Factor Model (FFM). Behavioral observations were taken over 5 months using an ethogram that included 50 behaviors. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of ratings revealed Agreeableness_(R), Confidence_(R), and Extraversion_(R) components. Each personality dimension was associated with a unique set of observed behaviors. PCA of 36 behavioral indices revealed Dominance_(B), Involvement_(B), and Activity_(B) components. Bivariate correlations showed that Agreeableness_(R) was negatively correlated with Dominance_(B); Confidence_(R) was positively correlated with Dominance_(B) and Involvement_(B) but negatively correlated with Activity_(B); and Extraversion_(R) was positively correlated with Activity_(B). Dominance rank was positively correlated with Confidence_(R) and Dominance_(B) but negatively correlated with Agreeableness_(R) and Activity_(B). These results highlight the comparability of behavioral coding and personality ratings and suggest that some aspects of personality structure were present in the common ancestor of Old World monkeys.

  18. Subjective ratings of prolonged inspiratory resistive loaded breathing in males and females.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sarah; Davenport, Paul W

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea and fear of suffocation are burdensome to patients with respiratory disease. Inspiratory resistive loads offer an experimental respiratory stimulus to quantify the discriminative domain of respiratory perception. Resistive (R) load magnitude estimation (ME) and subjective ratings were measured over sustained multiple breaths in healthy subjects. There was no significant group difference between the ME for Breath 1 and 20 for small R loads, but a significant gender difference for large R loads. Subjective responses of fear, fear of suffocation, displeasure, chest pressure, faintness, dizziness, fear of losing control, trembling, and tingling were significantly greater for females. These results demonstrate that ME of large resistive sustained loads elicits nonsignificant increases in ME in females, but a significant decrease in ME for males. The maintenance of ME in females co-occurs with increased aversive processing relative to males.

  19. Personality and subjective well-being in captive male western lowland gorillas living in bachelor groups.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Sarah A; Steklis, H Dieter

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the personality structure of eight male gorillas (five silverbacks and three blackbacks) housed at the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, Kansas and to determine if personality predicts behavior and subjective well-being in male gorillas living in bachelor groups. We used the Hominoid Personality Questionnaire which contains 54 descriptive adjectives with representative items from the human five-factor model. Rates of 12 behaviors that are broadly defined as agonistic or affiliative were independently recorded and calculated. Principal components analysis yielded three reliable personality factors: Dominance, Extraversion/Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. These results are the first potential quantitative evidence for a Conscientiousness factor in a hominoid other than chimpanzees and humans. This suggests that Conscientiousness originated with the common ancestor of male gorillas and humans around 10 million years ago. These results indicate that humans can reliably assess the personality and subjective well-being of captive male gorillas living in bachelor groups with robust levels of inter-rater reliability and validity. Furthermore, personality can accurately predict behavior (r = 0.79; n = 13) and subjective well-being (r = 0.83; n = 5) in gorillas and provide convergent and discriminant validity for the personality factors. The results advocate for the use of personality questionnaires in the captive management of bachelor gorillas over long-term multi-institutional behavioral studies. PMID:24677279

  20. Smelling chemosensory signals of males in anxious versus nonanxious condition increases state anxiety of female subjects.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jessica; Demmel, Maria; Schöpf, Veronika; Kleemann, Anna Maria; Kopietz, Rainer; May, Johanna; Schreder, Tatjana; Zernecke, Rebekka; Brückmann, Hartmut; Wiesmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The hypothesis of this experiment was that humans in an anxious state compared with a nonanxious state are able to increase anxiety levels in other humans via their body odors. Specifically, we hypothesized that male chemosensory anxiety signals compared with neutral chemosignals increase state anxiety of female subjects. Thirteen male subjects participated in 2 different sweat donation sessions: chemosignals were collected during participation in a high rope course (anxiety condition) and in an ergometer workout (neutral condition). State and trait anxiety were evaluated in 20 female odor recipients using Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory in a double-blind design. Comparison of state anxiety of odor donors between control and anxiety condition differed significantly indicating that our model of anxiety induction successfully led to the expected change in emotion. Comparison of state anxiety of odor recipients showed a trend toward higher state anxiety in the anxiety condition compared with the neutral condition after 5 min of odor exposure. After 20 min of odor exposure, state anxiety of female subjects was significantly higher during the perception of sweat collected during the anxiety condition in comparison with the perception of sweat collected during the neutral condition. This experiment gives evidence that male anxiety chemosignals compared with neutral chemosignals are capable of inducing an increased state anxiety in female subjects. PMID:20929974

  1. Outcome and preferences in female-to-male subjects with gender dysphoria: Experience from Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Majumder, Anirban; Sanyal, Debmalya

    2016-01-01

    Context: Awareness of gender dysphoria (GD) and its treatment is increasing. There is paucity of scientific data from India regarding the therapeutic options being used for alleviating GD, which includes psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments. Aim: To study the therapeutic options including psychotherapy, hormone, and surgical treatments used for alleviating GD. Settings and Design: This is a retrospective study of treatment preferences and outcome in 18 female-to-male (FTM) transgender subjects who presented to the endocrine clinic. Results: The mean follow-up was 1.6 years and only one subject was lost to follow-up after a single visit. All subjects desiring treatment had regular counseling and medical monitoring. All FTM subjects were cross-dressing. Seventeen (94.4%) FTM subjects were receiving cross-sex hormone therapy, in the form of testosterone only (61.1%) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in combination with testosterone (11.1%) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) depot in combination with testosterone (22.2%). FTM subjects preferred testosterone or testosterone plus MPA; very few could afford GnRH therapy. Testosterone esters injection was preferred by most (72.2%) subjects as it was most affordable while 22.2% chose 3 monthly injections of testosterone undecanoate for convenience and better symptomatic improvement, but it was more expensive. None preferred testosterone gels because of cost and availability concerns. About 33.3% of our subjects underwent mastectomy, 38.9% had hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and only one subject underwent phalloplasty. About 16.7% of FTM subjects presented with prior mastectomy depicting a high prevalence of unsupervised or poorly supervised surgeries not following protocol wise approach. Conclusion: Notwithstanding of advances in Standards of Care in the Western world, there is lack of awareness and acceptance in the FTM subjects, about proper and timely protocol

  2. Dopamine agonists disrupt visual latent inhibition in normal males using a within-subject paradigm.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Neal R; Stephany, Nora; Wasserman, Lindsay C; Talledo, Jo; Sharp, Richard; Auerbach, Pamela P

    2003-09-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) is the delayed learning of an association when the conditioned stimulus has previously been experienced out of the context of that association. LI can be measured across species and has been used to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia, since some reports suggest that schizophrenia patients exhibit LI deficits. One challenge of LI studies in humans has resulted from the fact that LI paradigms have almost uniformly involved between-subject comparisons. We now report a new within-subject paradigm that detected LI in normal adult male subjects after ingestion of a placebo. After amphetamine (20 mg p.o.) or bromocriptine (1.25 mg p.o.), LI was not evident, suggesting that the LI detected by this paradigm is sensitive to disruption by dopamine agonists. The apparent advantages and limitations of this paradigm are discussed with regard to its future use in understanding the neural basis of reported LI deficits in schizophrenia.

  3. Caloric restriction increases serum testosterone concentrations in obese male subjects by two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D M; Hahn, M; Oberhäuser, F; Malchau, G; Schubert, M; Heppner, C; Müller, N; Güdelhöfer, H; Faust, M; Krone, W; Laudes, M

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of serum testosterone is mainly regulated by the testicular function, which is under control of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A certain amount of testosterone is converted into β-estradiol by adipose tissue. Obesity in men is often associated with decreased androgen levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caloric restriction on serum testosterone levels in obese men. Dietary intervention study was performed with a very low calorie diet (800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Thirteen obese human male subjects (median body mass index: 42.7 kg/m2) were included. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR). Testosterone (T), β-estradiol, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH serum concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Statistical analysis was performed on baseline and values after 3 months. Caloric restriction significantly increased total testosterone (6.97 nmol/l to 13.21 nmol/l; p=0.001) and SHBG (22.11 nmol/l to 42.12 nmol/l; p=0.001) concentrations in serum. This is caused by a significant improvement of the testicular function (LH/T: 0.36-0.20; p=0.005) and a significant reduction of the T/β-estradiol conversion rate (73.59-104.29; p=0.003). There was a significant negative correlation of improvement of testicular function and LAR (rs=-0.683 (p=0.042)). In obese men caloric restriction significantly increases the serum testosterone concentration. This is achieved by 2 distinct mechanisms, that is, improvement of testicular function and reduced conversion of testosterone to β-estradiol by aromatase activity of the adipose tissue.

  4. Effects of grapefruit juice on cortisol metabolism in healthy male Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ya-Jie; Hu, Miao; Tomlinson, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Grapefruit juice (GFJ) inhibits intestinal CYP3A4 activity and it has been suggested that GFJ may also inhibit renal 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2), which converts cortisol to cortisone. This study examined the effect of GFJ on the urinary excretion of cortisol, cortisone and 6β-hydroxycortisol (6β-OHC) and their ratios to asses these effects. Healthy male Chinese subjects took single doses of GFJ (200, 400, and 600 mL, respectively) at weekly intervals. Urine was collected over 24 h the day before and following GFJ intake. Subsequently, volunteers drank 400 mL GFJ for 7 days and urine was collected from 0 to 4 h daily. GFJ had dose-dependent effects on increasing cortisol excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of cortisol to cortisone (P <0.005) and reducing 6β-OHC excretion (P <0.05) and the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol (P <0.005). There was no significant effect on cortisone excretion. Maximal effects were observed within 4 h after GFJ ingestion. Repeated doses had persistent but no cumulative effects. GFJ significantly reduced the ratio of 6β-OHC to cortisol. It increased the ratio of cortisol to cortisone and this appeared largely due to increased cortisol excretion related to impaired CYP3A4-mediated cortisol metabolism although a true inhibitory effect on 11β-HSD2 in the kidney cannot be excluded.

  5. Perceptions of Child Support and Sexual Activity of Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2004-01-01

    Using the 1995 new cohort of the National Survey of Adolescent Males, this paper examines the association between perceptions of child support and adolescent males' sexual activity. The results indicate that adolescent males who expect the chance of being required to pay child support is high if one becomes a non-resident father or who has a…

  6. Activity predicts male reproductive success in a polygynous lizard.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J Scott; Noble, Daniel W A; Wilson, Eleanor E; Whiting, Martin J

    2012-01-01

    Activity patterns and social interactions play a key role in determining reproductive success, although this is poorly understood for species that lack overt social behaviour. We used genetic paternity analysis to quantify both multiple paternity and the relative roles of activity and social behaviour in determining reproductive success in a nondescript Australian lizard. During the breeding season we intensively followed and recorded the behaviour of a group of seven males and 13 females in a naturalistic outdoor enclosure to examine the relative roles of body size, activity and social interactions in determining male fertilization success. We found multiple paternity in 42% of clutches. No single behaviour was a significant predictor of male fertilization success in isolation, but male-female association, interactions and courtship explained 41% of the variation in male fertilization success. Males with the highest number of offspring sired invested heavily in interacting with females but spent very little time in interactions with males. These same males also sired offspring from more clutches. When taken collectively, an index of overall male activity, including locomotion and all social interactions, significantly explained 81% of the variation in the total number of offspring sired and 90% of the variation in the number of clutches in which males sired offspring. We suggest that the most successful male strategy is a form of endurance rivalry in which active mate searching and interactions with females have the greatest fitness benefits.

  7. Recidivism among male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Chan, Hung-Yu; Chen, Chiung-Hsu; Sun, Hsiao-Ju; Chang, Hung-Jung; Chen, Wei J; Lin, Shih-Ku; Chen, Chih-Ken

    2006-08-01

    Illicit drug users are generally considered both patients and criminals in Taiwan. This study presents drug use behaviors and criminal recidivism of male subjects incarcerated for illicit drug use in Taiwan after detoxification at a detention center. This study also examined the relationship between drug use behaviors and subsequent recidivism. Charts and crime records of 794 male patients from the acute detoxification unit in a detention center in northern Taiwan were reviewed. These subjects were incarcerated for methamphetamine or/and heroin use. The authors examined the relationship between the variables collected during detoxification and subsequent recidivism of illicit drug use in the following 5 years after detoxification. Of 794 subjects, 539 (67.9%) were repeat offenders during the following 5 years after detoxification. Their recidivism occurred primarily within the first 2 years after being released into the community. The recidivism rate for heroin users was significantly higher than that of methamphetamine users. Aged under 30 years, a previous criminal record, and a positive urine analyses test for illicit drugs upon entering the detoxification unit were significantly associated with recidivism. Recidivism rates of illicit drug users in Taiwan after detoxification in the detention center were substantially high. The efficacy of detoxification programs at detention centers in Taiwan needs to be re-evaluated.

  8. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W; Naves, Luciana A; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Beckers, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101 We studied XLAG syndrome patients (n= 18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome caused by Xq26.3 duplications were identified using high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted that males with XLAG had a decreased log2ratio (LR) compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, whereas females showed no such decrease. Compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1 and 53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint junction-specific quantification droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique, we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism, and identified one female gigantism patient who had had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes.

  9. Somatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism syndrome in sporadic male subjects.

    PubMed

    Daly, Adrian F; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic; Caberg, Jean-Hubert; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Rostomyan, Liliya; de Herder, Wouter W; Naves, Luciana A; Metzger, Daniel; Cuny, Thomas; Rabl, Wolfgang; Shah, Nalini; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie-Lise; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Faucz, Fabio R; Castermans, Emilie; Nanni-Metellus, Isabelle; Lodish, Maya; Muhammad, Ammar; Palmeira, Leonor; Potorac, Iulia; Mantovani, Giovanna; Neggers, Sebastian J; Klein, Marc; Barlier, Anne; Liu, Pengfei; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Bours, Vincent; Lupski, James R; Stratakis, Constantine A; Beckers, Albert

    2016-04-01

    Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101 We studied XLAG syndrome patients (n= 18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome caused by Xq26.3 duplications were identified using high-definition array comparative genomic hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted that males with XLAG had a decreased log2ratio (LR) compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, whereas females showed no such decrease. Compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1 and 53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint junction-specific quantification droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique, we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism, and identified one female gigantism patient who had had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated, for the first time, that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. PMID:26935837

  10. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Rojas, Fausto; Pascual, Luz I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Toledo, Rebeca; Garcia, Luis I; Quintanar-Stephano, Andres; Manzo, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    Background The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying this correlation. Hence, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of prolactin on sexual behaviour and prostate organization of male rats. Methods In addition to sexual behaviour recordings, we developed the ELISA procedure to quantify the serum level of prolactin, and the hematoxilin-eosin technique for analysis of the histological organization of the prostate. Also, different experimental manipulations were carried out; they included pituitary grafts, and haloperidol and ovine prolactin treatments. Data were analyzed with a One way ANOVA followed by post hoc Dunnet test if required. Results Data showed that male prolactin has a basal level with two peaks at the light-dark-light transitions. Consecutive ejaculations increased serum prolactin after the first ejaculation, which reached the highest level after the second, and started to decrease after the third ejaculation. These normal levels of prolactin did not induce any change at the prostate tissue. However, treatments for constant elevations of serum prolactin decreased sexual potency and increased the weight of the gland, the alveoli area and the epithelial cell height. Treatments for transient elevation of serum prolactin did not affect the sexual behaviour of males, but triggered these significant effects mainly at the ventral prostate. Conclusion The prostate is a sexual gland that responds to prolactin. Mating-induced prolactin release is required during sexual encounters to activate the epithelial cells in the gland. Here we saw a precise mechanism controlling the release of prolactin during ejaculations that avoid

  11. Subjective social support in older male Italian-born immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Stanaway, Fiona F; Kendig, Hal L; Blyth, Fiona M; Cumming, Robert G; Naganathan, Vasi; Waite, Louise M

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes differences in subjective social support between older male Italian-born immigrants in Australia and their Australian-born counterparts. Data came from 335 Italian-born and 849 Australian-born men aged 70 years and over who participated in the baseline phase of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP) in inner suburban Sydney, Australia. Social support was measured using the shortened (11 item) version of the Duke Social Support Index (DSSI). This index measures both social interactions and expressive social support. Logistic regression was used to examine differences in subjective social support between the two groups of men after controlling for other related factors. Italian-born men were about twice as likely to report low subjective social support compared to Australian-born men (unadjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, p = 0.0002). This difference remained after adjustment for sociodemographic, socioeconomic, social network and health factors (adjusted OR = 2.1, p = 0.0007). Italian-born men were more likely to report that they had no non-family members in the local area to rely on. However, lack of non-family supports did not remain significantly associated with perceived social support after adjustment for social interactions and depressive symptoms. Italian-born men were more likely to report low subjective support despite the presence of several protective factors such as a greater number of local family supports and a high rate of home ownership.

  12. Pathological brain plasticity and cognition in the offspring of males subjected to postnatal traumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Bohacek, J; Farinelli, M; Mirante, O; Steiner, G; Gapp, K; Coiret, G; Ebeling, M; Durán-Pacheco, G; Iniguez, A L; Manuella, F; Moreau, J-L; Mansuy, I M

    2015-05-01

    Traumatic stress in early-life increases the risk for cognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders later in life. Such early stress can also impact the progeny even if not directly exposed, likely through epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we report in mice that the offspring of males subjected to postnatal traumatic stress have decreased gene expression in molecular pathways necessary for neuronal signaling, and altered synaptic plasticity when adult. Long-term potentiation is abolished and long-term depression is enhanced in the hippocampus, and these defects are associated with impaired long-term memory in both the exposed fathers and their offspring. The brain-specific gamma isoform of protein kinase C (Prkcc) is one of the affected signaling components in the hippocampus. Its expression is reduced in the offspring, and DNA methylation at its promoter is altered both in the hippocampus of the offspring and the sperm of fathers. These results suggest that postnatal traumatic stress in males can affect brain plasticity and cognitive functions in the adult progeny, possibly through epigenetic alterations in the male germline.

  13. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence.

  14. Male Androgenetic Alopecia: Population-Based Study in 1,005 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Krupa Shankar, DS; Chakravarthi, M; Shilpakar, Rachana

    2009-01-01

    Context: Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common condition. There is limited information on its prevalence and patterns. Aims: (1). To find the prevalence and most common pattern (2). To correlate the age and pattern of alopecia. Settings and Design: Population-based study. Materials and Methods: This is a population-based study from the public. The selection was random. The method involved was asking the age and, if found to between 30 and 50 years, the scalp was examined for alopecia and the pattern was determined using the Hamilton Norwood classification. Results: Of 1,005 subjects, the youngest was 30 years old and the oldest 49 years old, with a mean age of 37.05 ± standard deviation 4.79. 39.2% of the subjects were in the age group of 30-35, 34.4% in the 36-40 year age group, 26.0% in the 41-45 years age group and 0.4% in the 46-50 years age group. Five hundred and eighty-three subjects (58%) had AGA, the most common type being grade II (27.27%) followed by grade I (22.12%) and grade III (21.78%). 47.5% (P = 0.003) had pattern alopecia in the 30-35 years age group, 58.7% in the 36-40 years age group (P = 0.8) and 73.2% in the 41-45 years age group (P ≤ 0.001). In the 30-35 years age group, grade I was 51.18%, grade II was 42.77% and grade VI was 18.52%. In the 41-45 years age group, grade I was 13.38%, grade III was 33.85% and grade VI was 66.67%. Conclusions: Fifty-eight percent of the male population aged 30-50 years had AGA. Its grade increased with increase in age. 12.9% of the male population had grades IV to VI, and would benefit from hair transplantation while 44.1% had grades I to III and are potential candidates for medical treatment PMID:20927235

  15. The Psychophysiological Reactions of Male and Female Subjects with Varying Film Viewing Experience While Viewing Selected Cinemagraphic Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smeltzer, Dennis Keith

    This study investigated the psychophysiological reactions of male and female subjects to cinematic elements: varying camera distances, panning shots, tracking shots, and zooming shots. Fourteen males and 15 females, members of an introductory speech course at Northern Illinois University, viewed five films that varied only in the presence or…

  16. Trade-Offs in Male Display Activity with Lek Size

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, César; Loiselle, Bette A.; Pizo, Marco Aurélio

    2016-01-01

    In lek mating systems, males aggregate and defend arenas where they display for females; females select and mate with a male and then solely raise their offspring. Generally, female visits and copulations increase and reproductive variance in male mating success declines with lek size. Here we investigate how male display effort changes across a gradient in lek size. We expect male display effort, an energetically expensive activity, will increase with lek size and male rank due to changes in breeding opportunities and competition among males. We test the interaction of male rank and lek size on display effort using the white-bearded manakin, Manacus manacus (Aves: Pipridae), a well-studied species with a wide geographic distribution in the new world tropics. We used mini-video recorders to simultaneously capture female visits and display behaviors of 41 males distributed over 10 leks. We found that overall display effort increased disproportionately with lek size due to males of both high and low ranks increasing their display effort at larger leks. Our results suggest that increased breeding opportunities and intrasexual competition at larger leks result in males of different ranks investing similarly in increased display effort in order to attract females. PMID:27680489

  17. Sexual Dysfunction in Male Subjects Receiving Trifluoperazine, Risperidone, or Olanzapine: Rates Vary With Assessment Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Avasthi, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the rate and typology of sexual dysfunction in male subjects receiving trifluoperazine, risperidone, or olanzapine using the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), the Psychotropic Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ), and the sexual function section of the modified Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser Side Effect Rating Scale (UKU). Method: The sample included 100 men with psychotic disorders (F2 category of the ICD-10) and receiving trifluoperazine (n = 20), risperidone (n = 30), or olanzapine (n = 50) for at least 3 months’ duration. Subjects with a history of sexual dysfunction prior to antipsychotic intake or chronic medical illness were excluded. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data were collected over a 1½-year period from March 2009 to August 2010. Results: The rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale among the 100 subjects. The rate of sexual dysfunction was 25% on the ASEX, 37% on the PRSexDQ, and 40% on the UKU. Sexual dysfunction in the trifluoperazine, risperidone, and olanzapine groups was 20%, 43%, and 16%, respectively, on the ASEX; 35%, 50%, and 30%, respectively, on the PRSexDQ; and 40%, 50%, and 34%, respectively, on the UKU. The most common sexual dysfunction as assessed on all scales was decreased libido, except for the risperidone group on the ASEX. Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction is quite prevalent in subjects receiving antipsychotic medications. In our study, rate of sexual dysfunction was highest for risperidone, followed by trifluoperazine and olanzapine. However, the rate of sexual dysfunction varied from scale to scale. Hence, there is a need for a comprehensive instrument to assess sexual dysfunction in patients receiving antipsychotics. PMID:22943029

  18. Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary impairment in male and female subjects with pottery workers' silicosis.

    PubMed

    Prowse, K; Allen, M B; Bradbury, S P

    1989-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms, smoking habit, lung function and radiological category of silicosis were assessed in 276 present and former pottery workers who were receiving industrial disablement benefit for silicosis. There were 140 females and 136 males. The proportion with conglomerate disease (massive fibrosis) was similar in both sexes. The FEV1 declined with increasing X-ray category of silicosis irrespective of smoking habit and was most marked in subjects with symptomatic chronic bronchitis. In females who had never smoked the average decline of FEV1 in those with simple silicosis was 18 ml year-1 and for those with conglomerate disease 38 ml year-1. Symptomatic chronic bronchitis was common and only partly related to smoking, occurring in 69% of 101 nonsmoking female silicotic patients. No significant changes were observed in vital capacity, lung volume or transfer factor for carbon monoxide.

  19. Competitiveness Among Females and Males in Physical Activity Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.

    1986-01-01

    Competitive orientations of 237 male and female undergraduates enrolled in competitive and noncompetitive physical activity classes were investigated using the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire and a Competitiveness Inventory. Females scored higher on work and goal orientation, while males scored higher on competitiveness. (KH)

  20. Decoding Ventromedial Hypothalamic Neural Activity during Male Mouse Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Dollar, Piotr; Perona, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    The ventromedial hypothalamus, ventrolateral area (VMHvl) was identified recently as a critical locus for inter-male aggression. Optogenetic stimulation of VMHvl in male mice evokes attack toward conspecifics and inactivation of the region inhibits natural aggression, yet very little is known about its underlying neural activity. To understand its role in promoting aggression, we recorded and analyzed neural activity in the VMHvl in response to a wide range of social and nonsocial stimuli. Although response profiles of VMHvl neurons are complex and heterogeneous, we identified a subpopulation of neurons that respond maximally during investigation and attack of male conspecific mice and during investigation of a source of male mouse urine. These “male responsive” neurons in the VMHvl are tuned to both the inter-male distance and the animal's velocity during attack. Additionally, VMHvl activity predicts several parameters of future aggressive action, including the latency and duration of the next attack. Linear regression analysis further demonstrates that aggression-specific parameters, such as distance, movement velocity, and attack latency, can model ongoing VMHvl activity fluctuation during inter-male encounters. These results represent the first effort to understand the hypothalamic neural activity during social behaviors using quantitative tools and suggest an important role for the VMHvl in encoding movement, sensory, and motivation-related signals. PMID:24760856

  1. Investigation of the Relations between Religious Activities and Subjective Well-Being of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the relation between participation in religious activities and the subjective wellbeing of high school students. The study group involves 196 participants, 99 female and 97 male; all of the participants were adolescents attending high school in Eskisehir, Turkey, their ages varying from 14 to 16. The measurement…

  2. Safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of compound SFDAC by intranasal administration of multiple escalating dose in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Thennati, Rajamannar; Khanna, Aman; Khanna, Mallika; Sonaiya, Tushar; Mehta, Tejas; Mehta, Kalpana; Shahi, Pradeep; Patel, Jigneshkumar

    2014-11-01

    A novel corticosteroid compound (short form of IUPAC name: SFDAC) has been discovered by Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company (SPARC) Ltd. A randomized, observer-blind, active-controlled, parallel-groups, intranasal multiple escalating dose study was conducted in healthy male subjects to assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of compound SFDAC formulated as an aqueous suspension for intranasal administration. Intranasal sprays of SFDAC, active control fluticasone propionate (FP) and placebo were administered once in a day for 14 days as per randomization. Various clinical evaluations including 24-hour serum cortisol and urinary free cortisol (UFC) profiles were carried out. Blood samples were collected at pre-defined time-points and analyzed using a validated chromatographic method for estimation of SFDAC and its metabolite. The results of the study indicate that multiple dose of SFDAC intranasal spray upto 3,200 µg is safe and tolerated. Clinically significant suppression of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis was not observed. The plasma concentration of SFDAC was found to be below the lower limit of quantification (LLQ) at most time-points for all subjects. SFDAC M1 metabolite was detected only at picogram level in plasma. The safety and pharmacokinetic characteristics of SFDAC observed in this study support further clinical development of the SFDAC nasal spray.

  3. Oxytocin for Male Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Munesue, Toshio; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Miura, Yui; Takeuchi, Noriyuki; Anme, Tokie; Nanba, Eiji; Adachi, Kaori; Tsubouchi, Kiyotaka; Sai, Yoshimichi; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Horike, Shin-ichi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Nakatani, Hideo; Niida, Yo; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Minabe, Yoshio; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2016-01-01

    Approximately half of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) individuals suffer from comorbid intellectual disabilities (IDs). Oxytocin (OXT) receptors are highly expressed in temporal lobe structures and are likely to play a modulatory role in excitatory/inhibitory balance, at least based on animal model findings. Thus, it is feasible that in the highly representative group of Kanner-type ASD subjects, OXT could have a beneficial effect on social communication and social interaction. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the feasibility and adverse events, such as epilepsy, of the long-term administration of intranasal OXT for adolescent and adult ASD subjects with ID because such patients frequently have seizures. We also addressed the question on how to scale the OXT effects to the core symptoms of social deficits because of the relative difficulty in obtaining objective measurements. Twenty-nine males (aged 15–40 years old) participated in a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled crossover study (each for 8 weeks) with OXT (16 IU/day). Except for seizures experienced by one participant, other serious adverse events did not occur. The primary and secondary outcomes measured using the Childhood Autism Rating Scale and several standard scales, respectively, revealed no difference between the OXT and placebo groups. Instead, in an exploratory analysis, the social interactions observed in the play sessions or in daily life were significantly more frequent in the initial half period in the OXT-first arm of the crossover trial. There were also significant correlations between the plasma OXT concentration and subscale scores for irritability on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates that long-term administration of intranasal OXT is tolerable in a representative cohort of ASD individuals with ID and suggests that future multicenter trials of OXT are warranted and should include measurements of reciprocal social

  4. Upright posture and maximal exercise increase platelet aggregability and prostacyclin production in healthy male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Feng, D. L.; Murillo, J.; Jadhav, P.; McKenna, C.; Gebara, O. C.; Lipinska, I.; Muller, J. E.; Tofler, G. H.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well accepted that heavy physical exertion can trigger the onset of myocardial infarction, but the mechanism is uncertain. As platelet and endothelial function play an important role in thrombotic events, platelet and prostacyclin responses to maximal treadmill exercise were studied. METHODS/RESULTS: The study subjects were 40 healthy men, mean (SEM) age 29 (5) years. Platelet aggregation was measured on a four channel aggregometer. Plasma 6-keto- prostaglandin F1alpha was analysed using an enzyme immunoassay technique. Upright posture and exercise produced an increase in platelet aggregability, as indicated by a fall in the threshold concentration of adrenaline (epinephrine) from 7.6 (1.5) microM at rest to 4.3 (1.0) microM after exercise (p = 0.002). The collagen lag time became significantly shorter with exercise (from 79.1 (3.1) seconds at rest to 71.9 (2.6) seconds after exercise, p = 0.003). Exercise was also associated with a 55% increase in plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (from 38.1 (75%CI 29.0 to 46.5) pg/ml at rest to 59.2 (47.3 to 66.8) pg/ml after exercise, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In healthy male subjects, upright posture and maximal exercise increased platelet aggregability but this increase was counteracted by an increase in prostacyclin production. In patients with endothelial dysfunction, a reduced prostacyclin response to exercise may promote a transient prothrombotic imbalance that may trigger cardiovascular disease onset. 


 PMID:10597849

  5. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Kjaer, M.; Christensen, N.J.; Sonne, B.; Richter, E.A.; Galbo, H.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of TH-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min at 160 W, 40 min at 200 W, and 240 W to the end). Work time was 154 +/- 13 (SE) (T) and 75 +/- 6 (C) min. At rest, epinephrine clearance was identical (28.4 +/- 1.3 (T) vs. 29.2 +/- 1.8 (C) ml . kg-1 . min-1), but plasma concentration (1.42 +/- 0.27 (T) vs. 0.71 +/- 0.16 (C) nmol . l-1) and, accordingly, secretion (2.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 nmol . min-1) were higher (P less than 0.05) in T than C subjects. Epinephrine clearance was closely related to relative work load, decreasing from 15% above the basal level at 30% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to 22% below at 76% of VO2 max. Epinephrine concentrations increased much more with work intensity than could be accounted for by changes in clearance and were, at exhaustion, higher (P less than 0.05) in T (7.2 +/- 1.6) than in C (2.5 +/- 0.7 nmol . l-1) subjects despite similar glucose, heart rate, and hematocrit values. At a given load, epinephrine clearance rapidly became constant, whereas concentration increased continuously. Forearm extraction of epinephrine invalidated use of blood from a cubital vein or a hand vein arterialized by hot water in turnover measurements. During exercise, changes in epinephrine concentrations reflect changes in secretion rather than in clearance. Training may increase adrenal medullary secretory capacity.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of eltoprazine in healthy male subjects after single dose oral and intravenous administration.

    PubMed Central

    Raghoebar, M; Mak, M; Cournot, A; Pistorius, M C; Van Harten, J; Roseboom, H

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics, safety and tolerability of eltoprazine hydrochloride were studied in an open, cross-over, partially randomised design after single oral (8 mg) and intravenous (3 and 8 mg) doses to 12 healthy male subjects. After intravenous administration, the mean t1/2 ranged from 7 to 9 h, the MRT was 11 h, CL was 487 +/- 148 (3 mg dose) and 471 +/- 56 (8 mg dose) ml kg-1 h-1, while CLR was 226 +/- 124 (3 mg dose) and 189 +/- 38 (8 mg dose) ml kg-1 h-1. The Vss was 3.3 +/- 0.7 (3 mg dose) and 3.8 +/- 0.5 (8 mg dose) 1 kg-1. Cumulative renal excretion was 40%. The AUC and the cumulative urinary excretion were directly proportional to dose within the range of 3-8 mg. Values of tmax varied from 1 to 4 h after oral administration. The mean Cmax value was 24 ng ml-1 after an oral dose of 8 mg. The plasma elimination half-life after oral administration was 9.8 +/- 3.9 h. Absolute oral bioavailability was 110 +/- 32%. Dose-dependent somnolence was observed. PMID:2288834

  7. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001) and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001). No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02) and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05), which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001), with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002), with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.87 (1.05-3.33), P < 0.05), with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05), but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  8. Evolution of mate-harm, longevity and behaviour in male fruit flies subjected to different levels of interlocus conflict

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interlocus conflict predicts (a) evolution of traits, beneficial to males but detrimental to females and (b) evolution of aging and life-span under the influence of the cost of bearing these traits. However, there are very few empirical investigations shedding light on these predictions. Those that do address these issues, mostly reported response of male reproductive traits or the lack of it and do not address the life-history consequence of such evolution. Here, we test both the above mentioned predictions using experimental evolution on replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster. We present responses observed after >45 generations of altered levels of interlocus conflict (generated by varying the operational sex ratio). Results Males from the male biased (high conflict, M-regime) regime evolved higher spontaneous locomotor activity and courtship frequency. Females exposed to these males were found to have higher mortality rate. Males from the female biased regime (low conflict, F-regime) did not evolve altered courtship frequency and activity. However, progeny production of females continuously exposed to F-males was significantly higher than the progeny production of females exposed to M-males indicating that the F-males are relatively benign towards their mates. We found that males from male biased regime lived shorter compared to males from the female biased regime. Conclusion F-males (evolving under lower levels of sexual conflict) evolved decreased mate harming ability indicating the cost of maintenance of the suit of traits that cause mate-harm. The M-males (evolving under higher levels sexual conflict) caused higher female mortality indicating that they had evolved increased mate harming ability, possibly as a by product of increased reproduction related activity. There was a correlated evolution of life-history of the M and F-males. M-regime males lived shorter compared to the males from F-regime, possibly due to the cost of investing

  9. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health.

  10. Male Asian international students' perceived racial discrimination, masculine identity, and subjective masculinity stress: a moderated mediation model.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel; Tsai, Pei-Chun; Liu, Tao; Zhu, Qingqing; Wei, Meifen

    2014-10-01

    This study examined male Asian international college students' perceptions of racial discrimination, subjective masculinity stress, centrality of masculine identity, and psychological distress by testing a moderated mediation model. Participants were 160 male Asian international college students from 2 large public universities. Participants' perceived racial discrimination was positively related to their subjective masculinity stress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. Additionally, subjective masculinity stress was positively related to psychological distress, although this association was stronger among those who reported high levels of masculine identity centrality. The authors also detected a moderated mediation effect in which subjective masculinity stress mediated the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress only at high (but not low) levels of masculine identity centrality. These findings contribute to the counseling psychology literature by highlighting the connections between race- and gender-related stressors as well as the relevance of masculine identity to an understanding of men's mental health. PMID:25111707

  11. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made.

  12. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made. PMID:25712002

  13. Social stress in male mice impairs long-term antiviral immunity selectively in wounded subjects.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Johanna; Boersma, Wim J A; Scholten, Jan Willem; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2002-03-01

    An important property of the antiviral immune response is its time-dependent character. Beginning with a few antigen-specific cells upon infection, it evolves to a stage where there is an abundance of antigen-specific cells and antibodies that are needed to clear the pathogen, and ends with circulating antibodies and a population of virus-specific memory cells to protect the animal from reinfection. Short-term effects of stress on the immune system have been investigated extensively, showing that stress acutely changes many aspects of immunity. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of stress for the quality and quantity of long-term immunological memory. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of social stress, applied in mice at Days 1, 2 and 3 after inoculation with a herpes virus, on long-term antibody and memory cytokine responses to the virus. Male mice were subjected to three 5-min confrontations with an aggressive conspecific. Approximately half of the mice was wounded by bites of the aggressor during this stress procedure, and these mice were analyzed separately from nonwounded mice. It appeared that wounded mice showed suppressed protective antibody responses and impaired memory for virus-specific IL-4 and IL-10 production, whereas mice that were not wounded showed intact long-term immune responses and memory. It is concluded that the combination of wounds and the social stress of repeated confrontations is associated with impaired protective immunity as a consequence of suppressed antibody levels and impairment of some aspects of antiviral immunological memory. PMID:11897253

  14. Bioequivalence study of two brands of meloxicam tablets in healthy human Pakistani male subjects.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmood; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Naveed; Siddique, Faryal; Khan, Shujaat Ali

    2011-01-01

    Meloxicam is a cyclooxygenase-2, preferential inhibitor non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and belongs to an enolic acid (oxicam) class used for the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of this single dose randomized cross-over study was to assess bioequivalence of two brands of oral meloxicam tablets (Xobix manufactured by Hilton Pharma (Pvt.) Ltd. as a reference and tablet Melfax by AGP (Pvt.) Ltd. as a test) in 18 healthy male volunteers in local population of Pakistan. The data obtained were subjected to non-compartment model pharmacokinetic analysis. The value of C(max) calculated in present study was 1.051 +/- 3.762 microg/mL for reference formulation and 1.023 +/- 4.102 microg/mL (the mean +/- SEM) for test sample. The value of T(max) was 3.125 +/- 1.004 h for reference standard and 3.750 +/- 1.469 h (the mean +/- SEM) for test sample. The area under the curve from zero to infinity (AUC(0-72)) was 28.667 +/- 0.414 microg x h/mL for reference standard and 28.367 +/- 0.333 microg x h/mL for test sample (the mean +/- SEM). The t1/2 values were 13.694 +/- 0.568 h and 13.319 +/- 0.567 h (the mean +/- SEM) for reference formulation and for test sample, respectively. The test formulation was found to be bioequivalent to reference formulation based on the pharmacokinetic parameters.

  15. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  16. Brain activation by visual erotic stimuli in healthy middle aged males.

    PubMed

    Kim, S W; Sohn, D W; Cho, Y-H; Yang, W S; Lee, K-U; Juh, R; Ahn, K-J; Chung, Y-A; Han, S-I; Lee, K H; Lee, C U; Chae, J-H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify brain centers, whose activity changes are related to erotic visual stimuli in healthy, heterosexual, middle aged males. Ten heterosexual, right-handed males with normal sexual function were entered into the present study (mean age 52 years, range 46-55). All potential subjects were screened over 1 h interview, and were encouraged to fill out questionnaires including the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory. All subjects with a history of sexual arousal disorder or erectile dysfunction were excluded. We performed functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in male volunteers when an alternatively combined erotic and nonerotic film was played for 14 min and 9 s. The major areas of activation associated with sexual arousal to visual stimuli were occipitotemporal area, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, orbitofrontal cortex, caudate nucleus. However, hypothalamus and thalamus were not activated. We suggest that the nonactivation of hypothalamus and thalamus in middle aged males may be responsible for the lesser physiological arousal in response to the erotic visual stimuli. PMID:16467858

  17. Physical activity alters antioxidant status in exercising elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Margaritis, Irène; Arnaud, Josiane; Faure, Henri; Roussel, Anne-Marie

    2006-07-01

    Nutritional adequacy and physical activity are two aspects of a health-promoting lifestyle. Not much is known about antioxidant nutrient requirements for exercising elderly (EE) subjects. The question of whether exercise training alters the status of antioxidant vitamins as well as trace elements in elderly subjects and fails to balance the age-related increase in oxidative stress is addressed in this study. There were 18 EE (68.1+/-3.1 years), 7 sedentary elderly (SE; 70.4+/-5.0 years), 17 exercising young (EY; 31.2+/-7.1 years) and 8 sedentary young (SY; 27.1+/-5.8 years) subjects who completed 7-day food and activity records. Each subject's blood was sampled on Day 8. A similar selenium (Se) status but a higher erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were found in EE subjects as compared with EY and SE subjects. Blood oxidized glutathione was higher and plasma total thiol was lower in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. Mean vitamin C (167 vs. 106 mg/day), vitamin E (11.7 vs. 8.3 mg/day) and beta-carotene (4 vs. 2.4 mg/day) intakes were higher in EE subjects as compared with EY subjects. However, EE subjects exhibited the lowest plasma carotenoid concentrations, especially in beta-carotene, which was not related to intakes. Despite high intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, no adaptive mechanism able to counteract the increased oxidative stress in aging was found in EE subjects. Results on GSH-Px activity illustrate that the nature of the regulation of this biomarker of Se status is different in response to training and aging. These data also strongly suggest specific antioxidant requirements for athletes with advancing age, with a special attention to carotenoids.

  18. Emotions or Science? Pre-Tertiary Males' Accounts of Psychology as a Subject Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Jenny; Sander, Paul; Williams, Stella; Jones, Tim

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the number of males studying psychology in the UK, both at A-level and on degree courses, is disproportionately low compared to females. There is a paucity of research, however, which discusses how psychology is viewed by this group. The present study employed focus groups with 35 pre-tertiary males (some of whom were…

  19. A Hybrid Approach to University Subject Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osorio Gomez, Luz Adriana; Duart, Josep M.

    2012-01-01

    In order to get a better understanding of subject design and delivery using a hybrid approach, we have studied a hybrid learning postgraduate programme offered by the University of the Andes, Bogota, Colombia. The study analyses students' perceptions of subject design and delivery, with particular reference to learning activities and the roles of…

  20. Active Learning: 101 Strategies To Teach Any Subject.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Mel

    This book contains specific, practical strategies that can be used for almost any subject matters to promote active learning. It brings together in one source a comprehensive collection of instructional strategies, with ways to get students to be active from the beginning through activities that build teamwork and get students thinking about the…

  1. Inter- and Intra-individual Variability in the Pharmacokinetics of Agomelatine Tablets in Chinese Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, X-l; Du, A-h; Zhang, D; Meng, L-j; Liu, M; Zhang, L-n; Zhao, H-n; Liu, H-c

    2015-10-01

    Agomelatine is an antidepressant with a unique action mechanism differing from conventional antidepressants. The high inter- and intra-individual variability of agomelatine was previously reported, but no exact data values about the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax were mentioned. The current study aimed to determine and evaluate the inter- and intra-individual variability in AUC and Cmax of agomelatine tablets in Chinese healthy male subjects, providing useful information for designing bioequivalence studies of agomelatine. Each of 12 Chinese healthy male subjects received a 25-mg agomelatine tablet on 2 separate periods, and plasma samples were collected up to 24 h after dose and analyzed for agomelatine. Inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞) of agomelatine was assessed. High variations in the plasma concentrations of agomelatine could be observed at each sampling time between the different subjects and in one subject on different periods. The inter-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 102.20%, 131.74% and 130.59%, respectively. The intra-individual CVs of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ were 84.34%, 49.61% and 50.83%, respectively. The results showed high inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of agomelatine in Chinese healthy male subjects, and the intra-individual variability at CV>80% should be considered in the design of bioequivalence studies. PMID:25383559

  2. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Ushida, Yusuke; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Aoki, Yudai; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Nishizaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of sulforaphane (SF)-rich broccoli sprout (BS) extract on hepatic abnormalities in Japanese male participants. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial, male participants with fatty liver received either BS capsules containing glucoraphanin [GR; a precursor of SF (n = 24)] or placebo (n = 28) for 2 mo. Liver function markers, serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT, respectively) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) and an oxidative stress marker, urinary levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), were measured and compared in participants before and after the trial period. In an animal model, chronic liver failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by successive intraperitoneal injection with N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) for 4 wk. Concomitantly, rats received AIN-76 diets supplemented with or without BS extract. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed, and their sera and livers were collected to measure serum liver function markers and hepatic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, a prototypical phase 2 antioxidant enzyme. RESULTS: Dietary supplementation with BS extract containing SF precursor GR for 2 mo significantly decreased serum levels of liver function markers, ALT [median (interquartile range), before: 54.0 (34.5-79.0) vs after supplementation: 48.5 (33.3-65.3) IU/L, P < 0.05] and γ-GTP [before: 51.5 (40.8-91.3) vs after: 50.0 (37.8-85.3) IU/L, P < 0.05], as well as the alkali phosphatase activity. Placebo showed no significant effects on the markers. The urinary level of 8-OHdG, an established oxidative stress marker, was significantly reduced in participants who had received BS capsules but not the placebo [before: 6.66 (5.51-9.03) vs after: 5.49 (4.89-6.66) ng/mg-creatinine, P < 0.05]. The reduction of urinary 8-OHdG was significantly correlated with decreased levels of

  3. Subpallial and hypothalamic areas activated following sexual and agonistic encounters in male chickens.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingjing; Kuenzel, Wayne J; Anthony, Nicholas B; Jurkevich, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Male sexual and agonistic behaviors are controlled by the common social behavior network, involving subpallial and hypothalamic brain areas. In order to understand how this common network generates different behavioral outcomes, induction of FOS protein was used to examine the patterns of neuronal activation in adult male chickens following interaction with a female or a male. Males were subjected to one of the following treatments: handling control, non-contact interaction with a female, contact interaction with a live female, a taxidermy female model or another male. The number of FOS-immunoreactive (FOS-ir) cells, and the area and immunostaining density of individual cells were quantified in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), medial extended amygdala (nucleus taeniae of the amygdala, TnA, and dorsolateral and ventromedial subdivisions of the medial portion of the bed nucleus of stria terminalis, BSTM1 and BSTM2, respectively), lateral septum (SL), hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), bed nucleus of the pallial commissure (NCPa) and ventrolateral thalamic nucleus (VLT). An increase in FOS-ir cells following appetitive sexual behavior was found in BSTM2 and NCPa. Copulation augmented FOS-ir in POM, SL, VLT, and PVN. Intermale interactions increased FOS-ir in all examined brain regions except the TnA and BSTM. Within the SL, copulatory and agonistic behavior activated spatially segregated cell groups. In the PVN, different social behaviors induced significant changes in the distribution of FOS-ir cell sizes suggesting activation of heterogeneous subpopulations of cells. Collectively, behavioral outcomes of male-female and male-male interactions are associated with a combination of common and site-specific patterns of neural activation.

  4. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes.

  5. Differential activation of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex between male and female givers of social reputation.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Iori; Ito, Ayahito; Fujii, Toshikatsu; Ueno, Aya; Yoshida, Kazuki; Sakai, Shinya; Mugikura, Shunji; Takahashi, Shoki; Mori, Etsuro

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown the profound influence of social reputation on human behavior and has implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in representing subjective values induced by social interaction. However, little is known regarding how the vmPFC encodes subjective pleasantness induced by social reputation received from others. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate how the vmPFC in males and females encodes the subjective pleasantness of social reputation received from the same gender and from the opposite gender. Behavioral data showed that positive reputation was perceived to be more pleasant than negative reputation. Intriguingly, both male and female subjects showed greater differences in the pleasantness scores between the positive reputation condition and the negative reputation condition from females than between positive and negative reputations from males. Imaging data revealed that the left vmPFC specifically contributed to the processing of positive reputation. The activity patterns of the vmPFC corresponded to the gender differences in behavior during the processing of social reputation. These results indicate that the vmPFC plays a role in representing the subjective value of positive social reputation and that this region might be a final computational site in a stream of value-based decision-making processes. PMID:26235682

  6. Self-selected intensity, ratings of perceived exertion, and affective responses in sedentary male subjects during resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel Gomes da Silva; Agrícola, Pedro Moraes Dutra; Okano, Alexandre Hideki; Gregório da Silva, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the exercise intensity and psychophysiological responses to a self-selected resistance training session in sedentary male subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve sedentary male subjects (35.8 ± 5.8 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg·m2) underwent four sessions at 48-h intervals: familiarization; two sessions of one repetition maximum test and a resistance training session in which they were told to self-select a load to complete 3 sets of 10 repetitions of chest press, leg press, seated rows, knee extension, overhead press, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown exercises. During the latter, the percentage of one repetition maximum, affective responses (feeling scale), and rating of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES scale) were measured. [Results] The percentage of one repetition maximum for all exercises was >51% (14–31% variability), the rating of perceived exertion was 5–6 (7–11% variability), and the affective responses was 0–1 point with large variability. [Conclusion] Sedentary male subjects self-selected approximately 55% of one maximum repetition, which was above the intensity suggested to increase strength in sedentary individuals, but below the recommended intensity to improve strength in novice to intermediate exercisers. The rating of perceived exertion was indicative of moderate intensity and slightly positive affective responses. PMID:27390418

  7. Self-selected intensity, ratings of perceived exertion, and affective responses in sedentary male subjects during resistance training.

    PubMed

    Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Krinski, Kleverton; Machado, Daniel Gomes da Silva; Agrícola, Pedro Moraes Dutra; Okano, Alexandre Hideki; Gregório da Silva, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the exercise intensity and psychophysiological responses to a self-selected resistance training session in sedentary male subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve sedentary male subjects (35.8 ± 5.8 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg·m(2)) underwent four sessions at 48-h intervals: familiarization; two sessions of one repetition maximum test and a resistance training session in which they were told to self-select a load to complete 3 sets of 10 repetitions of chest press, leg press, seated rows, knee extension, overhead press, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown exercises. During the latter, the percentage of one repetition maximum, affective responses (feeling scale), and rating of perceived exertion (OMNI-RES scale) were measured. [Results] The percentage of one repetition maximum for all exercises was >51% (14-31% variability), the rating of perceived exertion was 5-6 (7-11% variability), and the affective responses was 0-1 point with large variability. [Conclusion] Sedentary male subjects self-selected approximately 55% of one maximum repetition, which was above the intensity suggested to increase strength in sedentary individuals, but below the recommended intensity to improve strength in novice to intermediate exercisers. The rating of perceived exertion was indicative of moderate intensity and slightly positive affective responses.

  8. Effect of Oral Coadministration of Ascorbic Acid with Ling Zhi Preparation on Pharmacokinetics of Ganoderic Acid A in Healthy Male Subjects: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Tawasri, Patcharanee; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Tharatha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid. After a washout period of at least two weeks, subjects were switched to receive the alternate regimen. Blood samples were collected in each phase immediately before dosing and at specific time points for 8 hours after dosing. Plasma ganoderic acid A concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed were maximal plasma concentration (Cmax), time to reach peak concentration (Tmax), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), and half-life (t1/2). An oral coadministration of ascorbic acid with Ling Zhi preparation did not significantly alter the pharmacokinetic parameters of ganoderic acid A in healthy male subjects. PMID:27747224

  9. Persistent depression is a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroki; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Depression often coexists with hypertension and various cardiovascular diseases. However, the relationship between depression and the development of arteriosclerosis has not been fully established. We assessed depression and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in 828 middle-aged Japanese male subjects at baseline and during 3 years of follow-up. Depression was assessed using Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression questionnaires, and the study subjects were divided into the following three groups: persistent depression, transient depression and no depression. The number (%) of subjects with persistent, transient and no depression were 104 (12.6), 76 (9.2) and 648 (78.2), respectively. Blood pressure and baPWV did not differ among the three groups at baseline. The changes in the baPWV values (⊿baPWV) correlated significantly and positively with age, body mass index, baseline systolic blood pressure and persistent depression (r = 0.32, P < 0.01). After 3 years of follow-up, the ⊿baPWV was significantly greater in subjects with persistent depression compared with those with no depression (36 ± 28 vs. 18 ± 10 cm s(-1), P = 0.02). After adjustment for conventional risk factors, persistent depression was significantly associated with ⊿baPWV by multiple regression analysis (β = 0.261, P < 0.01). To sum up, persistent depression was a significant risk factor for the development of arteriosclerosis in middle-aged Japanese male subjects.

  10. Specific cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Timmann, Dagmar; Forsting, Michael

    2004-07-01

    The traditional view that the cerebellum is involved only in the control of movements has been changed recently. It has been suggested that the human cerebellum is involved in cognition and language. Likewise, besides cortical activity in sensorimotor and visual areas, an increased global activation of the cerebellum has been revealed during Braille reading in blind subjects. Our purpose was to investigate whether there is cerebellar activation during Braille reading by blind subjects other than sensorimotor activation related to finger movements. Early blind and normal sighted subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during Braille reading, tactile discrimination of nonsense dots, dots forming symbols, and finger tapping. The experiments were done in block design. Echo planar imaging sequences were carried out on a 1.5-T MR scanner. All blind individuals reading Braille showed robust activation of the posterior and lateral aspects of cerebellar hemispheral lobules Crus I bilaterally but more predominately on the right side. Additionally, activation was present in the medial cerebellum within lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominantly on the right. Discriminating nonsense dots did not reveal any activation of Crus I, but did reveal activation within the medial part of lobules IV, V, and VIIIA, predominately on the right. Analysis of sighted subjects during reading of printed text revealed activation of the posterolateral cerebellar hemisphere in Crus I bilaterally, predominantly on the right. Tactile analysis of dots representing symbols revealed an activation in lobules IV and VIII and in right Crus II but not in Crus I. In conclusion, parts of cerebellar activation during Braille reading in blind subjects (i.e., within lobules IV, V, and VIII) overlap with the known hand representation within the cerebellum and are likely related to the sensorimotor part of the task. Cerebellar activation during Braille reading within bilateral Crus I

  11. Gene expression and reproductive abilities of male Drosophila melanogaster subjected to ELF-EMF exposure.

    PubMed

    Li, Si-Si; Zhang, Zi-Yan; Yang, Chuan-Jun; Lian, Hui-Yong; Cai, Peng

    2013-12-12

    Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure is attracting increased attention as a possible disease-inducing factor. The in vivo effects of short-term and long-term ELF-EMF exposure on male Drosophila melanogaster were studied using transcriptomic analysis for preliminary screening and QRT-PCR for further verification. Transcriptomic analysis indicated that 439 genes were up-regulated and 874 genes were down-regulated following short-term exposures and that 514 genes were up-regulated and 1206 genes were down-regulated following long-term exposures (expression >2- or <0.5-fold, respectively). In addition, there are 238 up-regulated genes and 598 down-regulated genes in the intersection of short-term and long-term exposure (expression >2- or <0.5-fold). The DEGs (differentially expressed genes) in D. melanogaster following short-term exposures were involved in metabolic processes, cytoskeletal organization, mitotic spindle organization, cell death, protein modification and proteolysis. Long-term exposure let to changes in expression of genes involved in metabolic processes, response to stress, mitotic spindle organization, aging, cell death and cellular respiration. In the intersection of short-term and long-term exposure, a series of DEGs were related to apoptosis, aging, immunological stress and reproduction. To check the ELF-EMF effects on reproduction, some experiments on male reproduction ability were performed. Their results indicated that short-term ELF-EMF exposure may decrease the reproductive ability of males, but long-term exposures had no effect on reproductive ability. Down-regulation of ark gene in the exposed males suggests that the decrease in reproductive capacity may be induced by the effects of ELF-EMF exposure on spermatogenesis through the caspase pathway. QRT-PCR analysis confirmed that jra, ark and decay genes were down regulated in males exposed for 1 Generation (1G) and 72 h, which suggests that apoptosis may be

  12. Muscle activity during stance phase of walking: comparison of males with transfemoral amputation with osseointegrated fixations to nondisabled male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Pantall, Annette; Ewins, David

    2013-01-01

    A recent development in prosthetics is the osseointegrated fixation (OF), with improvements in comfort, fatigue, hip movement, and ease of prosthetic attachment reported. However, little information is available regarding muscle function. This study reports on selected gait parameters of the residual limb during the stance phase of level overground walking, focusing on muscle activity. Five males with transfemoral amputation (TFA) with OFs were recruited. Ground reaction force (GRF), lower-limb kinematics, and surface electromyography (sEMG) from residual-limb muscles were recorded. sEMG data were also collected from a group of 10 nondisabled male subjects. Interstance variability of gait parameters was assessed by coefficient of multiple correlations. Repeatability of GRF and hip kinematics was high, whereas repeatability of the sEMG was low for four of the five individuals with TFA. Interstance variability of the sEMG for gluteus medius (GMED) was significantly greater in the group with TFA. The main difference in sEMG between the groups was the phase, with GMED and adductor magnus displaying greater differences than their counterparts in the nondisabled group. Results demonstrate that muscles in the residual limb retain aspects of their previous functional pattern.

  13. Electrophysiological characteristics of motor units and muscle fibers in trained and untrained young male subjects.

    PubMed

    Duez, Lene; Qerama, Erisela; Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Bangsbo, Jens; Jensen, Troels S

    2010-08-01

    We hypothesized that the amplitudes of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) and interference pattern analysis (IPA) would be larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects, possibly due to hypertrophy of muscle fibers and/or increased central drive. Moreover, we hypothesized that the untrained muscle is less excitable compared with the trained muscle. An electromyographic (EMG) needle electrode was used to record the IPA at maximal voluntary effort. The CMAP was obtained by stimulating the musculocutaneous nerve and recording the brachial biceps muscle using surface electrodes. CMAPs were obtained by direct muscle stimulation (DMS) with two stainless-steel subdermal electrodes placed subcutaneously in the distal third of the muscle. Amplitudes of CMAP and IPA were significantly larger in trained subjects compared with untrained subjects. We found no differences between trained and untrained subjects in IPA power spectrum and turns per second or amplitude of the CMAPs obtained by DMS. Muscle fiber hypertrophy and/or altered central drive may account for our results, but there was no indication of changes in muscle fiber excitability. PMID:20544918

  14. Soft drinks with aspartame: effect on subjective hunger, food selection, and food intake of young adult males.

    PubMed

    Black, R M; Tanaka, P; Leiter, L A; Anderson, G H

    1991-04-01

    Ingestion of aspartame-sweetened beverages has been reported to increase subjective measures of appetite. This study examined the effects of familiar carbonated soft drinks sweetened with aspartame on subjective hunger, energy intake and macronutrient selection at a lunch-time meal. Subjects were 20 normal weight young adult males, classified as either restrained or nonrestrained eaters. Four treatments of carbonated beverages included 280 ml of mineral water, one can of a soft drink (280 ml) consumed in either 2 or 10 minutes, or two cans of a soft drink (560 ml) consumed in 10 minutes, administered at 11:00 a.m. Subjective hunger and food appeal were measured from 9:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m., and food intake data were obtained from a buffet lunch given at 12:00 noon. There were no treatment effects on energy intake, macronutrient selection or food choice at the lunch-time meal, or food appeal, though restrained eaters consumed more than nonrestrained eaters in all four treatment conditions. Consumption of two soft drinks (560 ml, 320 mg aspartame) significantly reduced subjective hunger from 11:05 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. compared to one soft drink (280 ml, 160 mg aspartame) or 280 ml of mineral water. Thus ingestion of soft drinks containing aspartame did not increase short-term subjective hunger or food intake.

  15. Testosterone increases bone mineral density in female-to-male transsexuals: a case series of 15 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Adrian; Chen, Tai C.; Barber, Tom W.; Malabanan, Alan O.; Holick, Michael F.; Tangpricha, Vin

    2011-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE Testosterone therapy for osteoporosis has not been studied extensively in women because of its potential to cause virilization. Female-to-male transsexuals are genetic females who suffer from gender dysphoria and thus take supra-physiologic doses of testosterone to change from the female to male phenotype. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of testosterone treatment on the genetic female skeleton. PATIENTS AND DESIGN A group of 15 female-to-male transsexuals was prospectively enrolled for observation over a 2-year period. The subjects had a mean age of 37·0 ± 3·0 years. All of the subjects self-administered testosterone esters intramuscularly at a mean dose of 70·7 ± 4·5 mg weekly. MEASUREMENTS The subjects had measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the femoral neck and spine (L2–L4) at 12-month intervals. They had determinations of serum oestradiol, testosterone, soluble RANKL (sRANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and urine N-telopeptide (NTX) at the date of enrolment and at the end of 2 years. RESULTS There was a significant positive increase in mean BMD of 7·8% at the femoral neck and a nonsignificant increase in mean BMD of 3·1% at the spine over 2 years. The levels of testosterone reached the upper normal range for males and the levels of oestradiol declined to near the postmenopausal range. sRANKL levels decreased significantly in female-to-male transsexuals who newly initiated testosterone therapy. There was no significant change in urine NTX or serum OPG during the study. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that supra-physiologic testosterone therapy increases BMD at the hip while maintaining BMD at the spine in female-to-male transsexuals. The effects of testosterone may be the result of testosterone hormone directly acting on the bone or indirectly through aromatization to oestradiol. Lower RANKL levels coupled with unchanged OPG levels results in an increased OPG/RANKL ratio, which may be

  16. Effect of Eurycoma longifolia Jack on orientation activities in middle-aged male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Lee, K L

    2002-12-01

    The effects of various fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack were studied on the orientation activities of the inbred, adult middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats, 9 months old and retired breeders towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking, mounting), the environment (climbing, raring, exploration), themselves (nongenital grooming, genital grooming) and mobility (restricted, unrestricted) after treating these subjects twice daily for 10 days. Results showed that subjects treated with 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased orientation activities towards the receptive females (anogenital sniffing, licking and mounting), increased genital grooming towards themselves and restricted movements to a particular area of the cage but decreased interest in the external environment (climbing, raring, exploration) as compared with the controls during the investigation period. In conclusion, this study gives further evidences that different fractions of E. longifolia Jack modified the orientation activities of the middle-aged male rats. PMID:12685506

  17. Evaluation of toxic risk assessment of arsenic in male subjects through drinking water in southern Sindh Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Sumaira; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas; Wadhwa, Sham Kumar; Shah, Faheem

    2011-11-01

    The arsenic (As) hazardous quotient was estimated based on concentration of As in drinking water and scalp hair of male subjects of two age groups (n=360) consuming As contaminated water at different levels and non-contaminated drinking water. The total As concentrations in drinking water of less-exposed (LE) and high-exposed (HE) areas was found to be 3- to 30-fold higher than the permissible limit of the World Health Organization (2004) for drinking water, while the levels of As in drinking water of non-exposed (NE) areas was within the permissible limit. The levels of As in scalp hair samples of male subjects of two age groups belonging to NE, LE, and HE areas ranged from 0.01 to 0.27, 0.11-1.31, and 0.36-6.80 μg/g, respectively. A significant correlation between As contents of drinking water and As concentration in scalp hair was observed in sub-district Gambit (r=0.825-0.852, p<0.001) as compared to those subjects belonging to LE sub-district Thari Mirwah. A toxicity risk assessment provides a hazard quotient corresponding to <10 that indicates non-carcinogenic exposure risk of understudy areas.

  18. Testosterone, physical activity, and somatic outcomes among Filipino males.

    PubMed

    Gettler, Lee T; Agustin, Sonny S; Kuzawa, Christopher W

    2010-08-01

    Testosterone (T) facilitates male investment in reproduction in part through its anabolic effects on skeletal muscle. Traits like muscle and strength are energetically costly but are believed to enhance competitive ability in humans and other mammals. However, there are limited data on relationships between T and somatic outcomes in lean, non-western populations. We evaluate relationships between waking and pre-bed salivary T and adiposity, fat-free mass (FFM), arm muscle area (AMA), and grip strength (GS) in a large, population-based birth cohort of young adult Filipino males (20.8-22.6 years, n = 872). Data were collected as part of the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Neither waking nor evening T predicted FFM, AMA, or GS. However, there were borderline or significant interactions between T and basketball playing (the most common team sport) and weight lifting as predictors of outcomes: higher waking T predicted higher FFM (activity x T interaction P < 0.01), AMA (interaction P < 0.1), and GS (interaction P < 0.02) among frequent basketball players, and GS (interaction P < 0.09) among the smaller sample of weight lifters. In contrast to clinical studies, but consistent with findings in several subsistence-level populations, T was positively related to adiposity in these lean young males, suggesting that energy status might regulate circulating T. Our findings support a role of the prewaking rise in T as a determinant of energetic allocation to lean mass and strength in the context of repeated muscular use and support the hypothesized role of T as a mediator of investment in costly somatic traits in human males.

  19. Low glycaemic diet and metformin therapy: a new approach in male subjects with acne resistant to common treatments.

    PubMed

    Fabbrocini, G; Izzo, R; Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Donnarumma, M; Marasca, C; Marciello, F; Savastano, R; Monfrecola, G; Colao, A

    2016-01-01

    Acne is a common and complex skin disease, with a very complex pathogenesis. Although in women the relationship between acne and insulin resistance is well known, in particular in women with PCOS, in males this relationship has been poorly investigated. In total, 20 subjects with an altered metabolic profile were considered for this study and randomized as follows: 10 patients were treated with metformin plus a hypocaloric diet for 6 months (group A), while 10 patients did not receive any treatment with metformin and were only followed up (group B). All patients of group A, after 6 months of metformin therapy, had a statistically significant improvement compared with patients in group B. Our study reveals the importance of diet and insulin resistance in acne pathogenesis, and underlines the possible use of metformin and diet as possible adjuvant therapy for male patients with acne.

  20. Energy intake, expenditure and pattern of daily activity of Nigerian male students.

    PubMed

    Cole, A H; Ogbe, J O

    1987-11-01

    1. Twenty apparently healthy and normal Nigerian male students, resident at the University of Ibadan campus, were studied for seven consecutive days to assess their food energy intake and expenditure and pattern of their daily activities. 2. The mean age (years) of the group was 24.0 (SD 3.23, range 20-30), mean height (m) 1.71 (SD 0.06, range 1.61-1.84) and body-weight (kg) was 61.1 (SD 5.01, range 51.0-69.5). 3. The food intake of each subject was obtained by direct weighing and its energy value determined using a ballistic bomb calorimeter. Patterns of daily activities were recorded and the energy costs of representative activities were determined by indirect calorimetry. 4. Activities mainly involved sitting, mean 580 (SD 167, range 394-732) min/d. Sleeping and standing activities took a mean of 445 (SD 112) and 115 (SD 75) min/d respectively. Personal domestic activities took a mean of 94 (SD 40) min/d. 5. The mean energy intake of the group was 11,182 (SD 1970) kJ/d or 183 (SD 32) kJ/kg body-weight per d. This value is lower than the 12.5 MJ/d recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) (1973) as the energy requirement for an adult man engaged in moderate activities, but it is higher than the FAO/WHO/United Nations University (UNU) (1985) recommended value of 10.8 MJ/d for a male office clerk (light activity). It is also lower than the recommended energy requirement of 11.6 MJ/d for a subsistence farmer (moderately active work) (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). 6. The mean energy expenditure of the male subjects was 9876 (SD 1064, range 7159-12,259) kJ/d and was lower than mean intake. 7. The energy intake and expenditure values indicated that the groups participating in the present study were not physically very active. It is an indication that the Nigerian male students expended less but probably consumed more energy than required. It is suggested for health reasons and for mental fitness that the Nigerian male students

  1. Effect of hyperhydration on bone mineralization in physically healthy subjects after prolonged restriction of motor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Naexu, Konstantin A.

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) on bone mineralization in physically healthy male volunteers after exposure to hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken/day) over a period of 364 days. The studies were performed after exposure to 364 days of hypokinesia (HK) on 18 physically healthy male volunteers who had an average VO2max of 65 ml/kg/min and were aged between 19 and 24 years. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect the volunteers were kept under an average of 1000 steps/day. The subjects were divided into three equal groups of 6: 6 underwent a normal ambulatory life (control group), 6 were placed under HK (hypokinetic group) and the remaining 6 were subjected to HK and consumed a daily FSS (water 26 ml/kg body wt and NaCl 0.10 mg/kg body wt) (hyperhydrated group). The density of the ulnar, radius, tibia, fibular, lumbar vertebrae and calcenous was measured. Calcium and phosphorus changes, plasma volume, blood pressure and body weight were determined. Calcium content in the examined skeletal bones decreased more in the hypokinetic subjects than in the hyperhydrated subjects. Urinary calcium and phosphorus losses were more pronounced in hypokinetic than hyperhydrated subjects. Plasma volume and body weight increased in hyperhydrated subjects, while it decreased in hypokinetic subjects. It was concluded that a daily intake of FSS may be used to neutralize bone demineralization in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity.

  2. Effects of social stress on tumor development in dominant male mice with diverse behavioral activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Cacho Fernández, Raúl; Garmendia Rezola, Larraitz; Vegas Moreno, Oscar; Azpíroz Sánchez, Arantxa

    2008-11-01

    We examined the influence of individual psychological profile and social behavior on tumor development in dominant male mice. Male OF1 mice were subjected to an open field test (OFT) to observe their motor activity and latency. Subsequently, the animals were divided into three groups: Stress-Non-Inoculated (SNI), Stress-Inoculated (SI) and Control-Inoculated (CI). The SI and CI groups were inoculated with tumor cells and the SNI group with vehicle. SNI and SI were exposed to social stress with an anosmic intruder six (T1) and twenty one (T2) days after inoculation and their behavior was analyzed. After T2, subjects were put down and the pulmonary metastatic foci counted. SI developed greater pulmonary metastasis than CI, indicating an effect of stress despite the animal's dominant status. Active animals developed less pulmonary metastasis than their passive counterparts. No differences were found in social behavior at T1. Differences were found, however, in some behavioral categories at T2 between SI and SNI, and between active and passive animals. These differences indicate an effect of tumor development on social behavior that is more evident in passive subjects.

  3. Alae nasi activation and nasal resistance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Strohl, K P; O'Cain, C F; Slutsky, A S

    1982-06-01

    To investigate the effect of alae nasi (AN) activation on nasal resistance, we monitored AN electromyographic (EMG) activity in 17 healthy subjects using surface electrodes placed on either side of the external nares and measured inspiratory nasal resistance utilizing the method of posterior rhinometry. With CO2 inhalation (6 subj), AN EMG activity increased as nasal resistance fell 23 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). In the same subjects, voluntary flaring of the external nares also increased AN EMG and decreased nasal resistance by 29 +/- 5% (P less than 0.01). Nasal resistance was altered by nasal flaring and CO2 inhalation even after administration of a topical nasal vasoconstrictive spray (8 subj). In six subjects, voluntary nasal flaring or inhibition with the mouth closed produced a 21 +/- 12% change (P less than 0.01) in total airway resistance as measured by body plethysmography. We conclude that activation of the alae nasi will decrease nasal and total airway resistance during voluntary nasal flaring and during CO2 inhalation and thus should be considered in any studies of upper airway resistance.

  4. Markers of bone resorption and calcium metabolism are related to dietary intake patterns in male and female bed rest subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, S. R.; Hargens, A. r.

    2006-01-01

    Dietary potassium and protein intakes predict net endogenous acid production in humans. Intracellular buffers, including exchangeable bone mineral, play a crucial role in balancing chronic acid-base perturbations in the body; subsequently, chronic acid loads can potentially contribute to bone loss. Bone is lost during space flight, and a dietary countermeasure would be desirable for many reasons. We studied the ability of diet protein and potassium to predict levels of bone resorption markers in males and females. Identical twin pairs (8 M, 7 F) were assigned to 2 groups: bed rest (sedentary, SED) or bed rest with supine treadmill exercise in a lower body negative pressure chamber (EX). Diet was controlled for 3 d before and 30 d of bed rest (BR). Urinary Ca, N-telopeptide (NTX), and pyridinium crosslinks (PYD) were measured before and on days 5, 12, 19, and 26 of BR. Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation (P<0.05). The ratio of dietary animal protein/potassium intake was not correlated with NTX before BR for males or females, but they were positively correlated in both groups of males during bed rest. Dietary animal protein/potassium and urine Ca were correlated before and during bed rest for the males, and only during bed rest for the females. Conversely, the ratio of dietary vegetable protein/potassium intake was negatively correlated with urinary calcium during bed rest for the females, but there was no relationship between vegetable protein/potassium intake and bone markers for the males. These data suggest that the ratio of animal protein/potassium intake may affect bone, particularly in bed rest subjects. These data show that the type of protein and gender may be additional factors that modulate the effect of diet on bone metabolism during bed rest. Altering this ratio may help prevent bone loss on Earth and during space flight.

  5. Electrodermal conditioning to potentially phobic stimuli in male and female subjects.

    PubMed

    Fredrikson, M; Hugdahl, K; Ohman, A

    1976-12-01

    There are clear sex differences in incidence of phobias for small animals, and in questionnaire-measured fear for animals. The present study examined whether these sex differences were reflected also in electrodermal conditioning to potentially phobic stimuli. Separate groups of males and females were exposed to a conditioning session involving either potentially phobic, snakes and spiders, or fear-irrelevant, flowers and mushrooms, conditioned stimuli with electric shock as the unconditioned stimulus. A long interstimulus interval differential paradigm was used, allowing analysis of first- and second interval anticipatory responses, and third-interval omission responses. There were 8 habituation trials, 16 acquisition trials and 40 extinction trials. Half of the trials involved the reinforced cue, and the other half the unreinforced cue. There were clear conditioning effects, with superior acquisition and resistance to extinction to the phobic as compared to the fear-irrelevant stimuli. However, there were no differences between the two sexes. The results were interpreted in terms of the preparedness theory of phobias, and in terms of social learning factors.

  6. A high level of male sexual activity is necessary for the activation of the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus during the 'male effect' in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Marie; Portillo, Wendy; Dubois, Jean-Philippe; Duarte, Gerardo; Flores, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu; Paredes, Raúl G; Delgadillo, José A

    2016-10-15

    In small ungulates such as sheep or goats, the introduction of a male among a group of anovulatory females during the anestrus season leads to the reactivation of the gonadotrope axis and ovulation, a phenomenon known as the 'male effect'. In goats, our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of male sexual activity for an efficient reactivation of the gonadotrope axis assessed through ovulation and blood LH pulsatility. In the present experiment, we assessed whether the level of male sexual activity would also induce differential activation of two brain regions of key importance for the reactivation of GnRH activity, namely the medial preoptic area and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. In both structures, we observed a differential activation of Fos in females, depending on the level of buck sexual activity. Indeed, goats unexposed to males showed low levels of expression of Fos while those exposed to sexually inactive bucks showed an intermediate level of Fos expression. Finally, the highest level of Fos expression was found in females exposed to sexually active males. However, and contrary to our initial hypothesis, we were not able to find any specific activation of kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus following the introduction of highly sexually active males. As a whole, these results demonstrate that the level of male sexual activity is a key factor to stimulate brain regions involved in the control of the gonadotrope axis in the context of the male effect in goats.

  7. A high level of male sexual activity is necessary for the activation of the medial preoptic area and the arcuate nucleus during the 'male effect' in anestrous goats.

    PubMed

    Bedos, Marie; Portillo, Wendy; Dubois, Jean-Philippe; Duarte, Gerardo; Flores, José A; Chemineau, Philippe; Keller, Matthieu; Paredes, Raúl G; Delgadillo, José A

    2016-10-15

    In small ungulates such as sheep or goats, the introduction of a male among a group of anovulatory females during the anestrus season leads to the reactivation of the gonadotrope axis and ovulation, a phenomenon known as the 'male effect'. In goats, our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of male sexual activity for an efficient reactivation of the gonadotrope axis assessed through ovulation and blood LH pulsatility. In the present experiment, we assessed whether the level of male sexual activity would also induce differential activation of two brain regions of key importance for the reactivation of GnRH activity, namely the medial preoptic area and the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. In both structures, we observed a differential activation of Fos in females, depending on the level of buck sexual activity. Indeed, goats unexposed to males showed low levels of expression of Fos while those exposed to sexually inactive bucks showed an intermediate level of Fos expression. Finally, the highest level of Fos expression was found in females exposed to sexually active males. However, and contrary to our initial hypothesis, we were not able to find any specific activation of kisspeptin cells in the arcuate nucleus following the introduction of highly sexually active males. As a whole, these results demonstrate that the level of male sexual activity is a key factor to stimulate brain regions involved in the control of the gonadotrope axis in the context of the male effect in goats. PMID:27475456

  8. Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Martin; Spinedi, Luca; Unfer-Grauwiler, Sandra; Bodmer, Michael; Surber, Christian; Luedi, Markus; Drewe, Juergen

    2012-05-01

    The most important psychoactive constituent of CANNABIS SATIVA L. is Δ (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabidiol (CBD), another important constituent, is able to modulate the distinct unwanted psychotropic effect of THC. In natural plant extracts of C. SATIVA, large amounts of THC and CBD appear in the form of THCA-A (THC-acid-A) and CBDA (cannabidiolic acid), which can be transformed to THC and CBD by heating. Previous reports of medicinal use of cannabis or cannabis preparations with higher CBD/THC ratios and use in its natural, unheated form have demonstrated that pharmacological effects were often accompanied with a lower rate of adverse effects. Therefore, in the present study, the pharmacokinetics and metabolic profiles of two different C. SATIVA extracts (heated and unheated) with a CBD/THC ratio > 1 were compared to synthetic THC (dronabinol) in a double-blind, randomized, single center, three-period cross-over study involving 9 healthy male volunteers. The pharmacokinetics of the cannabinoids was highly variable. The metabolic pattern was significantly different after administration of the different forms: the heated extract showed a lower median THC plasma AUC (24 h) than the unheated extract of 2.84 vs. 6.59 pmol h/mL, respectively. The later was slightly higher than that of dronabinol (4.58 pmol h/mL). On the other hand, the median sum of the metabolites (THC, 11-OH-THC, THC-COOH, CBN) plasma AUC (24 h) was higher for the heated than for the unheated extract. The median CBD plasma AUC (24 h) was almost 2-fold higher for the unheated than for the heated extract. These results indicate that use of unheated extracts may lead to a beneficial change in metabolic pattern and possibly better tolerability.

  9. Quadriceps and hamstrings prelanding myoelectric activity during landing from different heights among male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Morgana Alves; Carpes, Felipe P; Koutras, Georgios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2014-08-01

    ACL tear is a major concern among athletes, coaches and sports scientists. More than taking the athlete away from training and competition, ACL tear is a risk factor for early-onset of knee osteoarthritis, and, therefore addressing strategies to avoid such injury is pertinent not only for competitive athletes, but for all physically active subjects. Imbalances in the prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles have been linked to ACL injuries. We investigated the effect of landing from different heights on prelanding myoelectric activity of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles in recreational athletes. Thirty recreational athletes (15 male and 15 female) performed three bilateral drop jumps from two different heights; 20cm and 40cm while myoelectric activity of the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and medial hamstrings were collected. When increasing the height of drop landing tasks prelanding normalized myoelectric activity of the quadriceps was increased by 15-20% but no significant changes were found for the hamstrings. Female athletes exhibited higher activity of the medial hamstrings compared to their male counterparts. We concluded that increasing the height of drop landing tasks is associated with increased myoelectric activity of the quadriceps but not the hamstrings in recreational athletes. These differences in muscle activity may be related to increased risk for ACL injury when the height is increased. Female athletes demonstrated higher recruitment of the medial hamstrings.

  10. [The gaze and functional hemispheric activation in normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Gallois, P; Hautecoeur, P; Ovelacq, E; Gras, P; Dereux, J F

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the study of lateral and vertical conjugated eye movement could serve as an indicator of the functional hemispheric activation. Questions of vocabulary, calculation, logic (V.C.L.) and visuo-spatial instructions, as well as music-listening (V.S.M.), were proposed to 60 control subjects (21 men, 39 women). They were divided in 4 groups of 15 according to their laterality (complete right handed, incomplete right handed, ambidextrous, left handed). Eye movements were recorded using a video system. Deviations of the eyes towards the right and left, upwards and downwards, as well as episodes of staring were noted. Concerning V.C.L. questions, there was a significant correlation between conjugated lateral eye movements and the contralateral hemisphere activation. The study of vertical eye movements revealed a correlation only in complete right-handed and left-handed subjects: deviation upwards during the left hemisphere activation, and downwards during the right hemisphere activation. This pattern of response was no longer found during V.S.M. questions which, in the 4 groups, evoked staring episodes in 56 to 72 per cent of the cases. The negative emotional stimuli (emotional words, non verbal stimuli, stressful situations) evoked preferentially, but independently of laterality, deviations towards the left and downwards in favor of the right hemisphere activation. This method of observation of eye movements seems therefore of significant interest in Neuropsychology, provided that methodologic rules are rigorously respected.

  11. Diagnosis of prolactinoma in two male-to-female transsexual subjects following high-dose cross-sex hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F

    2015-08-01

    Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens.

  12. Variability of corticosteroid responses during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males.

    PubMed

    White, J A; Ismail, A H; Bottoms, G D

    1975-04-01

    Two groups of middle-aged male subjects (both N=11), one active (mean age 44.6 years) and one sedentary (mean age 43.7 years), undertook a graded exercise stress test on a bicycle ergometer in the post-absorptive state. Blood serum corticosteroid levels were measured at the following stages of metabolism; at rest, under conditions of submaximal and "maximal' exercise and during recovery. The active group showed no significant change in mean serum corticosteroid levels from resting values, during exercise and recovery. However the sedentary group displayed a significant increase in mean serum corticosteroid levels from a resting value of 5.81 plus or minus 0.41 mub-g/100 ml. (mean plus or minus S.E.) to 7.83 plus or minus 0.71 mug/100 ml. during "maximal' exercise (p smaller than 0.05), which was maintained throughout recovery 7.82 plus or minus 0.70 ug/100 ml (p smaller than 0.05). Futhermore the active group demonstrated significantly lower mean serum corticosteroid levels compared with the sedentary group under conditions of submaximal (p smaller than 0.05) and "maximal' (p smaller than 0.01) exercise and during recovery (p smaller than 0.01). It was concluded that the variability in the response patterns of serum corticosteroids during exercise stress in active and sedentary middle-aged males, reflected the physiological differences observed between the two groups of subjects.

  13. Optimization of Spinal Muscular Atrophy subject's muscle activity during gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umat, Gazlia; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary disease related muscle nerve disorder caused by degeneration of the anterior cells of the spinal cord. SMA is divided into four types according to the degree of seriousness. SMA patients show different gait with normal people. Therefore, this study focused on the effects of SMA patient muscle actions and the difference that exists between SMA subjects and normal subjects. Therefore, the electromyography (EMG) test will be used to track the behavior of muscle during walking and optimization methods are used to get the muscle stress that is capable of doing the work while walking. Involved objective function is non-linear function of the quadratic and cubic functions. The study concludes with a comparison of the objective function using the force that sought to use the moment of previous studies and the objective function using the data obtained from EMG. The results shows that the same muscles, peroneus longus and bisepsfemoris, were used during walking activity by SMA subjects and control subjects. Muscle stress force best solution achieved from part D in simulation carried out.

  14. Increased blood pressure levels relative to subjective feelings of intensity of exercise determined with the Borg scale in male patients with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Eriko; Nishitani, Aya; Yuki, Yoko; Nakatsu, Takaaki; Toyonaga, Shinji; Mashima, Keiichi; Ogawa, Hiroko; Hirohata, Satoshi; Usui, Shinichi; Shinohata, Ryoko; Sakaguchi, Kousaku; Kusachi, Shozo

    2008-04-01

    We examined the hemodynamic responses to exercise and symptoms in 37 male patients with untreated essential hypertension, and compared the findings with those in 32 age-matched healthy male volunteers by performing a graded symptom-limited exercise test using a bicycle ergometer. The subjective feeling of intensity of exercise was determined using the Borg scale. In the relationship between Borg scores and blood pressure (BP), patients with hypertension showed higher systolic BP and diastolic BP relative to the Borg scores than the controls. Consequently, patients with hypertension showed significantly higher systolic BP with Borg scores < or = 3 (subjective symptoms < or = moderately hard) than the controls (177.8 +/- 27.0 vs. 143.7 +/- 17.9 mmHg, p < 0.0001). Similarly, significantly higher diastolic BP with Borg scores < or = 3 was observed in patients with hypertension than in the controls (101.6 +/- 12.0 vs. 82.6 +/- 11.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001). The pulse pressure with Borg scores < or = 3 was also significantly higher in patients with hypertension than in the controls (76.2 +/- 20.6 vs. 61.0 +/- 13.6 mmHg, p < 0.0001). Hypertensive patients showed a decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability at initial low-load exercise. In conclusion, the present study revealed that there was a greater BP response relative to the Borg score in patients with hypertension than in the controls. Autonomic nerve activity may contribute to some extent to these different relations. A determination of the relationship between the subjective feeling of intensity of the exercise and BP levels caused by a given intensity of load is essential before exercise training in patients, at least in males, with hypertension to avoid increasing the risk of cardiovascular events in association with excessive exercise training.

  15. Molecular weight of barley β-glucan does not influence satiety or energy intake in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Miriam E; Thondre, Pariyarath S

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown the ability of high molecular weight barley β-glucan with increased viscosity to attenuate glycemic response, gastric emptying and in vitro starch digestion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of molecular weight of barley β-glucan in a semisolid meal on energy intake and subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, desire to eat and prospective food consumption in healthy male subjects. In a randomised, controlled, crossover trial, 23 healthy male subjects (BMI 24.2 ± 2.5 kg/m²) tested soups equivalent to 25 g available carbohydrate containing high or low molecular weight barley β-glucan (~3 g) as preload after a standard breakfast. The viscosity of soup with high molecular weight β-glucan was 350 Pa·s whereas the soup with low molecular weight β-glucan had a viscosity of 100 Pa·s. Appetite ratings before and for two hours after consumption of β-glucan soups and subsequent ad libitum energy intake at lunch were recorded and compared with a control soup with no β-glucan. There was no significant difference in food intake at the ad libitum meal or for the remainder of the day following consumption of the three test foods (p > 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in hunger, fullness, desire to eat or prospective food consumption following β-glucan soups. The current study provides evidence that the molecular weight of barley β-glucan may not impact on perceived feelings of hunger or food intake at the current dose and viscosity.

  16. Effects of swimming activity on the copulatory behavior of sexually active male rats.

    PubMed

    Allouh, M Z

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity has long been associated with better sexual function. This study investigated the effects of moderate swimming exercise on the copulatory behavior of sexually potent male rats. Two sets of sexually potent male rats -highly active and moderately active- were identified depending on baseline sexual activity. Each of the two sets of rats was further randomly divided into two groups (swimming and sedentary). There were 16 rats in each of the four study groups (highly active swimming, highly active sedentary, moderately active swimming and moderately active sedentary). The copulatory behavior parameters and serum testosterone levels were measured and compared between the rats of the swimming and sedentary groups following a month long training period in which rats were made to swim for 1 h every alternate day. Swimming significantly improved the sexual performance of highly active rats, as indicated by increased intromission frequency and intromission ratio, compared with the sedentary controls. Swimming improved both sexual desire and performance, as indicated by reduced mount latency and increased intromission ratio, respectively, in swimming moderately active rats compared with the sedentary moderately active controls. Therefore, swimming activity improves the copulatory behavior of both highly active and moderately active male rats.

  17. Cortisol and induced cognitive fatigue: effects on memory activation in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Elissa B; de Groot, Renate H M; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Nicolson, Nancy A; Veltman, Dick J; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between individual differences in acute fatigue and endogenous cortisol changes elicited by the sustained performance of cognitively demanding tasks (fatigue condition). Healthy males provided salivary cortisol measurements and subjective fatigue ratings, and were scanned (functional magnetic resonance imaging) during memory encoding and recognition tasks in fatigue and control conditions. A group of 15 'responders' showed significantly higher cortisol levels in the fatigue condition than 12 'non-responders'. Responders showed higher subjective fatigue and reduced encoding and recognition activation than non-responders in the fatigue condition. An interaction in activation changes in the right hippocampus during encoding reflected decreased activation in responders, but somewhat increased activation in non-responders in the fatigue compared to control condition. Moreover, decreased hippocampal activation in responders was associated with increased subjective fatigue. Findings are consistent with a central role for the hippocampus in differences between responders and non-responders and also implicate the right hippocampus in individual differences in induced cognitive fatigue effects.

  18. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  19. Meclizine enhancement of sensorimotor gating in healthy male subjects with high startle responses and low prepulse inhibition.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, José A; Kelley, Lisalynn D; Jenkins, Mason R; Westman, Eric C; Schmajuk, Nestor A; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Levin, Edward D

    2014-02-01

    Histamine H1 receptor systems have been shown in animal studies to have important roles in the reversal of sensorimotor gating deficits, as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). H1-antagonist treatment attenuates the PPI impairments caused by either blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors or facilitation of dopamine transmission. The current experiment brought the investigation of H1 effects on sensorimotor gating to human studies. The effects of the histamine H1 antagonist meclizine on the startle response and PPI were investigated in healthy male subjects with high baseline startle responses and low PPI levels. Meclizine was administered to participants (n=24) using a within-subjects design with each participant receiving 0, 12.5, and 25 mg of meclizine in a counterbalanced order. Startle response, PPI, heart rate response, galvanic skin response, and changes in self-report ratings of alertness levels and affective states (arousal and valence) were assessed. When compared with the control (placebo) condition, the two doses of meclizine analyzed (12.5 and 25 mg) produced significant increases in PPI without affecting the magnitude of the startle response or other physiological variables. Meclizine also caused a significant increase in overall self-reported arousal levels, which was not correlated with the observed increase in PPI. These results are in agreement with previous reports in the animal literature and suggest that H1 antagonists may have beneficial effects in the treatment of subjects with compromised sensorimotor gating and enhanced motor responses to sensory stimuli. PMID:24045586

  20. Meclizine Enhancement of Sensorimotor Gating in Healthy Male Subjects with High Startle Responses and Low Prepulse Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Larrauri, José A; Kelley, Lisalynn D; Jenkins, Mason R; Westman, Eric C; Schmajuk, Nestor A; Rosenthal, M Zachary; Levin, Edward D

    2014-01-01

    Histamine H1 receptor systems have been shown in animal studies to have important roles in the reversal of sensorimotor gating deficits, as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). H1-antagonist treatment attenuates the PPI impairments caused by either blockade of NMDA glutamate receptors or facilitation of dopamine transmission. The current experiment brought the investigation of H1 effects on sensorimotor gating to human studies. The effects of the histamine H1 antagonist meclizine on the startle response and PPI were investigated in healthy male subjects with high baseline startle responses and low PPI levels. Meclizine was administered to participants (n=24) using a within-subjects design with each participant receiving 0, 12.5, and 25 mg of meclizine in a counterbalanced order. Startle response, PPI, heart rate response, galvanic skin response, and changes in self-report ratings of alertness levels and affective states (arousal and valence) were assessed. When compared with the control (placebo) condition, the two doses of meclizine analyzed (12.5 and 25 mg) produced significant increases in PPI without affecting the magnitude of the startle response or other physiological variables. Meclizine also caused a significant increase in overall self-reported arousal levels, which was not correlated with the observed increase in PPI. These results are in agreement with previous reports in the animal literature and suggest that H1 antagonists may have beneficial effects in the treatment of subjects with compromised sensorimotor gating and enhanced motor responses to sensory stimuli. PMID:24045586

  1. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mepolizumab, an anti–interleukin 5 monoclonal antibody, in healthy Japanese male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Naoki; Itoh, Hiroshi; Pouliquen, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Interleukin 5 (IL‐5) and eosinophils are thought to play an important role in the pathology of asthma. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of mepolizumab, a humanized anti‐IL5 IgG1 monoclonal antibody, in development for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma. This single‐blind study randomized 35 healthy Japanese male subjects (3:1) to receive either a single mepolizumab intravenous dose (10, 75, 250, or 750 mg) or placebo. Subjects were observed for up to 151 days postdose, depending on the dose administered. Blood samples were collected to measure mepolizumab concentrations, blood eosinophils, IL‐5, and antibodies to mepolizumab. Mepolizumab exhibited dose‐proportional pharmacokinetics. The terminal phase half‐life was 19.7–34.6 days, independent of dose. Higher mepolizumab plasma concentrations were associated with lower blood eosinophil counts. Mepolizumab 75–750 mg reduced blood eosinophils for ≥3 months postdose. Mepolizumab demonstrated a favorable safety profile: of 41 reported adverse events, most were mild in severity and none were serious. No neutralizing antibodies to mepolizumab were detected. Sustained reduction in blood eosinophils after single intravenous mepolizumab doses ≥ 75 mg, along with mepolizumab pharmacokinetics and a favorable tolerability profile in healthy Japanese subjects, provides a solid foundation for future studies with mepolizumab in Japanese patients with asthma. PMID:27138023

  2. Female and male adolescents' subjective orientations to mathematics and the influence of those orientations on postsecondary majors.

    PubMed

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-11-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring in PEMC in college. Results indicate that racial-ethnic and gender underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are interrelated and should be examined with attention to the intersecting factors influencing female and racial-ethnic minority adolescents' pathways toward careers in these fields. Among those who major in PEMC fields, women closely resemble men with respect to their subjective orientations. The effects of subjective orientations on women's chances of majoring in PEMC vary by their secondary school mathematics course completion levels. Women who take more mathematics courses are more likely to major in PEMC; however, course taking alone does not attenuate gender disparities in declaring these majors. High mathematics ability (as measured by standardized test scores in the 10th grade) appears to be positively associated with women's selection of social, behavioral, clinical, and health science majors. This association is less robust (and slightly negative) for women in PEMC. While advanced course taking appears to assist women in selecting PEMC majors, women who enter these fields may not be as strong as those who select other, less male-dominated scientific fields.

  3. A phase I clinical study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang versus ginseng and valerian on the semen quality of healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Mkrtchyan, A; Panosyan, V; Panossian, A; Wikman, G; Wagner, H

    2005-06-01

    The safety of different doses of Kan Jang--a fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata special extract (SHA-10) and Acanthopanax senticosus--compared to two extensively used medicinal plants, Valeriana officinalis and Panax ginseng in the form of standardized extracts, has been examined. A phase I clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect on semen quality of healthy males in terms of spermatogenesis and quality of semen. The results of the study revealed no significant negative effect of Kan Jang on male semen quality and fertility, but rather a positive trend with respect to the number of spermatozoids in the whole ejaculate, the percentage of active (normokinetic) forms of spermatozoids, and fertility indexes, together with a decrease in the percentage of inactive (diskinetic) forms of spermatozoids. In the group receiving ginseng, no significant negative effects on the fertility parameters were revealed and there was a clear decrease in the percentage of diskinetic forms of spermatozoids. Subjects receiving valerian showed a temporary increase in the percentage of normokinetic spermatozoids and a decrease in diskinetic forms, but these changes had no effect on fertility indices. The results indicate that Kan Jang, ginseng and valerian are safe with respect to effects on human male sterility when administered at dose levels corresponding to approximately 3 times the human daily dose. PMID:16008115

  4. Regional Brain Activity in Abstinent Methamphetamine Dependent Males Following Cue Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Malcolm, Robert; Myrick, Hugh; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S; See, Ronald E

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuroimaging of drug-associated cue presentations has aided in understanding the neurobiological substrates of craving and relapse for cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. However, imaging of cue-reactivity in methamphetamine addiction has been much less studied. Method Nine caucasian male methamphetamine-dependent subjects and nine healthy controls were scanned in a Phillips 3.0T MRI scan when they viewed a randomized presentation of visual cues of methamphetamine, neutral objects, and rest conditions. Functional Imaging data were analyzed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software 5 (SPM 5) Results Methamphetamine subjects had significant brain activation in the ventral striatum and medial frontal cortex in comparison to meth pictures and neutral pictures in healthy controls (p<0.005, threshold 15 voxels). Interestingly the ventral striatum activation significantly correlated with the days since the last use of meth (r=−0.76, p=0.017). No significant activity was found in healthy control group. Conclusion The preliminary data suggest that methamphetamine dependent subjects, when exposed to methamphetamine-associated visual cues, have increased brain activity in ventral striatum, caudate nucleus and medial frontal cortex which subserve craving, drug-seeking, and drug use. PMID:27314105

  5. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively), whereas there was no significant difference in density. The mean osteon total area, osteon bone area and vascular space area of both classes A and B were significantly higher (P < 0.001 for all three parameters) in the endosteal than in the periosteal half-cortex. The significant differences between the two layers of the cortex suggest that the osteoclast activity is distributed throughout the whole cortical thickness, with more numerous excavations in the external layer, but larger resorption lacunae closer to the marrow canal. A randomly selected population of 109 intact

  6. A single consumption of curry improved postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects: a randomized, controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Curry, one of the most popular foods in Japan, contains spices that are rich in potentially antioxidative compounds, such as curcumin and eugenol. Oxidative stress is thought to impair endothelial function associated with atherosclerosis, a leading cause of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single consumption of curry meal would improve endothelial function in healthy men. Methods Fourteen healthy male subjects (BMI 23.7 ± 2.7 kg/m2; age 45 ± 9 years) were given a single serving of curry meal or spice-free control meal (180 g of curry or control and 200 g of cooked rice; approximately 500 kcal in total) in a randomized, controlled crossover design. Before and 1 hr after the consumption, fasting and postprandial flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) responses and other parameters were measured. Results The consumption of the control meal decreased FMD from 5.8 ± 2.4% to 5.1 ± 2.3% (P = 0.039). On the other hand, the consumption of the curry meal increased FMD from 5.2 ± 2.5% to 6.6 ± 2.0% (P = 0.001), and the postprandial FMD after the curry meal was higher than that after the control meal (P = 0.002). Presence of spices in the curry did not alter significantly the systemic and forearm hemodynamics, or any biochemical parameters including oxidative stress markers measured. Conclusions These findings suggest that the consumption of curry ameliorates postprandial endothelial function in healthy male subjects and may be beneficial for improving cardiovascular health. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry 000012012. PMID:24972677

  7. Priming deficiency in male subjects at risk for alcoholism: the N4 during a lexical decision task

    PubMed Central

    Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Kamarajan, Chella; Chorlian, David B.; Stimus, Arthur; Bauer, Lance O.; Rohrbaugh, John; O'Connor, Sean J.; Kuperman, Samuel; Schuckit, Marc; Porjesz, Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Background While there is extensive literature on the relationship between the P3 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) and risk for alcoholism, there are few published studies regarding other potentially important ERP components. One important candidate is the N4(00) component in the context of semantic processing, as abnormalities in this component have been reported for adult alcoholics. Method A semantic priming task was administered to non-alcohol dependent male offspring (18 to 25 years) of alcoholic fathers [high risk (HR) n=23] and non-alcoholic fathers [low risk (LR) n=28], to study whether the two groups differ in terms of the N4 component. Subjects were presented with 150 words and 150 non-words. Among the words, 50 words (primed) were preceded by their antonyms (prime, n=50), whereas the remaining 50 words were unprimed. For the analysis, N4 amplitude and latency, as well as behavioral measures for the primed and unprimed words were considered. Results A significant interaction effect was observed between semantic condition and group, where HR subjects did not show N4 attenuation for primed stimuli. Conclusion The lack of N4 attenuation to primed stimuli and/or inability to differentiate between primed and unprimed stimuli, without latency and reaction time being affected, suggest deficits in semantic priming, especially in semantic expectancy and/or post-lexical semantic processing in HR male offspring. Further, it indicates that it might be an electrophysiological endophenotype that reflects genetic vulnerability to develop alcoholism. PMID:19764939

  8. The relationship between vitamin D status, physical activity and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Kavadar, Gülis; Demircioğlu, Demet Tekdöş; Özgönenel, Levent; Emre, Tuluhan Yunus

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence has been increasing worldwide along with the rise of obesity and sedantery lifestyle. Decreased physical activity (PA) and obesity have also been associated with the low vitamin D levels. We aimed to determine the association between PA, vitamin D status and insulin resistance in overweight and obese subjects. A total of 294 (186 female, 108 male) overweight or obese subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), insulin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c levels were measured in blood samples. Body mass index (BMI), HOMA-index and total score of International Physical Activity Questionnaire-long form (IPAQ)were calculated. Insulin resistant subjects were compared with the non-resistant group. The mean age of the participants was 45±12.25 and 41.39±10.32; 25(OH)D levels were 8.91 ± 4.30 and 17.62 ± 10.47 ng/dL; BMIs were 31.29 ± 4.48 and 28.2 ± 3.16 kg/m², IPAQ total scores were 548.71±382.81 and 998±486.21 in the insulin resistant and nonresistant subjects, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in terms of 25(OH)D, FPG, insulin levels, IPAQ total score and BMI between the two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001). Significantly low 25(OH)D levels, high BMI and low PA in insulin resistant subjects confirm the importance of active lifestyle and the maintenance of normal vitamin D levels in overweight and obese subjects in prevention of T2DM. PMID:26042515

  9. Antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress.

    PubMed

    Chhillar, Ritu; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate antidepressant-like activity of gallic acid in Swiss young male albino mice subjected to unpredictable chronic mild stress and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms for this activity. Gallic acid (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) per se were administered daily to unstressed mice and other groups of mice subjected to unpredictable mild stress, 30 min after the injection for 21 successive days. The antidepressant-like activity was evaluated using forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Stress significantly increased immobility period of mice in FST. Gallic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine significantly decreased immobility period of unstressed and stressed mice in FST and prevented the stress-induced decrease in sucrose preference, indicating significant antidepressant-like activity. There was no significant effect on locomotor activity of the mice by the drugs. Gallic acid (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly decreased Monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) activity, malondialdehyde levels, and catalase activity in unstressed mice; and significantly prevented the stress-induced decrease in reduced glutathione and catalase activity; and also significantly prevented stress-induced increase in MAO-A activity, malondialdehyde levels, plasma nitrite, and corticosterone levels. Thus, gallic acid showed antidepressant-like activity in unstressed and stressed mice probably due to its antioxidant activity and through inhibition of MAO-A activity and decrease in plasma nitrite levels. In addition, gallic acid also showed antidepressant-like activity in stressed mice probably through decrease in plasma corticosterone levels.

  10. Nutritional strategies of physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary strategies for physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia based on a systematic literature review. Method References were included if the study population consisted of adults over 18 years old who were physically active in fitness centers. We identified reports through an electronic search ofScielo, Lilacs and Medline using the following keywords: muscle dysmorphia, vigorexia, distorted body image, and exercise. We found eight articles in Scielo, 17 in Medline and 12 in Lilacs. Among the total number of 37 articles, only 17 were eligible for inclusion in this review. Results The results indicated that the feeding strategies used by physically active individuals with muscle dysmorphia did not include planning or the supervision of a nutritionist. Diet included high protein and low fat foods and the ingestion of dietary and ergogenic supplements to reduce weight. Conclusion Physically active subjects with muscle dysmorphia could benefit from the help of nutritional professionals to evaluate energy estimation, guide the diet and its distribution in macronutrient and consider the principle of nutrition to functional recovery of the digestive process, promote liver detoxification, balance and guide to organic adequate intake of supplemental nutrients and other substances. PMID:23706013

  11. Upper body muscle strength and endurance in relation to peak exercise capacity during cycling in healthy sedentary male subjects.

    PubMed

    Segerström, Åsa B; Holmbäck, Anna M; Elzyri, Targ; Eriksson, Karl-Fredrik; Ringsberg, Karin; Groop, Leif; Thorsson, Ola; Wollmer, Per

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between upper body muscle strength and endurance, and exercise capacity during an incremental cycle exercise test in sedentary healthy male subjects before and after 6 months of combined supervised group training. Exercise capacity was measured as maximal oxygen consumption (VO₂peak) and maximum work rate (WR(peak)). Muscle strength and endurance of the upper body were assessed by bench press and isometric measurement of trunk extensor and flexor maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and trunk extensor and flexor endurance. Thirty-one subjects were studied before and after the training period. Bench press and trunk extensor MVC correlated to exercise capacity at baseline and after training. Training improved VO₂peak and WR(peak). The correlation between trunk extensor MVC and exercise capacity improved after training. Upper body strength may affect exercise capacity by increasing the rider's ability to generate force on the handlebar that can be transmitted to the pedals. Resistance training of the arms, chest, and trunk may help improve cycling performance.

  12. Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderi, Bayazid; Amini, Sabrieh; Maroofi, Farzad; Jalali, Chiya; Javanmardi, Mitra; Roshani, Daem; Abdi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia is one of the most frequent hematologic malignancies in the world. Cellular surface CD markers and serum Beta-2-microglobulin may be used as a prognostic tool in CLL patients. Objectives In the present study we introduce serum adenosine deaminase as a diagnostic marker in CLL. Materials and Methods Blood samples were collected from B-CLL and healthy subjects. White blood cell, red blood cell and platelet count and blood Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was recorded and serum Beta-2-microglobulin, Lactate dehydrogenase and total ADA enzyme activity were determined. Results Serum ADA activity was significantly higher in patients group than that of controls. ADA had a significant and direct correlation with B2M, WBC, LDH and ESR. However, there was not any relation between ADA and the stages of disease. Diagnostic cut-off, sensitivity and specificity of the serum ADA test were 27.97 U/L, 91% and 94%, respectively. Conclusions A higher ADA activity in patients group and its correlation with CLL markers were seen in our study. High diagnostic value of serum ADA in our study suggests that it might be considered as a useful screening tool among the other markers in CLL. PMID:27703646

  13. Changes in brain arginine vasotocin, isotocin, plasma 11-ketotestosterone and cortisol in round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males subjected to overcrowding stress during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Ewa; Kleszczyńska, Agnieszka; Kalamarz-Kubiak, Hanna; Arciszewski, Bartłomiej; Kulczykowska, Ewa

    2013-06-01

    In natural spawning grounds, breeding round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, males are exposed to various social stimuli, including high density of same-sex competitors and separation from females. We hypothesize that breeding males subjected to overcrowding in the wild experience high stress that affects their socio-sexual behavior and their relationships among conspecifics. We designed an experiment to mimic natural stimulation when highly aggregated breeding males are subjected to same-sex opponents. Males were sampled sequentially from experimental tank stocked at decreasing fish densities of 15 fish/m(2), 9 fish/m(2) and 4 fish/m(2). We studied the effects of overcrowding on male behavior and selected hormones, brain arginine vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT) and plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and cortisol as these are known to play roles in reproduction and related social interactions. The highest brain AVT and plasma cortisol levels were measured in non-aggressive males kept in the overcrowded group of 15 fish/m(2). IT level was elevated in fish kept at the lower density of 9 fish/m(2), and at which the males began to display territoriality and aggression. The plasma level of 11-KT was similar in all the males. Brain AVT and IT and plasma cortisol along with behavioral observations can be applied as species-specific indicators of the well-being of round goby males.

  14. Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Locomotor Activity in Male and Female Mice by Active Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A.; Shen, Xiaoyun Y.; Kinsey, Berma M.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Orson, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Immunotherapy for drug addiction is being investigated in several laboratories but most studies are conducted in animals of one sex. Yet, women show heightened immune responses and are more likely to develop autoimmune diseases than men. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an active anti-cocaine vaccine, succinyl-norcocaine conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, for its ability to elicit antibodies and alter cocaine-induced ambulatory activity in male versus female mice. Methods Male and female BALB/c mice were vaccinated (n=44) or served as non-vaccinated controls (n=34). Three weeks after initial vaccination, a booster was given. Ambulatory activity induced by cocaine (20 mg/kg) was assessed at 7-wk and plasma obtained at 8-wk to assess antibody levels. Results High antibody titers were produced in mice of both sexes. The vaccine reduced ambulatory activity cocaine-induced but this effect was greater in female compared to male mice. Discussion and conclusions The efficacy of this anti-cocaine vaccine is demonstrated in mice of both sexes but its functional consequences are greater in females than males. Scientific significance Results point to the importance of testing animals of both sexes in studies of immunotherapies for addiction. PMID:25251469

  15. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s.

  16. Effects of Tai Chi on Pain and Muscle Activity in Young Males with Acute Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group’s VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group’s VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  17. Effects of tai chi on pain and muscle activity in young males with acute low back pain.

    PubMed

    Cho, YongHo

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was to examine the effects of tai chi on low back pain in young males. [Subjects and Methods] Forty males in their 20s with low back pain were randomly assigned to two groups. Tai chi was applied to one group, and stretching was applied to the other group. The subjects conducted exercise for one hour, three times per week for four weeks. They performed warm-up exercises for 10 min at the beginning and end of the sessions and conducted the main exercise for 40 minutes. Wireless surface electromyography (sEMG) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) were employed to measure muscle activity and pain, respectively. [Results] There were significant differences between the two groups in pain and muscle activity. The tai chi group's VAS decreased from 3.1 to 2.1, and its muscle activity decreased from 21.5% maximum voluntary isomeric contraction (MVIC) to 16.4% MVIC. The stretching group's VAS decreased from 3.4 to 2.8, and its muscle activity decreased from 24.1% MVIC to 22.1% MVIC. [Conclusion] Tai chi is more effective for low back pain in males in their 20s than stretching. Tai chi can be considered an effective method to reduce low back pain in males in their 20s. PMID:24926131

  18. Male golden hamster in male reproductive toxicology testing: Assessment of protective activity of selenium in acute cadmium intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Wiodarczyk, B.; Biernacki, B.; Minta, M.; Juszkiewicz, T.; Kozaczynski, W.

    1995-06-01

    The golden hamster has a short history as a laboratory animal. In spite of this, it has been extensively used as a subject for biomedical research. The hamster has also been utilized in toxicological evaluations, especially in teratology studies. Results of these investigations reveal that laboratory hamsters are very sensitive to many chemical compounds, including: drugs, food additives, industrial chemicals, heavy metals, and other environmental contaminants. The animals most frequently used in toxicological investigations are rats and mice. This is also true in male reproductive toxicology. Apparent differences in species sensitivity to chemical compounds suggest a need to examine a new species in this field of toxicology. A good example of chemical specific differences in species sensitivity is the testicular toxicity of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP), which was a testicular toxicant in humans and in rats, but it was not effective, even at relatively high dose levels, in the mouse. From our own vast experience in using hamsters in toxicological studies, we decided to use this laboratory animal in male reproductive toxicology screening tests. The purpose of this study was to determine the suitability of golden hamsters as an experimental animal species for male reproductive toxicology testing. To this effect we have chosen selenium and cadmium as test agents as they were well known for their spectacular effect on the male reproductive system. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Male Adolescents' Reasons for Participating in Physical Activity, Barriers to Participation, and Suggestions for Increasing Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Kenneth R.; Dwyer, John J. M.; Goldenberg, Ellie; Fein, Allan; Yoshida, Karen K.; Boutilier, Marie

    2005-01-01

    This study explored male adolescents' reasons for participating in moderate and vigorous physical activity, perceived barriers to moderate and vigorous physical activity, and suggestions as to what can be done to increase participation in physical activity. A total of 26 male 15- and 16-year-old adolescents participated in focus group sessions,…

  20. Effects of ACL reconstruction surgery on muscle activity of the lower limb during a jump-cut maneuver in males and females.

    PubMed

    Coats-Thomas, Margaret S; Miranda, Daniel L; Badger, Gary J; Fleming, Braden C

    2013-12-01

    We compared muscle activity of the quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles when ACL-intact (ACL(INT)) and ACL-reconstructed (ACL(REC)) male and female subjects performed a jump-cut task. Surface electromyography sensors were used to evaluate time to peak muscle activity and muscle activity ratios. Rectus femoris (RF) and vastus medialis (VM) peak timing was 71 and 78 ms earlier in ACL(INT) than in ACL(REC) subjects, respectively. Biceps femoris (BF) peak timing was 90 ms earlier in ACL(INT) than in ACL(REC) subjects and 75 ms earlier in females than in males. Medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle peak timing was 77 ms earlier in ACL(INT) than in ACL(REC) subjects. Lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and MG muscle peak times were 106 ms and 87 ms earlier in females than in males, respectively. The RF, VM, BF, and MG peaked later in ACL(REC) than in ACL(INT) subjects. There was evidence suggesting that the loading phase quadriceps:hamstring (quad:ham) muscle activity ratio was greater in ACL(REC) than in ACL(INT) subjects. Finally, the injury risk phase quad:ham muscle activity ratio was 4.8 times greater in females than in males. In conclusion, differences exist in muscle activity related to ACL status and sex that could potentially help explain graft failure risk and the sex bias.

  1. Electrically evoked and voluntary maximal isometric tension in relation to dynamic muscle performance in elderly male subjects, aged 69 years.

    PubMed

    Davies, C T; White, M J; Young, K

    1983-01-01

    The dynamic performance and electrically evoked mechanical properties of elderly triceps surae muscle have been investigated in 9 men, aged 69 yr. Dynamic performance consisted of cycling on a force bicycle and a vertical jump off two feet from a force platform. The results showed that the time to peak tension (TPT) and half relaxation time (1/2 RT) were significantly greater (p less than 0.001) by 30 ms and 22 ms and the supramaximal twitch (Pt) and tetanic (20 Hz-P020) tensions and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were less by 45 N (-33%), 708 N (-49%), and 899 N (-43%) in the elderly compared with young male control subjects. On the force platform, the height jumped (Ht), maximal force exerted (P), take-off velocity (VT), net impulse (NI) and peak power output (W) were less by 18.6 cm, 173 N, 0.9 ms-1, 52 Ns and 1120 w respectively. Similar differences of power, force and velocity were observed on the force bicycle. The reduction of W in the elderly was associated with the contractile characteristics of the leg muscle. The loss of contractile speed and capacity to to generate force in old people was reflected in their inability to develop power during the performance of a maximal vertical jump and cycling.

  2. The effects of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1) on prolactin secretion in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Merz, P G; Gorkow, C; Schrödter, A; Rietbrock, S; Sieder, C; Loew, D; Dericks-Tan, J S; Taubert, H D

    1996-01-01

    The effects of three doses of a special Agnus castus extract (BP1095E1)--extracts from 120 mg, 240 mg and 480 mg of drug per day--were examined within the framework of a placebo-controlled clinical study of tolerance and prolactin secretion in 20 healthy male subjects during a period of 14 days. There was good tolerance during the study as regards the following: adverse effects, the effects on blood pressure and heart rate, blood count, Quick's test, clinical chemistry as well as testosterone, FSH and LH values. During each study phase the 24-hour prolactin secretion profile was measured from the penultimate to the final day, and the amount of prolactin release was monitored an hour after TRH stimulation on the last day. A significant increase in the 24-hour profile was registered with the lowest dose in comparison to placebo, the opposite being the case with the higher doses, i.e. a slight reduction. In contrast to the administration of placebo, the 1-hour AUC after TRH stimulation resulted in a significant increase with the lowest dose and a significant reduction with the highest dose. The results suggest effects of the special Agnus castus extract which are dependent on the dose administered and the initial level of prolactin concentration.

  3. Is self-sacrificial competitive altruism primarily a male activity?

    PubMed

    McAndrew, Francis T; Perilloux, Carin

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the basis of self-sacrificial prosocial behavior in small groups. Seventy-eight undergraduates (39M, 39F) filled out a thirty-item personality scale and then participated in a "group problem-solving study" in which the monetary success of a three-person group depended upon one of its members volunteering to endure pain (a cold stressor test) and inconvenience (being soaked in a dunk tank). There were 13 groups consisting of two females and one male, and 13 groups consisting of two males and one female. Across groups, the behavior of the altruist was judged to be more costly, challenging, and important and he/she was liked better, rewarded with more money, and preferred as a future experimental partner. Groups containing two males showed more evidence of competition to become altruists than groups containing two females, and personality traits were more effective predictors of altruistic behavior in males than in females. We conclude that competition between males and "showing off" are key factors in triggering self-sacrificial altruistic behavior.

  4. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing with and without inspiratory and expiratory loads in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Mesquita Montes, António; Baptista, João; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Santos, Rita; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System modulates the motor activities of all trunk muscles to concurrently regulate the intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. The study aims to evaluate the effect of inspiratory and expiratory loads on abdominal muscle activity during breathing in healthy subjects. Twenty-three higher education students (21.09±1.56years; 8males) breathed at a same rhythm (inspiration: two seconds; expiration: four seconds) without load and with 10% of the maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures, in standing. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique muscles, during inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly lower with inspiratory load when compared to without load (p=0.009) and expiratory load (p=0.002). During expiration, the activation intensity of all abdominal muscles was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to without load (p<0.05). The activation intensity of external oblique (p=0.036) and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (p=0.022) was significantly higher with inspiratory load when compared to without load. Transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to inspiratory load (p<0.001). Transversus abdominis/internal oblique seems to be the most relevant muscle to modulate the intra-abdominal pressure for the breathing mechanics. PMID:27434376

  5. Context-dependent effects of Y chromosome and mitochondrial haplotype on male locomotive activity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Dean, R; Lemos, B; Dowling, D K

    2015-10-01

    Some regions of the genome exhibit sexual asymmetries in inheritance and are thus subjected to sex-biased evolutionary forces. Maternal inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) enables mtDNA mutations harmful to males, but not females, to accumulate. In the face of male-harmful mtDNA mutation accumulation, selection will favour the evolution of compensatory modifiers in the nuclear genome that offset fitness losses to males. The Y chromosome is a candidate to host these modifiers, because it is paternally inherited, known to harbour an abundance of genetic variation for male fertility, and therefore likely to be under strong selection to uphold male viability. Here, we test for intergenomic interactions involving mtDNA and Y chromosomes in male Drosophila melanogaster. Specifically, we examine effects of each of these genomic regions, and their interaction, on locomotive activity, across different environmental contexts--both dietary and social. We found that both the mtDNA haplotype and Y chromosome haplotype affected activity in males assayed in an environment perceived as social. These effects, however, were not evident in males assayed in perceived solitary environments, and neither social nor solitary treatments revealed evidence for intergenomic interactions. Finally, the magnitude and direction of these genetic effects was further contingent on the diet treatment of the males. Thus, genes within the mtDNA and Y chromosome are involved in genotype-by-environment interactions. These interactions might contribute to the maintenance of genetic variation within these asymmetrically inherited gene regions and complicate the dynamics of genetic interactions between the mtDNA and the Y chromosome.

  6. Resting brain activity varies with dream recall frequency between subjects.

    PubMed

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; Nicolas, Alain; Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Redouté, Jérôme; Costes, Nicolas; Ruby, Perrine

    2014-06-01

    Dreaming is still poorly understood. Notably, its cerebral underpinning remains unclear. Neuropsychological studies have shown that lesions in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and/or the white matter of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) lead to the global cessation of dream reports, suggesting that these regions of the default mode network have key roles in the dreaming process (forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis). To test this hypothesis, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography in healthy subjects with high and low dream recall frequencies (DRFs) during wakefulness (rest) and sleep (rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, N2, and N3). Compared with Low recallers (0.5 ± 0.3 dream recall per week in average), High recallers (5.2 ± 1.4) showed higher rCBF in the TPJ during REM sleep, N3, and wakefulness, and in the MPFC during REM sleep and wakefulness. We demonstrate that the resting states of High recallers and Low recallers differ during sleep and wakefulness. It coheres with previous ERP results and confirms that a high/low DRF is associated with a specific functional organization of the brain. These results support the forebrain 'dream-on' hypothesis and suggest that TPJ and MPFC are not only involved in dream recall during wakefulness but also have a role in dreaming during sleep (production and/or encoding). Increased activity in the TPJ and MPFC might promote the mental imagery and/or memory encoding of dreams. Notably, increased activity in TPJ might facilitate attention orienting toward external stimuli and promote intrasleep wakefulness, facilitating the encoding of the dreams in memory.

  7. High Fetal Estrogen Concentrations: Correlation with Increased Adult Sexual Activity and Decreased Aggression in Male Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vom Saal, Frederick S.; Grant, William M.; McMullen, Carol W.; Laves, Kurt S.

    1983-06-01

    In the house mouse (Mus musculus), fetuses may develop in utero next to siblings of the same or opposite sex. The amniotic fluid of the female fetuses contains higher concentrations of estradiol than that of male fetuses. Male fetuses that developed in utero between female fetuses had higher concentrations of estradiol in their amniotic fluid than males that were located between other male fetusesw during intrauterine development. They were also more sexually active as adults, less aggressive, and had smaller seminal vesicles than males that had developed between other male fetuses in utero. These findings raise the possibility that during fetal life circulating estrogens may interact with circulating androgens both in regulating the development of sex differences between males and females and in producing variation in phenotype among males and among females.

  8. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  9. Natural male contraceptive: phytochemical investigation and anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes Linn.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kiran; Dubey, Bidhyut Kumar; Tripathi, Avinash C; Singh, Ajeet Pal; Saraf, Shailendra K

    2014-01-01

    This work is an attempt to explore the anti-spermatogenic activity of Pistia stratiotes and to investigate it as a male contraceptive. The prepared extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponin and phenolic compounds. To assess the anti-spermatogenic activity, mice were orally administered with the various extracts of P. stratiotes (dose: 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days) and the most active, ethanolic extract was subjected to the isolation of phytoconstituent responsible for the activity. Diethyl ether fraction of ethanolic extract was taken to isolate a saponin, sitosterol-3-O-[2,4-di-O-acetyl-6-O-stearyl-β-D-glucopyranoside]. Anti-spermatogenic activity of the isolated saponin was evaluated at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day, for 45 days. The treatment caused significant decrease (P < 0.01) in the weight of reproductive organs (testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle). The sperm count, sperm viability and serum testosterone levels were significantly lowered compared with that of the control group.

  10. Reproductive success in the Lusitanian toadfish: Influence of calling activity, male quality and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Novais, Bruno; Gouveia, Maria D; Vicente, Joana R; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic signals are sexual ornaments with an established role on mate choice in several taxa, but not in fish. Recent studies have suggested that fish vocal activity may signal male quality and influence male's reproductive success but experimental evidence is lacking. Here we made two experiments to test the hypothesis that vocal activity is essential for male breeding success in a highly vocal fish, the Lusitanian toadfish. We first compared the reproduction success between muted and vocal males. In a second experiment we related male reproduction success with acoustic activity and male quality, including biometric, condition and physiological features. As a proxy for reproductive success we tallied both total number and number of sired eggs, which were correlated. Muting experiments showed that successful mating was dependent on vocalizing. In addition, the number of eggs was positively associated with the male's maximum calling rate. In the second experiment male's reproductive success was positively associated with male condition and negatively related with circulating androgen levels and relative gonad mass, but was not associated with vocal activity. Differences in results may be related with nest design which could have influenced mate choice costs and intra-sexual competition. In the muting experiment nests had a small opening that restrained the large nest-holder but allowed smaller fish, such as females, to pass while in the second experiment fish could move freely. These experiments suggest that a combination of factors, including vocal activity, influence reproductive success in this highly vocal species.

  11. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest. PMID:15240416

  12. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  13. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics.

  14. Body Size, Rather Than Male Eye Allometry, Explains Chrysomya megacephala (Diptera: Calliphoridae) Activity in Low Light

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. L.; Palermo, N. A.; Theobald, J. C.; Wells, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Male Chrysomya megacephala (F.) blow fly compound eyes contain an unusual area of enlarged dorsal facets believed to allow for increased light capture. This region is absent in females and has been hypothesized to aid in mate tracking in low light conditions or at greater distances. Many traits used in the attraction and capture of mates are allometric, growing at different rates relative to body size. Previous reports concerning C. megacephala eye properties did not include measurements of body size, making the relationship between the specialized eye region and body size unclear. We examined different morphological features of the eye among individuals of varying sizes. We found total eye size scaled proportionately to body size, but the number of enlarged dorsal facets increased as body size increased. This demonstrated that larger males have an eye that is morphologically different than smaller males. On the basis of external morphology, we hypothesized that since larger males have larger and a greater number of dorsally enlarged facets, and these facets are believed to allow for increased light capture, larger males would be active in lower light levels than smaller males and females of equal size. In a laboratory setting, larger males were observed to become active earlier in the morning than smaller males, although they did not remain active later in the evening. However, females followed the same pattern at similar light levels suggesting that overall body size rather than specialized male eye morphology is responsible for increased activity under low light conditions. PMID:26411786

  15. Do perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differ between male and female adolescents?

    PubMed

    Tergerson, Jennifer L; King, Keith A

    2002-11-01

    A four-page survey was administered to 535 adolescents at two single-sex (one male, one female) high schools in Cincinnati, Ohio, to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. More specifically, the survey assessed perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to exercising. Results indicated that the most helpful cue to physical activity for both female and male students was "having a friend to exercise with." The most commonly reported benefit of exercising among females was "to stay in shape," whereas the most commonly reported benefit to exercising among males was "to become strong." Among females, the most common barrier to exercising was "having no time to exercise," whereas males were most likely to report "wanting to do other things with my time." Multivariate analyses of covariance revealed that perceived cues, benefits, and barriers to physical activity differed significantly based on gender. Recommendations on specific strategies to increasing male and female adolescent physical activity levels are offered. PMID:12557633

  16. Radar cross section of human cardiopulmonary activity for recumbent subject.

    PubMed

    Kiriazi, John E; Boric-Lubecke, Olga; Lubecke, Victor M

    2009-01-01

    The radar cross section (RCS) corresponding to human cardio-respiratory motion is measured for a subject in two different recumbent positions. Lying face-up (supine), the subject showed an RCS of 0.326 m(2). But when lying face-down (prone), the RCS increased to 2.9 m(2). This is the first reported RCS measurement corresponding to human cardio-respiratory motion. The results obtained in this experiment suggest modeling the upper part of the human body as a half-cylinder where the front body corresponds to the cylindrical surface and the back corresponds to the rectangular one.

  17. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  18. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  19. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... approved by the IRB. (34 CFR 97.103(f).) No covered research involving human subjects shall be...

  20. Eating disorder in a young active duty male.

    PubMed

    Staten, Robert A

    2013-07-01

    Eating disorders can have atypical presentations, be challenging to diagnose, and often result in treatment delay, as illustrated here. Bulimia nervosa is characterized by binge eating and inappropriate compensatory behaviors, and is ten times more common in females. Studies show increased prevalence over the past decade, with similar prevalence in young military members and civilians. Risk factors include dieting, gender preference, life-altering events, and history of a psychiatric condition. Relatively little research has focused on eating disorders among military males, but factors unique to this group include rigid weight standards, mandatory semiannual personal fitness assessments, and extended deployments. Bulimia and other eating disorders can have subtle or atypical presentations and are often overlooked in males. Other diagnostic obstacles include career concerns and stigma avoidance, along with provider time constraints, inexperience, or discomfort with the issue. Serious medical complications of bulimia are uncommon, but delayed diagnosis can lead to hospitalization and significant morbidity. This case emphasizes the importance of a thorough history and wide differential when faced with an unusual presentation. Recognizing risk factors and incorporating simple screening tools can aid the timely identification and treatment of service members with disordered eating before unit and mission effectiveness are compromised.

  1. Active versus Passive Proprioceptive Straight-Ahead Pointing in Normal Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chokron, Sylvie; Colliot, Pascale; Atzeni, Thierry; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Ohlmann, Theophile

    2004-01-01

    Eighty blindfolded healthy female subjects participated in an active and a passive straight-ahead pointing task to study the estimation of the subjective sagittal middle in the presence or absence of an active haptic exploration. Subjects were to point straight-ahead with their left or right index finger starting from different right- or…

  2. [Suppression of sexual activity and reproduction in male small ruminants].

    PubMed

    Mihsler, Lisa; Wagner, Henrik; Wehrend, Axel

    2016-06-16

    Handling and husbandry of male small ruminants after sexual maturity often become difficult. Castration is currently the most reliable solution to this problem. Medicinal procedures for temporary inhibition of the gonad function could provide an alternative. Following a short overview of surgical castration, the current knowledge on the application of vaccines against gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH agonist in rams and billy goats is presented in a literature overview. In rams, GnRH vaccination has been used successfully for temporary suppression of the reproduction function, regardless of an animal's age at the time of therapy initiation. Fewer investigations are available for the billy goat. A complete suppression of spermatogenesis was not achieved in all cases. Currently, treatment with GnRH agonists does not represent a relible method for the suppression of gonad function. PMID:27189125

  3. Stress-induced salivary cortisol secretion during hypobaric hypoxia challenge and in vivo urinary thromboxane production in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Simeoni, Simona; Biselli, Roberto; D'Amelio, Raffaele; Rocca, Bianca; Lattanzio, Stefano; Mucci, Luciana; Davì, Giovanni; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2011-05-01

    Few studies have assessed the effects of stress on in vivo platelet activation. In the present study, hypobaric hypoxia induced by rapid decompression during high-altitude simulated flight in a hypobaric chamber was used to evaluate the effects of environmental stress on salivary cortisol and urinary thromboxane metabolite (TXM) excretion, a noninvasive marker of in vivo platelet function. Twenty-one male aviators (mean ± SD age = 36 ± 7 years) experiencing hypoxia by removing their oxygen mask for 4-5 min during a simulated flight to 25,000 ft (7,620 m; pO(2) = 59.17 mmHg) and a matched control group of thirteen flying instructors wearing oxygen masks during the challenge, were studied. Hypobaric hypoxia induced a transient significant increase (P < 0.001) in the aviators' salivary cortisol concentration; the overall pattern of diurnal cortisol fluctuation was maintained in both groups. Urinary TXM showed a significant ∼30% reduction (P < 0.01) after the chamber session in aviators exposed to hypobaric hypoxia, but not in controls. A significant inverse correlation was found between salivary cortisol and urinary TXM in aviators (r = - 0.64, P = 0.0015). Salivary cortisol was a significant predictor (P < 0.001) for urinary TXM concentrations in aviators. In conclusion, here we observed that an acute stress-induced salivary cortisol increase was associated with reduced urinary thromboxane biosynthesis, providing the first indirect evidence for an inhibitory effect of acute stress on in vivo platelet function. PMID:21434833

  4. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  5. Strength and muscle activity of shoulder external rotation of subjects with and without scapular dyskinesis

    PubMed Central

    Uga, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Rie; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to clarify the relationship between scapular dyskinesis and shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity. [Subjects and Methods] Both shoulders of 20 healthy males were evaluated. They were classified into 19 normal, 8 subtly abnormal, and 13 obviously abnormal shoulders using the scapular dyskinesis test. Subtly abnormal shoulders were subsequently excluded from the analysis. Shoulder external rotation strength and muscle activity (infraspinatus, serratus anterior, upper, middle, and lower trapezius) were measured in 2 positions using a handheld dynamometer and surface electromyography while sitting in a chair with shoulder 0° abduction and flexion (1st position), and while lying prone on the elbows with the shoulders elevated in the zero position (zero position). The strength ratio was calculated to quantify the change in strength between the positions (zero position / 1st position). [Results] In the obviously abnormal shoulder group, the strength in the 1st position was significantly stronger, the strength ratio was significantly smaller, and the serratus anterior in the zero position showed significantly lower activity than the normal shoulder group. [Conclusion] In shoulder external rotation in the zero position, in obviously abnormal shoulders, the serratus anterior is poorly recruited, weakening the shoulder external rotation strength. PMID:27190434

  6. Sexual incentive motivation, olfactory preference, and activation of the vomeronasal projection pathway by sexually relevant cues in non-copulating and naive male rats.

    PubMed

    Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G

    2004-09-01

    There are some apparently healthy male rats that fail to mate after repeated testing with receptive females. We have previously shown that these "non-copulator (NC)" males show no partner preference for a receptive female when given the opportunity to physically interact with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male. We also demonstrated that although NC males prefer odors from estrous females to odors from anestrous females, this preference is significantly reduced in comparison to the preference displayed by copulating (C) males. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in NC males sexual incentive motivation, that is, the approach behavior of male rats to either a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male in a test where the subjects can smell, hear, and see the stimulus animal but prevents their physical interaction. In addition, we determined whether NC rats have alterations in their ability to detect odors from conspecifics or odors related to food. In the detection of odors from conspecifics, we determined if these NC males are sexually attracted toward odors from receptive females or sexually active males. For food-related odors, we quantified the time it took the subjects to locate a hidden a piece of apple. Finally, using the induction of Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as an index of neuronal activation, we compared the response of the vomeronasal projection pathway (VN pathway) of C and NC male rats exposed to estrous bedding. Males without sexual experience (WSE) were included in all experiments to determine the importance of previous heterosexual experience in the different behavioral tests and in the activity of the VN pathway. In the sexual incentive motivation test, we found that C and WSE male rats have a clear preference for estrous females over sexually active males, whereas NC male rats showed no preference. In odor tests, our results showed that C males had a clear preference for odors from estrous females as opposed

  7. Sleep deprivation disturbed regional brain activity in healthy subjects: evidence from a functional magnetic resonance-imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Chen, Yin; Yao, Ying; Pan, Yu; Sun, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to use amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) to explore regional brain activities in healthy subjects after sleep deprivation (SD). Materials and methods A total of 16 healthy subjects (eight females, eight males) underwent the session twice: once was after normal sleep (NS), and the other was after SD. ALFF was used to assess local brain features. The mean ALFF-signal values of the different brain areas were evaluated to investigate relationships with clinical features and were analyzed with a receiver-operating characteristic curve. Results Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed a lower response-accuracy rate, longer response time, and higher lapse rate. Compared with NS subjects, SD subjects showed higher ALFF area in the right cuneus and lower ALFF area in the right lentiform nucleus, right claustrum, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left inferior parietal cortex. ALFF differences in regional brain areas showed high sensitivity and specificity. In the SD group, mean ALFF of the right claustrum showed a significant positive correlation with accuracy rate (r=0.687, P=0.013) and a negative correlation with lapse rate (r=−0.706, P=0.01). Mean ALFF of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed a significant positive correlation with response time (r=0.675, P=0.016). Conclusion SD disturbed the regional brain activity of the default-mode network, its anticorrelated “task-positive” network, and the advanced cognitive function brain areas. PMID:27110113

  8. Hormonal specificity and activation of social behavior in male red-winged blackbirds.

    PubMed

    Harding, C F; Walters, M J; Collado, D; Sheridan, K

    1988-09-01

    Five groups of male red-winged blackbirds were observed 12 times over 14 days in an aviary setting. An estradiol-treated female was present during the last two observations of each group. Each group of males consisted of a castrated (CA) and an intact (IN) control and six castrated males given one of the following hormone treatments: the aromatizable androgens, testosterone (T) and androstenedione (AE); the nonaromatizable androgens, 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and androsterone (AN); the estrogen, estradiol (E); or a combination of E + DHT. Castration significantly reduced the frequency of singing and three common vocalizations, chucks, checks, and ips, below the levels shown by IN males. Only hormone treatments which provided both androgenic and estrogenic metabolites (A + E = T, AE, E + DHT) restored normal levels of these behaviors in castrated males. Endocrine status also modulated epaulet display. IN and A + E males were more likely than other males to keep their epaulets constantly exposed. The frequency of sidling and supplanting also varied significantly across hormone-treatment groups, with A + E males showing higher frequencies of these behaviors than other males. T was clearly the most effective hormone treatment in activating hormone-sensitive behaviors in this species. Hormone treatment was more important than size or plumage pattern in determining the outcome of aggressive interactions. In some groups, the dominant male clearly inhibited the performance of hormone-sensitive behaviors by other males. Among A + E males, the frequency of higher intensity song spread displays was highly correlated with the frequency of high-intensity aggressive behaviors and negatively correlated with the tendency to withdraw from other males. Patterns of correlations among behaviors suggest that some calls are more hormone dependent than others, and thus may serve different signal functions.

  9. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone after sexual activity in male rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Vazquez-Palacios, G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-07-01

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats, induces alterations of pleasure-seeking behaviors during adulthood. Alterations of hormonal responses to stressful situations have also been reported. In this study, the levels of corticosterone and testosterone in response to sexual activity were assessed in rats treated neonatally with CMI. Male pups received subcutaneous injections of CMI (15 mg/kg, 0.1 ml), twice a day (09.00 hours and 18.00 hours) from 8 to 21 days of age. A control group received saline in the same number of injections. Four months after CMI treatment, subjects (Ss) were submitted to the forced swim test to verify the effect of CMI. Thereafter, they were tested to assess their spontaneous sexual activity. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone were assessed under different conditions. Results of sexual behavior and the forced swim test corroborate the depressive-like effect of CMI. The sole presence of an estrogenized stimulus female caused an increase in plasma levels of testosterone in both control and CMI-treated Ss. The same was true for corticosterone; however, this increase was significantly lower in the CMI-treated group. There is a discrepancy between the normal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) response and the decreased sexual behavior. The data suggest that CMI induces permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  10. Inhibin activity in male rat reproductive organs during treatment with dihydrotestosterone

    SciTech Connect

    Gladkova, A.I.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on the inhibin level in the male reproductive system is studied. Hormones were determined in the peripheral blood of the donor rats by radioimmunoassay. Inhibin activity in the male rats is shown. DHT caused a very small increase in inhibin activity in the testis. Further study of relations between androgens and inhibin at peripheral and central levels will facilitate fertility control.

  11. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology. PMID:24757127

  12. Cortisol administration increases hippocampal activation to infant crying in males depending on childhood neglect.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Terburg, David; van Honk, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Animal studies show that exposure to parental neglect alters stress regulation and can lead to neural hyposensitivity or hypersensitivity in response to cortisol, most pronounced in the hippocampus. Cortisol, the end product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, has also been related to parenting more directly, for example, in both sexes, cortisol levels increase when listening to infants crying, possibly to activate and facilitate effective care behavior. Severe trauma is known to negatively affect the HPA-axis in humans; however, it is unknown whether normal variation in parental care in the healthy population can alter sensitivity of the hippocampus to cortisol. Here, we investigate whether variation in experienced neglect changes neural sensitivity to cortisol when humans listen to infant crying, which is an unequivocal signal relevant for care behavior. In a placebo-controlled, within-subject neuroimaging study, we administered 40 mg cortisol to 21 healthy young males without children and used a validated task for measuring neural responses to infant crying. The Dutch version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to index participants' early exposure to abuse and neglect. The data show that cortisol markedly increased hippocampal activation toward crying infants, and this effect varied significantly with parental neglect, even in our nonclinical subject sample. Without exposure to severe trauma or neglect, reduced self-experienced quality of parental care in the normal range already substantially increased hippocampal responsivity to cortisol. Altered hippocampal sensitivity to cortisol might be a cross-species marker for the risk of developing later life psychopathology.

  13. Child Support Enforcement and Sexual Activity of Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung; Han, Wen-Jui

    2007-01-01

    Strong child support enforcement requires fathers to take financial responsibility for their children and may also encourage more responsible sexual behavior. Using the 1997-2001 waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 4,272), this article examines the association between child support enforcement and the sexual activity of…

  14. Digestible Lysine Requirements of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 d of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was conduc...

  15. Dietary Lysine Responses of Male Broilers From 14 to 28 Days of Age Subjected to Different Environmental Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary amino acid requirements are influenced by environmental conditions. Two experiments examined growth responses of Ross × Ross TP 16 male broilers fed diets varying in digestible (dig) Lys concentrations from 14 to 28 days of age under different environmental conditions. Experiment 1 was condu...

  16. Spermatogenesis in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo): quantitative approach in immature and adult males subjected to various photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Noirault, Jérôme; Brillard, Jean-Pierre; Bakst, Murray R

    2006-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify and quantitate the germ cell populations of the testes in sexually mature male turkeys (Trial 1), determine the duration of meiosis based on BrdU labeling and stereological analyses (Trial 2), and examine the impact of various photoperiods on germinal and somatic cell populations in immature and adult males (Trial 3). In Trial 1, both testes within a male had similar stereological components (P>0.05) for all parameters analyzed. In Trial 2, the duration of Type-1 spermatocytes and round spermatids in turkeys lasted 4.5+/-0.5 and 2.0+/-0.5 days, respectively. In Trial 3, the short photoperiod (7L:17D) delayed testicular growth (in the stereological parameters analyzed). In contrast, the effect of a moderately short photoperiod (10.5L:13.5D) was comparable to the effect of a long (14L:10D) or increasing photoperiod (7L:17D to 14L:10D) on the stereological parameters examined. With the exception of the short photoperiod, all other photoperiods used in this study induced comparable early testicular maturation, with maximum testis weight at 29-35 weeks of age. As the males got older, there was a progressive, linear decline in testis weight through 60 weeks, at which time there were no significant differences among photoperiods. In conclusion, the duration of meiosis in the turkey was similar to that observed in the fowl and guinea-fowl. The existence of a threshold of photosensitivity to gonad stimulation in male turkeys is suggested to be between 7.0 and 10.5 h of light.

  17. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  18. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a... establish and maintain procedures for the protection of human subjects. The definitions in 34 CFR 97.102... that is not exempt under 34 CFR 97.101(b) and 97.401(b). (b) If ED determines that proposed...

  19. Relations between different coping strategies for social stress, tumor development and neuroendocrine and immune activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, A; De Miguel, Z; Fano, E; Vegas, O

    2008-07-01

    This study analyzes the effects of acute social stress and different coping strategies employed in response to it on the development of B16F10 melanoma pulmonary metastases, the activation of the HPA axis and the NKG2D receptor expression. To this end, male OF1 mice were subjected to 24h of social stress using the sensorial contact model. This model includes three 5-min sessions of direct social interaction with resident cagemates selected for consistent levels of aggression. Subjects' behavior was videotaped and assessed. Six days after the first social interaction (1st social stress), the animals were inoculated with tumor cells or vehicle, and six days later, both tumor-bearing and non tumor-bearing mice were subjected to a second 24h sensorial contact social stress session (2nd social stress). One hour after the 2nd social interaction, corticosterone levels and NKG2D receptor expression were determined. Lung metastatic foci numbers were determined 21 days after inoculation (15 days post-stress). Social stress increased the number of pulmonary metastases and the serum corticosterone level. A combination of cluster and discriminant analyses established the existence of two types of coping strategies: (1) a passive-reactive strategy characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to submission, flee and avoidance behaviors; and (2) an active-proactive strategy, characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to attack and non social exploration behaviors. Subjects belonging to the passive-reactive group were found to have a higher number of tumor foci, a higher level of corticosterone and a lower NKG2D receptor expression than subjects in the active-proactive group. These data indicate the relationship between different coping strategies for social stress and tumor development. PMID:18061400

  20. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    PubMed

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  1. Electrocortical activity associated with subjective communication with the deceased

    PubMed Central

    Delorme, Arnaud; Beischel, Julie; Michel, Leena; Boccuzzi, Mark; Radin, Dean; Mills, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    During advanced meditative practices, unusual perceptions can arise including the sense of receiving information about unknown people who are deceased. As with meditation, this mental state of communication with the deceased involves calming mental chatter and becoming receptive to subtle feelings and sensations. Psychometric and brain electrophysiology data were collected from six individuals who had previously reported accurate information about deceased individuals under double-blind conditions. Each experimental participant performed two tasks with eyes closed. In the first task, the participant was given only the first name of a deceased person and asked 25 questions. After each question, the participant was asked to silently perceive information relevant to the question for 20 s and then respond verbally. Responses were transcribed and then scored for accuracy by individuals who knew the deceased persons. Of the four mediums whose accuracy could be evaluated, three scored significantly above chance (p < 0.03). The correlation between accuracy and brain activity during the 20 s of silent mediumship communication was significant in frontal theta for one participant (p < 0.01). In the second task, participants were asked to experience four mental states for 1 min each: (1) thinking about a known living person, (2) listening to a biography, (3) thinking about an imaginary person, and (4) interacting mentally with a known deceased person. Each mental state was repeated three times. Statistically significant differences at p < 0.01 after correction for multiple comparisons in electrocortical activity among the four conditions were obtained in all six participants, primarily in the gamma band (which might be due to muscular activity). These differences suggest that the impression of communicating with the deceased may be a distinct mental state distinct from ordinary thinking or imagination. PMID:24312063

  2. Effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on subjective arousal, arousal to erotic stimulation, and nocturnal penile tumescence in male sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Wincze, J P; Bansal, S; Malamud, M

    1986-08-01

    Three chronic pedophiliac sex offenders were treated individually with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) over a minimum of 3 months. Genital and subjective response to erotic stimulation, nocturnal penile tumescence, self-reporting of sexual urges, and testosterone levels were recorded repeatedly throughout the study. A single-subject reversal design was used and medication was administered through a double-blind procedure. The results showed that self-report of arousal outside of a laboratory setting was unreliable as a measure of the drug effect. In a laboratory setting, however, there appeared to be a significant reduction in the report of arousal to erotic stimuli while genital arousal decreased only slightly. Reversal of these responses occurred in only one subject during a final placebo phase. Nocturnal penile tumescence was significantly decreased during MPA administration and appeared to be related to decreases in total testosterone.

  3. Quantitative increases in temporal lobe symptoms in human males are proportional to postnatal geomagnetic activity: verification by canonical correlation.

    PubMed

    Hodge, K A; Persinger, M A

    1991-04-29

    Enhanced geomagnetic activity during episodes of biochemical stress has been correlated with inferences of increased liability within deep temporal lobe structures. Because adult limbic epilepsy is frequently associated with perinatal hypoxia or metabolic disruption within this region, a weak positive correlation was expected between possible signs of mesiobasal temporal lobe lability in normal adults and perinatal geomagnetic activity. Canonical correlation demonstrated that young adult males (n = 243) displayed a positive (r = 0.31) relationship between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbance the day after birth only and a history of subjective depersonalization, anomalous visual and olfactory experiences. The effects was very clear when aa values exceeded 30 nT (gamma). Temporal lobe signs for these males were similar to those reported by normal young adult females (n = 313) who did not display any consistent correlation between these measures and perinatal geomagnetic disturbance. The results suggest that interactions between perinatal neurochemistry and the correlates of geomagnetic activity might permanently alter portions of the male limbic system. PMID:1881599

  4. 13 CFR 101.401 - What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Intergovernmental Partnership § 101.401 What programs and activities of SBA are subject to this subpart? SBA publishes in the Federal Register a list of programs and activities...

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  6. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  7. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  8. Leptin-receptor polymorphisms relate to obesity through blunted leptin-mediated sympathetic nerve activation in a Caucasian male population.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Kazuko; Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Gavin W; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Socratous, Florentia; Hastings, Jacqueline; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Ogihara, Toshio; Esler, Murray D

    2008-06-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the regulation of body weight through the sympathetic nervous system; however, the contributions of leptin-receptor polymorphisms to obesity and sympathetic nerve activity have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we examined the relationships between leptin-receptor polymorphisms, plasma leptin and whole-body norepinephrine (NE) spillover as an index of sympathetic nerve activity in a Caucasian male cohort. In 129 young healthy normotensive men with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) (19.4-39.5 kg/m(2)), we measured leptin-receptor polymorphisms (Gln223Arg, Lys656Asn, and Lys109Arg), plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover, whole-body NE clearance, BMI and blood pressure (BP) levels in the supine position after overnight fasting. Overweight-obese (BMI>or=25 kg/m(2)) subjects had significantly greater BMI, BP levels, plasma leptin and whole-body NE spillover compared to lean (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects, but the NE clearance was similar. Overweight-obese subjects had significantly higher frequencies of the Arg223 allele and the Arg223 homozygous allele of Gln223Arg and the Asn656 allele of Lys656Asn compared to lean subjects. Subjects carrying the Arg223 homozygous or the Asn656 allele had higher levels of plasma leptin, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but significantly less whole-body NE spillover, especially when they were also overweight-obese. BP levels and whole-body NE clearance were similar between subjects with and without the Arg223 homozygous or Asn656 allele. No differences were found in the distributions of the Arg109 allele of Lys109Arg polymorphism between nonobese and overweight-obese subjects. In addition, BMI, BP, plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover and whole-body NE clearance were similar between those with and without the Arg109 allele. Together, these findings demonstrate that leptin-receptor polymorphisms were related to the incidence of obesity in a Caucasian male

  9. Female and Male Adolescents' Subjective Orientations to Mathematics and the Influence of Those Orientations on Postsecondary Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Felkner, Lara; McDonald, Sarah-Kathryn; Schneider, Barbara; Grogan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Although important strides toward gender parity have been made in several scientific fields, women remain underrepresented in the physical sciences, engineering, mathematics, and computer sciences (PEMCs). This study examines the effects of adolescents' subjective orientations, course taking, and academic performance on the likelihood of majoring…

  10. Serum bactericidal activity from intravenous ciprofloxacin and azlocillin given alone and in combination to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Orlando, P L; Barriere, S L; Hindler, J A; Frost, R W

    1990-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin have been shown to exhibit in vitro synergy versus a variety of organisms, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study examined this interaction in vivo, testing serum bactericidal activity (SBA) in six healthy male subjects after intravenous administration of ciprofloxacin 4 mg/kg (C), azlocillin 60 mg/kg (A), and the two simultaneously (C/A). Eight different organisms were tested: four isolates of P. aeruginosa with varying susceptibilities to C and A, and one isolate each of Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) Serratia marcescens (SM), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP), all of which were susceptible to both drugs. Blood samples were collected at the end of 30-min infusions and at 4 and 8 hr. Reciprocal titers were plotted versus time and area under the bactericidal titer curve (AUBC) calculated to assess antibacterial interactions. Results indicated that P. aeruginosa-1 (PA-1), EC, and KP were synergistically killed by C/A. AUBC for PA-1 were C = 36, A = 11, C/A = 144, p less than 0.05. AUBC for EC were C = 1059, A = 180, C/A = 1504, p = 0.05. AUBC for KP were C = 327, A = 97, C/A = 584, p = 005. Additive effects were demonstrated versus all of the other organisms except Serratia marcescens, where an indifferent effect was observed. Ciprofloxacin plus azlocillin may be a useful combination of the treatment of selected Gram-negative bacillary infections.

  11. In-field masticatory muscle activity in subjects with pain-related TMD diagnoses

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, S.N.; McCall, W.; Dunford, R.; Nickel, J.C.; Iwasaki, L.R.; Crow, H.C.; Gonzalez, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pain-related Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) are the most prevalent conditions among TMDs. There is contrasting evidence available for association of pain-related TMD and masticatory muscle activity (MMA). The present investigation assesses the associations between MMA levels of masseter and temporalis muscles during awake and sleep among pain-related TMD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population The department of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, University at Buffalo. Twenty females and 6 males participated in this study. Material & Methods Using the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC-TMD), participants were diagnostically categorized. Subjects used a custom monitoring system, which recorded in–field muscle activities. A factorial model tested for association between independent variable (muscle, time period, MMA level, diagnostic group) effects and the logarithm of MMA. Greenhouse–Geisser test was used to determine any statistically significant associations (p ≤ 0.003). Results No statistically significant association was found among four-way, three-way, and two-way analyses. However, among the main effects, range of magnitudes was the only variable to be statistically significant. Although the data suggest a trend of increased masseter MMA in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group both during awake and sleep time periods, such observation is not maintained for the temporalis muscle. In addition, temporalis MMA was found to be higher in the pain-related TMD diagnoses group only at extreme activity levels (<25% and ≥80% ranges). Conclusion This data support the association between masticatory muscle hyperactivity and painful-TMD conditions. PMID:25865542

  12. Chronic Social Stress in Puberty Alters Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior and Neural Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Christel C.; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Wommack, Joel C.; Delville, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation was altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  13. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Werner, M; Schröder, J H

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schröder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  14. Do Perceived Cues, Benefits, and Barriers to Physical Activity Differ between Male and Female Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tergerson, Jennifer L.; King, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed adolescents at single-sex high schools to examine whether perceptions of physical activity differed by gender. The most helpful cue to physical activity for males and females was having a friend to exercise with. Parental encouragement and having a parent who exercised were also helpful. Wanting to do other things was a common barrier to…

  15. Mutational changes in the courtship activity of male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) after X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.; Schroeder, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    The courtship activity of male F2 descendants of irradiated and control guppies, Poecilia reticulata, of the inbred strain Istanbul was compared. The results of Spieser and Schroeder (1978), who found a decrease in courtship activity of descendants of irradiated guppies, were confirmed under more natural conditions.

  16. Differential Effects of Stress on Microglial Cell Activation in Male and Female Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Justin L.; Bergeon Burns, Christine M.; Wellman, Cara L.

    2016-01-01

    Susceptibility to stress-linked psychological disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression, differs between men and women. Dysfunction of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in many of these disorders. Chronic stress affects mPFC in a sex-dependent manner, differentially remodeling dendritic morphology and disrupting prefrontally mediated behaviors in males and females. Chronic restraint stress induces microglial activation, reflected in altered microglial morphology and immune factor expression, in mPFC in male rats. Unstressed females exhibit increased microglial ramification in several brain regions compared to males, suggesting both heightened basal activation and a potential for sex-dependent effects of stress on microglial activation. Therefore, we assessed microglial density and ramification in the prelimbic region of mPFC, and immune-associated genes in dorsal mPFC in male and female rats following acute or chronic restraint stress. Control rats were left unstressed. On the final day of restraint, brains were collected for either qPCR or visualization of microglia using Iba-1 immunohistochemistry. Microglia in mPFC were classified as ramified, primed, reactive, or amoeboid, and counted stereologically. Expression of microglia-associated genes (MHCII, CD40, IL6, CX3CL1, and CX3CR1) was also assessed using qPCR. Unstressed females showed a greater proportion of primed to ramified microglia relative to males, alongside heightened CX3CL1-CX3CR1 expression. Acute and chronic restraint stress reduced the proportion of primed to ramified microglia and microglial CD40 expression in females, but did not significantly alter microglial activation in males. This sex difference in microglial activation could contribute to the differential effects of stress on mPFC structure and function in males versus females. PMID:26441134

  17. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species. PMID:24187414

  18. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-11-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually transmitted infections. We investigated the possible functional significance of male masturbation using behavioral data collected on 21 free-ranging male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the peak of the mating season. We found some evidence that masturbation is linked to low mating opportunities: regardless of rank, males were most likely to be observed masturbating on days in which they were not observed mating, and lower-ranking males mated less and tended to masturbate more frequently than higher-ranking males. These results echo the findings obtained for two other species of macaques, but contrast those obtained in red colobus monkeys (Procolobus badius) and Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris). Interestingly, however, male masturbation events ended with ejaculation in only 15% of the observed masturbation time, suggesting that new hypotheses are needed to explain masturbation in this species. More studies are needed to establish whether male masturbation is adaptive and whether it serves similar or different functions in different sexually promiscuous species.

  19. Behavioral activities of male Cerulean Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Perkins, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of 29 male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) were quantified on two sites in West Virginia during May–June 2005. Singing and foraging were the most common of 11 observed behavioral activities (81.6%), while maintenance and mating behaviors were uncommonly observed. Male activity differed among vegetative strata (P  =  0.02) with lower- and mid-canopy strata used most often (70% of observations), especially for foraging, perching, and preening. The upper-canopy was used primarily for singing, particularly within core areas of territories and in association with canopy gaps. Foraging occurred more than expected outside of core areas. Males were associated with canopy gaps during 30% of observations, but the distribution of behavioral activities was not significantly related (P  =  0.06) to gap presence. Males used 23 different tree species for a variety of activities with oaks (Quercus spp.) used most often on the xeric site and black cherry (Prunus serotina) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the mesic site. Tree species used for singing differed between core and non-core areas (P < 0.0001) but distribution of singing and foraging activity did not differ among tree species (P  =  0.13). Cerulean Warblers appear to be flexible in use of tree species. Their use of different canopy strata for different behavioral activities provides an explanation for the affinity this species exhibits for a vertically stratified forest canopy.

  20. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    PubMed

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  1. Den site activity patterns of adult male and female swift foxes, Vulpes velox, in Northwestern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemons, P.R.; Ballard, W.B.; Sullivan, R.M.; Sovada, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Activity of Swift Foxes (Vulpes velox) at den sites was studied in northwestern Texas during pup rearing seasons in 2000 and 2001 to determine role of males in parental care. Twenty-four percent of radio-collared females with a potential to breed successfully raised pups to eight weeks of age. We intensively monitored presence and absence of male and female Swift Foxes at two den sites each year. Females were present >2.6 times more at den sites than males during the pup rearing season. Female and male Swift Foxes largely stayed at dens during diurnal hours and were active away from dens during nocturnal and crepuscular hours. Females and males spent 12.4% and 3.0% more time at dens before pups emerged, than after pups emerged, respectively. Following depredation of one male parent, the female spent 29% less time at the den site. Decrease in time spent at the den by the female following loss of her mate suggested that loss of one parent might severely impact recruitment of Swift Foxes. Our observations indicated that intense Coyote (Canis latrans) depredation may severely impact pup-rearing success as well as the parental care within Swift Fox family groups.

  2. Fluid electrolyte changes in physically healthy subjects during prolonged restriction of motor activity and daily hyperhydration.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Ichinose, M N; Sakagamis, M B

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this report was to present some of our results, in a compressed form, obtained from our previous studies on the effect of 364-d hypokinesia (decreased number of steps taken per day by the volunteers) on the following: (1) regulation of fluid volume and osmosis, (2) regulation of electrolytes, and (3) functional condition of the kidneys and its role in the fluid-electrolyte homeostasis on 30 physically healthy male volunteers aged 22-26 years. Prior to their exposure to hypokinesia all subjects were on 13.8 km/day (10,000 running steps/day) and were all well conditioned, with (oxygen uptake capacities (VO2 max 68 ml/kg-min). During the hypokinetic period of 364 days, the 1st group was subjected to pure hypokinesia (HK), that is without the use of physical exercise (PE), the 2nd group was subjected to a set of intensive PE (energy expenditure of 700 kcal/h) and the 3rd group submitted to a set of moderate PE (energy expenditure of 400 kcal/h). All volunteers consumed daily fluid and salt supplementation (FSS) aimed at increasing body hydration level during the hypokinetic period. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect all volunteers were kept on 2.7 km/day (3000 walking steps per day). All volunteers were on a diet of freshly prepared food, with a daily intake of 2500-2700 kcal, 3340 ml water, 1500 mgs calcium, 500 mgs magnesium, 1200 mgs potassium, 1500 mgs phosphorus, 8.5 gms sodium and 9.8 gms chloride. The amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed and eliminated in urine, as well as their concentrations in the urine and blood plasma were determined. There were also measured urinary volume, osmolality, creatine, and urea changes in urine. During HK the amount of fluid and electrolytes consumed daily decreased while the rate of excretion increased significantly. During post HK the fluid and electrolytes concentrations in urine decreased significantly. The urinary urea, osmolality and creatinine increased significantly during HK. It was concluded

  3. A Comparison of Objective and Subjective Stress in Homogeneous Male and Female Teams in a Mars Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, S.; Sundaresan, A.

    Introduction The role of stress and its impact on coping performance motivation behavior cognitive functioning and psychological well-being has become a key focus for long duration missions Since all extreme environments are characterized by significant physical demands e g skiing climbing EVAs as well as inescapable environmental characteristics e g imminent danger noise isolation confinement loss of normal sensory stimuli an examination of the impact of prolong stress in analogue environments should provide insight into developing effective support and countermeasures for long duration space crews The presence of even low levels of chronic stressors if not met with functional adaptation and or countermeasures has been shown to produce subjective symptoms of stress persistent performance incompetence accelerated fatiguability altered mood states increased rate of infections and decrements in attention and cognitive Gender has been shown to cut across both individual factors and group factors including response to stress and ways of coping Generally men and women differ in many arenas such as interaction and communication styles need for affiliation responses to crowding privacy and confined spaces Men and women in homogeneous groups interact in significantly different ways than those in mixed groups Therefore differences between genders on subjective and objective responses to stress are of interest The Mars Society Utah Desert Simulation MDRS facility provides a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of

  4. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  5. Effects of polygamy on the activity/rest rhythm of male fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartak, Vivek Rohidas; Varma, Vishwanath; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Although polygamy is common in insects, its extent varies enormously among natural populations. Mating systems influence the evolution of reproductive traits and the difference in extent of polygamy between males and females may be a key factor in determining traits which come under the influence of sexual selection. Fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster are promiscuous as both males and females mate with multiple partners. Mating has severe consequences on the physiology and behaviour of flies, and it affects their activity/rest rhythm in a sex-specific manner. In this study, we attempted to discern the effects of mating with multiple partners as opposed to a single partner, or of remaining unmated, on the activity/rest rhythm of flies under cyclic semi-natural (SN) and constant dark (DD) conditions. The results revealed that while evening activity of mated flies was significantly reduced compared to virgins, polygamous males showed a more severe reduction compared to monogamous males. In contrast, though mated females showed reduction in evening activity compared to virgins, activity levels were not different between polygamous and monogamous females. Although there was no detectable effect of mating on clock period, power of the activity/rest rhythm was significantly reduced in mated females with no difference seen between polygamous and monogamous individuals. These results suggest that courtship motivation, represented by evening activity, is successively reduced in males due to mating with one or more partners, while in females, it does not depend on the number of mating partners. Based on these results we conclude that polygamy affects the activity/rest rhythm of fruit flies D. melanogaster in a sex-dependent manner.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of anti-motion sickness drugs on subjective sleepiness and cognitive performance of healthy males.

    PubMed

    Weerts, A P; Pattyn, N; Van de Heyning, P H; Wuyts, F L

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the clinical and cognitive side effects of baclofen (10 mg), meclizine (25 mg), dimenhydrinate (40 mg) plus cinnarizine (25 mg) and promethazine (25 mg) plus d-amphetamine (10 mg). The study had a double-blind, placebo controlled, repeated measures design and was conducted on healthy male volunteers. The psychomotor vigilance test, the Sternberg working memory task, the implicit memory test and the automated Operation Span (Ospan) task were performed. The Stanford, the Karolinska and the Epworth Sleepiness scale determined the degree of sleepiness. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) evaluated mood states and adverse effects were reported on a 22-item questionnaire. Letter recalls and time for solving mathematical problems, recorded during the Ospan task, were impaired by baclofen and dimenhydrinate-cinnarizine respectively, suggesting an influence of these drugs on the working memory. Significant side effects for baclofen were: sleepiness, tiredness, blurred vision, concentration problems and dizziness whereas for dimenhydrinate-cinnarizine only sleepiness and blurred vision were reported. Meclizine decreased the accuracy on the Sternberg working memory task and thus seemed to affect short-term memory. A reported side effect was increased sleepiness. Promethazine plus d-amphetamine did not affect any of the tested cognitive functions. However, many side effects such as sleepiness, dry mouth, dizziness, vertigo, confusion, insomnia and tremors were reported. The results show that meclizine and dimenhydrinate combined with cinnarizine were the two drugs with the most acceptable combination of side effects. PMID:24346808

  7. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-07-31

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population.

  8. Hif1α is required for osteoclast activation and bone loss in male osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tando, Toshimi; Sato, Yuiko; Miyamoto, Kana; Morita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Oike, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The number of osteoporosis patients is increasing not only in women but in men. Male osteoporosis occurs due to aging or androgen depletion therapies, leading to fractures. However, molecular mechanisms underlying male osteoporosis remain unidentified. Here, we show that hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) is required for development of testosterone deficiency-induced male osteoporosis. We found that in mice Hif1α protein accumulates in osteoclasts following orchidectomy (ORX) in vivo. In vitro, Hif1α protein accumulated in osteoclasts cultured in hypoxic conditions, but Hif1α protein rather than mRNA levels were suppressed by testosterone treatment, even in hypoxia. Administration of a Hif1α inhibitor to ORX mice abrogated testosterone deficiency-induced osteoclast activation and bone loss but did not alter osteoclast activities or bone phenotypes in sham-operated, testosterone-sufficient animals. We conclude that Hif1α protein accumulation due to testosterone-deficiency promotes development of male osteoporosis. Thus Hif1α protein could be targeted to inhibit pathologically-activated osteoclasts under testosterone-deficient conditions to treat male osteoporosis patients. PMID:26792721

  9. Acute stress differentially affects aromatase activity in specific brain nuclei of adult male and female quail.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Molly J; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    The rapid and temporary suppression of reproductive behavior is often assumed to be an important feature of the adaptive acute stress response. However, how this suppression operates at the mechanistic level is poorly understood. The enzyme aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain to activate reproductive behavior in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The discovery of rapid and reversible modification of aromatase activity (AA) provides a potential mechanism for fast, stress-induced changes in behavior. We investigated the effects of acute stress on AA in both sexes by measuring enzyme activity in all aromatase-expressing brain nuclei before, during, and after 30 min of acute restraint stress. We show here that acute stress rapidly alters AA in the male and female brain and that these changes are specific to the brain nuclei and sex of the individual. Specifically, acute stress rapidly (5 min) increased AA in the male medial preoptic nucleus, a region controlling male reproductive behavior; in females, a similar increase was also observed, but it appeared delayed (15 min) and had smaller amplitude. In the ventromedial and tuberal hypothalamus, regions associated with female reproductive behavior, stress induced a quick and sustained decrease in AA in females, but in males, only a slight increase (ventromedial) or no change (tuberal) in AA was observed. Effects of acute stress on brain estrogen production, therefore, represent one potential way through which stress affects reproduction.

  10. Hif1α is required for osteoclast activation and bone loss in male osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tando, Toshimi; Sato, Yuiko; Miyamoto, Kana; Morita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Tami; Funayama, Atsushi; Kanaji, Arihiko; Hao, Wu; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Oike, Takatsugu; Nakamura, Masaya; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    The number of osteoporosis patients is increasing not only in women but in men. Male osteoporosis occurs due to aging or androgen depletion therapies, leading to fractures. However, molecular mechanisms underlying male osteoporosis remain unidentified. Here, we show that hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) is required for development of testosterone deficiency-induced male osteoporosis. We found that in mice Hif1α protein accumulates in osteoclasts following orchidectomy (ORX) in vivo. In vitro, Hif1α protein accumulated in osteoclasts cultured in hypoxic conditions, but Hif1α protein rather than mRNA levels were suppressed by testosterone treatment, even in hypoxia. Administration of a Hif1α inhibitor to ORX mice abrogated testosterone deficiency-induced osteoclast activation and bone loss but did not alter osteoclast activities or bone phenotypes in sham-operated, testosterone-sufficient animals. We conclude that Hif1α protein accumulation due to testosterone-deficiency promotes development of male osteoporosis. Thus Hif1α protein could be targeted to inhibit pathologically-activated osteoclasts under testosterone-deficient conditions to treat male osteoporosis patients.

  11. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  12. An enriched rearing environment calms adult male rat sexual activity: implication for distinct serotonergic and hormonal responses to females.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Susumu; Mitsushima, Dai; Shimozuru, Michito; Sakuma, Yasuo; Kondo, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Early life events induce alterations in neural function in adulthood. Although rearing in an enriched environment (EE) has a great impact on behavioral development, the effects of enriched rearing on sociosexual behavior remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of rearing in an EE on male copulatory behavior and its underlying neurobiological mechanisms in Wistar-Imamichi rats. Three-week-old, recently weaned rats were continuously subjected to a standard environment (SE) or an EE comprised of a large cage with several objects, such as toys, tunnels, ladders, and a running wheel. After 6 weeks, rats reared in an EE (EE rats) showed decreased sexual activity compared with rats reared in a SE (SE rats). This included a lower number of ejaculations and longer latencies in three consecutive copulatory tests. In addition, EE rats showed decreased emotional responsiveness and less locomotor behavior in an open field. In a runway test, on the other hand, sexual motivation toward receptive females in EE males was comparable to that of SE males. Furthermore, following exposure to a female, increases in serotonin levels in the nucleus accumbens and the striatum were significantly suppressed in EE males, whereas dopaminergic responses were similar between the groups. Female-exposure-induced increases in the levels of plasma corticosterone and testosterone were also suppressed in EE rats compared to SE rats. These data suggest that rearing in an EE decreases male copulatory behavior, and serotonin and hormonal regulating systems may regulate the differences in sociosexual interactions that result from distinct rearing environments. PMID:24505330

  13. Antioxidant enzyme activity and mRNA expression in reproductive tract of adult male European Bison (Bison bonasus, Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Koziorowska-Gilun, M; Gilun, P; Fraser, L; Koziorowski, M; Kordan, W; Stefanczyk-Krzymowska, S

    2013-02-01

    Antioxidants in the male reproductive tract are the main defence factors against oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species production, which compromises sperm function and male fertility. This study was designed to determine the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), in the testicular and epididymidal tissues of adult male European bison (Bison bonasus). The reproductive tract tissues were subjected to real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis to quantify mRNA expression levels of five antioxidant enzymes: copper/zinc SOD (Cu/Zn SOD), secretory extracellular SOD (Ec-SOD), CAT, phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPx) and GPx5. The corpus and cauda epididymidal tissues displayed greater (p < 0.05) SOD activity compared with the testicular tissue. It was found that CAT activity was lowest (p < 0.05) in the cauda epididymidis, whereas negligible GPx activity was detected in the reproductive tract tissues. There were no detectable differences in the mRNA expression level of Cu/Zn SOD among the different reproductive tract tissues. Small amounts of Ec-SOD mRNA were found in the reproductive tract, particularly in the epididymides. The caput and cauda epididymides exhibited greater (p < 0.05) level of CAT mRNA expression, whereas PHGPx mRNA was more (p < 0.05) expressed in the testis. Furthermore, extremely large amounts of GPx5 mRNA were detected in the caput epididymidal tissue compared with other tissues of the reproductive tract. It can be suggested that the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and the relative gene expression of the enzymes confirm the presence of tissue-specific antioxidant defence systems in the bison reproductive tract, which are required for spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and storage of spermatozoa.

  14. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder. PMID:26581912

  15. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder.

  16. Role of spontaneous physical activity in prediction of susceptibility to activity based anorexia in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio E; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles J; Kotz, Catherine M

    2014-08-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic eating disorder affecting females and males, defined by body weight loss, higher physical activity levels and restricted food intake. Currently, the commonalities and differences between genders in etiology of AN are not well understood. Animal models of AN, such as activity-based anorexia (ABA), can be helpful in identifying factors determining individual susceptibility to AN. In ABA, rodents are given an access to a running wheel while food restricted, resulting in paradoxical increased physical activity levels and weight loss. Recent studies suggest that different behavioral traits, including voluntary exercise, can predict individual weight loss in ABA. A higher inherent drive for movement may promote development and severity of AN, but this hypothesis remains untested. In rodents and humans, drive for movement is defined as spontaneous physical activity (SPA), which is time spent in low-intensity, non-volitional movements. In this paper, we show that a profile of body weight history and behavioral traits, including SPA, can predict individual weight loss caused by ABA in male and female rats with high accuracy. Analysis of the influence of SPA on ABA susceptibility in males and females rats suggests that either high or low levels of SPA increase the probability of high weight loss in ABA, but with larger effects in males compared to females. These results suggest that the same behavioral profile can identify individuals at-risk of AN for both male and female populations and that SPA has predictive value for susceptibility to AN.

  17. Lifelong Education for Subjective Well-Being: How Do Engagement and Active Citizenship Contribute?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zepke, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the question: how can lifelong education contribute to subjective well-being by engaging learners and fostering active citizenship? The question arises due to the fact that governments in the western world have identified well-being as an important policy driver. Well-being research suggests that subjective well-being,…

  18. Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscles in asymptomatic subjects during the sit-to-stand procedure

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Boram

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the vastus medialis oblique to vastus lateralis ratio in two pelvic tilt positions while performing the sit-to-stand task. [Subjects and Methods] Activation of the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis muscles of 46 healthy subjects (25 males, 21 females) were recorded by surface electromyography during the STS task with anterior pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine extended and pelvis in an anterior tilt) and neutral pelvic tilt (sit with thoracolumbar spine relaxed and pelvis in the neutral tilt position) positions. Changes in vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis activation and the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio were analyzed. [Results] Vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis muscle activation significantly increased in neutral pelvic tilt position, but the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis ratio was not statistically different. [Conclusion] The sit-to-stand procedure with neutral pelvic tilt position increased activation of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis, usefully strengthening the quadriceps, but did not selectively activate the vastus medialis oblique muscle. PMID:25931753

  19. 40 CFR 725.232 - Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.232 Activities subject... and development activity that meets all of the following conditions. (a) The microorganism is... intentional testing of a microorganism outside of a structure, as structure is defined in § 725.3. (c)(1)...

  20. 40 CFR 725.232 - Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.232 Activities subject... and development activity that meets all of the following conditions. (a) The microorganism is... intentional testing of a microorganism outside of a structure, as structure is defined in § 725.3. (c)(1)...

  1. 40 CFR 725.232 - Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.232 Activities subject... and development activity that meets all of the following conditions. (a) The microorganism is... intentional testing of a microorganism outside of a structure, as structure is defined in § 725.3. (c)(1)...

  2. 40 CFR 725.232 - Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Exemptions for Research and Development Activities § 725.232 Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies. This part does not apply to any research... manufactured, imported, or processed solely for research and development activities. (b) There is...

  3. Orally Formulated Artemisinin in Healthy Fasting Vietnamese Male Subjects: A Randomized, Four-Sequence, Open-Label, Pharmacokinetic Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Tran Tinh; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thi; Toi, Pham Van; Farrar, Jeremy; Lindegardh, Niklas; Tarning, Joel; Ashton, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Artemisinin derivatives are used in antimalarial drug combination therapy. Artemisinin and piperaquine have recently been proven to be prospective candidates for combination therapy in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the relative bioavailability and to characterize the pharmacokinetic properties of a new micronized powder formulation of artemisinin against the previous standard Vietnamese formulation when administered as a single oral dose or in combination with piperaquine. Methods This was a single-center, randomized, 4-sequence, open-label, crossover study conducted in 15 healthy male Vietnamese volunteers under fasting conditions with a washout period of 3 weeks between study visits. A single oral dose of 160 or 500 mg of artemisinin was administered alone or in combination with piperaquine. Potential adverse events were monitored daily by the clinician and by using laboratory test results. Frequent blood samples were drawn for 12 hours after dose. Artemisinin was quantified in plasma using LC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were computed from the plasma concentration–time profiles using a noncompartmental analysis method. Results Pharmacokinetic parameters Tmax, Cmax, AUC0-∞, Vd/F, CL/F, and t1/2 (mean [SD]) for the new formulation of artemisinin were 1.83 (0.88) hours, 178 (97) ng/mL, 504 (210) h × ng/mL, 1270 (780) L, 401 (260) L/h, and 2.21 (0.29) hours, respectively. The mean percentage of the test/reference formulation ratio for the logarithmically transformed values of Cmax, AUC0–last, and AUC0–∞ were 121% (90% CI, 92.5–158), 122% (90% CI, 101–148), and 120% (90% CI, 98.0–146), respectively. Conclusions This single-dose study found that the dose-normalized Cmax, AUC0–last, and AUC0–∞ mean geometric differences between the test and reference formulations were relatively small (<40%) and will probably not have a clinical impact in the

  4. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  5. The active metabolic rate predicts a male spider's proximity to females and expected fitness.

    PubMed

    Kasumovic, Michael M; Seebacher, Frank

    2013-04-23

    Conspicuous traits, such as weaponry and body size, are often correlated with fitness. By contrast, we understand less about how inconspicuous physiological traits affect fitness. Not only is linking physiology directly to fitness a challenge, but in addition, behavioural studies most often focus on resting or basal metabolic rates, resulting in a poor understanding of how active metabolic rates affect fitness. Here we use the golden orb-web spider (Nephila plumipes), a species for which proximity to a female on the web predicts a male's paternity share, to examine the role of resting and active metabolic rates in fitness. Using a semi-natural experimental set-up, we show that males closer to a female have higher active metabolic rates than males further from females. This higher metabolic activity is paralleled by increased citrate synthase activity, suggesting greater mitochondrial densities. Our results link both higher active metabolic rates and increased citrate synthase activity with fitness. Coupled with the behaviour and life history of N. plumipes, these results provide insight into the evolution of physiological systems.

  6. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic subjects with and without liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, F; Perez, J; Morancho, J; Pinto, B; Richart, C

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was measured in samples of liver tissue from a group of alcoholic and non-alcoholic subjects to determine whether decreased liver alcohol dehydrogenase activity is a consequence of ethanol consumption or liver damage. The alcoholic patients were classified further into the following groups: control subjects with no liver disease (group 1), subjects with non-cirrhotic liver disease (group 2), and subjects with cirrhotic liver disease (group 3). The non-alcoholic subjects were also divided, using the same criteria, into groups 4, 5, and 6, respectively. The analysis of the results showed no significant differences when mean alcohol dehydrogenase activities of alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients with similar degrees of liver pathology were compared (groups 1 v 4, 2 v 5, and 3 v 6. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity was, however, severely reduced in patients with liver disease compared with control subjects. Our findings suggest that alcohol consumption does not modify hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The reduction in specific alcohol dehydrogenase activity in alcoholic liver disease is a consequence of liver damage. PMID:2379876

  7. Subjective Listening Effort and Electrodermal Activity in Listening Situations with Reverberation and Noise

    PubMed Central

    Haeder, Kristina; Imbery, Christina; Weber, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Disturbing factors like reverberation or ambient noise can impair speech recognition and raise the listening effort needed for successful communication in daily life. Situations with high listening effort are thought to result in increased stress for the listener. The aim of this study was to explore possible measures to determine listening effort in situations with varying background noise and reverberation. For this purpose, subjective ratings of listening effort, speech recognition, and stress level, together with the electrodermal activity as a measure of the autonomic stress reaction, were investigated. It was expected that the electrodermal activity would show different stress levels in different acoustic situations and might serve as an alternative to subjective ratings. Ten young normal-hearing and 17 elderly hearing-impaired subjects listened to sentences from the Oldenburg sentence test either with stationary background noise or with reverberation. Four listening situations were generated, an easy and a hard one for each of the two disturbing factors, which were related to each other by the Speech Transmission Index. The easy situation resulted in 100% and the hard situation resulted in 30 to 80% speech recognition. The results of the subjective ratings showed significant differences between the easy and the hard listening situations in both subject groups. Two methods of analyzing the electrodermal activity values revealed similar, but nonsignificant trends. Significant correlations between subjective ratings and physiological electrodermal activity data were observed for normal-hearing subjects in the noise situation. PMID:27698257

  8. Lactobacillus-mediated interference of mutans streptococci in caries-free vs. caries-active subjects.

    PubMed

    Simark-Mattsson, Charlotte; Emilson, Claes-Göran; Håkansson, Eva Grahn; Jacobsson, Catharina; Roos, Kristian; Holm, Stig

    2007-08-01

    In order to assess whether naturally occurring oral lactobacilli have probiotic properties, lactobacilli were isolated from saliva and plaque from children and adolescents, with or without caries lesions. The interference capacities of these lactobacilli were investigated against a panel of 13 clinical isolates and reference strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, as well as against the subject's autologous mutans streptococci, using the agar-overlay technique. Lactobacillus-mediated inhibition differed significantly between the three subject groups (no caries, arrested caries, or active caries), demonstrating increased inhibition in subjects without present or previous caries experience compared to subjects with arrested caries or subjects presenting with frank lesions. Lactobacilli from subjects lacking S. mutans inhibited the growth of the test panel of mutans streptococci significantly better than lactobacilli from subjects who were colonized. Furthermore, subjects without caries experience harbored lactobacilli that more effectively repressed the growth of their autologous mutans streptococci. Twenty-three Lactobacillus spp. completely inhibited the growth of all mutans streptococci tested. Species with maximum interference capacity against mutans streptococci included Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Naturally occurring oral lactobacilli significantly inhibited the growth of both test strains of mutans streptococci and the subject's autologous mutans streptococci in vitro, and this effect was more pronounced in caries-free subjects.

  9. Male-to-female transsexuals show sex-atypical hypothalamus activation when smelling odorous steroids.

    PubMed

    Berglund, H; Lindström, P; Dhejne-Helmy, C; Savic, I

    2008-08-01

    One working hypothesis behind transsexuality is that the normal sex differentiation of certain hypothalamic networks is altered. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the pattern of cerebral activation in 12 nonhomosexual male-to-female transsexuals (MFTRs) when smelling 4,16-androstadien-3-one (AND) and estra-1,3,5(10),16-tetraen-3-ol (EST). These steroids are reported to activate the hypothalamic networks in a sex-differentiated way. Like in female controls the hypothalamus in MFTRs activated with AND, whereas smelling of EST engaged the amygdala and piriform cortex. Male controls, on the other hand, activated the hypothalamus with EST. However, when restricting the volume of interest to the hypothalamus activation was detected in MFTR also with EST, and explorative conjunctional analysis revealed that MFTR shared a hypothalamic cluster with women when smelling AND, and with men when smelling EST. Because the EST effect was limited, MFTR differed significantly only from male controls, and only for EST-AIR and EST-AND. These data suggest a pattern of activation away from the biological sex, occupying an intermediate position with predominantly female-like features. Because our MFTRs were nonhomosexual, the results are unlikely to be an effect of sexual practice. Instead, the data implicate that transsexuality may be associated with sex-atypical physiological responses in specific hypothalamic circuits, possibly as a consequence of a variant neuronal differentiation.

  10. Correlation between Cholinesterase and Paraoxonase 1 Activities:Case Series of Pesticide Poisoning Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Richard, S Austin; Frank, Elizabeth A; D'Souza, Cletus J M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Acute exposure to pesticide due to suicidal poisoning is the most extensive cause of pesticide exposure, compared with all other causes including agricultural or industrial exposure. Organophosphate (OP) and carbamate group of pesticides can inhibit acetylcholinesterase; on the other hand, paraoxonase1 can detoxify organophosphate poisoning by hydrolyzing organophosphate metabolites. Methods: We have compared the serum paraoxonase1 status and cholinesterase activity of subjects who attempted to commit suicide by consuming OP pesticide. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase1 activity were measured spectrophotometrically using butyrylthiocholine and phenyl acetate as substrates, respectively. Results: A positive correlation was found between serum paraoxonase1 activity and cholinesterase activity among pesticide consumed subjects. Conclusion: Our results suggest that subjects with higher paraoxonase1 activity may have a better chance of detoxifying the lethal effect of acute organophosphate poisoning. PMID:24163803

  11. Working memory fMRI activation in cocaine dependent subjects: association with treatment response

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, F. Gerard; Steinberg, Joel L.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Ma, Liangsuo; Liu, Shijing; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Kramer, Larry A.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2010-01-01

    fMRI studies of early abstinence cocaine users offer information about the state of the brain when most cocaine users seek treatment. This study examined the relationship between pretreatment brain function and subsequent treatment response in 19 treatment-seeking early abstinence cocaine dependent (CD) subjects. These subjects and 14 non-drug using control subjects underwent fMRI while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty. CD subjects were then randomized to treatment studies. Results showed CD subjects had significantly lower (random effects, corrected for multiple comparisons) brain activation in caudate, putamen, cingulate gyrus, middle and superior frontal gyri, inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis and pars opercularis, precentral gyrus, and thalamus compared to non-drug using controls. Within CD subjects, thalamic activation significantly correlated with treatment response. This study shows CD subjects in early abstinence have alteration of brain function in frontal, striatal, and thalamic brain regions known to be part of a circuit associated with motor control, reward, and cognition. Subjects with pretreatment thalamic deactivation showed the poorest treatment response, possibly related to thalamic involvement in mesocortical and mesolimbic dopamine projections. PMID:20153142

  12. Prenatal lipopolysaccharide reduces motor activity after an immune challenge in adult male offspring.

    PubMed

    Kirsten, Thiago Berti; Taricano, Marina; Flório, Jorge Camilo; Palermo-Neto, João; Bernardi, Maria Martha

    2010-07-29

    Prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure causes reproductive, behavioral and neurochemical injuries in both the mother and pups. Previous investigations by our group showed that prenatal LPS administration (100 microg/kg, i.p.) on gestational day 9.5 impaired the male offspring's social behavior in infancy and adulthood. In the present study, we investigated whether these social behavioral changes were associated with motor activity impairment. Male rat pups treated prenatally with LPS or not were tested for reflexological development and open field general activity during infancy. In adulthood, animals were tested for open field general activity, haloperidol-induced catalepsy and apomorphine-induced stereotypy; striatal dopamine levels and turnover were also measured. Moreover, LPS-treated or untreated control pups were challenged with LPS in adulthood and observed for general activity in the open field. In relation to the control group, the motor behavior of prenatally treated male pups was unaffected at basal levels, both in infancy and in adulthood, but decreased general activity was observed in adulthood after an immune challenge. Also, striatal dopamine and metabolite levels were decreased in adulthood. In conclusion, prenatal LPS exposure disrupted the dopaminergic system involved with motor function, but this neurochemical effect was not accompanied by behavioral impairment, probably due to adaptive plasticity processes. Notwithstanding, behavioral impairment was revealed when animals were challenged with LPS, resulting in enhanced sickness behavior.

  13. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    PubMed Central

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  14. Exogenous nerve growth factor stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in aging Fischer 344 male rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, L R

    1991-01-01

    The effect of age and exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion on choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) specific activity is examined in microdissections of cerebral and hippocampal cortices, and the cholinergic nuclei of the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MS/DB), the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), and striatum of Fischer 344 male rats. Significant, 20% losses in ChAT activity are found in the MS/DB and striatum of 24-month-old rats (n = 21) compared to 4-month-old animals, but there is no apparent loss of enzyme activity in the NBM. Loss of ChAT activity in the MS/DB is only observed in animals older than 19 months of age, while a striatal deficit is found in animals older than 7 months. Treatment for 2 weeks with NGF at 1.2 micrograms/day results in significant 70% increases of ChAT activity in the MS/DB and striatum of 24-month-old rats compared to untreated and vehicle-treated 4-month-old rats, but does not stimulate activity in the NBM. Sensitivity of ChAT activity in the MS/DB and striatum to exogenous NGF increases with age. These experiments indicate that in the MS/DB, NBM, and striatum of Fischer 344 male rat there is an age-associated, differential regulation of ChAT enzyme activity and sensitivity to exogenous NGF.

  15. Impaired 17,20-Lyase Activity in Male Mice Lacking Cytochrome b5 in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sondhi, Varun; Owen, Bryn M.; Liu, Jiayan; Chomic, Robert; Kliewer, Steven A.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Arlt, Wiebke; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen and estrogen biosynthesis in mammals requires the 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17A1 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase). Maximal 17,20-lyase activity in vitro requires the presence of cytochrome b5 (b5), and rare cases of b5 deficiency in human beings causes isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. To study the consequences of conditional b5 removal from testicular Leydig cells in an animal model, we generated Cyb5flox/flox:Sf1-Cre (LeyKO) mice. The LeyKO male mice had normal body weights, testis and sex organ weights, and fertility compared with littermates. Basal serum and urine steroid profiles of LeyKO males were not significantly different than littermates. In contrast, marked 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation (100-fold basal) and reduced testosterone synthesis (27% of littermates) were observed after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in LeyKO animals. Testis homogenates from LeyKO mice showed reduced 17,20-lyase activity and a 3-fold increased 17-hydroxylase to 17,20-lyase activity ratio, which were restored to normal upon addition of recombinant b5. We conclude that Leydig cell b5 is required for maximal androgen synthesis and to prevent 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation in the mouse testis; however, the b5-independent 17,20-lyase activity of mouse steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase is sufficient for normal male genital development and fertility. LeyKO male mice are a good model for the biochemistry but not the physiology of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency in human beings. PMID:26974035

  16. Atypical Neural Activity in Males But Not Females with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kirkovski, Melissa; Enticott, Peter G; Hughes, Matthew E; Rossell, Susan L; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2016-03-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the right temporo-parietal junction (rTPj) are highly involved in social understanding, a core area of impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We used fMRI to investigate sex differences in the neural correlates of social understanding in 27 high-functioning adults with ASD and 23 matched controls. There were no differences in neural activity in the mPFC or rTPj between groups during social processing. Whole brain analysis revealed decreased activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus in males with ASD compared to control males while processing social information. This pattern was not observed in the female sub-sample. The current study indicates that sex mediates the neurobiology of ASD, particularly with respect to processing social information. PMID:26520145

  17. Notes on the Diet of Reproductively Active Male Rafinesque's Big Eared Bats

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, M.A.; Carter, T.C.; Menzel, J.M.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2002-01-01

    Diet examination through the use of fecal samples, of five reproductively active male Rafinesque's big-eared bats from the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina during August and September 1999. Diets of these individuals in upland pine stands were similar to diets of Rafinesque's big-eared bats in bottomland and upland hardwood habitats. Although fecal samples had three insect orders, the diet consisted primarily of lepidopterans.

  18. Effects of maternal diabetes on male offspring: high cell proliferation and increased activity of MMP-2 in the ventral prostate.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, A A; Carvalho, C P; Santos, E M B; Botelho, F V; Araújo, F A; Deconte, S R; Tomiosso, T C; Balbi, A P C; Zanon, R G; Taboga, S R; Góes, R M; Ribeiro, D L

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a comprehensive view of the histological and functional status of the prostate of adult rat offspring of mothers subjected to gestational diabetes induced by alloxan. The ventral prostate of male adult offspring of diabetic (DP) or normal (CP) mothers was evaluated for collagen fibres, cell death, fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, cell proliferation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), androgen receptors (AR), transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ-1), catalase and total antioxidant activity. The prostates of DP animals were lower in weight than those of the CP group. The DP group also exhibited hyperglycaemia and hypotestosteronemia, higher cell proliferation and AR expression, a reduction in α-actin (possibly interfering with the reproductive function of the prostate), and enhanced activity of MMP-2, although the absolute content of MMP-2 was lower in this group. These findings were associated with increased TGFβ-1 and decreased collagen distribution. The prostates of DP rats additionally exhibited reductions in catalase and total antioxidant activity. Thus, rats developing in a diabetic intrauterine environment have glycaemic and hormonal changes that impact on the structure and physiology of the prostate in adulthood. The increased AR expression possibly leads to elevated cell proliferation. Stromal remodelling was characterized by enhanced activity of MMP-2 and collagen degradation, even with increased TGFβ-1 activation. These changes associated with increased oxidative stress might interfere with tissue architecture and glandular homeostasis. PMID:24988912

  19. Suppression of ventilatory muscle activity in healthy subjects and COPD patients with negative pressure ventilation.

    PubMed

    Gigliotti, F; Duranti, R; Fabiani, A; Schiavina, M; Scano, G

    1991-05-01

    We evaluated the ability of NPV to suppress EMGd and EMGint in seven patients with severe COPD and five normal subjects. Subjects were studied either without (A) or with mouthpiece and nose clip (B). Electromyographic suppression was assessed comparing EMG activity during NPV with the control activity without a mouthpiece and prior to the initiation of the NPV run. In normal subjects, in A, NPV resulted in a partial suppression of EMGd; in B, prior to NPV, EMGd rose compared with A prior to NPV. In patients, in A, NPV resulted in a suppression of both EMGd and EMGint. In B, prior to NPV, both EMGd and EMGint rose compared with A prior to NPV. Thus, it seems that NPV is able to produce a consistent reduction in inspiratory muscle EMG activity. This variable NPV ability would have to be assessed for better selection criteria for patient candidates in a rehabilitation program.

  20. Local and Global Resting State Activity in the Noradrenergic and Dopaminergic Pathway Modulated by Reboxetine and Amisulpride in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wiegers, Maike; Walter, Martin; Abler, Birgit; Graf, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric populations are currently investigated with resting state fMRI, with the aim of individualizing diagnostics and treatment options and improving treatment outcomes. Many of these studies are conducted in large naturalistic samples, providing rich insights regarding disease-related neural alterations, but with the common psychopharmacological medication limiting interpretations of the results. We therefore investigated the effects of common noradrenergic and anti-dopaminergic medications on local and global resting state activity (rs-activity) in healthy volunteers to further the understanding of the respective effects independent from disease-related alterations. Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, we investigated 19 healthy male subjects by resting state fMRI after the intake of reboxetine (4mg/d), amisulpride (200mg/d), and placebo for 7 days each. Treatment-related differences in local and global rs-activity were measured by the fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and resting state functional connectivity (rs-FC). Results: fALFF revealed alterations of local rs-activity within regions of the core noradrenergic pathway, including the locus coeruleus under reboxetine, correlated with its plasma levels. Moreover, reboxetine led to increased rs-FC between regions within this pathway, i.e. the locus coeruleus, tectum, thalamus, and amygdala. Amisulpride modulated local rs-activity of regions within the dopaminergic pathway, with the altered signal in the putamen correlating with amisulpride plasma levels. Correspondingly, amisulpride increased rs-FC between regions of the dopaminergic pathway comprising the substantia nigra and putamen. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence of how psychopharmacological agents alter local and global rs-activity within the respective neuroanatomical pathways in healthy subjects, which may help with interpreting data in psychiatric

  1. A Phase 1, Randomized, Single-Dose Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study to Investigate the Effect of Food Intake on Absorption of Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ajit; Pham, Theresa; MacLean, David B

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of food on the pharmacokinetics of orteronel, an investigational nonsteroidal, reversible selective inhibitor of 17,20-lyase. In this open-label, randomized crossover study, healthy subjects received single doses of orteronel 400 mg with a low-fat meal, a high-fat meal, and under fasting conditions in a randomized sequence. Plasma concentrations of orteronel and its primary M-I metabolite were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated using mixed-effects analysis of variance model. Compared with fasting conditions, the oral bioavailability of orteronel was increased under fed conditions. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve after a low-fat breakfast was 135% (90% confidence interval [CI], 126%-145%) compared with fasting conditions. Similarly, after a high-fat breakfast, the corresponding value was 142% (90%CI, 132%-152%). No unexpected safety concerns were raised with orteronel 400 mg administered in the fasted state or after either a high-fat or a low-fat meal; mild adverse events were experienced by 36% of the healthy male subjects. PMID:27163497

  2. Effects of capture stress on free-ranging, reproductively active male Weddell seals.

    PubMed

    Harcourt, Robert Geoffrey; Turner, Emma; Hall, Ailsa; Waas, Joseph R; Hindell, Mark

    2010-02-01

    Physiological stress responses to capture may be an indicator of welfare challenges induced by animal handling. Simultaneously, blood chemistry changes induced by stress responses may confound experimental design by interacting with the biological parameters being measured. Cortisol elevation is a common indicator of stress responses in mammals and reproductive condition can profoundly influence endocrine response. We measured changes in blood cortisol and testosterone induced by handling reproductively active male Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) early and late in the breeding season. Weddell seals have the highest resting cortisol levels of all mammals yet showed a clear, prolonged elevation in cortisol in response to capture. Responses were similar when first caught and when caught a second time, later in the breeding season. Baseline testosterone levels declined over the breeding season but were not altered by capture. Administering a light dose of diazepam significantly ameliorated the cortisol response of handled animals without affecting testosterone levels. This may be an effective way of reducing acute capture stress responses. Male breeding success in years males were handled was no different to the years they were not, despite the acute capture response, suggesting no long-term impact of handling on male reproductive output.

  3. Mass Balance and Metabolite Profiling of Steady-State Faldaprevir, a Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4 Protease Inhibitor, in Healthy Male Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter; Mao, Yanping; Yong, Chan-Loi; St. George, Roger; Huang, Fenglei; Latli, Bachir; Mandarino, Debra; Li, Yongmei

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics, mass balance, and metabolite profiles of faldaprevir, a selective peptide-mimetic hepatitis C virus NS3/NS4 protease inhibitor, were assessed at steady state in 7 healthy male subjects. Subjects received oral doses of 480 mg faldaprevir on day 1, followed by 240 mg faldaprevir on days 2 to 8 and 10 to 15. [14C]faldaprevir (240 mg containing 100 μCi) was administered on day 9. Blood, urine, feces, and saliva samples were collected at intervals throughout the study. Metabolite profiling was performed using radiochromatography, and metabolite identification was conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The overall recovery of radioactivity was high (98.8%), with the majority recovered from feces (98.7%). There was minimal radioactivity in urine (0.113%) and saliva. Circulating radioactivity was predominantly confined to plasma with minimal partitioning into red blood cells. The terminal half-life of radioactivity in plasma was approximately 23 h with no evidence of any long-lasting metabolites. Faldaprevir was the predominant circulating form, accounting for 98 to 100% of plasma radioactivity from each subject. Faldaprevir was the only drug-related component detected in urine. Faldaprevir was also the major drug-related component in feces, representing 49.8% of the radioactive dose. The majority of the remainder of radioactivity in feces (41% of the dose) was accounted for in almost equal quantities by 2 hydroxylated metabolites. The most common adverse events were nausea, diarrhea, and constipation, all of which were related to study drug. In conclusion, faldaprevir is predominantly excreted in feces with negligible urinary excretion. PMID:24514093

  4. Influences of early shift work on the diurnal cortisol rhythm, mood and sleep: within-subject variation in male airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Bostock, Sophie; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to investigate how early and late work shifts influenced the diurnal cortisol rhythm using a within-subjects study design. Participants were 30 healthy male non-smoking pilots, mean age 39.4, employed by a short-haul airline. The standard rotating shift pattern consisted of 5 early shifts (starting before 0600 h), followed by 3 rest days, 5 late shifts (starting after 1200 h) and 4 rest days. Pilots sampled saliva and completed subjective mood ratings in a logbook 6 times over the day on two consecutive early shift days, two late days and two rest days. Sampling was scheduled at waking, waking+30 m, waking+2.5 h, waking+8 h, waking+12 h and bedtime. Waking time, sleep duration, sleep quality and working hours were also recorded. Cortisol responses were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance with shift condition (early, late, rest) and sample time (1-6) as within-subject factors. Early shifts were associated with a higher cortisol increase in response to awakening (CAR(i)), a greater total cortisol output over the day (AUC(G)) and a slower rate of decline over the day than late shifts or rest days. Early shifts were also associated with shorter sleep duration but co-varying for sleep duration did not alter the effects of shift on the cortisol rhythm. Both types of work shift were associated with more stress, tiredness and lower happiness than rest days, but statistical adjustment for mood ratings did not alter the findings. Early shift days were associated with significantly higher levels of circulating cortisol during waking hours than late shifts or rest days.

  5. Adrenal axis activation by chronic social stress fails to inhibit gonadal function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, V; Taylor, G T; Mormède, P

    1997-11-01

    Stress in males via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may set into motion varied physiological alterations, including dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, the influence of the HPA on the HPG axis may not always be inhibitory. Presence or absence of stimuli of sexual significance that typically activates the HPG axis may alter the influence of the adrenal axis on gonadal axes. In this project, we used male rats and chronic social stimulation that included brief or extended periods with female rats to examine HPA-HPG axes interactions. In experiment 1, we used intact males and a 'chronic social stress' paradigm developed in our previous research that induces social instability by daily changing the membership of group-housed males with females. Thymus weight was reduced and corticosterone levels were marginally increased by chronic social stress, indicating a HPA axis hyperactivity. The HPG axis was also activated as shown by the increased weight of the androgen-sensitive sex structures. These results indicate that when these two axes are stimulated together, neither interferes with nor suppresses activities of the other. Implants of corticosterone pellets to adrenalectomized animals that maintained constant, high corticosterone levels failed to reverse the gonadal hyperactivity induced by sexual stimulation. In a second experiment, we studied the influence of different intensity of sexual stimulations on HPA-HPG axes interactions. Increased corticosterone levels and adrenal weight, indicating a HPA hyperactivity, failed to inhibit HPG hyperactivity as measured by the increased sexual organs weight, whatever the sexual intensity of the stimulation. This work demonstrates that the gonadal axis is freed from suppression when sexual stimulation occurs together with stress. The general conclusion is that the nature of complex social settings is important in determining interactions between the two neuroendocrine axes.

  6. Compliance of males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol.

    PubMed

    Honeyball, F; Murali-Ganesh, R; Hruby, G; Grimison, P

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of compliance among 57 males with stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours on an active surveillance protocol at a single Australian centre. At median follow up of 24 months, 81% had adequate compliance with the follow-up regimen, 12% were lost to follow up, and 16% relapsed; none between protocol visits. Active surveillance is an acceptable alternative to adjuvant therapy for stage 1 testicular germ cell tumours, with reduced toxicity for most and equivalent survival, but requires efforts to maintain adequate compliance with follow up to avoid late detection of recurrence.

  7. Eurycoma longifolia JACK and orientation activities in sexually experienced male rats.

    PubMed

    Ang, H H; Sim, M K

    1998-02-01

    The effects of Eurycoma longifolia JACK were studied on the orientation activities of sexually experienced male rats towards receptive females (mounting, licking, anogenital sniffing), environment (exploration, raring, climbing), themselves (genital grooming, non-genital grooming) and mobility (unrestricted, restricted) after dosing them with 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight twice daily for 10 d prior to the test. The results showed that E. longifolia JACK modified the orientation activities of the treated male rats in that they significantly displayed more frequent and vigorous mounting, licking and anogenital sniffing towards the receptive females, and it further intensified self orientation as indicated by the increased grooming of the genitals compared to the controls (p<0.05). In addition, rats treated with 800 mg/kg of methanol, water and butanol extracts of E. longifolia JACK continued to show confinement to a particular area of the cage (around the female), thus showing restriction in movement as compared to the controls (p<0.05). However, the treated males possessed a lack of interest in the external environment as indicated by a reduction in exploration, raring and climbing on the cage wall. Hence, the present study further supports the folk use of E. longifolia JACK as an aphrodisiac. PMID:9514610

  8. Display activity and seasonality of faecal sexual steroids in male great bustard (Otis tarda L.).

    PubMed

    Biczó, A; Péczely, P

    2007-03-01

    The non-invasive faecal sampling and RIA was used to measure faecal equivalents of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) in juvenile and adult great bustard males. Possible connections of diurnal and seasonal changes of sexual steroid levels and display activity were studied. Correlations were found between sexual steroid equivalent levels of faeces and display activity and agonistic behaviour in the different phases of annual cycle of adult males. In early display period increasing levels of androgens were measured, during main display period very high androgen dominance was observable against E2 and P4. During postnuptial moult strong T decrease and DHEA and P4 increase were detected. Elevation of E2 was measured during wintering. In juveniles level of DHEA was higher than level of T suggesting its importance in immature males. Decrease of T was detected between reproductive period and postnuptial moult and DHEA between reproduction and wintering, accompanying with E2 elevation. The inhibiting effect of inclement weather on gonad functions also was detected in our study. We suppose that the unexpected cold weather with strong wind depressed the levels of androgens both in juveniles and adults and the increase of faecal E2 was also detected. PMID:17385541

  9. Display activity and seasonality of faecal sexual steroids in male great bustard (Otis tarda L.).

    PubMed

    Biczó, A; Péczely, P

    2007-03-01

    The non-invasive faecal sampling and RIA was used to measure faecal equivalents of testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), oestradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) in juvenile and adult great bustard males. Possible connections of diurnal and seasonal changes of sexual steroid levels and display activity were studied. Correlations were found between sexual steroid equivalent levels of faeces and display activity and agonistic behaviour in the different phases of annual cycle of adult males. In early display period increasing levels of androgens were measured, during main display period very high androgen dominance was observable against E2 and P4. During postnuptial moult strong T decrease and DHEA and P4 increase were detected. Elevation of E2 was measured during wintering. In juveniles level of DHEA was higher than level of T suggesting its importance in immature males. Decrease of T was detected between reproductive period and postnuptial moult and DHEA between reproduction and wintering, accompanying with E2 elevation. The inhibiting effect of inclement weather on gonad functions also was detected in our study. We suppose that the unexpected cold weather with strong wind depressed the levels of androgens both in juveniles and adults and the increase of faecal E2 was also detected.

  10. Effect of melatonin implants on sexual activity in Mediterranean goat females without separation from males.

    PubMed

    Zarazaga, L A; Gatica, M C; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2009-10-15

    This work was designed to determine whether melatonin treatment at the spring equinox can induce reproductive activity in goats without separation from males (separation being the normal practice in Spanish farming systems) and whether this treatment modifies the onset of the natural breeding season. Twenty-nine entire does were distributed into two groups (Group M, n=14; Group C, n=15). A third group of ovariectomized, estradiol-treated goats (OVX group, n=5) was used to study the effect of melatonin on reproductive activity. On March 18, Groups M and OVX received a subcutaneous melatonin implant. In entire females, estrus was tested daily using entire aproned males, and ovulation rate was assessed after identification of estrus. Plasma progesterone in entire goats, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) in the OVX group, and live weight and body condition score for all animals were recorded once a week. In entire goats, a clear treatment by time interaction was observed for progesterone concentrations (P<0.001), with a period of high progesterone concentrations during the natural seasonal anestrus in Group M. A similar period of high LH concentrations was observed in the OVX group. Whereas all females of Group M presented ovarian activity during this period, no female of Group C did. The resumption of the natural breeding season was retarded in Group M in comparison with that in Group C (P<0.05). We can conclude that in Mediterranean goats, melatonin implants can induce reproductive activity without separation from males, and it causes a small retardation in the reactivation of reproductive activity in the natural breeding season. PMID:19631371

  11. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  12. How to make a sexy snake: estrogen activation of female sex pheromone in male red-sided garter snakes.

    PubMed

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2012-03-01

    Vertebrates indicate their genetic sex to conspecifics using secondary sexual signals, and signal expression is often activated by sex hormones. Among vertebrate signaling modalities, the least is known about how hormones influence chemical signaling. Our study species, the red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis), is a model vertebrate for studying hormonal control of chemical signals because males completely rely on the female sex pheromone to identify potential mates among thousands of individuals. How sex hormones can influence the expression of this crucial sexual signal is largely unknown. We created two groups of experimental males for the first experiment: Sham (blank implants) and E2 (17β-estradiol implants). E2 males were vigorously courted by wild males in outdoor bioassays, and in a Y-maze E2 pheromone trails were chosen by wild males over those of small females and were indistinguishable from large female trails. Biochemically, the E2 pheromone blend was similar to that of large females, and it differed significantly from Shams. For the second experiment, we implanted males with 17β-estradiol in 2007 but removed the implants the following year (2008; Removal). That same year, we implanted a new group of males with estrogen implants (Implant). Removal males were courted by wild males in 2008 (implant intact) but not in 2009 (removed). Total pheromone quantity and quality increased following estrogen treatment, and estrogen removal re-established male-typical pheromone blends. Thus, we have shown that estrogen activates the production of female pheromone in adult red-sided garter snakes. This is the first known study to quantify both behavioral and biochemical responses in chemical signaling following sex steroid treatment of reptiles in the activation/organization context. We propose that the homogametic sex (ZZ, male) may possess the same targets for activation of sexual signal production, and the absence of the activator (17

  13. 40 CFR 725.232 - Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Activities subject to the jurisdiction of other Federal programs or agencies. 725.232 Section 725.232 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND...

  14. 14 CFR 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Programs and activities subject to these regulations. 1204.1503 Section 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and Space......

  15. 14 CFR § 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Programs and activities subject to these regulations. § 1204.1503 Section § 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and...

  16. 44 CFR 4.3 - What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations? 4.3 Section 4.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  17. 44 CFR 4.3 - What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations? 4.3 Section 4.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  18. 44 CFR 4.3 - What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations? 4.3 Section 4.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  19. 44 CFR 4.3 - What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations? 4.3 Section 4.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  20. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  1. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... children, the exemption at 34 CFR 97.101(b)(2) (i.e., research involving the use of educational tests....101(b)(2) continues to apply, unmodified by 34 CFR 97.401(b), to— (i) Educational tests; and (ii... 34 CFR part 97: Notice About Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011) (a)...

  2. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance. PMID:26869974

  3. 44 CFR 4.3 - What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What programs and activities of FEMA are subject to these regulations? 4.3 Section 4.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF...

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Programs and activities subject to these regulations. 1204.1503 Section 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and Space...

  5. 14 CFR 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Programs and activities subject to these regulations. 1204.1503 Section 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and Space...

  6. 14 CFR 1204.1503 - Programs and activities subject to these regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Programs and activities subject to these regulations. 1204.1503 Section 1204.1503 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY AND POLICY Intergovernmental Review of National Aeronautics and Space...

  7. Association of Waist Circumference and Body Fat Weight with Insulin Resistance in Male Subjects with Normal Body Mass Index and Normal Glucose Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ryoma; Yano, Yutaka; Yasuma, Taro; Onishi, Yuki; Suzuki, Toshinari; Maruyama-Furuta, Noriko; Gabazza, Esteban C; Sumida, Yasuhiro; Takei, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the relationship of the waist circumference (WC) and body fat weight (BF) with insulin resistance in subjects with normal body mass index (BMI) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) during a routine medical check-up. Methods We categorized 167 male subjects in three groups as follows: a group with normal BMI but high WC (normal-BMI/high-WC group; 22≤BMI<25 kg/m(2), waist ≥85 cm; n=31), a group with normal BMI and normal WC (normal-BMI/normal-WC group, waist <85 cm; n=68), and a group with low normal BMI and normal WC (low normal-BMI/normal-WC group; 18.5≤BMI<22 kg/m(2) and waist<85 cm; n=68). We measured the plasma glucose and serum insulin levels before glucose loading and after 30 and 120 minutes and calculated several indexes of insulin secretion and sensitivity. Results Subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group showed significantly decreased Matsuda index and increased homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) compared with normal-BMI/normal-WC group. Univariate regression analyses showed significant correlation of HOMA-IR with WC (r=0.39) and BF (r=0.37). Matsuda index was significantly correlated with WC (r=-0.39) and BF (r=-0.47). The multiple regression analysis showed that the BF is significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.005) among the clinical variables and with HOMA-IR (p<0.05) and Masuda index (p<0.0001) among the anthropometric variables but not with WC in either analysis. Conclusion Decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR were observed in subjects from the normal-BMI/high-WC group. Multivariate analysis showed that BF is associated with decreased Matsuda index and increased HOMA-IR and that WC is not associated with either factors. PMID:27250047

  8. A Comparison of Bone Mineral Density in Amateur Male Boxers and Active Non-boxers.

    PubMed

    Bolam, K A; Skinner, T L; Sax, A T; Adlard, K N; Taaffe, D R

    2016-08-01

    To examine the site-specific osteogenic effect of upper limb impact-loading activity we compared the forearm and arm bone mineral density (BMD) of male boxers to that of active controls. A cross-sectional study was performed with 30 amateur male boxers (aged 18-44 years) and 32 age-matched, non-boxing, active controls. Participants had their regional and whole body BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Hand grip strength, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, vitamin D, lean and fat mass, and past and current physical activity were also assessed. Forearm and arm BMD were 1.5-2.2% higher in boxers than the control group although this was not statistically significant (p>0.05), with no significant difference for BMC (p>0.05). There were no differences between groups for spine, hip, or whole body BMD or BMC, or for body composition or hormone status. Within the arms, lean mass was associated with BMD and BMC in both boxers and the control group (BMD, r=0.60-0.76, p<0.001; BMC, r=0.67-0.82, p<0.001). There were no significant differences between amateur boxers and the control group for upper limb BMD and BMC. However, muscle mass appears to be particularly important to bone health of the upper limbs. PMID:27203576

  9. [Male participation in types of physical activities of a program for the elderly: a longitudinal study].

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Paulo Adão de; Streit, Inês Amanda; Sandreschi, Paula Fabricio; Fortunato, Artur Rodrigues; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon

    2014-08-01

    The article seeks to describe male participation on a physical activity program for the elderly in the south of Brazil over a ten-year period (2003-2013). The data of the study were extracted from a database and assessed using descriptive and inferential statistics and assessment of the thematic content. The first phase of the study was longitudinal (from 2003 to 2013) with 163 elderly participants, while the second phase was cross-sectional for the year of 2013 with 45 elderly individuals. Male participation was, on average, 3.5 times lower than female participation for all years assessed, and the activity most practiced was swimming. In the year 2013, the average age of the elderly men was 68 ± 7.8 years. Most of them are married, have tertiary education, good acquisitive power, positive self perception of health, one or more diagnosed diseases, and do not participate in any other physical activity outside the program. According to the elderly, the reasons for participating most cited was the search for quality of life and health and, for continuing to exercise, acquiring the taste for the physical activity. Understanding the profile of these individuals and of the reasons that motivate them are important tools to comprehend the issue and help to define public politics directed at this population group. PMID:25119086

  10. Activation of NK cells in subjects exposed to mild hyper- or hypothermic load.

    PubMed

    Lackovic, V; Borecký, L; Vigas, M; Rovenský, J

    1988-06-01

    The effect of mild hyper- and hypothermic stress on release of selected hormones (somatotropin, noradrenaline, etc.), interferon (IFN), and activity of NK cells in the blood was examined in groups of young males during a 30 min exposure to 39 degrees C and 4 degrees C. A quick release of somatotropin was registered in 44% of examinees in the hyperthermic group, while the persons exposed to 4 degrees C reacted with a release of noradrenaline only. Concurrently, an elevation of NK cell activity was observed both in the subgroup releasing somatotropin after hyperthermic stress and in the group exposed to cold. Since these forms of mild stress did not lead to an appearance of IFN in the serum, the possibility of an NK cell activating effect of somatotropin and/or the adrenal hormones was tested. While the adrenal hormones stimulated the NK cell activity in vitro, no support for a similar role for somatotropin was found. PMID:2457640

  11. Subjective sensitivity to monetary gradients is associated with frontolimbic activation to reward in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Rita Z; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Cottone, Lisa A; Zhang, Lei; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D

    2007-03-16

    Drug addiction is characterized by marked disruptions in the ability to process reward. Here we evaluated in cocaine addicted and healthy control participants the subjective sensitivity to reward gradients and its association with neural responses to sustained reward. A self-report questionnaire was used to assess the former. A functional magnetic resonance imaging task that utilized monetary reward as feedback in a blocked design was used to assess the latter. Results revealed that whereas control subjects valued high money more than low money, over half of the cocaine addicted subjects valued all monetary amounts equally. This compromised subjective sensitivity to gradients in reward value was significantly correlated with higher activations to money in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex/inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) and amygdala, and lower activations in the middle frontal gyrus (BA 6), which together explained 85% of the variability on this rating scale in the cocaine abusers only. These results provide for the first time evidence of restricted subjective sensitivity to gradients of reward in cocaine addiction and of the involvement of frontolimbic brain regions (including the orbitofrontal cortex) in this deficit.

  12. Activity of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal System in Prenatally Stressed Male Rats on the Experimental Model of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K; Ordyan, N E

    2016-03-01

    Using the experimental model of post-traumatic stress disorder (stress-restress paradigm), we studied the dynamics of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system (HPAS) in adult male rats, whose mothers were daily subjected to restraint stress on days 15-19 of pregnancy. Prenatally stressed males that were subjected to combined stress and subsequent restress exhibited not only increased sensitivity of HPAS to negative feedback signals (manifested under restress conditions), but also enhanced stress system reactivity. These changes persisted to the 30th day after restress. Under basal conditions, the number of cells in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus of these animals expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin was shown to decrease progressively on days 1-30. By contrast, combined stress and restress in control animals were followed by an increase in the count of CRH-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular and parvocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus and number of vasopressin-immunopositive cells in the magnocellular part of the nucleus (to the 10th day after restress). Our results indicate a peculiar level of functional activity of HPAS in prenatally stressed males in the stress-restress paradigm: decreased activity under basal conditions and enhanced reactivity during stress.

  13. Male-specific suppression of hepatic microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase activities toward sex hormones in the adult male rat administered bisphenol A.

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Junya; Nakada, Ken; Yuasa, Akira; Yokota, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Various adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive organs of male animals have been reported. We found that UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) activities towards bisphenol A, testosterone and oestradiol were significantly decreased in liver microsomes prepared from adult male Wistar rats administered with the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (1 mg/2 days for 2 or 4 weeks). However, suppression of the transferase activities was not observed in female rats, even after bisphenol A treatment for 4 weeks. Diethylstilbestrol, which is well known as an endocrine disruptor, had the same effects, but p -cumylphenol had no effect on UGT activities towards sex hormones. Co-administration of an anti-oestrogen, tamoxifen, inhibited the suppression of the transferase activities by bisphenol A. Western blotting analysis showed that the amount of UGT2B1, an isoform of UGT which glucuronidates bisphenol A, was decreased in the rat liver microsomes by the treatment. Northern blotting analysis also indicated that UGT2B1 mRNA in the liver was decreased by bisphenol A treatment. The suppression of UGT activities, UGT2B1 protein and UGT2B1 mRNA expression did not occur in female rats. The results indicate that bisphenol A treatment reduces the mRNA expression of UGT2B1 and other UGT isoforms that mediate the glucuronidation of sex hormones in adult male rats, and this suggests that the endocrine balance may be disrupted by suppression of glucuronidation. PMID:12230427

  14. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  15. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  16. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  17. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  18. 15 CFR 734.5 - Activities of U.S. and foreign persons subject to the EAR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... subject to the EAR. 734.5 Section 734.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... subject to the EAR. The following kinds of activities are subject to the EAR: (a) Certain activities of U..., missile technology as described in § 744.6 of the EAR, and the proliferation of chemical weapons...

  19. Sexually active males prevent the display of seasonal anestrus in female goats.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, J A; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Poindron, P; Keller, M; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Duarte, G; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Chemineau, P

    2015-03-01

    A well-defined season of sexual rest controlled by photoperiod is observed in female sheep and goats during spring and summer, delineating their "anestrous season"; bucks also decrease sexual activity at about the same time. Nutrition and/or socio-sexual stimuli play only secondary roles. However, the presence of sexually active males can reduce the length of seasonal anestrus. Whether it can also completely suppress anestrus has not been investigated. Here we tested this in goats in 3 experiments, using bucks rendered sexually active out of season by exposure to long days. The continuous presence of these males prevented goats to display seasonal anestrus: 12/14 females cycled the year round, vs. 0/13 and 0/11 for females with un-treated bucks or without bucks (experiment 1). When active bucks were removed, females immediately entered anestrus (7/7 stopped ovulating vs. 1/7 if maintained with active bucks; experiment 2). Finally, 7/7 anestrous does with bucks in sexual rest since 1.5months commenced cycling rapidly during mid-anestrous, when these bucks became sexually active following a treatment with artificial long days, vs. 0/7 with un-treated bucks or no bucks (experiment 3). The presence/withdrawal of active bucks had a highly significant effect in the three experiments (P≤0.002). Therefore, the presence of a mating opportunity can completely override the photoperiodic inhibition of reproduction of females throughout the anestrous season. Results suggest that we must re-evaluate the relative contributions of photoperiod vs. other external cues in controlling seasonal reproduction, thus offering new non-pharmaceutical ways for controlling out-of-season reproduction in small ruminants.

  20. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    PubMed Central

    Allerton, Dean M.; Campbell, Matthew D.; Gonzalez, Javier T.; Rumbold, Penny L. S.; West, Daniel J.; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0–180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05), with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min) glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247). There were no post-lunch (0–180 min) effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492), insulinemia (p = 0.338) or subjective appetite (p > 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal. PMID:26927166

  1. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males.

    PubMed

    Allerton, Dean M; Campbell, Matthew D; Gonzalez, Javier T; Rumbold, Penny L S; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI): 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m²) completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ) was consumed with (CHO + WP) or without (CHO) 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ), or breakfast was omitted (NB). At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0--180 min): 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L), compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L) and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05), with no difference in post-breakfast (0-180 min) glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247). There were no post-lunch (0-180 min) effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492), insulinemia (p = 0.338) or subjective appetite (p > 0.05). Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal. PMID:26927166

  2. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of two formulations of pitavastatin calcium in healthy Chinese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Shang, Dewei; Deng, Shuhua; Yao, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhanzhang; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Jinqing; Lu, Haoyang; Zhu, Xiuqing; Huang, Wencan; Qiu, Chang; Wen, Yuguan

    2016-01-01

    1. Pitavastatin is an effective treatment for primary hyperlipidemia and mixed dyslipidemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of the original, branded, formulation of pitavastatin calcium and a new generic formulation in healthy Chinese male subjects under fasting and fed conditions. 2. Under fasting and fed conditions, 90% CIs of the geometric mean of generic/branded AUC0-48 h ratios were 92.2-102.4%, 93.1-104.5%, the ratios of ln(AUC0-∞) were 92.6-103.7%, 93.2-103.5%, and ln(Cmax) ratios were 90.7-110.3%, 84.7-100.8%, respectively. The generic and branded formulations were bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption under both the conditions. The average values of AUC0-48 h, AUC0-∞ and Cmax decreased noticeably following a high-fat breakfast. Values for AUC0-48 h were 87.69% and 83.7%, values for AUC0-∞ were 87.5% and 84.6%, and values for Cmax were 45.0% and 50.4% in subjects given the generic and branded preparations, respectively. The absorption of pitavastatin calcium tablets was delayed following a high-fat meal, with Tmax increasing by up to 2.43-fold. 3. Both formulations were generally well tolerated, with no serious adverse reactions reported. The newly developed generic formulation may provide a reliable alternative to the branded tablets for patients with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia.

  3. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by GSM 900 and WCDMA mobile phones on cognitive function in young male subjects.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Cornelia; Dorn, Hans; Bahr, Achim; Hansen, Marie-Luise; Peter, Anita; Bajbouj, Malek; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi

    2011-04-01

    Results of studies on the possible effects of electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on cognitive functions are contradictory, therefore, possible effects of long-term (7 h 15 min) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure to handset-like signals of Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) 900 and Wideband Code-Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) on attention and working memory were studied. The sample comprised 30 healthy male subjects (mean ± SD: 25.3 ± 2.6 years), who were tested on nine study days in which they were exposed to three exposure conditions (sham, GSM 900 and WCDMA) in a randomly assigned and balanced order. All tests were presented twice (morning and afternoon) on each study day within a fixed timeframe. Univariate comparisons revealed significant changes when subjects were exposed to GSM 900 compared to sham, only in the vigilance test. In the WCDMA exposure condition, one parameter in the vigilance and one in the test on divided attention were altered compared to sham. Performance in the selective attention test and the n-back task was not affected by GSM 900 or WCDMA exposure. Time-of-day effects were evident for the tests on divided and selective attention, as well as for working memory. After correction for multiple testing, only time-of-day effects remained significant in two tests, resulting in faster reactions in the afternoon trials. The results of the present study do not provide any evidence of an EMF effect on human cognition, but they underline the necessity to control for time of day.

  4. Effects of inhaled rosemary oil on subjective feelings and activities of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2013-06-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects' feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects' mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt "fresher". The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8-10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11-12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13-30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil.

  5. Zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities in healthy elderly Tunisian subjects.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Braham, Hamadi; Amor, Salah; Laporte, François; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2009-12-01

    Trace elements like zinc and copper play an important role in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in elderly subjects and is therefore expected to have a crucial effect on antioxidant mechanism. The objective of the present study was to investigate age-related variations of zinc, copper and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase: SOD, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and catalase: CAT) taking into account gender differences in a Tunisian elderly population. A group of 100 healthy elderly subjects (55-85 years old) were then separated in three sub-groups according to age intervals. A control group of 100 adults aged between 30 and 45 years was considered. The obtained results confirmed the decrease of plasma zinc level with age increase in both men and women. Moreover, prevalence of zinc deficiency increased with age: normal zinc concentration was obtained in about 60% of adults and only in 35% of the elderly subjects over 75 years old. No significant variation was obtained for copper concentration. GPx and SOD activities were lower in aged subjects in comparison to adults. Zinc and antioxidant enzyme activities were found to be negatively correlated to age. However, an investigation on a large size sample with various health and well-controlled dietary statuses should be conducted for a better understanding of the zinc or copper metabolism and their effect on oxidant stress during aging. PMID:19836441

  6. Occlusal force, electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles and mandibular flexure of subjects with different facial types

    PubMed Central

    CUSTODIO, William; GOMES, Simone Guimarães Farias; FAOT, Fernanda; GARCIA, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; DEL BEL CURY, Altair Antoninha

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate whether vertical facial patterns influence maximal occlusal force (MOF), masticatory muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity, and medial mandibular flexure (MMF). Material and Methods Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups by Ricketts's analysis: brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolychofacial. Maximum occlusal force in the molar region was bilaterally measured with a force transducer. The electromyographic activities of the masseter and anterior temporal muscles were recorded during maximal voluntary clenching. Medial mandibular flexure was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance of maximum opening or protrusion from the distance in the rest position. The data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test. The significance level was set at 5%. Results Data on maximum occlusal force showed that shorter faces had higher occlusal forces (P<0.0001). Brachyfacial subjects presented higher levels of masseter electromyographic activity and medial mandibular flexure, followed by the mesofacial and dolychofacial groups. Additionally, dolychofacial subjects showed significantly lower electromyographic temporalis activities (P<0.05). Conclusion Within the limitations of the study, it may be concluded that maximum occlusal force, masticatory muscle activity and medial mandibular flexure were influenced by the vertical facial pattern. PMID:21655772

  7. Physical activity ameliorates cardiovascular health in elderly subjects: the functional role of the β adrenergic system

    PubMed Central

    Santulli, Gaetano; Ciccarelli, Michele; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a complex process characterized by a gradual decline in organ functional reserves, which eventually reduces the ability to maintain homeostasis. An exquisite feature of elderly subjects, which constitute a growing proportion of the world population, is the high prevalence of cardiovascular disorders, which negatively affect both the quality of life and the life expectancy. It is widely acknowledged that physical activity represents one of the foremost interventions capable in reducing the health burden of cardiovascular disease. Interestingly, the benefits of moderate-intensity physical activity have been established both in young and elderly subjects. Herein we provide a systematic and updated appraisal of the literature exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms evoked by physical activity in the elderly, focusing on the functional role of the β adrenergic system. PMID:23964243

  8. Effects of exposure to male goat hair extracts on luteinizing hormone secretion and neuronal activation in seasonally anestrous ewes.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Hiromi; Mogi, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Toru; Ohkura, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    In sheep and goats, exposure of seasonally anestrous females to males or their fleece/hair activates the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator leading to pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. Pheromones emitted by sexually mature males are thought to play a prominent role in this male effect. In the present study, we first aimed to clarify whether the male goat pheromone is effective in ewes. Seasonally anestrous St. Croix ewes were exposed to hair extracts derived from either intact or castrated (control) male Shiba goats. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased LH secretion compared to the control, suggesting that an interspecies action of the male pheromone occurs between sheep and goats. Using the male goat-hair extract as the pheromone source, we then aimed to clarify the neural pathway involved in the signal transduction of the male pheromone. Ewes were exposed to either the goat-hair extract or the control and sacrificed 2 hr after the exposure. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, was immunohistochemically examined. The male goat-hair extract significantly increased the c-Fos expression compared to the control in regions of the vomeronasal system, such as the accessory olfactory bulb and medial amygdala, and the arcuate nucleus. The main olfactory bulb did not exhibit any significant increase in the c-Fos expression by the male goat-hair extract. This result suggests that the neural signal of the male pheromone is conveyed to the GnRH pulse generator through the activated regions in ewes.

  9. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise. PMID:26866769

  10. Do Male And Female Cyclists' Cortical Activity Differ Before and During Cycling Exercise?

    PubMed

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2015-12-01

    Although men and women are suggested to vary in resistance to fatigue, possible sex difference in its central component have rarely been investigated via electroencephalography (EEG). Therefore, we examined differences in cortical activity between male and female cyclists (n = 26) during cycling exercise. Participants performed an incremental test to derive the anaerobic threshold from the lactate power curve. In addition, cyclists' cortical activity was recorded with EEG before and during cycling exercise. Whereas women showed higher frontal alpha and beta activity at rest, no sex-specific differences of relative EEG spectral power occurred during cycling at higher intensity. Women and men's brains respond similarly during submaximal cycling, as both sexes show an inverted U-shaped curve of alpha power. Therefore, sex differences observable at rest vanish after the onset of exercise.

  11. Pineal and photoperiodic influences on fat deposition, pelage, and testicular activity in male meadow voles.

    PubMed

    Smale, L; Dark, J; Zucker, I

    1988-01-01

    Pinealectomy completely prevented gonadal regression as well as reduction in body weight and white adipose tissue content of the gonadal and retroperitoneal fat deposits in male meadow voles transferred from long to short day lengths. Pineal influences on pelage characteristics depended on which parameter was assessed. For instance, the increase in guard hair length observed in short-day control voles was blocked by pinealectomy; however, a similar increase in underhair length was unaffected by removal of the pineal gland. Photoperiod-dependent changes in fat deposition, testicular activity, and guard hair length presumably rely on altered pineal secretory activity to transduce the effects of day length on the neuroendocrine axis; however, mechanisms independent of pineal activity may be capable of mediating photoperiodic control of underhair growth. PMID:2979644

  12. Female choice reveals terminal investment in male mealworm beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a repeated activation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, M J; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  13. Female Choice Reveals Terminal Investment in Male Mealworm Beetles, Tenebrio molitor, after a Repeated Activation of the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Krams, I; Daukšte, J; Kivleniece, I; Krama, T; Rantala, MJ; Ramey, G; Šauša, L

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary sexual traits reflect immunocompetence of males in many animal species. This study experimentally investigated whether a parasite-like immunological challenge via a nylon implant affects sexual attractiveness of males in Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Although a single immunological challenge significantly reduced sexual attractiveness and locomotor activity of males, it had no adverse effect on their survival. A second immune challenge of the same males increased their attractiveness. However, it was found that the repeated challenge significantly reduced locomotor activity of males and caused higher mortality. This result indicates terminal investment on sexual signaling, which is supposedly based on a trade-off between pheromone production and energy expenditures needed for such activities as recovery of immune system and locomotor activity. When the third implantation was carried out in the same group of males, melanization of nylon implants was found to be lower in more attractive than in less attractive males. This suggests that males that became sexually attractive after the second immune challenge did not invest in recovery of their immune system. PMID:21864151

  14. [Hormonal activity of the hypophysis-gonadal system in male hamadryas baboons in relationship to their hierarchical position].

    PubMed

    Taranov, A G; Shashk-ogly, L K; Goncharov, N P

    1986-03-01

    Hierarchic status-dependent hormonal activity of pituitary-gonadal system was studied in an isolated group of hamadryas baboons. Testosterone level was higher in dominating males. The level of sex hormone was higher in aged animals with great muscle mass. No correlation was observed between hierarchic status of hamadryas baboon males and the blood level of luteinizing hormone.

  15. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  16. Subchronic exposure to leachate activates key markers linked with neurological disorder in Wistar male rat.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, J K; Oboh, G

    2015-12-01

    The linking of various environmental chemicals exposure to neurodegenerative disorders is current. This study was undertaken to elucidate the toxic effects and the underlying biochemical mechanism of leachate obtained from Elewi Odo municipal battery recycling site (EOMABRL) using key markers of neuronal damage in rat via an oral route. Analysis of the concentrations of heavy metals showed that lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese, and iron were higher than the acceptable limits set by the regulatory authority-the World Health Organization. Whereas, copper, zinc, and cobalt were lower than permissible limits. EOMABRL was administered at 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% concentrations to adult male rats for 60 days. An in vitro study was also carried out in the cerebellum to assess cholinesterase biochemistry assays. Following exposure, brain was collected to determine the antioxidant status. EOMABRL administration significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and a sequential decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) level with a concomitant increase in the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was observed, when compared with the control. The treated rat had a significant (P < 0.05) increase in the activities of acetycholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Taken together, these findings conclude that some possible mechanisms by which EOMABRL elicits neuronal disorder in male rat could be through the activation of AChE and BuChE and induction of oxidative stress with necrosis of neuronal cells. PMID:26362636

  17. Male Weasels Decrease Activity and Energy Expenditure in Response to High Ambient Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Zub, Karol; Fletcher, Quinn E.; Szafrańska, Paulina A.; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-01-01

    The heat dissipation limit (HDL) hypothesis suggests that the capacity of endotherms to dissipate body heat may impose constraints on their energy expenditure. Specifically, this hypothesis predicts that endotherms should avoid the detrimental consequences of hyperthermia by lowering their energy expenditure and reducing their activity in response to high ambient temperatures (Ta). We used an extensive data set on the daily energy expenditure (DEE, n = 27) and the daily activity time (AT, n = 48) of male weasels (Mustela nivalis) during the spring and summer breeding season to test these predictions. We found that Ta was related in a “hump-shaped” (i.e. convex) manner to AT, DEE, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic scope (the ratio of DEE to RMR). These results support the HDL hypothesis because in response to warm Tas male weasels reduced their AT, DEE, and RMR. Although the activity and energy expenditure of large endotherms are most likely to be constrained in response to warm Tas because they are less able to dissipate heat, our results suggest that small endotherms may also experience constraints consistent with the HDL hypothesis. PMID:23977336

  18. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT.

  19. A Novel Method for Studying the Pharmacokinetics of [(14) C]Umeclidinium After Application to the Axilla or Palm of Healthy Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Pene Dumitrescu, T; Santos, L L; Hughes, S C; Pereira, A I; Young, G C; Hussey, E; Charlton, P; Baptiste-Brown, S; Stuart, J S; Vincent, V; van Marle, S P; Schmith, V D

    2016-08-01

    Umeclidinium (UMEC), a long-acting muscarinic antagonist approved for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was investigated for primary hyperhidrosis as topical therapy. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of [(14) C]UMEC applied to either unoccluded axilla (UA), occluded axilla (OA), or occluded palm (OP) of healthy males. After 8 h the formulation was removed. [(14) C]UMEC plasma concentrations (Cp) were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry. Occlusion increased systemic exposure by 3.8-fold. Due to UMEC absorption-limited pharmacokinetics, Cp data from the OA were combined with intravenous data from a phase I study. The data were described by a two-compartment population model with sequential zero and first-order absorption and linear elimination. Simulated systemic exposure following q.d. doses to axilla was similar to the exposure from the inhaled therapy, suggesting that systemic safety following dermal administration can be bridged to the inhaled program, and offering the potential for a reduced number of studies and/or subjects. PMID:27304394

  20. Tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ACT-280778, a novel nondihydropyridine dual L/T-type calcium channel blocker: early clinical studies in healthy male subjects using adaptive designs.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Markus S; Shakeri-Nejad, Kasra; Gutierrez, Marcelo M; Krause, Andreas; Täubel, Jörg; Sanderson, Brian; Dingemanse, Jasper

    2014-02-01

    ACT-280778 is a novel nondihydropyridine dual L/T-type calcium channel blocker. Two clinical studies (AC-067-101 and AC-067-102) were conducted to characterize its safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics in healthy male subjects after oral administration of single and multiple doses. Both trials were single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive design, ascending-dose studies, in which ACT-280778 was administrated as single doses of 2, 5, 15, or 40 mg, or as once-daily doses of 5 or 15 mg for 7 days. Single and multiple doses up to and including 15 mg were well tolerated, and no serious or severe adverse event was reported in either study. A single dose of 40 mg was associated with abnormal electrocardiogram findings resulting in the discontinuation of further treatment at this dose or higher doses. ACT-280778 was rapidly absorbed, and larger than dose-proportional increases of the maximum plasma concentration and area under the plasma concentration-time curve were observed. Food intake delayed the time to maximum plasma concentration and doubled exposure. Urinary excretion of unchanged ACT-280778 was negligible, and accumulation at steady state was modest. Overall, pharmacokinetic and tolerability profiles of ACT-280778 observed in these 2 studies warranted further evaluation of ACT-280778 in a proof-of-concept study in patients with hypertension.

  1. Stress induced by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test cause equivalent deficiencies of sensory gating in male subjects with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; López-Muñoz, Francisco; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Roberto; Espinosa, Regina; Pérez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Carlos Leza, Juan

    2015-08-30

    It is known that patients with schizophrenia show a deficiency in the prepulse inhibition reflex (PPI). These patients display abnormalities in autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and may have an altered sensitivity to stress. To date, no studies have been carried out to determine the effect of acute stress on the PPI. We investigated whether there was a differential response in reactivity to acute stress caused by the socially evaluated cold-pressor test (SECPT) in a sample of 58 chronic male patients with schizophrenia and 28 healthy control subjects. PPI, salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR) were measured. The patients were evaluated in two sessions (with and without the SECPT) 72 h apart and basal measurements were carried out and 30 min post-startle probe. We found an increase in salivary cortisol levels and the HR with SECPT condition in both groups and a significantly lower PPI% in patients with schizophrenia. The most relevant findings of this study are that the impairment of the PPI is increased by stress. Stress-induced increase in cortisol in both groups, mainly in healthy control group which allows us to hypothesize that at least such deterioration may be due to the hypercortisolemia caused by the SECPT. PMID:26154819

  2. Brain development in male rats subjected to early weaning and treated with diet containing flour or flaxseed oil after 21 days until 60 days.

    PubMed

    Pessanha, C R; da Camara Boueri, B Ferolla; da Costa, L Rodrigues; Ferreira, M Rocha; Melo, H Saldanha; de Abreu, M Duque Coutinho; Pessoa, L Rozeno; da Silva, P C Alves; Pereira, A D'Avila; Ribeiro, D Cavalcante; de Meneses, J Azevedo; da Costa, C A Soares; Boaventura, G T

    2015-08-01

    The precocious interruption of lactation is a prime factor for developmental plasticity. Here we analyzed whether flour or flaxseed oil treatment contributes to body and brain mass in male rats subjected to early weaning. Pups were weaned for separation from their mother at 14 (early weaning, EW) and 21 days (control, C). At 21 days, some of the pups were evaluated (C21 v. EW21). After 21 days, control pups (C60) were fed a control diet. EW pups were divided into those fed a control diet (EWC60), those given flaxseed flour (EWFF60), and those given flaxseed oil (EWFO60) until 60 days. EW21 showed lower body and absolute brain mass and higher relative brain mass. At 60 days, EWC60 and EWFO60 had lower body mass. With regard to relative brain mass, EWC60 was heavier; EWFO60 had lower values compared with EWC60 and higher values compared with C60 and EWFF60. These results indicated that flaxseed flour, in comparison with flaxseed oil, contributes to brain development after EW.

  3. Extremely high proportions of male flowers and geographic variation in floral ratios within male figs of Ficus tikoua despite pollinators displaying active pollen collection.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jun-Yin; Fu, Rong-Hua; Compton, Stephen G; Hu, Dai-Mei; Zhang, Lu-Shui; Yang, Fan; Chen, Yan; Kjellberg, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Most plants are pollinated passively, but active pollination has evolved among insects that depend on ovule fertilization for larval development. Anther-to-ovule ratios (A/O ratios, a coarse indicator of pollen-to-ovule ratios) are strong indicators of pollination mode in fig trees and are consistent within most species. However, unusually high values and high variation of A/O ratios (0.096-10.0) were detected among male plants from 41 natural populations of Ficus tikoua in China. Higher proportions of male (staminate) flowers were associated with a change in their distribution within the figs, from circum-ostiolar to scattered. Plants bearing figs with ostiolar or scattered male flowers were geographically separated, with scattered male flowers found mainly on the Yungui Plateau in the southwest of our sample area. The A/O ratios of most F. tikoua figs were indicative of passive pollination, but its Ceratosolen fig wasp pollinator actively loads pollen into its pollen pockets. Additional pollen was also carried on their body surface and pollinators emerging from scattered-flower figs had more surface pollen. Large amounts of pollen grains on the insects' body surface are usually indicative of a passive pollinator. This is the first recorded case of an actively pollinated Ficus species producing large amounts of pollen. Overall high A/O ratios, particularly in some populations, in combination with actively pollinating pollinators, may reflect a response by the plant to insufficient quantities of pollen transported in the wasps' pollen pockets, together with geographic variation in this pollen limitation. This suggests an unstable scenario that could lead to eventual loss of wasp active pollination behavior. PMID:26843943

  4. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; van Es, Daniel M; Knapen, Tomas; Rouw, Romke

    2016-07-29

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual areas can be directly related to letter-color associations acquired by training. Non-synesthetes read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. If the acquired letter-color associations were visual in nature, then brain activation in visual cortex while viewing the trained black letters (compared to untrained black letters) should predict the strength of the associations, the quality of the color experience, or the vividness of visual mental imagery. Results showed that training-related activation of area V4 was correlated with differences in reported subjective color experience. Trainees who were classified as having stronger 'associator' types of color experiences also had more negative activation for trained compared to untrained achromatic letters in area V4. In contrast, the strength of the acquired associations (measured as the Stroop effect) was not reliably reflected in visual cortex activity. The reported vividness of visual mental imagery was related to veridical color activation in early visual cortex, but not to the acquired color associations. We show for the first time that subjective experience related to a synesthesia-training paradigm was reflected in visual brain activation.

  5. Visual cortex activity predicts subjective experience after reading books with colored letters.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Scholte, H Steven; van Es, Daniel M; Knapen, Tomas; Rouw, Romke

    2016-07-29

    One of the most astonishing properties of synesthesia is that the evoked concurrent experiences are perceptual. Is it possible to acquire similar effects after learning cross-modal associations that resemble synesthetic mappings? In this study, we examine whether brain activation in early visual areas can be directly related to letter-color associations acquired by training. Non-synesthetes read specially prepared books with colored letters for several weeks and were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging. If the acquired letter-color associations were visual in nature, then brain activation in visual cortex while viewing the trained black letters (compared to untrained black letters) should predict the strength of the associations, the quality of the color experience, or the vividness of visual mental imagery. Results showed that training-related activation of area V4 was correlated with differences in reported subjective color experience. Trainees who were classified as having stronger 'associator' types of color experiences also had more negative activation for trained compared to untrained achromatic letters in area V4. In contrast, the strength of the acquired associations (measured as the Stroop effect) was not reliably reflected in visual cortex activity. The reported vividness of visual mental imagery was related to veridical color activation in early visual cortex, but not to the acquired color associations. We show for the first time that subjective experience related to a synesthesia-training paradigm was reflected in visual brain activation. PMID:26162617

  6. Age-Related Changes in Hepatic Activity and Expression of Detoxification Enzymes in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vyskočilová, Erika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka; Bártíková, Hana; Hlaváčová, Jitka

    2013-01-01

    Process of aging is accompanied by changes in the biotransformation of xenobiotics and impairment of normal cellular functions by free radicals. Therefore, this study was designed to determine age-related differences in the activities and/or expressions of selected drug-metabolizing and antioxidant enzymes in young and old rats. Specific activities of 8 drug-metabolizing enzymes and 4 antioxidant enzymes were assessed in hepatic subcellular fractions of 6-week-old and 21-month-old male Wistar rats. Protein expressions of carbonyl reductase 1 (CBR1) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were determined using immunoblotting. Remarkable age-related decrease in specific activities of CYP2B, CYP3A, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was observed, whereas no changes in activities of CYP1A2, flavine monooxygenase, aldo-keto reductase 1C, and antioxidant enzymes with advancing age were found. On the other hand, specific activity of CBR1 and GST was 2.4 folds and 5.6 folds higher in the senescent rats compared with the young ones, respectively. Interindividual variability in CBR1 activity increased significantly with rising age. We suppose that elevated activities of GST and CBR1 may protect senescent rats against xenobiotic as well as eobiotic electrophiles and reactive carbonyls, but they may alter metabolism of drugs, which are CBR1 and especially GSTs substrates. PMID:23971034

  7. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  8. Juvenile hormone-dopamine systems for the promotion of flight activity in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken; Nagao, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    The reproductive roles of dopamine and dopamine regulation systems are known in social hymenopterans, but the knowledge on the regulation systems in solitary species is still needed. To test the possibility that juvenile hormone (JH) and brain dopamine interact to trigger territorial flight behavior in males of a solitary bee species, the effects on biogenic amines of JH analog treatments and behavioral assays with dopamine injections in males of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa appendiculata were quantified. Brain dopamine levels were significantly higher in methoprene-treated males than in control males 4 days after treatment, but were not significantly different after 7 days. Brain octopamine and serotonin levels did not differ between methoprene-treated and control males at 4 and 7 days after treatment. Injection of dopamine caused significantly higher locomotor activities and a shorter duration for flight initiation in experimental versus control males. These results suggest that brain dopamine can be regulated by JH and enhances flight activities in males. The JH-dopamine system in males of this solitary bee species is similar to that of males of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera.

  9. Effects of physical activity on blood pressure monitoring and morphometric parameters of the left ventricle and of the abdominal aorta in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Claudio; Lova, Raffaele Molino; Giannelli, Fabrizio; Papucci, Mario; Conti, Andrea A; Paternostro, Ferdinando; Contini, Massimo; Miniati, Benedetta; Gulisano, Massimo; Catini, Claudio

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of physical activity not only on morphometric left ventricular parameters, but also on the abdominal aorta diameter and on blood pressure, we enrolled 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, aged between 63 and 91 years (mean 73.3 +/- s.d. 7.7), each divided into two subgroups, sedentary and non sedentary, come to our observation for a diagnostic screening. For each subject an Echography was performed, by using an Acuson 128XP10 apparatus, equipped with a 2 MHz phased array probe, both for the study of the heart and for the study of the abdominal aorta. Then, all the subjects underwent 24 hours blood pressure monitoring by using a P6 Delmar apparatus in order to get mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure was significantly related to physical activity (sedentary > non sedentary, P < 0.01), while systolic blood pressure was not; left ventricle and abdominal aorta diameters were both significantly related to sex (males > females, P < 0.001), but left ventricle diameter was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), while abdominal aorta diameter was significantly related to systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Our data suggest that physical activity might be strongly recommended to control blood pressure.

  10. Male prairie voles display cardiovascular dipping associated with an ultradian activity cycle.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert; Curtis, J Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Mammals typically display alternating active and resting phases and, in most species, these rhythms follow a circadian pattern. The active and resting phases often are accompanied by corresponding physiological changes. In humans, blood pressure decreases during the resting phase of the activity cycle, and the magnitude of that "nocturnal dipping" has been used to stratify patients according to the risk for cardiovascular disease. However, in contrast to most mammals, prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) have periods of activity and rest that follow an ultradian rhythm with period lengths significantly <24h. While rhythmic changes in blood pressure across a circadian activity cycle have been well-documented, blood pressure patterns in species that display ultradian rhythms in activity are less well-studied. In the current study, we implanted pressure-sensitive radiotelemetry devices in male prairie voles and recorded activity, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) continuously for 3days. Visualization of the ultradian rhythms was enhanced using a 1h running average to filter the dataset. Positive correlations were found between activity and MAP and between activity and HR. During the inactive period of the ultradian cycle, blood pressure decreased by about 15%, which parallels the nocturnal dipping pattern seen in healthy humans. Further, the duration of inactivity did not affect any of the cardiovascular measures, so the differences in blood pressure values between the active and inactive periods are likely driven by ultradian oscillations in hormones and autonomic function. Finally, specific behavioral patterns also were examined. Both the instrumented animal and his non-instrumented cagemate appeared to show synchronized activity patterns, with both animals displaying sleep-like behavior for more than 90% of the inactive period. We propose that the prairie vole ultradian rhythm in blood pressure is an analogue for circadian blood pressure variability

  11. Effects of physical activity on pupil cycle time (PCT) in healthy Indian male.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Suparna; Avadhany, Sandhya T

    2014-01-01

    Globally, physical inactivity is an important risk factor for the development of non-communicable disease consisting of coronary artery disease, as well as, other diseases including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancers. Parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity in the eye is determined by the pupil cycle time (PCT) can be comparable with cardiac parasympathetic response and thereby determine the morbidity and mortality among individuals. The PCT is measured by throwing white light on the edge of the pupil. Pupil cycling is a feature of pupillary reflex arc. The aim of this study is to establish the effect of physical activity on the PCT. The counting of PCT was done for 90 cycles and average one count is considered a single PCT. The physical activity level (PAL) was determined by administering a physical activity level questionnaire developed in the Division of Nutrition, St. John's Medical College, Bangalore. The PAL is classified as < 1.4 as sedentary, 1.55 to 1.75 moderately active, and > 1.75 heavily active. Thirty healthy male volunteers in the age group of 18-50 years and with BMI of 18.5 kg/m2-30 kg/m2 were studied. We obtained PCT of 962.00 ± 105.72 msec in sedentary, 896.77 ± 85.88 msec in moderately active and 889.45 ± 68.71 msec in heavily active individuals. Linear regression analysis shows there is statistically significant difference between the three different groups of physical activity level with a b value of 0 and R2 being 0.19. Increase in physical activity led to decrease in the PCT i.e. increase in the parasympathetic tone in the eye. Pupil cycle time (PCT) is a simple noninvasive tool to assess and differentiate the PNS function in different activity level of individual. PMID:25906609

  12. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  13. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    PubMed

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  14. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration. PMID:26793136

  15. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    PubMed Central

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R; Houck, Lynne D; Wood, Jessica M; Feldhoff, Pamela W; Feldhoff, Richard C

    2006-01-01

    Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF) and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF), respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component. PMID:16553953

  16. Alpha Power, Alpha Asymmetry and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity in Depressed Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Natalia; Blier, Pierre; Fusee, Wendy; Knott, Verner

    2012-01-01

    Left fronto-cortical hypoactivity, thought to reflect reduced activity in approach-related systems, and right parietal hypoactivity, associated with emotional under-arousal, have been noted in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered theta activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has also been associated with the disorder. We assessed resting frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry and power in non-medicated MDD (N=53; 29 females) and control (N=43; 23 females) individuals. Theta activity was examined using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) in the ACC [BA24ab and BA32 comprising the rostral ACC and BA25/subgenual (sg) ACC]. The MDD group, and particularly depressed males, displayed increased overall frontal and parietal alpha power and left midfrontal hypoactivity (alpha2-indexed). They also exhibited increased sgACC theta2 activity. MDD females had increased right parietal activity, suggesting increased emotive arousal. Thus, unmedicated depressed adults were characterized by lower activity in regions implicated in approach/positive affective tendencies as well as diffuse cortical hypoarousal, though sex specific modulations emerged. Altered theta in the sgACC may reflect emotion regulation abnormalities in MDD. PMID:22939462

  17. LEADER 3—Lipase and Amylase Activity in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, William M.; Nauck, Michael A.; Zinman, Bernard; Daniels, Gilbert H.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Mann, Johannes F.E.; Steen Ravn, Lasse; Moses, Alan C.; Stockner, Mette; Baeres, Florian M.M.; Marso, Steven P.; Buse, John B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This report from the LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) trial describes baseline lipase and amylase activity in type 2 diabetic subjects without acute pancreatitis symptoms before randomization to the glucagonlike peptide analog liraglutide or placebo. Methods The LEADER is an international randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluating the cardiovascular safety of liraglutide in 9340 type 2 diabetic patients at high cardiovascular risk. Fasting lipase and amylase activity was assessed at baseline, before receiving liraglutide or placebo, using a commercial assay (Roche) with upper limit of normal values of 63 U/L for lipase and 100 U/L for amylase. Results Either or both enzymes were above the upper limit of normal in 22.7% of subjects; 16.6% (n = 1540) had an elevated lipase level (including 1.2% >3-fold elevated), and 11.8% (n = 1094) had an elevated amylase level (including 0.2% >3-fold elevated). In multivariable regression models, severely reduced kidney function was associated with the largest effect on increasing activity of both. However, even among subjects with normal kidney function, 12.2% and 7.7% had elevated lipase and amylase levels. Conclusions In this large study of type 2 diabetic patients, nearly 25% had elevated lipase or amylase levels without symptoms of acute pancreatitis. The clinician must take these data into account when evaluating abdominal symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:25275271

  18. Potential Subjective Effectiveness of Active Interior Noise Control in Propeller Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control technology offers the potential for weight-efficient aircraft interior noise reduction, particularly for propeller aircraft. However, there is little information on how passengers respond to this type of interior noise control. This paper presents results of two experiments that use sound quality engineering practices to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control (ANC) systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two experiments differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons based on preference in the first and numerical category scaling of noisiness in the second. Although the results of the two experiments were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference. The reductions in subjective response due to the ANC conditions were predicted with reasonable accuracy by reductions in measured loudness level. Inclusion of corrections for the sound quality characteristics of tonality and fluctuation strength in multiple regression models improved the prediction of the ANC effects.

  19. Effects of Aromatase Inhibition and Androgen Activity on Serotonin and Behavior in Male Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bethea, Cynthia L.; Reddy, Arubala P.; Robertson, Nicola; Colemen, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Aggression in humans and animals has been linked to androgens and serotonin function. To further our understanding of the effect of androgens on serotonin and aggression in male macaques, we sought to manipulate circulating androgens and the activity of aromatase; and to then determine behavior and the endogenous availability of serotonin. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with [1] placebo, [2] testosterone (T), [3] T+Dutasteride (5a reductase inhibitor; AvodartTM), [4] T+Letrozole (non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor; FemeraTM), [5] Flutamide+ATD (androgen antagonist plus steroidal aromatase inhibitor) or [6] dihydrotestosterone (DHT)+ATD (n=5/group). Behavioral observations were made during treatments. At the end of the treatment period, each animal was sedated with propofol and administered a bolus of fenfluramine (5 mg/kg). Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin proportional to endogenous availability and in turn, serotonin stimulates the secretion of prolactin. Therefore, serum prolactin concentrations reflect endogenous serotonin. Fenfluramine significantly increased serotonin/prolactin in all groups (p <0.0001). Fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin in the T-treated group was significantly higher than the other groups (p<0.0001). Castration partially reduced the serotonin/prolactin response; and Letrozole partially blocked the effect of T. Complete inhibition of aromatase with ATD, a non-competitve inhibitor, significantly and similarly reduced the fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin response in the presence or absence of DHT. Neither aggressive behavior nor yawning (indicators of androgen activity) correlated with serotonin/prolactin, but posited aromatase activity correlated significantly with prolactin (p<0.0008; r2 =0.95). In summary, androgens induced aggressive behavior but they did not regulate serotonin. Altogether, the data suggest that aromatase activity supports

  20. Effects of aromatase inhibition and androgen activity on serotonin and behavior in male macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Robertson, Nicola; Coleman, Kristine

    2013-06-01

    Aggression in humans and animals has been linked to androgens and serotonin function. To further our understanding of the effect of androgens on serotonin and aggression in male macaques, we sought to manipulate circulating androgens and the activity of aromatase; and to then determine behavior and the endogenous availability of serotonin. Male Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) were castrated for 5-7 months and then treated for 3 months with (a) placebo; (b) testosterone (T); (c) T + Dutasteride (5a reductase inhibitor; AvodartTM); (d) T + Letrozole (nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor; FemeraTM); (e) Flutamide + ATD (androgen antagonist plus steroidal aromatase inhibitor); or (f) dihydrotestosterone (DHT) + ATD (n = 5/group). Behavioral observations were made during treatments. At the end of the treatment period, each animal was sedated with propofol and administered a bolus of fenfluramine (5 mg/kg). Fenfluramine causes the release of serotonin proportional to endogenous availability and in turn, serotonin stimulates the secretion of prolactin. Therefore, serum prolactin concentrations reflect endogenous serotonin. Fenfluramine significantly increased serotonin/prolactin in all groups (p < .0001). Fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin in the T-treated group was significantly higher than the other groups (p < .0001). Castration partially reduced the serotonin/prolactin response and Letrozole partially blocked the effect of T. Complete inhibition of aromatase with ATD, a noncompetitive inhibitor, significantly and similarly reduced the fenfluramine-induced serotonin/prolactin response in the presence or absence of DHT. Neither aggressive behavior nor yawning (indicators of androgen activity) correlated with serotonin/prolactin, but posited aromatase activity correlated significantly with prolactin (p < .0008; r² = 0.95). In summary, androgens induced aggressive behavior but they did not regulate serotonin. Altogether, the data suggest that aromatase activity

  1. Effect of whole body vibration frequency on neuromuscular activity in ACL-deficient and healthy males

    PubMed Central

    Giombini, A; Menotti, F; Piccinini, A; Fagnani, F; Di Cagno, A; Macaluso, A; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been shown to enhance muscle activity via reflex pathways, thus having the potential to contrast muscle weakness in individuals with rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of neuromuscular activation during WBV over a frequency spectrum from 20 to 45 Hz between ACL-deficient and healthy individuals. Fifteen males aged 28±4 with ACL rupture and 15 age-matched healthy males were recruited. Root mean square (RMS) of the surface electromyogram from the vastus lateralis in both limbs was computed during WBV in a static half-squat position at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, and normalized to the RMS while maintaining the half-squat position without vibration. The RMS of the vastus lateralis in the ACL-deficient limb was significantly greater than in the contralateral limb at 25, 30, 35 and 40 Hz (P<0.05) and in both limbs of the healthy participants (dominant limb at 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05; non dominant limb at 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 Hz, P<0.05). The greater neuromuscular activity in the injured limb compared to the uninjured limb of the ACL-deficient patients and to both limbs of the healthy participants during WBV might be due to either augmented excitatory or reduced inhibitory neural inflow to motoneurons of the vastus lateralis through the reflex pathways activated by vibratory stimuli. The study provides optimal WBV frequencies which might be used as reference values for ACL-deficient patients. PMID:26424928

  2. Effects of azapropazone on pain-related brain activity in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lötsch, J; Mohammadian, P; Hummel, T; Florin, S; Brune, K; Geisslinger, G; Kobal, G

    1995-12-01

    1. The dose-related effects of azapropazone on (i) event-related and spontaneous EEG-activity and (ii) the subjects' pain ratings were investigated using an experimental human pain model based on both chemo-somatosensory event-related potentials (CSSERP) and subjects' pain ratings. 2. Healthy subjects (n = 20) participated in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, four-way cross-over study. Single doses of azapropazone (300 mg, 600 mg and 1200 mg) and placebo were administered intravenously. Each experiment consisted of five sessions (before and 1, 2, 4 and 8 h after administration of the medication). Each session lasted for approximately 40 min. In the first 20 min, pain was induced by short CO2-stimuli presented to the right nostril (phasic pain; interstimulus interval 30 s) and EEG was recorded from five positions. CSSERPs were obtained in response to painful CO2-stimuli. In the following 20 min period, tonic pain was induced by a constant stream of dry air introduced in the left nostril. Subjects rated the intensity of both phasic and tonic pain by means of a visual analogue scale. Additionally, a frequency analysis of the spontaneous EEG was performed. 3. Azapropazone reduced the pain-related CSSERP-amplitudes at frontal and parietal recording positions. This topographical pattern was observed in previous studies with opioids, while NSAIDs such as flurbiprofen and ketoprofen exerted effects at frontal and central positions. In contrast to other NSAIDs, administration of azapropazone resulted in a reduction of the frequency bands alpha 1, delta and theta of the spontaneous EEG. At the subjective level, analgesic effects of azapropazone were observed in the ratings of tonic pain. 4. Analgesic properties of azapropazone were demonstrated in man. The topographical pattern of the changes in the CSSERPs and the effects on EEG background activity suggest a central component of the analgesic action of azapropazone.

  3. Comparison of muscle activity patterns of transfemoral amputees and control subjects during walking

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only few studies have looked at electromyography (EMG) during prosthetic gait. Differences in EMG between normal and prosthetic gait for stance and swing phase were never separately analyzed. These differences can give valuable information if and how muscle activity changes in prosthetic gait. Methods In this study EMG activity during gait of the upper leg muscles of six transfemoral amputees, measured inside their own socket, was compared to that of five controls. On and off timings for stance and swing phase were determined together with the level of co-activity and inter-subject variability. Results and conclusions Gait phase changes in amputees mainly consisted of an increased double support phase preceding the prosthetic stance phase. For the subsequent (pre) swing phase the main differences were found in muscle activity patterns of the prosthetic limb, more muscles were active during this phase and/or with prolonged duration. The overall inter-subject variability was larger in amputees compared to controls. PMID:23914785

  4. Subjective Response to Alcohol and ADH Polymorphisms in a Select Sample of Young Adult Male East Indians and Africans in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Montane Jaime, Lazara Karelia; Shafe, Samuel; Liang, Tiebing; Wills, Derek N; Berg, Greta I; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Level of response to alcohol has been associated with risk of alcohol dependence in a number of ethnic groups. In the present study, subjective and objective responses to alcohol were evaluated in Indo-Trinidadians (Indo-T) and Afro-Trinidadians (Afro-T). Associations of alcohol dehydrogenase polymorphisms with response to alcohol, using the Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS), and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC) were tested. Method: Regular male drinkers without alcohol dependence (n = 112) ages 18–25 years participated in alcohol challenge sessions consisting of placebo and two doses of alcohol (target BrAC: 0 g/dl for placebo, .04 g/dl low dose, and .08 g/dl high dose) and genotyped for variants in ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2. Results: Indo-T had significantly higher BrAC, pulse rates, and cortisol levels when compared with Afro-T but did not have significantly higher SHAS values. Higher responses on the SHAS items muddle/confused and nauseated were significantly associated with the presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele following the high dose of alcohol in Afro-T. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele displayed significantly different Drug × Time interactions for the SHAS item effects of alcohol at the low dose and for the SHAS items clumsy, muddle/confused, effects of alcohol, floating, drunk, and total at the high dose from Indo-T with two ADH1C*1 alleles. Conclusions: This is the first study that has investigated individual sensitivity to alcohol in a Caribbean population and in people of East Indian descent. Indo-T with at least one ADH1C*2 allele may be at higher risk for heavy drinking by feeling less of the effects of alcohol, including nausea. In Afro-T, having at least one ADH1B*3 allele appears to exert a protective effect by enhancing the unpleasant effects of alcohol, such as nausea and confusion. PMID:25208201

  5. Melanin-concentrating hormone is necessary for olanzapine-inhibited locomotor activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Chee, Melissa J S; Douris, Nicholas; Forrow, Avery B; Monnard, Arnaud; Lu, Shuangyu; Flaherty, Stephen E; Adams, Andrew C; Maratos-Flier, Eleftheria

    2015-10-01

    Olanzapine (OLZ), an atypical antipsychotic, can be effective in treating patients with restricting type anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively. Clinical improvements include weight gain and reduced pathological hyperactivity. However the neuronal populations and mechanisms underlying OLZ actions are not known. We studied the effects of OLZ on hyperactivity using male mice lacking the hypothalamic neuropeptide melanin-concentrating hormone (MCHKO) that are lean and hyperactive. We compared the in vivo effects of systemic or intra-accumbens nucleus (Acb) OLZ administration on locomotor activity in WT and MCHKO littermates. Acute systemic OLZ treatment in WT mice significantly reduced locomotor activity, an effect that is substantially attenuated in MCHKO mice. Furthermore, OLZ infusion directly into the Acb of WT mice reduced locomotor activity, but not in MCHKO mice. To identify contributing neuronal mechanisms, we assessed the effect of OLZ treatment on Acb synaptic transmission ex vivo and in vitro. Intraperitoneal OLZ treatment reduced Acb GABAergic activity in WT but not MCHKO neurons. This effect was also seen in vitro by applying OLZ to acute brain slices. OLZ reduced the frequency and amplitude of GABAergic activity that was more robust in WT than MCHKO Acb. These findings indicate that OLZ reduced Acb GABAergic transmission and that MCH is necessary for the hypolocomotor effects of OLZ.

  6. Absorption, Distribution, and Excretion of the Investigational Agent Orteronel (TAK-700) in Healthy Male Subjects: A Phase 1, Open-Label, Single-Dose Study.

    PubMed

    Suri, Ajit; Pusalkar, Sandeepraj; Li, Yuexian; Prakash, Shimoga

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the absorption, distribution, and excretion of orteronel, an investigational, nonsteroidal, reversible, selective 17,20-lyase inhibitor. Six healthy male subjects received a single 400-mg dose of radiolabeled [(14) C]-orteronel (18.5 kBq). The pharmacokinetics of [(14) C]-radioactivity, orteronel, and the primary metabolite M-I were characterized by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and mass balance recovery of [(14) C]-radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation counting and accelerator mass spectrometry. Median time to maximum observed concentration of [(14) C]-radioactivity was 2.5 hours (plasma/whole blood) and of orteronel was 1 hour (plasma). Mean terminal half-life for [(14) C]-radioactivity in plasma and whole blood was 9.46 and 7.39 hours, respectively. For [(14) C]-radioactivity, the geometric mean whole blood-to-plasma ratios for maximum observed plasma/whole-blood concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-last ), and AUC0-inf (AUC from time 0 to infinity) were 1.04, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively. Dose recovery accounted for 95.9% of the administered orteronel dose; the majority of excretion occurred by 96 hours postdose. The principal excretion route was via urine (mean, 77.5%; including 49.7% unchanged drug and 16.3% M-I) compared with 18.4% via feces. Three mild adverse events were reported; none were considered serious or related to orteronel. PMID:27163496

  7. Refocusing HIV / AIDS interventions in Thailand: the case for male sex workers and other homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Mccamish, M; Storer, G; Carl, G

    2000-01-01

    Although studies have shown that male sex workers in Thailand are at increased risk of HIV infection, no sustained strategy have so far been directed towards homosexually active men in the country. This paper brings together data from qualitative research carried out in Pattaya and Bangkok, with data generated during a bar-based intervention in Bangkok, to develop a taxonomy of sites in which the recruitment of male commercial sex can occur. The researchers also examined the sexual networks of Thai male sex workers and their clients in order to show the overlap of commercial and non-commercial male-male sex sites, and the intersection of male commercial sex with heterosexual sex. Previous efforts directed towards Thai male sex workers have been non-continuous; largely restricted to high-profile tourist areas; have not acknowledged the importance of recreational sex; and have not built up a capacity for ongoing intervention. With a change of focus, interventions targeted at sex workers could reduce the risks of HIV infection among organized and freelance sex workers as well as their commercial and male and female casual sex partners. Foremost, however, is the need to commit to well planned and long range interventions directed by and at male sex workers. PMID:12295881

  8. Pharmacokinetic properties of lansoprazole (30-mg enteric-coated capsules) and its metabolites: A single-dose, open-label study in healthy Chinese male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Gao, Xuan; Hang, Tai-Jun; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2009-01-01

    Background: Lansoprazole, a benzimidazole derivative, is indicated for the treatment of various peptic diseases. It is metabolized mainly in the liver, and its primary active metabolites present in plasma are 5′-hydroxy lansoprazole and lansoprazole sulfone. Few data are available on the pharmacokinetic properties of lansoprazole, 5′-hydroxy lansoprazole, and lansoprazole sulfone, which can be used to measure cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 activity. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical plasma pharmacokinetic properties of lansoprazole and its metabolites in healthy Chinese male volunteers, and to assess the influences of CYP2C19 on the pharmacokinetics of lansoprazole. Methods: Healthy adult Chinese male volunteers were enrolled in this single-dose, open-label study. All patients received a single oral enteric capsule containing 30 mg of lansoprazole after a 12-hour overnight fast. Serial blood samples were collected immediately before (0 hour) and at 20, 40, 60, 90, 120, and 150 minutes and 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, and 24 hours after study drug administration. The plasma concentrations of lansoprazole, 5′-hydroxy lansoprazole, and lansoprazole sulfone were determined using a validated internal standard high-performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. Pharmacokinetic properties (including Cmax, Tmax, elimination t½ [t½z], mean residence time [MRT], AUC0–24, AUC0−∞, apparent oral clearance [CLz/F], and apparent volume of distribution [Vz/F]) were determined using the noncompartmental method. Results: Twenty volunteers (mean [SD] age, 34.9 [2.9] years; weight, 64.6 [2.2] kg; height, 171.3 [3.3] cm) were enrolled in and completed the study. The mean (SD) pharmacokinetic properties of lansoprazole were as follows: Cmax, 1047 (344) ng/mL; Tmax, 2.0 (0.7) hours; t½z, 2.24 (1.43) hours; MRT, 3.62 (0.87) hours; AUC0−24, 3388 (1484) ng/mL/h; AUC0-∞, 3496 (1693) ng/mL/h; CLz/F, 9.96 (3.74) L

  9. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable exceptions. ... subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN..., services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All IRR...

  10. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  11. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  12. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  13. 25 CFR 170.622 - What IRR programs, functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the agreement, are subject to the regulations in 25 CFR 1000 subpart K, including applicable... are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? 170.622 Section 170.622 Indians BUREAU OF..., functions, services, and activities are subject to the self-governance construction regulations? All...

  14. Morphometrical investigations on the reproductive activity of the ovaries in rats subjected to immobilization and to motion activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konstantinov, N.; Cheresharov, L.; Toshkova, S.

    1982-01-01

    Wistar-strain white female rats were divided into three groups, with the first group subjected to motion loading, the second used as control, and the third group was immobilized. A considerable reduction in numbers of corpora lutea was observed in the immobilized group, together with smaller numbers of embryos, high percent of embryo mortality, fetal growth retardation, and endometrium disorders. The control group showed no deviation from normal conditions, and there was slight improvement in reproductive activity of animals under motion loading.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and anesthetic activity of eugenol in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Guenette, S A; Beaudry, F; Marier, J F; Vachon, P

    2006-08-01

    Eugenol, the principle chemical constituent of clove oil, has recently been evaluated for its anesthetic and analgesic properties in fish and amphibians. The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic (PK) and anesthetic activity of eugenol in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received single i.v. doses of eugenol (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) and anesthetic level was evaluated with the withdrawal reflex. For the 20 mg/kg dose level, blood and urinary samples were collected over 1 h for the PK assessment. Plasma and blood concentrations of eugenol, as well as metabolite identification in urine, were determined using a novel dansyl chloride derivatization method with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). PK parameters were calculated using noncompartmental methods. Eugenol-induced loss of consciousness in a dose-dependent manner, with mean (+/-SEM) recovery in reflex time of 167 +/- 42 sec observed at the highest dose level. Mean systemic clearance (Cl) in plasma and blood were 157 and 204 mL/min/kg, respectively. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates were identified in urine. Overall, eugenol produced a reversible, dose-dependent anesthesia in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:16846463

  16. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  17. Hypothesis That Urethral Bulb (Corpus Spongiosum) Plays an Active Role in Male Urinary Continence

    PubMed Central

    Rehder, Peter; Staudacher, Nina M.; Schachtner, Joerg; Berger, Maria E.; Schillfahrt, Florian; Hauser, Verena; Mueller, Raphael; Skradski, Viktor; Horninger, Wolfgang; Glodny, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    The proximal urethral bulb in men is enlarged, surrounds the bulbous urethra, and extends dorsally towards the perineum. During intercourse engorgement takes place due to increased blood flow through the corpus spongiosum. Antegrade ejaculation is facilitated by contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles during climax. Micturition during sexual stimulation is functionally inhibited. Supporting the bulb may indirectly facilitate continence in a certain subset of patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. During physical activity with increased abdominal pressure, reflex contraction of the pelvic floor muscles as well as the bulbospongiosus muscles occurs to support sphincter function and limit urinary incontinence. Operations to the prostate may weaken urinary sphincter function. It is hypothesized that the distal urinary sphincter may be supported indirectly by placing a hammock underneath the urethral bulb. During moments of physical stress the “cushion” of blood within the supported corpus spongiosum helps to increase the zone of coaptation within the sphincteric (membranous) urethra. This may lead to urinary continence in patients treated by a transobturator repositioning sling in patients with postprostatectomy incontinence. This paper describes the possible role of the urethral bulb in male urinary continence, including its function after retroluminal sling placement (AdVance, AdVance XP® Male Sling System, Minnetonka, USA). PMID:27022393

  18. Reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dhanapal, Ramaiyan; Ratna, J.Vijaya; Sarathchandran, I.; Gupta, Malaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the antispermatogenic and testicular antisteroidogenic activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp southern India. Methods Fourty Wistar male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) were equally divided into four groups. Experimental groups were administered with the ethanolic extract of Feronia limonia (F. limoni) fruit pulp at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight once daily for 55 days. All treated rats had corresponding recovery groups. At the end of each treatment periods, various spermatological indices, tissue biochemicals and testicular enzymes levels were analysed. Blood profiles were also estimated. Results Compared with the control, the F. limonia fruit pulp at both dose levels did not decrease body weight, which were associated with decline in epididymal sperm count, motility, viability and increased percent of abnormal sperm. Further, F. limonia fruit pulp at 500 mg/kg body weight markedly reduced the epididymal and testicular protein content by 24.58% and 29.86%, respectively, as well as the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Δ5-3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase) levels by 42.82% and 38.08%, respectively, while a significant elevation was observed in testicular cholesterol and ascorbic acid content. A gradual recovery of all parameters was observed after 55 days of treatment withdrawal. No significant alterations in haematological indices were observed. Conclusions The present findings indicate that F. limonia fruit pulp may have reversible antispermatogenic and antisteroidogenic properties, and could partially support the traditional use as male contraceptive. PMID:23569995

  19. Inhibitory effects of stress on postprandial gastric myoelectrical activity and vagal tone in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Yin, J; Levanon, D; Chen, J D Z

    2004-12-01

    The aim was to investigate gastric myoelectrical activity (GMA) and vagal activity in response to stress. The study was performed in 10 healthy subjects in three sessions (control, relaxation and stress). The control session was composed of 30-min recordings before and 30-min recordings after a test meal. The protocol of two other sessions was similar except that the fasting recording was extended to 60 min and the subjects were continuously watching a horror movie (stress) or guided meditation tape (relaxation) after the 30-min baseline. GMA was recorded using electrogastrography and heart rate variability (HRV) was derived from the electrocardiogram. Meal resulted in a postprandial increase in the dominant frequency (2.91 cpm vs 3.17 cpm, P < 0.007), dominant power (30.0 dB vs 32.5 dB, P < 0.05), and percentage of normal slow waves (79.8%vs 87.4%, P = 0.09). Similar responses were found in the relaxation session. Stress inhibited all these normal postprandial response and reduced the regularity of gastric slow waves (82.0%vs 66.0%, P < 0.01). In addition, spectral analysis of the HRV demonstrated an inhibition of postprandial vagal activity and an increase of postprandial sympathetic activity with stress. Stress has an inhibitory effect on postprandial GMA and this may involve both vagal and sympathetic pathway.

  20. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marcia K.

    2015-01-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of ‘self’ and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the ‘positivity’ or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. PMID:24837477

  1. Relation between QT interval variability and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    El-Hamad, Fatima; Lambert, Elisabeth; Abbott, Derek; Baumert, Mathias

    2015-10-01

    Beat-to-beat variability of the QT interval (QTV) is sought to provide an indirect noninvasive measure of sympathetic nerve activity, but a formal quantification of this relationship has not been provided. In this study we used power contribution analysis to study the relationship between QTV and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). ECG and MSNA were recorded in 10 healthy subjects in the supine position and after 40° head-up tilt. Power spectrum analysis was performed using a linear autoregressive model with two external inputs: heart period (RR interval) variability (RRV) and MSNA. Total and low-frequency power of QTV was decomposed into contributions by RRV, MSNA, and sources independent of RRV and MSNA. Results show that the percentage of MSNA power contribution to QT is very small and does not change with tilt. RRV power contribution to QT power is notable and decreases with tilt, while the greatest percentage of QTV is independent of RRV and MSNA in the supine position and after 40° head-up tilt. In conclusion, beat-to-beat QTV in normal subjects does not appear to be significantly affected by the rhythmic modulations in MSNA following low to moderate orthostatic stimulation. Therefore, MSNA oscillations may not represent a useful surrogate for cardiac sympathetic nerve activity at moderate levels of activation, or, alternatively, sympathetic influences on QTV are complex and not quantifiable with linear shift-invariant autoregressive models. PMID:26276814

  2. Fasting Enhances Pyroglutamyl Peptidase II Activity in Tanycytes of the Mediobasal Hypothalamus of Male Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Iván; Cabral, Agustina; Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Perello, Mario; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2015-07-01

    Fasting down-regulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity through a reduction of TRH synthesis in neurons of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These TRH neurons project to the median eminence (ME), where TRH terminals are close to the cytoplasmic extensions of β2 tanycytes. Tanycytes express pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme that controls the amount of TRH that reaches the anterior pituitary. We tested the hypothesis that regulation of ME PPII activity is another mechanism by which fasting affects the activity of the HPT axis. Semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry data indicated that PPII and deiodinase 2 mRNA levels increased in tanycytes after 48 hours of fasting. This increase was transitory, followed by an increase of PPII activity in the ME, and a partial reversion of the reduction in PVN pro-TRH mRNA levels and the number of TRH neurons detected by immunohistochemistry. In fed animals, adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment did not change ME PPII activity 72 hours later. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism produced a profound drop in tanycytes PPII mRNA levels, which was reverted by 3 days of treatment with T4. The activity of thyroliberinase, the serum isoform of PPII, was increased at most fasting time points studied. We conclude that delayed increases in both the ME PPII as well as the thyroliberinase activities in fasted male rats may facilitate the maintenance of the deep down-regulation of the HPT axis function, despite a partial reactivation of TRH expression in the PVN. PMID:25942072

  3. Fasting Enhances Pyroglutamyl Peptidase II Activity in Tanycytes of the Mediobasal Hypothalamus of Male Adult Rats.

    PubMed

    Lazcano, Iván; Cabral, Agustina; Uribe, Rosa María; Jaimes-Hoy, Lorraine; Perello, Mario; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2015-07-01

    Fasting down-regulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis activity through a reduction of TRH synthesis in neurons of the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). These TRH neurons project to the median eminence (ME), where TRH terminals are close to the cytoplasmic extensions of β2 tanycytes. Tanycytes express pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII), the TRH-degrading ectoenzyme that controls the amount of TRH that reaches the anterior pituitary. We tested the hypothesis that regulation of ME PPII activity is another mechanism by which fasting affects the activity of the HPT axis. Semiquantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry data indicated that PPII and deiodinase 2 mRNA levels increased in tanycytes after 48 hours of fasting. This increase was transitory, followed by an increase of PPII activity in the ME, and a partial reversion of the reduction in PVN pro-TRH mRNA levels and the number of TRH neurons detected by immunohistochemistry. In fed animals, adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment did not change ME PPII activity 72 hours later. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism produced a profound drop in tanycytes PPII mRNA levels, which was reverted by 3 days of treatment with T4. The activity of thyroliberinase, the serum isoform of PPII, was increased at most fasting time points studied. We conclude that delayed increases in both the ME PPII as well as the thyroliberinase activities in fasted male rats may facilitate the maintenance of the deep down-regulation of the HPT axis function, despite a partial reactivation of TRH expression in the PVN.

  4. Hematological and Biochemical Markers of Iron Status in a Male, Young, Physically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Lázaro Alessandro Soares; Grotto, Helena Zerlotti W.; Brenzikofer, René; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals (RIs) for the hemogram and iron status biomarkers in a physically active population. The study population included male volunteers (n = 150) with an average age of 19 ± 1 years who had participated in a regular and controlled exercise program for four months. Blood samples were collected to determine hematological parameters using a Sysmex XE-5000 analyzer (Sysmex, Kobe, Japan). Iron, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation and ferritin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations in serum samples were measured using commercial kits (Roche Diagnostics, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and a Roche/Hitachi 902 analyzer. The RIs were established using the RefVal program 4.1b. The leucocyte count, TIBC, and CRP and ferritin concentrations exhibited higher RIs compared with those in a nonphysically active population. Thirty volunteers (outliers) were removed from the reference population due to blood abnormalities. Among the outliers, 46% exhibited higher CRP concentrations and lower concentrations of iron and reticulocyte hemoglobin compared with the nonphysically active population (P < 0.001). Our results showed that it is important to establish RIs for certain laboratory parameters in a physically active population, especially for tests related to the inflammatory response and iron metabolism. PMID:25045665

  5. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior.

  6. Networking activities and perceptions of HIV risk among male migrant market vendors in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Ying-Xia; Zhang, Yingxia

    2014-02-01

    HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of "risk". In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22-56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n = 15), commercial partners (n = 10), and other sexual relationships (n = 11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities.

  7. Networking Activities and Perceptions of HIV Risk Among Male Migrant Market Vendors in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenqing; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Li, Mingqiang; Zhang, Yingxia

    2013-01-01

    HIV research among internal migrants in China has not fully explored the contexts and perceptions of “risk”. In 2011, urban markets in Liuzhou, China were mapped, and sixty male vendors, age 22 to 56, were selected for in-depth interviews on migration, social and family life, and perceptions and practices of sexual risk behavior. Participants were evenly divided among higher income shop and small stall vendors. All men were sexually active. Only the shop vendors reported non-marital sexual partners, including concurrent partners (n=15), commercial partners (n=10), and other sexual relationships (n=11). Shop vendors engaged in networking activities that facilitated commercial and non-commercial high-risk sex. Perceptions of HIV risk from commercial sex led some men to doubt the protective ability of condoms and rely on local (unproven) self-protection techniques. Networking activities played a role in high-risk sex and shaping migrants' risk perceptions and health practices. The networks created through these processes could also be used to facilitate health promotion activities. PMID:23572155

  8. Neonatal exposure to amphetamine alters social affiliation and central dopamine activity in adult male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Fukushiro, D F; Olivera, A; Liu, Y; Wang, Z

    2015-10-29

    The prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) is a socially monogamous rodent species that forms pair bonds after mating. Recent data have shown that amphetamine (AMPH) is rewarding to prairie voles as it induces conditioned place preferences. Further, repeated treatment with AMPH impairs social bonding in adult prairie voles through a central dopamine (DA)-dependent mechanism. The present study examined the effects of neonatal exposure to AMPH on behavior and central DA activity in adult male prairie voles. Our data show that neonatal exposure to AMPH makes voles less social in an affiliation test during adulthood, but does not affect animals' locomotor activity and anxiety-like behavior. Neonatal exposure to AMPH also increases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the brain, indicating an increase in central DA activity. As DA has been implicated in AMPH effects on behavioral and cognitive functions, altered DA activity in the vole brain may contribute to the observed changes in social behavior. PMID:26321240

  9. Semi-active friction damper for buildings subject to seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, Juan S.; Solarte, Alexander; Gomez, Daniel; Marulanda, Johannio; Thomson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Structural control systems are considered an effective alternative for reducing vibrations in civil structures and are classified according to their energy supply requirement: passive, semi-active, active and hybrid. Commonly used structural control systems in buildings are passive friction dampers, which add energy dissipation through damping mechanisms induced by sliding friction between their surfaces. Semi-Active Variable Friction Dampers (SAVFD) allow the optimum efficiency range of friction dampers to be enhanced by controlling the clamping force in real time. This paper describes the development and performance evaluation of a low-cost SAVFD for the reduction of vibrations of structures subject to earthquakes. The SAVFD and a benchmark structural control test structure were experimentally characterized and analytical models were developed and updated based on the dynamic characterization. Decentralized control algorithms were implemented and tested on a shaking table. Relative displacements and accelerations of the structure controlled with the SAVFD were 80% less than those of the uncontrolled structure

  10. Correlates of video game screen time among males: body mass, physical activity, and other media use.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Mary; Gray, Melissa; Reilly, Jenny; Noggle, Matthew

    2009-08-01

    This study examined the correlations between media use, body mass variables, and physical activity among 116 male undergraduates (white n=106; African American n=5, Latin American n=1, Asian American n=2, and 2 others). Length of video game play during one sitting was positively related to body mass index (BMI; r=.27, p<.01) and negatively correlated with frequency of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05) and days of walking (r=-.22, p<.05). Frequency of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercising (r=-.21, p<.05). Years of video game play was negatively correlated with length of exercise (r=-.21, p<.05). These results were stronger among those who play online games. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that video game use predicted BMI, accounting for 6.9% of the variance. The implications of the results are discussed. PMID:19665099

  11. Antifertility activity of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajayi, Ayodeji F; Akhigbe, Roland E

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Complementary medicine has grown over time with more botanicals emerging and remaining integral parts of medicare. Such botanicals include Cryptolepis sanguinolenta. AIM: This study investigated the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta leaf ethanolic extract on male reproductive system using rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Control and treated rats were maintained on control diet. Treated rats also received graded doses of the extract. RESULTS: When compared with the controls, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta treatment led to significant testosterone suppression associated with consequent significant rise in luteinizing hormone (LH) and decrease in sperm count. Treatment with Cryptolepis sanguinolenta did not result in significant attenuation of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels and testicular morphometry. Sperm viability, motility, and morphology were also comparable in all groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity. PMID:22870014

  12. Effect of reproductive status on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity and reactivity in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    PubMed

    Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-03-15

    Previous studies indicate that reproductive condition can alter stress response and glucocorticoid release. Although the functional significance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation by breeding condition is not fully understood, one possible explanation is the behavior hypothesis, which states that an animal's need to express parental behavior may be driving modulation of the HPA axis. This possibility is consistent with findings of blunted activity and reactivity of the HPA axis in lactating female mammals; however, effects of reproductive status on HPA function have not been well characterized in male mammals that express parental behavior. Therefore, we tested this hypothesis in the monogamous and biparental California mouse. Several aspects of HPA activity were compared in males from three reproductive conditions: virgin males (housed with another male), non-breeding males (housed with a tubally ligated female), and first-time fathers (housed with a female and their first litter of pups). In light of the behavior hypothesis we predicted that new fathers would differ from virgin and non-breeding males in several aspects of HPA function and corticosterone (CORT) output: decreased amplitude of the diurnal rhythm in CORT, a blunted CORT increase following predator-odor stress, increased sensitivity to glucocorticoid negative feedback, and/or a blunted CORT response to pharmacological stimulation. In addition, we predicted that first-time fathers would be more resistant to CORT-induced suppression of testosterone secretion, as testosterone is important for paternal behavior in this species. We found that virgin males, non-breeding males and first-time fathers did not display any CORT differences in diurnal rhythm, response to a predator-odor stressor, or response to pharmacological suppression or stimulation. Additionally, there were no differences in circulating testosterone concentrations. Adrenal mass was, however, significantly lower in new

  13. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  14. Antiperoxidative Activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum Leaf Extract in Reproductive Organs of Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akomolafe, Seun Funmilola; Akindahunsi, Afolabi Akintunde; Afolayan, Anthony Jide

    2015-01-01

    Tetracarpidium conophorum (Mull. Arg.) Hutch. & Dalz is one of the many medicinal plants used in folklore as male fertility enhancers. This research was aimed at evaluating the anti-peroxidative activity of the leaves of this plant by determining their capacity to reduce malondialdehyde (MDA) level in reproductive organs and accessory glands of rats. Adult male rats were administered orally with the aqueous leaf extract from T. conophorum at 50, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 21 consecutive days while clomiphene citrate (1.04 mg/kg body weight), a fertility drug was used as standard. The results of the study indicated that there was increase in relative organ weight, body weight, mean total food and water consumed by the treated groups. Testicular MDA level was highly significantly different from that of the control (p < 0.0001) although a tentatively decreased MDA level was observed. However, MDA levels in the reproductive accessory glands, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland were insignificantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of controls. The highest percentage decrease of MDA level (66.35, 42.68, 62.50 and 63.36%) was observed at the highest concentration of the extract (1000 mg/kg) in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland respectively. These values were two-fold greater than the values obtained for the standard drug. Interestingly, the treatment of rats with the extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and the levels of GSH, vitamin C and total protein. Collectively, the results suggest that the extract from T. conophorum leaves had greater capacity to reduce lipid peroxidation in reproductive organs and accessory glands and thus, this plant may be useful in the treatment/management of reproductive cellular damage involving reactive oxygen species. PMID:26064173

  15. Reduced activity of ATP synthase in mitochondria causes cytoplasmic male sterility in chili pepper.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinjie; Pandeya, Devendra; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Liu, Wing Yee; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl

    2013-04-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a maternally inherited trait characterized by the inability to produce functional pollen. The CMS-associated protein Orf507 (reported as Orf456 in previous researches) was previously identified as a candidate gene for mediating male sterility in pepper. Here, we performed yeast two-hybrid analysis to screen for interacting proteins, and found that the ATP synthase 6 kDa subunit containing a mitochondrial signal peptide (MtATP6) specifically interacted with Orf507. In addition, the two proteins were found to be interacted in vivo using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. Further functional characterization of Orf507 revealed that the encoded protein is toxic to bacterial cells. Analysis of tissue-specific expression of ATP synthase 6 kDa showed that the transcription level was much lower in anthers of the CMS line than in their wild type counterparts. In CMS plants, ATP synthase activity and content were reduced by more than half compared to that of the normal plants. Taken together, it can be concluded that reduced ATP synthase activity and ATP content might have affected pollen development in CMS plants. Here, we hypothesize that Orf507 might cause MtATP6 to be nonfunctional by changing the latter's conformation or producing an inhibitor that prevents the normal functioning of MtATP6. Thus, further functional analysis of mitochondrial Orf507 will provide insights into the mechanisms underlying CMS in plants. PMID:23274393

  16. Chlorotriazine herbicides and metabolites activate an ACTH-dependent release of corticosterone in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Laws, Susan C; Hotchkiss, Michelle; Ferrell, Janet; Jayaraman, Saro; Mills, Lesley; Modic, Walker; Tinfo, Nicole; Fraites, Melanie; Stoker, Tammy; Cooper, Ralph

    2009-11-01

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This study characterizes the temporal changes in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), CORT, and P4 in male Wistar rats following a single dose of ATR (0, 5, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg), simazine (SIM; 188 mg/kg), propazine (PRO; 213 mg/kg), or primary metabolites, deisopropylatrazine (DIA; 4, 10, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg), deethylatrazine (DEA; 173 mg/kg), and diamino-s-chlorotriazine (DACT; 3.37, 33.7, 67.5, and 135 mg/kg). The maximum dose for each chemical was the molar equivalent of ATR (200 mg/kg). Significant increases in plasma ACTH were observed within 15 min, following exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA. Dose-dependent elevations in CORT and progesterone were also observed at 15 and 30 min post-dosing with these compounds indicating an activation of adrenal steroidogenesis. Measurement of the plasma concentrations of the parent compounds and metabolites confirmed that ATR, SIM, and PRO are rapidly metabolized to DACT. Although DACT had only minimal effects on ACTH and steroid release, dosing with this metabolite resulted in plasma DACT concentrations that were 60-fold greater than that observed following an equimolar dose of ATR and eightfold greater than equimolar doses of DIA or DEA, indicating that DACT is not likely the primary inducer of ACTH release. Thus, the rapid release of ACTH and subsequent activation of adrenal steroidogenesis following a single exposure to ATR, SIM, PRO, DIA, or DEA may reflect chlorotriazine-induced changes at the level of the brain and/or pituitary.

  17. Scheduled daily mating induces circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Landry, Glenn J; Opiol, Hanna; Marchant, Elliott G; Pavlovski, Ilya; Mear, Rhiannon J; Hamson, Dwayne K; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2012-01-01

    Daily schedules of limited access to food, palatable high calorie snacks, water and salt can induce circadian rhythms of anticipatory locomotor activity in rats and mice. All of these stimuli are rewarding, but whether anticipation can be induced by neural correlates of reward independent of metabolic perturbations associated with manipulations of food and hydration is unclear. Three experiments were conducted to determine whether mating, a non-ingestive behavior that is potently rewarding, can induce circadian anticipatory activity rhythms in male rats provided scheduled daily access to steroid-primed estrous female rats. In Experiment 1, rats anticipated access to estrous females in the mid-light period, but also exhibited post-coital eating and running. In Experiment 2, post-coital eating and running were prevented and only a minority of rats exhibited anticipation. Rats allowed to see and smell estrous females showed no anticipation. In both experiments, all rats exhibited sustained behavioral arousal and multiple mounts and intromissions during every session, but ejaculated only every 2-3 days. In Experiment 3, the rats were given more time with individual females, late at night for 28 days, and then in the midday for 28 days. Ejaculation rates increased and anticipation was robust to night sessions and significant although weaker to day sessions. The anticipation rhythm persisted during 3 days of constant dark without mating. During anticipation of nocturnal mating, the rats exhibited a significant preference for a tube to the mating cage over a tube to a locked cage with mating cage litter. This apparent place preference was absent during anticipation of midday mating, which may reflect a daily rhythm of sexual reward. The results establish mating as a reward stimulus capable of inducing circadian rhythms of anticipatory behavior in the male rat, and reveal a critical role for ejaculation, a modulatory role for time of day, and a potential confound role for

  18. A Systematic Comparison Between Subjects with No Pain and Pain Associated with Active Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Gerber, Lynn H.; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Armstrong, Katee; Diao, Guoqing; Heimur, Juliana; Kopecky, John; Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Gebreab, Tadesse; Shah, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether standard evaluations of pain distinguish subjects with no pain from those with myofascial pain syndromes (MPS) and active trigger points (MTrPs); and to assess whether self-reports of mood, function and health-related quality of life differ between these groups. Design Prospective, descriptive study. Setting University Patients Adults with and without neck pain Methods We evaluated adults with MPS and active (painful) MTrPs and those without pain. Subjects in the “Active” (‘A’) group had at least one active MTrP with spontaneous pain which was persistent, lasted more than 3 months and had characteristic pain on palpation. Subjects in the “No pain” (‘Np’) group had no spontaneous pain. However, some had discomfort on MTrP palpation (latent MTrP) while others in the Np group had no discomfort on palpation of nodules or had no nodules. Outcome Measures Each participant underwent range of motion (ROM) measurement, 10-point manual muscle test, and manual and algometric palpation. The latter determined the pain/pressure threshold using an algometer of 4 pre-determined anatomical sites along the upper trapezius. Participants rated pain using a verbal analogue scale (0–10); completed the Brief Pain Inventory and Oswestry Disability Scale (ODS), which included a sleep sub-scale; Short Form 36(SF36) and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results here were 24 in the ‘A’ group (mean 36 yrs, 16 women) and 26 in the ‘Np’ group (mean 26 yrs, 12 women). Subjects in group ‘A’ differed from ‘Np’ in number of latent MTrPs (p=.0062); asymmetrical cervical ROM (p=.01 side bending and p=.002 rotation); in all pain reports (p<.0001); algometry (p<.03); POMS (p<.038); SF36 (p<.01) and ODS (p<.0001). Conclusion A systematic musculoskeletal evaluation of people with MPS reliably distinguishes them from subjects with no pain. The two groups are significantly different in their physical findings and self-reports of pain, sleep

  19. Differential Effect of γ-radiation-induced Heme Oxygenase-1 Activity in Female and Male C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Youngsoo; Platonov, Alexander; Akhalaia, Medea; Yun, Yeon-Sook

    2005-01-01

    Ionizing radiation produces reactive oxygen species, which exert diverse biological effects on cells and animals. We investigated alterations of heme oxygenase (HO) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), which are known as two major anti-oxidant enzymes, in female and male C57BL/6 mice in the lung, liver, and brain after whole-body γ-irradiation with 10 Gy (1-7 days) as well as in the lung after whole-thorax γ-irradiation (WTI) with 12.5 Gy (1-26 weeks). Most significant alteration of HO activity was observed in the liver, which elevated 250% in males. NPSH level in female liver was increased on the 5th-7th days but decreased in males on the 3rd day. In the lung, the elevation of HO activity in both sexes and the pattern of NPSH change were similar to that of the liver. On the other hand, the increase of HO activity on the 16th week and the decrease of NPSH level on the 2nd week were observed only in male lung after WTI. This study shows that the liver is the most sensitive tissue to γ-irradiation-induced alterations of HO activity in both female and male mice. In addition, there exists significant differential effect of γ-irradiation on anti-oxidant system in female and male mice. PMID:16100440

  20. Refining Time-Activity Classification of Human Subjects Using the Global Positioning System

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Maogui; Li, Wei; Li, Lianfa; Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Detailed spatial location information is important in accurately estimating personal exposure to air pollution. Global Position System (GPS) has been widely used in tracking personal paths and activities. Previous researchers have developed time-activity classification models based on GPS data, most of them were developed for specific regions. An adaptive model for time-location classification can be widely applied to air pollution studies that use GPS to track individual level time-activity patterns. Methods Time-activity data were collected for seven days using GPS loggers and accelerometers from thirteen adult participants from Southern California under free living conditions. We developed an automated model based on random forests to classify major time-activity patterns (i.e. indoor, outdoor-static, outdoor-walking, and in-vehicle travel). Sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the contribution of the accelerometer data and the supplemental spatial data (i.e. roadway and tax parcel data) to the accuracy of time-activity classification. Our model was evaluated using both leave-one-fold-out and leave-one-subject-out methods. Results Maximum speeds in averaging time intervals of 7 and 5 minutes, and distance to primary highways with limited access were found to be the three most important variables in the classification model. Leave-one-fold-out cross-validation showed an overall accuracy of 99.71%. Sensitivities varied from 84.62% (outdoor walking) to 99.90% (indoor). Specificities varied from 96.33% (indoor) to 99.98% (outdoor static). The exclusion of accelerometer and ambient light sensor variables caused a slight loss in sensitivity for outdoor walking, but little loss in overall accuracy. However, leave-one-subject-out cross-validation showed considerable loss in sensitivity for outdoor static and outdoor walking conditions. Conclusions The random forests classification model can achieve high accuracy for the four major time-activity

  1. Fasting and refeeding differentially regulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Traba, Javier; Kwarteng-Siaw, Miriam; Okoli, Tracy C.; Li, Jessica; Huffstutler, Rebecca D.; Bray, Amanda; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Han, Kim; Pelletier, Martin; Sauve, Anthony A.; Siegel, Richard M.; Sack, Michael N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is associated with metabolic dysfunction, and intermittent fasting has been shown to improve clinical presentation of NLRP3 inflammasome–linked diseases. As mitochondrial perturbations, which function as a damage-associated molecular pattern, exacerbate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we investigated whether fasting blunts inflammasome activation via sirtuin-mediated augmentation of mitochondrial integrity. METHODS. We performed a clinical study of 19 healthy volunteers. Each subject underwent a 24-hour fast and then was fed a fixed-calorie meal. Blood was drawn during the fasted and fed states and analyzed for NRLP3 inflammasome activation. We enrolled an additional group of 8 healthy volunteers to assess the effects of the sirtuin activator, nicotinamide riboside, on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. RESULTS. In the fasting/refeeding study, individuals showed less NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the fasted state compared with that in refed conditions. In a human macrophage line, depletion of the mitochondrial-enriched sirtuin deacetylase SIRT3 increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation in association with excessive mitochondrial ROS production. Furthermore, genetic and pharmacologic SIRT3 activation blunted NLRP3 activity in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial function in cultured cells and in leukocytes extracted from healthy volunteers and from refed individuals but not in those collected during fasting. CONCLUSIONS. Together, our data indicate that nutrient levels regulate the NLRP3 inflammasome, in part through SIRT3-mediated mitochondrial homeostatic control. Moreover, these results suggest that deacetylase-dependent inflammasome attenuation may be amenable to targeting in human disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02122575 and NCT00442195. FUNDING. Division of Intramural Research, NHLBI of the NIH. PMID:26529255

  2. A Compositional Look at the Human Gastrointestinal Microbiome and Immune Activation Parameters in HIV Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Mutlu, Ece A.; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; DeMarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-01-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  3. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; Demarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-02-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy. PMID:24586144

  4. Effects of Inhaled Rosemary Oil on Subjective Feelings and Activities of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Sayorwan, Winai; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Piriyapunyporn, Teerut; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich; Siripornpanich, Vorasith

    2013-01-01

    Rosemary oil is one of the more famous essential oils widely used in aroma-therapy. However, the effects of rosemary oil on the human body, in particular the nervous system, have not been sufficiently studied. This study investigates the effects of the inhalation of rosemary oil on test subjects’ feelings, as well as its effects on various physiological parameters of the nervous system. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. All subjects underwent autonomic nervous system (ANS) recording. This consisted of measurements of skin temperature; heart rate; respiratory rate; blood pressure; evaluations of the subjects’ mood states; and electroencephalography (EEG) recordings in the pre-, during treatment, and post-rosemary inhalation periods as compared with control conditions. Our results showed significant increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rate after rosemary oil inhalation. After the inhalation treatments, subjects were found to have become more active and stated that they felt “fresher”. The analysis of EEGs showed a reduction in the power of alpha1 (8–10.99 Hz) and alpha2 (11–12.99 Hz) waves. Moreover, an increment in the beta wave (13–30 Hz) power was observed in the anterior region of the brain. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of rosemary oil and provide supporting evidence that brain wave activity, autonomic nervous system activity, as well as mood states are all affected by the inhalation of the rosemary oil. PMID:23833718

  5. A compositional look at the human gastrointestinal microbiome and immune activation parameters in HIV infected subjects.

    PubMed

    Mutlu, Ece A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Losurdo, John; Swanson, Garth; Siewe, Basile; Forsyth, Christopher; French, Audrey; Demarais, Patricia; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Cox, Stephen; Engen, Phillip; Chakradeo, Prachi; Abbasi, Rawan; Gorenz, Annika; Burns, Charles; Landay, Alan

    2014-02-01

    HIV progression is characterized by immune activation and microbial translocation. One factor that may be contributing to HIV progression could be a dysbiotic microbiome. We therefore hypothesized that the GI mucosal microbiome is altered in HIV patients and this alteration correlates with immune activation in HIV. 121 specimens were collected from 21 HIV positive and 22 control human subjects during colonoscopy. The composition of the lower gastrointestinal tract mucosal and luminal bacterial microbiome was characterized using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was correlated to clinical parameters as well as immune activation and circulating bacterial products in HIV patients on ART. The composition of the HIV microbiome was significantly different than that of controls; it was less diverse in the right colon and terminal ileum, and was characterized by loss of bacterial taxa that are typically considered commensals. In HIV samples, there was a gain of some pathogenic bacterial taxa. This is the first report characterizing the terminal ileal and colonic mucosal microbiome in HIV patients with next generation sequencing. Limitations include use of HIV-infected subjects on HAART therapy.

  6. Protein intake and nitrogen balance in male non-active adolescents and soccer players.

    PubMed

    Boisseau, N; Le Creff, C; Loyens, M; Poortmans, J R

    2002-12-01

    Recommendations for the requirements for protein intake amount usually to 0.8-1.0 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in adolescents without any reference to the undertaking of acute exercise or to the training status. The present investigation intended to determine the nitrogen balance and protein intake in 8 healthy male non-active adolescents and 11 adolescent soccer players, both groups aged about 15 years. An assessment of nutrient intake was obtained by analysing 7 day food records collected by a questionnaire. Nitrogen excretion rate was determined and nitrogen balance was calculated from the mean daily protein intake and the urinary excretion. The results showed that the nutritional status of the two groups was similar. Nevertheless, we found that their diets were quite inappropriate in terms of the intakes of carbohydrate, some minerals (zinc, calcium, magnesium), vitamins (A, B6, D) and fibre. A positive nitrogen balance was observed from a mean protein intake of 1.57 g x kg(-1) body mass x day(-1) in these adolescents, whether they were non-active or athletes. Thus, the present investigation indicated that the growth and development in non-active adolescents and in adolescent soccer-players give rise to a need for a higher protein intake than is usually recommended. However, the higher protein requirements did not seem to be related only to the increased energy expenditure imposed by the exercise training in the soccer-player group.

  7. Continuous Melatonin Attenuates the Regressing Activities of Short Photoperiod in Male Golden Hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Donchan

    2013-01-01

    Golden hamsters reproduce in a limited time of a year. Their sexual activities are active in summer but inactive in winter during which day length does not exceed night time and environmental conditions are severe to them. The reproductive activities are determined by the length of light in a day (photoperiod). Melatonin is synthesized and secreted only at night time from the pineal gland. Duration of elevated melatonin is longer in winter than summer, resulting in gonadal regression. The present study aimed at the influences of continuous melatonin treatments impinging on the gonadal function in male golden hamsters. Animals received empty or melatonin-filled capsules for 10 weeks. They were divided into long photoperiod (LP) and short photoperiod (SP). All the animals maintained in LP (either empty or melatonin-filled capsules) showed large testes, implying that melatonin had no effects on testicular functions. Animals housed in SP displayed completely regressed testes. But animals kept in SP and implanted with melatonin capsules exhibited blockage of full regression by SP. These results suggest that constant release of melatonin prohibits the regressing influence of SP. PMID:25949127

  8. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  9. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  10. The effects of nutrition and physical activity on bone development in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Muhsin; Derman, Orhan; Oksüz-Kanbur, Nuray; Akgül, Sinem; Kutluk, Tezer

    2009-01-01

    Peak bone mass (PBM) is defined as the highest bone mineral content (BMC) reached in any period of a person's life. The bone mass once gained at the peak begins to decline and continues to do so until the end of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of nutrition and physical activity on bone mineralization during the adolescent period. The study took place at Hacettepe University Ihsan Doğramaci Children's Hospital Adolescent Unit. One hundred fourteen healthy male adolescents applying for different reasons, with ages ranging between 11.1 and 16.5 years, participated in the study. When all adolescents were evaluated, no statistical relationship between the daily calcium intake, BMC and bone mineral density (BMD) was obtained. However, a positive statistical relationship was found for those participants in Tanner stage I. This result is in support of previous studies stating the importance of calcium intake and bone mineralization in the prepubertal stage, suggested by our findings, which yielded a positive correlation only in the prepubertal stage. One of the reasons for the same effect not being observed in puberty is thought to be due to the hormonal changes and active role of sex steroids. This shows how critical the prepubertal period is for future bone health. During this critical period of prepuberty, the significance of nutritions and physical activity is evident.

  11. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis. PMID:26886858

  12. PMCA activity and membrane tubulin affect deformability of erythrocytes from normal and hypertensive human subjects.

    PubMed

    Monesterolo, Noelia E; Nigra, Ayelen D; Campetelli, Alexis N; Santander, Verónica S; Rivelli, Juan F; Arce, Carlos A; Casale, Cesar H

    2015-11-01

    Our previous studies demonstrated formation of a complex between acetylated tubulin and brain plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA), and the effect of the lipid environment on structure of this complex and on PMCA activity. Deformability of erythrocytes from hypertensive human subjects was reduced by an increase in membrane tubulin content. In the present study, we examined the regulation of PMCA activity by tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, and the effect of exogenously added diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) on erythrocyte deformability. Some of the key findings were that: (i) PMCA was associated with tubulin in normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes, (ii) PMCA enzyme activity was directly correlated with erythrocyte deformability, and (iii) when tubulin was present in the erythrocyte membrane, treatment with DAG or PA led to increased deformability and associated PMCA activity. Taken together, our findings indicate that PMCA activity is involved in deformability of both normotensive and hypertensive erythrocytes. This rheological property of erythrocytes is affected by acetylated tubulin and its lipid environment because both regulate PMCA activity.

  13. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications.

  14. Objective Phonological and Subjective Perceptual Characteristics of Syllables Modulate Spatiotemporal Patterns of Superior Temporal Gyrus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Fisher, Janet McGraw; Witzel, Thomas; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Swank, Paul; Liederman, Jacqueline; Halgren, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Natural consonant vowel syllables are reliably classified by most listeners as voiced or voiceless. However, our previous research (Liederman et al., 2005) suggests that among synthetic stimuli varying systematically in voice onset time (VOT), syllables that are classified reliably as voiceless are nonetheless perceived differently within and between listeners. This perceptual ambiguity was measured by variation in the accuracy of matching two identical stimuli presented in rapid succession. In the current experiment, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the differential contribution of objective (i.e., VOT) and subjective (i.e., perceptual ambiguity) acoustic features on speech processing. Distributed source models estimated cortical activation within two regions of interest in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and one in the inferior frontal gyrus. These regions were differentially modulated by VOT and perceptual ambiguity. Ambiguity strongly influenced lateralization of activation; however, the influence on lateralization was different in the anterior and middle/posterior portions of the STG. The influence of ambiguity on the relative amplitude of activity in the right and left anterior STG activity depended on VOT, whereas that of middle/posterior portions of the STG did not. These data support the idea that early cortical responses are bilaterally distributed whereas late processes are lateralized to the dominant hemisphere and support a “how/what” dual-stream auditory model. This study helps to clarify the role of the anterior STG, especially in the right hemisphere, in syllable perception. Moreover, our results demonstrate that both objective phonological and subjective perceptual characteristics of syllables independently modulate spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activation. PMID:18356082

  15. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  16. Estimation of Physical Activity Levels Using Cell Phone Questionnaires: A Comparison With Accelerometry for Evaluation of Between-Subject and Within-Subject Variations

    PubMed Central

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Objective Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. Methods PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m2 to 33.6 kg/m2). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. Results With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Conclusions Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer

  17. Cognitive Stimulation Modulates Platelet Total Phospholipases A2 Activity in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Balietti, Marta; Giuli, Cinzia; Fattoretti, Patrizia; Fabbietti, Paolo; Postacchini, Demetrio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) on platelet total phospholipases A2 activity (tPLA2A) in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI_P). At baseline, tPLA2A negatively correlated with Mini-Mental State Examination score (MMSE_s): patients with MMSE_s <26 (Subgroup 1) had significantly higher activity than those with MMSE_s ≥26 (Subgroup 2), who had values similar to the healthy elderly. Regarding CS effect, Subgroup 1 had a significant tPLA2A reduction, whereas Subgroup 2 did not significantly changes after training. Our results showed for the first time that tPLA2A correlates with the cognitive conditions of MCI_P, and that CS acts selectively on subjects with a dysregulated tPLA2A. PMID:26836161

  18. Active vibration control of an inertial actuator subject to broadband excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camperi, S.; Ghanchi-Tehrani, M.; Zilletti, M.; Elliott, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    Active vibration control has been widely used in many engineering applications in order to minimise vibrations in structures, when subjected to broadband random disturbances. Feedback control in the form of velocity feedback is considered in this paper, which generates a damping force proportional to the velocity. The control gain is tuned in such a way to minimise the kinetic energy of the system. In this paper, an inertial actuator excited by a random voltage is considered and an active control is implemented. The dynamic equations of the system are derived and the response is obtained with and without control. The stability of the system is analysed using the Nyquist plot. The response of the actuator is obtained from time domain simulations using Matlab. The effect of the control gains are also investigated on the responses. Energy analysis shows how the energy in the system decreases by increasing the feedback gain up to a stability limit.

  19. Nephroprotective activity of Bilvādi agada in gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanna, Sangeeta; Hiremath, S. K.; Unger, Banappa S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity accounts for 10–30% of the acute renal failure (ARF) among drug-induced ARF. In Ayurveda such side effects are considered as the poisonous effects of low potent poisons called gara viṣa. Bilvādi agada (BA), a classical formulation is indicated in gara viṣa and most of its ingredients have proven for their nephroprotective activity. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of BA in GM-induced nephrotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: BA, GM, normal saline were procured from standard companies. Settings and Designs: Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, viz. Control group which received normal saline intraperitoneal (i.p.) daily for 8 days; toxic group received GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. for 8 days, and trial group received both GM 80 mg/kg/day i.p. and BA 216 mg/each rat weighing ~200 g orally 1 h after administration of GM. Statistics: All the values were expressed as mean ± standard error and data were analyzed by applying one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test for multiple comparison. Results: BA treated group showed a significant change (P < 0.05) in levels of serum creatinine, urine creatinine, and urine potassium. There was no significant change (P > 0.05) seen in serum potassium, sodium, chloride, calcium and phosphorus and urine sodium, chloride in all three groups. Glomerular congestion, interstitial edema, tubular necrosis, interstitial hemorrhage was reduced in BA treated group. The results of this study indicate that BA reduces GM-induced nephrotoxicity and it may be due to anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, diuretic and anti-oxidant properties of drugs. Further studies are necessary to explore the exact mechanism of BA in nephroprotection. PMID:26120225

  20. Effects of bovine colostrum supplementation on upper respiratory illness in active males.

    PubMed

    Jones, Arwel W; Cameron, Simon J S; Thatcher, Rhys; Beecroft, Marikka S; Mur, Luis A J; Davison, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Bovine colostrum (COL) has been advocated as a nutritional countermeasure to exercise-induced immune dysfunction and increased risk of upper respiratory illness (URI) in athletic populations, however, the mechanisms remain unclear. During winter months, under double-blind procedures, 53 males (mean training load±SD, 50.5±28.9 MET-hweek(-1)) were randomized to daily supplementation of 20g of COL (N=25) or an isoenergetic/isomacronutrient placebo (PLA) (N=28) for 12weeks. Venous blood was collected at baseline and at 12weeks and unstimulated saliva samples at 4 weeks intervals. There was a significantly lower proportion of URI days and number of URI episodes with COL compared to PLA over the 12weeks (p<0.05). There was no effect of COL on in vitro neutrophil oxidative burst, salivary secretory IgA or salivary antimicrobial peptides (p>0.05), which does not support previously suggested mechanisms. In a subset of participants (COL=14, PLA=17), real-time quantitative PCR, targeting the 16S rRNA gene showed there was an increase in salivary bacterial load over the 12 weeks period with PLA (p<0.05) which was not as evident with COL. Discriminant function analysis of outputs received from serum metabolomics showed changes across time but not between groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that COL limits the increased salivary bacterial load in physically active males during the winter months which may provide a novel mechanism of immune-modulation with COL and a relevant marker of in vivo (innate) immunity and risk of URI. PMID:24200515

  1. Beautiful friendship: Social sharing of emotions improves subjective feelings and activates the neural reward circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Lisa; Schott, Björn H.; Wold, Andrew; van der Schalk, Job; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Scherer, Klaus; Walter, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Humans have a strong tendency to affiliate with other people, especially in emotional situations. Here, we suggest that a critical mechanism underlying this tendency is that socially sharing emotional experiences is in itself perceived as hedonically positive and thereby contributes to the regulation of individual emotions. We investigated the effect of social sharing of emotions on subjective feelings and neural activity by having pairs of friends view emotional (negative and positive) and neutral pictures either alone or with the friend. While the two friends remained physically separated throughout the experiment—with one undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging and the other performing the task in an adjacent room—they were made aware on a trial-by-trial basis whether they were seeing pictures simultaneously with their friend (shared) or alone (unshared). Ratings of subjective feelings were improved significantly when participants viewed emotional pictures together than alone, an effect that was accompanied by activity increase in ventral striatum and medial orbitofrontal cortex, two important components of the reward circuitry. Because these effects occurred without any communication or interaction between the friends, they point to an important proximate explanation for the basic human motivation to affiliate with others, particularly in emotional situations. PMID:25298009

  2. Electromyographic Evaluation of the Effect of Lined Dentures on Masticatory Muscle Activity in Edentulous Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shitij; Gaur, Abhishek; Dupare, Arun; Rastogi, Shiksha; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine changes in relative electromyographic (EMG) activities of temporal and masseter muscles after relining the dentures with silicone and acrylic-resin based denture liners. Materials and Methods Conventional complete dentures were fabricated for 20 edentulous patients. One month after completing adjustments of the dentures, electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscle during maximum intercuspation was recorded. The dentures were then relined with a silicone denture liner and after an adaptation period of one month, were again subjected for electromyographic evaluation. Further, the dentures were relined with acrylic denture liner and subjected to electromyographic evaluation. Data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15.0. Intergroup comparisons were done using ANOVA followed by post-hoc assessments using Tukey HSD test. Results Mean amplitude and duration with conventional dentures was found to be significantly lower as compared to silicone lined and acrylic lined dentures for all the comparisons. Statistically, no significant difference between silicone lined and acrylic lined dentures was observed for any of the comparisons. Conclusion Within the limitations of this experimental design, it was concluded that relining significantly increases electromyographic activity of the masseter and temporalis muscles. Thus, resulting in an improved biting force, chewing efficiency and masticatory performance. There were no significant differences between silicone and acrylic based denture liners for both electromyographic variables. PMID:26436054

  3. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Baran, Nicole M.; Tomaszycki, Michelle L.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  4. Early Life Manipulations of the Nonapeptide System Alter Pair Maintenance Behaviors and Neural Activity in Adult Male Zebra Finches.

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole M; Tomaszycki, Michelle L; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Adult zebra finches (T. guttata) form socially monogamous pair bonds characterized by proximity, vocal communication, and contact behaviors. In this experiment, we tested whether manipulations of the nonapeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT, avian homolog of vasopressin) and the V1a receptor (V1aR) early in life altered species-typical pairing behavior in adult zebra finches of both sexes. Although there was no effect of treatment on the tendency to pair in either sex, males in different treatments exhibited profoundly different profiles of pair maintenance behavior. Following a brief separation, AVT-treated males were highly affiliative with their female partner but sang very little compared to Controls. In contrast, males treated with a V1aR antagonist sang significantly less than Controls, but did not differ in affiliation. These effects on behavior in males were also reflected in changes in the expression of V1aR and immediate early gene activity in three brain regions known to be involved in pairing behavior in birds: the medial amygdala, medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and the lateral septum. AVT males had higher V1aR expression in the medial amygdala than both Control and antagonist-treated males and immediate early gene activity of V1aR neurons in the medial amygdala was positively correlated with affiliation. Antagonist treated males showed decreased activity in the medial amygdala. In addition, there was a negative correlation between the activity of V1aR cells in the medial bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and singing. Treatment also affected the expression of V1aR and activity in the lateral septum, but this was not correlated with any behaviors measured. These results provide evidence that AVT and V1aR play developmental roles in specific pair maintenance behaviors and the neural substrate underlying these behaviors in a bird. PMID:27065824

  5. Carbachol-Induced Reduction in the Activity of Adult Male Zebra Finch RA Projection Neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Wei; Wang, Song-Hua; Li, Dong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic mechanism is involved in motor behavior. In songbirds, the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA) is a song premotor nucleus in the pallium and receives cholinergic inputs from the basal forebrain. The activity of projection neurons in RA determines song motor behavior. Although many evidences suggest that cholinergic system is implicated in song production, the cholinergic modulation of RA is not clear until now. In the present study, the electrophysiological effects of carbachol, a nonselective cholinergic receptor agonist, were investigated on the RA projection neurons of adult male zebra finches through whole-cell patch-clamp techniques in vitro. Our results show that carbachol produced a significant decrease in the spontaneous and evoked action potential (AP) firing frequency of RA projection neurons, accompanying a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential, an increase in the evoked AP latency, afterhyperpolarization (AHP) peak amplitude, and AHP time to peak, and a decrease in the membrane input resistance, membrane time constant, and membrane capacitance. These results indicate that carbachol reduces the activity of RA projection neurons by hyperpolarizing the resting membrane potential and increasing the AHP and the membrane conductance, suggesting that the cholinergic modulation of RA may play an important role in song production. PMID:26904300

  6. Liquid phase adsorption of Crystal violet onto activated carbons derived from male flowers of coconut tree.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaar, S; Kalaamani, P; Subburaam, C V

    2006-08-25

    Adsorption of Crystal violet, a basic dye onto phosphoric and sulphuric acid activated carbons (PAAC and SAAC), prepared from male flowers coconut tree has been investigated. Equilibrium data were successfully applied to study the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption of dye onto both the carbons. The kinetics of adsorption was found to be pseudo second order with regard to intraparticle diffusion. The pseudo second order is further supported by the Elovich model, which in turn intensifies the fact of chemisorption of dye onto both the carbons. Quantitative removal of dye at higher initial pH of dye solution reveals the basic nature of the Crystal violet and acidic nature of the activated carbons. Influence of temperature on the removal of dye from aqueous solution shows the feasibility of adsorption and its endothermic nature. Mass transfer studies were also carried out. The adsorption capacities of both the carbons were found to be 60.42 and 85.84 mg/g for PAAC and SAAC, respectively. Langmuir's isotherm data were used to design single-stage batch adsorption model.

  7. Belief about Nicotine Modulates Subjective Craving and Insula Activity in Deprived Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the specific neural mechanisms through which cognitive factors influence craving and associated brain responses, despite the initial success of cognitive therapies in treating drug addiction. In this study, we investigated how cognitive factors such as beliefs influence subjective craving and neural activities in nicotine-addicted individuals using model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropharmacology. Deprived smokers (N = 24) participated in a two-by-two balanced placebo design, which crossed beliefs about nicotine (told “nicotine” vs. told “no nicotine”) with the nicotine content in a cigarette (nicotine vs. placebo) which participants smoked immediately before performing a fMRI task involving reward learning. Subjects’ reported craving was measured both before smoking and after the fMRI session. We found that first, in the presence of nicotine, smokers demonstrated significantly reduced craving after smoking when told “nicotine in cigarette” but showed no change in craving when told “no nicotine.” Second, neural activity in the insular cortex related to craving was only significant when smokers were told “nicotine” but not when told “no nicotine.” Both effects were absent in the placebo condition. Third, insula activation related to computational learning signals was modulated by belief about nicotine regardless of nicotine’s presence. These results suggest that belief about nicotine has a strong impact on subjective craving and insula responses related to both craving and learning in deprived smokers, providing insights into the complex nature of belief–drug interactions. PMID:27468271

  8. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  9. Decoding Subjective Intensity of Nociceptive Pain from Pre-stimulus and Post-stimulus Brain Activities.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yiheng; Tan, Ao; Bai, Yanru; Hung, Yeung Sam; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a highly subjective experience. Self-report is the gold standard for pain assessment in clinical practice, but it may not be available or reliable in some populations. Neuroimaging data, such as electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have the potential to be used to provide physiology-based and quantitative nociceptive pain assessment tools that complements self-report. However, existing neuroimaging-based nociceptive pain assessments only rely on the information in pain-evoked brain activities, but neglect the fact that the perceived intensity of pain is also encoded by ongoing brain activities prior to painful stimulation. Here, we proposed to use machine learning algorithms to decode pain intensity from both pre-stimulus ongoing and post-stimulus evoked brain activities. Neural features that were correlated with intensity of laser-evoked nociceptive pain were extracted from high-dimensional pre- and post-stimulus EEG and fMRI activities using partial least-squares regression (PLSR). Further, we used support vector machine (SVM) to predict the intensity of pain from pain-related time-frequency EEG patterns and BOLD-fMRI patterns. Results showed that combining predictive information in pre- and post-stimulus brain activities can achieve significantly better performance in classifying high-pain and low-pain and in predicting the rating of perceived pain than only using post-stimulus brain activities. Therefore, the proposed pain prediction method holds great potential in basic research and clinical applications. PMID:27148029

  10. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  11. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines. PMID:23229279

  12. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  13. Effects of Visual Cortex Activation on the Nociceptive Blink Reflex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Simona L.; de Pasqua, Victor; Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. PMID:24936654

  14. Effects of visual cortex activation on the nociceptive blink reflex in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sava, Simona L; de Pasqua, Victor; Magis, Delphine; Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean; Schoenen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. PMID:24936654

  15. "It Was the Best of Times, It Was the …": Subject Aims and Professional Identity from the Perspective of One Veteran Male Teacher of Physical Education in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Studies of teachers' lives and careers rarely include a precise focus on subject teaching. This appears a limitation given the often strong connections there are between subject teaching and professional identity. With the intention of understanding the connections between the two better, the research adopted a case study methodology to…

  16. Timing of neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps and hamstrings prior to landing in high school male athletes, female athletes, and female non-athletes.

    PubMed

    Medina, Jennifer M; Valovich McLeod, Tamara C; Howell, Suzanne K; Kingma, Jackie J

    2008-08-01

    There is a discrepancy between males and females in regards to lower extremity injury rates, particularly at the knee [Agel, J., Arendt, E.A., Bershadsky, B., 2005. Anterior cruciate ligament injury in National Collegiate Athletic Association basketball and soccer: a 13-year review. American Journal of Sports Medicine 33, (4) 524-530]. Gender differences in neuromuscular recruitment characteristics of the muscles that stabilize the knee are often implicated as a factor in this discrepancy. There is considerable research in the area of gender differences in regards to neuromuscular characteristics of the lower extremity in response to perturbation; however, most studies have been performed on the adult population only. Additionally, there is no consensus as to the gender differences that have been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to compare muscular preactivation of selected lower extremity muscles (vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and medial/lateral hamstrings) in adolescent female basketball athletes, male basketball athletes, and female non-athletes in response to a drop landing. Subjects in the female non-athlete group recruited rectus femoris significantly slower than both the female athlete and male athlete groups (619.9=588.5>200.1ms prior to ground contact). The female non-athlete group also demonstrated a significantly slower vastus medialis compared to the female athlete group (127.1 vs 408.1ms), but not significantly slower than the male athlete group (127.1 vs 275.7ms). There were no differences between female athletes and male athletes for time to initial contraction of any muscle groups. No differences were found among the groups for medial or lateral hamstring activation. This study demonstrates that physical conditioning due to basketball participation appears to affect neuromuscular recruitment in adolescents and reveals a necessity to find alternate methods of training the hamstrings for improved neuromuscular capabilities to prevent

  17. Hepatic injury induces contrasting response in liver and kidney to chemicals that are metabolically activated: Role of male sex hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young C. Yim, Hye K.; Jung, Young S.; Park, Jae H.; Kim, Sung Y.

    2007-08-15

    Injury to liver, resulting in loss of its normal physiological/biochemical functions, may adversely affect a secondary organ. We examined the response of the liver and kidney to chemical substances that require metabolic activation for their toxicities in mice with a preceding liver injury. Carbon tetrachloride treatment 24 h prior to a challenging dose of carbon tetrachloride or acetaminophen decreased the resulting hepatotoxicity both in male and female mice as determined by histopathological examination and increases in serum enzyme activities. In contrast, the renal toxicity of the challenging toxicants was elevated markedly in male, but not in female mice. Partial hepatectomy also induced similar changes in the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of a challenging toxicant, suggesting that the contrasting response of male liver and kidney was associated with the reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity. Carbon tetrachloride pretreatment or partial hepatectomy decreased the hepatic xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme activities in both sexes but elevated the renal p-nitrophenol hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities significantly only in male mice. Increases in Cyp2e1 and Cyp2b expression were also evident in male kidney. Castration of males or testosterone administration to females diminished the sex-related differences in the renal response to an acute liver injury. The results indicate that reduction of the hepatic metabolizing capacity induced by liver injury may render secondary target organs susceptible to chemical substances activated in these organs. This effect may be sex-specific. It is also suggested that an integrated approach should be taken for proper assessment of chemical hazards.

  18. Role of sex hormones in hypercapnia-induced activation of the locus coeruleus in female and male rats.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H

    2016-01-28

    The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity.

  19. The Prediction of Physical Activity Intention and Behavior in Elderly Male Residents of a Nursing Home: A Comparison of Two Behavioral Theories

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremani, Leila; Niknami, Shamsaddin; Nazari, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is ranked as a leading health indicator. Despite the extensive benefits of physical activity, elder people are much less active than desired. Using Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the self-efficacy construct, this study examined the prediction of physical activity intention and behavior in a sample of elderly male resident of a nursing home. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of the residents of Kahrizak Nursing Home in Tehran, Iran, elderly men who were 60 years or older, capable of independent living, mobility, and verbal communication were asked to complete measures of the TPB, self-efficacy and physical activity behavior. Results: A hierarchical step-wise multiple regression analysis indicated that affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) explained 32.8% of the variance in physical activity intention, and self-efficacy provided an additional 2.7%. In a reverse step regression, the TPB variables explained an additional 12.2% of physical activity intention. In a multiple regression analysis on physical activity behavior, affective/instrumental attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control (PBC) and intention explained 15.7% of the variance in physical activity behavior while self-efficacy contributed an additional 5.6%. In the reverse step regression, TPB predictors contributed an additional 3.0% in explaining the variance in physical activity behavior. Conclusion: The results indicate that in addition to the TPB, self-efficacy may also play an important role in the prediction of behavior, and should be included in the design of physical activity programs for elderly men of nursing home residents. PMID:23115427

  20. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  1. Integrative rodent models for assessing male reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine active substances

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jacques; Eustache, Florence; Rouiller-Fabre, Virginie; Canivenc-Lavier, Marie Chantal; Livera, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    In the present review, we first summarize the main benefits, limitations and pitfalls of conventional in vivo approaches to assessing male reproductive structures and functions in rodents in cases of endocrine active substance (EAS) exposure from the postulate that they may provide data that can be extrapolated to humans. Then, we briefly present some integrated approaches in rodents we have recently developed at the organism level. We particularly focus on the possible effects and modes of action (MOA) of these substances at low doses and in mixtures, real-life conditions and at the organ level, deciphering the precise effects and MOA on the fetal testis. It can be considered that the in vivo experimental EAS exposure of rodents remains the first choice for studies and is a necessary tool (together with the epidemiological approach) for understanding the reproductive effects and MOA of EASs, provided the pitfalls and limitations of the rodent models are known and considered. We also provide some evidence that classical rodent models may be refined for studying the multiple consequences of EAS exposure, not only on the reproductive axis but also on various hormonally regulated organs and tissues, among which several are implicated in the complex process of mammalian reproduction. Such models constitute an interesting way of approaching human exposure conditions. Finally, we show that organotypic culture models are powerful complementary tools, especially when focusing on the MOA. All these approaches have contributed in a combinatorial manner to a better understanding of the impact of EAS exposure on human reproduction. PMID:24369134

  2. Agonists-induced platelet activation varies considerably in healthy male individuals: studies by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Panzer, Simon; Höcker, Lisa; Koren, Daniela

    2006-02-01

    Flow cytometric evaluation of platelet function extends our understanding of platelets' role in various clinical conditions associated with either bleeding disorders, thrombosis, or monitoring of antiplatelet therapy. The use of suboptimal concentrations of various agonists may allow assessing the "activatability" of platelets. We determined platelet responsiveness to thrombin-receptor-activating peptide-6, arachidonic acid, adenosine 5c-diphosphate (ADP), epinephrine, collagen, and ristocetin at suboptimal concentrations by determination of P-selectin expression and binding of PAC-1 in 26 healthy male individuals. The response varied considerably from one individual to the next. However, within individuals, responses to all agonists except collagen correlated strongly (p<0.05), suggesting a global variability of platelet responses. Moreover, P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding were strongly correlated (p<0.05). Interestingly, with epinephrine, PAC-1 positive events outnumbered P-selectin positive events, while this was not seen with the other agonists. Thus, epinephrine may specifically affect the conformational switch mechanism and receptor clustering. Our data indicate that the in vitro response to suboptimal concentrations of agonists varies, but individuals with selective platelet defects may still be identified based on data obtained with the various agonists. PMID:16283308

  3. Adrenergic and serotoninergic receptors mediate the immunological activation of corticosterone secretion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, A L; Petraglia, F; Criscuolo, M; Ficarra, G; Salvestroni, C; Nappi, R E; Trentini, G P; Genazzani, A R

    1996-06-01

    In order to elucidate the mechanism of action of immune agents on corticosterone secretion, the present study evaluated the possible involvement of some neuronal pathways (serotoninergic, noradrenergic/adrenergic) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced corticosterone release in male rats. Serotoninergic antagonists, mianserin (5-HT2C receptor blocker) or pindolol (5HT1A receptor blocker) or noradrenergic/adrenergic antagonists, prazosin (alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker) or propranolol (beta-adrenoceptor blocker), were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected before (5 min) the administration of LPS. In each experiment a group of rats i.p. injected with vehicle served as controls. Animals were sacrificed by decapitation 90 min after administration of LPS and trunk blood was collected for corticosterone radioimmunoassay. Results showed that pretreatment with mianserin, but not with pindolol, significantly reduced plasma corticosterone levels following administration of LPS (p < 0.05); prazosin attenuated the plasma corticosterone response to LPS (p < 0.05), while propranolol did not induce significant change. The present study indicated that serotoninergic and noradrenergic/adrenergic pathways are involved in the immunoneuroendocrine modulation of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal function in rats. In particular, it is probably mediated by the activation of 5-HT2C receptors and of alpha 1-adrenoceptors, while type 1A serotonin receptors or beta-adrenoceptors do not seem to be involved in such a phenomenon.

  4. Modulation of electroencephalograph activity by manual acupuncture stimulation in healthy subjects: An autoregressive spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Han, Chun-Xiao

    2013-02-01

    To investigate whether and how manual acupuncture (MA) modulates brain activities, we design an experiment where acupuncture at acupoint ST36 of the right leg is used to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in healthy subjects. We adopt the autoregressive (AR) Burg method to estimate the power spectrum of EEG signals and analyze the relative powers in delta (0 Hz-4 Hz), theta (4 Hz-8 Hz), alpha (8 Hz-13 Hz), and beta (13 Hz-30 Hz) bands. Our results show that MA at ST36 can significantly increase the EEG slow wave relative power (delta band) and reduce the fast wave relative powers (alpha and beta bands), while there are no statistical differences in theta band relative power between different acupuncture states. In order to quantify the ratio of slow to fast wave EEG activity, we compute the power ratio index. It is found that the MA can significantly increase the power ratio index, especially in frontal and central lobes. All the results highlight the modulation of brain activities with MA and may provide potential help for the clinical use of acupuncture. The proposed quantitative method of acupuncture signals may be further used to make MA more standardized.

  5. β2-Adrenergic receptor agonists activate CFTR in intestinal organoids and subjects with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Vijftigschild, Lodewijk A W; Berkers, Gitte; Dekkers, Johanna F; Zomer-van Ommen, Domenique D; Matthes, Elizabeth; Kruisselbrink, Evelien; Vonk, Annelotte; Hensen, Chantal E; Heida-Michel, Sabine; Geerdink, Margot; Janssens, Hettie M; van de Graaf, Eduard A; Bronsveld, Inez; de Winter-de Groot, Karin M; Majoor, Christof J; Heijerman, Harry G M; de Jonge, Hugo R; Hanrahan, John W; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Beekman, Jeffrey M

    2016-09-01

    We hypothesized that people with cystic fibrosis (CF) who express CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene mutations associated with residual function may benefit from G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-targeting drugs that can activate and enhance CFTR function.We used intestinal organoids to screen a GPCR-modulating compound library and identified β2-adrenergic receptor agonists as the most potent inducers of CFTR function.β2-Agonist-induced organoid swelling correlated with the CFTR genotype, and could be induced in homozygous CFTR-F508del organoids and highly differentiated primary CF airway epithelial cells after rescue of CFTR trafficking by small molecules. The in vivo response to treatment with an oral or inhaled β2-agonist (salbutamol) in CF patients with residual CFTR function was evaluated in a pilot study. 10 subjects with a R117H or A455E mutation were included and showed changes in the nasal potential difference measurement after treatment with oral salbutamol, including a significant improvement of the baseline potential difference of the nasal mucosa (+6.35 mV, p<0.05), suggesting that this treatment might be effective in vivo Furthermore, plasma that was collected after oral salbutamol treatment induced CFTR activation when administered ex vivo to organoids.This proof-of-concept study suggests that organoids can be used to identify drugs that activate CFTR function in vivo and to select route of administration. PMID:27471203

  6. Active Nozzle Control and Integrated Design Optimization of a Beam Subject to Fluid-Dynamic Forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borglund, D.

    1999-02-01

    Active nozzle control is used to improve the stability of a beam subject to forces induced by fluid flow through attached pipes. The control system has a significant effect on the structural stability, making both flutter and divergence type of instabilities possible. The stability analysis is carried out using a state-variable approach based on a finite element formulation of the structural dynamics. The simultaneous design of the control system and the beam shape minimizing structural mass is performed using numerical optimization. The inclusion of the control system in the optimization gives a considerable reduction of the structural mass but results in an optimal design which is very sensitive to imperfections. Using a simple model of the control system uncertainties, a more robust design is obtained by solving a modified optimization problem. Throughout the study, the theoretical findings are verified by experiments.

  7. Spirometric studies of the subjects in an active area of Hyderabad A.P.

    PubMed

    Bhagyalakshmi, O; Prasad, C E

    2002-04-01

    Study area is the "All India Industrial Exhibition", Hyderabad in the heart of the Hi-tech city with 2000 stalls/pavilions. It is visited by nearly 20 lakh people every year in 45 days of exhibition. Persons actively involved in All India Industrial Exhibition are selected for the spirometric studies. Selected subjects were administered the ATS Questionnaire. Data pertaining to age sex status, occupation, general health, family background for allergy, asthma, lung cancer, etc. Their lung efficiency is spirometrically studied. They were also administered 2.5 mg Salbutamol. People complaining about cough, sputum, wheeze, running nose/stuffy nose, sneeze, dyspnoea were categorized as suffering from sinusitis, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. People from Salbutamol reversibility of airflow obstruction were diagnosed as asthmatics. Analysis of variance, multiple comparison test, student-t-test and normal curve test were used for statistical analysis. Present study reveals a direct relation between polluted air and respiratory morbidity. PMID:14503383

  8. The association between circulating secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during lifestyle-modified weight reduction intervention in obese male subjects.

    PubMed

    Kotani, K; Yamada, T; Taniguchi, N

    2011-01-01

    The physiological role and clinical relevance of circulating secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC, or osteonectin) is still poorly understood. This study investigated the correlation between circulating SPARC and metabolic variables, including glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), during a diet and exercise modified weight reduction intervention programme. Changes in plasma SPARC levels and several metabolic variables were analysed in asymptomatically obese, nondiabetic, male subjects before and after weight reduction intervention. Body mass index and blood pressure, serum cholesterol and HbA(1c) levels were all significantly reduced after weight reduction intervention. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that changes in SPARC levels were significantly and positively correlated with HbA(1c). The relationship between SPARC and HbA(1c) may merit further investigation with regard to its association with postprandial or long-term glucose variation in obese male subjects.

  9. Estimating the active space of male koala bellows: propagation of cues to size and identity in a Eucalyptus forest.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Benjamin D; Reby, David; Ellis, William A H; Brumm, Jacqui; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Examining how increasing distance affects the information content of vocal signals is fundamental for determining the active space of a given species' vocal communication system. In the current study we played back male koala bellows in a Eucalyptus forest to determine the extent that individual classification of male koala bellows becomes less accurate over distance, and also to quantify how individually distinctive acoustic features of bellows and size-related information degrade over distance. Our results show that the formant frequencies of bellows derived from Linear Predictive Coding can be used to classify calls to male koalas over distances of 1-50 m. Further analysis revealed that the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing were the most stable acoustic features of male bellows as they propagated through the Eucalyptus canopy. Taken together these findings suggest that koalas could recognise known individuals at distances of up to 50 m and indicate that they should attend to variation in the upper formant frequencies and formant frequency spacing when assessing the identity of callers. Furthermore, since the formant frequency spacing is also a cue to male body size in this species and its variation over distance remained very low compared to documented inter-individual variation, we suggest that male koalas would still be reliably classified as small, medium or large by receivers at distances of up to 150 m.

  10. Short periods of prenatal stress affect growth, behaviour and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in male guinea pig offspring.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2005-08-01

    Prenatal stress can have profound long-term influences on physiological function throughout the course of life. We hypothesized that focused periods of moderate prenatal stress at discrete time points in late gestation have differential effects on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function in adult guinea pig offspring, and that changes in HPA axis function will be associated with modification of anxiety-related behaviour. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light for 2 h on gestational days (GD) 50, 51, 52 (PS50) or 60, 61, 62 (PS60) (gestation length approximately 70 days). A control group was left undisturbed throughout pregnancy. Behaviour was assessed in male offspring on postnatal day (PND)25 and PND70 by measurement of ambulatory activity and thigmotaxis (wall-seeking behaviour) in a novel open field environment. Subsequent to behavioural testing, male offspring were cannulated (PND75) to evaluate basal and activated HPA axis function. Body weight was significantly decreased in adult PS50 and PS60 offspring and this effect was apparent soon after weaning. The brain-to-body-weight ratio was significantly increased in adult PS50 males. Basal plasma cortisol levels were elevated in PS50 male offspring throughout the 24 h sampling period compared with controls. In response to an ACTH challenge and to exposure to an acute stressor, PS60 male offspring exhibited elevated plasma cortisol responses. Plasma testosterone concentrations were strikingly decreased in PS50 offspring. Thigmotaxis in the novel environment was increased in PS50 male offspring at PND25 and PND70, suggesting increased anxiety in these animals. In conclusion, prenatal stress during critical windows of neuroendocrine development programs growth, HPA axis function, and stress-related behaviour in adult male guinea pig offspring. Further, the nature of the effect is dependant on the timing of the maternal stress during pregnancy.

  11. Enhaced D2-type receptor activity facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in male rats.

    PubMed

    Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Rosas-Aguilar, Viridiana; Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Perez, Cesar A; Manzo, Jorge; Garcia, Luis I; Coria-Avila, Genaro A

    2012-08-01

    Animal models have shown that the neural bases of social attachment, sexual preference and pair bonds, depend on dopamine D2-type receptor and oxytocin activity. In addition, studies have demonstrated that cohabitation can shape partner preference via conditioning. Herein, we used rats to explore the development of learned same-sex partner preferences in adulthood as a result of cohabitation during enhanced D2 activity. Experimental Wistar males (N=20), received saline or the D2 agonist (quinpirole) and were allowed to cohabitate during 24 h, with a stimulus male partner that bore almond scent on the back as conditioned stimulus. This was repeated every 4 days, for a total of three trials. Four days later they were drug-free tested for partner preference between the scented male partner and a sexually receptive female. Sexual partner preference was analyzed by measuring frequency and latency for appetitive and consummatory sexual behaviors, as well as non-contact erections. Social preference was also analyzed by measuring the frequency and latency of visits, body contacts and time spent together. Results indicated that only quinpirole-treated males displayed sexual and social preference for the scented male over the sexually receptive female. They spent more time together, displayed more body contacts, more female-like proceptive behaviors, and more non-contact erections. Accordingly, conditioned males appeared to be more sexually aroused and motivated by the known male than by a receptive female. We discuss the implications of this animal model on the formation of learned homosexual partner preferences.

  12. Effects of Green Tea Extract on Learning, Memory, Behavior and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Young and Old Male Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaur, Tranum; Pathak, C. M.; Pandhi, P.; Khanduja, K. L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of green tea extract administration on age-related cognition in young and old male Wistar rats. Methods: Young and old rats were orally administered 0.5% green tea extract for a period of eight weeks and were evaluated by passive avoidance, elevated maze plus paradigm and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity.…

  13. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  14. Simple Research Paradigm for Demonstrating Subliminal Pschodynamic Activation: Effects of Oedipal Stimuli on Dart-Throwing Accuracy in College Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Lloyd H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Four experiments were carried out in which "subliminal psychodynamic activation" effects, used for studying the relationship between psychopathology and unconscious conflict, were sought out from male college students. Results were discussed for their bearing on subliminal research and research in personality. (Editor/RK)

  15. Influence of habitual physical activity on gastric emptying in healthy males and relationships with body composition and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; Cleghorn, Geoffrey J; King, Neil A

    2015-08-14

    Although a number of studies have examined the role of gastric emptying (GE) in obesity, the influences of habitual physical activity level, body composition and energy expenditure (EE) on GE have received very little consideration. In the present study, we compared GE in active and inactive males, and characterised relationships with body composition (fat mass and fat-free mass) and EE. A total of forty-four males (active n 22, inactive n 22; BMI 21-36 kg/m2; percentage of fat mass 9-42%) were studied, with GE of a standardised (1676 kJ) pancake meal being assessed by the [13C]octanoic acid breath test, body composition by air displacement plethysmography, RMR by indirect calorimetry, and activity EE (AEE) by accelerometry. The results showed that GE was faster in active compared with inactive males (mean half-time (t 1/2): active 157 (sd 18) and inactive 179 (sd 21) min, P< 0.001). When data from both groups were pooled, GE t 1/2 was associated with percentage of fat mass (r 0.39, P< 0.01) and AEE (r - 0.46, P< 0.01). After controlling for habitual physical activity status, the association between AEE and GE remained, but not that for percentage of fat mass and GE. BMI and RMR were not associated with GE. In summary, faster GE is considered to be a marker of a habitually active lifestyle in males, and is associated with a higher AEE level and a lower percentage of fat mass. The possibility that GE contributes to a gross physiological regulation (or dysregulation) of food intake with physical activity level deserves further investigation.

  16. Male-specific tetraene and triene hydrocarbons ofCarpophilus hemipterus: Structure and pheromonal activity.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, R J; Weisleder, D; Dowd, P F; Plattner, R D

    1992-03-01

    Males ofCarpophilus hemipterus (L.), the dried-fruit beetle, (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) were found to emit nine all-E tetraene and one all-E triene hydrocarbons in addition to two pheromonally active tetraenes that had been reported previously. The previously known compounds are (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene(1) and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3, 5,7-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene(2). The new tetraenes were all related to structure1 by having one additional carbon at either one or two of the following four locations: at carbon 1 of the chain, at carbon 10 of the chain, at the 5-alkyl branch, or at the 7-alkyl branch. (Structure 2 also fits within this pattern.) The triene inC. hemipterus is (2E,4E,6E)-5-ethyl-3-methyl-2, 4,6-nonatriene. Also identified from volatile collections from the beetles were the 2Z and 4Z isomers of1. All structures were proven by synthesis, with NMR and mass spectral data for the compounds provided. Two of the newly discovered compounds, (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-7-ethyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, were quite active in the wind-tunnel bioassay, but others, such as (2E,4E,6E,8E)-5-ethyl-3,7-dimethyl-2,4,6,8-decatetraene and (2E,4E,6E,8E)-4,6,8-trimethyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene were not. Structureactivity relationships are explored among the natural compounds and additional, synthetic analogs, which were never detected from the beetles. Some of these analogs, such as (2E,4E,6E,8E)-3,5-dimethyl-7-propyl-2,4,6,8-undecatetraene, were quite active in the bioassay. The biosynthesis of the beetle-derived compounds is discussed. A single biosynthetic scheme that lacks complete enzyme specificity at four specific steps could account for the entire series of compounds found in the beetles and their relative proportions. The definition of "pheromone" is discussed in relation to these hydrocarbons. PMID:24254944

  17. EEG source activity during processing of neutral stimuli in subjects with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Januszko, Piotr; Kamiński, Jan; Drozdowicz, Ewa; Kopera, Maciej; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Szelenberger, Waldemar; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a social problem due to their prevalence and consequences. It is crucial to explore the influence of anxiety on cognitive processes. In this study we recorded EEG activity from 73 subjects (35 patients, 38 controls, matched for age and education) during performance of the Continuous Attention Task. We used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) for evaluation of mechanisms of impaired cognitive performance in anxiety disorders. Analysis showed that patients with anxiety disorders committed more errors than the controls, had a short latency of P300 and higher amplitude of ERPs at all steps of stimulus processing. Furthermore, we showed that there was a relationship between the scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and amplitudes and latencies of ERPs. The results of LORETA analysis showed that enhanced neural responses were found within circuits mediating visual information processing, sustained attention and anxiety. Also, we found higher current density within areas playing an important role in the brain fear network - anterior cingulate and anterior part of insula. Electrophysiological neuroimaging showed greater recruitment of cognitive resources in anxiety disorders, evidenced by higher current density and activation of greater number of brain areas. Despite the strategy employed to compensate for cognitive problems, the anxiety patients did not achieve the same performance as controls. Present study demonstrates that anxiety disorders influence processing of neutral stimuli and this influence is observable at both behavioral and electrophysiological level. The data suggests instability of neural systems responsible for information selection, working memory, engagement and focusing of attention.

  18. EEG source activity during processing of neutral stimuli in subjects with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Januszko, Piotr; Kamiński, Jan; Drozdowicz, Ewa; Kopera, Maciej; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Szelenberger, Waldemar; Wojnar, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Anxiety disorders are a social problem due to their prevalence and consequences. It is crucial to explore the influence of anxiety on cognitive processes. In this study we recorded EEG activity from 73 subjects (35 patients, 38 controls, matched for age and education) during performance of the Continuous Attention Task. We used low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) for evaluation of mechanisms of impaired cognitive performance in anxiety disorders. Analysis showed that patients with anxiety disorders committed more errors than the controls, had a short latency of P300 and higher amplitude of ERPs at all steps of stimulus processing. Furthermore, we showed that there was a relationship between the scores of Hamilton Anxiety Scale and Beck Depression Inventory, and amplitudes and latencies of ERPs. The results of LORETA analysis showed that enhanced neural responses were found within circuits mediating visual information processing, sustained attention and anxiety. Also, we found higher current density within areas playing an important role in the brain fear network - anterior cingulate and anterior part of insula. Electrophysiological neuroimaging showed greater recruitment of cognitive resources in anxiety disorders, evidenced by higher current density and activation of greater number of brain areas. Despite the strategy employed to compensate for cognitive problems, the anxiety patients did not achieve the same performance as controls. Present study demonstrates that anxiety disorders influence processing of neutral stimuli and this influence is observable at both behavioral and electrophysiological level. The data suggests instability of neural systems responsible for information selection, working memory, engagement and focusing of attention. PMID:27102920

  19. Differential brain activity in subjects with painful trigeminal neuropathy and painful temporomandibular disorder.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Andrew M; Gustin, Sylvia M; Nash, Paul G; Reeves, Jenna M; Petersen, Esben T; Peck, Chris C; Murray, Greg M; Henderson, Luke A

    2014-03-01

    Human brain imaging investigations have revealed that acute pain is associated with coactivation of numerous brain regions, including the thalamus, somatosensory, insular, and cingulate cortices. Surprisingly, a similar set of brain structures is not activated in all chronic pain conditions, particularly chronic neuropathic pain, which is associated with almost exclusively decreased thalamic activity. These inconsistencies may reflect technical issues or fundamental differences in the processing of acute compared with chronic pain. The appreciation of any differences is important because better treatment development will depend on understanding the underlying mechanisms of different forms of pain. In this investigation, we used quantitative arterial spin labeling to compare and contrast regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) patterns in individuals with chronic neuropathic orofacial pain (painful trigeminal neuropathy) and chronic nonneuropathic orofacial pain (painful temporomandibular disorder). Neuropathic pain was associated with CBF decreases in a number of regions, including the thalamus and primary somatosensory and cerebellar cortices. In contrast, chronic nonneuropathic pain was associated with significant CBF increases in regions commonly associated with higher-order cognitive and emotional functions, such as the anterior cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and the precuneus. Furthermore, in subjects with nonneuropathic pain, blood flow increased in motor-related regions as well as within the spinal trigeminal nucleus.

  20. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods. PMID:23782218

  1. Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Fumio; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tanioka, Yuri; Bito, Tomohiro

    2013-07-17

    The usual dietary sources of vitamin B12 are animal-source based foods, including meat, milk, eggs, fish, and shellfish, although a few plant-based foods such as certain types of dried lavers (nori) and mushrooms contain substantial and considerable amounts of vitamin B12, respectively. Unexpectedly, detailed characterization of vitamin B12 compounds in foods reveals the presence of various corrinoids that are inactive in humans. The majority of edible blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) and certain edible shellfish predominately contain an inactive corrinoid known as pseudovitamin B12. Various factors affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. For example, vitamin B12 is partially degraded and loses its biological activity during cooking and storage of foods. The intrinsic factor-mediated gastrointestinal absorption system in humans has evolved to selectively absorb active vitamin B12 from naturally occurring vitamin B12 compounds, including its degradation products and inactive corrinoids that are present in daily meal foods. The objective of this review is to present up-to-date information on various factors that can affect the bioactivity of vitamin B12 in foods. To prevent vitamin B12 deficiency in high-risk populations such as vegetarians and elderly subjects, it is necessary to identify plant-source foods that contain high levels of bioactive vitamin B12 and, in conjunction, to prepare the use of crystalline vitamin B12-fortified foods.

  2. Chlorotriazine Herbicides and Metabolites Activate an ACTH-Dependent Release of Corticosterone in Male Wistar Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously, we reported that atrazine (ATR) alters steroidogenesis in male Wistar rats resulting in elevated serum corticosterone (CORT), progesterone, and estrogens. The increase in CORT indicated that this chlorotriazine herbicide may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal ax...

  3. Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of triflusal and its main active metabolite HTB in healthy Chinese subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Zhang, Q; Huang, M; Zong, S; Hua, W; Zhou, W

    2014-05-01

    Triflusal presents comparable antiplatelet activity to aspirin while presenting a more favourable safety profile, and is used in the treatment of thrombosis. The study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of triflusal and its major metabolite 2-(hydroxyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)- benzoic acid (HTB) in healthy Chinese subjects.30 healthy subjects were recruited in this randomized, single-center, and open-label, parallel, single ascending doses (300, 600, 900 mg) and multiple doses (600 mg, once daily for 7 days) study. Plasma samples were analyzed with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. Safety was assessed by adverse events, ECG, laboratory testing, and vital signs.Triflusal was safe and well tolerated. After single-dose administration, triflusal was rapidly absorbed with a mean Tmax of 0.55-0.92 h and a mean t1/2 kel of 0.35-0.65 h, HTB was absorbed with a mean Tmax of 2.35-3.03 h and a mean t1/2 kel of 52.5-65.57 h. Cmax and AUC for triflusal and HTB were approximately dose proportional over the 300-900 mg dose range. In the steady state, the accumulation index (R) indicated that the exposure of triflusal increased slightly with repeated dosing, and the exposure of HTB increased obviously. 3 adverse events certainly related to the investigational drugs occurred in the multiple-dose phase.Following oral dosing under fasting condition, triflusal is promptly absorbed and rapidly depleted from the systemic circulation. HTB is quickly generated from triflusal and slowly eliminated. Triflusal accumulates slightly in the body. HTB plasma concentration builds up progressively toward steady-state. PMID:24105106

  4. Differential activity of stanniocalcin in male and female fresh water teleost Mastacembelus armatus (Lacepede) during gonadal maturation.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sushant Kumar; Alim, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to analyze the differences in the activity of hormone stanniocalcin (STC) between male and female fishes of Mastacembelus armatus during their gonadal cycle. A large variation in nuclear diameter of cells of corpuscles of Stannius (CS) were recorded in relation to testicular cycle as well as ovarian cycle which indicates that the cellular activity varied with different phases of reproductive cycle in both male and female fish. Similar changes in nuclear diameter of CS cells were also observed after 17alpha-methyltestosterone administration in males and 17 β-estradiol administrations in females. A positive correlation was observed between plasma STC levels, gonadosomatic index (GSI) and the sex steroids in both sexes, suggesting that STC has a role in the processes involved in gonadal development. In addition females showed remarkable changes in plasma calcium level during gonadal cycle while no such change for males were observed. In females the plasma calcium level estimated during different phases of reproductive cycle indicates positive correlation between plasma level of calcium and gonad growth. Thus hyperactivity of CS cells was noted in both male and female fishes during gonadal cycle along with the differences in the activity of STC as well. In female it may act as hypocalcemic factor and bring the level of calcium to normal which increases during preparatory and pre spawning phases to fulfill the increased demand of calcium for vitellogenesis. However data of male fishes indicated that plasma STC concentration varied widely during gonadal cycle but showed no consistent relationship to plasma calcium level. PMID:25003342

  5. Burnout Is Associated with Reduced Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced HPA Axis Responsiveness, Predominantly in Males

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, Wieke; van Amsterdam, Jan G. C.; Olff, Miranda; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that burnout is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Stress-related dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may explain the enhanced risk for CVD. To test this hypothesis, 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) with burnout on sickness absence and 40 healthy participants (16 males and 24 females) were exposed to a psychosocial stressor consisting of mental arithmetic and public speech. Physiological variables (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, cortisol, and alpha-amylase) were measured. Basal levels, reactivity, and recovery were compared between groups. In male patients, baseline systolic blood pressure was higher, whereas basal alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity were lower than in healthy males. In female patients, a tendency for lower basal cortisol was found as compared to healthy females. Furthermore, reduced basal heart rate variability and a trend for elevated basal cardiac output were observed in both male and female patients. Burnout is characterised by dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis, which was more pronounced in males than in females. This study further supports burnout as being a risk factor for CVD through dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis. PMID:26557670

  6. Exercising in the Fasted State Reduced 24-Hour Energy Intake in Active Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Deitrick, Ronald W.; Hillman, Angela R.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fasting prior to morning exercise on 24-hour energy intake was examined using a randomized, counterbalanced design. Participants (12 active, white males, 20.8 ± 3.0 years old, VO2max: 59.1 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) fasted (NoBK) or received breakfast (BK) and then ran for 60 minutes at 60%  VO2max. All food was weighed and measured for 24 hours. Measures of blood glucose and hunger were collected at 5 time points. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured during exercise. Generalized linear mixed models and paired sample t-tests examined differences between the conditions. Total 24-hour (BK: 19172 ± 4542 kJ versus NoBK: 15312 ± 4513 kJ; p < 0.001) and evening (BK: 12265 ± 4278 kJ versus NoBK: 10833 ± 4065; p = 0.039) energy intake and RQ (BK: 0.90 ± 0.03 versus NoBK: 0.86 ± 0.03; p < 0.001) were significantly higher in BK than NoBK. Blood glucose was significantly higher in BK than NoBK before exercise (5.2 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L; p = 0.025). Hunger was significantly lower for BK than NoBK before exercise, after exercise, and before lunch. Blood glucose and hunger were not associated with energy intake. Fasting before morning exercise decreased 24-hour energy intake and increased fat oxidation during exercise. Completing exercise in the morning in the fasted state may have implications for weight management. PMID:27738523

  7. Increased affective ultrasonic communication during fear learning in adult male rats exposed to maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Maternal exposure to infection during pregnancy greatly increases the risk of psychopathology in the offspring. In support of clinical findings, rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) show that prenatal exposure to pathogens can induce phenotypic changes in the offspring associated with schizophrenia, autism, depression and anxiety. In the current study, we investigated the effects of MIA via polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) on emotional behavior and communication in rats. Pregnant rats were administered poly I:C or saline on gestation day 15 and male offspring were tested in an auditory fear conditioning paradigm in early adulthood. We found that prenatal poly I:C exposure significantly altered affective signaling, namely, the production of aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in terms of call number, structure and temporal patterning. MIA led to an increase in aversive 22-kHz USVs to 300% of saline controls. Offspring exposed to MIA not only emitted more 22-kHz USVs, but also emitted calls that were shorter in duration and occurred in bouts containing more calls. The production of appetitive 50-kHz USVs and audible calls was not affected. Intriguingly, alterations in aversive 22-kHz USV emission were observed despite no obvious changes in overt defensive behavior, which highlights the importance of assessing USVs as an additional measure of fear. Aversive 22-kHz USVs are a prominent part of the rat's defensive behavioral repertoire and serve important communicative functions, most notably as alarm calls. The observed changes in aversive 22-kHz USVs show that MIA has long-term effects on emotional behavior and communication in exposed rat offspring.

  8. Alcohol and Other Risk Factors for Drowning among Male Active Duty U.S. Army Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Nicole S.; Amoroso, Paul J.; Yore, Michelle M.; Senier, Laura; Williams, Jeffrey O.; Smith, Gordon S.; Theriault, Alexis

    2007-01-01

    Background Risk factors for drowning are largely undocumented among military populations. Hypothesis Accident report narratives will provide important information about the role of alcohol use and other behaviors in drownings among active duty male U.S. Army soldiers. Methods Using a case series design, we describe drowning deaths reported to the U.S. Army Safety Center (1980–1997), documenting associated demographic factors, alcohol use, and other risk-taking behaviors. Results Drowning victims (n = 352) were disproportionately young, black, and single, with less time-in-service, and no college experience. Most drownings occurred off-duty (89%). Alcohol use was involved in at least 31% of the cases overall. Alcohol use was also associated with a 10-fold increase in reckless behavior (OR 9.6, 95% CI 4.5–20.7) and was most common among drownings in Europe (OR = 4.3, 95% CI 1.5–13.4). Most drownings occurred where no lifeguard was present (68%), but almost two-thirds occurred in the presence of others, with CPR initiated in less than one-third of these cases. Drownings involving minority victims were less likely to involve alcohol, but more likely to occur in unauthorized swimming areas. While most drownings did not involve violations of safety rules, over one-third of the cases involved some form of reckless behavior, particularly for those under age 21. Conclusions Intervention programs should be tailored to meet the needs of the demographic subgroups at highest risk since behavioral risk factors vary by race and age. CPR training and skills maintenance can improve survival rates. Narrative data are important for developing hypotheses and understanding risk factors for injuries. PMID:11763109

  9. Loading of the knee joint during activities of daily living measured in vivo in five subjects.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, I; Heinlein, B; Graichen, F; Bender, A; Rohlmann, A; Halder, A; Beier, A; Bergmann, G

    2010-08-10

    Detailed knowledge about loading of the knee joint is essential for preclinical testing of implants, validation of musculoskeletal models and biomechanical understanding of the knee joint. The contact forces and moments acting on the tibial component were therefore measured in 5 subjects in vivo by an instrumented knee implant during various activities of daily living. Average peak resultant forces, in percent of body weight, were highest during stair descending (346% BW), followed by stair ascending (316% BW), level walking (261% BW), one legged stance (259% BW), knee bending (253% BW), standing up (246% BW), sitting down (225% BW) and two legged stance (107% BW). Peak shear forces were about 10-20 times smaller than the axial force. Resultant forces acted almost vertically on the tibial plateau even during high flexion. Highest moments acted in the frontal plane with a typical peak to peak range -2.91% BWm (adduction moment) to 1.61% BWm (abduction moment) throughout all activities. Peak flexion/extension moments ranged between -0.44% BWm (extension moment) and 3.16% BWm (flexion moment). Peak external/internal torques lay between -1.1% BWm (internal torque) and 0.53% BWm (external torque). The knee joint is highly loaded during daily life. In general, resultant contact forces during dynamic activities were lower than the ones predicted by many mathematical models, but lay in a similar range as measured in vivo by others. Some of the observed load components were much higher than those currently applied when testing knee implants.

  10. The Association between Baseline Subjective Anxiety Rating and Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity in Response to Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited.Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results.The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found.The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin.

  11. The Association between Baseline Subjective Anxiety Rating and Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity in Response to Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited.Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results.The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found.The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin. PMID:27175645

  12. The Association between Baseline Subjective Anxiety Rating and Changes in Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Activity in Response to Tryptophan Depletion in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chih Yin; Tsai, Hsin Chun; Chi, Mei Hung; Chen, Kao Chin; Chen, Po See; Lee, I Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of serotonin on anxiety and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function; the correlation between subjective anxiety rating and changes of ANS function following tryptophan depletion (TD) in healthy volunteers was examined. Twenty-eight healthy participants, consisting of 15 females and 13 males, with an average age of 33.3 years, were recruited. Baseline Chinese Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and ANS function measurements were taken. TD was carried out on the testing day, and participants provided blood samples right before and 5 hours after TD. ANS function, somatic symptoms, and Visual Analogue Scales (VASs) were determined after TD. Wilcoxon signed rank test and Spearman ρ correlation were adapted for analyses of the results. The TD procedure reduced total and free plasma tryptophan effectively. After TD, the sympathetic nervous activity increased and parasympathetic nervous activity decreased. Baseline anxiety ratings positively correlated with post-TD changes in sympathetic nervous activity, VAS ratings, and physical symptoms. However, a negative correlation with post-TD changes in parasympathetic nervous activity was found. The change in ANS function after TD was associated with the severity of anxiety in healthy volunteers. This supports the fact that the effect of anxiety on heart rate variability is related to serotonin vulnerability. Furthermore, it also shows that the subjective anxiety rating has a biological basis related to serotonin. PMID:27175645

  13. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status.

  14. Modulation of attention network activation under antidepressant agents in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Graf, Heiko; Abler, Birgit; Hartmann, Antonie; Metzger, Coraline D; Walter, Martin

    2013-07-01

    While antidepressants are supposed to exert similar effects on mood and drive via various mechanisms of action, diverging effects are observed regarding side-effects and accordingly on neural correlates of motivation, emotion, reward and salient stimuli processing as a function of the drugs impact on neurotransmission. In the context of erotic stimulation, a unidirectional modulation of attentional functioning despite opposite effects on sexual arousal has been suggested for the selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine and the selective dopamine and noradrenaline reuptake-inhibitor (SDNRI) bupropion. To further elucidate the effects of antidepressant-related alterations of neural attention networks, we investigated 18 healthy males under subchronic administration (7 d) of paroxetine (20 mg), bupropion (150 mg) and placebo within a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over double-blind functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) design during an established preceding attention task. Neuropsychological effects beyond the fMRI-paradigm were assessed by measuring alertness and divided attention. Comparing preceding attention periods of salient vs. neutral pictures, we revealed congruent effects of both drugs vs. placebo within the anterior midcingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, anterior insula and the thalamus. Relatively decreased activation in this network was paralleled by slower reaction times in the divided attention task in both verum conditions compared to placebo. Our results suggest similar effects of antidepressant treatments on behavioural and neural attentional functioning by diverging neurochemical pathways. Concurrent alterations of brain regions within a fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular attention network for top-down control could point to basic neural mechanisms of antidepressant action irrespective of receptor profiles. PMID:23200084

  15. Juvenile hormone regulation of male accessory gland activity in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, R.; Tan, A.; Sun, Z.; Chen, J.; Rainkin, M.; Palli, S. R.

    2009-01-01

    Male accessory gland proteins (Acps) act as key modulators of reproductive success in insects by influencing the female reproductive physiology and behavior. We used custom microarrays and identified 112 genes that were highly expressed in male accessory glands (MAG) in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Out of these 112 identified genes, 59 of them contained sequences coding for signal peptide and cleavage site and the remaining 53 contained transmembrane domains. The expression of 14 these genes in the MAG but not in other tissues of male or female was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In virgin males, juvenile hormone (JH) levels increased from second day post adult emergence (PAE), remained high on third day PAE and declined on fourth day PAE. The ecdysteroid titers were high soon after adult emergence but declined to minimal levels from 1-5 days PAE. Feeding of juvenile hormone analog, hydroprene, but not the ecdysteroid analog, RH-2485, showed an increase in size of MAGs, as well as an increase in total RNA and protein content of MAG. Hydroprene treatment also increased the expression Acp genes in the MAG. RNAi-mediated knock-down in the expression of JHAMT gene decreased the size of MAGs and expression of Acps. JH deficiency influenced male reproductive fitness as evidenced by a less vigor in mating behavior, poor sperm transfer, low egg and the progeny production by females mated with the JH deficient males. These data suggest a critical role for JH in the regulation of male reproduction especially through MAG secretions. PMID:19324087

  16. Two Drosophila DEG/ENaC channel subunits have distinct functions in gustatory neurons that activate male courtship.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Starostina, Elena; Vijayan, Vinoy; Pikielny, Claudio W

    2012-08-22

    Trimeric sodium channels of the DEG/ENaC family have important roles in neurons, but the specific functions of different subunits present in heteromeric channels are poorly understood. We previously reported that the Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit Ppk25 is essential in a small subset of gustatory neurons for activation of male courtship behavior, likely through detection of female pheromones. Here we show that, like mutations in ppk25, mutations in another Drosophila DEG/ENaC subunit gene, nope, specifically impair male courtship of females. nope regulatory sequences drive reporter gene expression in gustatory neurons of the labellum wings, and legs, including all gustatory neurons in which ppk25 function is required for male courtship of females. In addition, gustatory-specific knockdown of nope impairs male courtship. Further, the impaired courtship response of nope mutant males to females is rescued by targeted expression of nope in the subset of gustatory neurons in which ppk25 functions. However, nope and ppk25 have nonredundant functions, as targeted expression of ppk25 does not compensate for the lack of nope and vice versa. Moreover, Nope and Ppk25 form specific complexes when coexpressed in cultured cells. Together, these data indicate that the Nope and Ppk25 polypeptides have specific, nonredundant functions in a subset of gustatory neurons required for activation of male courtship in response to females, and suggest the hypothesis that Nope and Ppk25 function as subunits of a heteromeric DEG/ENaC channel required for gustatory detection of female pheromones. PMID:22915128

  17. Modeling of Geomechanical Performance of Sloping Oceanic Hydrate Deposits Subjected Production Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutqvist, J.; Moridis, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Oceanic Hydrate-Bearing Sediments (HBS) subjected to production activities can induced strongly coupled fluid flow and geomechanical changes that may have adverse consequences on wellbore integrity, the HBS, and the bounding formations. For a sloping hydrate bearing system, the geomechanical changes could potentially be catastrophic if triggering large slides of the seafloor. Marine sediments adjacent to the seafloor as well as hydrate deposits that are suitable target for production often involves unconsolidated sediments of relatively high porosity that are usually characterized by limited shear strength. The dissociation of the solid hydrates (a strong cementing agent) during gas production can degrade the structural strength of the HBS and thereby undermine the stability of the seafloor. In this study we investigate two cases of coupled hydraulic, thermodynamic and geomechanical behavior of sloping oceanic HBS: 1) hydrate heating as warm fluids from deeper conventional reservoirs ascend to the ocean floor through uninsulated pipes intersecting an HBS adjacent to the seafloor, 2) system response during gas production from a hydrate deposit located 400 m below the seafloor. In the first case we consider a situation when a hydraulically confined hydrate layer near the ocean floor is dissociated by heating from the well with associated gas release and forced pressure increase, which could undermine the stability of the slope. In the second case, depressurization leads to hydrate dissociation over a large lateral distance that may provide a weakening potential slip surface along the sloping hydrate system. The results of our analysis indicate that although these production activities induces strongly coupled geomechanical responses that may adversely impact the production itself, they are unlikely to trigger large scale slides of the seafloor.

  18. Baseline reward circuitry activity and trait reward responsiveness predict expression of opioid analgesia in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Wanigasekera, Vishvarani; Lee, Michael C.; Rogers, Richard; Kong, Yazhuo; Leknes, Siri; Andersson, Jesper; Tracey, Irene

    2012-01-01

    Variability in opioid analgesia has been attributed to many factors. For example, genetic variability of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR)-encoding gene introduces variability in MOR function and endogenous opioid neurotransmission. Emerging evidence suggests that personality trait related to the experience of reward is linked to endogenous opioid neurotransmission. We hypothesized that opioid-induced behavioral analgesia would be predicted by the trait reward responsiveness (RWR) and the response of the brain reward circuitry to noxious stimuli at baseline before opioid administration. In healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging and the μ-opioid agonist remifentanil, we found that the magnitude of behavioral opioid analgesia is positively correlated with the trait RWR and predicted by the neuronal response to painful noxious stimuli before infusion in key structures of the reward circuitry, such as the orbitofrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and the ventral tegmental area. These findings highlight the role of the brain reward circuitry in the expression of behavioral opioid analgesia. We also show a positive correlation between behavioral opioid analgesia and opioid-induced suppression of neuronal responses to noxious stimuli in key structures of the descending pain modulatory system (amygdala, periaqueductal gray, and rostral–ventromedial medulla), as well as the hippocampus. Further, these activity changes were predicted by the preinfusion period neuronal response to noxious stimuli within the ventral tegmentum. These results support the notion of future imaging-based subject-stratification paradigms that can guide therapeutic decisions. PMID:23045652

  19. Hemodynamic interaction between a daily dosed phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, tadalafil, and the alpha-adrenergic blockers, doxazosin and tamsulosin, in middle-aged healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Michel; Lonsdale, Finnuala; Darstein, Christelle; Jimenez, Maria C; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2007-10-01

    The hemodynamic interaction between tadalafil (5 mg/d) and doxazosin or tamsulosin was investigated in 2 randomized, double-blind, crossover phase 1 studies. Healthy men (n = 45) received tadalafil or placebo for 28 days and increasing doses of doxazosin (1, 2, and 4 mg/d) for the last 21 days of treatment. In the second study, participants (n = 39) received tadalafil or placebo for 14 days and tamsulosin (0.4 mg/d) for the last 7 days of treatment. Similar mean maximum postbaseline changes in standing systolic blood pressure were observed in subjects given tadalafil or placebo with 4 mg of doxazosin (-0.5 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -4 to 3.1 mm Hg) or with tamsulosin (0.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -1.4 to 3.2 mm Hg). Standing systolic blood pressure less than 85 mm Hg (blood pressure outlier) occurred in 1 subject treated with 4 mg of doxazosin plus tadalafil but was not reported in subjects treated with tamsulosin and tadalafil. Three subjects experienced moderate hypotensive events lasting less than 2 hours, 2 with syncope (after tadalafil alone or with 4 mg of doxazosin) and 1 without (after 4 mg of doxazosin with placebo). The incidence of hypotension was low in healthy men given increasing doses of doxazosin with chronically dosed tadalafil or placebo. Administration of tadalafil with tamsulosin was well tolerated in healthy men.

  20. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18-19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  1. Risk-Taking Behavior in a Computerized Driving Task: Brain Activation Correlates of Decision-Making, Outcome, and Peer Influence in Male Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyev, Victor; Kwon, Myoung Soo; Moe, Dagfinn; Parkkola, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    Increased propensity for risky behavior in adolescents, particularly in peer groups, is thought to reflect maturational imbalance between reward processing and cognitive control systems that affect decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate brain functional correlates of risk-taking behavior and effects of peer influence in 18–19-year-old male adolescents. The subjects were divided into low and high risk-taking groups using either personality tests or risk-taking rates in a simulated driving task. The fMRI data were analyzed for decision-making (whether to take a risk at intersections) and outcome (pass or crash) phases, and for the influence of peer competition. Personality test-based groups showed no difference in the amount of risk-taking (similarly increased during peer competition) and brain activation. When groups were defined by actual task performance, risk-taking activated two areas in the left medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) significantly more in low than in high risk-takers. In the entire sample, risky decision-specific activation was found in the anterior and dorsal cingulate, superior parietal cortex, basal ganglia (including the nucleus accumbens), midbrain, thalamus, and hypothalamus. Peer competition increased outcome-related activation in the right caudate head and cerebellar vermis in the entire sample. Our results suggest that the activation of the medial (rather than lateral) PFC and striatum is most specific to risk-taking behavior of male adolescents in a simulated driving situation, and reflect a stronger conflict and thus increased cognitive effort to take risks in low risk-takers, and reward anticipation for risky decisions, respectively. The activation of the caudate nucleus, particularly for the positive outcome (pass) during peer competition, further suggests enhanced reward processing of risk-taking under peer influence. PMID:26052943

  2. 36 CFR 218.23 - Proposed projects and activities not subject to legal notice and opportunity to comment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process set out in 36 CFR part 219, subpart B; (c) Proposed plan amendments associated with a project or... projects and activities (see 36 CFR 219.59(b)); (d) Proposed projects and activities not subject to the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and the implementing regulations at 40 CFR parts...

  3. 36 CFR 218.23 - Proposed projects and activities not subject to legal notice and opportunity to comment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process set out in 36 CFR part 219, subpart B; (c) Proposed plan amendments associated with a project or... projects and activities (see 36 CFR 219.59(b)); (d) Proposed projects and activities not subject to the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and the implementing regulations at 40 CFR parts...

  4. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  5. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  6. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  7. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  8. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  9. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength. PMID:23754792

  10. Tongkat Ali as a potential herbal supplement for physically active male and female seniors--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Ralf R; Wang, Ruxiang; Bassett, Susan H; Chen, Tao; Liu, Na; Zhu, Ying; Tambi, Mohd Ismail

    2014-04-01

    Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia; TA) is known to increase testosterone levels and alleviate aging males' symptoms. This study aimed at investigating TA as an ergogenic supplement for elderly people. Thirteen physically active male and 12 physically active female seniors (57-72 years) were supplemented with 400-mg TA extract daily for 5 weeks. Standard hematological parameters were taken. In addition, the concentrations of total and free testosterone, dihydroepiandrosterone, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed. As additional biochemical parameters, blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase as parameters of kidney function and muscle damage, respectively, as well as the muscle strength by a simple handgrip test were determined. After treatment, hemoglobin, testosterone, and dihydroepiandrosterone concentrations, and the ratio of total testosterone/cortisol and muscle force remained significantly lower in female seniors than in male seniors. Hematocrit and erythrocyte count in male seniors increased slightly but were significantly higher than in female seniors. Treatment resulted in significant increases in total and free testosterone concentrations and muscular force in men and women. The increase in free testosterone in women is thought to be due to the significant decline in sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations. The study affirms the ergogenic benefit of TA through enhanced muscle strength.

  11. Promoting Physical Activity in Hong Kong Chinese Young People: Factors Influencing Their Subjective Task Values and Expectancy Beliefs in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    According to Eccles et al.'s (1983) Expectancy Value Model, the two major constructs that influence young people's activity choice are subjective task value and expectancy beliefs (Eccles et al., 1983). Eccles et al. (1983) conceptually distinguished four dimensions of subjective task value: attainment value, intrinsic value, utility…

  12. 78 FR 76152 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit. This is a proposed extension of... the public and affected agencies. This information collection was previously published in the...

  13. 75 FR 43997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP...

  14. 75 FR 60772 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit (CBP Form 7512). This is a... comments from the public and affected agencies. This proposed information collection was...

  15. 78 FR 57405 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and...

  16. [ACTIVITY OF HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS OF PRENATALLY STRESSED MALE RATS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF DEPRESSION].

    PubMed

    Ordyan, N E; Pivina, S G; Rakitskaya, V V; Akulova, V K

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity changes were examined in the adult, prenatally stressed male rats in the experimental depression model--the paradigm of "learned helplessness". It was shown that in males descending from intact mothers a depressive-like state was accompanied by an increase in HPA activity. The expression of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increases, coupled with a rise in plasma levels of ACTH and corticosterone as well as in adrenal weight. At the same time in males born from mothers stressed during the last week of pregnancy we observed a decrease in activity of both the central (hypothalamus) and the peripheral (adrenal cortex) parts of regulation of this hormonal axis similar to that revealed for these animals in our previous study in "stress-restress" paradigm. It is concluded that prenatal stress modifies the sensitivity of animals to the inescapable intense stress impact, which manifests itself in a specific pattern of the HPA axis activity after stress load. PMID:27220240

  17. The Persistence of Erroneous Familiarity in an Epileptic Male: Challenging Perceptual Theories of Deja Vu Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Akira R.; Moulin, Christopher J. A.

    2008-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old, temporal lobe epileptic male, MH. Prior to complex partial seizure, experienced up to three times a day, MH often experiences an aura experienced as a persistent sensation of deja vu. Data-driven theories of deja vu formation suggest that partial familiarity for the perceived stimulus is responsible for the…

  18. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus.

  19. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI. PMID:25994953

  20. Arterial baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity following chronic myocardial infarction in male, female, and ovariectomized female rats.

    PubMed

    Pinkham, Maximilian I; Whalley, Gillian A; Guild, Sarah-Jane; Malpas, Simon C; Barrett, Carolyn J

    2015-07-15

    There is controversy regarding whether the arterial baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in heart failure is altered. We investigated the impact of sex and ovarian hormones on changes in the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA following a chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Renal SNA and arterial pressure were recorded in chloralose-urethane anesthetized male, female, and ovariectomized female (OVX) Wistar rats 6-7 wk postsham or MI surgery. Animals were grouped according to MI size (sham, small and large MI). Ovary-intact females had a lower mortality rate post-MI (24%) compared with both males (38%) and OVX (50%) (P < 0.05). Males and OVX with large MI, but not small MI, displayed an impaired ability of the arterial baroreflex to inhibit renal SNA. As a result, the male large MI group (49 ± 6 vs. 84 ± 5% in male sham group) and OVX large MI group (37 ± 3 vs. 75 ± 5% in OVX sham group) displayed significantly reduced arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA (P < 0.05). In ovary-intact females, arterial baroreflex control of normalized renal SNA was unchanged regardless of MI size. In males and OVX there was a significant, positive correlation between left ventricle (LV) ejection fraction and arterial baroreflex range of control of normalized renal SNA, but not absolute renal SNA, that was not evident in ovary-intact females. The current findings demonstrate that the arterial baroreflex control of renal SNA post-MI is preserved in ovary-intact females, and the state of left ventricular dysfunction significantly impacts on the changes in the arterial baroreflex post-MI.

  1. Further Characterization of Quinpirole-Elicited Yawning as a Model of Dopamine D3 Receptor Activation in Male and Female Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Martelle, Susan E.; Nader, Susan H.; Czoty, Paul W.; John, William S.; Duke, Angela N.; Garg, Pradeep K.; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H.

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [11C]PHNO ([11C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [11C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01–0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds. PMID:24876234

  2. Further characterization of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a model of dopamine D3 receptor activation in male and female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martelle, Susan E; Nader, Susan H; Czoty, Paul W; John, William S; Duke, Angela N; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H; Nader, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [(11)C]PHNO ([(11)C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [(11)C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01-0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds.

  3. Further characterization of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a model of dopamine D3 receptor activation in male and female monkeys.

    PubMed

    Martelle, Susan E; Nader, Susan H; Czoty, Paul W; John, William S; Duke, Angela N; Garg, Pradeep K; Garg, Sudha; Newman, Amy H; Nader, Michael A

    2014-08-01

    The dopamine (DA) D3 receptor (D3R) has been associated with impulsivity, pathologic gambling, and drug addiction, making it a potential target for pharmacotherapy development. Positron emission tomography studies using the D3R-preferring radioligand [(11)C]PHNO ([(11)C](+)-propyl-hexahydro-naphtho-oxazin) have shown higher binding potentials in drug abusers compared with control subjects. Preclinical studies have examined D3R receptor activation using the DA agonist quinpirole and the unconditioned behavior of yawning. However, the relationship between quinpirole-elicited yawning and D3R receptor availability has not been determined. In Experiment 1, eight drug-naive male rhesus monkeys were scanned with [(11)C]PHNO, and the ability of quinpirole (0.01-0.3 mg/kg i.m.) to elicit yawning was examined. Significant positive (globus pallidus) and negative (caudate nucleus, putamen, ventral pallidum, and hippocampus) relationships between D3R receptor availability and quinpirole-induced yawns were noted. Experiment 2 replicated earlier findings that a history of cocaine self-administration (n = 11) did not affect quinpirole-induced yawning and extended this to examine monkeys (n = 3) with a history of methamphetamine (MA) self-administration and found that monkeys with experience self-administering MA showed greater potency and significantly higher quinpirole-elicited yawning compared with controls. Finally, quinpirole-elicited yawning was studied in drug-naive female monkeys (n = 6) and compared with drug-naive male monkeys (n = 8). Sex differences were noted, with quinpirole being more potent and eliciting significantly more yawns in males compared with females. Taken together these findings support the use of quinpirole-elicited yawning as a behavioral tool for examining D3R activation in monkeys and that both drug history and sex may influence individual sensitivity to the behavioral effects of D3R compounds. PMID:24876234

  4. Relationships between Mechanical Nociceptive Threshold and Activity of Antioxidant Enzymes in Male Rats with Experimental Type I Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Shipilov, V N; Chistyakova, O V; Trost, A M

    2016-05-01

    We analyzed the dynamics of neuropathic pain development and changes in catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in the brain, liver, and skeletal muscles of male Wistar rats with 1-month streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus. A decrease in mechanical nociceptive threshold was revealed that progressed during the disease progress. Insulin treatment restored nociceptive threshold in diabetic animals to the control values. Catalase activity in the liver and skeletal muscles of diabetic rats increased by 1.5 and 2 times, respectively, in comparison with the control, while insulin treatment reduced enzyme activity to the control level. In the brain, catalase activity was reduced by 1.5 times and insulin therapy did affect this parameter. SOD activity in the studied tissues remained unchanged during diabetes and was not affected by insulin therapy. A strong negative correlation between nociceptive threshold in rats and catalase activity in their liver and skeletal muscles was found. PMID:27270940

  5. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2016-03-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. PMID:26643557

  6. Analysis of the Chaotic Characteristics of Human Colonic Activities and Comparison of Healthy Participants to Costive Subjects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Constipation is a common yet distressing disease that has high rates of morbidity and impacts patients' quality of life. However, there is no perfect method to distinguish costive patients from healthy subjects. Is there chaos in human colonic activities? Are there any differences for the chaos indicators of colonic activities between healthy and costive subjects? Can these indicators distinguish patients with constipation from healthy subjects? To answer these questions, colonic pressure data from 16 healthy subjects and 48 patients with constipation were analyzed using the chaos theory. Three chaotic indicators [i.e., the largest Lyapunov exponent (LyE), correlation dimension (CorDim), and Kolmogorov entropy (KoEn)] were calculated and compared between groups with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. As a result, the LyE was greater than zero and the CorDim was fractioned, which showed that human colonic activities have clear chaotic characteristics. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups for CorDim (p < 0.05), whereas LyE did not show statistically significant differences between groups. The chaotic indicator of CorDim was able to differentiate between patients with constipation and healthy subjects. The chaos theory provides a new method for learning the nonlinear dynamics of human gastrointestinal activities.

  7. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to HIV-infected subjects augments reduced leukotriene synthesis and anticryptococcal activity in neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, M J; Phare, S M; George, S; Peters-Golden, M; Kazanjian, P H

    1998-01-01

    Neutrophil (PMN) dysfunction occurs in HIV infection. Leukotrienes (LT) are mediators derived from the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway that play a role in host defense and are synthesized by PMN. We investigated the synthesis of LT by PMN from HIV-infected subjects. There was a reduction (4.0+/-1.3% of control) in LT synthesis in PMN from HIV-infected compared with normal subjects. This was associated with reduced expression of 5-LO-activating protein (31.2+/-9.6% of normal), but not of 5-LO itself. Since HIV does not directly infect PMN, we considered that these effects were due to reduced release of cytokines, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). We examined the effect of G-CSF treatment (300 microgram daily for 5 d) on eight HIV-infected subjects. PMN were studied in vitro before therapy (day 1) and on days 4 and 7. LTB4 synthesis was increased on day 4 of G-CSF treatment, and returned toward day 1 levels on day 7. 5-LO and 5-LO-activating protein expression were increased in parallel. As a functional correlate to this increase in PMN LT synthesis by G-CSF, we examined the effects on killing of Cryptococcus neoformans. Anticryptococcal activity of PMN from HIV-infected subjects was less than that of PMN from normal subjects. G-CSF treatment improved fungistatic activity of PMN. This increase in antifungal activity was attenuated by in vitro treatment with the LT synthesis inhibitor, MK-886. In conclusion, PMN from HIV-infected subjects demonstrate reduced 5-LO metabolism and antifungal activity in vitro, which was reversed by in vivo G-CSF therapy. PMID:9710433

  8. Relative activity of cerebral subcortical gray matter in varying states of attention and awareness in normal subjects and patient studies

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.; Chen, C.T.; Levy, J.; Wagner, N.; Spire, J.P.; Jacobsen, J.; Meltzer, H.; Metz, J.; Beck, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    An important aspect of the study of brain function involves measurement of the relationships; between activities in the subcortical gray matter of the caudate and of the thalamus; and between these structures and functional cortical areas. The authors have studied these relationships in 22 subjects under different conditions of activation, sleep and sensory deprivation using a PET VI system and F-18-2DG to determine regional cerebral metabolism. Subject activating conditions were maintained throughout the period of equilibration of F-18-2DG and E.E.G.'s were monitored. Multiple tomographic slices of 1-2 million counts were obtained simultaneously with slice separation of 14mm and each plane parallel to the cantho-meatal line. In activated and non-activated awake conditions for normal subjects, left and right thalmus-to-caudate ratios were similar and greater than unity. This relationship was maintained in non-REM sleep, but was reversed and divergent in REM sleep and sensory deprivation; this was also evident in 3/4 narcoleptics awake and asleep in non-REM and REM and 2/3 schizophrenics and affective disorder, subjects. This approach appears to have potential for characterizating normal and disordered regional cerebral function.

  9. Increased Orbitofrontal Brain Activation after Administration of a Selective Adenosine A2A Antagonist in Cocaine Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, F. Gerard; Steinberg, Joel L.; Lane, Scott D.; Kjome, Kimberly L.; Ma, Liangsuo; Ferre, Sergi; Schmitz, Joy M.; Green, Charles E.; Bandak, Stephen I.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Kramer, Larry A.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Positron Emission Tomography imaging studies provide evidence of reduced dopamine function in cocaine dependent subjects in the striatum, which is correlated with prefrontal cortical glucose metabolism, particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex. However, whether enhancement of dopamine in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects would be associated with changes in prefrontal cortical brain activation is unknown. One novel class of medications that enhance dopamine function via heteromer formation with dopamine receptors in the striatum is the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonists. This study sought to determine the effects administration of the selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SYN115 on brain function in cocaine dependent subjects. Methodology/Principle Findings: Twelve cocaine dependent subjects underwent two fMRI scans (one after a dose of placebo and one after a dose of 100 mg of SYN115) while performing a working memory task with three levels of difficulty (3, 5, and 7 digits). fMRI results showed that for 7-digit working memory activation there was significantly greater activation from SYN115 compared to placebo in portions of left (L) lateral orbitofrontal cortex, L insula, and L superior and middle temporal pole. Conclusion/Significance: These findings are consistent with enhanced dopamine function in the striatum in cocaine dependent subjects via blockade of adenosine A2A receptors producing increased brain activation in the orbitofrontal cortex and other cortical regions. This suggests that at least some of the changes in brain activation in prefrontal cortical regions in cocaine dependent subjects may be related to altered striatal dopamine function, and that enhancement of dopamine function via adenosine A2A receptor blockade could be explored further for amelioration of neurobehavioral deficits associated with chronic cocaine use. PMID:22654774

  10. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Khatiwada, Manish; Gracely, John L.; Rayhan, Rakib; VanMeter, John W.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog”) is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ), a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy) on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. PMID:26955513

  11. Contact system dependent fibrinolytic activity in vivo: observations in healthy subjects and factor XII deficient patients.

    PubMed

    Levi, M; Hack, C E; de Boer, J P; Brandjes, D P; Büller, H R; ten Cate, J W

    1992-01-01

    The contribution of activation of the contact system to activation of the fibrinolytic system in vivo was investigated in healthy volunteers and in factor XII deficient patients. The plasminogen activating activity in normal plasma was only partially blocked (for 77%) with specific antibodies to tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). The residual activity could be quenched by a monoclonal antibody that inhibits factor XII activity and was not present in patients with a factor XII deficiency. The formation of plasmin upon the DDAVP stimulus as reflected by circulating plasmin-alpha 2-antiplasmin (PAP) complexes was lower in factor XII deficient patients than in healthy volunteers. These results indicate that in vivo the plasminogen activating activity is partially dependent on activation of the contact system. This fibrinolytic activity is impaired in factor XII deficient patients which may explain the occurrence of thromboembolic complications in these patients.

  12. Effects of an Obesity Intervention Integrating Physical Activity and Psychological Strategy on BMI, Physical Activity, and Psychological Variables in Male Obese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, HakGweon; Kim, YoungHo

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of an obesity intervention incorporating physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention on BMI, physical activity levels, and psychological variables toward physical activity in male obese adolescents. Single group study without having a control group was carried out in Korea. Sixty-eight obese male adolescents who had BMI greater than 25 kg/m(2) participated in the 16-week obesity intervention. During this period, the study participants' BMI, physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers were measured at the three time point (baseline, after week 8, and after week 16). Results indicated that obese adolescents' BMI significantly decreased (F = 3.51, p = .03) and physical activity (F = 4.01, p = .02) significantly increased over the 16-week obesity intervention. In addition, Exercise self-efficacy (F = 5.02) and perceived benefits toward physical activity (F = 5.34) significantly increased but perceived barriers of physical activity (F = 5.10) gradually decreased over the intervention. This study suggests that an obesity intervention combining physical activity and behavior-based motivational enhancement intervention significantly contributed to decreased BMI, increased physical activity, and positively changed psychological variables related to physical activity. This first application has resulted in preliminary support for this intervention modality within non-western obese adolescents.

  13. Vomeronasal neuroepithelium and forebrain Fos responses to male pheromones in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Halem, H A; Cherry, J A; Baum, M J

    1999-05-01

    Male urinary pheromones modulate behavioral and neuroendocrine function in mice after being detected by sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ (VNO) neuroepithelium. We used nuclear Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as a marker of changes in neuronal activity to examine the processing of male pheromones throughout the VNO projection pathway to the hypothalamus. Sexually naive male and female Balb/c mice were gonadectomized and treated daily with estradiol benzoate (EB) or oil vehicle for 3 weeks. Subjects were then exposed to soiled bedding from gonadally intact Balb/c males or to clean bedding for 90 min prior to sacrifice and processing of their VNOs and forebrains for Fos-IR. Male pheromones induced similar numbers of Fos-IR cells in the VNO neuroepithelium of oil-treated male and female subjects; however, EB-treated females had significantly more Fos-IR neurons in the VNO than any other group. There was an equivalent neuronal Fos response to male odors in the mitral and granule cells of the anterior and posterior accessory olfactory bulb of males and females, regardless of hormone treatment. In central portions of the VNO projection pathway (i.e., bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial preoptic area) neuronal Fos responses to male pheromones were present in female but absent in male subjects, regardless of hormone treatment. In a separate experiment, mating induced neuronal Fos-IR in these brain regions at levels in gonadally intact male subjects which were equal to or greater than those seen in ovariectomized females primed with estrogen and progesterone. This suggests that neurons in the central portions of the male's VNO pathway are capable of expressing Fos. Our results suggest that sexually dimorphic central responses to pheromones exist in mice that may begin in the VNO neuroepithelium.

  14. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ∼5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (∼4 beat/min and ∼5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (∼5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  15. Kinetics of the phthalate metabolites mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in male subjects after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Astrid; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2016-06-11

    Humans have been exposed to dialkyl ortho-phthalates for decades. Due to degradation the phthalate monoesters, responsible for the toxic effects, are additionally found in environmental media as well as food samples. Nevertheless, the toxicokinetic properties of the monoesters are not known. Therefore, metabolism of the phthalate monoesters mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was studied in four male volunteers (23-58 years of age) after ingestion of a single dose of 50μg/kg bw D4-MEHP or 10μg/kg bw D4-MnBP. The main metabolites in urine were determined up to 46h after administration. In the MEHP-study, more than 90% of each metabolite appeared in the urine within the first 22h, and the average excreted amount of D4-MEHP and its four secondary metabolites was 62% of the administered dose. The highest value of 15% was observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl phthalate (D4-5cx-MEPP). The mean elimination half-life of D4-MEHP was estimated to be 3.5±1.4h. In the MnBP-study, the total recovered values of D4-MnBP and its secondary metabolites ranged from 52% to 130%. The monoester itself, with a half-life of 1.9±0.5h, accounted for the majority of the ingested dose (92%), while the secondary metabolites D4-mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (D4-3OH-MnBP) and D4-3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (D4-3cx-MPP) represented only 7.1% and 1.0% of the ingested dose, respectively. Overall, this study determined that the kinetics of the phthalate monoesters MEHP and MnBP after oral dosage are comparable to the properties of their diesters.

  16. Kinetics of the phthalate metabolites mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in male subjects after a single oral dose.

    PubMed

    Mittermeier, Astrid; Völkel, Wolfgang; Fromme, Hermann

    2016-06-11

    Humans have been exposed to dialkyl ortho-phthalates for decades. Due to degradation the phthalate monoesters, responsible for the toxic effects, are additionally found in environmental media as well as food samples. Nevertheless, the toxicokinetic properties of the monoesters are not known. Therefore, metabolism of the phthalate monoesters mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) was studied in four male volunteers (23-58 years of age) after ingestion of a single dose of 50μg/kg bw D4-MEHP or 10μg/kg bw D4-MnBP. The main metabolites in urine were determined up to 46h after administration. In the MEHP-study, more than 90% of each metabolite appeared in the urine within the first 22h, and the average excreted amount of D4-MEHP and its four secondary metabolites was 62% of the administered dose. The highest value of 15% was observed for mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxy-pentyl phthalate (D4-5cx-MEPP). The mean elimination half-life of D4-MEHP was estimated to be 3.5±1.4h. In the MnBP-study, the total recovered values of D4-MnBP and its secondary metabolites ranged from 52% to 130%. The monoester itself, with a half-life of 1.9±0.5h, accounted for the majority of the ingested dose (92%), while the secondary metabolites D4-mono-3-hydroxy-n-butyl phthalate (D4-3OH-MnBP) and D4-3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (D4-3cx-MPP) represented only 7.1% and 1.0% of the ingested dose, respectively. Overall, this study determined that the kinetics of the phthalate monoesters MEHP and MnBP after oral dosage are comparable to the properties of their diesters. PMID:27091076

  17. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  18. Effect of Carissa opaca leaves extract on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity and reproductive hormones in male rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Carissa opaca leaves are traditionally used in the treatment of male dysfunction and hormonal disorder as well as in oxidative stress in Pakistan and Asia. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves (MLC) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced reproductive stress in male rats and bioactive constituents responsible for the activity. Methods CCl4 was induced in 42 male rats for eight weeks and checked the protective efficacy of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca leaves at various hormonal imbalances, alteration of antioxidant enzymes, DNA fragmentation levels and lipid peroxidation caused testicular fibrosis in testis while High performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) was used for detection of bioactive components. Results HPLC characterization revealed the presence of isoquercitin , hyperoside , vitexin , myricetin and kaempherol. CCl4 caused significant alteration in the secretion of reproductive hormones. Activity of antioxidant enzymes viz; catalase, superoxide dimutase and phase II metabolizing enzymes including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and reduced glutathione was decreased while DNA fragmentation, hydrogen per oxide contents and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were increased with CCl4 treatment. Co-administration of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg b.w. MLC effectively ameliorated the alterations in the biochemical markers; hormonal and molecular levels. Conclusion Protective effects of methanolic extract of Carissa opaca against CCl4−induced antioxidant and hormonal dysfunction which might be due to bioactive compound present in extract. PMID:23786717

  19. A study of the prostate, androgens and sexual activity of male rats

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Maria Elena; Soto-Cid, Abraham; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Díaz, Rosaura; Rojas, Fausto; Garcia, Luis I; Toledo, Rebeca; Manzo, Jorge

    2007-01-01

    Background The prostate is a sexual gland that produces important substances for the potency of sperm to fertilize eggs within the female reproductive tract, and is under complex endocrine control. Taking advantage of the peculiar behavioral pattern of copulating male rats, we developed experimental paradigms to determine the influence of sexual behavior on the level of serum testosterone, prostate androgen receptors, and mRNA for androgen receptors in male rats displaying up to four consecutive ejaculations. Methods The effect of four consecutive ejaculations was investigated by determining levels of (i) testosterone in serum by solid phase RIA, (ii) androgen receptors at the ventral prostate with Western Blots, and (iii) androgen receptors-mRNA with RT-PCR. Data were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc application of Dunnett's test if required. Results The constant execution of sexual behavior did not produce any change in the weight of the ventral prostate. Serum testosterone increased after the second ejaculation, and remained elevated even after four ejaculations. The androgen receptor at the ventral prostate was higher after the first to third ejaculations, but returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. The level of mRNA increased after the first ejaculation, continued to increase after the second, and reached the highest peak after the third ejaculation; however, it returned suddenly to baseline levels after the fourth ejaculation. Conclusion Four consecutive ejaculations by sexually experienced male rats had important effects on the physiological responses of the ventral prostate. Fast responses were induced as a result of sexual behavior that involved an increase and decrease in androgen receptors after one and four ejaculations, respectively. However, a progressive response was observed in the elevation of mRNA for androgen receptors, which also showed a fast decrease after four ejaculations. All of these changes

  20. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Serrão, Júlio C.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G.; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L. Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P.; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length) performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05) in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application. Key points Researchers involved in collecting data in this study have no financial or personal interest in the outcome of results or the sponsor. The perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesiology taping application. Kinesiology taping application may not alter the magnitude of EMG activity of vastuslateralis, vastusmedialis, and biceps femoris during the barbell back squat exercise. Electromyographic activity of

  1. Expression of p21-activated kinases 1 and 3 is altered in the brain of subjects with depression.

    PubMed

    Fuchsova, Beata; Alvarez Juliá, Anabel; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Frasch, Alberto Carlos; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2016-10-01

    The p21-activated kinases (PAKs) of group I are the main effectors for the small Rho GTPases, critically involved in neurodevelopment, plasticity and maturation of the nervous system. Moreover, the neuronal complexity controlled by PAK1/PAK3 signaling determines the postnatal brain size and synaptic properties. Stress induces alterations at the level of structural and functional synaptic plasticity accompanied by reductions in size and activity of the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). These abnormalities are likely to contribute to the pathology of depression and, in part, reflect impaired cytoskeleton remodeling pointing to the role of Rho GTPase signaling. Thus, the present study assessed the expression of the group I PAKs and their activators in the brain of depressed subjects. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), mRNA levels and coexpression of the group I PAKs: PAK1, PAK2, and PAK3 as well as of their activators: RAC1, CDC42 and ARHGEF7 were examined in postmortem samples from the PFC (n=25) and the hippocampus (n=23) of subjects with depression and compared to control subjects (PFC n=24; hippocampus n=21). Results demonstrated that mRNA levels of PAK1 and PAK3, are significantly reduced in the brain of depressed subjects, with PAK1 being reduced in the PFC and PAK3 in the hippocampus. No differences were observed for the ubiquitously expressed PAK2. Following analysis of gene coexpression demonstrated disruption of coordinated gene expression in the brain of subjects with depression. Abnormalities in mRNA expression of PAK1 and PAK3 as well as their altered coexpression patterns were detected in the brain of subjects with depression. PMID:27474226

  2. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Taian M; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  3. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  4. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations? 660.3 Section 660.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  5. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations? 660.3 Section 660.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  6. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations? 660.3 Section 660.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  7. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations? 660.3 Section 660.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  8. 45 CFR 660.3 - What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What programs and activities of the Foundation are subject to these regulations? 660.3 Section 660.3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...

  9. Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impulsivity and brain correlates of response inhibition and error processing among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We evaluated the response inhibition and error processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in subjects with IGD and controls. Twenty-six men with IGD for at least 2 years and 23 controls with no history of IGD were recruited as the IGD and control groups, respectively. All subjects performed the event-related designed Go/No-go task under fMRI and completed questionnaires related to Internet addiction and impulsivity. The IGD group exhibited a higher score for impulsivity than the control group. The IGD group also exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus than controls. Both the IGD and control groups exhibited activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during error processing. The activation over the right insula was lower in the subjects with IGD than the control group. Our results support the fact that the fronto-striatal network involved in response inhibition, and the salience network, anchored by the anterior cingulate and insula, contributes to error processing. Further, adults with IGD have impaired insular function in error processing and greater activation of the fronto-striatal network in order to maintain their response inhibition performance. PMID:24469099

  10. 24 CFR 52.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 52.3 Section 52.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF......

  11. 24 CFR 52.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 52.3 Section 52.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF......

  12. 24 CFR 52.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 52.3 Section 52.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF......

  13. 24 CFR 52.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 52.3 Section 52.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF......

  14. 24 CFR 52.3 - What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What programs and activities of the Department are subject to these regulations? 52.3 Section 52.3 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF......

  15. Altered brain activation during response inhibition and error processing in subjects with Internet gaming disorder: a functional magnetic imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Tsyh-Jyi; Chen, Chiao-Yun; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu; Wang, Peng-Wei; Liu, Gin-Chung

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impulsivity and brain correlates of response inhibition and error processing among subjects with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). We evaluated the response inhibition and error processing by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in subjects with IGD and controls. Twenty-six men with IGD for at least 2 years and 23 controls with no history of IGD were recruited as the IGD and control groups, respectively. All subjects performed the event-related designed Go/No-go task under fMRI and completed questionnaires related to Internet addiction and impulsivity. The IGD group exhibited a higher score for impulsivity than the control group. The IGD group also exhibited higher brain activation when processing response inhibition over the left orbital frontal lobe and bilateral caudate nucleus than controls. Both the IGD and control groups exhibited activation of the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during error processing. The activation over the right insula was lower in the subjects with IGD than the control group. Our results support the fact that the fronto-striatal network involved in response inhibition, and the salience network, anchored by the anterior cingulate and insula, contributes to error processing. Further, adults with IGD have impaired insular function in error processing and greater activation of the fronto-striatal network in order to maintain their response inhibition performance.

  16. Long-term treadmill exercise improves spatial memory of male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice by regulation of BDNF expression and microglia activation.

    PubMed

    Xiong, J Y; Li, S C; Sun, Y X; Zhang, X S; Dong, Z Z; Zhong, P; Sun, X R

    2015-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that physical activity could delay or attenuate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). But the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. To investigate the effect of long-term treadmill exercise on the spatial memory of AD mice and the possible role of β-amyloid, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and microglia in the effect, male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice aged 4 months were subjected to treadmill exercise for 5 months with 6 sessions per week and gradually increased load. A Morris water maze was used to evaluate the spatial memory. Expression levels of β-amyloid, BDNF and Iba-1 (a microglia marker) in brain tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry. Sedentary AD mice and wildtype C57BL/6J mice served as controls. The results showed that 5-month treadmill exercise significantly decreased the escape latencies (P < 0.01 on the 4th day) and improved the spatial memory of the AD mice in the water maze test. Meanwhile, treadmill exercise significantly increased the number of BDNF-positive cells and decreased the ratios of activated microglia in both the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise did not significantly alleviate the accumulation of β-amyloid in either the cerebral cortex or the hippocampus of the AD mice (P > 0.05). The study suggested that long-term treadmill exercise could improve the spatial memory of the male APPswe/PS1dE9 AD mice. The increase in BDNF-positive cells and decrease in activated microglia might underpin the beneficial effect.

  17. Activation of the Hippocampal Complex during Tactile Maze Sol