Science.gov

Sample records for active margin setting

  1. Geochemical discrimination of siliciclastic sediments from active and passive margin settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Surendra P.; Armstrong-Altrin, John S.

    2016-03-01

    Discrimination of active and passive margins is important from both academic and economic aspects. This can only be successfully achieved, however, if there are major compositional differences among sediments derived from different continental margins. A worldwide database of active and passive margin settings was established from published major and trace element geochemical data of Neogene to Quaternary siliciclastic sediments. These data were used to evaluate the performance of existing discrimination diagrams, which were shown to work unsatisfactorily with success values of mostly between 0% and 30%. Because these diagrams were not based on a statistically coherent methodology, we proposed two new discriminant functions from linear discriminant analysis of multinormally distributed isometric log-transformed ratios of major and combined major and trace elements. These new diagrams showed very high percent success values of about 87%-97% and 84%-86% for the active and passive margins, respectively, for the original database. Excellent performance of the multidimensional diagrams and related discriminant functions was confirmed from 11 test studies involving Quaternary to Holocene siliciclastic sediments from known tectonic margins. The expected result of an active or passive margin was obtained, with most samples plotting correctly in the respective field.

  2. Neogene paleoceanographic events recorded in an active-margin setting: Humboldt basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrory, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Recognition of North Pacific paleoceanographic events in the marginal Humboldt (Eel River) basin of northern California enables correlation of stratigraphic sections and development of a chronostratigraphy. Paleoclimatically related coiling shifts in Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (Ehrenberg) and benthic foraminiferal datums form the basis of the chronostratigraphy. Benthic foraminiferal datums are defined by the occurrence of selected benthic species and abundance maxima of benthic biofacies. The compiled chronostratigraphy is used to refine reconstructions of the depositional history of Humboldt basin. Paleoceanographic events, recognized by the distribution of benthic foraminiferal biofacies, are used to infer paleoceanographic history along the northeastern Pacific margin. The similarity in coiling curves of N. pachyderma from the marine sequence at DSDP Site 173 and the coastal Centerville Beach section of Humboldt basin and at other independently dated sites along the northeastern Pacific margin demonstrates that matching records of climatic oscillations is a reliable method of correlating marine sequences. Benthic fauna from the Centerville Beach section vary in phase with climatically related coiling shifts in N. pachyderma. In particular these data show an increase in displaced neritic fauna during inferred warm intervals and resurgence of deeper bathyal fauna during inferred cool events. Similar data are observed from the inland Eel River section, demonstrating that benthic foraminiferal trends recognized at Centerville Beach can be identified elsewhere in Humboldt basin. This in-phase benthic response to climatic fluctuations probably results from changes in vertical depth range of many benthic species in response to paleoclimatically related vertical changes in water-mass position. Depositional histories reconstructed for two key sites in southern Humboldt basin indicate low rates of sediment accumulation during early basin filling with hemipelagic

  3. Actively stressed marginal networks.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, M; Broedersz, C P; MacKintosh, F C

    2012-12-07

    We study the effects of motor-generated stresses in disordered three-dimensional fiber networks using a combination of a mean-field theory, scaling analysis, and a computational model. We find that motor activity controls the elasticity in an anomalous fashion close to the point of marginal stability by coupling to critical network fluctuations. We also show that motor stresses can stabilize initially floppy networks, extending the range of critical behavior to a broad regime of network connectivities below the marginal point. Away from this regime, or at high stress, motors give rise to a linear increase in stiffness with stress. Finally, we demonstrate that our results are captured by a simple, constitutive scaling relation highlighting the important role of nonaffine strain fluctuations as a susceptibility to motor stress.

  4. Magnitude and Recurrence of Submarine Landslides: Active vs. Passive Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urgeles, Roger; Camerlenghi, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Submarine landslides are ubiquitous along Mediterranean continental margins. With the aim of understanding mass-wasting processes and related hazard at the scale of a large marine basin encompassing multiple geological settings, we have compiled data on their geometry, age, and trigger mechanism with a geographic information system. The distribution of submarine landslides in the Mediterranean reveals that major deltaic wedges have a higher density of large submarine landslides, while tectonically active margins are characterized by relatively small failures. In all areas, landslide size distributions display power law scaling for landslides > 1 km3. We find consistent differences on the exponent of the power law (θ) depending on the tectonic setting. Active margins present steep slopes of the frequency-magnitude relationship while passive margins tend to display gentler slopes. This pattern likely responds to the common view that tectonically active margins have numerous but small failures, while passive margins have larger but fewer failures. Available age information suggests that failures exceeding 1000 km3 are infrequent and may recur every ~40 kyr. Smaller failures that can still cause significant damage might be relatively frequent (failures > 1 km3 may recur every 40 years). The database highlights that our knowledge of submarine landslide activity with time is limited to a few tens of thousands of years. Available data suggest that submarine landslides may preferentially occur during lowstand periods, but no firm conclusion can be made on this respect, as only 70 landslides (out of 696 in the database) have relatively accurate age determinations. The temporal pattern and changes in frequency-magnitude distribution suggest that sedimentation patterns and pore pressure development have had a major role in triggering slope failures and control the sediment flux from mass wasting to the deep basin.

  5. Overview of the petroleum potential of active margins

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Active convergent margins are of two types. Type A, characterized by Ampherer or Alpino-type subduction, is represented by thick- and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts and the dynamically associated foreland basins that are developed in continental settings. Type B, characterized by Benioff-type subduction, is characterized by the trench, accretionary prism, forearc association developed on present-day active continental margins, notably around the Pacific and northeast Indian Ocean. Prolific hydrocarbon reserves are associated with A-type subduction settings, notably the Zagros fold belt and Persian Gulf, the Rockies and the Alberta basin. By contrast, only minor reserves have been proven in B-type subduction settings despite ample evidence of active seepage and large structures. Key contributing factors to the lack of exploration success are a combination of low geothermal gradients, lack of effective reservoir, and imaging of complex traps whose integrity may be impacted by the active deformation. Notable exceptions are Cook Inlet, Alaska, and the Progresso basin, Ecuador, where thick successor basins have been charged with hydrocarbons generated in the underlying accretionary prism.

  6. Vertical tectonics at an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houlié, N.; Stern, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Direct observations of vertical movements of the earth's surface are now possible with space-based GPS networks, and have applications to resources, hazards and tectonics. Here we present data on vertical movements of the Earth's surface in New Zealand, computed from the processing of GPS data collected between 2000 and 2015 by 189 permanent GPS stations. We map the geographical variation in vertical rates and show how these variations are explicable within a tectonic framework of subduction, volcanic activity and slow slip earthquakes. Subsidence of >3 mm/yr is observed along southeastern North Island and is interpreted to be due to the locked segment of the Hikurangi subduction zone. Uplift of 1-3 mm/yr further north along the margin of the eastern North Island is interpreted as being due to the plate interface being unlocked and underplating of sediment on the subduction thrust. The Volcanic Plateau of the central North Island is being uplifted at about 1 mm/yr, which can be explained by basaltic melts being injected in the active mantle-wedge at a rate of ∼6 mm/yr. Within the Central Volcanic Region there is a 250 km2 area that subsided between 2005 and 2012 at a rate of up to 14 mm/yr. Time series from the stations located within and near the zone of subsidence show a strong link between subsidence, adjacent uplift and local earthquake swarms.

  7. Svecofennian orogeny in an evolving convergent margin setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa

    2015-04-01

    The dominant tectonic mode changes from extension to convergence at around 1.9 Ga in Fennoscandian. The lithological record suggests short lived subduction-related magmatic events followed by deformation and low-pressure high temperature metamorphism. At around 1.8 Ga the subduction systems seem to have stabilized implying continuous supply of oceanic lithosphere. The evolution of the convergent margin is recorded in the rock record and crustal architecture of the long lived Svecofennian orogeny (1.9-1.7 Ga). A closer look at the internal structure of the Svecofennian orogen reveals distinct regional differences. The northern and central parts of the Svecofennian orogen that have been formed during the initial accretionary phase - or compilation of the nucleus - have a thick three-layer crust and with thick mafic lower crust (10-30 km) and block-like internal architecture. Reflection profiles (FIRE1-3) image listric structures flattening on crustal scale décollement zones at the upper-middle crust and middle-upper crust boundaries. The crustal architecture together with large volumes of exposed granitoid rocks suggests spreading of the orogen and the development of an orogenic plateau west of the continental convergence boundary. The architecture is reminiscent of a large hot orogen. Within the western and southwestern part of the Svecofennian orogen (BABEL B, 1, 2, 3&4), which have been envisioned to have formed during continuous subduction phase, the crust is thinner (45-50 km) and it is hosting crustal blocks having one to two crustal layers. Layering is poorly developed in crustal blocks that are found S-SW of NE-dipping mantle reflections previously interpreted as paleo-subduction zones. Within these blocks, the crustal scale reflective structures dip NE (prowedge) or form pop-up wedges (uplifted plug) above the paleo-subduction zones. Crustal blocks with well-developed two-layer crust are located NE of the paleo-subduction zone. The architecture can be

  8. Subduction Variability Along the Active Chilean Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, C. J.; Barckhausen, U.; Bartsch, H.; Block, M.; Boennemann, C.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Flueh, E. R.; Delisle, G.; Gaedicke, C.; Kopp, H.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Kus, J.; Ladage, S.; Ranero, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Stoll, J. B.; Urbina, O.; Wiedicke-Hombach, M.

    2002-12-01

    The presence of different subduction modes in the convergence process between the Nazca and South-American plates along the Chilean margin is known from previous investigations. In order to study this variability in detail a comprehensive combined off- and onshore geo-scientific survey (SPOC) was recently conducted between Coquimbo and Valdivia in collaboration between a number of German and Chilean institutions. Major focus was also put on the structure of the sedimentary forearc basins and the distribution of gas hydrates along the slope. SPOC is the successor project to a similar experiment named CINCA that was earlier performed in the far north of Chile between Arica and Taltal. The SPOC results clearly show a change in subduction mode at about 33 deg S where the Juan Fernandez Ridge presently strikes the margin. North of that latitude, structural features such as extensional fracturing of the continental slope, very little or almost no sedimentary trench fill, intensive block faulting of the oceanic crust, a missing accretionary wedge, a very narrow shelf and other facts provide evidence for subduction erosion in that region. South of 33 deg S, we observed significantly steeper frontal slope angles and much less inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench. In general, the topography of the oceanic crust is relatively smooth with the exception of several seamounts and fracture zones. Moreover, the width of the trench and of the shelf significantly widens toward the south, and pronounced forearc basins developed. Compared to the thick sedimentary trench fill of up to 2 km a very narrow accretionary wedge was encountered. Preliminary mass balancing combined with the assumption that the high present convergence rate occurred also in the past suggests that the bulk of the trench sediments is removed by subduction. Thus, accretionary processes can play only a subordinate or intermittent role. Geological seafloor samples support the assumption that small- to

  9. Annotated bibliography on participatory consultations to help aid the inclusion of marginalized perspectives in setting policy agendas.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Faraz Rahim

    2014-12-20

    The purpose of this bibliography is to present studies from peer-reviewed and grey literature that used consultations and other participatory strategies to capture a community's perspective of their health priorities, and of techniques used to elevate participation from the implementation phase to a more upstream phase of prioritization, policymaking and agenda setting. The focus here is of those studies that worked with marginalized populations or sub-populations. This bibliography contains four areas of research. It begins by first offering some philosophical and conceptual frameworks that link participatory interventions with inclusive policy making or agenda setting, and a rationale for prioritizing marginalized populations in such an undertaking. After situating ourselves in this manner, the second section looks at various participatory instruments for participatory consultations, for reaching out to marginalized populations, and for communicating the results to policymakers. Two sets of distinctions are made here: one between external (non-invitation) and internal (stifling of opinions) exclusion, and between mere participation and from active inclusion within consultations and within the policies. In the third section, examples of consultations that created or changed policy in various jurisdictions are shared, followed by a final section on a reflective and evaluative look at the recruitment, instruments and examples. An earlier iteration of this bibliography was created to assist a multi-country research project by the author to inform the UN Post-2015 development framework of the views of several diverse and highly marginalized populations around the world on their health-related priorities.

  10. Transverse extension of Guatemala active margin: implications for accretion

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, K.J.

    1987-05-01

    The inner trench wall of the Middle America Trench off Guatemala does not show evidence of accretion, based on DSDP Legs 67 and 84. The presence of normal faults on the lower inner trench slope has resulted in various subsidence models for the margin. Fault traces would be expected to trend parallel to the margin (northwest-southeast) if margin subsidence had occurred. Instead, the faults trend north-south and occur in groups of faults downdropped to the east and to the west. The faults do not seem to be related to margin subsidence but rather to previously proposed Cenozoic Central American rifting. The rifting resulted from crustal bending as the Central American block rounded southern Mexico during differential North American/Caribbean plate motion. The rifts, which extend nearly to the trench axis, underlie the San Jose submarine canyon and align with the Guatemala City graben. Possible east-west accommodation zones, between fault zones that dip in opposite directions, exist near the shelf edge. These accommodation zones may have formed along lines of weakness where oceanic crust was previously emplaced into the margin during or prior to the Eocene. These rifts show that compressional and extension features can occur simultaneously with underthrusting on active margins.

  11. Modification of Axial-Flow Compressor Stall Margin by Variation of Stationary Blade Setting Angles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-01

    AD-A238 406 / FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Modification of axial-flow compressor stall margin by variation of stationary blade setting angles by - ’ | JUL...7 1.3 A voiding Stall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2. RELATED ISOLATED AIRFOIL DYNAMIC S’IALL...Comprcssor pressure r:se ratio ....... .................. 11:3 4.3.3 Inlet correctc-i rotational speed . . ... .......... 114 4.3.4 Detection of stall in

  12. Strongly Accelerated Margination of Active Particles in Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Gekle, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic nanoparticles and other stiff objects injected into a blood vessel filled with red blood cells are known to marginate toward the vessel walls. By means of hydrodynamic lattice-Boltzmann simulations, we show that active particles can strongly accelerate their margination by moving against the flow direction: particles located initially in the channel center migrate much faster to their final position near the wall than in the nonactive case. We explain our findings by an enhanced rate of collisions between the stiff particles and the deformable red blood cells. Our results imply that a significantly faster margination can be achieved either technically by the application of an external magnetic field (if the particles are magnetic) or biologically by self-propulsion (if the particles are, e.g., swimming bacteria). PMID:26789773

  13. Hydrogeological structure of a seafloor hydrothermal system related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishibashi, Jun-ichiro

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor hydrothermal systems in the Okinawa Trough backarc basin are considered as related to backarc rifting in a continental margin setting. Since the seafloor is dominantly covered with felsic volcaniclastic material and/or terrigenous sediment, hydrothermal circulation is expected to be distributed within sediment layers of significantly high porosity. Deep drilling through an active hydrothermal field at the Iheya North Knoll in the middle Okinawa Trough during IODP Expedition 331 provided a unique opportunity to directly access the subseafloor. While sedimentation along the slopes of the knoll was dominated by volcanic clasts of tubular pumice, intense hydrothermal alteration was recognized in the vicinity of the hydrothermal center even at very shallow depths. Detailed mineralogical and geochemical studies of hydrothermal clay minerals in the altered sediment suggest that the prevalent alteration is attributed to laterally extensive fluid intrusion and occupation within the sediment layer. Onboard measurements of physical properties of the obtained sediment revealed drastic changes of the porosity caused by hydrothermal interactions. While unaltered sediment showed porosity higher than 70%, the porosity drastically decreased in the layer of anhydrite formation. On the other hand, the porosity remained high (~50%) in the layer of only chlorite alteration. Cap rock formation caused by anhydrite precipitation would inhibit the ascent of high temperature fluids to the seafloor. Moreover, an interbedded nature of pelagic mud units and matrix-free pumice deposits may prompt formation of a tightly layered architecture of aquifers and aquicludes. This sediment architecture should be highly conducive to lateral flow pseudo-parallel to the surface topography. Occurrence of sphalerite-rich sulfides was recognized as associated with detrital and altered sediment, suggesting mineralization related to subsurface chemical processes. Moreover, the vertical profiles of

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens With Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    of the molecules, which was only marginally suppressed by the steroid derivatives. Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on expression of...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not

  15. Geodynamic settings of microcontinents, non-volcanic islands and submerged continental marginal plateau formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, Evgeny; Grokholsky, Andrey; Makushkina, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Complex process of continental lithosphere breakup is often accompanied by full or semi isolation of small continental blocks from the parent continent such as microcontinents or submerged marginal plateaus. We present different types of continental blocks formed in various geodynamic settings. The process depends on thermo-mechanical properties of rifting. 1) The continental blocks fully isolated from the parent continent. This kind of blocks exist in submerged form (Elan Bank, the Jan-Mayen Ridge, Zenith Plateau, Gulden Draak Knoll, Batavia Knoll) and in non-submerged form in case of large block size. Most of listed submerged blocks are formed in proximity of hot-spot or plume. 2) The continental blocks semi-isolated from the parent continent. Exmouth Plateau, Vøring, Agulhas, Naturaliste are submerged continental plateaus of the indicated category; Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Socotra are islands adjacent to continent here. Nowadays illustration of this setting is the Sinai block located between the two continental rifts. 3) The submerged linear continental blocks formed by the continental rifting along margin (the Lomonosov Ridge). Suggested evolution of this paragraph is the rift propagation along existing transtensional (or another type) transform fault. Future example of this type might be the California Peninsula block, detached from the North American plate by the rifting within San-Andreas fault. 4) The submerged continental blocks formed by extensional processes as the result of asthenosphere flow and shear deformations. Examples are submerged blocks in the central and southern Scotia Sea (Terror Bank, Protector Basin, Discovery Bank, Bruce Bank etc.). 5) The continental blocks formed in the transform fault systems originated in setting of contradict rifts propagation in presence of structure barriers, rifts are shifted by several hundreds kilometers from each other. Examples of this geodynamic setting are Equatorial Atlantic at the initial development stage

  16. Margin evaluation of translational and rotational set-up errors in intensity modulated radiotherapy for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang; Shan, Guo-Ping; Liu, Ji-Ping; Wang, Bin-Bing

    2016-01-01

    A clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margin recipes was routinely used to ensure dose was actually delivered to target for all (most) patients. Currently used margin recipes were associated with only translational set-up errors in radiotherapy. However, when set-up errors extended to six-degree (6D) scope (three translational and three rotational set-up errors), margin recipe should be re-evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate dosimetric changes of targets (both CTV and PTV) coverage when 6D set-up errors were introduced and testify the practicability of currently used margin recipe in radiotherapy. A total number of 105 cone beam computer tomography scans for ten patients with cervical cancer were derived prior to treatment delivery and 6D set-up errors were acquired with image registration tools. Target coverage was evaluated retrospectively for 6D set-up errors introduced plan with 6 mm CTV to PTV margin. Target coverage of PTV showed significant decreases (3.3 %) in set-up errors introduced plans compared with original plans. But CTV coverage was not susceptible to these set-up errors. A tendency of coverage decrease for PTV along with distance away from treatment was testified, from -0.2 to -6.2 %. However, CTV seems changed less, from -0.2 to -0.8 %. The result indicate that a CTV to PTV margin of 6 mm was sufficient to take into account 6D set-up errors for most patients with cervical cancer. Future research suggests a smaller margin to further improve both tumor coverage and organs at risk sparing.

  17. Geometry of the neoproterozoic and paleozoic rift margin of western Laurentia: Implications for mineral deposit settings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, K.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. and Canadian Cordilleran miogeocline evolved during several phases of Cryogenian-Devonian intracontinental rifting that formed the western mangin of Laurentia. Recent field and dating studies across central Idaho and northern Nevada result in identification of two segments of the rift margin. Resulting interpretations of rift geometry in the northern U.S. Cordillera are compatible with interpretations of northwest- striking asymmetric extensional segments subdivided by northeast-striking transform and transfer segments. The new interpretation permits integration of miogeoclinal segments along the length of the western North American Cordillera. For the U.S. Cordillera, miogeoclinal segments include the St. Mary-Moyie transform, eastern Washington- eastern Idaho upper-plate margin, Snake River transfer, Nevada-Utah lower-plate margin, and Mina transfer. The rift is orthogonal to most older basement domains, but the location of the transform-transfer zones suggests control of them by basement domain boundaries. The zigzag geometry of reentrants and promontories along the rift is paralleled by salients and recesses in younger thrust belts and by segmentation of younger extensional domains. Likewise, transform transfer zones localized subsequent transcurrent structures and igneous activity. Sediment-hosted mineral deposits trace the same zigzag geometry along the margin. Sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Zn-Pb-Ag ??Au and barite mineral deposits formed in continental-slope rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and to a lesser degree, during the Cambrian-Early Ordovician. Such deposits formed during episodes of renewed extension along miogeoclinal segments. Carbonate-hosted Mississippi Valley- type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits formed in structurally reactivated continental shelf rocks during the Late Devonian-Mississippian and Mesozoic due to reactivation of preexisting structures. The distribution and abundance of sedex and MVT deposits are controlled by the

  18. Volatile control of trace element distributions at convergent margin, ocean ridge and intraplate settings (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    Much of the heterogeneity in the upper mantle is produced by movement of volatile and incompatible element rich materials. Previous work has shown the possibility to infer the chemical compositions of these materials from erupted basalts. Using moderately compatible or major elements to constrain extents of melting, variations in source abundance can be inferred. Variations in source then constrain the element ratios of the enriching component. This approach was used by Stolper and Newman (EPSL 1994) for the Marianas. Our study of the Lau back-arc basin (Bezos et al. JGR 2009) shows large differences in H2O/REE ratios for the two back-arc settings, suggesting very different slab thermal environments (e.g. see Plank et al. Nature 2009). Study of the Mexican volcanic belt lavas also suggests low H2O/REE, consistent with the young subducting slab. A similar approach can be applied to trace element variations from enriched (e.g. OIB) provinces. Inferred components have highly fractionated incompatible element ratios, consistent with generation by low degree melting of either eclogite or peridotite sources. The consistency of the enriched component in enriched sources suggests a process of progressive migration of volatile-rich fluids, such that they ultimately equilibrate with the maximum volume of mantle, leading to the relatively uniform and characteristic low degree melt signature. At both convergent margins and open ocean settings, volatile migration appears to exert a major control on trace element signatures.

  19. Investigating Continental Margins: An Activity to Help Students Better Understand the Continental Margins of North America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poli, Maria-Serena; Capodivacca, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Continental margins are an important part of the ocean floor. They separate the land above sea level from the deep ocean basins below and occupy about 11% of Earth's surface. They are also economically important, as they harbor both mineral resources and some of the most valuable fisheries in the world. In this article students investigate North…

  20. Electromagnetic study of the active continental margin in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echternacht, Friedrich; Tauber, Sebastian; Eisel, Markus; Brasse, Heinrich; Schwarz, Gerhard; Haak, Volker

    1997-06-01

    Magnetotelluric and geomagnetic deep sounding measurements were carried out in the magmatic arc and forearc regions of northern Chile between 19.5° and 22°S to study the electrical conductivity structures of this active continental margin. The instruments used covered a very broad period range from 10 -4 s to approx. 2 × 10 4 s and thus enabled a resolution of deep as well as shallow structures. In this paper we focus on the interpretation of data from an east-west profile crossing Chile from the Pacific coast to the Western Cordillera at 20.5°S. A decomposition of the impedance tensors using the Groom-Bailey decomposition scheme shows that a two-dimensional interpretation is possible. The resulting regional strike direction is N9°W. Two-dimensional models were calculated in this coordinate frame and include the significant bathymetry of the trench as well as the topography of the Andes. The final model shows a generally high resistivity in the forearc and a very good conductor below the Precordillera. Unlike earlier models from areas further south, a good conductor is not observed below the magmatic arc itself. This correlates with the so-called Pica gap in the volcanic chain and a higher age of volcanic activity compared with adjacent areas.

  1. The Late Paleozoic Southern Margin of the Siberian paleocontinent: transformation from an active continental margin to intracontinental rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlovsky, A. M.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.

    2009-04-01

    The large volcanoplutonic belt was formed on the southern margin of Siberian paleocontinent in the Early Carboniferous-Early Permian. Now it's stretched through whole Mongolia and the adjacent region of China. In the belt structure there are defined the successive rock complexes: the older one represented by differentiated basalt-andesite-rhyodacite series and younger bimodal complex of basalt-comendite-trachyrhyolite composition. The granodiorite-plagiogranite and diorite-monzonite-granodiorite plutonic massifs are associated with the former, while peralkaline granite massifs are characteristic of the latter. Geochronological results and geological relations between rocks of the bimodal and differentiated complexes showed first that rocks of the differentiated complex originated 350 to 330 Ma ago at the initial stage of forming of the marginal continental belt, linked with development active continental margin. This is evident from geochronological dates obtained for the Adzh-Bogd and Edrengiyn-Nuruu massifs and for volcanic associations of the complex. The dates are consistent with paleontological data. The bimodal association was formed later, 320 to 290 Ma ago. The time span separating formation of two igneous complexes ranges from several to 20-30 m.y. in different areas of the marginal belt. The bimodal magmatism was interrelated with rifting responsible for development of the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone in the belt axial part and the Main Mongolian lineament along the belt northern boundary. Loci of bimodal rift magmatism likely migrated with time: the respective magmatic activity first initiated on the west of the rift system and then advanced gradually eastward with development of rift structures. Normal granitoids untypical but occurring nevertheless among the products of rift magmatism in addition to peralkaline massifs are assumed to have been formed, when the basic magmatism associated with rifting stimulated crustal anatexis and generation of crustal

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    July 2011 - 30 June 2012 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity 5a...Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1 Key Research Accomplishments………………………………………….…….. 4 ...Reportable Outcomes……………………………………………………………… 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 8 References……………………………………………………………………………. 9

  3. Civic Education among Historically Marginalized Youth in an Urban Setting: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burroughs, Greer C.

    2010-01-01

    Many American citizens have remained outside of the political process and therefore have not been able to effectively advocate for the full rights, privileges and responsibilities that American citizenship makes possible. For youth from historically marginalized populations who are growing up in lower-income urban areas, the issue becomes…

  4. [The economic margins of activities of a bovine practitioner on dairy farms].

    PubMed

    van Genugten, A J M; van Haaften, J A; Hogeveen, H

    2011-11-01

    Because of lower margins and market liberalisation veterinarians and farmers are increasingly negotiating rates. Therefore, the margins of veterinarians are under pressure. In addition, the sales if drugs, performance of operations or giving of advice are more and more separated. These developments give veterinarians uncertainty about the profitability of their activities for dairy farmers. Not much is known about margins on veterinary activities on dairy farms. Moreover, it is interesting to see how much margins of the bovine practitioner differ between veterinary practises and dairy farms. In this study, invoices for bovine activities of 14 veterinary practises were combined with milk production registration data of the dairy farms of these practices. This way, the gross margin per bovine practitioner could be studied for the different veterinary practise. Moreover the relation between gross margin and specification of the veterinary practise could be studied. Finally, the gross margin per dairy farm and the factors that influenced this gross margin were studied. The most important result was the observation that the gross margin per bovine practitioner was dependent on the number of dairy farms per practitioner, the margin on drugs and the region of the veterinary practise. The size of the veterinary practise, the share of the dairy farming within the practise and the source of the gross margin (drugs, time or operations) did not influence the gross margin. Variables that explained the gross margin per dairy farm were, amongst others, the number of dairy cows, the milk production level of the farms and participation in PIR-DAP (a system to support the veterinarians herd health and management program). There is no relation of gross margin per dairy farm and the veterinary practise or region.

  5. Care of women and marginalized populations in the critical care setting.

    PubMed

    Koci, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of death, disability, and lost productivity in adults, drains our society physically and economically. Once considered a male domain, hospital mortality attributed to CVD has become more prevalent among women. As a result of this trend, critical care nurses can expect to care for more women with CVD. The psychobiological model of CVD suggests that psychological factors, such as anxiety and depression, contribute to the development and progression of CVD. Anxiety and depression occur more often in women than in men and possibly could be explained by the fact that women report experiencing physical and sexual abuse at a much higher rate than do men. Women with a history of physical and sexual abuse report more anxiety and depression than do women without such a history. A possible means by which abuse may begin and continue within the lives of women is marginality. Marginality serves as a perspective for viewing women's health in terms of physical and psychological health outcomes. By understanding marginality and its impact on health outcomes, critical care nurses may recognize patients at risk for adverse CVD health outcomes while in their care. These patients present unique health care challenges in critical care.

  6. Priority setting in health care using multi-attribute utility theory and programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA).

    PubMed

    Peacock, Stuart J; Richardson, Jeff R J; Carter, Rob; Edwards, Diana

    2007-02-01

    Programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) is becoming an increasingly popular tool in setting health service priorities. This paper presents a novel multi-attribute utility (MAU) approach to setting health service priorities using PBMA. This approach includes identifying the attributes of the MAU function; describing and scaling attributes; quantifying trade-offs between attributes; and combining single conditional utility functions into the MAU function. We illustrate the MAU approach using a PBMA case study in mental health services from the Community Health Sector in metropolitan South Australia.

  7. Seismo-turbidite Sedimentology: Implications for Active Tectonic Margin Stratigraphy and Sediment Facies Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C. H.; Goldfinger, C.; Gutierrez Pastor, J.; Polonia, A.; Van Daele, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes generate mass transport deposits (MTDs); megaturbidites (MTD overlain by coeval turbidite); multi-pulsed, stacked, and mud homogenite seismo-turbidites; tsunamites; and seiche deposits. The strongest (Mw 9) earthquake shaking signatures appear to create multi-pulsed individual turbidites, where the number and character of multiple coarse-grained pulses for correlative turbidites generally remain constant both upstream and downstream in different channel systems. Multiple turbidite pulses, that correlate with multiple ruptures shown in seismograms of historic earthquakes (e.g. Chile 1960, Sumatra 2004 and Japan 2011), support this hypothesis. The weaker (Mw = or < 8) (e.g. northern California San Andreas) earthquakes generate dominantly upstream simple fining-up (uni-pulsed) turbidites in single tributary canyons and channels; however, downstream stacked turbidites result from synchronously triggered multiple turbidity currents that deposit in channels below confluences of the tributaries. Proven tsunamites, which result from tsunami waves sweeping onshore and shallow water debris into deeper water, are a fine-grained turbidite cap over other seismo-turbidites. In contrast, MTDs and seismo-turbidites result from slope failures. Multiple great earthquakes cause seismic strengthening of slope sediment, which results in minor MTDs in basin floor turbidite system deposits (e.g. maximum run-out distances of MTDs across basin floors along active margins are up to an order of magnitude less than on passive margins). In contrast, the MTDs and turbidites are equally intermixed in turbidite systems of passive margins (e.g. Gulf of Mexico). In confined basin settings, earthquake triggering results in a common facies pattern of coeval megaturbidites in proximal settings, thick stacked turbidites downstream, and ponded muddy homogenite turbidites in basin or sub-basin centers, sometimes with a cap of seiche deposits showing bi-directional flow patterns.

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    or 9), although these compounds still showed anti-DHT effects (lanes 2 vs. 6, 8, or 10). Figure 4 . The effects of DHEA derivatives on PSA...2009 - 30 JUN 2010 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER with Marginal Agonist...words) We hypothesized that dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) metabolites or their synthetic derivatives are able to bind to the androgen receptor with

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DATES COVERED 01 July 2012 – 30 June 2013 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist...Page Introduction…………………………………………………………….………..….. 1 Body………………………………………………………………………………….. 1- 4 Key Research...In addition, we previously found that androstenediol (Adiol), a physiological metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of

  10. Structured Set Intra Prediction With Discriminative Learning in a Max-Margin Markov Network for High Efficiency Video Coding

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Wenrui; Xiong, Hongkai; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Chen, Chang Wen

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel model on intra coding for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), which simultaneously predicts blocks of pixels with optimal rate distortion. It utilizes the spatial statistical correlation for the optimal prediction based on 2-D contexts, in addition to formulating the data-driven structural interdependences to make the prediction error coherent with the probability distribution, which is desirable for successful transform and coding. The structured set prediction model incorporates a max-margin Markov network (M3N) to regulate and optimize multiple block predictions. The model parameters are learned by discriminating the actual pixel value from other possible estimates to maximize the margin (i.e., decision boundary bandwidth). Compared to existing methods that focus on minimizing prediction error, the M3N-based model adaptively maintains the coherence for a set of predictions. Specifically, the proposed model concurrently optimizes a set of predictions by associating the loss for individual blocks to the joint distribution of succeeding discrete cosine transform coefficients. When the sample size grows, the prediction error is asymptotically upper bounded by the training error under the decomposable loss function. As an internal step, we optimize the underlying Markov network structure to find states that achieve the maximal energy using expectation propagation. For validation, we integrate the proposed model into HEVC for optimal mode selection on rate-distortion optimization. The proposed prediction model obtains up to 2.85% bit rate reduction and achieves better visual quality in comparison to the HEVC intra coding. PMID:25505829

  11. Non-Challenging Education and Teacher Control as Factors for Marginalization of Students in Diverse Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedin, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses teachers' attitudes towards immigrant students in poor settings and the effect these attitudes have on organization of education on classroom level. It draws on results from two ethnographic studies where some primary school classes in Sweden were followed with participant observation and interviews as main research methods.…

  12. Not gathering dust: Using NSF-MARGINS data sets and samples as components in undergraduate education and research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohut, E. J.; Smith, F. C.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS funded Leg 7 of the Cook Expedition (2001) has produced abundant amount of samples and data. While these have been the subject of intended published and ongoing research, they have also been successfully applied to undergraduate education at the University of Delaware. Mineral and whole rock analyses have been incorporated into Earth Materials courses as portions of problem sets. Mineralogy students have used mineral compositional data to calculate solid-solution end-members, while Petrology students have calculated CIPW norms from whole rock and melt inclusion analyses. The large numbers of samples analyzed allow students to observe a variety of data and also be assigned individual data sets for calculations. Furthermore, the Cook 7 data and thin-sections have allowed students to examine a variety of arc and back-arc examples and in some cases observe genetic linkages. Utilization of the Cook 7 materials has not been limited to coursework; examination of basaltic lava dredged from Esmeralda Bank has formed the basis of an undergraduate research project. EPMA analyses of mineral phases were combined with petrographic work to unravel a complex crystallization history that involved co-precipitating phases and magma mingling. These examples reveal that after their use in pure research, data and samples produced from the MARGINS initiative can make significant contributions to the education of the next generation of geologists.

  13. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  14. Initiation of Extension in South China Continental Margin during the Active-Passive Margin Transition: Thermochronological and Kinematic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, X.; Chan, L. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South China continental margin is characterized by a widespread magmatic belt, prominent NE-striking faults and numerous rifted basins filled by Cretaceous-Eocene sediments. The geology denotes a transition from active to passive margin, which led to rapid modifications of crustal stress configuration and reactivation of older faults in this area. Our zircon fission-track data in this region show two episodes of exhumation: The first episode, occurring during 170-120Ma, affected local parts of the Nanling Range. The second episode, a more regional exhumation event, occurred during 115-70Ma, including the Yunkai Terrane and the Nanling Range. Numerical geodynamic modeling was conducted to simulate the subduction between the paleo-Pacific plate and the South China Block. The modeling results could explain the fact that exhumation of the granite-dominant Nanling Range occurred earlier than that of the gneiss-dominant Yunkai Terrane. In addition to the difference in rock types, the heat from Jurassic-Early Cretaceous magmatism in Nanling may have softened the upper crust, causing the area to exhume more readily than Yunkai. Numerical modeling results also indicate that (1) high lithospheric geothermal gradient, high slab dip angle and low convergence velocity favor the reversal of crustal stress state from compression to extension in the upper continental plate; (2) late Mesozoic magmatism in South China was probably caused by a slab roll-back; and (3) crustal extension could have occurred prior to the cessation of plate subduction. The inversion of stress regime in the continental crust from compression to crustal extension imply that the Late Cretaceous-early Paleogene red-bed basins in South China could have formed during the late stage of the subduction, accounting for the occurrence of volcanic events in some sedimentary basins. We propose that the rifting started as early as Late Cretaceous, probably before the cessation of subduction process.

  15. Variability of earthquake stress drop in a subduction setting, the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Bannister, Stephen; Ristau, John; Doser, Diane

    2017-01-01

    We calculate stress drops for 176 earthquakes (M2.6-M6.6) from four sequences of earthquakes in New Zealand. Two sequences are within the subducting Pacific plate (2014 Eketahuna and 2005 Upper Hutt), one in the over-riding plate (2013 Cook Strait) and one involved reverse faulting at the subduction interface (2015 Pongaroa). We focus on obtaining precise and accurate measurements of corner frequency and stress drop for the best-recorded earthquakes. We use an empirical Green's function (EGF) approach, and require the EGF earthquakes to be highly correlated (cross-correlation ≥ 0.8) to their respective main shocks. In order to improve the quality, we also stack the spectral ratios and source time functions obtained from the best EGF. We perform a grid search for each individual ratio, and each stacked ratio to obtain quantitative uncertainty measurements, and restrict our analysis to the well-constrained corner frequency measurements. We are able to analyse both P and S waves independently and the high correlation between these measurements strengthens the reliability of our results. We find that there is significant real variability in corner frequency, and hence stress drop, within each sequence; the range of almost 2 orders of magnitude is larger than the uncertainties. The four sequences have overlapping stress drop ranges, and the variability within a sequence is larger than any between different sequences. There is no clear systematic difference in the populations analysed here with tectonic setting. We see no dependence of the stress drop values on depth, time, or magnitude after taking the frequency bandwidth limitations into consideration. Small-scale heterogeneity must therefore exert a more primary influence on earthquake stress drop than these larger scale factors. We confirm that when fitting individual spectral ratios, a corner frequency within a factor of three of the maximum signal frequency is likely to be underestimated. Stacked ratios are

  16. Variability of Earthquake Stress Drop in a subduction setting, the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercrombie, Rachel E.; Bannister, Stephen; Ristau, John; Doser, Diane

    2016-10-01

    We calculate stress drops for 176 earthquakes (M2.6-M6.6) from four sequences of earthquakes in New Zealand. Two sequences are within the subducting Pacific plate (Eketahuna, 2014, and Upper Hutt, 2005), one in the over-riding plate (Cook Strait, 2013), and one involved reverse faulting at the subduction interface (Pongaroa, 2015). We focus on obtaining precise and accurate measurements of corner frequency and stress drop for the best-recorded earthquakes. We use an empirical Green's function approach, and require the empirical Green's function earthquakes to be highly-correlated (cross-correlation ≥ 0.8) to their respective mainshocks. In order to improve the quality, we also stack the spectral ratios and source time functions obtained from the best empirical Green's functions. We perform a grid search for each individual ratio, and each stacked ratio to obtain quantitative uncertainty measurements, and restrict our analysis to the well-constrained corner frequency measurements. We are able to analyse both P and S waves independently and the high correlation between these measurements strengthens the reliability of our results. We find that there is significant real variability in corner frequency, and hence stress drop, within each sequence; the range of almost 2 orders of magnitude is larger than the uncertainties. The four sequences have overlapping stress drop ranges, and the variability within a sequence is larger than any between different sequences. There is no clear systematic difference in the populations analysed here with tectonic setting. We see no dependence of the stress drop values on depth nor time, nor on magnitude after taking the frequency bandwidth limitations into consideration. Small scale heterogeneity must therefore exert a more primary influence on earthquake stress drop than these larger scale factors. We confirm that when fitting individual spectral ratios, a corner frequency within a factor of three of the maximum signal frequency is

  17. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    figure not shown). Figure 4. The effects of DHEA derivatives on the expression of PSA (A), AR ( B ), bFGF (C), VEGF (D), IL-6 (E), and MMP-9 ( F ...induced bladder carcinogenesis. Mol Carcinogen 52(2): 94-102, 2013. PMID: 22086872 10. Li Y, Zheng Y, Izumi K, Ishiguro H, Ye B , Li F , Miyamoto H...Ishiguro H, Ye B , Li F , Miyamoto H: Androgen activates β-catenin signaling in bladder cancer cells. Endocr-Relat Cancer 20(3): 293-304, 2013. 11. Izumi K

  18. Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with Marginal Agonist Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Summary 3. DATES COVERED 1 JUL 2013 - 30 JUN 2014 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dehydroepiandrosterone Derivatives as Potent Antiandrogens with... 4 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………… 5 References……………………………………………………………………………. 6 Appendices...metabolite from dehydroepiandrosterone ( DHEA ) and a precursor of testosterone, has an intrinsic androgenic activity which was not completely antagonized by

  19. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  20. Cenozoic uplift on the West Greenland margin: active sedimentary basins in quiet Archean terranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jess, Scott; Stephenson, Randell; Brown, Roderick

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic is believed by some authors to have experienced tectonically induced uplift within the Cenozoic. Examination of evidence, onshore and offshore, has been interpreted to imply the presence of kilometre scale uplift across the margins of the Barents Sea, North Sea, Baffin Bay and Greenland Sea. Development of topography on the West Greenland margin (Baffin Bay), in particular, has been subject to much discussion and dispute. A series of low temperature thermochronological (AFT and AHe) studies onshore and interpretation of seismic architecture offshore have suggested uplift of the entire margin totalling ~3km. However, challenges to this work and recent analysis on the opposing margin (Baffin Island) have raised questions about the validity of this interpretation. The present work reviews and remodels the thermochronological data from onshore West Greenland with the aim of re-evaluating our understanding of the margin's history. New concepts within the discipline, such as effect of radiation damage on Helium diffusivity, contemporary modelling approaches and denudational mapping are all utilised to investigate alternative interpretations to this margins complex post rift evolution. In contrast to earlier studies our new approach indicates slow protracted cooling across much of the region; however, reworked sedimentary samples taken from the Cretaceous Nuussuaq Basin display periods of rapid reheating and cooling. These new models suggest the Nuussuaq Basin experienced a tectonically active Cenozoic, while the surrounding Archean basement remained quiet. Faults located within the basin appear to have been reactivated during the Palaeocene and Eocene, a period of well-documented inversion events throughout the North Atlantic, and may have resulted in subaerial kilometre scale uplift. This interpretation of the margin's evolution has wider implications for the treatment of low temperature thermochronological data and the geological history of the North

  1. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Spitsbergen, European Arctic: evidence of down-slope processes in a contour-current dominated setting on the continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forwick, Matthias; Sverre Laberg, Jan; Hass, H. Christian; Osti, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    The Kongsfjorden Channel System (KCS) is located on the continental slope in the eastern Fram Strait, off northwest Spitsbergen. It provides evidence that the influence of down-slope sedimentary processes locally exceeds regional along-slope sedimentation. Compared to other submarine channel systems on and off glaciated continental margins, it is a relatively short system (~120 km) occurring at a large range of water depths (~250-4000 m). It originates with multiple gullies on the Kongsfjorden Trough Mouth Fan merging to small channels that further downslope merge to a main channel. The overall location of the channel system is controlled by variations in slope gradients (0-20°) and the ambient regional bathymetry: widest and deepest incisions occur in areas of steepest slope gradients. The KCS has probably been active since ~1 Ma when glacial activity on Svalbard increased and grounded ice expanded to the shelf break off Kongsfjorden repeatedly. Activity within the system was probably highest during glacials. However, reduced activity presumably took place also during interglacials. The presentation summarizes the work of Forwick et al. (2015). Reference: Forwick, M., Laberg, J.S., Hass, H.C. & Osti, C., 2015. The Kongsfjorden Channel System offshore NW Svalbard: downslope sedimentary processes in a contour-current-dominated setting. Arktos 1, DOI: 10.1007/s41063-015-0018-4.

  2. A new model for the development of the active Afar volcanic margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pik, Raphaël; Stab, Martin; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Leroy, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic passive margins, that represent more than the three quarters of continental margins worldwide, are privileged witnesses of the lithospheric extension processes thatform new oceanic basins. They are characterized by voluminous amounts of underplated, intruded and extruded magmas, under the form of massive lavas prisms (seaward-dipping reflectors, or SDR) during the course of thinning and stretching of the lithosphere, that eventually form the ocean-continent transition. The origin and mechanisms of formation of these objects are still largely debated today. We have focussed our attention in the last few years on the Afar volcanic province which represents an active analogue of such volcanic margins. We explored the structural and temporal relationships that exist between the development of the major thinning and stretching structures and the magmatic production in Central Afar. Conjugate precise fieldwork analysis along with lavas geochronology allowed us to revisit the timing and style of the rift formation, since the early syn-rift period of time in the W-Afar marginal area to present days. Extension is primarily accommodated over a wide area at the surface since the very initial periods of extension (~ 25 Ma) following the emplacement of Oligocene CFBs. We propose in our reconstruction of central Afar margin history that extension has been associated with important volumes of underplated mafic material that compensate crustal thinning. This has been facilitated by major crustal-scale detachments that help localize the thinning and underplating at depth. In line with this 'magmatic wide-rift' mode of extension, we demonstrate that episodic extension steps alternate with more protracted magmatic phases. The production of syn-rift massive flood basalts (~ 4 Ma) occurs after early thinning of both the crust and the lithosphere, which suggests that SDR formation, is controlled by previous tectonic event. We determined how the melting regime evolved in

  3. The speciation of marine particulate iron adjacent to active and passive continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Phoebe J.; Ohnemus, Daniel C.; Marcus, Matthew A.

    2012-03-01

    We use synchrotron-based chemical-species mapping techniques to compare the speciation of suspended (1-51 μm) marine particulate iron collected in two open ocean environments adjacent to active and passive continental margins. Chemical-species mapping provides speciation information for heterogeneous environmental samples, and is especially good for detecting spectroscopically distinct trace minerals and species that could not be detectable by other methods. The average oxidation state of marine particulate iron determined by chemical-species mapping is comparable to that determined by standard bulk X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy. Using chemical-species mapping, we find that up to 43% of particulate Fe in the Northwest Pacific at the depth of the adjacent active continental margin is in the Fe(II) state, with the balance Fe(III). In contrast, particulate iron in the eastern tropical North Atlantic, which receives the highest dust deposition on Earth and is adjacent to a passive margin, is dominated by weathered and oxidized Fe compounds, with Fe(III) contributing 90% of total iron. The balance is composed primarily of Fe(II)-containing species, but we detected individual pyrite particles in some samples within an oxygen minimum zone in the upper thermocline. Several lines of evidence point to the adjacent Mauritanian continental shelf as the source of pyrite to the water column. The speciation of suspended marine particulate iron reflects the mineralogy of iron from the adjacent continental margins. Since the solubility of particulate iron has been shown to be a function of its speciation, this may have implications for the bioavailability of particulate iron adjacent to passive compared to active continental margins.

  4. Carbonate sedimentation in an extensional active margin: Cretaceous history of the Haymana region, Pontides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Aral I.; Altiner, Demir

    2016-10-01

    The Haymana region in Central Anatolia is located in the southern part of the Pontides close to the İzmir-Ankara suture. During the Cretaceous, the region formed part of the south-facing active margin of the Eurasia. The area preserves a nearly complete record of the Cretaceous system. Shallow marine carbonates of earliest Cretaceous age are overlain by a 700-m-thick Cretaceous sequence, dominated by deep marine limestones. Three unconformity-bounded pelagic carbonate sequences of Berriasian, Albian-Cenomanian and Turonian-Santonian ages are recognized: Each depositional sequence is preceded by a period of tilting and submarine erosion during the Berriasian, early Albian and late Cenomanian, which corresponds to phases of local extension in the active continental margin. Carbonate breccias mark the base of the sequences and each carbonate sequence steps down on older units. The deep marine carbonate deposition ended in the late Santonian followed by tilting, erosion and folding during the Campanian. Deposition of thick siliciclastic turbidites started in the late Campanian and continued into the Tertiary. Unlike most forearc basins, the Haymana region was a site of deep marine carbonate deposition until the Campanian. This was because the Pontide arc was extensional and the volcanic detritus was trapped in the intra-arc basins and did not reach the forearc or the trench. The extensional nature of the arc is also shown by the opening of the Black Sea as a backarc basin in the Turonian-Santonian. The carbonate sedimentation in an active margin is characterized by synsedimentary vertical displacements, which results in submarine erosion, carbonate breccias and in the lateral discontinuity of the sequences, and differs from blanket like carbonate deposition in the passive margins.

  5. Evidence of Active Methanogen Communities in Shallow Sediments of the Sonora Margin Cold Seeps

    PubMed Central

    L'Haridon, Stéphane; Godfroy, Anne; Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Parkes, R. John; Toffin, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    In the Sonora Margin cold seep ecosystems (Gulf of California), sediments underlying microbial mats harbor high biogenic methane concentrations, fueling various microbial communities, such as abundant lineages of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). However, the biodiversity, distribution, and metabolism of the microorganisms producing this methane remain poorly understood. In this study, measurements of methanogenesis using radiolabeled dimethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate showed that biogenic methane production in these sediments was mainly dominated by methylotrophic methanogenesis, while the proportion of autotrophic methanogenesis increased with depth. Congruently, methane production and methanogenic Archaea were detected in culture enrichments amended with trimethylamine and bicarbonate. Analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and reverse-transcribed PCR-amplified 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from these enrichments revealed the presence of active methylotrophic Methanococcoides burtonii relatives and several new autotrophic Methanogenium lineages, confirming the cooccurrence of Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales methanogens with abundant ANME populations in the sediments of the Sonora Margin cold seeps. PMID:25769831

  6. Evidence of active methanogen communities in shallow sediments of the sonora margin cold seeps.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, Adrien; L'Haridon, Stéphane; Godfroy, Anne; Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Parkes, R John; Toffin, Laurent

    2015-05-15

    In the Sonora Margin cold seep ecosystems (Gulf of California), sediments underlying microbial mats harbor high biogenic methane concentrations, fueling various microbial communities, such as abundant lineages of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME). However, the biodiversity, distribution, and metabolism of the microorganisms producing this methane remain poorly understood. In this study, measurements of methanogenesis using radiolabeled dimethylamine, bicarbonate, and acetate showed that biogenic methane production in these sediments was mainly dominated by methylotrophic methanogenesis, while the proportion of autotrophic methanogenesis increased with depth. Congruently, methane production and methanogenic Archaea were detected in culture enrichments amended with trimethylamine and bicarbonate. Analyses of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and reverse-transcribed PCR-amplified 16S rRNA sequences retrieved from these enrichments revealed the presence of active methylotrophic Methanococcoides burtonii relatives and several new autotrophic Methanogenium lineages, confirming the cooccurrence of Methanosarcinales and Methanomicrobiales methanogens with abundant ANME populations in the sediments of the Sonora Margin cold seeps.

  7. Effect of software version and parameter settings on the marginal and internal adaptation of crowns fabricated with the CAD/CAM system

    PubMed Central

    SHIM, Ji Suk; Jin Sook, LEE; Jeong Yol, LEE; CHOI, Yeon Jo; SHIN, Sang Wan; Jae Jun, RYU

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the marginal and internal adaptation of individual dental crowns fabricated using a CAD/CAM system (Sirona’s BlueCam), also evaluating the effect of the software version used, and the specific parameter settings in the adaptation of crowns. Material and Methods Forty digital impressions of a master model previously prepared were acquired using an intraoral scanner and divided into four groups based on the software version and on the spacer settings used. The versions 3.8 and 4.2 of the software were used, and the spacer parameter was set at either 40 μm or 80 μm. The marginal and internal fit of the crowns were measured using the replica technique, which uses a low viscosity silicone material that simulates the thickness of the cement layer. The data were analyzed using a Friedman two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t-tests with significance level set at p<0.05. Results The two-way ANOVA analysis showed the software version (p<0.05) and the spacer parameter (p<0.05) significantly affected the crown adaptation. The crowns designed with the version 4.2 of the software showed a better fit than those designed with the version 3.8, particularly in the axial wall and in the inner margin. The spacer parameter was more accurately represented in the version 4.2 of the software than in the version 3.8. In addition, the use of the version 4.2 of the software combined with the spacer parameter set at 80 μm showed the least variation. On the other hand, the outer margin was not affected by the variables. Conclusion Compared to the version 3.8 of the software, the version 4.2 can be recommended for the fabrication of well-fitting crown restorations, and for the appropriate regulation of the spacer parameter. PMID:26537722

  8. Sidescan sonar imagery of widespread fossil and active cold seeps along the central Chilean continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaucke, Ingo; Weinrebe, Wilhelm; Linke, Peter; Kläschen, Dirk; Bialas, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    The central Chilean subduction zone between 35°S and 37°S was investigated in order to identify, document and possibly understand fluid flow and fluid venting within the forearc region. Several areas were mapped using multibeam bathymetry and backscatter, high-resolution sidescan sonar, chirp subbottom profiling and reflection seismic data. On a subsequent cruise ground-truthing observations were made using a video sled. In general, this dataset shows surprisingly little evidence of fluid venting along the mid-slope region, in contrast to other subduction zones such as Central America and New Zealand. There were abundant indications of active and predominantly fossil fluid venting along the upper slope between 36.5°S and 36.8°S at the seaward margin of an intraslope basin. Here, backscatter anomalies suggest widespread authigenic carbonate deposits, likely the result of methane-rich fluid expulsion. There is unpublished evidence that these fluids are of biogenic origin and generated within the slope sediments, similar to other accretionary margins but in contrast to the erosional margin off Central America, where fluids have geochemical signals indicating an origin from the subducting plate.

  9. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book II: Grades 6 and 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    The document contains eight activity sets suitable for grades 6 and 7. Topics focus on governmental, social, and educational systems in foreign countries. Each activity set contains background reading materials, resources, concepts, general objectives, and instructional objectives. Grade 6 sets are "Soviet Youth Organizations,""How…

  10. Structural Control on the Megathrust Slip: the Example of the Ecuador-Colombia Active Margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.; Marcaillou, B.; Agudelo, W.; Sage, F.; Ribodetti, A.

    2007-12-01

    Along subduction zones, earthquake nucleation and megathrust slip are controlled by parameters including the rheology of the fore-arc, the magnitude of transient shear stress and the physical properties of the megathrust. Furthermore, geological structures play a major role on stress and strain distribution both across and along the megathrust, and consequently affect the earthquake cycle. A marine geophysical study of the Ecuador-SW Colombia subduction zone, where three large (7.7margin, and the spatial distribution and extent of the earthquake rupture zones. On a 500 to >1000-km scale, the subduction trench is segmented from south to north, into NS-, NNE- and NS-trending segments, respectively associated with normal, oblique, and normal plate convergence settings. These segments relate to large-scale, structural domains of both the Nazca Plate (Carnegie Ridge, Panama Basin) and the margin of the South American Plate, which consists of a mosaic of accreted oceanic terranes. The 1906 event likely ruptured the entire NNE-trending, obliquely convergent segment. The slip was blocked southward by the buoyant subducting Carnegie Ridge, and northward by the sharp change in structural trend associated with the accreted Choco arc. On a 100-300-km scale, multichannel seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetry data show that the margin is segmented by transverse crustal faults. The faults correlate with the limits of large earthquake rupture zones, suggesting that transverse faults are weak and contribute to placing a limit on the along strike propagation of the co-seismic slip. On a 20-100-km scale, geophysical data collected on the Nazca Plate reveal oceanic asperities entering the subduction. Downdip, these features may correlate with seismological asperities, which, upon rupture, can trigger

  11. Structural Control on the Megathrust Slip: the Example of the Ecuador-Colombia Active Margin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collot, J.; Marcaillou, B.; Agudelo, W.; Sage, F.; Ribodetti, A.

    2004-12-01

    Along subduction zones, earthquake nucleation and megathrust slip are controlled by parameters including the rheology of the fore-arc, the magnitude of transient shear stress and the physical properties of the megathrust. Furthermore, geological structures play a major role on stress and strain distribution both across and along the megathrust, and consequently affect the earthquake cycle. A marine geophysical study of the Ecuador-SW Colombia subduction zone, where three large (7.7margin, and the spatial distribution and extent of the earthquake rupture zones. On a 500 to >1000-km scale, the subduction trench is segmented from south to north, into NS-, NNE- and NS-trending segments, respectively associated with normal, oblique, and normal plate convergence settings. These segments relate to large-scale, structural domains of both the Nazca Plate (Carnegie Ridge, Panama Basin) and the margin of the South American Plate, which consists of a mosaic of accreted oceanic terranes. The 1906 event likely ruptured the entire NNE-trending, obliquely convergent segment. The slip was blocked southward by the buoyant subducting Carnegie Ridge, and northward by the sharp change in structural trend associated with the accreted Choco arc. On a 100-300-km scale, multichannel seismic reflection and multibeam bathymetry data show that the margin is segmented by transverse crustal faults. The faults correlate with the limits of large earthquake rupture zones, suggesting that transverse faults are weak and contribute to placing a limit on the along strike propagation of the co-seismic slip. On a 20-100-km scale, geophysical data collected on the Nazca Plate reveal oceanic asperities entering the subduction. Downdip, these features may correlate with seismological asperities, which, upon rupture, can trigger

  12. Active simultaneous uplift and margin-normal extension in a forearc high, Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.; Wegmann, K. W.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.; Pazzaglia, F. J.; Brandon, M. T.; Fassoulas, C.

    2014-07-01

    The island of Crete occupies a forearc high in the central Hellenic subduction zone and is characterized by sustained exhumation, surface uplift and extension. The processes governing orogenesis and topographic development here remain poorly understood. Dramatic topographic relief (2-6 km) astride the southern coastline of Crete is associated with large margin-parallel faults responsible for deep bathymetric depressions known as the Hellenic troughs. These structures have been interpreted as both active and inactive with either contractional, strike-slip, or extensional movement histories. Distinguishing between these different structural styles and kinematic histories here allows us to explore more general models for improving our global understanding of the tectonic and geodynamic processes of syn-convergent extension. We present new observations from the south-central coastline of Crete that clarifies the role of these faults in the late Cenozoic evolution of the central Hellenic margin and the processes controlling Quaternary surface uplift. Pleistocene marine terraces are used in conjunction with optically stimulated luminesce dating and correlation to the Quaternary eustatic curve to document coastal uplift and identify active faults. Two south-dipping normal faults are observed, which extend offshore, offset these marine terrace deposits and indicate active N-S (margin-normal) extension. Further, marine terraces preserved in the footwall and hanging wall of both faults demonstrate that regional net uplift of Crete is occurring despite active extension. Field mapping and geometric reconstructions of an active onshore normal fault reveal that the subaqueous range-front fault of south-central Crete is synthetic to the south-dipping normal faults on shore. These findings are inconsistent with models of active horizontal shortening in the upper crust of the Hellenic forearc. Rather, they are consistent with topographic growth of the forearc in a viscous orogenic

  13. Evaluating Active Methane Hydrate Dissociation Along the Washington Margin in Response to Bottom Water Warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whorley, T. L.; Solomon, E. A.; Torres, M. E.; Johnson, H. P.; Berg, R. D.; Philip, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Water column temperature data acquired on the upper continental slope (UCS) of the Washington (WA) section of the Cascadia margin shows gradual warming of bottom water at the upper limit of the methane hydrate stability zone (MHSZ) over the last 4 decades. Thermal models based on these records predict downslope retreat of the MHSZ by ~1-2 km (~40 m in depth), potentially destabilizing methane hydrate and releasing CH4into the sediment and water column. To test for contemporaneous methane hydrate dissociation along the UCS of the WA margin, we conducted a comprehensive geophysical and geochemical survey of active seep sites at the upper limit of the MHSZ from 48° to 46°N on the R/V Thompson in October 2014. We identified 9 active seep sites within this corridor and imaged 22 bubble plumes that commonly rise to ~300 m water depth with some reaching to near the sea surface. Some seep sites appear to be controlled by local margin structure, mainly extensional faults and ridges. We collected 22 gravity cores and 20 CTD/hydrocasts from the 9 seeps and processed ~350 sediment samples for pore water chemistry. Hydrocarbons heavier than CH4were not detected in bottom water samples, suggesting any gas hydrate present is Structure I. Preliminary pore water data show decreasing salinity downcore at each site with measured values as low as 10 psu and the sulfate-methane transition zone occurs between 50-80 cm below the sea floor. Pore water solute, noble gas, and isotope ratio data indicate freshening from at least one site is not the result of hydrate dissociation, but rather is due to clay dehydration at depths where temperatures exceed 60°C. Very few of the sites show pore water profiles that are in steady state, suggesting a dynamic biogeochemical system at the UCS along the entire WA margin. Further analyses and modeling are underway to constrain the nature and timing of these transient profiles and whether they are the result of recent methane hydrate dissociation.

  14. Sedimentary response to Milankovitch-type climatic oscillations and formation of sediment undulations: evidence from a shallow-shelf setting at Gela Basin on the Sicilian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Jannis; Asioli, Alessandra; Trincardi, Fabio; Klügel, Andreas; Huhn, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    A multi-proxy chronological framework along with sequence-stratigraphic interpretations unveils composite Milankovitch cyclicity in the sedimentary records of the Last Glacial-Interglacial cycle at NE Gela Basin on the Sicilian continental margin. Chronostratigraphic data (including foraminifera-based eco-biostratigraphy and δ18O records, tephrochronological markers and 14C AMS radiometric datings) was derived from the shallow-shelf drill sites GeoB14403 (54.6 m recovery) and GeoB14414 (27.5 m), collected with both gravity and drilled MeBo cores in 193 m and 146 m water depth, respectively. The recovered intervals record Marine Isotope Stages and Substages (MIS) from MIS 5 to MIS 1, thus comprising major stratigraphic parts of the progradational deposits that form the last 100-ka depositional sequence. Calibration of shelf sedimentary units with borehole stratigraphies indicates the impact of higher-frequency (20-ka) sea level cycles punctuating this 100-ka cycle. This becomes most evident in the alternation of thick interstadial highstand (HST) wedges and thinner glacial forced-regression (FSST) units mirroring seaward shifts in coastal progradation. Albeit their relatively short-lived depositional phase, these subordinate HST units form the bulk of the 100-ka depositional sequence. Two mechanisms are proposed that likely account for enhanced sediment accumulation ratios (SAR) of up to 200 cm/ka during these intervals: (1) intensified activity of deep and intermediate Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) associated to the drowning of Mediterranean shelves, and (2) amplified sediment flux along the flooded shelf in response to hyperpycnal plumes that generate through extreme precipitation events during overall arid conditions. Equally, the latter mechanism is thought to be at the origin of undulated features resolved in the acoustic records of MIS 5 Interstadials, which bear a striking resemblance to modern equivalents forming on late-Holocene prodeltas of other

  15. The southern margin of the Caribbean Plate in Venezuela: tectono-magmatic setting of the ophiolitic units and kinematic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, Giuseppe; Beccaluva, Luigi; Coltorti, Massimo; Siena, Franca; Vaccaro, Carmela

    2002-07-01

    The southern Caribbean Plate margin in Venezuela consists of a W-E elongated deformed belt, composed of several tectonic units dismembered along the northern part of the South America continental Plate since the Late Cretaceous. The present review, based on petrology and tectono-magmatic significance of each unit, makes it possible to define the main geotectonic elements and to reconstruct the paleogeographic domains from Late Jurassic to Tertiary: (a) Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalt (MORB) proto-Caribbean oceanic basin (Loma de Hierro Unit); (b) oceanic plateau (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands basement); (c) rifted continental margin (Cordillera de La Costa and Caucagua-El Tinaco Units) with Within Plate Tholeiitic (WPTh) magmatism; (d) an intra-oceanic subduction zone represented by Island Arc Tholeiitic (IAT) magmatism (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units) of Early Cretaceous age; (e) an Early Cretaceous ocean-continent subduction trench filled by melange (Franja Costera); (f) a new intra-oceanic subduction zone, represented by the tonalitic arc magmatism of Late Cretaceous age (Dutch and Venezuelan Islands). Regional tectonic constraints and coherent kinematic reconstruction suggest an original "near-Mid America" location of the Jurassic-Cretaceous "proto-Caribbean" oceanic realm. From Early to Late Cretaceous one sub-continental subduction with melanges (Franja Costera Unit) and two main stages of intra-oceanic arc magmatism are recorded in the so-called "eo-Caribbean" phases. The first consists of generally metamorphosed and deformed volcano-plutonic sequences with IAT affinity (Villa de Cura and Dos Hermanas Units), probably in relation to a southeastward-dipping subduction. The second is mainly represented by generally unmetamorphosed tonalitic intrusives cutting the oceanic plateau in the Dutch and Venezuelan Islands, and related to the new intra-oceanic subduction with reverse lithospheric sinking. The latter probably marked the onset of the Aves/Lesser Antilles arc

  16. Crustal recycling at active convergent margins and growth of the continents

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J. . Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences Carnegie Institution of Washington, DC ); Zheng, S.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-03-01

    Subduction of continental materials at active convergent margins provides an opportunity to evaluate mechanisms and magnitude of subduction-driven crustal recycling and its potential role in continental growth. Continental materials, in the form of detrital sediments and elements adsorbed out of seawater onto settling sediment particles, are continuously supplied to subduction trenches. The sediments may be accreted and re-attached to the continental crust through collisional processes subducted to depth and subsequently involved in arc magma generation (magmatic recycling) or subducted past the arc into the deep mantle. Cosmogenic 10Be, which is strongly adsorbed onto settling sediment particles, may be used to investigate all aspects of sediment recycling. Because of its atmospheric source and short half-life, the high 10Be concentrations observed in many volcanic arc magmas require that the uppermost part of the sediment column be subducted to depth and some part of it returned to the surface in arc magmas within the measurable 10Be lifetime, effectively a few million years. In the Aleutians, Middle America and Marianas, 10Be is present only in the upper 12m, 100m and 25m, respectively of the subducting oceanic sediment column. Using von Huene and Scholl's 1991 estimate of oceanic sediment supply to trenches, the authors evidence for sediment bypassing of accretionary margins, and the limited recycling of most major elements in arc volcanism, estimates of sediment subduction are nearly equal to those required in a steady-state, recycling model for growth of the continents through time.

  17. Debris Flow Architecture and Processes in Offshore Trinidad: Implications for basin fill in tectonically active margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moscardelli, L.; Wood, L.; Mann, P.

    2004-12-01

    The eastern continental margin of Trinidad is situated along the tectonically active oblique converging southeastern boundary of the Caribbean and South American plates and proximal to the Orinoco Delta. Factors that have contributed to gravitational instabilities in the shelf edge include high sedimentation accumulation rates, high frequency sea-level fluctuations during the Quaternary, frequent earthquakes and the abundance of methane hydrate. This volatile mix of factors favor the formation of episodic gravity induced deposits that have affected thousands of square kilometers of the deep marine environment. Debris flows are the predominant type of gravity induced deposits in the area. Multiple episodes of debris flow occurrence have been identified using nearly 10,000 square kilometers of three-dimensional seismic data that cover the entire eastern margin. Units can reach up to 250 meters in thickness and occur over 100's of kilometer square areas. Maps that have been generated for the uppermost flow show significant basal scour, up to 33 meters deep generated during passage of the flow. Scours also show divergent patterns in map view indicating changes in the flow conditions. Flow scour erosional shadows around prominent seafloor mud volcanoes preserving evacuated strata on the downslope side of these obstructions. Internal architecture shows high amplitude discontinuous and chaotic seismic facies, and stacked thrust imbricates association with compressional bends in the flow path. The scale and occurrence frequency of these features suggest that they may form a significant threat to submarine installations and possibly generate tsunamigenic waves that can threaten shipping and coastal communities.

  18. Two-dimensional numerical modeling of tectonic and metamorphic histories at active continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerya, Taras; Stöckhert, Bernhard

    2006-04-01

    The evolution of an active continental margin is simulated in two dimensions, using a finite difference thermomechanical code with half-staggered grid and marker-in-cell technique. The effect of mechanical properties, changing as a function of P and T, assigned to different crustal layers and mantle materials in the simple starting structure is discussed for a set of numerical models. For each model, representative P T paths are displayed for selected markers. Both the intensity of subduction erosion and the size of the frontal accretionary wedge are strongly dependent on the rheology chosen for the overriding continental crust. Tectonically eroded upper and lower continental crust is carried down to form a broad orogenic wedge, intermingling with detached oceanic crust and sediments from the subducted plate and hydrated mantle material from the overriding plate. A small portion of the continental crust and trench sediments is carried further down into a narrow subduction channel, intermingling with oceanic crust and hydrated mantle material, and to some extent extruded to the rear of the orogenic wedge underplating the overriding continental crust. The exhumation rates for (ultra)high pressure rocks can exceed subduction and burial rates by a factor of 1.5 3, when forced return flow in the hanging wall portion of the self-organizing subduction channel is focused. The simulations suggest that a minimum rate of subduction is required for the formation of a subduction channel, because buoyancy forces may outweigh drag forces for slow subduction. For a weak upper continental crust, simulated by a high pore pressure coefficient in the brittle regime, the orogenic wedge and megascale melange reach a mid- to upper-crustal position within 10 20 Myr (after 400 600 km of subduction). For a strong upper crust, a continental lid persists over the entire time span covered by the simulation. The structural pattern is similar in all cases, with four zones from trench toward arc

  19. Anthropogenic activities have contributed moderately to increased inputs of organic materials in marginal seas off China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang-Ying; Wei, Gao-Ling; Wang, Ji-Zhong; Guan, Yu-Feng; Wong, Charles S; Wu, Feng-Chang; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2013-10-15

    Sediment has been recognized as a gigantic sink of organic materials and therefore can record temporal input trends. To examine the impact of anthropogenic activities on the marginal seas off China, sediment cores were collected from the Yellow Sea, the inner shelf of the East China Sea (ECS), and the South China Sea (SCS) to investigate the sources and spatial and temporal variations of organic materials, i.e., total organic carbon (TOC) and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The concentration ranges of TOC were 0.5-1.29, 0.63-0.83, and 0.33-0.85%, while those of Σn-C14-35 (sum of n-alkanes with carbon numbers of 14-35) were 0.08-1.5, 0.13-1.97, and 0.35-0.96 μg/g dry weight in sediment cores from the Yellow Sea, ECS inner shelf, and the SCS, respectively. Terrestrial higher plants were an important source of aliphatic hydrocarbons in marine sediments off China. The spatial distribution of Σn-C14-35 concentrations and source diagnostic ratios suggested a greater load of terrestrial organic materials in the Yellow Sea than in the ECS and SCS. Temporally, TOC and Σn-C14-35 concentrations increased with time and peaked at either the surface or immediate subsurface layers. This increase was probably reflective of elevated inputs of organic materials to marginal seas off China in recent years, and attributed partly to the impacts of intensified anthropogenic activities in mainland China. Source diagnostics also suggested that aliphatic hydrocarbons were mainly derived from biogenic sources, with a minority in surface sediment layers from petroleum sources, consistent with the above-mentioned postulation.

  20. Shelfal sediment transport by undercurrents forces turbidity current activity during high sea level, Chile continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anne; Hebbeln, Dierk; Regenberg, Marcus; Lückge, Andreas; Strecker, Manfred. R.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the links between terrigenous sediment supply and marine transport and depositional processes along tectonically active margins is essential to decipher turbidite successions as potential archives of climatic and seismic forcings and to comprehend timing and quantity of marine clastic deposition. Sequence stratigraphic models predict coarse-grained terrigenous sediment delivery to deep-marine sites mainly during sea-level fall and lowstand. Marine clastic deposition during periods of transgression and highstand has been attributed to the continued geomorphic connectivity between terrestrial sediment sources and marine sinks (e.g., rivers connected to submarine canyons) often facilitated by narrow shelves, high sediment supply causing delta migration to the shelf edge, and/or abrupt increases in sediment supply due to climatic variability or catastrophic events. To decipher the controls on Holocene highstand turbidite deposition, we analyzed twelve sediment cores of spatially disparate, coeval Holocene turbidite systems along the Chile margin (29-40°S) with changing climatic and geomorphic characteristics but uniform changes of sea level. Intraslope basins in north-central Chile (29-33°S) offshore a narrow to absent shelf record a shut-off of turbidite activity during the Holocene. In contrast, core sites in south-central Chile (36-40°S) offshore a wide continental shelf have repeatedly experienced turbidite deposition during sea-level highstand conditions, even though most of the depocenters are not connected via canyons to sediment sources. The interplay of stable high sediment supply related to strong onshore precipitation in combination with a wide shelf, over which undercurrents move sediment towards the shelf edge, appears to control Holocene turbidite sedimentation and sediment export to the deep sea.

  1. Three-Dimensional Numerical Modeling of Crustal Growth at Active Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, G.; Gerya, T.; Tackley, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Active margins are important sites of new continental crust formation by magmatic processes related to the subduction of oceanic plates. We investigate these phenomena using a three-dimensional coupled petrological-geochemical-thermomechanical numerical model, which combines a finite-difference flow solver with a non-diffusive marker-in-cell technique for advection (I3ELVIS code, Gerya and Yuen, PEPI,2007). The model includes mantle flow associated with the subducting plate, water release from the slab, fluid propagation that triggers partial melting at the slab surface, melt extraction and the resulting volcanic crustal growth at the surface. The model also accounts for variations in physical properties (mainly density and viscosity) of both fluids and rocks as a function of local conditions in temperature, pressure, deformation, nature of the rocks, and chemical exchanges. Our results show different patterns of crustal growth and surface topography, which are comparable to nature, during subduction at active continental margins. Often, two trench-parallel lines of magmatic activity, which reflect two maxima of melt production atop the slab, are formed on the surface. The melt extraction rate controls the patterns of new crust at different ages. Moving free water reflects the path of fluids, and the velocity of free water shows the trend of two parallel lines of magmatic activity. The formation of new crust in particular time intervals is distributed in finger-like shapes, corresponding to finger-like and ridge-like cold plumes developed atop the subducting slabs (Zhu et al., G-cubed,2009; PEPI,2011). Most of the new crust is basaltic, formed from peridotitic mantle. Granitic crust extracted from melted sediment and upper crust forms in a line closer to the trench, and its distribution reflects the finger-like cold plumes. Dacitic crust extracted from the melted lower crust forms in a line farther away from the trench, and its distribution is anticorrelated with

  2. An approximate analytic solution of a set of nonlinear model alpha-omega-dynamo equations for marginally unstable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinata, S.

    1989-01-01

    An approximate analytic solution of a set of nonlinear model alpha-omega-dynamo equations is obtained. The reaction of the Lorentz force on the velocity shear which stretches and, hence, amplifies the magnetic field is incorporated into the model. To single out the effect of the Lorentz force on the omega-effect, the effect of the Lorentz force on the alpha-effect is neglected in this study. The solution represents a nonlinear oscillation with the amplitude and period determined by the dynamo number N. The amplitude is proportional to N - 1, while the period is almost exactly the same as the dissipation time of the unstable mode (proportional to N).

  3. Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes (northwestern Argentina and northern Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, H.; Breitkreuz, C.

    originated as an extensional structure at the continental margin of Gondwana. Independent lines of evidence imply that basin evolution was not connected to subduction. Thus, the basin could not have been in a fore-arc position as previously postulated. Above the folded Devonian-Early Carboniferous strata, a continental volcanic arc developed from the Late Carboniferous to the Middle Triassic. It represents the link between the Choiyoi Province in central Chile and Argentina, and the Mitu Group rift in southern Peru. The volcanic arc succession is characterized by the prevalence of silicic lavas and tuffs and volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks. During the latest Carboniferous, a thick ostracod-bearing lacustrine unit formed in an extended lake in the area of the Depresión Preandina. This lake basin originated in an intra-arc tensional setting. During the Early Permian, marine limestones were deposited on a marine platform west and east of the volcanic arc, connected to the depositional area of the Copacabana Formation in southern Peru.

  4. Neotectonics across an active oblique-divergent plate margin, SW Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umhoefer, P.; Arrowsmith, R.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N.; Martínez-Gutiérrez, G.; Malservisi, R.; Plattner, C.; Busch, M.; Maloney, S.; Buchanan, B.

    2008-12-01

    Onshore and offshore paleoseismology provides new constraints on late Quaternary to present deformation rates across the SW margin of the Gulf of California plate boundary at the latitude of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The paleoseismology is being conducted in an innovative approach using traditional onshore techniques and CHIRP seismic data in the immediate offshore area on the same fault systems; the CHIRP survey was completed in August, 2008. From west to east the Carrizal, San Juan de los Planes (SJP), and La Gata faults are being studied in detail, and to date the San Jose del Cabo (SJC) fault is being studied in reconnaissance. GPS results suggest rates of motion across the whole array (including the offshore Espiritu Santo and Cerralvo faults) of 1-2 mm/year. Estimated slip rates in the late Quaternary on the Carrizal fault from uplifted marine terraces, mapping, dating units, and two trenches are 0.1 - 0.2 mm/yr. Estimated slip rates from the Los Planes fault is 0.1 to possibly as much as 1 mm/yr. Modern bathymetric data and earthquakes in 1969 (M=5.6) and 1995 (M=6.2) on the Cerralvo and Espiritu Santo faults, respectively, suggest that those faults are much more active than the Carrizal and Los Planes faults. Reconnaissance on the Cabo fault suggests that it was, and possibly remains, a more active fault, perhaps in the range of 0.5 mm/yr. We conclude from the ongoing project that the faulting pattern across the SW margin of the Gulf of California is dominated by a large step from the major Cerralvo and Cabo faults in the south to the NW to the Espiritu Santo fault on the east side of Espiritu Santo Island; these faults define the eastern edge of the narrow shallow marine shelf and the highest onshore mountain range in the southern Baja California peninsula suggesting that they were the major faults that produced the edge of the oblique rift for most or all of its history. The Los Planes - La Gata faults would be the southern splays of the

  5. External validation and prediction employing the predictive squared correlation coefficient test set activity mean vs training set activity mean.

    PubMed

    Schüürmann, Gerrit; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Chen, Jingwen; Wang, Bin; Kühne, Ralph

    2008-11-01

    The external prediction capability of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is often quantified using the predictive squared correlation coefficient, q (2). This index relates the predictive residual sum of squares, PRESS, to the activity sum of squares, SS, without postprocessing of the model output, the latter of which is automatically done when calculating the conventional squared correlation coefficient, r (2). According to the current OECD guidelines, q (2) for external validation should be calculated with SS referring to the training set activity mean. Our present findings including a mathematical proof demonstrate that this approach yields a systematic overestimation of the prediction capability that is triggered by the difference between the training and test set activity means. Example calculations with three regression models and data sets taken from literature show further that for external test sets, q (2) based on the training set activity mean may become even larger than r (2). As a consequence, we suggest to always use the test set activity mean when quantifying the external prediction capability through q (2) and to revise the respective OECD guidance document accordingly. The discussion includes a comparison between r (2) and q (2) value ranges and the q (2) statistics for cross-validation.

  6. Mass transport deposits as witness of Holocene seismic activity on the Ligurian margin, Western Mediterranean (ASTARTE project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samalens, Kevin; Cattaneo, Antonio; Migeon, Sébastien

    2016-04-01

    The Ligurian Margin (Western Mediterranean) is at the transition between the Southern Alpes and the Liguro-Provençal margin and it is one of the most seismic areas of France. Several historic earthquakes have been indexed; the strongest, on February 23rd, 1887, occurred offshore Menton and Imperia and also caused a tsunami wave. Its equivalent magnitude has been estimated between 6 and 6.5. In addition, a moderate recurrent seismicity shakes the margin. The aim of this study is to understand the link between seismic activity and slope destabilization, and to identify the sedimentary deposits resulting from mass transport or turbidity currents. During Malisar (Geoazur laboratory), Prisme 2 and Prisme 3 (Ifremer) cruises, bathymetry, seafloor imagery (SAR), geophysics data (CHIRP SYSIF and high resolution seismics), and sediment cores have been acquired on the continental slope, focussing on canyons and submarine landslides, and in the basin. These data record numerous mass transport deposits (slump, debrites) in the different physiographic areas of the margin. To search for evidences of past Ligurian margin seismicity during the Holocene, we focused on the northeast part of the margin, the Finale area. We identified and sampled acoustically transparent Mass Transport Deposits up to 20-m thick in the bottom of three coaleshing canyons: Noli, Pora and Centa canyons from W to E in the area offshore Finale Ligure. We also recovered an MTD in the collecting deeper canyon system. MTDs in cores appear as sediment with different degrees of deformation (tilted blocks, slump, debrites) and are topped by hemipelagites. The radiocarbon age of the top of MTDs can be considered synchronous and centered around 4900 yr BP. Mass wasting occurring over more than 50 km of the Ligurian margin could indicate that an earthquake stroke the Finale area sector at that time.

  7. Active processes on a mixed clastic carbonate Brazilian shelf margin: Importance for hydrocarbon exploration in turbidites

    SciTech Connect

    Cainelli, C. )

    1991-03-01

    The search for subtle hydrocarbon accumulations in turbidite systems requires additional approaches for more successful exploration, particularly when direct recognition on seismic lines is difficult. This includes the determination and understanding of processes controlling sand distribution on the shelf and the mapping of sand pathways from the shelf to the slop/basin that can guide efforts to look for more favorable sites for turbidite sandstone deposition. The approach can be exemplified in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin, on the Brazillian Atlantic passive margin. The section analyzed is the Piacabucu Formation, a thick seaward prograding wedge composed of coastal sandstones and shelf edge carbonates on a narrow shelf and slope-basin shales with turbidite lenses. Waves and currents control the redistribution of sediments transported to the shelf by rivers. More wave energy is expended in ten hours in the San Francisco delta than in an entire year in the Mississippi delta. Such environment precludes deposition of mud on the shelf, but it stimulates the development of shelf edge carbonates. Rimed carbonates along the shelf break serve as a barrier for downslope movements of coarse-grained sediment, where turbidites are oil targets. The search for gaps in the carbonate barrier which can tap the behind-barrier sands is critical for sand-rich turbidite development. It is believed that canyons create these gaps and act as active turbidity current routes.

  8. Tectonic setting of the pebble and other copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposits within the evolving middle cretaceous continental margin of Northwestern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Anderson, Eric; Hart, Craig J.R.

    2013-01-01

    The Pebble Cu-Au-Mo deposit in southwestern Alaska, containing the largest gold resource of any known porphyry in the world, developed in a tectonic setting significantly different from that of the present-day. It is one of a series of metalliferous middle Cretaceous porphyritic granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and diorite bodies, evolved from lower crust and metasomatized lithospheric mantle melts, which formed along much of the length of the North American craton suture with the Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia arc. The porphyry deposits were emplaced within the northernmost two of a series of ca. 130 to 80 Ma flysch basins that define the suture, as well as into arc rocks immediately seaward of the two basins. Deposits include the ca. 100 to 90 Ma Pebble, Neacola, and other porphyry prospects along the Kahiltna basin-Peninsula terrane boundary, and the ca. 115 to 105 Ma Baultoff, Carl Creek, Horsfeld, Orange Hill, Bond Creek, and Chisna porphyries along the Nutzotin basin-Wrangellia terrane boundary.The porphyry deposits probably formed along the craton margin more than 1,000 km to the south of their present latitude. Palinspastic reconstructions of plate kinematics from this period are particularly difficult because magmatism overlaps the 119 to 83 Ma Cretaceous Normal Superchron, a period when sea-floor magnetic data are lacking. Our favored scenario is that ore formation broadly overlaps the cessation of sedimentation and contraction and the transition to a transpressional continental margin regime, such that the remnant ocean basins were converted to strike-slip basins. The basins and outboard Peninsular-Alexander-Wrangellia composite superterrane, which are all located seaward of the deep crustal Denali-Farewell fault system, were subjected to northerly dextral transpression for as long as perhaps 50 m.y., beginning at ca. 95 ± 10 Ma. The onset of this transpression was marked by development of the mineralized bodies along fault segments on the seaward side

  9. Activation of retinal stem cells in the proliferating marginal region of RCS rats during development of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Jian, Qian; Xu, Haiwei; Xie, Hanping; Tian, Chunyu; Zhao, Tongtao; Yin, ZhengQin

    2009-11-06

    Retinal stem cells (RSCs) have been demonstrated at the proliferating marginal regions from the pars plana of ciliary body to the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) in adult lower vertebrates and mammals. Investigations in the lower vertebrates have provided some evidence that RSCs can proliferate following retinal damage; however, the evidence that this occurs in mammals is not clear. In this study, we explored RSCs proliferation potential of adult mammalian in proliferating marginal regions of Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, an animal model for retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The proliferation was evaluated using BrdU labeling, and Chx-10 as markers to discern progenitor cell of CMZ in Long-Evan's and RCS rats at different postnatal day (PND) after eye opening. We found that few Chx-10 and BrdU labeled cells in the proliferating marginal regions of Long-Evan's rats, which significantly increased in RCS rats at PND30 and PND60. Consistent with this, Chx-10/Vimentin double staining cells in the center retina of RCS rats increased significantly at PND30 after eye opening. In addition, mRNA expression of Shh, Ptch1 and Smo was up-regulated in RCS rats at PND60 compared to age-matched Long-Evan's rats, which revealed Shh/ptc pathway involving in the activation of RSCs. These results suggest that RSCs in the mammalian retinal proliferating marginal regions has the potential to regenerate following degeneration.

  10. Three-dimensional representations of salt-dome margins at four active strategic petroleum reserve sites.

    SciTech Connect

    Rautman, Christopher Arthur; Stein, Joshua S.

    2003-01-01

    Existing paper-based site characterization models of salt domes at the four active U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites have been converted to digital format and visualized using modern computer software. The four sites are the Bayou Choctaw dome in Iberville Parish, Louisiana; the Big Hill dome in Jefferson County, Texas; the Bryan Mound dome in Brazoria County, Texas; and the West Hackberry dome in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. A new modeling algorithm has been developed to overcome limitations of many standard geological modeling software packages in order to deal with structurally overhanging salt margins that are typical of many salt domes. This algorithm, and the implementing computer program, make use of the existing interpretive modeling conducted manually using professional geological judgement and presented in two dimensions in the original site characterization reports as structure contour maps on the top of salt. The algorithm makes use of concepts of finite-element meshes of general engineering usage. Although the specific implementation of the algorithm described in this report and the resulting output files are tailored to the modeling and visualization software used to construct the figures contained herein, the algorithm itself is generic and other implementations and output formats are possible. The graphical visualizations of the salt domes at the four Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites are believed to be major improvements over the previously available two-dimensional representations of the domes via conventional geologic drawings (cross sections and contour maps). Additionally, the numerical mesh files produced by this modeling activity are available for import into and display by other software routines. The mesh data are not explicitly tabulated in this report; however an electronic version in simple ASCII format is included on a PC-based compact disk.

  11. Dissolution of bedded rock salt: A seismic profile across the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member, central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, N.L.; Hopkins, J.; Martinez, A.; Knapp, R.W.; Macfarlane, P.A.; Watney, W.L.; Black, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since late Tertiary, bedded rock salt of the Permian Hutchinson Salt Member has been dissolved more-or-less continuously along its active eastern margin in central Kansas as a result of sustained contact with unconfined, undersaturated groundwater. The associated westward migration of the eastern margin has resulted in surface subsidence and the contemporaneous sedimentation of predominantly valley-filling Quarternary alluvium. In places, these alluvium deposits extend more than 25 km to the east of the present-day edge of the main body of contiguous rock salt. The margin could have receded this distance during the past several million years. From an environmental perspective, the continued leaching of the Hutchinson Salt is a major concern. This predominantly natural dissolution occurs in a broad zone across the central part of the State and adversely affects groundwater and surface-water quality as nonpoint source pollution. Significant surface subsidence occurs as well. Most of these subsidence features have formed gradually; others developed in a more catastrophic manner. The latter in particular pose real threats to roadways, railways, and buried oil and gas pipelines. In an effort to further clarify the process of natural salt dissolution in central Kansas and with the long-term goal of mitigating the adverse environmental affects of such leaching, the Kansas Geological Survey acquired a 4-km seismic profile across the eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt in the Punkin Center area of central Kansas. The interpretation of these seismic data (and supporting surficial and borehole geologic control) is consistent with several hypotheses regarding the process and mechanisms of dissolution. More specifically these data support the theses that: 1. (1) Dissolution along the active eastern margin of the Hutchinson Salt Member was initiated during late Tertiary. Leaching has resulted in the steady westward migration of the eastern margin, surface subsidence, and the

  12. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  13. Methane-derived carbonates as archives of past seepage activity along the Norwegian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crémière, Antoine; Lepland, Aivo; Sahy, Diana; Noble, Stephen R.; Condon, Daniel J.; Chand, Shyam; Stoddart, Daniel; Halvard Pedersen, Jon; Sauer, Simone; Brunstad, Harald; Birger Pedersen, Rolf; Thornes, Terje

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of timing and flux rates of past methane discharges is in part hindered by the lack of robust age constraints. Authigenic carbonate crusts forming in shallow sediments due to the oxidation of methane are recorders of seepage that can be dated by using U-daughter decay affording the unique opportunity to constrain the absolute timing of methane release events. Methane-derived carbonate crusts exhibiting characteristic 13C-depleted isotopic signatures were collected from several seepage sites on the Norwegian continental shelf, including sites in the North Sea, the Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. The U-Th dating results constrain the main episode of carbonate crust formation in the Barents and Norwegian seas during the time interval between 14 and 7 ka. Such ages suggest that the methane seepage along the northern Norwegian margin was most active after the collapse of the Scandinavian ice sheet and deglaciation of the area that took place at about 15 ka. The methane flux for the carbonate crust formation was likely provided by the dissociation of methane hydrates that extensively formed in underlying sediments during the last glacial period, but became unstable due to depressuring effects of retreating ice sheet. The precipitation of studied North Sea carbonate crusts occurred more recently, from 6 to 1 ka, suggesting that their formation is unrelated to the glacial history of the area and gas hydrate stability. Carbonate crust formation in the North Sea is likely related to the methane seepage from the hydrocarbon reservoir and the dating results allow an assessment of the seepage history within individual conduits.

  14. 3D crustal-scale heat-flow regimes at a developing active margin (Taranaki Basin, New Zealand)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, K. F.; Funnell, R. H.; Nicol, A.; Fohrmann, M.; Bland, K. J.; King, P. R.

    2013-04-01

    The Taranaki Basin in the west of New Zealand's North Island has evolved from a rifted Mesozoic Gondwana margin to a basin straddling the Neogene convergent Australian-Pacific plate margin. However, given its proximity to the modern subduction front, Taranaki Basin is surprisingly cold when compared to other convergent margins. To investigate the effects of active margin evolution on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin we developed a 3D crustal-scale forward model using the petroleum industry-standard basin-modelling software Petromod™. The crustal structure inherited from Mesozoic Gondwana margin breakup and processes related to modern Hikurangi convergent margin initiation are identified to be the main controls on the thermal regime of the Taranaki Basin. Present-day surface heat flow across Taranaki on average is 59 mW/m2, but varies by as much as 30 mW/m2 due to the difference in crustal heat generation between mafic and felsic basement terranes alone. In addition, changes in mantle heat advection, tectonic subsidence, crustal thickening and basin inversion, together with related sedimentary processes result in variability of up to 10 mW/m2. Modelling suggests that increased heating of the upper crust due to additional mantle heat advection following the onset of subduction is an ongoing process and heating has only recently begun to reach the surface, explaining the relatively low surface heat flow. We propose that the depth of the subducted slab and related mantle convection processes control the thermal and structural regimes in the Taranaki Basin. The thermal effects of the subduction initiation process are modified and overprinted by the thickness, structure and composition of the lithosphere.

  15. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book III: Grades 8 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets for students in grades 8 through 12 are designed to supplement courses in citizenship and U.S. history and government. "The Civil War That Could Have Been" creates a hypothetical situation which requires the participant to analyze the causes of the Civil War. In "History on TV -- Enemy or Ally of the Social Studies Program,"…

  16. 40 CFR 35.3535 - Authorized set-aside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... make expenditures to establish and implement wellhead protection programs under section 1428 of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authorized set-aside activities. 35.3535 Section 35.3535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  17. 40 CFR 35.3535 - Authorized set-aside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... make expenditures to establish and implement wellhead protection programs under section 1428 of the Act... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized set-aside activities. 35.3535 Section 35.3535 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  18. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratio proxy for specific microbial activity in marine sediments (Peru Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Blake, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    Oxygen (O) isotope ratios of biogenic apatites have been widely used as paleotemperature and environmental geochemical proxies. With improved knowledge of the phosphate O isotope effects of different P cycling pathways, the δ18O value of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) has been proposed as a useful proxy and tracer of biological reactions and P cycling in natural environments[1,2,3,4]. Being the only way of removing P from oceanic water, sedimentary P burial is one of the most important processes during biogeochemical cycling of P. The high concentrations of organic matter and pronounced microbial activity at ODP Site 1230 along the Peru Margin result in unusually high interstitial water phosphate concentrations, which provides a unique opportunity to use δ18OP to investigate inorganic phosphate (Pi) regeneration and P cycling pathways in marine sediments. The isotopic measurements of both dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and bulk sediment Pi show that DIP δ18OP values are affected by three different processes, which are all induced by specific microbial activities present in the sediments. In sediments at ~ 65 to 120 mbsf, porewater DIP is derived from dissolved organophosphorus compounds (DOP) through enzymatic degradation pathways, evidenced by both DIP δ18OP values and interstitial water chemistry. Measured porewater DIP δ18OP values also suggest that 4 to 8% of interstitial water DIP reflects regeneration of Pi from Porg by microbially-synthesized enzymes. Throughout the sediment column and especially at ~ 120 to 150 mbsf, DIP is released from the sediments by microbially-induced reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides, which contributes to the overall high DIP concentrations at Site 1230. The third and dominant process controlling measured DIP δ18OP values is microbial turnover of regenerated Pi. The presence of high microbial activities in organic-rich Site 1230 sediments promotes the remobilization of P and affects marine P cycling by potentially enhancing

  19. Violent Gas Venting on the Heng-Chun Mud Volcano, South China Sea Active Continental Margin offshore SW Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, S.; Cheng, W. Y.; Tseng, Y. T.; Chen, N. C.; Hsieh, I. C.; Yang, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Accumulation of methane as gas hydrate under the sea floor has been considered a major trap for both thermal and biogenic gas in marine environment. Aided by rapid AOM process near the sea floor, fraction of methane escaping the sea floor has been considered at minuscule. However, most studies focused mainly on deepwater gas hydrate systems where gas hydrate remain relatively stable. We have studied methane seeps on the active margin offshore Taiwan, where rapid tectonic activities occur. Our intention is to evaluate the scale and condition of gas seeps in the tectonic active region. Towcam, coring, heat probe, chirp, multibeam bathymetric mapping and echo sounding were conducted at the study areas. Our results showed that gas is violently venting at the active margin, not only through sediments, but also through overlying sea water, directly into the atmosphere. Similar ventings, but, not in this scale, have also been identified previously in the nearby region. High concentrations of methane as well as traces of propane were found in sediments and in waters with flares. In conjunction, abundant chemosynthetic community, life mussel, clams, tube worms, bacterial mats together with high concentrations of dissolve sulfide, large authigenic carbonate buildups were also found. Our results indicate that methane could be another major green house gas in the shallow water active margin region.

  20. Basal Freeze-on: An Active Component of Hydrology from the Ice Divide to the Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Abdi, A.; Creyts, T. T.; Wolovick, M.; Das, I.; Ferraccioli, F.; Csatho, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland, we have identified 14 distinct basal ice packages over a wide region. The accumulation rate (~17 cm/yr) and ice velocity (~5-200m/yr) are higher than East Antarctica. These accretion bodies are 10-50 km wide, up to 940m thick and can be traced up to 140 km. The volume of the ice enclosed by the accretion ice reflector units is ~70-300 km3. We estimate that the freeze-on process in Petermann has been active for at least 6,000yr. Water has been mapped beneath much of the Greenland ice sheet and adjacent to the inland freeze-on site flat bright reflectors are interpreted as basal water. The onset of fast flow in Petermann Glacier is associated with the development of the thickest unit of freeze-on ice. Other areas of Greenland also have basal freeze-on ice. North of Jakobshavn Isbrae where the ice sheet is ~1000 m thick, evidence exists for a nearly 10 km wide, 200 m thick unit of basal ice in airborne radar. Located close to the site where basal freeze-on outcrops at the ice sheet margin at Pakitsoq, this unit may be the result of freeze-on of water draining from a supraglacial lake. Basal freeze-on is a critical component of subglacial hydrology. The evidence for large scale freeze-on East Antarctica and many areas of Greenland indicates widespread modification of the base of the ice sheet by basal hydrology.

  1. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  2. An active set algorithm for treatment planning optimization.

    PubMed

    Hristov, D H; Fallone, B G

    1997-09-01

    An active set algorithm for optimization of radiation therapy dose planning by intensity modulated beams has been developed. The algorithm employs a conjugate-gradient routine for subspace minimization in order to achieve a higher rate of convergence than the widely used constrained steepest-descent method at the expense of a negligible amount of overhead calculations. The performance of the new algorithm has been compared to that of the constrained steepest-descent method for various treatment geometries and two different objectives. The active set algorithm is found to be superior to the constrained steepest descent, both in terms of its convergence properties and the residual value of the cost functions at termination. Its use can significantly accelerate the design of conformal plans with intensity modulated beams by decreasing the number of time-consuming dose calculations.

  3. An active set algorithm for tracing parametrized optima

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakowska, J.; Haftka, R. T.; Watson, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Optimization problems often depend on parameters that define constraints or objective functions. It is often necessary to know the effect of a change in a parameter on the optimum solution. An algorithm is presented here for tracking paths of optimal solutions of inequality constrained nonlinear programming problems as a function of a parameter. The proposed algorithm employs homotopy zero-curve tracing techniques to track segments where the set of active constraints is unchanged. The transition between segments is handled by considering all possible sets of active constraints and eliminating nonoptimal ones based on the signs of the Lagrange multipliers and the derivatives of the optimal solutions with respect to the parameter. A spring-mass problem is used to illustrate all possible kinds of transition events, and the algorithm is applied to a well-known ten-bar truss structural optimization problem.

  4. Becoming Marginalized in a Middle School Physical Education Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara Tyree; Goc-Karp, Grace

    This study examined the effects of social competence, group formation, and group behavior on the marginalization of students in a 7th-grade physical education setting. Marginalized students are defined as those in the class, but not "of" the class. In addition, factors such as individual and team activity and teacher expectations help to…

  5. Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly of the active margin of South America as a result of plate kinematics reorganization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riel, Nicolas; Jaillard, Etienne; Guillot, Stéphane; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Braun, Jean

    2013-04-01

    From Permian to Triassic times, tectonic plate reorganization provoked Pangaea breakup, counterclockwise rotation of Gondwana, closing of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean and opening of the Neo-Tethys oceanic realm. Meanwhile, the switch from arc volcanism to widespread S-type magmatism along the western South American active margin around 275-265 Ma is symptomatic of the onset of a large-scale Permian-Triassic thermal anomaly (PTTA)affecting the whole margin. Here we report metamorphic and U-Pb geochronological results from the El Oro metamorphic complex in the forearc zone of southwestern Ecuador, which recorded the last step, at 230-225 Ma, of the PTTA. The change in the drift direction of Gondwana from north to east at ca. 270 Ma was related to plate reorganization and provoked the verticalization of the subducted Panthalassa slab. As the slab verticalized, strong heat advection produced a high heat flow beneath the active margin inducing the development of a huge thermal anomaly responsible for the PTTA, which lasted 30 Ma. This voluminous magmatic activity culminated at the Permian-Triassic boundary, and may have contributed to the degradation of life conditions on the Earth surface.

  6. Morphotectonic evolution of passive margins undergoing active surface processes: large-scale experiments using numerical models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beucher, Romain; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Extension of the continental lithosphere can lead to the formation of a wide range of rifted margins styles with contrasting tectonic and geomorphological characteristics. It is now understood that many of these characteristics depend on the manner extension is distributed depending on (among others factors) rheology, structural inheritance, thermal structure and surface processes. The relative importance and the possible interactions of these controlling factors is still largely unknown. Here we investigate the feedbacks between tectonics and the transfers of material at the surface resulting from erosion, transport, and sedimentation. We use large-scale (1200 x 600 km) and high-resolution (~1km) numerical experiments coupling a 2D upper-mantle-scale thermo-mechanical model with a plan-form 2D surface processes model (SPM). We test the sensitivity of the coupled models to varying crust-lithosphere rheology and erosional efficiency ranging from no-erosion to very efficient erosion. We discuss how fast, when and how the topography of the continents evolves and how it can be compared to actual passive margins escarpment morphologies. We show that although tectonics is the main factor controlling the rift geometry, transfers of masses at the surface affect the timing of faulting and the initiation of sea-floor spreading. We discuss how such models may help to understand the evolution of high-elevated passive margins around the world.

  7. An infrared investigation of inclusion-bearing diamonds from the Venetia kimberlite, Northern Province, South Africa : implications for diamonds from craton-margin settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viljoen, (Fanus)

    2002-08-01

    The Venetia kimberlites in the Northern Province of South Africa sampled diamonds from the lithosphere underlying the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt. Given the general correlation of diamond-bearing kimberlites with old stable cratons, this tectonic setting is somewhat anomalous and, therefore, it is desirable to characterise the diamonds in terms of their infrared characteristics. A suite of diamonds of known paragenesis from the Venetia mine spans a large range of nitrogen concentrations from less than the detection limit to 1,355 ppm. Diamond nitrogen contents are, on average, higher in the eclogitic diamond population relative to the websteritic and peridotitic diamonds. Nitrogen aggregation states are variable, ranging from almost pure type IaA diamond (poorly aggregated nitrogen) to pure type IaB diamond (highly aggregated nitrogen). On a nitrogen aggregation diagram two distinct groups can be identified based on nitrogen content and nitrogen aggregation state. These are a minor population of diamonds with nitrogen contents generally higher than 500 ppm and nitrogen aggregation states of less than 40% IaB, and another, dominant population that is characterised by higher and more variable nitrogen aggregation. The unusually aggregated nature of the majority of the diamonds analysed is unique to Venetia relative to other intrusives on the Kaapvaal-Kalahari craton, but is similar to aggregation states observed for diamonds from other craton margin or adjacent mobile belt settings such as the Argyle lamproite and the George Creek kimberlite. This could be a consequence of diamond mantle residence at mantle temperatures higher than the norm for other kimberlites from the interior of cratons. Deformation of the mantle, associated with dynamic processes such as orogenesis or subduction, might also be responsible for accelerating the rate of nitrogen aggregation in these diamonds. Low numbers of diamonds with degradation of platelets at the Venetia kimberlite

  8. Thermal basin modelling of the Arauco forearc basin, south central Chile — Heat flow and active margin tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Philipp P.; Echtler, Helmut; Littke, Ralf; Alfaro, Guillermo

    2010-11-01

    The Arauco basin is part of the coastal forearc domain in South-Central Chile. During its evolution since the Late Cretaceous it was subject to multiple deposition cycles and the erosion of lower bathyal to beach and lagoon sediments. These different environments were established in alternating accretional and erosive subduction tectonic settings along the South Andean active margin. Whereas the general development is well understood, inconsistencies arise regarding the origin of the high thermal maturity of Eocene coals and the estimates of vertical movements of the whole area during the Cenozoic. Thermal modelling of this forearc basin provides new insights regarding its thermal evolution and evaluation of the magnitudes of subsidence and inversion. Results are based on the analysis of coal samples from surface outcrops, mines and drill cores of ten onshore wells from ENAP/Sipetrol. Newly derived vitrinite reflectance (VR r) measurements indicated a temperature in the range of 135-150 °C for the oldest sediment unit of the Arauco basin, which was reached in post Eocene times. Furthermore, 1D basin modelling techniques indicate scenarios that could explain the coalification values in the basin's sediments. The models were calibrated against VR r data from drill core samples supplied by ENAP/Sipetrol. A Miocene and an Oligocene subsidence/inversion scenario were considered, while neither could be securely discarded based on the modelling results. Furthermore, it can be shown that the current thermal maturity was not reached by an increased heat flow (HF) or a deep subsidence only. Consequently, a structural inversion accompanied by the erosion of ~ 3.0 ± 0.4 km depending on the locality in combination with a high HF of ~ 64 ± 4 mW/m 2 is the best explanation of the available data. The HF, which is high for a forearc setting, can be attributed to the increased temperature of the relatively young subducted Nazca Plate and an additional influence of ascending hot

  9. Late Pleistocene and Holocene uplift history of Cyprus: implications for active tectonics along the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, R.W.; Tsiolakis, E.; Stone, B.D.; Lord, A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Mahan, S.A.; Chirico, P.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the southern margin of the Anatolian microplate during the Neogene is complex, controversial and fundamental in understanding active plate-margin tectonics and natural hazards in the Eastern Mediterranean region. Our investigation provides new insights into the Late Pleistocene uplift history of Cyprus and the Troodos Ophiolite. We provide isotopic (14C) and radiogenic (luminescence) dates of outcropping marine sediments in eastern Cyprus that identify periods of deposition during marine isotope stages (MIS) 3, 4, 5 and 6. Past sea-levels indicated by these deposits are c. 95±25 m higher in elevation than estimates of worldwide eustatic sea-level. An uplift rate of c. 1.8 mm/year and possibly as much as c. 4.1 mm/year in the past c. 26–40 ka is indicated. Holocene marine deposits also occur at elevations higher than those expected for past SL and suggest uplift rates of c. 1.2–2.1 mm/year. MIS-3 marine deposits that crop out in southern and western Cyprus indicate uniform island-wide uplift. We propose a model of tectonic wedging at a plate-bounding restraining bend as a mechanism for Late Pleistocene to Holocene uplift of Cyprus; uplift is accommodated by deformation and seismicity along the margins of the Troodos Ophiolite and re-activation of its low-angle, basal shear zone.

  10. Geochronology of igneous rocks and formation of the Late Paleozoic south Mongolian active margin of the Siberian continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kovalenko, V. I.; Sal'Nikova, E. B.; Kovach, V. P.; Kozlovsky, A. M.; Kotov, A. B.; Lebedev, V. I.

    2008-04-01

    The succession of magmatic events associated with development of the Early Carboniferous-Early Permian marginal continental magmatic belt of southern Mongolia is studied. In the belt structure there are defined the successive rock complexes: the older one represented by differentiated basalt-andesite-rhyodacite series and younger bimodal complex of basalt-comendite-trachyrhyolite composition. The granodiorite-plagiogranite and banatite (diorite-monzonite-granodiorite) plutonic massifs are associated with the former, while peralkaline granite massifs are characteristic of the latter. First systematic geochronological study of igneous rock associations is performed to establish time succession and structural position of both complexes. Geochronological results and geological relations between rocks of the bimodal and differentiated complexes showed first that rocks of the differentiated complex originated 350 to 330 Ma ago at the initial stage of development of the marginal continental belt. This is evident from geochronological dates obtained for the Adzh-Bogd and Edrengiyn-Nuruu massifs and for volcanic associations of the complex. The dates are consistent with paleontological data. The bimodal association was formed later, 320 to 290 Ma ago. The time span separating formation of two igneous complexes ranges from several to 20 30 m.y. in different areas of the marginal belt. The bimodal magmatism was interrelated with rifting responsible for development of the Gobi-Tien Shan rift zone in the belt axial part and the Main Mongolian lineament along the belt northern boundary. Loci of bimodal rift magmatism likely migrated with time: the respective magmatic activity first initiated on the west of the rift system and then advanced gradually eastward with development of rift structures. Normal granitoids untypical but occurring nevertheless among the products of rift magmatism in addition to peralkaline massifs are assumed to have been formed, when the basic magmatism

  11. Role of local to regional-scale collisions in the closure history of the Southern Neotethys, exemplified by tectonic development of the Kyrenia Range active margin/collisional lineament, N Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alastair; Kinnaird, Tim; McCay, Gillian; Palamakumbura, Romesh; Chen, Guohui

    2016-04-01

    Active margin processes including subduction, accretion, arc magmatism and back-arc extension play a key role in the diachronous, and still incomplete closure of the S Neotethys. The S Neotethys rifted along the present-day Africa-Eurasia continental margin during the Late Triassic and, after sea-floor spreading, began to close related to northward subduction during the Late Cretaceous. The northern, active continental margin of the S Neotethys was bordered by several of the originally rifted continental fragments (e.g. Taurides). The present-day convergent lineament ranges from subaqueous (e.g. Mediterranean Ridge), to subaerial (e.g. SE Turkey). The active margin development is partially obscured by microcontinent-continent collision and post-collisional strike-slip deformation (e.g. Tauride-Arabian suture). However, the Kyrenia Range, N Cyprus provides an outstanding record of convergent margin to early stage collisional processes. It owes its existence to strong localised uplift during the Pleistocene, which probably resulted from the collision of a continental promontory of N Africa (Eratosthenes Seamount) with the long-lived S Neotethyan active margin to the north. A multi-stage convergence history is revealed, mainly from a combination of field structural, sedimentological and igneous geochemical studies. Initial Late Cretaceous convergence resulted in greenschist facies burial metamorphism that is likely to have been related to the collision, then rapid exhumation, of a continental fragment (stage 1). During the latest Cretaceous-Palaeogene, the Kyrenia lineament was characterised by subduction-influenced magmatism and syn-tectonic sediment deposition. Early to Mid-Eocene, S-directed thrusting and folding (stage 2) is likely to have been influenced by the suturing of the Izmir-Ankara-Erzincan ocean to the north ('N Neotethys'). Convergence continued during the Neogene, dominated by deep-water terrigenous gravity-flow accumulation in a foredeep setting

  12. Online Classroom Research and Analysis Activities Using MARGINS-Related Resources for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Subduction System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Students today have online access to nearly unlimited scientific information in an entirely unfiltered state. As such, they need guidance and training in identifying and assessing high-quality information resources for educational and research use. The extensive research data resources available online for the Izu-Bonin-Mariana (IBM) subduction system that have been developed with MARGINS Program and related NSF funding are an ideal venue for focused Web research exercises that can be tailored to a range of undergraduate geoscience courses. This presentation highlights student web research activities examining: a) The 2003-2005 eruptions of Anatahan Volcano in the Mariana volcanic arc. MARGINS-supported geophysical research teams were in the region when the eruption initiated, permitting a unique "event response" data collection and analysis process, with preliminary results presented online at websites linked to the MARGINS homepage, and ultimately published in a special issue of the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. In this activity, students will conduct a directed Web surf/search effort for information on and datasets from the Anatahan arc volcano, which they will use in an interpretive study of recent magmatic activity in the Mariana arc. This activity is designed as a homework exercise for use in a junior-senior level Petrology course, but could easily be taken into greater depth for the benefit of graduate-level volcanology or geochemistry offerings. b) Geochemical and mineralogical results from ODP Legs 125 and 195 focused on diapiric serpentinite mud volcanoes, which erupt cold, high pH fluids, serpentine muds, and serpentinized ultramafic clasts at a number of sites in the forearc region of the Mariana subduction zone. The focus of this activity is an examination of the trace element chemistry of the forearc serpentines and their associated upwelling porefluids as a means of understanding the roles of ionic radius, valence, and system

  13. Priority setting in health authorities: a novel approach to a historical activity.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Craig; Patten, San; Waldner, Howard; Donaldson, Cam

    2003-11-01

    As resources in health care are scarce, health authorities and other health organizations are charged with determining how best to spend limited resources. While a number of formal approaches to priority setting within health authorities have been used internationally, there has been limited success with such activity, particularly across major service portfolios. This participatory action research project instituted a novel priority setting framework, coined macro-marginal analysis (MMA), in a fully integrated urban health region in Alberta, Canada. The focus of MMA is on identifying areas for service growth and areas for resource release, then determining, based on pre-defined, locally generated criteria, if actual shifts or re-allocation of resources should occur. For fiscal year 2002/03, the Calgary Health Region identified over 40 M dollars in resource releases (approximately 3% of the total budget), which were made available for servicing the deficit, and more importantly for our purposes, re-investing in service growth areas. The MMA framework is pragmatic in nature and has the ability to incorporate relevant evidence directly into the decision-making process. This work constitutes a significant advancement in health economics, and responds where previous priority setting approaches have failed in that it allows decision-makers to achieve genuine re-allocation of resources with the aim of improving population health or better meeting other important criteria.

  14. EBV-positive extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in the posttransplant setting: a distinct type of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder?

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sarah E; Swerdlow, Steven H; Craig, Fiona E; Surti, Urvashi; Cook, James R; Nalesnik, Michael A; Lowe, Chris; Wood, Katrina M; Bacon, Chris M

    2011-06-01

    The 2008 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues defines monomorphic posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (M-PTLDs) as lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations that fulfill the criteria for one of the B-cell or T/NK-cell neoplasms recognized in immunocompetent patients. However, indolent B-cell lymphomas, such as extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), are specifically excluded from this category. In this study, we describe the clinicopathologic features of 4 posttransplant lymphoma-like proliferations that were Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive, but were otherwise completely typical for a MALT lymphoma. The 4 patients (age, 12 to 71 y) had received solid organ transplants (2 hearts, 1 kidney, 1 kidney/pancreas) at a median of 116 months before presentation, and had been maintained on varying immunosuppressive regimens that included cyclosporine, azathioprine, tacrolimus, and sirolimus. Three of the 4 patients presented with solitary subcutaneous masses, whereas the fourth patient presented with a solitary orbital soft tissue mass. All the 4 cases were morphologically typical for MALT lymphoma, demonstrated plasmacytic differentiation with IgA heavy chain restriction (3 cases κ positive, 1 case λ positive), and were diffusely EBV-encoded small RNA positive. Patients were followed for a median of 44.9 months, and all achieved a complete response following various regimens that included reduced immunosuppression with or without antiviral therapy, local surgical excision, rituximab, or local radiation therapy. The uniform EBV positivity and response to immune reconstitution in some cases suggest that EBV-positive MALT lymphomas arising in the posttransplant setting should be included among PTLDs. Whether their distinctive subcutaneous/soft tissue localization and IgA positivity are uniform features will require identification of additional cases.

  15. Evaluation of the Planning Target Volume in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: What Is the Appropriate Expansion Margin in the Setting of Daily Image Guidance?

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Donald, Paul J.; Perks, Julian; Purdy, James A.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To compare patterns of disease failure among patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in conjunction with daily image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for head and neck cancer, according to the margins used to expand the clinical target volume (CTV) to create a planning target volume (PTV). Methods and Materials: Two-hundred and twenty-five patients were treated with IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Daily IGRT scans were acquired using either kilovoltage or megavoltage volumetric imaging prior to each delivered fraction. The first 95 patients were treated with IMRT with 5-mm CTV-to-PTV margins. The subsequent 130 patients were treated using 3-mm PTV expansion margins. Results: Two-year estimates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 76%, 78%, and 81%, respectively. There were no differences with respect to any of these endpoints among patients treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV expansion margins (p > 0.05, all). The 2-year local-regional control rate for patients treated with IMRT with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins was 78% and 78%, respectively (p = 0.96). Spatial evaluation revealed no differences in the incidences of marginal failures among those treated with 5-mm and 3-mm PTV margins. Conclusions: The use of 3-mm PTV expansion margins appears adequate and did not increase local-regional failures among patients treated with IMRT for head and neck cancer. These data demonstrate the safety of PTV reduction of less than 5 mm and support current protocols recommending this approach in the setting of daily IGRT.

  16. Assembling activity/setting participation with disabled young people.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Barbara E; King, Gillian; Teachman, Gail; Mistry, Bhavnita; Hamdani, Yani

    2016-11-21

    Rehabilitation research investigating activity participation has been largely conducted in a realist tradition that under-theorises the relationship between persons, technologies, and socio-material places. In this Canadian study we used a post-critical approach to explore activity/setting participation with 19 young people aged 14 to 23 years with complex communication and/or mobility impairments. Methods included integrated photo-elicitation, interviews, and participant observations of community-based activities. We present our results using the conceptual lens of assemblages to surface how different combinations of bodies, social meanings, and technologies enabled or constrained particular activities. Assemblages were analysed in terms of how they organised what was possible and practical for participants and their families in different contexts. The results illuminate how young people negotiated activity needs and desires in particular 'spacings' each with its own material, temporal, and social constraints and affordances. The focus on assemblages provides a dynamic analysis of how dis/abilities are enacted in and across geotemporal spaces, and avoids a reductive focus on evaluating the accessibility of static environmental features. In doing so the study reveals possible 'lines of flight' for healthcare, rehabilitation, and social care practices.

  17. Toll-like receptor stimulation in splenic marginal zone lymphoma can modulate cell signaling, activation and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Fonte, Eleonora; Agathangelidis, Andreas; Reverberi, Daniele; Ntoufa, Stavroula; Scarfò, Lydia; Ranghetti, Pamela; Cutrona, Giovanna; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Xochelli, Aliki; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Belessi, Chrysoula; Davis, Zadie; Piris, Miguel A.; Oscier, David; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Muzio, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on splenic marginal zone lymphoma identified distinct mutations in genes belonging to the B-cell receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling pathways, thus pointing to their potential implication in the biology of the disease. However, limited data is available regarding the exact role of TLRs. We aimed at characterizing the expression pattern of TLRs in splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells and their functional impact on the activation, proliferation and viability of malignant cells in vitro. Cells expressed significant levels of TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9 and TLR10 mRNA; TLR2 and TLR4 showed a low, variable pattern of expression among patients whereas TLR3 and TLR5 mRNAs were undetectable; mRNA specific for TLR signaling molecules and adapters was also expressed. At the protein level, TLR1, TLR6, TLR7, TLR9 and TLR10 were detected. Stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 with their respective ligands triggered the activation of IRAK kinases, MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, and the induction of CD86 and CD25 activation molecules, although in a heterogeneous manner among different patient samples. TLR-induced activation and cell viability were also inhibited by a specific IRAK1/4 inhibitor, thus strongly supporting the specific role of TLR signaling in these processes. Furthermore, TLR2/6 and TLR9 stimulation also significantly increased cell proliferation. In conclusion, we demonstrate that splenic marginal zone lymphoma cells are equipped with functional TLR and signaling molecules and that the stimulation of TLR1/2, TLR2/6 and TLR9 may play a role in regulating disease pathobiology, likely promoting the expansion of the neoplastic clone. PMID:26294727

  18. Socio-economic marginalization and plasma HIV-1 RNA non-detectability among individuals who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, Lindsey A.; KERR, Thomas H.; DOBRER, Sabina; PUSKAS, Cathy M.; GUILLEMI, Silvia A.; MONTANER, Julio S. G.; WOOD, Evan; MILLOY, M-J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Given that people who use illicit drugs (PWUD) often engage in prohibited income generation to support their basic needs, we sought to examine the role of these activities in shaping antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and plasma HIV RNA-1 viral load suppression among HIV-infected PWUD. Design Longitudinal analyses among HIV-positive, ART exposed PWUD in the AIDS Care Cohort to evaluate Exposure to Survival Services prospective cohort study (2005–2013). Methods Generalized linear mixed effects and mediation analyses examined the relationship between prohibited income generation (e.g. sex work, drug dealing, theft, street-based income) and virologic suppression (plasma viral load ≤ 50 copies/mL plasma) adjusting for adherence and potential confounders. Results Among 687 HIV-infected PWUD, 391 (56.9%) individuals reported prohibited income generation activity during the study period. In multivariate analyses, prohibited income generation remained independently and negatively associated with virologic suppression (adjusted odds ratio: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.52–0.88) following adjustment for hypothesized confounders, including high-intensity drug use, ART adherence and homelessness. While partially mediated by ART adherence, the relationship between prohibited income generation and virologic suppression was maintained in mediation analyses (Sobel statistic = −1.95, p=0.05). Conclusions Involvement in prohibited income generation decreases the likelihood of virologic suppression directly and indirectly through its negative association with ART adherence. These findings suggest that linkages between socio-economic marginalization, the criminalization of illicit drug use and insufficient employment opportunities may produce barriers to access and retention in care. Programmatic and policy interventions that decrease socio-economic vulnerability may therefore reduce HIV-related morbidity, mortality and onward transmission. PMID:26558546

  19. Is earthquake activity along the French Atlantic margin favoured by local rheological contrasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazabraud, Yves; Béthoux, Nicole; Delouis, Bertrand

    2013-09-01

    The seismological study of recent seismic crises near Oleron Island confirms the coexistence of an extensional deformation and a transtensive regime in the Atlantic margin of France, which is different from the general western European stress field corresponding to a strike-slip regime. We argue that the switch of the principal stress axes σ1/σ2 in a NW-SE vertical plane is linked with the existence of crustal heterogeneities. Events of magnitude larger than 5 sometimes occur along the Atlantic margin of France, such as the 7 September 1972 (ML = 5.2) earthquake near Oleron island and the 30 September 2002 (ML = 5.7) Hennebont event in Brittany. To test the mechanism of local strain localization, we model the deformation of the hypocentral area of the Hennebont earthquake using a 3D thermo-mechanical finite element code. We conclude that the occurrence of moderate earthquakes located in limited parts of the Hercynian shear zones (as the often reactivated swarms near Oleron) could be due to local reactivation of pre-existing faults. These sporadic seismic ruptures are favoured by stress concentration due to rheological heterogeneities.

  20. Late cretaceous extensional tectonics and associated igneous activity on the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, R. L.; Sundeen, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Major, dominantly compressional, orogenic episodes (Taconic, Acadian, Alleghenian) affected eastern North America during the Paleozoic. During the Mesozoic, in contrast, this same region was principally affected by epeirogenic and extensional tectonism; one episode of comparatively more intense tectonic activity involving extensive faulting, uplift, sedimentation, intrusion and effusion produced the Newark Series of eposits and fault block phenomena. This event, termed the Palisades Disturbance, took place during the Late Triassic - Earliest Jurassic. The authors document a comparable extensional tectonic-igneous event occurring during the Late Cretaceous (Early Gulfian; Cenomanian-Santonian) along the southern margin of the cratonic platform from Arkansas to Georgia.

  1. Marginal microleakage of a resin-modified glass-ionomer restoration: Interaction effect of delayed light activation and surface pretreatment

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Fereshteh; Yousefipour, Bahareh; Farhadpour, Hajar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite widespread clinical uses of resin-modified glass-ionomers (RMGIs), their sealing ability is still a concern. This study evaluated the effect of delayed light activation (DLA) of RMGI on marginal sealing in differently pretreated cavities. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, two standardized Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal and lingual surfaces of 56 sound maxillary premolars at the cementoenamel junction. The cavities were randomly divided into eight equal groups. In groups 1-4 (immediate light activation [ILA]), no pretreatment (negative control [NC]) and three surface pretreatments were used, respectively as follows: Cavity conditioner, Vitremer primer, cavity conditioner plus and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP). Fuji II LC (GC, Japan) was prepared and placed in the cavities and immediately light-cured according to manufacturer's instructions. In groups 5-8 (DLA), the same pretreatments were applied, respectively. After placing Fuji II LC in the cavities, the restorations were light-cured after a 3-min delay. After finishing the restorations, the specimens were placed in water for 1-week and thermocycled. Microleakage scores were determined using the dye penetration technique. Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test were used to analyze the obtained data (α = 0.05). Results: At the dentin margins, DLA resulted in a lower microleakage for no treatment (NC), cavity conditioner and cavity conditioner plus ACP-CPP pretreatments groups (P ≤ 0.004); however, no difference was observed for Vitremer group (P > 0.05). At the enamel margins, no difference was observed between DLA and ILA for all groups (P > 0.05); only NC group exhibited a lower microleakage in case of DLA (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Delayed light activation of RMGI may lead to different effects on marginal sealing, depending on pretreatment procedures used in the cavity. It might improve dentin sealing when no treatment and

  2. Modulation of the hormone setting by Rhodococcus fascians results in ectopic KNOX activation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, Stephen; Dolezal, Karel; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Moritz, Thomas; Holsters, Marcelle; Vereecke, Danny

    2008-03-01

    The biotrophic actinomycete Rhodococcus fascians has a profound impact on plant development and a common aspect of the symptomatology is the deformation of infected leaves. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the serrated leaf margins formed upon infection resemble the leaf phenotype of transgenic plants with ectopic expression of KNOTTED-like homeobox (KNOX) genes. Through transcript profiling, we demonstrate that class-I KNOX genes are transcribed in symptomatic leaves. Functional analysis revealed that BREVIPEDICELLUS/KNOTTED-LIKE1 and mainly SHOOT MERISTEMLESS were essential for the observed leaf dissection. However, these results also positioned the KNOX genes downstream in the signaling cascade triggered by R. fascians infection. The much faster activation of ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR5 and the establishment of homeostatic and feedback mechanisms to control cytokinin (CK) levels support the overrepresentation of this hormone in infected plants due to the secretion by the pathogen, thereby placing the CK response high up in the cascade. Hormone measurements show a net decrease of tested CKs, indicating either that secretion by the bacterium and degradation by the plant are in balance, or, as suggested by the strong reaction of 35S:CKX plants, that other CKs are at play. At early time points of the interaction, activation of gibberellin 2-oxidase presumably installs a local hormonal setting favorable for meristematic activity that provokes leaf serrations. The results are discussed in the context of symptom development, evasion of plant defense, and the establishment of a specific niche by R. fascians.

  3. Repeated remobilisation of submarine landslide debris on an active subduction margin interpreted from multibeam bathymetry and multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountjoy, J. J.; Barnes, P. M.; McKean, J.; Pettinga, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    EM300 multibeam and multichannel seismic data reveal a 230 square kilometre submarine landslide complex which exhibits many of the characteristic features of equivalent terrestrial creeping earthflow complexes. Slope failures are sourced from the shelf edge/upper slope of the Poverty Bay reentrant on the active Hikurangi subduction margin of New Zealand where tectonic deformation, via major thrust faults with slip rates of c. 3-4 mm/yr, exerts a controlling influence on seafloor physiography. Individual landslides within this submarine complex are up to 14 km long over a vertical elevation drop of 700 m. Debris streams are in excess of 2 km wide with a debris thickness of 100 m. While multibeam data is limited to c. 10 m resolution, the scale of submarine landslide features allows us to resolve internal debris detail equivalent to terrestrial landslide examples using terrestrial techniques (e.g. airborne lidar). DEM derivative surface roughness techniques are employed to delineate the geomorphic expression of features including active and abandoned lateral shears, and contractional and extensional deformation of the landslide debris. From these interpretations multiple internal failures are recognised along the length of the landslide debris. Debris deformation is also imaged in high fold multichannel seismic data and correlated to the imaged surface geomorphic features, providing insight into the failure mechanics of the landslides. Failures initiate and evolve within the quasi-stable prograding sediment wedge built onto the upper slope during lowstand sealevels. Landslides within the greater complex are at different stages of development providing information on their spatial and temporal evolution headward and laterally along the transition from shelf to upper slope margin. We infer that failures are triggered and evolve in response to sealevel rise, and/or the frequent occurrence large earthquakes along the margin.

  4. Physical Activity in Different Preschool Settings: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Gollhofer, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Physical activity (PA) in preschoolers is vital to protect against obesity but is influenced by different early-life factors. The present study investigated the impact of different preschool programs and selected family factors on preschoolers' PA in different countries in an explorative way. Methods. The PA of 114 children (age = 5.3 ± 0.65 years) attending different preschool settings in four cities of the trinational Upper Rhine region (Freiburg, Landau/Germany, Basel/Switzerland, and Strasbourg/France) was measured by direct accelerometry. Anthropometrical and family-related data were obtained. Timetables of preschools were analyzed. Results. Comparing the preschool settings, children from Strasbourg and Landau were significantly more passive than children from Basel and Freiburg (P < .01). With regard to the family context as an important early-life factor, a higher number of children in a family along with the mother's and child's anthropometrical status are predictors of engagement in PA. Conclusion. More open preschool systems such as those in Basel, Freiburg, and Landau do not lead to more PA “per se” compared to the highly regimented desk-based system in France. Preliminaries such as special training and the number of caregivers might be necessary elements to enhance PA. In family contexts, targeted PA interventions for special groups should be more focused in the future. PMID:25089207

  5. Neogene and active shortening offshore the reactivated Levant margin in Lebanon: results of the SHALIMAR cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briais, A.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Elias, A.; Sursock, A.; Jomaa, R.; Carton, H.; Daeron, M.; King, G.; Jacques, E.

    2004-12-01

    The objectives of the SHALIMAR cruise were to study recent deformation of the Mediterranean seafloor west of Mt Lebanon. We collected multibeam bathymetry and back-scatter images, reflection seismic profiles - surface and deep-towed, 3.5 kHz echo-sounder data, gravity and magnetic data over an 80 km-wide zone offshore the entire Lebanese coast. The bathymetry reveals a very steep slope between Beyrouth and Batroun, with a water depth of 1500 m only 5 km offshore. Between Saida and Tripoli (33.5N to 34.5N), both the bathymetry and seismic lines show a series of ramp anticlines affecting Plio-Quaternary deposits and a seismically transparent layer with variable thickness corresponding to the Messinian evaporites (5.6 Ma). This fold-and-thrust belt is the offshore expression of shortening related to the formation of Mt Lebanon. It is limited westwards by a prominent fold front 30 km from shore. Some ramps appear to be submarine continuations of faults documented ashore (e.g., Aabde and Tripoli thrusts). The strikes of fold axes are consistent with WNW-ESE shortening and slip-partitioning along the 30° Lebanese bend of the Levant fault. North of Tripoli and south of Saida, the continental margin displays a wider shelf (20 km) and gentler slope. In the south, at 1200-1500 m depth small, closely spaced, NE-trending scarps attest to young, distributed dip-slip faulting, although deformation is much less than north of Beyrouth. At the southern extremity of our survey, NW-trending normal fault scarps roughly aligned with the Mt Carmel-Haifa fault vanish 50 km offshore in the Levant basin. Bouguer gravity anomalies, estimated by removing from free-air gravity data the effect of bathymetry, display a very steep gradient between Beyrouth and Tripoli, marking the passage from thickened Mt Lebanon crust to thin crust in the Levant basin. Gravity anomalies also outline large, NE-SW trending steps between the basin crust and thinned continental crust near and south of Beyrouth

  6. Flare-Shaped Acoustic Anomalies in the Water Column Along the Ecuadorian Margin: Relationship with Active Tectonics and Gas Hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaud, Francois; Proust, Jean-Noël; Dano, Alexandre; Collot, Jean-Yves; Guiyeligou, Grâce Daniella; Hernández Salazar, María José; Ratzov, Gueorgui; Martillo, Carlos; Pouderoux, Hugo; Schenini, Laure; Lebrun, Jean-Frederic; Loayza, Glenda

    2016-10-01

    With hull-mounted multibeam echosounder data, we report for the first time along the active Ecuadorian margin, acoustic signatures of water column fluid emissions and seep-related structures on the seafloor. In total 17 flare-shaped acoustic anomalies were detected from the upper slope (1250 m) to the shelf break (140 m). Nearly half of the flare-shaped acoustic anomalies rise 200-500 m above the seafloor. The base of the flares is generally associated with high-reflectivity backscatter patches contrasting with the neighboring seafloor. We interpret these flares as caused by fluid escape in the water column, most likely gases. High-resolution seismic profiles show that most flares occur close to the surface expression of active faults, deformed areas, slope instabilities or diapiric structures. In two areas tectonic deformation disrupts a Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR), suggesting that buried frozen gas hydrates are destabilized, thus supplying free gas emissions and related flares. This discovery is important as it opens the way to determine the nature and origin of the emitted fluids and their potential link with the hydrocarbon system of the forearc basins along the Ecuadorian margin.

  7. Consequences of the presence of a weak fault on the stress and strain within an active margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conin, M.; Henry, P.; Godard, V.; Bourlange, S.

    2009-12-01

    Accreting margins often display an outer thrust and fold belt and an inner forearc domain overlying the subduction plate. Assuming that this overlying material behaves as Coulomb material, the outer wedge and the inner wedge are classically approximated as a critical state and a stable state Coulomb wedge, respectively. Critical Coulomb wedge theory can account for the transition from wedge to forearc. However, it cannot be used to determine the state of stress in the transition zone, nor the consequences of a discontinuity within the margin. The presence of a discontinuity such as a splay fault having a low effective friction coefficient should affect the stress state within the wedge, at least locally around the splay fault. Moreover, the effective friction coefficient of the seismogenic zone is expected to vary during the seismic cycle, and this may influence the stability of the Coulomb wedges. We use the ADELI finite element code (Chery and Hassani, 2000) to model the quasi-static stress and strain of a decollement and splay fault system, within a two dimensional elasto-plastic wedge with Drucker-Prager rheology. The subduction plane, the basal decollement of the accretionary wedge and the splay fault are modeled with contact elements. The modeled margin comprises an inner and an outer domain with distinct tapers and basal friction coefficients. For a given splay fault geometry, we evaluate the friction coefficient threshold for splay fault activation as a function of the basal friction coefficients, and examine the consequences of motion along the splay fault on stress and strain within the wedge and on the surface slope at equilibrium. Friction coefficients are varied in time to mimic the consequence of the seismic cycle on the static stress state and strain distribution. Results show the possibility of coexistence of localized extensional regime above the splay fault within a regional compressional regime. Such coexistence is consistent with stress

  8. Active drumlin field revealed at the margin of Múlajökull, Iceland: a surge-type glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Johnson, M. D.; Benediktsson, I.; Ingolfsson, O.; Geiger, A. J.; Ferguson, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent marginal retreat of Múlajökull, a surge-type, outlet glacier of the Hofsjökull ice cap, central Iceland, has revealed a drumlin field consisting of over 50 drumlins. The drumlins are 90-320 m long, 30-105 m wide, 5-10 m in relief, and composed of multiple beds of till deposited by lodgement and bed deformation. The youngest till layer truncates the older units with an erosion surface that parallels the drumlin form. Thus, the drumlins are built up and formed by a combination of subglacial depositional and erosional processes. Field evidence suggests each till bed to be associated with individual, recent surges. We consider the drumlin field to be active in the sense that the drumlins are shaped by the current glacial regime. The Múlajökull field is the only known active drumlin field and is, therefore, a unique analogue to Pleistocene drumlin fields.

  9. Mantle-derived CO2 migration along active faults within an extensional basin margin (Fiumicino, Rome, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, S.; Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; D'Ambrogi, C.; Doglioni, C.; Ferrante, V.; Lombardi, S.; Milli, S.; Orlando, L.; Ruggiero, L.; Tartarello, M. C.; Sacco, P.

    2014-12-01

    Fluid migration along faults can be highly complex and spatially variable, with the potential for channeled flow, accumulation in capped porous units, fault cross-flow, lateral migration along strike, or complete sealing. Extensional basin margins can be important for such migration, given the associated crustal thinning and decompression that takes place combined with potential geothermal or mantle gas sources. One such example is near the urban area of Rome, situated along the active extensional continental margin of the Tyrrhenian back arc basin and surrounded by Middle-Upper Pleistocene K-rich and arc-related volcanoes. Recent research activities in the area around Fiumicino, a town 25 km to the west of Rome, has highlighted the close spatial link between degassing CO2 and the faults that provide the necessary vertical migration pathways. In particular, detailed soil gas and gas flux surveys have highlighted the release at surface of large volumes of asthenospheric mantle CO2 in correspondence with normal faults observed in a new seismic reflection profile acquired along the Tiber River. Detailed reconstruction of the Pleistocene-Holocene stratigraphy of the area dates fault activity from 20,000 to 9000 years BP. It is proposed that the gas migrates preferentially along the cataclastic tectonic breccias of the faults until it encounters recent, unconsolidated sediments; porous units within this shallow stratigraphy act as temporary secondary traps for the leaking gas, with local gas release at the ground surface occurring where the sealing of the overlying aquitards has been compromised. Degassing and active faults confirm the extensional tectonics affecting the area and the geodynamic scenario of a mantle wedge beneath the western Apennines, associated with ongoing W-directed subduction. Moreover, degassing highlights the potential geochemical and seismic risks for the highly populated urban areas near Rome.

  10. Evidence and biogeochemical implications for glacially-derived sediments in an active margin cold seep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohlman, John W.; Riedel, Michael; Novosel, Ivana; Bauer, James E.; Canuel, Elizabeth A.; Paull, Charles K.; Coffin, Richard B.; Grabowski, Kenneth S.; Knies, David L.; Hyndman, Roy D.; Spence, George D.

    2011-01-01

    Delineating sediment organic matter origins and sediment accumulation rates at gas hydratebearing and hydrocarbon seeps is complicated by the microbial transfer of 13C-depleted and 14Cdepleted methane carbon into sedimentary pools. Sediment 13C and 14C measurements from four cores recovered at Bullseye vent on the northern Cascadia margin are used to identify methane carbon assimilation into different carbon pools. While the total organic carbon (TOC) is mostly unaltered and primarily terrigenous in origin, planktonic foraminifera and the bulk carbonate display evidence of methane overprinting. Mass balance models are applied to determine the extent to which methane overprinting increased the radiocarbon ages of the biogenic foraminifera. The corrected and calibrated foraminifera ages between sediment depths of 70 and 573 cm are from 14.9 to 15.9 ka BP, which coincides with the retreat of the late Quaternary Cordilleran Ice Sheet from Vancouver Island. Uniform TOC _13C values of -24.5 ± 0.5‰ from the upper 8 meters of sediment at Bullseye vent suggest all cored material is Pleistocene-derived glacimarine material deposited as the ice edge retreated landward. Bullseye vent is located within an uplifted sediment block isolated from turbidite deposition and has been a site of non-deposition since the ice sheet retreated from the shelf. Biogeochemical implications of seep sediments being dominated by aged, organic-poor (<0.4 wt% TOC) material are that methane is the primary energy source, and microbes directly and indirectly associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) will dominate the seep microbial community.

  11. Transform continental margins - part 1: Concepts and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basile, Christophe

    2015-10-01

    This paper reviews the geodynamic concepts and models related to transform continental margins, and their implications on the structure of these margins. Simple kinematic models of transform faulting associated with continental rifting and oceanic accretion allow to define three successive stages of evolution, including intra-continental transform faulting, active transform margin, and passive transform margin. Each part of the transform margin experiences these three stages, but the evolution is diachronous along the margin. Both the duration of each stage and the cumulated strike-slip deformation increase from one extremity of the margin (inner corner) to the other (outer corner). Initiation of transform faulting is related to the obliquity between the trend of the lithospheric deformed zone and the relative displacement of the lithospheric plates involved in divergence. In this oblique setting, alternating transform and divergent plate boundaries correspond to spatial partitioning of the deformation. Both obliquity and the timing of partitioning influence the shape of transform margins. Oblique margin can be defined when oblique rifting is followed by oblique oceanic accretion. In this case, no transform margin should exist in the prolongation of the oceanic fracture zones. Vertical displacements along transform margins were mainly studied to explain the formation of marginal ridges. Numerous models were proposed, one of the most used is being based on thermal exchanges between the oceanic and the continental lithospheres across the transform fault. But this model is compatible neither with numerical computation including flexural behavior of the lithosphere nor with timing of vertical displacements and the lack of heating related to the passing of the oceanic accretion axis as recorded by the Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana marginal ridge. Enhanced models are still needed. They should better take into account the erosion on the continental slope, and the level of coupling

  12. Marginal Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  13. From Margins to Mainstream: Social Media as a Tool for Campus Sexual Violence Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Chris; Myers, Jess S.; Riggle, Colleen; Lacy, Marvette

    2016-01-01

    Using Internet-related ethnography (Postill & Pink, 2012), we examined the role of social media in campus sexual violence activism. Based on observations of online activist communities and interviews with 23 activists, we highlight raising awareness, community building, and interrupting power dynamics as activism strategies enhanced by social…

  14. Biological Ocean Margins Program. Active Microbes Responding to Inputs from the Orinoco River Plume. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jorge E. Corredor

    2013-01-28

    The overall goal of the proposed work is to identify the active members of the heterotrophic community involved in C and N cycling in the perimeter of the Orinoco River Plume (ORP), assess their spatial distribution, quantify their metabolic activity, and correlate these parameters to plume properties such as salinity, organic matter content and phytoplankton biomass.

  15. Crustal velocity model along the southern Cuban margin: implications for the tectonic regime at an active plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Bladimir; Grandison, Margaret; Atakan, Kuvvet

    2002-11-01

    A new 1-D velocity model along the southern Cuban margin has been determined using local earthquake data, which are the result of the merged Cuban and Jamaican catalogues. Simultaneous inversion using joint-hypocentre determination was applied to solve the coupled hypocentre-velocity model problem. We obtained a seven-layer model with an average Moho interface at 20 km. The average velocity was found to be 7.6 km s-1 on the top of the crust-mantle transition zone and 6.9 km s-1 in the basaltic layer of the crust. The improvement in the earthquake locations allowed us for the first time to use local seismicity to characterize the activity on local faults and the stress regime in the area. For this purpose, 34 earthquake focal mechanisms were determined along the eastern segments of the Oriente Fault. These solutions are consistent with the known left-lateral strike-slip motion along this major structure as well as with the stress regime of two local structures: (1) the Cabo Cruz Basin and (2) the Santiago deformed belt. The first structure is dominated by normal faults with minor strike-slip components and the second by reverse faults. The shallow seismicity in the Cabo Cruz Basin is associated with fault planes trending N55°-58°E and dipping 38°-45° to the north. The Santiago deformed belt, on the other hand, exhibits diverse fault plane orientations. These local structures account for most of the earthquake activity along the southern Cuban margin. Deep seismicity observed in the Santiago deformed belt, supported by focal mechanisms, suggests underthrusting of the Gonave Microplate beneath the Cuban Block in this area. The principal stress orientations obtained from stress inversion of earthquake focal mechanisms suggest a thrust faulting regime along the Southern Cuban margin. We obtained a nearly horizontal σ1 and nearly vertical σ3, which indicates active compressional deformation along the major Oriente transcurrent fault in agreement with the dominant

  16. A Signal of Ice Loading in Late Pleistocene Activity of the Sudetic Marginal Fault (Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartvich, F.; Stepancikova, P.; Rockwell, T. K.; Nývlt, D.; Stemberk, J.; Rood, D. H.; Hók, J.; Ortuňo, M.; Myers, M.; Luttrell, K. M.; Wechsler, N.

    2014-12-01

    We combine paleoseismic trench and cosmogenic dating results to study the late Pleistocene-Holocene history of morphologically pronounced NW-SE trending Sudetic Marginal Fault (SMF) situated at the northeastern limit of the Bohemian Massif in central Europe. Eighteen trenches were excavated at the Bila Voda site to study 3D distribution of a beheaded alluvial fan on the NE block of the fault and to find the offset "feeder channel" that sourced the deposits. We interpret a small drainage of about 40-60 m to the SE of the fan apex as the feeder channel. A 2.5 m depth profile was collected for cosmogenic exposure dating from a well-preserved part of the fan. Using a simple model that accounts for pre-depositional exposure (inheritance) and assuming no surface erosion, 10Be concentrations are well-fit with an apparent exposure age of ~12 ka. However, this is a minimum limiting age if the surface was eroded by gelifluction in the late Pleistocene. Assuming a ~25 ka OSL age for the base of the fan apex it gives a left-lateral slip rate of ~2 mm/yr. As the Holocene deposits do not show significant displacement, most of the recorded slip took place during Late Pleistocene with corresponding slip rate of 2.8 to 3.5 mm/yr. Bila Voda site lies ~150 km south from the Late Pleistocene Weichselian maximum (~20 ka) ice-sheet front. Thus, we hypothesize that the slip rate acceleration was due to ice-loading and subsequent unloading during deglaciation. To test this, we calculated the stress induced in the lithosphere from ablation of the Weichselian ice sheet modeled as a flexing elastic plate. Preliminary modeling results indicate that complete deglaciation alters the stress field such that it would inhibit left lateral failure on the SMF, consistent with observations suggesting no slip occurred during the Holocene. Although the SMF is ~150 km from the Weichselian ice sheet front, it is well within the flexural rebound area of the ice sheet, causing normal stress on the SMF to

  17. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces

  18. Marginality principle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil is a fragile resource supplying many goods and services. Given the diversity of soil across the world and within a landscape, there are many different capacities among soils to provide the basic soil functions. Marginality of soils is a difficult process to define because the metrics to define ...

  19. Active Ways to Teach Health Concepts in the Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This article provides three movement-based activities for teaching health concepts to elementary school students. Two activities focus on nutrition concepts and the other focuses on teaching body systems. Diagrams are provided to show the setup of activities, as well as links for accessing materials to help implement the activities.

  20. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  1. Bacterial biomass and activity in the marginal ice zone of the northern Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammert, Helen; Olli, Kalle; Sturluson, Maria; Hodal, Helene

    2008-10-01

    Bacteria in the Arctic Waters are well adapted to low temperatures and play a key role in the transformation of organic matter. However, the activity of planktonic bacteria at cellular level remains poorly understood. In this study, we use fluorescent markers (4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC), Live/Dead BacLight viability kit) to discriminate between bacterial cells with a variety of physiological activities in the 0-200 m water column and sinking particles. During two field studies (July 2003 and 2004), we covered nine stations in the northern Barents Sea. The median bacterial abundance (DAPI staining) in the upper 50 m layer was 0.9×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-3.2×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2003 and 0.5×10 6 cells ml -1 (range 0.2-1.0×10 6 cells ml -1) in 2004. Bacteria with sufficient electron transport activity to be stained with CTC were on average 10% of the total count and ca. 20% of the total cells had intact cell membranes. In the water column, proxies of substrate availability (POC, PON, chlorophyll a, primary production) and bacterial production (thymidine and leucine uptake) correlated strongly with total bacterial count, CTC-stained cells and cells with 'leaky' membrane (stained with propidium iodine), but not with the concentration of cells with intact cell membrane. Contrary to expectations, the proportion of CTC-stained bacteria was not higher in the sinking particles (captured with sediment traps) compared to the ambient water. However, out of the bacteria with intact cell membranes, a higher proportion scored as CTC positive in the aggregates compared to the ambient water. Bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes formed the largest part of total cell count in all samples, and accumulated in sites with high microbial activity (sinking aggregates, chlorophyll maxima, layers of high primary and bacterial production). We hypothesize that the source of the bacterial cells with 'leaky' cell membranes

  2. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book I: Grades 3, 4, and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets suitable for supplementing social studies units in grades 3, 4, and 5 are presented. Each set lists appropriate resources, concepts, general objectives and instructional objectives for each activity within the set. Grade 3 sets are "You Can Help Conserve Our Natural Resources,""Urban Decay and Urban…

  3. Biologically active warm-core anticyclonic eddies in the marginal seas of the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Jan, Sen; Lin, Yen-Huei; Kuo, Tien-Hsia; Hung, Jia-Jang

    2015-12-01

    Our investigations in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have revealed warm-core anticyclonic eddies that had a depressed pycnocline and a high biological productivity and phytoplankton abundance. With an elliptical shape of 420-430 km in major axis and 240-260 km in minor axis, these eddies were formed in the winter as the Kuroshio Current intruded through the Luzon Strait into the SCS under the prevailing northeast monsoon. They were characterized by a deep mixed layer up to 140-180 m, in which nitrate was relatively abundant. Although chlorophyll a concentration per volume of seawater was not always higher inside than outside the eddies, water-column (0-200 m) integrated chlorophyll a concentration and abundances of Synechococcus, coccolithophores, and diatoms were higher inside than outside the eddies. Primary productivity and nitrate-uptake new production inside the eddies were higher than or equal to those outside the eddies. Unlike the mode-water anticyclonic eddy that is biologically productive with a domed shallow seasonal pycnocline, the eddies we investigated had high surface temperatures and depressed pycnoclines in the upper water column. Possible explanations for these biological aspects were that the eddies were at their decaying stage, the eddies re-incorporated intermittently with an intruding Kuroshio branch, or the passage of the prevalent high amplitude internal tides introduced nutrients to the eddies. Frequent occurrences of eddies in oceanic regimes, especially cold eddies, are associated with high biological activity. Some warm eddies, such as these investigated in the present study, also have high biological activities, indicating that more rigorous in situ studies relating to eddy biological activity are needed in ocean regimes such as the SCS, where a half of the eddies are warm eddies.

  4. An Introductory Set of Activities Designed to Facilitate Successful Combinatorial Enumeration for Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Elise; Swinyard, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a set of activities for an introduction to solving counting problems. These activities emerged from a teaching experiment with two university students, during which they reinvented four basic counting formulas. Here we present a three-phase set of activities: orienting counting activities; reinvention counting activities;…

  5. Mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation on a tectonically active margin: Example from the Pliocene of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, Rebecca J.; Kidwell, Susan M.

    1999-10-01

    Bioclast-rich, coarse-grained deposits in the Pliocene Loreto basin provide a record of mixed carbonate and siliciclastic sedimentation at the steep hanging-wall margin of this small, fault-controlled basin. Sedimentary facies consist of sand- to gravel-sized carbonate debris mixed with volcaniclastic sand and gravel in a proximal to distal facies tract that includes matrix-rich and matrix-poor shelly conglomerate, impure calcirudite and calcarenite, mixed-composition turbidites, and bioturbated calcarenitic sandstone. Carbonate material was produced by mollusks and other benthic organisms on a narrow, high-energy shelf and mixed with volcaniclastic sand and gravel in cross-shelf channels. These mixtures were transported down a steep subaqueous slope by debris flows, grain flows, and turbidity currents, forming foresets and bottomsets of marine Gilbert-type deltas. This style of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic sedimentation has not been documented in detail elsewhere but should be locally abundant in the stratigraphic record of fault-bounded basins, particularly those with cool or nutrient-rich waters that support relatively few binding and framework-building faunas. Recognition of similar facies in other settings can provide useful insights into ancient conditions of carbonate production, oceanography, climate, and tectonics.

  6. Late Quaternary loess landscape evolution on an active tectonic margin, Charwell Basin, South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Matthew W.; Almond, Peter C.; Roering, Joshua J.; Tonkin, Philip J.

    2010-10-01

    Loess deposits constitute an important archive of aeolian deposition reflecting wider patterns of glacial atmospheric circulation, and more localised interactions between riverine source areas, loess trapping efficiency and geomorphic controls on erosion rate. Conceptual models have been formulated to explain the coeval evolution of loess mantles and associated landscapes (loess landscape models) but none apply to areas of tectonically induced base-level lowering. This study uses an age sequence of alluvial fill terraces in the Charwell Basin, north-eastern South Island New Zealand, which straddles the transpressive Hope Fault, to investigate geomorphic controls on loess landscape evolution in an active tectonic region. We hypothesize that the more evolved drainage networks on older terraces will more effectively propagate base-level lowering by way of a greater areal proportion of steep and convex hillslopes and a smaller proportion of non-eroding interfluves. Eventually, as the proportion of interfluves diminishes and hillslope convexity increases, terraces shift from being net loess accumulators to areas of net loess erosion. We investigate the nature of erosion and the geomorphic thresholds associated with this transition. Morphometric analysis of alluvial terraces and terrace remnants of increasing age demonstrated geomorphic evolution through time, with a decrease in extent of original planar terrace tread morphology and an increase in frequency of steeper slopes and convexo-concave land elements. The number of loess sheets and the thickness of loess increased across the three youngest terraces. The next oldest (ca. 150 ka) terrace remnant had the greatest maximum number of loess sheets (3) and loess thickness (8 m) but the loess mantle was highly variable. A detailed loess stratigraphic analysis and the morphometric analysis place this terrace in a transition between dominantly planar, uniformly loess-mantled landforms and loess-free ridge and valley terrain

  7. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2015-01-01

    The oceans' continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins, (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services. These include primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  8. Comparative biogeochemistry-ecosystem-human interactions on dynamic continental margins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levin, Lisa A.; Liu, Kon-Kee; Emeis, Kay-Christian; Breitburg, Denise L.; Cloern, James; Deutsch, Curtis; Giani, Michele; Goffart, Anne; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Lachkar, Zouhair; Limburg, Karin; Liu, Su-Mei; Montes, Enrique; Naqvi, Wajih; Ragueneau, Olivier; Rabouille, Christophe; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Swaney, Dennis P.; Wassman, Paul; Wishner, Karen F.

    2014-01-01

    The ocean’s continental margins face strong and rapid change, forced by a combination of direct human activity, anthropogenic CO2-induced climate change, and natural variability. Stimulated by discussions in Goa, India at the IMBER IMBIZO III, we (1) provide an overview of the drivers of biogeochemical variation and change on margins, (2) compare temporal trends in hydrographic and biogeochemical data across different margins (3) review ecosystem responses to these changes, (4) highlight the importance of margin time series for detecting and attributing change and (5) examine societal responses to changing margin biogeochemistry and ecosystems. We synthesize information over a wide range of margin settings in order to identify the commonalities and distinctions among continental margin ecosystems. Key drivers of biogeochemical variation include long-term climate cycles, CO2-induced warming, acidification, and deoxygenation, as well as sea level rise, eutrophication, hydrologic and water cycle alteration, changing land use, fishing, and species invasion. Ecosystem responses are complex and impact major margin services including primary production, fisheries production, nutrient cycling, shoreline protection, chemical buffering, and biodiversity. Despite regional differences, the societal consequences of these changes are unarguably large and mandate coherent actions to reduce, mitigate and adapt to multiple stressors on continental margins.

  9. 75 FR 31749 - International Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... the speed of the Codex standard-setting process, consider the Codex Strategic Plan and the capacity of... of a proposal for a re-evaluation process of substances in light of new data and new scientific... guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and marketing of organically produced foods (CAC/ GL...

  10. Stars and Planets: A New Set of Middle School Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urquhart, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    A set of lesson plans for grades 6-8 which deal with the sizes and distances of stars and planets using a scale factor of 1 to 10 billion, the life cycle of stars, and the search for planets beyond the solar system. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Marginal activity of progesterone receptor B (PR-B) in dogs but high incidence of mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Gracanin, Ana; Voorwald, Fabiana A; van Wolferen, Monique; Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra; Mol, Jan A

    2014-10-01

    Progesterone plays an important role in the normal development and carcinogenesis of the mammary gland. In vitro studies have shown that the canine progesterone receptor B (cPR-B), which is essential for mammary development in the mouse, does not transactivate reporter constructs containing progesterone response elements. Therefore, the question was raised whether the cPR-B was completely devoid of transactivation potential of endogenous progesterone regulated genes. Canine mammary cell lines expressing doxycycline-inducible cPR-B, human PR-B or a chimera in which the canine B-upstream segment (BUS) was replaced by a human BUS were treated for 24h with doxycycline, progesterone or a combination of the two. The expression profiling was subsequently performed using a dog-specific microarray and miRNA primers. Incubation of stably transfected cell lines with doxycycline or progesterone alone, did not change expression of any endogenous gene. Expression of activated human PR-B or the chimera of human BUS with the canine PR resulted in differential expression of >500 genes whereas the activated cPR-B regulated only a subset of 40 genes and to a limited extent. The relevance of the marginal transactivation potential or the consequence of a lack of cPR-B function for the carcinogenesis of mammary gland tumors is discussed.

  12. Cenozoic Tectonic Activity of the "Passive" North America Margin: Evidence for Cenozoic Activity on Mesozoic or Paleozoic Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedorub, O. I.; Knapp, C. C.

    2012-12-01

    The tectonic history of the Eastern North American Margin (ENAM) incorporates two cycles of continental assembly, multiple pulses of orogeny, rifting, and post-rift geodynamic evolution. This is reflected in the heterogeneous lithosphere of the ENAM which contains fault structures originated in Paleozoic to Mesozoic eras. The South Georgia Rift basin is probably the largest Mesozoic graben within its boundaries that is associated with the breakup of Pangea. It is composed of smaller sub-basins which appear to be bounded by high-angle normal faults, some of which may have been inverted in late Cretaceous and Cenozoic eras. Paleozoic structures may have been reactivated in Cenozoic time as well. The ENAM is characterized by N-NE maximum horizontal compressive stress direction. This maximum compressional stress field is sub-parallel to the strike of the Atlantic Coast province fault systems. Camden, Augusta, Allendale, and Pen Branch faults are four of the many such reactivated faults along the southern part of ENAM. These faults are now buried under the 0-400 m of loosely consolidated Cretaceous and Cenozoic age sediments and thus are either only partially mapped or currently not recognized. Some of the objectives of this study are to map the subsurface expression and geometry of these faults and to investigate the post Cretaceous deformation and possible causes of fault reactivation on a passive margin. This study employs an integrated geophysical approach to investigate the upper 200 m of identified locations of the above mentioned faults. 2-D high-resolution shallow seismic reflection and refraction methods, gravity surveys, GPR, 2-D electrical resistivity and well data are used for analyses and interpretation. Preliminary results suggest that Camden fault shows signs of Cenozoic reactivation through an approximately 30 m offset NW side up mainly along a steeply dipping fault zone in the basal contact of Coastal Plain sediments with the Carolina Piedmont. Drill

  13. Global vision systems regulatory and standard setting activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo; Münsterer, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    A number of committees globally, and the Regulatory Agencies they support, are active delivering and updating performance standards for vision system: Enhanced, Synthetic and Combined, as they apply to both Fixed Wing and, more recently, Rotorcraft operations in low visibility. We provide an overview of each committee's present and past work, as well as an update of recent activities and future goals.

  14. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children's language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children's math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers' structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness.

  15. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which children spent a majority of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings combined with relatively low amounts of teacher-directed activity, and a Structured-Balanced pattern in which children spent relatively equal proportions of their day engaged in child-directed free-choice activity settings and teacher-directed small- and whole-group activities. Daily routine profiles were associated with program type and curriculum use but not with measures of process quality. Children in Structured-Balanced classrooms had more opportunities to engage in language and literacy and math activities, whereas children in High Free-Choice classrooms had more opportunities for gross motor and fantasy play. Being in a Structured-Balanced classroom was associated with children’s language scores but profiles were not associated with measures of children’s math reasoning or socio-emotional behavior. Consideration of teachers’ structuring of daily routines represents a valuable way to understand nuances in the provision of learning experiences for young children in the context of current views about developmentally appropriate practice and school readiness. PMID:22665945

  16. Activity Settings and Daily Routines in Preschool Classrooms: Diverse Experiences in Early Learning Settings for Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Howes, Carollee; Huang, Yiching; Hong, Sandra Soliday; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines activity settings and daily classroom routines experienced by 3- and 4-year-old low-income children in public center-based preschool programs, private center-based programs, and family child care homes. Two daily routine profiles were identified using a time-sampling coding procedure: a High Free-Choice pattern in which…

  17. Neoproterozoic active continental margin in the southeastern Yangtze Block of South China: Evidence from the ca. 830-810 Ma sedimentary strata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Zhao, Jun-Hong; Pandit, Manoj K.; Zheng, Jian-Ping; Liu, Ze-Rui

    2016-08-01

    The Jiangnan Fold Belt in the South China Block has been traditionally assumed to be Mesoproterozoic in age and related to the global Grenville orogeny. Sedimentary successions in the Jiangnan Fold Belt archive direct record of tectonic evolution; however, they have not yet been evaluated properly. The Lushan massif, comprising Kangwanggu and Xingzi groups, is the major basement complex in the Jiangnan Belt. Regional correlation of these two groups is poorly constrained, such as with the Shuangqiaoshan group, and thus their role in the regional tectonic evolution is not clear. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest that the Xingzi and Kangwanggu groups were deposited at 820-810 and ca. 830 Ma, respectively. They are composed of dominantly felsic to intermediate volcanic detritus, as indicated by the relatively high Th/Cr (0.24-0.06) ratios and radiogenic Nd isotopes (εNd(t) values = + 1.5 to - 2.9) of the sedimentary rocks. An overwhelming abundance of Neoproterozoic (ca. 860-810 Ma) angular, detrital zircon grains in both the groups indicates derivation chiefly from locally distributed syn-sedimentary igneous rocks. A predominance of zircons with ages close to the time of deposition implies a convergent plate margin setting for Kangwanggu and Xingzi groups. Geochemical signatures, such as La-Th-Co and Th-Sc-Zr/10 plots for Xingzi and Kangwanggu sedimentary rocks also underline tectonically active settings, consistent with the arc affinity of the associated mafic and felsic volcanic rocks. In contrast to the dominant Neoproterozoic detritus in the Kangwanggu sandstone, argillaceous rocks of the Xingzi group received additional input of pre-Neoproterozoic detritus. Moreover, the Xingzi argillaceous rocks have εNd(t) values (+ 0.9 to - 2.9) slightly lower than those of the Kangwanggu sandstones (+ 1.5 to 0.0), indicating contribution from mature crustal materials exposed during progressive uplift of continental basement during orogenesis. These features suggest the

  18. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  19. Active immunization against leptin fails to affect reproduction and exerts only marginal effects on glucose metabolism in young female goats.

    PubMed

    Sauerwein, H; Heintges, U; Bruhns, S C; Hennies, M; Gertler, A

    2006-08-01

    Approximately 150 days before expected breeding time, 12 female goats (3 months of age) were actively immunized against ovine leptin. Booster injections were given throughout the following year. Control animals (n = 6) were sham-immunized. After the first observed oestrus, a buck was introduced and goats were mated. Blood samples were collected twice weekly and frequent blood sampling series were performed on days -15, 76, 153 and 286 relative to the first immunization. Nine of the immunized goats developed titres within 3 months and had elevated serum concentrations of leptin compared with controls (p < 0.0001). Hematological parameters and blood chemistry were not affected by the immunization. No differences were detectable in all reproductive parameters recorded. Serum insulin was higher in immunized goats during the frequent blood sampling series of day 287 after the first immunization. Glucose metabolism was investigated during pregnancy using hyperglycaemic and euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamps. None of the parameters derived from the clamp studies was different (p > 0.05) between the two groups. During the hyperglycaemic clamp there was a trend (p < 0.15) towards increased insulin concentrations in immunized animals whereas glucose infusion rates were not different between the groups. This indicates decreased insulin sensitivity in immunized goats. Our study describes the ontogenesis of serum concentrations of leptin during growth, puberty and first pregnancy and parturition for the caprine species. The effects of the immunization were not detectable or only marginal and the approach aimed at therefore not effective to investigate leptin action in detail.

  20. Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: a fingerprint of human activities.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro

    2013-09-15

    Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200 years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin.

  1. 40 CFR 35.3540 - Requirements for funding set-aside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements for funding set-aside... Requirements for funding set-aside activities. (a) General. If a State makes a grant or enters into a cooperative agreement with an assistance recipient to conduct set-aside activities, the recipient must...

  2. 40 CFR 35.3540 - Requirements for funding set-aside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements for funding set-aside... Requirements for funding set-aside activities. (a) General. If a State makes a grant or enters into a cooperative agreement with an assistance recipient to conduct set-aside activities, the recipient must...

  3. Congruence Extended: A Setting for Activity in Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitler, Gail; Weinstein, Marian

    1976-01-01

    An activity-based unit on congruence and similarity is described. The themes underlying the unit are the usefulness of analogy in determining mathematical principles, and the notion that the number of conditions imposed on figures affects the number of factors which must be specified to insure congruence or similarity. (SD)

  4. Setting the Stage for Physical Activity for Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciccomascolo, Lori; Riebe, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    Despite the positive long-term physiological and psychological effects of exercise, many young adults between the ages of 12 and 21 years do not participate in regular physical activity. With the time constraints and other challenges in teaching and assessing students, physical educators need realistic strategies that will help in their efforts to…

  5. Predicting Physical Activity Promotion in Health Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Guy; Biddle, Stuart

    2001-01-01

    Tested the theory of planned behavior's (TPB) ability to predict stage of change for physical activity promotion among health professionals. Researchers measured attitudes, subjective norms, intentions, perceived behavioral control, and stage of change, then later reassessed stage of change. TPB variables of attitude, subjective norms, perceived…

  6. Homeobox NKX2-3 promotes marginal-zone lymphomagenesis by activating B-cell receptor signalling and shaping lymphocyte dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Eloy F.; Mena-Varas, Maria; Barrio, Laura; Merino-Cortes, Sara V.; Balogh, Péter; Du, Ming-Qing; Akasaka, Takashi; Parker, Anton; Roa, Sergio; Panizo, Carlos; Martin-Guerrero, Idoia; Siebert, Reiner; Segura, Victor; Agirre, Xabier; Macri-Pellizeri, Laura; Aldaz, Beatriz; Vilas-Zornoza, Amaia; Zhang, Shaowei; Moody, Sarah; Calasanz, Maria Jose; Tousseyn, Thomas; Broccardo, Cyril; Brousset, Pierre; Campos-Sanchez, Elena; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sanchez-Garcia, Isidro; Fernandez-Luna, Jose Luis; Garcia-Muñoz, Ricardo; Pena, Esther; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Salar, Antonio; Baptista, Maria Joao; Hernandez-Rivas, Jesús Maria; Gonzalez, Marcos; Terol, Maria Jose; Climent, Joan; Ferrandez, Antonio; Sagaert, Xavier; Melnick, Ari M.; Prosper, Felipe; Oscier, David G.; Carrasco, Yolanda R.; Dyer, Martin J. S.; Martinez-Climent, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    NKX2 homeobox family proteins have a role in cancer development. Here we show that NKX2-3 is overexpressed in tumour cells from a subset of patients with marginal-zone lymphomas, but not with other B-cell malignancies. While Nkx2-3-deficient mice exhibit the absence of marginal-zone B cells, transgenic mice with expression of NKX2-3 in B cells show marginal-zone expansion that leads to the development of tumours, faithfully recapitulating the principal clinical and biological features of human marginal-zone lymphomas. NKX2-3 induces B-cell receptor signalling by phosphorylating Lyn/Syk kinases, which in turn activate multiple integrins (LFA-1, VLA-4), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, MadCAM-1) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4. These molecules enhance migration, polarization and homing of B cells to splenic and extranodal tissues, eventually driving malignant transformation through triggering NF-κB and PI3K-AKT pathways. This study implicates oncogenic NKX2-3 in lymphomagenesis, and provides a valid experimental mouse model for studying the biology and therapy of human marginal-zone B-cell lymphomas. PMID:27297662

  7. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Qian, Taizhe; Chen, Rongqing; Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Akita, Tenpei; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Nakahara, Daiichiro; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ), consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl(-)]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na(+) channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of glycine

  8. Long-lasting Cadomian magmatic activity along an active northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd isotopic evidence from the Brunovistulian Domain, eastern Bohemian Massif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejono, Igor; Janoušek, Vojtěch; Žáčková, Eliška; Sláma, Jiří; Konopásek, Jiří; Machek, Matěj; Hanžl, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Cadomian magmatic complexes of the Brunovistulian Domain crop out at the eastern termination of the Bohemian Massif. However, the age, nature and geotectonic affinity of some of pre-Variscan (meta-)igneous rock complexes from this domain are still unknown. Geochronological and geochemical study of the granitic rocks across the Brunovistulian Domain reveals new information about the timing and nature of this magmatic activity originally situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. Zircon U-Pb data (601 ± 3 Ma, Brno Massif; 634 ± 6 Ma, paraautochtonous core of the Svratka Dome; 568 ± 3 Ma, Bíteš orthogneiss) from the allochtonous Moravicum indicate the prolonged magmatic activity within the Brunovistulian Domain during the Ediacaran. The major- and trace-element and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures show heterogeneous geochemical characteristics of the granitic rocks and suggest a magmatic-arc geotectonic setting. The two-stage Depleted Mantle Nd model ages (c. 1.3-2.0 Ga) indicate derivation of the granitic rocks from a relatively primitive crustal source, as well as from an ancient and evolved continental crust of the Brunovistulian Domain. These results constrain the magmatic-arc activity to c. 635-570 Ma and provide a further evidence for a long-lived (at least c. 65 Myr) and likely episodic subduction-related magmatism at the northern margin of Gondwana. The presence of granitic intrusions derived from variously mature crustal sources at different times suggests heterogeneous crustal segments to having been involved in the magmatic-arc system during its multistage evolution.

  9. Structure of the active rift zone and margins of the northern Imperial Valley from Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, A.; Han, L.; Delph, J. R.; White-Gaynor, A. L.; Petit, R.; Hole, J. A.; Stock, J. M.; Fuis, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    First-arrival refraction data were used to create a seismic velocity model of the upper crust across the actively rifting northern Imperial Valley and its margins. The densely sampled seismic refraction data were acquired by the Salton Seismic Imaging Project (SSIP) , which is investigating rift processes in the northern-most rift segment of the Gulf of California extensional province and earthquake hazards at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault system. A 95-km long seismic line was acquired across the northern Imperial Valley, through the Salton Sea geothermal field, parallel to the five Salton Butte volcanoes and perpendicular to the Brawley Seismic Zone and major strike-slip faults. Nineteen explosive shots were recorded with 100 m seismometer spacing across the valley and with 300-500 m spacing into the adjacent ranges. First-arrival travel times were picked from shot gathers along this line and a seismic velocity model was produced using tomographic inversion. Sedimentary basement and seismic basement in the valley are interpreted to be sediment metamorphosed by the very high heat flow. The velocity model shows that this basement to the west of the Brawley Seismic Zone is at ~4-km depth. The basement shallows to ~2-km depth in the active geothermal field and Salton Buttes volcanic field which locally coincide with the Brawley Seismic Zone. At the eastern edge of the geothermal field, the basement drops off again to ~3.5-km depth. The eastern edge of the valley appears to be fault bounded by the along-strike extension of the Sand Hills Fault, an inactive strike-slip fault. The seismic velocities to the east of the fault correspond to metamorphic rock of the Chocolate Mountains, different from the metamorphosed basement in the valley. The western edge of the valley appears to be fault bounded by the active Superstition Hills Fault. To the west of the valley, >4-km deep valley basement extends to the active Superstition Hills Fault. Basement then shallows

  10. Effects of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) on the development, differentiation, and maturation of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of osteopetrosis (op) mutant mice lacking functional M-CSF activity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, K; Umeda, S; Shultz, L D; Hayashi, S; Nishikawa, S

    1994-05-01

    Immunohistochemical techniques using an anti-mouse panmacrophage monoclonal antibody and anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for marginal metallophilic macrophages or marginal zone macrophages were used to detect red pulp macrophages, marginal metallophilic macrophages, and marginal zone macrophages in the spleen of op/op mice. In the mutant mice, the red pulp macrophages were reduced to about 60% of those in the normal littermates and the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages were absent. After administration of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rhM-CSF), numbers of red pulp macrophages increased rapidly, reaching levels found in normal littermates 1 week later. In contrast, the marginal metallophilic macrophages as well as the marginal zone macrophages appeared slowly after rhM-CSF administration and their numbers were less than half of the baseline level of normal littermates even at 12 weeks of administration. The distribution of marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages appearing after M-CSF administration was irregular in the spleen of the op/op mice. These splenic macrophage subpopulations differed in their responses to rhM-CSF, suggesting that distinct mechanisms may be involved in their development and differentiation. The splenic red pulp macrophages present in unmanipulated op/op mice are an M-CSF-independent macrophage population. Although the marginal metallophilic macrophages and marginal zone macrophages are thought to be M-CSF-dependent, their development and differentiation appear to be influenced by locally produced M-CSF or other cytokines.

  11. Tectonically active sediment dispersal system in SW Taiwan margin with emphasis on the Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ho-Shing; Chiang, Cheng-Shing; Shen, Su-Min

    2009-03-01

    The sediment dispersal system in southwestern Taiwan margin consists of two main parts: the subaerial drainage basin and the offshore receiving marine basin. In plan view, this sediment dispersal system can be further divided into five geomorphic units: (1) the Gaoping (formerly spelled Kaoping) River drainage basin, (2) the Gaoping (Kaoping) Shelf, (3) the Gaoping (Kaoping) Slope, (4) the Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon and (5) the Manila Trench in the northernmost South China Sea. The Gaoping River drainage basin is a small (3250 km 2), tectonically active and overfilled foreland basin, receiving sediments derived from the uprising Central Range of Taiwan with a maximum elevation of 3952 m. The Gaoping Submarine Canyon begins at the mouth of the Gaoping River, crosses the narrow Gaoping Shelf (~ 10 km) and the Gaoping Slope, and finally merges into the northern termination of the Manila Trench over a distance of ~ 260 km. The SW Taiwan margin dispersal system is characterized by a direct river-canyon connection with a narrow shelf and frequent episodic sediment discharge events in the canyon head. In a regional source to sink scheme, the Gaoping River drainage basin is the primary source area, the Gaoping Shelf being the sediment bypass zone and the Gaoping Slope being the temporary sink and the Manila Trench being the ultimate sink of the sediment from the Taiwan orogen. It is inferred from seismic data that the outer shelf and upper slope region can be considered as a line source for mass wasting deposits delivered to the lower Gaoping Slope where small depressions between diapiric ridges are partially filled with sediment or are empty. At present, recurrent hyperpycnal flows during the flood seasons are temporarily depositing sediments mainly derived from the Gaoping River in the head of the Gaoping Submarine Canyon. On the decadal and century timescales, sediments temporarily stored in the upper reach are removed over longer timescales probably by

  12. Maintaining plant safety margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The Final Safety Analysis Report Forms the basis of demonstrating that the plant can operate safely and meet all applicable acceptance criteria. In order to assure that this continues through each operating cycle, the safety analysis is reexamined for each reload core. Operating limits are set for each reload core to assure that safety limits and applicable acceptance criteria are not exceeded for postulated events within the design basis. These operating limits form the basis for plant operation, providing barriers on various measurable parameters. The barriers are refereed to as limiting conditions for operation (LCO). The operating limits, being influenced by many factors, can change significantly from cycle to cycle. In order to be successful in demonstrating safe operation for each reload core (with adequate operating margin), it is necessary to continue to focus on ways to maintain/improve existing safety margins. Existing safety margins are a function of the plant type (boiling water reactor/pressurized water reactor (BWR/PWR)), nuclear system supply (NSSS) vendor, operating license date, core design features, plant design features, licensing history, and analytical methods used in the safety analysis. This paper summarizes the experience at Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) in its efforts to provide adequate operating margin for the plants that it supports.

  13. Diversity and Characteristics of Benthic Foraminifera in Cold Seep Areas in the Active Margin of the northeastern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Meng-Ting; Thomas, Ellen; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Yu-Shih; Lin, Saulwood; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The active continental margin in northeastern South China Sea (SCS) has been considered to have high potential to be a reservoir of gas hydrate, based on geographic features, geophysical evidences, as well as geochemical analyses of samples from the water column, pore water and sediments. Compared to a typical sea floor area, cold seep areas have more food for benthos and more diverse habitats. As a result, we can expect a higher species diversity of benthic organisms in cold seep areas of the SCS. Based on preliminary results of species identification of benthic foraminiferal assemblages in the upper most sediments (0-5 cm) of box cores collected around cold seeps at water depth ~1300m, the species diversity is significantly higher at seep sites (Shannon-Wiener index = 274) than at background sites (Shannon-Wiener index = 3). The faunal assemblages consist of ~68% calcareous benthic foraminifera (CBF) and ~32% agglutinated benthic foraminifera (ABF) at seep sites. On the other hand, faunal assemblages are composed of only ~24% CBF and ~76% ABF at background sites. By staining the sample with rose Bengal-ethanol solution, we were able to recognize in-situ individuals which were alive at the time of collection, and separate them from dead specimens. Among the living individuals, the most abundant CBF species in seep sites is Bulimina aculeata (~51% in the living CBF fauna), followed by the typical 'shelf-species,' Lenticulina inornata, (~10%) and the common 'brackish-species,' Miliolinella subrotunda, (~9%), while the most abundant ABF species is Cribrostomoides subglobosus (~19% in the living ABF fauna). The most common species thus are typical for shallower, more food rich environments.

  14. An 8000-year template of terrestrial erosion and storm activity for the muddy East Coast margin of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orpin, A.; Carter, L.; Cochran, U.; Page, M.

    2006-12-01

    A recently acquired 25 m core from Lake Tutira has yielded an 8000 yr record for the northeastern hinterland of Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. Here, the landscape has responded to the complex interplay of climate, plate boundary tectonism and volcanism, human settlement and land-use change. Regionally this core is unique as it provides a well dated template to quantify the terrestrial flux to the East Coast continental margin. The mud and fine-sand dominated lake record is punctuated by discrete graded beds, clay-rich inter beds, tephras and organic-rich units. Earlier cores, spanning the last 2300 yr, show graded and clay units to be responses to storm events with an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signature. This study extends this record well beyond the onset of marked ENSO activity estimated at 3500 ka. The storm character is corroborated by correlation with historical rainfall records, and lake diatoms, which increase in species richness but reduce in species richness during storms. Individual storm events are clearly evident and 9 graded beds thicker than 20cm occurred since the early Holocene. Three "1 in 100 year" storms occurred last century and can be corroborated with rainfall records. An examination of storm layer colour, thickness and frequency show a waxing and waning in storm intensity over millennial time scales with three discernable periods of increased storminess around 1500-2000, 3500, and 6000 yr BP. Storm deposits before the Taupo eruption of 1718 yr BP are coarser and less muddy than after the eruption and human colonisation, perhaps reflecting progressive deforestation of the catchment. Provisional correlation to nearby marine records suggest that broad patterns of increased erosion can be deconvolved, but more detailed links are limited by event size and marine overprinting.

  15. Suitability of Public Use Secondary Data Sets to Study Multiple Activities

    PubMed Central

    Putnam, Michelle; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Inoue, Megumi; Greenfield, Jennifer C.; Chen, Huajuan; Lee, YungSoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The aims of this study were to inventory activity items within and across U.S. public use data sets, to identify gaps in represented activity domains and challenges in interpreting domains, and to assess the potential for studying multiple activity engagement among older adults using existing data. Design and Methods: We engaged in content analysis of activity measures of 5U.S. public use data sets with nationally representative samples of older adults. Data sets included the Health & Retirement Survey (HRS), Americans’ Changing Lives Survey (ACL), Midlife in the United States Survey (MIDUS), the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics survey (PSID). Two waves of each data set were analyzed. Results: We identified 13 distinct activity domains across the 5 data sets, with substantial differences in representation of those domains among the data sets, and variance in the number and type of activity measures included in each. Implications: Our findings indicate that although it is possible to study multiple activity engagement within existing data sets, fuller sets of activity measures need to be developed in order to evaluate the portfolio of activities older adults engage in and the relationship of these portfolios to health and wellness outcomes. Importantly, clearer conceptual models of activity broadly conceived are required to guide this work. PMID:23899622

  16. Structural and functional diversity of Nematoda in relation with environmental variables in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons, Western Iberian Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingels, Jeroen; Billett, David S. M.; Kiriakoulakis, Konstadinos; Wolff, George A.; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-12-01

    Samples collected at two different depths (ca. 3200 and ca. 4200 m) in the Setúbal and Cascais canyons off the Portuguese coast, during the HERMES RRS Charles Darwin cruise CD179, were analysed for (1) sediment biogeochemistry (TOC, TN) and (2) composition, and structural and trophic diversity of nematode communities. Multivariate PERMANOVA analysis on the nematode community data revealed differences between sediment layers that were greater than differences between canyons, water depths, and stations. This suggests that biogeochemical gradients along the vertical sediment profile are crucial in determining nematode community structure. The interaction between canyon conditions and the nematode community is illustrated by biogeochemical patterns in the sediment and the prevalence of nematode genera that are able to persist in disturbed sediments. Trophic analysis of the nematode community indicated that non-selective deposit feeders are dominant, presumably because of their non-selective feeding behaviour compared to other feeding types, which gives them a competitive advantage in exploiting lower-quality food resources. This study presents a preliminary conceptual scheme for interactions between canyon conditions and the resident fauna.

  17. Development of a Measure to Assess Youth Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Batorowicz, Beata; Rigby, Patty; McMain-Klein, Margot; Thompson, Laura; Pinto, Madhu

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for psychometrically sound measures of youth experiences of community/home leisure activity settings. The 22-item Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS) captures the following experiences of youth with a Grade 3 level of language comprehension or more: Personal Growth, Psychological Engagement, Social Belonging,…

  18. Treatment of Passive Component Reliability in Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization FY 2010 Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robert W Youngblood

    2010-09-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway is a set of activities defined under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The overarching objective of RISMC is to support plant life-extension decision-making by providing a state-of-knowledge characterization of safety margins in key systems, structures, and components (SSCs). A technical challenge at the core of this effort is to establish the conceptual and technical feasibility of analyzing safety margin in a risk-informed way, which, unlike conventionally defined deterministic margin analysis, is founded on probabilistic characterizations of SSC performance.

  19. Provenance of a large Lower Cretaceous turbidite submarine fan complex on the active Laurasian margin: Central Pontides, northern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdoğan, Remziye; Okay, Aral I.; Sunal, Gürsel; Tari, Gabor; Meinhold, Guido; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2017-02-01

    The Pontides formed the southern active margin of Laurasia during the Mesozoic. They became separated from mainland Laurasia during the Late Cretaceous, with the opening of the Black Sea as an oceanic back-arc basin. During the Early Cretaceous, a large submarine turbidite fan complex developed in the Central Pontides. The turbidites cover an area of 400 km by 90 km with a thickness of more than 2 km. We have investigated the provenance of these turbidites-the Çağlayan Formation-using paleocurrent measurements, U-Pb detrital zircon ages, REE abundances of dated zircons and geochemistry of detrital rutile grains. 1924 paleocurrent measurements from 96 outcrop stations indicate flow direction from northwest to southeast in the eastern part of the Çağlayan Basin and from north-northeast to west-southwest in the western part. 1194 detrital zircon ages from 13 Lower Cretaceous sandstone samples show different patterns in the eastern, central and western parts of the basin. The majority of the U-Pb detrital zircon ages in the eastern part of the basin are Archean and Paleoproterozoic (61% of all zircon ages, 337 grains); rocks of these ages are absent in the Pontides and present in the Ukrainian Shield, which indicates a source north of the Black Sea. In the western part of the basin the majority of the zircons are Carboniferous and Neoproterozoic (68%, 246 grains) implying more local sources within the Pontides. The detrital zircons from the central part show an age spectrum as mixture of zircons from western and eastern parts. Significantly, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous zircons make up less than 2% of the total zircon population, which implies lack of a coeval magmatic arc in the region. This is compatible with the absence of the Lower Cretaceous granites in the Pontides. Thus, although the Çağlayan Basin occupied a fore-arc position above the subduction zone, the arc was missing, probably due to flat subduction, and the basin was largely fed from the Ukrainian

  20. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    plate (Sardinia, Corsica, Balearic Islands, Kabylies, Calabria, Peloritani Mountains). The bulk of igneous activity in the central-western Mediterranean is believed to have tapped mantle 'wedge' regions, metasomatized by pressure-related dehydration of the subducting slabs. The presence of subduction-related igneous rocks with a wide range of chemical composition has been related to the interplay of several factors among which the pre-metasomatic composition of the mantle wedges (i.e., fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO 2 and H 2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important. Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the

  1. Statistical properties of short-selling and margin-trading activities and their impacts on returns in the Chinese stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Yao

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the collective behaviors of short-selling and margin-trading between Chinese stocks and their impacts on the co-movements of stock returns by cross-correlation and partial correlation analyses. We find that the collective behaviors of margin-trading are largely attributed to the index cohesive force, while those of short-selling are mainly due to some direct interactions between stocks. Interestingly, the dominant role the finance industry plays in the collective behaviors of short-selling could make it more important in affecting the co-movement structure of stock returns by strengthening its relationship with the market index. By detecting the volume-return and volume-volatility relationships, we find that the investors of the two leverage activities are positively triggered by individual stock volatility first, and next, at the return level, margin-buyers show trend-following properties, while short-sellers are probably informative traders who trade on the information impulse of specific firms. However, the return predictability of the two leverage trading activities and their impacts on stock volatility are not significant. Moreover, both tails of the cumulative distributions of the two leverage trading activities are found following the stretched exponential law better than the power-law.

  2. Ivory Coast-Ghana margin: model of a transform margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Blarez, E.

    1987-05-01

    The authors present a marine study of the eastern Ivory Coast-Ghana continental margins which they consider one of the most spectacular extinct transform margins. This margin has been created during Early-Lower Cretaceous time and has not been submitted to any major geodynamic reactivation since its fabric. Based on this example, they propose to consider during the evolution of the transform margin four main and successive stages. Shearing contact is first active between two probably thick continental crusts and then between progressively thinning continental crusts. This leads to the creation of specific geological structures such as pull-apart graben, elongated fault lineaments, major fault scarps, shear folds, and marginal ridges. After the final continental breakup, a hot center (the mid-oceanic ridge axis) is progressively drifting along the newly created margin. The contact between two lithospheres of different nature should necessarily induce, by thermal exchanges, vertical crustal readjustments. Finally, the transform margin remains directly adjacent to a hot but cooling oceanic lithosphere; its subsidence behavior should then progressively be comparable to the thermal subsidence of classic rifted margins.

  3. Active tectonics in northern Victoria Land (Antarctica) inferred from the integration of GPS data and geologic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubbini, M.; Cianfarra, P.; Casula, G.; Capra, A.; Salvini, F.

    2010-12-01

    A semipermanent Global Positioning System (GPS) network of 30 vertices known as the Victoria Land Network for Deformation Control (VLNDEF) was set up in the Austral summer of 1998 in northern Victoria Land (NVL), including Terra Nova Bay (TNB), Antarctica. The locations were selected according to the known Cenozoic fault framework, which is characterized by a system of NW-SE regional faults with right-lateral, strike-slip kinematics. The TNB1 permanent GPS station is within the VLNDEF, and following its installation on a bedrock monument in October 1998, it has been recording almost continuously. The GPS network has been surveyed routinely every two summers, using high-quality, dual-frequency GPS receivers. In this study we present the results of a distributed session approach applied to the processing of the GPS data of the VLNDEF. An improved reference frame definition was implemented, including a new Euler pole, to compute the Antarctic intraplate residual velocities. The projection of the residual velocities on the main faults in NVL show present-day activities for some faults, including the Tucker, Leap Year, Lanterman, Aviator, and David faults, with right-lateral strike-slip kinematics and local extensional and compressional components. This active fault pattern divides NVL into eight rigid blocks, each characterized by its relative movements and rigid rotations. These show velocities of up to several millimeters per year, which are comparable to those predicted by plate tectonic theory at active plate margins.

  4. Geochemistry of the metavolcanic rocks in the vicinity of the MacLellan Au-Ag deposit and an evaluation of the tectonic setting of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt, Canada: Evidence for a Paleoproterozoic-aged rifted continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glendenning, Michael W. P.; Gagnon, Joel E.; Polat, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The Paleoproterozoic (ca. 1900 Ma) Lynn Lake greenstone belt of northern Manitoba, Canada, has been previously characterized as comprising a series of tectonically juxtaposed intra-oceanic-derived metavolcanic rocks. The results of more recent local and regional studies, however, support a significant contribution of continental crust during formation of the metasedimentary, metavolcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks that comprise the majority of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt. The tectonic model previously proposed for the Lynn Lake greenstone belt, however, did not consider the geodynamics of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt in the context of all available data. In this study, we report the results of outcrop mapping and petrographic analysis, as well as major, minor, and trace element geochemical analyses for 54 samples from the Northern terrane, and integrate and compare the results with data from previously published studies. These data are used to recharacterize the metavolcanic rocks and to develop a new geodynamic model for the formation of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt. Ultramafic to intermediate rocks in the vicinity of the MacLellan Au-Ag deposit are characterized primarily by E-MORB-like trace element characteristics and Th-Nb-La systematics, which are interpreted to be the result of a primary, plume-derived melt interacting with continental lithosphere at a thinned (i.e., rifted) continental margin. Similarly, the majority of the mafic to intermediate rocks that comprise the Lynn Lake greenstone belt are characterized by flat to E-MORB-like trace element patterns and Th-Nb-La systematics, which are consistent with mantle plume-derived, contaminated, oceanic continental rift or rifted margin setting rocks. This study suggests that the metavolcanic rocks of the Lynn Lake greenstone belt were derived via rifting between the Superior and Hearne Cratons, which resulted in the formation and growth of the Manikewan Ocean. Alternatively, the metavolcanic rocks

  5. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suppe, J.; Wang, X.; He, D.; Liang, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale active thrusting in the western Kunlunshan and southwest Tarim basin, which accounts for ~130-165km total shortening of Tarim crust at the northern margin of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long bedding-parallel Hotian thrust sheet, which is perhaps the longest active intact thrust sheet in the world, composed of flat-lying strata of the Tarim basin sliding northward on a regional gypsum detachment at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust ramps to the surface two thirds of the way across the Tarim basin, forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the Taklamakan sand desert. At the southern edge of the Tarim basin in the Kunlunshan foothills, a set of high-amplitude anticlines are growing by complex break-forward ramping and wedging in the Hotian thrust sheet as it steps up to the Cenozoic gypsum detachment from a regional Cambrian evaporate detachment that extends under Tibet. More interior structures such as the Tiklik thrust bring older strata and Proterozoic basement to the surface, together with their Cenozoic Tarim cover in the Buya basin. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that locally warps the overlying Hotian thrust sheet, producing a complete syntectonic record in seismically imaged growth strata of its northward motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim foothill belt also reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence (Zheng et al., 2000). The beginning of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim basin north of the Tiklik thrust is dated at 3.6Ma with shortening >25km and a progressive northward propagation toward the Selibuya-Mazartag hills. The overall shortening rate is ~10 mm/yr. The gypsum

  6. Mark, Set, Go! School-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Program: A Five-Year Evaluation.

    PubMed

    El Rayess, Fadya; Gandhi, Meeka; Mennillo, Haran

    2017-02-01

    Mark, Set Go! is a school-based intervention addressing pediatric obesity in an urban, underserved community. This study evaluates its impact on participants' knowledge, attitudes and behavior related to nutrition, physical activity and screen time.

  7. [Health, marginality and regional development].

    PubMed

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.

  8. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT REST INTERVALS BETWEEN ANTAGONIST PAIRED SETS ON REPETITION PERFOMANCE AND MUSCLE ACTIVATION.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Maia, Marianna; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-03-11

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups; a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally-trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without prior knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order and with 10 repetition maximum (10RM) loads for the KF and KE exercises: 1) traditional protocol (TP) - one set of KE only to repetition failure; 2) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR) - one set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; 3) P30 - 30 seconds rest between paired sets of KF and KE; 4) P1 - 1-minute rest between paired sets; 5) P3 - 3-minutes rest between paired sets; and 6) P5 - 5-minutes rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and EMG activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30 and P1 protocols versus the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 versus the TP, P3 and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR versus all other protocols. The results of the current study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 sec and 1 min) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  9. Effects of different rest intervals between antagonist paired sets on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marianna F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups, a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without previous knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order with 10 repetition maximum loads for the KF and KE exercises: (a) traditional protocol (TP)-1 set of KE only to repetition failure; (b) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR)-1 set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; (c) P30-30-second rest between paired sets of KF and KE; (d) P1-1-minute rest between paired sets; (e) P3-3-minute rest between paired sets; and (f) P5-5-minute rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30, and P1 protocols vs. the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 vs. the TP, P3, and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR vs. all other protocols. The results of this study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 seconds and 1 minute) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  10. Fungal and Prokaryotic Activities in the Marine Subsurface Biosphere at Peru Margin and Canterbury Basin Inferred from RNA-Based Analyses and Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Pachiadaki, Maria G.; Rédou, Vanessa; Beaudoin, David J.; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Edgcomb, Virginia P.

    2016-01-01

    The deep sedimentary biosphere, extending 100s of meters below the seafloor harbors unexpected diversity of Bacteria, Archaea, and microbial eukaryotes. Far less is known about microbial eukaryotes in subsurface habitats, albeit several studies have indicated that fungi dominate microbial eukaryotic communities and fungal molecular signatures (of both yeasts and filamentous forms) have been detected in samples as deep as 1740 mbsf. Here, we compare and contrast fungal ribosomal RNA gene signatures and whole community metatranscriptomes present in sediment core samples from 6 and 95 mbsf from Peru Margin site 1229A and from samples from 12 and 345 mbsf from Canterbury Basin site U1352. The metatranscriptome analyses reveal higher relative expression of amino acid and peptide transporters in the less nutrient rich Canterbury Basin sediments compared to the nutrient rich Peru Margin, and higher expression of motility genes in the Peru Margin samples. Higher expression of genes associated with metals transporters and antibiotic resistance and production was detected in Canterbury Basin sediments. A poly-A focused metatranscriptome produced for the Canterbury Basin sample from 345 mbsf provides further evidence for active fungal communities in the subsurface in the form of fungal-associated transcripts for metabolic and cellular processes, cell and membrane functions, and catalytic activities. Fungal communities at comparable depths at the two geographically separated locations appear dominated by distinct taxa. Differences in taxonomic composition and expression of genes associated with particular metabolic activities may be a function of sediment organic content as well as oceanic province. Microscopic analysis of Canterbury Basin sediment samples from 4 and 403 mbsf produced visualizations of septate fungal filaments, branching fungi, conidiogenesis, and spores. These images provide another important line of evidence supporting the occurrence and activity of fungi in

  11. Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin has involved a series of ridge (Aluk Ridge)-trench collisions between the Pacific and Antarctic plates. Subduction occurred episodically between segments of the Pacific plate that are bounded by major fracture zones. The age of ridge-trench collisions decreases from south to north along the margin. The very northern part of the margin, between the Hero and Shackleton fracture zones, has the last surviving Aluk-Antarctic spreading ridge segments and the only remaining trench topography. The sedimentary cover on the northern margin is relatively thin generally less than 1.5 km, thus providing a unique setting in which to examine margin evolution using high resolution seismic methods. Over 5,000 km of high resolution (water gun) seismic profiles were acquired from the Antarctic Peninsula margin during four cruises to the region. The margin is divided into discrete fracture-zone-bounded segments; each segment displays different styles of development. Highly tectonized active margin sequences have been buried beneath a seaward-thickening sediment wedge that represents the passive stage of margin development Ice caps, which have existed in the Antarctic Peninsula region since at least the late Oligocene, have advanced onto the continental shelf on numerous occasions, eroding hundreds of meters into the shelf and depositing a thick sequence of deposits characterized by till tongues and glacial troughs. Glacial erosion has been the main factor responsible for overdeepening of the shelf; isostasy is of secondary importance. As the shelf was lowered by glacial erosion, it was able to accommodate thicker and more unstable marine ice sheets. The shelf also became a vast reservoir for cold, saline shelf water, one of the key ingredients of Antarctic bottom water.

  12. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  13. Analgesic Neural Circuits Are Activated by Electroacupuncture at Two Sets of Acupoints

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Man-Li; Qiu, Zheng-Ying

    2016-01-01

    To investigate analgesic neural circuits activated by electroacupuncture (EA) at different sets of acupoints in the brain, goats were stimulated by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints or set of Housanli acupoints for 30 min. The pain threshold was measured using the potassium iontophoresis method. The levels of c-Fos were determined with Streptavidin-Biotin Complex immunohistochemistry. The results showed pain threshold induced by EA at set of Baihui-Santai acupoints was 44.74% ± 4.56% higher than that by EA at set of Housanli acupoints (32.64% ± 5.04%). Compared with blank control, EA at two sets of acupoints increased c-Fos expression in the medial septal nucleus (MSN), the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the nucleus amygdala basalis (AB), the lateral habenula nucleus (HL), the ventrolateral periaqueductal grey (vlPAG), the locus coeruleus (LC), the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM), the pituitary gland, and spinal cord dorsal horn (SDH). Compared with EA at set of Housanli points, EA at set of Baihui-Santai points induced increased c-Fos expression in AB but decrease in MSN, the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, HL, and SDH. It suggests that ARC-PAG-NRM/LC-SDH and the hypothalamus-pituitary may be the common activated neural pathways taking part in EA-induced analgesia at the two sets of acupoints. PMID:27429635

  14. Systematic Review of Service-Learning in Youth Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Russell L.; Raguse, Allison L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which service-learning exists in the field of kinesiology broadly, and more specifically related to the physical activity of youth, remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the service-learning literature in kinesiology, with a specific focus on youth physical activity settings.…

  15. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  16. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  17. Implementing Character Education Program through Music and Integrated Activities in Early Childhood Settings in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the efficacy of using musical activities to enhance the character aspect of education of preschoolers in a Taiwanese school setting. The Taiwanese educational authority stipulates that character development activities should focus on the core values of caring, respect, courage, honesty, responsibility, and cooperation.…

  18. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-setting activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for... established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for public disclosure of... activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35): (i) American Association of Food...

  19. 21 CFR 10.95 - Participation in outside standard-setting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-setting activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for... established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35). (3) The availability for public disclosure of... activities established by the Freedom of Information Staff (HFI-35): (i) American Association of Food...

  20. Uplift rate transients at subduction margins due to earthquake clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouslopoulou, Vasiliki; Oncken, Onno; Hainzl, Sebastian; Nicol, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Coastal uplift is common in continental fore-arc systems, with elevated paleoshorelines indicating that uplift rates can vary dramatically over time on individual margins. The origins of these changes in uplift rates are examined using a global data set of paleoshorelines together with 2-D numerical models of subduction systems. Empirical paleoshoreline data (N = 282) from eight subduction margins indicate that uplift rates are generally not steady state and varied by up to a factor of 20 during the late Quaternary (≤125 ka). On many subduction margins uplift rates increase to the present day, a finding which we attribute to sampling bias toward those locations where Holocene uplift rates have been highest (with respect to other global margins which have undergone fast subsidence or no vertical motion—e.g., a property akin to the so-called Sadler effect). Paleoshorelines and 2-D models suggest that transient uplift rates at subduction margins are mainly a short-term (<20 ka) phenomenon that cannot be accounted for by plate-boundary scale processes such as changes in the rates of plate convergence, sediment underplating or isostatic unloading. Instead, time-variable uplift rates are ascribed to temporal clustering of large-magnitude earthquakes on upper plate faults and, to a lesser extent, the subduction thrust. The potential for future damaging earthquakes and tsunamis may have been underestimated at active subduction margins with no measureable Holocene uplift, and in such cases, late Quaternary paleoshorelines could provide an important constraint for hazard analysis.

  1. Digital data set of volcano hazards for active Cascade Volcanos, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.

    1996-01-01

    Scientists at the Cascade Volcano Observatory have completed hazard assessments for the five active volcanos in Washington. The five studies included Mount Adams (Scott and others, 1995), Mount Baker (Gardner and others, 1995), Glacier Peak (Waitt and others, 1995), Mount Rainier (Hoblitt and others, 1995) and Mount St. Helens (Wolfe and Pierson, 1995). Twenty Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets have been created that represent the hazard information from the assessments. The twenty data sets have individual Open File part numbers and titles

  2. Understanding Continental Margin Biodiversity: A New Imperative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Lisa A.; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know.

  3. Understanding continental margin biodiversity: a new imperative.

    PubMed

    Levin, Lisa A; Sibuet, Myriam

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the deep continental margins (200-4,000 m) were perceived as monotonous mud slopes of limited ecological or environmental concern. Progress in seafloor mapping and direct observation now reveals unexpected heterogeneity, with a mosaic of habitats and ecosystems linked to geomorphological, geochemical, and hydrographic features that influence biotic diversity. Interactions among water masses, terrestrial inputs, sediment diagenesis, and tectonic activity create a multitude of ecological settings supporting distinct communities that populate canyons and seamounts, high-stress oxygen minimum zones, and methane seeps, as well as vast reefs of cold corals and sponges. This high regional biodiversity is fundamental to the production of valuable fisheries, energy, and mineral resources, and performs critical ecological services (nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, nursery and habitat support). It is under significant threat from climate change and human resource extraction activities. Serious actions are required to preserve the functions and services provided by the deep-sea settings we are just now getting to know.

  4. Kinome-wide activity modeling from diverse public high-quality data sets.

    PubMed

    Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2013-01-28

    Large corpora of kinase small molecule inhibitor data are accessible to public sector research from thousands of journal article and patent publications. These data have been generated employing a wide variety of assay methodologies and experimental procedures by numerous laboratories. Here we ask the question how applicable these heterogeneous data sets are to predict kinase activities and which characteristics of the data sets contribute to their utility. We accessed almost 500,000 molecules from the Kinase Knowledge Base (KKB) and after rigorous aggregation and standardization generated over 180 distinct data sets covering all major groups of the human kinome. To assess the value of the data sets, we generated hundreds of classification and regression models. Their rigorous cross-validation and characterization demonstrated highly predictive classification and quantitative models for the majority of kinase targets if a minimum required number of active compounds or structure-activity data points were available. We then applied the best classifiers to compounds most recently profiled in the NIH Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) program and found good agreement of profiling results with predicted activities. Our results indicate that, although heterogeneous in nature, the publically accessible data sets are exceedingly valuable and well suited to develop highly accurate predictors for practical Kinome-wide virtual screening applications and to complement experimental kinase profiling.

  5. Imaging Active and Relict Seafloor Methane Seep Sites: a Comparison of Seafloor 3D Seismic Reflectivity and Multibeam Sonar Backscatter Intensity at Omakere Ridge, Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, T. V.; Pecher, I. A.; Crutchley, G. J.; Klaeschen, D.; Papenberg, C. A.; Bialas, J.; Greinert, J.; Townend, J.; SO214 Shipboard Scientific Party

    2011-12-01

    Omakere Ridge is an anticlinal thrust ridge in water depths of 1100-1700 m on the Hikurangi Margin, east of the North Island of New Zealand, and an area of active seafloor methane seepage associated with an extensive gas hydrate province. Methane seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin are characterised by localised build-ups of hard authigenic carbonate and chemosynthetic seep fauna that exist on a seafloor otherwise characterised by soft, muddy sediments. Previous studies have shown that these seep sites appear as areas of high backscatter in sonar images, but backscatter data alone do not provide detailed information on the present level of activity of a seep site, or the thickness of the carbonate build-up. Here we present a comparison of seafloor seismic reflectivity and multibeam sonar backscatter intensity data collected from active and relict methane seep sites on Omakere Ridge. High-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic reflection data and 12 kHz EM120 multibeam sonar data were collected in March 2011 during the RV Sonne cruise SO214. Seafloor seismic amplitude maps have been derived from the shipboard post-stack migrated data cube. A pronounced acquisition artifact is manifest in the seafloor horizon slice as high and low amplitude stripes that alternate periodically in the crossline direction. We have removed this artifact from the seafloor horizon slice using Kx-Ky filtering, followed by direct sampling and deterministic removal of the very-low-frequency components in the spatial domain. The seismic amplitude map has then been transformed into a calibrated seafloor reflection coefficient map. Sonar backscatter mosaics have been created after correcting for instrument response, angular variation in backscatter and bathymetry. Several backscatter mosaics were incorporated into a stacked mosaic over the study area to attenuate random noise. The high sonar backscatter response at the seep sites is generally accompanied by high seismic reflectivity. However, the

  6. Glaciomarine sedimentation and bottom current activity on the north-western and northern continental margins of Svalbard during the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Teena; Noormets, Riko; Rasmussen, Tine L.

    2016-04-01

    Palaeo-bottom current strength of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) and the influence of the Svalbard-Barents Sea Ice Sheet (SBIS) on the depositional environment along the northern Svalbard margins are poorly known. Two gravity cores from the southern Yermak Plateau and the upper slope north of Nordaustlandet, covering marine isotope stage (MIS) 1 to MIS 5, are investigated. Five lithofacies, based on grain size distribution, silt/clay ratio, content and mean of sortable silt (SS), are distinguished to characterise the contourite-dominated sedimentary environments. In addition, depositional environments are described using total organic carbon (TOC), total sulphur (TS) and calcium carbonate (CaCO3) contents of sediments. Facies A, containing coarse SS, suggests strong bottom current activity and good bottom water ventilation conditions as inferred from low TOC content. This facies was deposited during the glacial periods MIS 4, MIS 2 and during the late Holocene. Facies B is dominated by fine SS indicating weak bottom current and poor ventilation (cf. high TOC content of 1.2-1.6%), and correlates with the MIS 4/3 and MIS 2/1 transition periods. With an equal amount of clay and sand, fine SS and high content of TOC, facies C indicates reduced bottom current strength for intervals with sediment supply from proximal sources such as icebergs, sea ice or meltwater discharge. This facies was deposited during the last glacial maximum. Facies D represents mass-flow deposits on the northern Svalbard margin attributed to the SBIS advance at or near the shelf edge. Facies E sediments indicating moderate bottom current strength were deposited during MIS 5 and MIS 3, and during parts of MIS 2. This first late Quaternary proxy record of the WSC flow and sedimentation history from the northern Svalbard margin suggests that the oceanographic conditions and ice sheet processes have exerted first-order control on sediment properties.

  7. The sequence of moderate-size earthquakes at the junction of the Ligurian basin and the Corsica margin (western Mediterranean): The initiation of an active deformation zone revealed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larroque, Christophe; Delouis, Bertrand; Sage, Françoise; Régnier, Marc; Béthoux, Nicole; Courboulex, Françoise; Deschamps, Anne

    2016-04-01

    A new seismically active zone is found in the southern part of the Ligurian basin, 80-km west of Corsica (western Mediterranean). The activity began in February 2011 with a foreshock (ML 4) and a mainshock (ML 5.3) 5 days later, followed by numerous aftershocks. We first analyze the fore- and mainshock in detail. We compare the results obtained using classical methods (linear location in a 1D medium and focal mechanisms from P and S polarities) and new approaches (non-linear location in a 3D medium and waveform modeling for determining the seismic moment and the focal mechanism). Both methods provided similar results for location, depth (in the range of 6-13 km) and focal mechanisms, which reveal reverse faulting with nodal planes oriented N-S and NE-SW. We then locate 27 of the aftershocks in the 3D model and find a 10-km-long NE-SW alignment with a depth between 7 and 16 km. In 2012 and 2013, three other moderate-size events (ML 3.8, 4 and 4.5) occurred and confirm that this zone is still active. The epicentral area is located in the oceanic domain of the Ligurian Basin. From analysis of the bathymetry and high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles, no morphologic anomaly at surface and no inherited fault in the shallow ~ 4 km depth were imaged, which suggest that no significant deformation occurred in the area since 5 Ma. Thus, the structure(s) activated during the 2011-2013 sequence remain unknown. In light of these results, we point out a notable difference on both sides of the Ligurian Basin: the northern margin, close to the alpine chain, suffered strong earthquakes and large cumulated deformation since 5 Ma, while the southern margin, close to the Corsica-Sardinia continental block, is poorly deformed since 5 Ma.

  8. Locally constrained active contour: a region-based level set for ovarian cancer metastasis segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianfei; Yao, Jianhua; Wang, Shijun; Linguraru, Marius George; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate segmentation of ovarian cancer metastases is clinically useful to evaluate tumor growth and determine follow-up treatment. We present a region-based level set algorithm with localization constraints to segment ovarian cancer metastases. Our approach is established on a representative region-based level set, Chan-Vese model, in which an active contour is driven by region competition. To reduce over-segmentation, we constrain the level set propagation within a narrow image band by embedding a dynamic localization function. The metastasis intensity prior is also estimated from image regions within the level set initialization. The localization function and intensity prior force the level set to stop at the desired metastasis boundaries. Our approach was validated on 19 ovarian cancer metastases with radiologist-labeled ground-truth on contrast-enhanced CT scans from 15 patients. The comparison between our algorithm and geodesic active contour indicated that the volume overlap was 75+/-10% vs. 56+/-6%, the Dice coefficient was 83+/-8% vs. 63+/-8%, and the average surface distance was 2.2+/-0.6mm vs. 4.4+/-0.9mm. Experimental results demonstrated that our algorithm outperformed traditional level set algorithms.

  9. Apathy is related to reduced activation in cognitive control regions during set-shifting.

    PubMed

    Klaasen, Nicky G; Kos, Claire; Aleman, André; Opmeer, Esther M

    2017-03-03

    Apathy is a prominent and influential symptom in several neurological and psychiatric disorders, but it also occurs in the healthy population. It has considerable impact on daily life functioning, in clinical as well as healthy samples. Even though cognitive control is thought to be disrupted in people with apathy, the exact neural underpinnings of apathy remain unclear. Because flexible shifting between behaviors (set-shifting) is crucial for goal-directed behavior, disruptions in set-shifting may underlie apathy. In this study, the neural correlates of apathy during set-shifting were studied in 34 healthy participants with varying levels of apathy, measured by the Apathy Evaluation Scale. During functional MRI scanning participants performed a set-shifting task, distinguishing between behavioral switches (a change in response to different stimuli), cognitive switches (a change in response rule), and salience decoupling (detecting a change in relevant stimuli). Regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between apathy and brain activation. Results showed that higher apathy scores were related to reduced activation in the medial superior frontal gyrus and cerebellum (Crus I/II) during cognitive set-shifting, but not behavioral shifting and salience decoupling. No relationship between apathy and accuracy or response time was found. These results support the idea that alterations in the neural basis of cognitive control, especially cognitive set-shifting, may contribute to apathy. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dose Relations between Goal Setting, Theory-Based Correlates of Goal Setting and Increases in Physical Activity during a Workplace Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Motl, Robert W.; Wilson, Mark G.; DeJoy, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A…

  11. Cold seep epifaunal communities on the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand: composition, succession, and vulnerability to human activities.

    PubMed

    Bowden, David A; Rowden, Ashley A; Thurber, Andrew R; Baco, Amy R; Levin, Lisa A; Smith, Craig R

    2013-01-01

    Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna.

  12. Cold Seep Epifaunal Communities on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand: Composition, Succession, and Vulnerability to Human Activities

    PubMed Central

    Bowden, David A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Thurber, Andrew R.; Baco, Amy R.; Levin, Lisa A.; Smith, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna. PMID:24204691

  13. Dose relations between goal setting, theory-based correlates of goal setting and increases in physical activity during a workplace trial.

    PubMed

    Dishman, Rod K; Vandenberg, Robert J; Motl, Robert W; Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M

    2010-08-01

    The effectiveness of an intervention depends on its dose and on moderators of dose, which usually are not studied. The purpose of the study is to determine whether goal setting and theory-based moderators of goal setting had dose relations with increases in goal-related physical activity during a successful workplace intervention. A group-randomized 12-week intervention that included personal goal setting was implemented in fall 2005, with a multiracial/ethnic sample of employees at 16 geographically diverse worksites. Here, we examined dose-related variables in the cohort of participants (N = 664) from the 8 worksites randomized to the intervention. Participants in the intervention exceeded 9000 daily pedometer steps and 300 weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the last 6 weeks of the study, which approximated or exceeded current public health guidelines. Linear growth modeling indicated that participants who set higher goals and sustained higher levels of self-efficacy, commitment and intention about attaining their goals had greater increases in pedometer steps and MVPA. The relation between change in participants' satisfaction with current physical activity and increases in physical activity was mediated by increases in self-set goals. The results show a dose relation of increased physical activity with changes in goal setting, satisfaction, self-efficacy, commitment and intention, consistent with goal-setting theory.

  14. Maximum margin Bayesian network classifiers.

    PubMed

    Pernkopf, Franz; Wohlmayr, Michael; Tschiatschek, Sebastian

    2012-03-01

    We present a maximum margin parameter learning algorithm for Bayesian network classifiers using a conjugate gradient (CG) method for optimization. In contrast to previous approaches, we maintain the normalization constraints on the parameters of the Bayesian network during optimization, i.e., the probabilistic interpretation of the model is not lost. This enables us to handle missing features in discriminatively optimized Bayesian networks. In experiments, we compare the classification performance of maximum margin parameter learning to conditional likelihood and maximum likelihood learning approaches. Discriminative parameter learning significantly outperforms generative maximum likelihood estimation for naive Bayes and tree augmented naive Bayes structures on all considered data sets. Furthermore, maximizing the margin dominates the conditional likelihood approach in terms of classification performance in most cases. We provide results for a recently proposed maximum margin optimization approach based on convex relaxation. While the classification results are highly similar, our CG-based optimization is computationally up to orders of magnitude faster. Margin-optimized Bayesian network classifiers achieve classification performance comparable to support vector machines (SVMs) using fewer parameters. Moreover, we show that unanticipated missing feature values during classification can be easily processed by discriminatively optimized Bayesian network classifiers, a case where discriminative classifiers usually require mechanisms to complete unknown feature values in the data first.

  15. Do You Hear What I Hear? Overweight Children's Perceptions of Different Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Karen; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2011-01-01

    Social-Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1986, 1999) served as the framework to explore overweight children's perceptions of different physical activity settings. Participants were children (n = 67) enrolled in an after-school and summer program for overweight African-American and Hispanic-American children from low-income families. To gain insight into…

  16. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  17. Teachers' Facebook Use: Their Use Habits, Intensity, Self-Disclosure, Privacy Settings, and Activities on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumuer, Evren; Esfer, Sezin; Yildirim, Soner

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated K12 teachers' Facebook usage habits, intensity, self-disclosure, privacy settings and activities. A multi-method design was employed by collecting quantitative data from 616 teachers with a Facebook account using an online questionnaire and qualitative data from 32 teachers using online open-ended questions. The results of…

  18. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booren, Leslie M.; Downer, Jason T.; Vitiello, Virginia E.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. A total of 145 children were observed for an average of 80 min during 8 occasions across 2 days using the Individualized…

  19. School Engagement among Aboriginal Students in Northern Canada: Perspectives From Activity Settings Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Colleen M.; Hawe, Penelope

    2012-01-01

    Background: Educational disengagement is a public health concern among Aboriginal populations in many countries. It has been investigated previously in a variety of ways, with the conventional focus being on the children themselves. Activity settings are events and places, theorized in terms of their symbols, roles, time frame, funds, people, and…

  20. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  1. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  2. 78 FR 1826 - International Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standard-Setting Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the risks associated with fungi moving on wood commodities; and directed a TAG to report advances on... International Plant Protection Convention, and the North American Plant Protection Organization, and we are... specific information regarding the standard-setting activities of the International Plant...

  3. The Potential of Using Virtual Reality Technology in Physical Activity Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasco, Denis

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, virtual reality technology has been successfully used for learning purposes. The purposes of the article are to examine current research on the role of virtual reality in physical activity settings and discuss potential application of using virtual reality technology to enhance learning in physical education. The article starts…

  4. 3D Printing in Instructional Settings: Identifying a Curricular Hierarchy of Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Abbie

    2015-01-01

    A report of a year-long study in which the author engaged in 3D printing activity in order to determine how to facilitate and support skill building, concept attainment, and increased confidence with its use among teachers. Use of 3D printing tools and their applications in instructional settings are discussed. A hierarchy of 3D printing…

  5. Using Computational Chemistry Activities to Promote Learning and Retention in a Secondary School General Chemistry Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochterski, Joseph W.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of using state-of-the-art, research-quality software as a learning tool in a general chemistry secondary school classroom setting. I present three activities designed to introduce fundamental chemical concepts regarding molecular shape and atomic orbitals to students with little background in chemistry, such as…

  6. upSET, the Drosophila homologue of SET3, Is Required for Viability and the Proper Balance of Active and Repressive Chromatin Marks

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Kyle A.; Jung, Youngsook L.; Zee, Barry M.; Wang, Charlotte I.; Park, Peter J.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2017-01-01

    Chromatin plays a critical role in faithful implementation of gene expression programs. Different post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins reflect the underlying state of gene activity, and many chromatin proteins write, erase, bind, or are repelled by, these histone marks. One such protein is UpSET, the Drosophila homolog of yeast Set3 and mammalian KMT2E (MLL5). Here, we show that UpSET is necessary for the proper balance between active and repressed states. Using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing, we generated S2 cells that are mutant for upSET. We found that loss of UpSET is tolerated in S2 cells, but that heterochromatin is misregulated, as evidenced by a strong decrease in H3K9me2 levels assessed by bulk histone PTM quantification. To test whether this finding was consistent in the whole organism, we deleted the upSET coding sequence using CRISPR/Cas-9, which we found to be lethal in both sexes in flies. We were able to rescue this lethality using a tagged upSET transgene, and found that UpSET protein localizes to transcriptional start sites (TSS) of active genes throughout the genome. Misregulated heterochromatin is apparent by suppressed position effect variegation of the wm4 allele in heterozygous upSET-deleted flies. Using nascent-RNA sequencing in the upSET-mutant S2 lines, we show that this result applies to heterochromatin genes generally. Our findings support a critical role for UpSET in maintaining heterochromatin, perhaps by delimiting the active chromatin environment. PMID:28064188

  7. RWM control studies on RFX-mod with a limited set of active coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Liu, Y. Q.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Takechi, M.; Villone, F.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, the results of resistive wall mode (RWM) control experiments using several sets of active coils are presented. The control effectiveness as a function of coil number and covered torus surface is studied in the RFX-mod device, thanks to the powerful and flexible MHD active control system. Active control is tried using similar coil number and size both in the reversed field pinch (RFP) and in the tokamak configurations, giving a good experimental set to exploit the differences between the two cases. The experimental results are compared with predictions by a new integrated simulator for closed loop RWM growth. The numerical tool couples, in a self-consistent way, a full 3D finite element description of the machine boundaries, a 2D toroidal model of RFP plasma stability and a model of the RFX-mod control system, producing an overall dynamic model cast in the state variable space. In this way a full dynamic flight simulator of RWM control experiments is implemented, where coil coverage and experimental proportional-integral-derivative gains are explored in simulations. Both in the performed experiments and in simulations wall mode active control is proven to be possible in both the configurations with a very reduced set of active control coils. .

  8. Integrating cultural community psychology: activity settings and the shared meanings of intersubjectivity.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Clifford R; Tharp, Roland G

    2012-03-01

    Cultural and community psychology share a common emphasis on context, yet their leading journals rarely cite each other's articles. Greater integration of the concepts of culture and community within and across their disciplines would enrich and facilitate the viability of cultural community psychology. The contextual theory of activity settings is proposed as one means to integrate the concepts of culture and community in cultural community psychology. Through shared activities, participants develop common experiences that affect their psychological being, including their cognitions, emotions, and behavioral development. The psychological result of these experiences is intersubjectivity. Culture is defined as the shared meanings that people develop through their common historic, linguistic, social, economic, and political experiences. The shared meanings of culture arise through the intersubjectivity developed in activity settings. Cultural community psychology presents formidable epistemological challenges, but overcoming these challenges could contribute to the transformation and advancement of community psychology.

  9. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed.

  10. Observations of Children's Interactions with Teachers, Peers, and Tasks across Preschool Classroom Activity Settings.

    PubMed

    Booren, Leslie M; Downer, Jason T; Vitiello, Virginia E

    2012-07-01

    This descriptive study examined classroom activity settings in relation to children's observed behavior during classroom interactions, child gender, and basic teacher behavior within the preschool classroom. 145 children were observed for an average of 80 minutes during 8 occasions across 2 days using the inCLASS, an observational measure that conceptualizes behavior into teacher, peer, task, and conflict interactions. Findings indicated that on average children's interactions with teachers were higher in teacher-structured settings, such as large group. On average, children's interactions with peers and tasks were more positive in child-directed settings, such as free choice. Children experienced more conflict during recess and routines/transitions. Finally, gender differences were observed within small group and meals. The implications of these findings might encourage teachers to be thoughtful and intentional about what types of support and resources are provided so children can successfully navigate the demands of particular settings. These findings are not meant to discourage certain teacher behaviors or imply value of certain classroom settings; instead, by providing an evidenced-based picture of the conditions under which children display the most positive interactions, teachers can be more aware of choices within these settings and have a powerful way to assist in professional development and interventions.

  11. [Sinaloa: the geography of marginalization].

    PubMed

    Aguayo Hernandez, J R

    1993-01-01

    Sinaloa's State Population Program for 1993-98 contains the objective of promoting integration of demographic criteria into the planning process. The action program calls for establishing indicators of economic and social inequality so that conditions of poverty and margination can be identified. To further these goals, the State Population Council used data from the National Population Council project on regional inequality and municipal margination in Mexico to analyze margination at the state level. Nine indicators of educational status, housing conditions, spatial distribution, and income provide information that allows the definition of municipios and regions that should receive priority in economic and social development programs. The index of municipal margination (IMM) is a statistical summary of the nine indicators, which are based on information in the 1990 census. As of March 1990, 9.9% of Sinaloa's population over age 15 was illiterate and 37.4% had incomplete primary education. 91.0% had electricity, but 18.7% lacked indoor toilet facilities and 19.4% had no piped water. 23.7% of houses had dirt floors. 60% of households were crowded, defined as having more than two persons per bedroom. 43.5% of the state population lived in localities with fewer than 5000 inhabitants, where service delivery is difficult and costly. 55.6% of the economically active population was judged to earn less than the amount needed to satisfy essential needs. All except one municipio bordering the Pacific ocean had low or very low indicators of margination, while all those in the sierra had a medium or high degree of margination. Sinaloa's statewide IMM was eighteenth among Mexico's 32 federal entities, with Chiapas showing the highest degree of margination and the Federal District the lowest.

  12. Meteorological conditions are associated with physical activities performed in open-air settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suminski, Richard R.; Poston, Walker C.; Market, Patrick; Hyder, Melissa; Sara, Pyle A.

    2008-01-01

    Meteorological conditions (MC) are believed to modify physical activity. However, studies in this area are limited and none have looked at the associations between MC and physical activity in open-air settings. Therefore, we examined the relationships between MC and physical activities performed on sidewalks/streets and outdoor oval tracks. Observation techniques were used to count individuals walking to school, exercising on oval tracks and walking/jogging/biking on sidewalks/streets. Meteorological conditions were obtained from an Automated Surface Observing System located at a nearby airport for the same time periods physical activities were observed. On weekdays, fewer children were seen walking to school and more bicyclists were observed on sidewalks/streets as wind speed increased ( p < 0.05). Ambient and apparent temperatures were positively ( p < 0.05) and humidity and barometric pressure negatively ( p < 0.005) related to the number of individuals walking on the track. Meteorological conditions were not significantly associated with physical activities observed on weekends. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that apparent temperature (+), barometric pressure (-) and dew point (-) accounted for 58.0% of the variance in the number of walkers on the track. A significant proportion of the variance (>30%) in the number of joggers and the length of time they jogged was accounted for by apparent temperature (+) and dew point (-). We found that meteorological conditions are related to physical activity in open-air settings. The results embellish the context in which environmental-physical activity relationships should be interpreted and provide important information for researchers applying the observation method in open-air settings.

  13. Deep Crustal Structure of S-Atlantic Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, K.; Schnabel, M.; Franke, D.; Heyde, I.; Schreckenberger, B.; Koopmann, H.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Trumbull, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure along the southern South Atlantic margins with a focus on the high velocity lower crustal bodies (HVLC). This is a distinct zone at the base of the crust, where seismic P-wave velocities exceed 7.0 km/s and locally reach values up to 7.7 km/s. The study is based on a selected set of refraction seismic lines on conjugate margin segments of Uruguay-Argentina and Namibia-South Africa, acquired during marine geophysical cruises in 2004 and 1998. We performed new P-wave tomography complemented with gravity modeling along two crustal transects, and combine these with previous seismic and gravity models. The results are used to examine the interplay of rifting and magmatism during the evolution of the South Atlantic, what activated the spreading phase and how this is reflected in the distribution of high velocity lower crust. On all sections we observe HVLC, even on a magma poor southernmost section at the western margin. The HVLC varies strongly in shape and size along the margin. From South to North the area of the HVLC on 2D velocity sections increases on both margins. However, the HVLC bodies along the South American margin are much smaller than on the South African margin, possibly indicating asymmetric break up. A striking feature is the distinct seaward shift of the HVLC relative to the seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs). While in the south, the HVLC is situated below the SDRs, towards the north the HVLC formed seaward of the SDRs. From this seaward migration we infer that the formation of HVLC in the magma-rich northern sections may have formed at least partly after rifting and break up.

  14. Assessing submarine gas hydrate at active seeps on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using controlled source electromagnetic data with constraints from seismic, geochemistry, and heatflow data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalenberg, K.; Haeckel, M.; Pecher, I. A.; Toulmin, S. J.; Hamdan, L. J.; Netzeband, G.; Wood, W.; Poort, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Coffin, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Electrical resistivity is one of the key properties useful for evaluating submarine gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrates are electrically insulating in contrast to the conductive pore fluid. Where they form in sufficient quantities the bulk resistivity of the sub-seafloor is elevated. CSEM data were collected in 2007 as part of the German - International “New Vents” project on R/V Sonne, cruise SO191, at three target areas on the Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. The margin is characterized by widespread bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), seep structures, and active methane and fluid venting indicating the potential for gas hydrate formation. Opouawe Bank is one of the ridge and basin systems on the accretionary wedge and is located off the Wairarapa coast at water depths of 1000-1100 m. The first observed seep sites (North Tower, South Tower, Pukeko, Takahe, and Tui) were identified from individual gas flares in hydro-acoustic data and video observations during voyages on R/V Tangaroa. Seismic reflection data collected during SO191 subsequently identified more than 25 new seep structures. Two intersecting CSEM profiles have been surveyed across North Tower, South Tower, and Takahe. 1-D inversion of the data reveals anomalously high resistivities at North Tower and South Tower, moderately elevated resistivities at Takahe, and normal background resistivities away from the seeps. The high resistivities are attributed to gas hydrate layers at intermediate depths beneath the seeps. At South Tower the hydrate concentration could be possibly as much as 25% of the total sediment volume within a 50m thick layer. This conforms with geochemical pore water analyses which show a trend of increased methane flux towards South Tower. At Takahe, gas pockets and patchy gas hydrate, as well as sediment heterogeneities and carbonates, or temperature driven upward fluid flow indicated by the observed higher heat flow at this site may explain the resistivity pattern

  15. Optimizing Surgical Margins in Breast Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Ananthakrishnan, Preya; Balci, Fatih Levent; Crowe, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    Adequate surgical margins in breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer have traditionally been viewed as a predictor of local recurrence rates. There is still no consensus on what constitutes an adequate surgical margin, however it is clear that there is a trade-off between widely clear margins and acceptable cosmesis. Preoperative approaches to plan extent of resection with appropriate margins (in the setting of surgery first as well as after neoadjuvant chemotherapy,) include mammography, US, and MRI. Improvements have been made in preoperative lesion localization strategies for surgery, as well as intraoperative specimen assessment, in order to ensure complete removal of imaging findings and facilitate margin clearance. Intraoperative strategies to accurately assess tumor and cavity margins include cavity shave techniques, as well as novel technologies for margin probes. Ablative techniques, including radiofrequency ablation as well as intraoperative radiation, may be used to extend tumor-free margins without resecting additional tissue. Oncoplastic techniques allow for wider resections while maintaining cosmesis and have acceptable local recurrence rates, however often involve surgery on the contralateral breast. As systemic therapy for breast cancer continues to improve, it is unclear what the importance of surgical margins on local control rates will be in the future. PMID:23304479

  16. The multifaceted West Greenland passive margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuer, Sonja; Damm, Volkmar; Block, Martin; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Heyde, Ingo; Nelson, Catherine; Kouwe, Wim

    2013-04-01

    The Baffin Bay located between Greenland and Canada, is the northward extension of the Labrador Sea. The Davis Strait High separates these two marine basins. The evolution of these basins is closely linked, and is as well affiliated to the opening of the North Atlantic Ocean. The opening history started in the Cretaceous with the formation of several terrestrial rift basins with a block-faulted, metamorphic Precambrian basement. The further opening of the Baffin Bay coincides with the volcanic activity (60.9-52.5 Ma) along the West Greenland margin (Storey et al., 1998). The subsequent seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay is linked to the Labrador Sea by the Ungava Fault Zone (UFZ), which is the most prominent transform fault in this region. Two main problems are still unsolved: 1) There are clear indications for normal seafloor spreading in the Baffin Bay like the seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) on the Canadian side (Skaarup et al., 2006) and on the Greenland side based on our data. On the other hand, associated magnetic spreading anomalies are not yet discovered in the Baffin Bay or are not formed. These findings may either point to slow or ultraslow spreading or underlying strongly extended continental crust and/or serpentinised mantle. 2) The Greenlandic margin is much wider than the Canadian. In addition, a breakup unconformity can only be traced on the Greenland side and is not reported for the Canadian side. Which process causes this asymmetric margin and differences in shelf width? Is it a result of asymmetric spreading or connected to volcanic activity during breakup processes? In summer 2008, a marine geoscientific expedition (MSM09/03) was conducted with the research vessel "Maria S. Merian" in the Davis Strait and southern Baffin Bay. Approximately 1800 km of multichannel reflection seismic data were acquired. To supplement the database, a subsequent marine geoscientific expedition ARK-XXV/3 with RV POLARSTERN in summer 2010 was conducted. In our

  17. Zircon from Mesoproterozoic sediments sheds light on the subduction-collision history at the eastern active continental margin of the Archaean Kalahari-Grunehogna Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschall, H.; Hawkesworth, C. J.; Leat, P. T.; Dhuime, B.; Storey, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Grunehogna Craton (East Antarctica) was a part of the Archean Kalahari Craton of southern Africa prior to Gondwana breakup. Granite from the basement of the craton has been dated by U-Pb zircon dating to 3,067 Ma with inherited grains showing ages of up to 3,433 Ma [1]. At the eastern margin of the craton, the Ahlmannryggen nunataks comprise an ~2000 m thick pile of clastic and volcanic sediments of the Ritscherflya Supergroup. These were sourced from eroding a proximal active continental arc as demonstrated through the age distribution and internal zoning of detrital zircon [2]. Detrital zircon grains from the Ritscherflya Supergroup show an age distribution with a dominant age peak at ~1,130 Ma, i.e., close to the sedimentation age. Older age peaks include those at 1370 Ma, 1725 Ma, 1880 Ma, 2050 Ma, and 2700 Ma. Palaeo- and Mesoarchaean zircon grains (2800-3445 Ma) were also discovered, corresponding to the age of the Kalahari-Grunehogna Craton basement. Most significantly we found a number of inherited Archaean cores in ~1130 Ma zircons. They demonstrate that the volcanic arc was indeed located on Archaean continental crust, rather than in Mesoproterozoic, intra-oceanic island arcs. The age spectrum of the zircons bears strong evidence for (i) derivation of the entire Ritscherflya sediment sequence from an active continental convergent margin; (ii) a cratonic provenance of part of the sediments from population peaks coinciding with major tectono-thermal events in the Kalahari Craton; (iii) at least some of the active volcanism being located on cratonic basement rather than a juvenile island arc. Detrital zircons in the ~1130 Ma age group show several distinct populations in their Hf isotopic compositions. The dominant group shows negative ɛHf values of -11.5 corresponding to a model age (TDM) of ~2700 Ma (average crustal 176Lu/177Hf = 0.015). A smaller group shows ɛHf values of +2 to +6, which may represent mantle-derived subduction-zone volcanism at

  18. Chip, a widely expressed chromosomal protein required for segmentation and activity of a remote wing margin enhancer in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Morcillo, Patrick; Rosen, Christina; Baylies, Mary K.; Dorsett, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The mechanisms allowing remote enhancers to regulate promoters several kilobase pairs away are unknown but are blocked by the Drosophila suppressor of Hairy-wing protein (Suhw) that binds to gypsy retrovirus insertions between enhancers and promoters. Suhw bound to a gypsy insertion in the cut gene also appears to act interchromosomally to antagonize enhancer–promoter interactions on the homologous chromosome when activity of the Chip gene is reduced. This implicates Chip in enhancer–promoter communication. We cloned Chip and find that it encodes a homolog of the recently discovered mouse Nli/Ldb1/Clim-2 and Xenopus Xldb1 proteins that bind nuclear LIM domain proteins. Chip protein interacts with the LIM domains in the Apterous homeodomain protein, and Chip interacts genetically with apterous, showing that these interactions are important for Apterous function in vivo. Importantly, Chip also appears to have broad functions beyond interactions with LIM domain proteins. Chip is present in all nuclei examined and at numerous sites along the salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Embryos without Chip activity lack segments and show abnormal gap and pair–rule gene expression, although no LIM domain proteins are known to regulate segmentation. We conclude that Chip is a ubiquitous chromosomal factor required for normal expression of diverse genes at many stages of development. We suggest that Chip cooperates with different LIM domain proteins and other factors to structurally support remote enhancer–promoter interactions. PMID:9334334

  19. [Marginalization and health. Introduction].

    PubMed

    Yunes, J

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between marginalization and health is clear. In Mexico, for example, life expectancy is 53 years for the poorest population sectors and 20 years more for the wealthiest. Infant mortality in poor Colombian families is twice that of wealthier families, and one-third of developing countries the rural population is only half as likely as the urban to have access to health services. Women in the Southern hemisphere are 12 times likelier than those in the Northern to die of maternal causes. The most important step in arriving at a solution to the inequity may be to analyze in depth the relationship between marginality and health. Marginality may be defined as the lack of participation of individuals or groups in certain key phases of societal life, such as production, consumption, or political decision making. Marginality came to be viewed as a social problem only with recognition of the rights of all individuals to participate in available social goods. Marginality is always relative, and marginal groups exist because central groups determine the criteria for inclusion in the marginal and central groups. Marginality thus always refers to a concrete society at a specific historical moment. Marginal groups may be of various types. At present, marginal groups include women, rural populations, people with AIDS or mental illness or certain other health conditions, refugees, ethnic or religious groups, homosexuals, and the poor, who are the largest group of marginal persons in the world. Even in developed countries, 100-200 million persons live below the poverty line. Latin America is struggling to emerge from its marginal status in the world. The economic crisis of the 1980s increased poverty in the region, and 40% are not considered impoverished. Latin America is a clear example of the relationship between marginality and health. Its epidemiologic profile is intimately related to nutrition, availability of potable water, housing, and environmental

  20. Optimization of wavelengths sets for multispectral reflectance imaging of rat olfactory bulb activation in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Rémi; Bendahmane, Mounir; Chery, Romain; Martin, Claire; Gurden, Hirac; Pain, Frederic

    2012-06-01

    Wide field multispectral imaging of light backscattered by brain tissues provides maps of hemodynamics changes (total blood volume and oxygenation) following activation. This technique relies on the fit of the reflectance images obtain at two or more wavelengths using a modified Beer-Lambert law1,2. It has been successfully applied to study the activation of several sensory cortices in the anesthetized rodent using visible light1-5. We have carried out recently the first multispectral imaging in the olfactory bulb6 (OB) of anesthetized rats. However, the optimization of wavelengths choice has not been discussed in terms of cross talk and uniqueness of the estimated parameters (blood volume and saturation maps) although this point was shown to be crucial for similar studies in Diffuse Optical Imaging in humans7-10. We have studied theoretically and experimentally the optimal sets of wavelength for multispectral imaging of rodent brain activation in the visible. Sets of optimal wavelengths have been identified and validated in vivo for multispectral imaging of the OB of rats following odor stimulus. We studied the influence of the wavelengths sets on the magnitude and time courses of the oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentration variations as well as on the spatial extent of activated brain areas following stimulation. Beyond the estimation of hemodynamic parameters from multispectral reflectance data, we observed repeatedly and for all wavelengths a decrease of light reflectance. For wavelengths longer than 590 nm, these observations differ from those observed in the somatosensory and barrel cortex and question the basis of the reflectance changes during activation in the OB. To solve this issue, Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) have been carried out to assess the relative contribution of absorption, scattering and anisotropy changes to the intrinsic optical imaging signals in somatosensory cortex (SsC) and OB model.

  1. Influence of Goal Setting on Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Endurance in Low-Income Children Enrolled in CSPAP Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Ryan D.; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Fu, You

    2017-01-01

    Background: Comprehensive school physical activity programming (CSPAP) has been shown to increase school day physical activity and health-related fitness. The use of goal setting may further enhance the outcomes of CSPAP. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of physical activity leader (PAL) goal setting on school day…

  2. Physical activity and healthy eating environmental audit tools in youth care settings: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ajja, Rahma; Beets, Michael W.; Chandler, Jessica; Kaczynski, Andrew T.; Ward, Dianne S.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in evaluating the physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) policy and practice environment characteristics in settings frequented by youth (≤18 years). Objective This review evaluates the measurement properties of audit tools designed to assess PA and HE policy and practice environmental characteristics in settings that care for youth (e.g., childcare, school, afterschool, summer camp). Method Three electronic databases, reference lists, educational department and national health organizations’ web pages were searched between January 1980 and February 2014 to identify tools assessing PA and/or HE policy and practice environments in settings that care for youth (≤18 years). Results Sixty-five audit tools were identified of which 53 individual tools met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-three tools assessed both the PA and HE domains, 6 assessed PA domain and 14 assessed HE domain solely. The majority of the tools were self-assessment tools (n=40), and were developed to assess the PA and/or HE environment in school settings (n=33), childcare (n=12), and afterschool programs (n=4). Four tools assessed the community at-large and had sections for assessing preschool, school and/or afterschool settings within the tool. The majority of audit tools lacked validity and/or reliability data (n=42). Inter-rater reliability and construct validity were the most frequently reported reliability (n= 7) and validity types (n=5). Conclusions Limited attention has been given to establishing the reliability and validity of audit tools for settings that care for youth. Future efforts should be directed towards establishing a strong measurement foundation for these important environmental audit tools. PMID:25964078

  3. Images of The Active Chilean Margin From New Marine Geophysical Data Between 28 Deg S and 44 Deg S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberger, B.; Spoc Scientific Shipboard Party (Leg 2+3), The

    Within the scope of the multi-disciplinary SPOC project (Subduction Processes Off Chile) some 8.700 km were recently acquired using marine magnetic, gravity and swath bathymetric methods whereof 5.200 km were surveyed with multi-channel seismics, including three seismic lines with simultaneous onshore observations. The goal of the project is to identify the variety of subduction features and accompany- ing conditions along the Central Chile segment of the collision zone between the Nazca and S-American plates, i.e. between Coquimbo and Valdivia. An additional line was achieved just south of Chiloe Island entering the submerged Central Valley. The oceanic crust of the Nazca Plate shows at least three sets of structural trends as- sociated with the Mocha and Valdivia Fractures Zones, the spreading lineations and subduction related horst and graben structures. In the study area the trench is filled with well stratified turbidites up to 2 seconds TWT thick. Along the trench axis a tur- bidite channel exceeding 80 m relief exists. Several large deep sea fan complexes are developed at the slope toe. Their distributary canyons cut deep into the slope and shelf and can be traced back to major river mouths. The deformation front is coincident with the slope toe; compressional structures of the trench fill are uncommon. The de- formation front is curved and offset along strike, caused presumably by collision and indentation of structures of the Nazca Plate. The most remarkable features of the MCS - profiles, yet, are the only very rudimentary developed modern accretionary prism as well as the high variability of the lower slope angles. Lower slope angles locally ex- ceed 10. The continental crust extends seawards to the middle slope and acts as a backstop. Several profiles reveal landward dipping reflectors above the downgoing slab, possibly depicting a subduction channel beneath the slope. Thus, the geometry of the subduction units U a young thick trench fill, only

  4. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  5. Clinical activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory marginal zone B-cell lymphomas: results of a phase II study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Annarita; Raderer, Markus; Franceschetti, Silvia; Devizzi, Liliana; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Magagnoli, Massimo; Arcaini, Luca; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Martinelli, Giovanni; Vitolo, Umberto; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Porro, Elena; Stathis, Anastasios; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group coordinated a phase II trial to evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus in marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs). Thirty patients with relapsed/refractory MZLs received everolimus for six cycles or until dose-limiting toxicity or progression. Median age was 71 years (range, 51-88 years). Twenty patients had extranodal, six splenic, four nodal MZL. Twenty-four patients had stage III-IV. Median number of prior therapies was two (range 1-5). Seventeen patients had early treatment discontinuation, in most cases due to toxicity. Median number of cycles was 4.5 (range, 1-16). Among the 24 assessable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (95% confidence interval: 10-47). Grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (17% of patients, each), infections (17%), mucositis and odontogenic infections (13%) and lung toxicity (3%). The median response duration was 6.8 months (range, 1.4-11.1+). After a median follow-up of 14.5 months, five deaths were reported: four deaths were due to lymphoma, one was due to toxicity. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the projected median progression-free survival was 14 months. The moderate antitumour activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory MZLs and the observed toxicity limit its therapeutical applicability in these indolent entities. Lower doses of the drug and, perhaps, different strategies including combination with additional agents need to be explored.

  6. TsAg5, a Taenia solium cysticercus protein with a marginal trypsin-like activity in the diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Analiz; Sifuentes, Cecilia; Gilman, Robert H; Gutiérrez, Andrés H; Piña, Ruby; Chile, Nancy; Carrasco, Sebastián; Larson, Sandra; Mayta, Holger; Verástegui, Manuela; Rodriguez, Silvia; Gutiérrez-Correa, Marcel; García, Héctor H; Sheen, Patricia; Zimic, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is an endemic parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium larva. Although the mechanism of infection is not completely understood, it is likely driven by proteolytic activity that degrades the intestinal wall to facilitate oncosphere penetration and further infection. We analyzed the publicly available T. solium EST/DNA library and identified two contigs comprising a full-length cDNA fragment very similar to Echinococcus granulosus Ag5 protein. The T. solium cDNA sequence included a proteolytic trypsin-like-domain in the C-terminal region, and a thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain in the N-terminal region. Both the trypsin-like and adherence domains were expressed independently as recombinant proteins in bacterial systems. TsAg5 showed marginal trypsin-like activity and high sequence similarity to Ag5. The purified antigens were tested in a Western immunoblot assay to diagnose human neurocysticercosis. The sensitivity of the trypsin-like-domain was 96.36% in patients infected with extraparenchymal cysts, 75.44% in patients infected with multiple cysts, and 39.62% in patients with a single cyst. Specificity was 76.70%. The thrombospondin type-1 adherence-domain was not specific for neurocysticercosis.

  7. Active contour segmentation using level set function with enhanced image from prior intensity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunhee; Kim, Youngjun; Lee, Deukhee; Park, Sehyung

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new active contour segmentation model using a level set function that can correctly capture both the strong and the weak boundaries of a target enclosed by bright and dark regions at the same time. We introduce an enhanced image obtained from prior information about the intensity of the target. The enhanced image emphasizes the regions where pixels have intensities close to the prior intensity. This enables a desirable segmentation of an image having a partially low contrast with the target surrounded by regions that are brighter or darker than the target. We define an edge indicator function on an original image, and local and regularization forces on an enhanced image. An edge indicator function and two forces are incorporated in order to identify the strong and weak boundaries, respectively. We established an evolution equation of contours in the level set formulation and experimented with several medical images to show the performance of the proposed method.

  8. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Stigell, Erik; Schantz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 231–389) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. PMID:26690193

  9. Incremental Formation of Dolomitic Vein Related To The Uzer Growth Fault Activity (ardeche Margin, Mesozoic Subalpine Basin of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léost, I.; Ramboz, C.

    In order to document mass transfers in the Pb-Zn mineralized Ardèche passive mar- gin, two boreholes were drilled 1.2km apart from the Uzer growth fault which marks a limit between the continental plateform and the basin. The synsedimentary activity of the fault from Early Liassic to Bathonian results in a vertical downthrown of 1km to the SE. The basis of the Balazuc borehole core section (BA1, 1730-deep) is highly fracturated which testifies of the fault vicinity (from -1620m to -1730m). At BA1, middle Triassic beds lie unconformably on the Carboniferous rocks at -1669m. In up- per Paleozoic levels and Triassic levels, dolomitic microveins corresponding to either crack-seal, en echelon-cracks or tension gashes, suggest periodically high fluid pres- sure events. We have particularly studied dolomite around -1626m and 1620m major fractures. Most of the dolomite crystals, either in a shaly cement or in microveins, are optically zoned, due to fluid inclusions, matrix impureties and/or Fe-Mn rich bands. The core of crystals from cements are Mg-rich and fluid inclusion poor. The inner part of crystals from veins is locally Fe-rich and with numerous randomly distributed fluid inclusions, and magnesian and fluid inclusion free elsewhere. The outer part of vein and cement crystals are Fe-enriched (type saddle dolomite) and rich in fluid in- clusions underlining the growth zones. At levels -1624m, -1594m and -1581m, fluid inclusions from vein cores yield rather grouped Tmi and Th values (-22.6

  10. Exploring Daily Physical Activity and Nutrition Patterns in Early Learning Settings: Snapshots of Young Children in Head Start, Primary, and After-School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stegelin, Dolores A.; Anderson, Denise; Kemper, Karen; Wagner, Jennifer; Evans, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to gain a greater understanding of daily routines of 4-7 year olds regarding physical activity and nutrition practices in typical early learning environments. The settings selected for this observational study included Head Start, primary, and after-school learning environments in a city in the southeast.…

  11. Negative role of TAK1 in marginal zone B-cell development incidental to NF-κB noncanonical pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Hisaaki; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is crucial in B-cell physiology. One key molecule regulating this pathway is the serine/threonine kinase TAK1 (MAP3K7). TAK1 is responsible for positive feedback mechanisms in B-cell receptor signaling that serve as an NF-κB activation threshold. This study aimed to better understand the correlation between TAK1-mediated signaling and B-cell development and humoral immune responses. Here we showed that a B-cell conditional deletion of TAK1 using mb1-cre resulted in a dramatic elimination of the humoral immune response, consistent with the absence of the B-1 B-cell subset. When monitoring the self-reactive B-cell system (the immunoglobulin hen egg lysozyme/soluble hen egg lysozyme double-transgenic mouse model), we found that TAK1-deficient B cells exhibited an enhanced susceptibility to cell death that might explain the disappearance of the B1 subset. In contrast, these mice gained numerous marginal zone (MZ) B cells. We consequently examined the basal and B-cell receptor-induced activity of NF-κB2 that is reported to regulate MZ B-cell development, and demonstrated that the activity of NF-κB2 increased in TAK1-deficient B cells. Thus, our results present a novel in vivo function, the negative role of TAK1 in MZ B-cell development that is likely associated with NF-κB2 activation. PMID:27121163

  12. A role for set in the control of automatic spatial response activation.

    PubMed

    Risko, Evan F; Besner, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Spatial stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility effects are widely assumed to reflect the automatic activation of a spatial response by the spatial attributes of a stimulus. The experiments reported here investigate the role of the participant's set in enabling or interacting with this putatively automatic spatial response activation. Participants performed a color discrimination task (Experiment 1) or a localization task (Experiment 2). In each experiment, two different S-R mappings were used and a task-cue indicated the appropriate mapping on each trial. S-R compatibility and the time between the task-cue and target were manipulated, and compatibility effects were assessed as a function of (a) the time between the task-cue and the stimulus, and (b) whether the S-R mapping repeated or switched on consecutive trials. Critically, whether response mappings repeated or switched on consecutive trials determined the relation between compatibility effects and the time between task-cue and stimulus. These results are discussed in terms of an interaction between automatic spatial response activation and the participant's set.

  13. On the Relationship between Variational Level Set-Based and SOM-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsamea, Mohammed M.; Gnecco, Giorgio; Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Elyan, Eyad

    2015-01-01

    Most Active Contour Models (ACMs) deal with the image segmentation problem as a functional optimization problem, as they work on dividing an image into several regions by optimizing a suitable functional. Among ACMs, variational level set methods have been used to build an active contour with the aim of modeling arbitrarily complex shapes. Moreover, they can handle also topological changes of the contours. Self-Organizing Maps (SOMs) have attracted the attention of many computer vision scientists, particularly in modeling an active contour based on the idea of utilizing the prototypes (weights) of a SOM to control the evolution of the contour. SOM-based models have been proposed in general with the aim of exploiting the specific ability of SOMs to learn the edge-map information via their topology preservation property and overcoming some drawbacks of other ACMs, such as trapping into local minima of the image energy functional to be minimized in such models. In this survey, we illustrate the main concepts of variational level set-based ACMs, SOM-based ACMs, and their relationship and review in a comprehensive fashion the development of their state-of-the-art models from a machine learning perspective, with a focus on their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:25960736

  14. Selection of appropriate tumour data sets for Benchmark Dose Modelling (BMD) and derivation of a Margin of Exposure (MoE) for substances that are genotoxic and carcinogenic: considerations of biological relevance of tumour type, data quality and uncertainty assessment.

    PubMed

    Edler, Lutz; Hart, Andy; Greaves, Peter; Carthew, Philip; Coulet, Myriam; Boobis, Alan; Williams, Gary M; Smith, Benjamin

    2014-08-01

    This article addresses a number of concepts related to the selection and modelling of carcinogenicity data for the calculation of a Margin of Exposure. It follows up on the recommendations put forward by the International Life Sciences Institute - European branch in 2010 on the application of the Margin of Exposure (MoE) approach to substances in food that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. The aims are to provide practical guidance on the relevance of animal tumour data for human carcinogenic hazard assessment, appropriate selection of tumour data for Benchmark Dose Modelling, and approaches for dealing with the uncertainty associated with the selection of data for modelling and, consequently, the derived Point of Departure (PoD) used to calculate the MoE. Although the concepts outlined in this article are interrelated, the background expertise needed to address each topic varies. For instance, the expertise needed to make a judgement on biological relevance of a specific tumour type is clearly different to that needed to determine the statistical uncertainty around the data used for modelling a benchmark dose. As such, each topic is dealt with separately to allow those with specialised knowledge to target key areas of guidance and provide a more in-depth discussion on each subject for those new to the concept of the Margin of Exposure approach.

  15. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy) is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS) of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8) per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39) at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2%) and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16) minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher completion rate and better

  16. Marginalization in Random Nonlinear Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudeva Raju, Rajkumar; Pitkow, Xaq

    2015-03-01

    Computations involved in tasks like causal reasoning in the brain require a type of probabilistic inference known as marginalization. Marginalization corresponds to averaging over irrelevant variables to obtain the probability of the variables of interest. This is a fundamental operation that arises whenever input stimuli depend on several variables, but only some are task-relevant. Animals often exhibit behavior consistent with marginalizing over some variables, but the neural substrate of this computation is unknown. It has been previously shown (Beck et al. 2011) that marginalization can be performed optimally by a deterministic nonlinear network that implements a quadratic interaction of neural activity with divisive normalization. We show that a simpler network can perform essentially the same computation. These Random Nonlinear Networks (RNN) are feedforward networks with one hidden layer, sigmoidal activation functions, and normally-distributed weights connecting the input and hidden layers. We train the output weights connecting the hidden units to an output population, such that the output model accurately represents a desired marginal probability distribution without significant information loss compared to optimal marginalization. Simulations for the case of linear coordinate transformations show that the RNN model has good marginalization performance, except for highly uncertain inputs that have low amplitude population responses. Behavioral experiments, based on these results, could then be used to identify if this model does indeed explain how the brain performs marginalization.

  17. Everyday science & science every day: Science-related talk & activities across settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Heather

    To understand the development of science-related thinking, acting, and learning in middle childhood, I studied youth in schools, homes, and other neighborhood settings over a three-year period. The research goal was to analyze how multiple everyday experiences influence children's participation in science-related practices and their thinking about science and scientists. Ethnographic and interaction analysis methodologies were to study the cognition and social interactions of the children as they participated in activities with peers, family, and teachers (n=128). Interviews and participant self-documentation protocols elucidated the participants' understandings of science. An Everyday Expertise (Bell et al., 2006) theoretical framework was employed to study the development of science understandings on three analytical planes: individual learner, social groups, and societal/community resources. Findings came from a cross-case analysis of urban science learners and from two within-case analyses of girls' science-related practices as they transitioned from elementary to middle school. Results included: (1) children participated actively in science across settings---including in their homes as well as in schools, (2) children's interests in science were not always aligned to the school science content, pedagogy, or school structures for participation, yet children found ways to engage with science despite these differences through crafting multiple pathways into science, (3) urban parents were active supporters of STEM-related learning environments through brokering access to social and material resources, (4) the youth often found science in their daily activities that formal education did not make use of, and (5) children's involvement with science-related practices can be developed into design principles to reach youth in culturally relevant ways.

  18. Automatic selection of the active electrode set for image-guided cochlear implant programming.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Dawant, Benoit M; Noble, Jack H

    2016-07-01

    Cochlear implants (CIs) are neural prostheses that restore hearing by stimulating auditory nerve pathways within the cochlea using an implanted electrode array. Research has shown when multiple electrodes stimulate the same nerve pathways, competing stimulation occurs and hearing outcomes decline. Recent clinical studies have indicated that hearing outcomes can be significantly improved by using an image-guided active electrode set selection technique we have designed, in which electrodes that cause competing stimulation are identified and deactivated. In tests done to date, an expert is needed to perform the electrode selection step with the assistance of a method to visualize the spatial relationship between electrodes and neural sites determined using image analysis techniques. We propose to automate the electrode selection step by optimizing a cost function that captures the heuristics used by the expert. Further, we propose an approach to estimate the values of parameters used in the cost function using an existing database of expert electrode selections. We test this method with different electrode array models from three manufacturers. Our automatic approach generates acceptable active electrode sets in 98.3% of the subjects tested. This approach represents a crucial step toward clinical translation of our image-guided CI programming system.

  19. Ocean margins workshop

    SciTech Connect

    1990-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is announcing the refocusing of its marine research program to emphasize the study of ocean margins and their role in modulating, controlling, and driving Global Change phenomena. This is a proposal to conduct a workshop that will establish priorities and an implementation plan for a new research initiative by the Department of Energy on the ocean margins. The workshop will be attended by about 70 scientists who specialize in ocean margin research. The workshop will be held in the Norfolk, Virginia area in late June 1990.

  20. The interplay between neuronal activity and actin dynamics mimic the setting of an LTD synaptic tag

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, Eszter C.; Manguinhas, Rita; Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-01-01

    Persistent forms of plasticity, such as long-term depression (LTD), are dependent on the interplay between activity-dependent synaptic tags and the capture of plasticity-related proteins. We propose that the synaptic tag represents a structural alteration that turns synapses permissive to change. We found that modulation of actin dynamics has different roles in the induction and maintenance of LTD. Inhibition of either actin depolymerisation or polymerization blocks LTD induction whereas only the inhibition of actin depolymerisation blocks LTD maintenance. Interestingly, we found that actin depolymerisation and CaMKII activation are involved in LTD synaptic-tagging and capture. Moreover, inhibition of actin polymerisation mimics the setting of a synaptic tag, in an activity-dependent manner, allowing the expression of LTD in non-stimulated synapses. Suspending synaptic activation also restricts the time window of synaptic capture, which can be restored by inhibiting actin polymerization. Our results support our hypothesis that modulation of the actin cytoskeleton provides an input-specific signal for synaptic protein capture. PMID:27650071

  1. Ready--Set--Read (For Families): Early Childhood Language Activities for Children from Birth through Age Five. America Reads Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for National Service.

    This Ready--Set--Read Kit includes an activity guide for families, a 1997-98 early childhood activity calendar, and an early childhood growth wallchart. The activity guide part of the kit presents activities and ideas that families (adults who have nurturing relationships with a child--a mother, father, grandparent, other relative, or close…

  2. Late Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentation and hydrocarbon seeps on the continental shelf of a steep, tectonically active margin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Lorenson, T.D.; Ryan, Holly F.; Wong, Florence L.; Sliter, Ray W.; Conrad, James E.

    2009-01-01

    Small, steep, uplifting coastal watersheds are prolific sediment producers that contribute significantly to the global marine sediment budget. This study illustrates how sedimentation evolves in one such system where the continental shelf is largely sediment-starved, with most terrestrial sediment bypassing the shelf in favor of deposition in deeper basins. The Santa Barbara-Ventura coast of southern California, USA, is considered a classic area for the study of active tectonics and of Tertiary and Quaternary climatic evolution, interpretations of which depend upon an understanding of sedimentation patterns. High-resolution seismic-reflection data over >570 km2 of this shelf show that sediment production is concentrated in a few drainage basins, with the Ventura and Santa Clara River deltas containing most of the upper Pleistocene to Holocene sediment on the shelf. Away from those deltas, the major factor controlling shelf sedimentation is the interaction of wave energy with coastline geometry. Depocenters containing sediment 5-20 m thick exist opposite broad coastal embayments, whereas relict material (bedrock below a regional unconformity) is exposed at the sea floor in areas of the shelf opposite coastal headlands. Locally, natural hydrocarbon seeps interact with sediment deposition either to produce elevated tar-and-sediment mounds or as gas plumes that hinder sediment settling. As much as 80% of fluvial sediment delivered by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers is transported off the shelf (some into the Santa Barbara Basin and some into the Santa Monica Basin via Hueneme Canyon), leaving a shelf with relatively little recent sediment accumulation. Understanding factors that control large-scale sediment dispersal along a rapidly uplifting coast that produces substantial quantities of sediment has implications for interpreting the ancient stratigraphic record of active and transform continental margins, and for inferring the distribution of hydrocarbon resources

  3. Robust Flutter Margin Analysis that Incorporates Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Martin J.

    1998-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, mu, computes a stability margin that directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The mu margins are robust margins that indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  4. Histone H4 Lys 20 methyltransferase SET8 promotes androgen receptor-mediated transcription activation in prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Lushuai; Li, Yanyan; Du, Fengxia; Han, Xiao; Li, Xiaohua; Niu, Yuanjie; Ren, Shancheng; Sun, Yingli

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Dihydrotestosterone stimulates H4K20me1 enrichment at the PSA promoter. • SET8 promotes AR-mediated transcription activation. • SET8 interacts with AR and promotes cell proliferation. - Abstract: Histone methylation status in different lysine residues has an important role in transcription regulation. The effect of H4K20 monomethylation (H4K20me1) on androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene transcription remains unclear. Here we show that AR agonist stimulates the enrichment of H4K20me1 and SET8 at the promoter of AR target gene PSA in an AR dependent manner. Furthermore, SET8 is crucial for the transcription activation of PSA. Co-immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that SET8 interacts with AR. Therefore, we conclude that SET8 is involved in AR-mediated transcription activation, possibly through its interaction with AR and H4K20me1 modification.

  5. Gene-set activity toolbox (GAT): A platform for microarray-based cancer diagnosis using an integrative gene-set analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Engchuan, Worrawat; Meechai, Asawin; Tongsima, Sissades; Doungpan, Narumol; Chan, Jonathan H

    2016-08-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that cannot be diagnosed reliably using only single gene expression analysis. Using gene-set analysis on high throughput gene expression profiling controlled by various environmental factors is a commonly adopted technique used by the cancer research community. This work develops a comprehensive gene expression analysis tool (gene-set activity toolbox: (GAT)) that is implemented with data retriever, traditional data pre-processing, several gene-set analysis methods, network visualization and data mining tools. The gene-set analysis methods are used to identify subsets of phenotype-relevant genes that will be used to build a classification model. To evaluate GAT performance, we performed a cross-dataset validation study on three common cancers namely colorectal, breast and lung cancers. The results show that GAT can be used to build a reasonable disease diagnostic model and the predicted markers have biological relevance. GAT can be accessed from http://gat.sit.kmutt.ac.th where GAT's java library for gene-set analysis, simple classification and a database with three cancer benchmark datasets can be downloaded.

  6. Shared investment projects and forecasting errors: setting framework conditions for coordination and sequencing data quality activities.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Stephan; Brauneis, Alexander; Rausch, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of inaccurate forecasting on the coordination of distributed investment decisions. In particular, by setting up a computational multi-agent model of a stylized firm, we investigate the case of investment opportunities that are mutually carried out by organizational departments. The forecasts of concern pertain to the initial amount of money necessary to launch and operate an investment opportunity, to the expected intertemporal distribution of cash flows, and the departments' efficiency in operating the investment opportunity at hand. We propose a budget allocation mechanism for coordinating such distributed decisions The paper provides guidance on how to set framework conditions, in terms of the number of investment opportunities considered in one round of funding and the number of departments operating one investment opportunity, so that the coordination mechanism is highly robust to forecasting errors. Furthermore, we show that-in some setups-a certain extent of misforecasting is desirable from the firm's point of view as it supports the achievement of the corporate objective of value maximization. We then address the question of how to improve forecasting quality in the best possible way, and provide policy advice on how to sequence activities for improving forecasting quality so that the robustness of the coordination mechanism to errors increases in the best possible way. At the same time, we show that wrong decisions regarding the sequencing can lead to a decrease in robustness. Finally, we conduct a comprehensive sensitivity analysis and prove that-in particular for relatively good forecasters-most of our results are robust to changes in setting the parameters of our multi-agent simulation model.

  7. Continental margin tectonics - Forearc processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, N.; Reed, D.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies of convergent plate margins and the structural development of forearc terranes are summarized in a critical review of U.S. research from the period 1987-1990. Topics addressed include the geometry of accretionary prisms (Coulomb wedge taper and vertical motion in response to tectonic processes), offscraping vs underplating or subduction, the response to oblique convergence, fluids in forearc settings, the thermal framework and the effects of fluid advection, and serpentinite seamounts. Also included is a comprehensive bibliography for the period.

  8. Assessment of tremor activity in the Parkinson's disease using a set of wearable sensors.

    PubMed

    Rigas, George; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsipouras, Markos G; Bougia, Panagiota; Tripoliti, Evanthia E; Baga, Dina; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Tsouli, Sofia G; Konitsiotis, Spyridon

    2012-05-01

    Tremor is the most common motor disorder of Parkinson's disease (PD) and consequently its detection plays a crucial role in the management and treatment of PD patients. The current diagnosis procedure is based on subject-dependent clinical assessment, which has a difficulty in capturing subtle tremor features. In this paper, an automated method for both resting and action/postural tremor assessment is proposed using a set of accelerometers mounted on different patient's body segments. The estimation of tremor type (resting/action postural) and severity is based on features extracted from the acquired signals and hidden Markov models. The method is evaluated using data collected from 23 subjects (18 PD patients and 5 control subjects). The obtained results verified that the proposed method successfully: 1) quantifies tremor severity with 87 % accuracy, 2) discriminates resting from postural tremor, and 3) discriminates tremor from other Parkinsonian motor symptoms during daily activities.

  9. QUANTITATIVE CELL MOTILITY FOR IN VITRO WOUND HEALING USING LEVEL SET-BASED ACTIVE CONTOUR TRACKING.

    PubMed

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit K; Baskin, Tobias I; Dong, Gang

    2006-04-06

    Quantifying the behavior of cells individually, and in clusters as part of a population, under a range of experimental conditions, is a challenging computational task with many biological applications. We propose a versatile algorithm for segmentation and tracking of multiple motile epithelial cells during wound healing using time-lapse video. The segmentation part of the proposed method relies on a level set-based active contour algorithm that robustly handles a large number of cells. The tracking part relies on a detection-based multiple-object tracking method with delayed decision enabled by multi-hypothesis testing. The combined method is robust to complex cell behavior including division and apoptosis, and to imaging artifacts such as illumination changes.

  10. Multiprocessor speed-up, Amdahl's Law, and the Activity Set Model of parallel program behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelenbe, Erol

    1988-01-01

    An important issue in the effective use of parallel processing is the estimation of the speed-up one may expect as a function of the number of processors used. Amdahl's Law has traditionally provided a guideline to this issue, although it appears excessively pessimistic in the light of recent experimental results. In this note, Amdahl's Law is amended by giving a greater importance to the capacity of a program to make effective use of parallel processing, but also recognizing the fact that imbalance of the workload of each processor is bound to occur. An activity set model of parallel program behavior is then introduced along with the corresponding parallelism index of a program, leading to upper and lower bounds to the speed-up.

  11. Structural design/margin assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, R. S.

    1993-01-01

    Determining structural design inputs and the structural margins following design completion is one of the major activities in space exploration. The end result is a statement of these margins as stability, safety factors on ultimate and yield stresses, fracture limits (fracture control), fatigue lifetime, reuse criteria, operational criteria and procedures, stability factors, deflections, clearance, handling criteria, etc. The process is normally called a load cycle and is time consuming, very complex, and involves much more than structures. The key to successful structural design is the proper implementation of the process. It depends on many factors: leadership and management of the process, adequate analysis and testing tools, data basing, communications, people skills, and training. This process and the various factors involved are discussed.

  12. Who are the active players of the Iberian Margin deep biosphere? Microbial diversity of borehole U1385 through analysis of 16S rDNA and rRNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. A.; Orsi, W.; Edgcomb, V. P.; Biddle, J.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community structure and activity in marine deep subsurface environments across the globe have been assayed using various molecular biology tools including 16S rDNA sequencing, microarrays, FISH/CARD-FISH, and metagenomics. Many studies involving these techniques are DNA-based. This limits study of microbial function in these environments as DNA does not degrade as quickly as RNA and may lead to misinterpreting relic microbial genes as important for present-day activity. In this study, the diversity of bacteria and archaea from sediments of the Iberian Margin IODP borehole U1385 was analyzed from bulk extracted DNA and RNA at seven different depths ranging from 10 to 123 meters below seafloor (mbsf). Presented data suggests that the picture of microbial diversity obtained from DNA is markedly different from that seen through analysis of RNA. IODP borehole U1385 offers a great comparison to ODP Site 1229, a well characterized borehole on the Peru Margin. Similar sediment depositional history and geochemistry will allow exploration of what represents a 'typical' continental margin sediment microbial community or if microbial endemism is established despite similar conditions. This study represents the first molecular exploration of sediment microbial communities from the Iberian Margin IODP Site U1385.

  13. Active faulting, mountain growth, and erosion at the margins of the Tibetan Plateau constrained by in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone is a key area for understanding continental plateau formation and mountain building. Two fundamental questions in this context are how the northeastward motion of India is partitioned between strike-slip and thrust faults and how mountain building is counteracted by erosion. Cosmogenic nuclides allow us to address these questions, because they provide age constraints on tectonically offset landforms and constraints on erosion rates. After considerable debate on whether or not major strike-slip faults move at high rates of up to 20-30 mm/yr and absorb most of the continental deformation, it now appears that the three largest faults (Altyn Tagh, Haiyuan, Kunlun) have millennial slip rates of no more than 8-13 mm/yr, consistent with rates of elastic strain accumulation determined by geodetic methods. Furthermore, a significant portion of the lateral slip on these faults is transferred to thrust faults within the collision zone. Both observations indicate that the eastward tectonic escape of material along these faults is less important than often assumed. With respect to mountain building and erosion, cosmogenic nuclide studies show that thrust faults at the northeastern and eastern margins of Tibet (Qilian Shan, Longmen Shan) have vertical slip rates of ~ 0.3 to ~ 2 mm/yr while catchment-wide erosion rates vary from ~ 0.02 to ~ 1.0 mm/yr, with high-relief areas eroding significantly faster than the plateau interior and growing mountains in the foreland. The deeply incised regions have apparently reached an erosional steady-state, in which rock uplift is balanced by erosion. River terraces at active mountain fronts document repeated changes between sediment deposition and fluvial incision. During the Quaternary, incision and terrace formation occurred predominantly at glacial-interglacial transitions but also during interglacial periods. Hence, flights of terraces at the fault-bounded mountain fronts record the interplay between sustained

  14. The Effect of Activity Type on the Engagement and Interaction of Young Children with Disabilities in Inclusive Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Coral; Kishida, Yuriko; Carter, Mark; Sweller, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The engagement and adult and peer interaction of 37 young children with a range of disabilities was measured in free play, group, and meal-routine activities in inclusive childcare settings. A significant effect for activity type was found for total engagement, active engagement, and passive engagement, with the children being more engaged in…

  15. Enhancing the capacity to facilitate physical activity in home-based child care settings.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Patti-Jean; Temple, Viviene A

    2013-01-01

    Healthy Opportunities for Preschoolers (HOP) is a physical activity and movement skill intervention that was developed to address the unique needs of home-based child care providers. The authors used a train-the-trainer approach to enhance local uptake and implementation of HOP and examined the impact on the trainers' (workshop leaders') perceived knowledge, confidence, and intention to implement community workshops and subsequently on the knowledge, confidence, and intentions of workshop participants. This study also assessed feasibility: reach, satisfaction, and facilitators and barriers to workshop implementation. Overall, 92% and 89.5% of the leaders were very or extremely satisfied with the workshop content and delivery, respectively. Training significantly increased their self-reported knowledge (p < .001) and confidence (p < .001). Subsequently, 73% of workshop participants (48 workshops, n = 321) took part in the evaluation; intention to use what they learned after the workshop was high (86%) and perceived knowledge, confidence, and attitude all increased significantly (p < .001). The HOP train-the-trainer approach was feasible and enhanced knowledge, confidence, and readiness to change among home-based child care providers. This approach should be considered as a component of an overall strategy to enhance the promotion of physical activity and movement skills in home-based child care settings.

  16. Coseismic landslides reveal near-surface rock strength in a high-relief tectonically active setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallen, Sean F; Clark, Marin K; Godt, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    We present quantitative estimates of near-surface rock strength relevant to landscape evolution and landslide hazard assessment for 15 geologic map units of the Longmen Shan, China. Strength estimates are derived from a novel method that inverts earthquake peak ground acceleration models and coseismic landslide inventories to obtain material proper- ties and landslide thickness. Aggregate rock strength is determined by prescribing a friction angle of 30° and solving for effective cohesion. Effective cohesion ranges are from 70 kPa to 107 kPa for 15 geologic map units, and are approximately an order of magnitude less than typical laboratory measurements, probably because laboratory tests on hand-sized specimens do not incorporate the effects of heterogeneity and fracturing that likely control near-surface strength at the hillslope scale. We find that strength among the geologic map units studied varies by less than a factor of two. However, increased weakening of units with proximity to the range front, where precipitation and active fault density are the greatest, suggests that cli- matic and tectonic factors overwhelm lithologic differences in rock strength in this high-relief tectonically active setting.

  17. Error Characterisation and Merging of Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Alexander; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Chung, Daniel; Dorigo, Wouter; Reimer, Christoph; Kidd, Richard

    2015-04-01

    As part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) a data fusion system has been developed which is capable of ingesting surface soil moisture data derived from active and passive microwave sensors (ASCAT, AMSR-E, etc.) flown on different satellite platforms and merging them to create long and consistent time series of soil moisture suitable for use in climate change studies. The so-created soil moisture data records (latest version: ESA CCI SM v02.1 released on 5/12/2014) are freely available and can be obtained from http://www.esa-soilmoisture-cci.org/. As described by Wagner et al. (2012) the principle steps of the data fusion process are: 1) error characterisation, 2) matching to account for data set specific biases, and 3) merging. In this presentation we present the current data fusion process and discuss how new error characterisation methods, such as the increasingly popular triple collocation method as discussed for example by Zwieback et al. (2012) may be used to improve it. The main benefit of an improved error characterisation would be a more reliable identification of the best performing microwave soil moisture retrieval(s) for each grid point and each point in time. In case that two or more satellite data sets provides useful information, the estimated errors can be used to define the weights with which each satellite data set are merged, i.e. the lower its error the higher its weight. This is expected to bring a significant improvement over the current data fusion scheme which is not yet based on quantitative estimates of the retrieval errors but on a proxy measure, namely the vegetation optical depth (Dorigo et al., 2015): over areas with low vegetation passive soil moisture retrievals are used, while over areas with moderate vegetation density active retrievals are used. In transition areas, where both products correlate well, both products are being used in a synergistic way: on time steps where only one of

  18. Distinguishing Terrestrial Organic Carbon in Marginal Sediments of East China Sea and Northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Liu, Qianqian; Liu, Zhifei; Lou, Jiann-Yuh; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Mayer, Lawrence M.

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge about the sources, transport pathways and behavior of terrestrial organic carbon in continental margins adjoining to large rivers has improved in recent decades, but uncertainties and complications still exist with human-influenced coastal regions in densely populated wet tropics and subtropics. In these regions, the monsoon and other episodic weather events exert strong climatic control on mineral and particulate organic matter delivery to the marginal seas. Here we investigate elemental (TOC, TN and bromine-Br) and stable carbon isotopic (δ13C) compositions of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments and short cores collected from active (SW Taiwan) and passive margin (East China Sea) settings to understand the sources of OM that buried in these settings. We used sedimentary bromine to total organic carbon (Br/TOC) ratios to apportion terrigenous from marine organic matter, and find that Br/TOC may serve as an additional, reliable proxy for sedimentary provenance in both settings. Variations in Br/TOC are consistent with other provenance indicators in responding to short-lived terrigenous inputs. Because diagenetic alteration of Br is insignificant on shorter time scales, applying Br/TOC ratios as a proxy to identify organic matter source along with carbon isotope mixing models may provide additional constraints on the quantity and transformation of terrigenous organics in continental margins. We apply this combination of approaches to land-derived organic matter in different depositional environments of East Asian marginal seas.

  19. Marginal Teachers from the Eyes of School Principals: Concept, Problems and Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Cetin; Demirkasimoglu, Nihan

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed to determine how Turkish principals define marginal teachers and which strategies they use to deal with them. Within this purpose, the following points are examined: (a) the concept of marginal teacher, (b) the underlying reasons for marginal teacher behaviors, (c) the problems marginal teachers cause in school settings, (d)…

  20. Data-Driven Derivation of an "Informer Compound Set" for Improved Selection of Active Compounds in High-Throughput Screening.

    PubMed

    Paricharak, Shardul; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Jenkins, Jeremy L; Bender, Andreas; Nigsch, Florian

    2016-09-26

    Despite the usefulness of high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, for some systems, low assay throughput or high screening cost can prohibit the screening of large numbers of compounds. In such cases, iterative cycles of screening involving active learning (AL) are employed, creating the need for smaller "informer sets" that can be routinely screened to build predictive models for selecting compounds from the screening collection for follow-up screens. Here, we present a data-driven derivation of an informer compound set with improved predictivity of active compounds in HTS, and we validate its benefit over randomly selected training sets on 46 PubChem assays comprising at least 300,000 compounds and covering a wide range of assay biology. The informer compound set showed improvement in BEDROC(α = 100), PRAUC, and ROCAUC values averaged over all assays of 0.024, 0.014, and 0.016, respectively, compared to randomly selected training sets, all with paired t-test p-values <10(-15). A per-assay assessment showed that the BEDROC(α = 100), which is of particular relevance for early retrieval of actives, improved for 38 out of 46 assays, increasing the success rate of smaller follow-up screens. Overall, we showed that an informer set derived from historical HTS activity data can be employed for routine small-scale exploratory screening in an assay-agnostic fashion. This approach led to a consistent improvement in hit rates in follow-up screens without compromising scaffold retrieval. The informer set is adjustable in size depending on the number of compounds one intends to screen, as performance gains are realized for sets with more than 3,000 compounds, and this set is therefore applicable to a variety of situations. Finally, our results indicate that random sampling may not adequately cover descriptor space, drawing attention to the importance of the composition of the training set for predicting actives.

  1. Evolution of the late Paleozoic accretionary complex and overlying forearc-magmatic arc, south central Chile (38°-41°S): Constraints for the tectonic setting along the southwestern margin of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Mark W.; Kato, Terence T.; Rodriguez, Carolina; Godoy, Estanislao; Duhart, Paul; McDonough, Michael; Campos, Alberto

    1999-08-01

    Stratigraphic, structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic studies of basement rocks in the Andean foothills and Coast Ranges of south central Chile (39°-41°S) suggest a protracted late Paleozoic to middle Mesozoic deformational and metamorphic history that imposes important constraints on the tectonic development of the southwestern Gondwana margin. In the study area the late Paleozoic paired metamorphic belt, coeval magmatic arc, and overlying Triassic sedimentary units preserve a record of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian subduction and arc magmatism, subsequent deep exhumation of the Western Series subduction complex, and diminished uplift and erosion of the Eastern Series arc-forearc region by the Late Triassic. Late Paleozoic structural elements and metamorphic assemblages formed during early subduction and arc magmatism, collectively referred to as Dl, are largely erased in the Western Series by the dominant D2 schistosity and lower greenschist grade metamorphism. D1 structural features, as well as original sedimentary textures, are relatively well preserved in the less penetratively deformed Eastern Series. The regional distribution of late Paleozoic arc magmatism suggests that the late Paleozoic convergent margin deviated from a N-S trend north of this area to a NW-SE trend near this latitude and faced an open marine environment to the southwest. A transition from F2 isoclinal folding to more open, larger-scale F3 folds, interpreted as change in ductility during differential uplift of the Western Series, is not apparent in the Eastern Series. Despite a lesser degree of uplift during the main exhumational D2 event, delineation of unconformities and U-Pb dating of detrital zircons and intrusions into the Eastern Series allow tighter constraints to be placed on timing of uplift and denudation of the Eastern Series than on that in the Western Series. A regional unconformity exposed in the Lake District that separates more highly deformed Eastern Series

  2. Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... zone lymphomas are a group of indolent (slow-growing) NHL B-cell lymphomas, which account for approximately 12 percent of all B-cell lymphomas. The median age for diagnosis is 65 years old. There are three types of marginal zone lymphoma: ...

  3. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Piris, Miguel A; Onaindía, Arantza; Mollejo, Manuela

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is an indolent small B-cell lymphoma involving the spleen and bone marrow characterized by a micronodular tumoral infiltration that replaces the preexisting lymphoid follicles and shows marginal zone differentiation as a distinctive finding. SMZL cases are characterized by prominent splenomegaly and bone marrow and peripheral blood infiltration. Cells in peripheral blood show a villous cytology. Bone marrow and peripheral blood characteristic features usually allow a diagnosis of SMZL to be performed. Mutational spectrum of SMZL identifies specific findings, such as 7q loss and NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations, both genes related with marginal zone differentiation. There is a striking clinical variability in SMZL cases, dependent of the tumoral load and performance status. Specific molecular markers such as 7q loss, p53 loss/mutation, NOTCH2 and KLF2 mutations have been found to be associated with the clinical variability. Distinction from Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis with marginal zone phenotype is still an open issue that requires identification of precise and specific thresholds with clinical meaning.

  4. Predicting service life margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Egan, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Margins are developed for equipment susceptible to malfunction due to excessive time or operation cycles, and for identifying limited life equipment so monitoring and replacing is accomplished before hardware failure. Method applies to hardware where design service is established and where reasonable expected usage prediction is made.

  5. Effects of the Drop-set and Reverse Drop-set Methods on the Muscle Activity and Intramuscular Oxygenation of the Triceps Brachii among Trained and Untrained Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Masahiro; Nirengi, Shinsuke; Kurosawa, Yuko; Nagano, Akinori; Hamaoka, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    Influence of different load exercise to muscle activity during subsequent exercise with 75% of one repetition maximum (RM) load among trained and untrained individuals was verified. Resistance-trained men who were involved in resistance training (n = 16) and healthy young men who did not exercise regularly (n = 16) were recruited for this study. Each subject performed bench pressing with a narrow grip exercise using two different training set methods, the drop-set (DS) (3 sets × 2-10 repetitions with 95-75% of 1RM) and the reverse drop-set (RDS) (3 sets × 3-10 repetitions with 55-75% of 1RM). The mean concentric contraction power, root mean square (RMS) of electromyography (EMG), area under the oxygenated hemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) curve, and time constant for muscle oxygen consumption (TcVO2mus) values of the triceps brachii were measured during and after the DS and RDS. The trained group demonstrated significantly higher mean muscle power (242.9 ± 39.6 W vs. 215.8 ± 31.7 W), RMS of EMG (86.4 ± 10.4 % vs. 68.3 ± 9.6 %), and area under the Oxy-Hb curve (38.6 ± 7.4 %• sec vs. 29.3 ± 5.8 %• sec) values during the DS than during the RDS (p < 0.05). However, in the untrained group none of the parameters differed significantly for both the DS and RDS. Furthermore, a negative correlation was detected between the area under the Oxy-Hb curve and muscle thickness (r = -0.51, p < 0.01). Long-term effects of DS on muscle strengthening and hypertrophy will be explored in further research. Key points The DS induced greater motor unit activation and intramuscular hypoxia in people who have been regularly performing resistance exercises for more than one year than the RDS. No mechanical or metabolic differences were detected between the DS and RDS among the subjects who had not participated in regular resistance training. The thicker a person’s muscles are, the more resistant they are to the induction of acute intramuscular hypoxia during muscle contraction. PMID:27928200

  6. Middle Triassic magma mixing in an active continental margin: Evidence from mafic enclaves and host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling, central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Mo, X.; Yu, X.

    2015-12-01

    The Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogen was formed through the collision of the North and South China blocks, but the precise timing of the closure of the Paleo-Tethys ocean between the two blocks remains debated. Large volumes of Triassic granites associated with mafic microgranular enclaves (MMEs) were emplaced in the Qinling terrane. This paper presents field observations, petrography, geochronology and geochemistry of the MMEs and their host granites from the Dewulu pluton in West Qinling. The host rocks comprise granodiorite and granodioritic porphyry, and the The MMEs range in composition from gabbroic diorite to diorite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages suggest that the granites and MMEs were coeval at ca. 245 Ma. The granites are relatively enriched in LILE and depleted in HFSE, and have evolved Sr-Nd-Pb and zircon Hf isotopic compositions [initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7070-0.7076, ɛNd(t) = -7.5 to -6.8, ɛHf(t) = -8.2 to -4.2], indicative of an origin from the amphibolitic lower crust. The near-primitive gabbro-dioritic MMEs bear a remarkable geochemical resemblance to the high-magnesium andesite (HMA), such as moderate SiO2 (~55 wt.%), low FeOT/MgO (~0.75), high Cr (268-308 ppm) and MgO (8.58-8.77 wt.%) with Mg# of ~70. Additionally, they exhibit lower initial 87Sr/86Sr, higher ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t), and more radiogenic Pb isotopes than the dioritic MMEs which share similar isotopic compositions with the granites. These features, together with the presence of the specific minerals in the MMEs (e.g., felsic xenocrysts and acicular apatite), point to mixing process between the lower crust-derived magmas and the melts produced by the reaction of the subducting sediment-derived components and the overlying mantle. Taking into account the regional occurrence of synchronous plutonic-volcanic complexes (250-234 Ma) ranging from basaltic to granitic variants, we suggest that the Dewulu pluton formed in an active continental margin in response to the local extension triggered by the

  7. SET1 and p300 Act Synergistically, through Coupled Histone Modifications, in Transcriptional Activation by p53

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhanyun; Chen, Wei-Yi; Shimada, Miho; Nguyen, Uyen T.T.; Kim, Jaehoon; Sun, Xiao-Jian; Sengoku, Toru; McGinty, Robert K.; Fernandez, Joseph P.; Muir, Tom W.; Roeder, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The H3K4me3 mark in chromatin is closely correlated with actively transcribed genes, although the mechanisms involved in its generation and function are not fully understood. In vitro studies with recombinant chromatin and purified human factors demonstrate a robust SET1 complex (SET1C)-mediated H3K4 trimethylation that is dependent upon p53- and p300-mediated H3 acetylation, a corresponding SET1C-mediated enhancement of p53- and p300-dependent transcription that reflects a primary effect of SET1C through H3K4 trimethylation, and direct SET1C-p53 and SET1C-p300 interactions indicative of a targeted recruitment mechanism. Complementary cell-based assays demonstrate a DNA-damage-induced p53-SET1C interaction, a corresponding enrichment of SET1C and H3K4me3 on a p53 target gene (p21/WAF1), and a corresponding codependency of H3K4 trimethylation and transcription upon p300 and SET1C. These results establish a mechanism in which SET1C and p300 act cooperatively, through direct interactions and coupled histone modifications, to facilitate the function of p53. PMID:23870121

  8. Geomorphology of the Iberian Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestro, Adolfo; López-Martínez, Jerónimo; Llave, Estefanía; Bohoyo, Fernando; Acosta, Juan; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Muñoz, Araceli; Jané, Gloria

    2013-08-01

    The submarine features and processes around the Iberian Peninsula are the result of a complex and diverse geological and oceanographical setting. This paper presents an overview of the seafloor geomorphology of the Iberian Continental Margin and the adjacent abyssal plains. The study covers an area of approximately 2.3 million km2, including a 50 to 400 km wide band adjacent to the coastline. The main morphological characteristics of the seafloor features on the Iberian continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise and the surrounding abyssal plains are described. Individual seafloor features existing on the Iberian Margin have been classified into three main groups according to their origin: tectonic and/or volcanic, depositional and erosional. Major depositional and erosional features around the Iberian Margin developed in late Pleistocene-Holocene times and have been controlled by tectonic movements and eustatic fluctuations. The distribution of the geomorphological features is discussed in relation to their genetic processes and the evolution of the margin. The prevalence of one or several specific processes in certain areas reflects the dominant morphotectonic and oceanographic controlling factors. Sedimentary processes and the resulting depositional products are dominant on the Valencia-Catalán Margin and in the northern part of the Balearic Promontory. Strong tectonic control is observed in the geomorphology of the Betic and the Gulf of Cádiz margins. The role of bottom currents is especially evident throughout the Iberian Margin. The Galicia, Portuguese and Cantabrian margins show a predominance of erosional features and tectonically-controlled linear features related to faults.

  9. CT liver volumetry using geodesic active contour segmentation with a level-set algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kenji; Epstein, Mark L.; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Obajuluwa, Ademola; Xu, Jianwu; Hori, Masatoshi; Baron, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Automatic liver segmentation on CT images is challenging because the liver often abuts other organs of a similar density. Our purpose was to develop an accurate automated liver segmentation scheme for measuring liver volumes. We developed an automated volumetry scheme for the liver in CT based on a 5 step schema. First, an anisotropic smoothing filter was applied to portal-venous phase CT images to remove noise while preserving the liver structure, followed by an edge enhancer to enhance the liver boundary. By using the boundary-enhanced image as a speed function, a fastmarching algorithm generated an initial surface that roughly estimated the liver shape. A geodesic-active-contour segmentation algorithm coupled with level-set contour-evolution refined the initial surface so as to more precisely fit the liver boundary. The liver volume was calculated based on the refined liver surface. Hepatic CT scans of eighteen prospective liver donors were obtained under a liver transplant protocol with a multi-detector CT system. Automated liver volumes obtained were compared with those manually traced by a radiologist, used as "gold standard." The mean liver volume obtained with our scheme was 1,520 cc, whereas the mean manual volume was 1,486 cc, with the mean absolute difference of 104 cc (7.0%). CT liver volumetrics based on an automated scheme agreed excellently with "goldstandard" manual volumetrics (intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.95) with no statistically significant difference (p(F<=f)=0.32), and required substantially less completion time. Our automated scheme provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes.

  10. Transactions among adolescent trait and state emotion and diurnal and momentary cortisol activity in naturalistic settings.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K

    2006-06-01

    In a community sample of 52 adolescents, multilevel growth curve modeling was utilized to examine whether within-person changes in momentary mood states, and individual differences in trait emotional functioning, were related to adolescent cortisol levels in naturalistic settings. Salivary cortisol levels were measured seven times a day on two typical weekdays in conjunction with diary reports of adolescent mood states. Questionnaire reports of trait emotional functioning (depression, anxiety, and anger) were obtained, as were reports of demographic, developmental, and health control variables. After accounting for the effects of time of day and a wide range of control variables, within-person increases in state negative mood (worry/stress and anger/frustration) were significantly associated with within-person increases in cortisol. When examining trait emotional functioning, adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms had slightly lower basal cortisol levels, and adolescents with higher levels of trait anger had a significantly stronger cortisol response to awakening. Several developmental effects were found-adolescents at higher stages of pubertal development had daytime basal cortisol curves that were more elevated, had a steeper diurnal decline, and showed a lesser cortisol awakening response, and cortisol responses to worry/stress increased with age. Cortisol levels were also higher at moments adolescents were alone rather than with others, an effect that declined significantly with age. Cortisol levels were also higher at moments adolescents were alone rather than with others, an effect that declined significantly with age. Results suggest that ongoing transactions occur between adolescents' everyday emotional experiences and their cortisol levels, and that adolescent cortisol activity is modified by age/pubertal stage and by trait emotional functioning.

  11. Mathematics Goals and Activities K-6. Part I: Sets and Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogle, John W.; Meek, Cleo M.

    GRADES OR AGES: K-6. SUBJECT MATTER: Mathematics; sets and numbers. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into two sections--sets and numbers. Within each section the content is grouped into six levels in order of increasing difficulty. Each level contains from 3 to 15 concepts. Numerous diagrams and illustrations are…

  12. Peer Assisted Learning in the Clinical Setting: An Activity Systems Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Deirdre; O'Flynn, Siun; Kelly, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Peer assisted learning (PAL) is a common feature of medical education. Understanding of PAL has been based on processes and outcomes in controlled settings, such as clinical skills labs. PAL in the clinical setting, a complex learning environment, requires fresh evaluation. Socio-cultural theory is proposed as a means to understand educational…

  13. Early Miocene transpression across the Pacific-North American plate margin, initiation of the San Andreas fault, and tectonic wedge activation

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, R.J. ); Underwood, M.B. )

    1993-04-01

    Magnetic stripes on the Pacific plate (PAC) indicate that subduction along the North American plate (NAM) margin ceased about 26--28 Ma south of the Mendocino fracture zone (MFZ), when the Pacific-Farallon (PAC-FAR) ridge encountered the NAM. In this area the PAC-FAR ridge apparently was segmented and abandoned as it encountered the margin, and was thrust beneath the western lip of the NAM, possibly due to residual FAR slab-pull. Between [approximately] 26 and 23.5 Ma, compressional tectonism in the distal NAM overlying the hot, buoyant ridge, produced ocean floor volcanism and a series of borderland structural basins that filled with continent-derived clastics. Initiation of the San Andreas transform, and capture of a large segment of the NAM by the PAC appears to have occurred between [approximately] 24 and [approximately] 14 Ma. Beginning at least as early as 18 Ma, northeast of the San Andreas fault, blind thrusts, folding and tilting developed in the roof of a northeastwardly-propagating wedge complex beneath the length of the Coast Ranges. The wedge complex probably was multistage and may have been initiated as early as 70--60 Ma. In the Cape Mendocino and Loma Prieta regions, Miocene or younger northeast-vergent members of the roof thrust system root into the San Andreas fault and characteristically displace deep water marine rocks northeastward over the shallower margin. Total shortening across the transform margin based on deep crustal models must exceed 200 km since 70 Ma and is [ge]50 km since 28 Ma.

  14. Geochemical characterization of two distinctive systems with evidence of chemosynthetic activity, explored at the SE Pacific margin off Chile (46°S and 33°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Práxedes; Cárdenas, Lissette J.; Garbe-Schönberg, Dieter; Sellanes, Javier; Dezileau, Laurent; Melville, Ives; Mendes, Stephanie D.

    2016-11-01

    This study presents the geochemical composition of superficial sediment under oxic and suboxic bottom water conditions along the Chilean continental margin (SE Pacific), where evidence for benthic chemosynthetic activity associated with diffuse seeping of chemically reduced fluids has been reported. The exploration was carried out at: (1) the Chilean Triple Junction (CTJ), at a water depth of ∼2900 m, with the additional indication of hydrothermal activity near a methane-rich cold-seep area (46°S) (German et al., 2010); and (2) the El Quisco methane seep site (EQSS), at ∼340 m water depth (33°S) (Melo et al., 2007; Krylova et al., 2014). While the deeper CTJ is located within an oxic environment (dissolved oxygen in the bottom waters: 164 μM), the shallower EQSS lies within a suboxic environment (dissolved oxygen in bottom water: 23 μM), located within the lower limit of the SE Pacific oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Pore water from short cores was analyzed for dissolved major, minor, and trace elements (Cl, Na, Mg, K, Ca, Sr, Si, B, P, Ba, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, U, and Mo), δ13DIC, sulfide, sulfate, and methane. The solid sediment fraction was likewise analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), metals, and redox potential. Elevated sediment temperatures were found in superficial sediments (5-13 °C) at the CTJ site, which could be due to warm fluids associated with the proximity of the ridge, where hydrothermal vents may occur. Reduced fluids were also present here, indicated by higher Mn fluxes toward the water column even in oxidized sediments (RPD > 8 cm), which contrasted with the lower fluxes in reduced sediments of the EQSS site (RPD ∼ 2 cm). 13C-depleted DIC, anomalously low pore water Cl (∼15 ppb), and low concentrations of other major elements may be the result of dilution by fluid seeping and precipitation of major elements, producing authigenic enrichment (Ca, Mg, Sr). The fluid could also: (a) be diluted by pure water produced during methane hydrate

  15. Acute effects of antagonist static stretching in the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Humberto; Maia, Marianna de Freitas; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Costa, Pablo B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of antagonist passive static stretching (AS) during the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation. Ten trained men (22.4 ± 0.9 years) participated in this study. Two protocols were adopted: Passive recovery (PR)--three sets to repetition failure were performed for the seated row (SR) with two-minute rest interval between sets without pre-exercise stretching; AS--forty seconds of stretching was applied to pectoralis major prior to each set of SR. Significant increases in the number of repetitions were noted under AS compared with PR (p < 0.05). Significant increases on latissimus dorsi (p = 0.002) and biceps brachii (p = 0.001) muscle activity were noted inter-sets under the AS compared with the PR condition. Therefore, the AS adopted during the inter-set rest period may enhance repetition performance and activation of agonist muscles in an acute manner.

  16. The 2006 Bahía Asunción Earthquake Swarm: Seismic Evidence of Active Deformation Along the Western Margin of Baja California Sur, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munguía, Luis; Mayer, Sergio; Aguirre, Alfredo; Méndez, Ignacio; González-Escobar, Mario; Luna, Manuel

    2016-10-01

    The study of the Bahía Asunción earthquake swarm is important for two reasons. First, the earthquakes are clear evidence of present activity along the zone of deformation on the Pacific margin of Baja California. The swarm, with earthquakes of magnitude M w of up to 5.0, occurred on the coastline of the peninsula, showing that the Tosco-Abreojos zone of deformation is wider than previously thought. Second, the larger earthquakes in the swarm caused some damage and much concern in Bahía Asunción, a small town located in the zone of epicenters. We relocated the larger earthquakes with regional and/or local seismic data. Our results put the earthquake sources below the urban area of Bahía Asunción, at 40-50 km to the north of the teleseismically determined epicenters. In addition, these new locations are in the area of epicenters of many smaller events that were located with data from local temporary stations. This area trends in an E-W direction and has dimensions of approximately 15 km by 10 km. Most earthquakes had sources at depths that are between 4 and 9 km. A composite focal mechanism for the smaller earthquakes indicated right-lateral strike-slip motion and pure-normal faulting occurred during this swarm. Interestingly, the ANSS earthquake catalog of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported each one of these faulting styles for two large events of the swarm, with one of these earthquakes occurring 2 days before the other one. We associate the earthquake with strike-slip mechanism with the San Roque Fault, and the earthquake with the normal faulting style with the Asunción Fault. However, there is need of further study to verify this possible relation between the faults and the earthquakes. In addition, we recorded peak accelerations of up to 0.63 g with an accelerometer installed in Bahía Asunción. At this site, an earthquake of M w 4.9 produced those high values at a distance of 4.1 km. We also used the acceleration dataset from this site

  17. Differences in youth and adult physical activity in park settings by sex and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Stanis, Sonja A Wilhelm; Besenyi, Gina M; Child, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    We examined differences by sex and race/ethnicity in the observed moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) of youth and adults in diverse areas of 4 parks in Kansas City, Missouri, in 2009. Male youth were more active on playgrounds and pools or splashpads than female youth. White youth were less active than nonwhite youth in open spaces and on paved trails. Male adults were more active in open spaces than female adults, and white adults were more active on paved trails than nonwhite adults. Understanding variations in MVPA between user groups can inform park design efforts to foster increased activity among all visitors.

  18. Marginality of Transfer Commuter Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodama, Corinne Maekawa

    2002-01-01

    Examines marginality issues facing transfer commuter students attending a mid-Atlantic university and what student characteristics relate to their sense of marginality. Results showed that transfer students have few sources of on-campus support, which may lead to their feelings of marginality. Results were particularly true for woman and Asian…

  19. The Impact of Group Activities on Social Relations in an Early Education Setting in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Rosario; Romera, Eva M.; Monks, Claire P.

    2009-01-01

    This article promotes a psychosocial perspective that proposes that relational activities are an enriching factor in pupils' social learning. This study offers a model of intervention, using activities that promote peer-relations among preschoolers. The activities share several characteristics including: (a) being designed to be appropriate for…

  20. Development of optimization models for the set behavior and compressive strength of sodium activated geopolymer pastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillenwarth, Brian Albert

    As large countries such as China begin to industrialize and concerns about global warming continue to grow, there is an increasing need for more environmentally friendly building materials. One promising material known as a geopolymer can be used as a portland cement replacement and in this capacity emits around 67% less carbon dioxide. In addition to potentially reducing carbon emissions, geopolymers can be synthesized with many industrial waste products such as fly ash. Although the benefits of geopolymers are substantial, there are a few difficulties with designing geopolymer mixes which have hindered widespread commercialization of the material. One such difficulty is the high variability of the materials used for their synthesis. In addition to this, interrelationships between mix design variables and how these interrelationships impact the set behavior and compressive strength are not well understood. A third complicating factor with designing geopolymer mixes is that the role of calcium in these systems is not well understood. In order to overcome these barriers, this study developed predictive optimization models through the use of genetic programming with experimentally collected set times and compressive strengths of several geopolymer paste mixes. The developed set behavior models were shown to predict the correct set behavior from the mix design over 85% of the time. The strength optimization model was shown to be capable of predicting compressive strengths of geopolymer pastes from their mix design to within about 1 ksi of their actual strength. In addition to this the optimization models give valuable insight into the key factors influencing strength development as well as the key factors responsible for flash set and long set behaviors in geopolymer pastes. A method for designing geopolymer paste mixes was developed from the generated optimization models. This design method provides an invaluable tool for use in future geopolymer research as well as

  1. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A

    2015-08-11

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin's transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ's histone chaperone activity.

  2. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin’s transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ’s histone chaperone activity. PMID:26216969

  3. Amphetamine margin in sports

    SciTech Connect

    Laties, V.G.; Weiss, B.

    1981-10-01

    The amphetamines can enhance athletic performance. That much seem clear from the literature, some of which is reviewed here. Increases in endurance have been demonstrated in both humans and rats. Smith and Beecher, 20 years ago, showed improvement of running, swimming, and weight throwing in highly trained athletes. Laboratory analogs of such performances have also been used and similar enhancement demonstrated. The amount of change induced by the amphetamines is usually small, of the order of a few percent. Nevertheless, since a fraction of a percent improvement can make the difference between fame and oblivion, the margin conferred by these drugs can be quite important.

  4. East Africa continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Bosellini, A.

    1986-01-01

    New well data from Somalia, together with the history of sea-floor spreading in the Indian Ocean derived from magnetic anomalies, show that the East African margins from latitude 15/sup 0/S into the Gulf of Aden comprise four distinct segments that formed successively by the southward drift of Madagascar from Somalia during the Middle to Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, by the northeastward drift of India along the Owen Transform during the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, and by the opening of the Gulf of Aden during the Neogene.

  5. Pellucid marginal corneal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Krachmer, J H

    1978-07-01

    Pellucid marginal degeneration of the cornea is a bilateral, clear, inferior, peripheral corneal-thinning disorder. Protrusion of the cornea occurs above a band of thinning, which is located 1 to 2 mm from the limbus and measures 1 to 2 mm in width. American ophthalmologists are generally not familiar with the condition because most of the literature concerning pellucid degeneration is European. Four cases are described. This condition is differentiated from other noninflammatory cornel-thinning disorders such as keratoconus, keratoglobus, keratotorus, and posterior keratoconus. It is also differentiated from peripheral corneal disorders associated with inflammation such as Terrien's peripheral corneal degeneration, Mooren's ulcers, and ulcers from connective tissue disease.

  6. New sensitive marginal oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahf, L.

    1981-09-01

    A new type of a sensitive marginal oscillator has been developed for the determination of high magnetic inductions by means of nuclear magnetic resonance. Obtaining a high sensitivity with this measuring principle demands a soft behavior of the oscillator which is a particular feature of the circuit presented. It is shown that this behavior is due to the fact that a very weak positive feedback is established by the inner capacitances of the single field effect transistor used in the circuit. Optimal values for the operation parameters are calculated.

  7. Plate Margin Deformation and Active Tectonics Along the Northern Edge of the Yakutat Terrane in the Saint Elias Orogen, Alaska and Yukon, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhn, Ronald L.; Sauber, Jeanne; Cotton, Michele M.; Pavlis, Terry L.; Burgess, Evan; Ruppert, Natalia; Forster, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    The northwest directed motion of the Pacific plate is accompanied by migration and collision of the Yakutat terrane into the cusp of southern Alaska. The nature and magnitude of accretion and translation on upper crustal faults and folds is poorly constrained, however, due to pervasive glaciation. In this study we used high-resolution topography, geodetic imaging, seismic, and geologic data to advance understanding of the transition from strike-slip motion on the Fairweather fault to plate margin deformation on the Bagley fault, which cuts through the upper plate of the collisional suture above the subduction megathrust. The Fairweather fault terminates by oblique-extensional splay faulting within a structural syntaxis, allowing rapid tectonic upwelling of rocks driven by thrust faulting and crustal contraction. Plate motion is partly transferred from the Fairweather to the Bagley fault, which extends 125 km farther west as a dextral shear zone that is partly reactivated by reverse faulting. The Bagley fault dips steeply through the upper plate to intersect the subduction megathrust at depth, forming a narrow fault-bounded crustal sliver in the obliquely convergent plate margin. Since . 20 Ma the Bagley fault has accommodated more than 50 km of dextral shearing and several kilometers of reverse motion along its southern flank during terrane accretion. The fault is considered capable of generating earthquakes because it is linked to faults that generated large historic earthquakes, suitably oriented for reactivation in the contemporary stress field, and locally marked by seismicity. The fault may generate earthquakes of Mw <= 7.5.

  8. Validation of five minimally obstructive methods to estimate physical activity energy expenditure in young adults in semi-standardized settings.

    PubMed

    Schneller, Mikkel B; Pedersen, Mogens T; Gupta, Nidhi; Aadahl, Mette; Holtermann, Andreas

    2015-03-13

    We compared the accuracy of five objective methods, including two newly developed methods combining accelerometry and activity type recognition (Acti4), against indirect calorimetry, to estimate total energy expenditure (EE) of different activities in semi-standardized settings. Fourteen participants performed a standardized and semi-standardized protocol including seven daily life activity types, while having their EE measured by indirect calorimetry. Simultaneously, physical activity was quantified by an ActivPAL3, two ActiGraph GT3X+'s and an Actiheart. EE was estimated by the standard ActivPAL3 software (ActivPAL), ActiGraph GT3X+ (ActiGraph) and Actiheart (Actiheart), and by a combination of activity type recognition via Acti4 software and activity counts per minute (CPM) of either a hip- or thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ (AGhip + Acti4 and AGthigh + Acti4). At group level, estimated physical activities EE by Actiheart (MSE = 2.05) and AGthigh + Acti4 (MSE = 0.25) were not significantly different from measured EE by indirect calorimetry, while significantly underestimated by ActiGraph, ActivPAL and AGhip + Acti4. AGthigh + Acti4 and Actiheart explained 77% and 45%, of the individual variations in measured physical activity EE by indirect calorimetry, respectively. This study concludes that combining accelerometer data from a thigh-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ with activity type recognition improved the accuracy of activity specific EE estimation against indirect calorimetry in semi-standardized settings compared to previously validated methods using CPM only.

  9. GeneSet2miRNA: finding the signature of cooperative miRNA activities in the gene lists

    PubMed Central

    Antonov, Alexey V.; Dietmann, Sabine; Wong, Philip; Lutter, Dominik; Mewes, Hans W.

    2009-01-01

    GeneSet2miRNA is the first web-based tool which is able to identify whether or not a gene list has a signature of miRNA-regulatory activity. As input, GeneSet2miRNA accepts a list of genes. As output, a list of miRNA-regulatory models is provided. A miRNA-regulatory model is a group of miRNAs (single, pair, triplet or quadruplet) that is predicted to regulate a significant subset of genes from the submitted list. GeneSet2miRNA provides a user friendly dialog-driven web page submission available for several model organisms. GeneSet2miRNA is freely available at http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/proj/gene2mir/. PMID:19420064

  10. 40 CFR 35.3540 - Requirements for funding set-aside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3540... workplan describing how it will expend funds needed to provide technical assistance to public water systems... water systems. (2) With the exception of the local assistance and other State programs set-aside...

  11. FY13 Annual Report: PHEV Advanced Series Gen-set Development/Demonstration Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Chambon, Paul H.

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this project is to integrate ORNL advancements in vehicle technologies to properly design, and size a gen-set for various vehicle applications and then simulate multiple advanced series hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles with the genset models.

  12. Establishing "Fields of Care": Teaching Settings as Active Participants in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Erica N.

    2014-01-01

    In their article, "Space, relations, and the learning of science," Wolff-Michael Roth and Pei-Ling Hsu draw our attention to the importance of field in the teaching and learning of science. While the Roth and Hsu study is focused on the scientific research laboratory as an internship setting for the teaching of science, this response to…

  13. Preventing Obesity among Preschool Children: How Can Child-Care Settings Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity? Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Nicole; Ward, Dianne; Neelon, Sara Benjamin; Story, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Child-care settings provide numerous opportunities to promote healthy eating and physical activity behaviors among preschool children. The majority of U.S. children are placed in some form of non-parental care during their preschool years. While approximately 15 percent of preschool children are primarily cared for by their relatives, most…

  14. Exploration of Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs in Relation to Mathematics Teaching Activities in Classroom-Based Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kul, Umit; Celik, Sedef

    2017-01-01

    This paper has been conducted to determine future teachers' mathematical beliefs and to explore the relationship between their mathematical beliefs and initial teaching practice in a classroom setting, in terms of how they design the content of teaching activities, they employed the style of teaching in mathematics, and they engaged with pupils. A…

  15. Iberian Atlantic Margins Group investigates deep structure of ocean margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Iberian Atlantic Margins Group; Banda, Enric; Torne, Montserrat

    With recent seismic reflection data in hand, investigators for the Iberian Atlantic Margins project are preparing images of the deep continental and oceanic margins of Iberia. In 1993, the IAM group collected near vertical incidence seismic reflection data over a total distance of 3500 km along the North and Western Iberian Margins, Gorringe Bank Region and Gulf of Cadiz (Figure 1). When combined with data on the conjugate margin off Canada, details of the Iberian margin's deep structure should aid in distinguishing rift models and improve understanding of the processes governing the formation of margins.The North Iberian passive continental margin was formed during a Permian to Triassic phase of extension and matured during the early Cretaceous by rotation of the Iberian Peninsula with respect to Eurasia. From the late Cretaceous to the early Oligocene period, Iberia rotated in a counterclockwise direction around an axis located west of Lisbon. The plate boundary between Iberia and Eurasia, which lies along the Pyrenees, follows the north Spanish marginal trough, trends obliquely in the direction of the fossil Bay of Biscay triple junction, and continues along the Azores-Biscay Rise [Sibuet et al., 1994]. Following the NE-SW convergence of Iberia and Eurasia, the reactivation of the North Iberian continental margin resulted in the formation of a marginal trough and accretionary prism [Boillot et al., 1971].

  16. Trends in Physical Activity Interest in the College and University Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Bridget; Hansen, Andrew; Gross, Jonathon

    2010-01-01

    High levels of interest in physical activity courses correlate positively with student participation. Awareness of students' physical activity interests allows college and university program coordinators to match student interests with appropriate course offerings. Purpose: The purpose of this research is to track students' physical activity…

  17. Social Connection and Psychological Outcomes in a Physical Activity-Based Youth Development Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullrich-French, Sarah; McDonough, Meghan H.; Smith, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    It is believed that the social connections formed by participating in physical activity-based positive youth development (PYD) programs contributes to building personal and social assets. In this study, we examined how changes in social connection over a physical activity-based PYD program for low-income youth were associated with changes in…

  18. Teachers' Beliefs Related to Activity Play in the Preschool Setting: A Phenomenological Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisha, Lorelei Emma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate how early childhood teachers working in Head Start programs made meaning of preschool-age children's physical activity play by exploring their personal childhood and professional experiences with physical activity play. The study was conducted to contribute research-based recommendations for…

  19. The Effects of Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    In work-related instrumental learning contexts, the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory predict skill adaptation as an outcome. This prediction was tested by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants' response and error rates during novel…

  20. New observations of the active deformation along the oblique collision/subduction boundary zone between the North American and Caribbean plates (northern Hispaniola offshore margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Granja Bruña, José Luis; Rodríguez Zurrunero, Álvaro; Gómez de la Peña, Laura; Muñoz-Martín, Alfonso; Gómez Ballesteros, María; Gorosabel Araus, José Miguel; Espinosa, Salvador; Pazos, Anatonio; Catalán, Manuel; Yamil Rodríguez Asilis, Hector; Nuñez, José Luis; Muñoz, Santiago; ten Brink, Uri S.; Quijano, Jesús; Llanes Estrada, Pilar; Martín Dávila, José; Druet, María

    2015-04-01

    The Caribbean plate is moving relative to the North American plate at a rate of 20.0 ± 0.4 mm/y towards 074° ± 1°. This eastward motion has been taking place during most of the Cenozoic developing a 250 km-wide band of deformation, in which microplate and block tectonics take place. The eastward motion of the Hispaniola block is being impeded relative to the motion of the Caribbean plate's interior due to the collision with the Bahamas banks. This collision has resulted in the development of the Northern Hispaniola deformed belt along the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. A series of large (M6.2-M8.1) thrust earthquakes from 1943-1953, and two significant events in 1994 (M5.6) and 2003 (M6.4) occurred close to the city of Puerto Plata have been attributed to oblique collision/subduction of the North America plate and Bahamas banks beneath the northern Hispaniola. 300 km of 2D multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection data and approximately 15000 km2 of high-resolution, systematic swath bathymetry data were recorded in the northern Hispaniola offshore margin as part of a larger survey carried out in November-December of 2013 aboard the Spanish R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa. MCS profiles were collected shooting a GI gun array (GGUN-II®) of 1750 ci. every 37.5 m and the signal recorded in a 3000 m-long streamer with 240 channels (Sentinel Sercel®). Differential GPS navigated high-resolution bathymetry data were collected using the hull-mounted Hydrosweep ATLAS DS echo-sounder system. Using new high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and MCS data, combined with previous 2D seismic data, we have studied the along- and across-strike variations of the geomorphology and shallower structure of the northern Hispaniola offshore margin. Here we present preliminary results focused on the identification and characterization of recent tectonic features in the region and provide well-defined targets to carry out future studies for seismic and tsunamigenic hazard assessment.

  1. Let's Wiggle with 5-2-1-0: Curriculum Development for Training Childcare Providers to Promote Activity in Childcare Settings

    PubMed Central

    Venezia, Alexandra P.

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing in preschool children in the US. Policy, systems, and environmental change interventions in childcare settings can improve obesity-related behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot an intervention to train childcare providers to promote physical activity (PA) in childcare classrooms. An evidence scan, key informant (n = 34) and focus group (n = 20) interviews with childcare directors and staff, and environmental self-assessment of childcare facilities (n = 22) informed the design of the training curriculum. Feedback from the interviews indicated that childcare providers believed in the importance of teaching children about PA and were supportive of training teachers to incorporate PA into classroom settings. The Promoting Physical Activity in Childcare Setting Curriculum was developed and training was implemented with 16 teachers. Participants reported a positive experience with the hands-on training and reported acquiring new knowledge that they intended to implement in their childcare settings. Our findings highlight the feasibility of working with childcare staff to develop PA training and curriculum. Next steps include evaluating the curriculum in additional childcare settings and childcare staff implementation of the curriculum to understand the effectiveness of the training on PA levels of children. PMID:27462468

  2. Educator engagement and interaction and children's physical activity in early childhood education and care settings: an observational study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Rachel A; Hagenbuchner, Markus; Nguyen, Tuc V; Okely, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of regular physical activity for children are significant. Previous research has addressed the quantity and quality of children's physical activity while in early childhood education and care (ECEC) settings, yet little research has investigated the social and physical environmental influences on physical activity in these settings. The outcomes of this study will be to measure these social and physical environmental influences on children's physical activity using a combination of a real-time location system (RTLS) (a closed system that tracks the location of movement of participants via readers and tags), accelerometry and direct observation. Methods and analysis This study is the first of its kind to combine RTLSs and accelerometer data in ECEC settings. It is a cross-sectional study involving ∼100 educators and 500 children from 11 ECEC settings in the Illawarra region of New South Wales, Australia. A RTLS and Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometers will be concurrently used to measure the level and location of the children's and educators' physical activity while in outside environments. Children and educators will wear accelerometers on their hip that record triaxial acceleration data at 100 Hz. Children and educators will also wear a tag watch on their wrist that transmits a signal to anchors of the RTLS and the triangulation of signals will identify their specific location. In addition to these, up to three random periods (10–25 min in length) will be used to collect observational data each day and assessed with the classroom assessment and scoring system to measure the quality of interactions. In conjunction with the real-time location system (RTLS) and accelerometers, these observations will measure the relationship between the quality of interactions and children's physical activity. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and presentations. Ethical approval was

  3. Active fault detection and isolation of discrete-time linear time-varying systems: a set-membership approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtaba Tabatabaeipour, Seyed

    2015-08-01

    Active fault detection and isolation (AFDI) is used for detection and isolation of faults that are hidden in the normal operation because of a low excitation signal or due to the regulatory actions of the controller. In this paper, a new AFDI method based on set-membership approaches is proposed. In set-membership approaches, instead of a point-wise estimation of the states, a set-valued estimation of them is computed. If this set becomes empty the given model of the system is not consistent with the measurements. Therefore, the model is falsified. When more than one model of the system remains un-falsified, the AFDI method is used to generate an auxiliary signal that is injected into the system for detection and isolation of faults that remain otherwise hidden or non-isolated using passive FDI (PFDI) methods. Having the set-valued estimation of the states for each model, the proposed AFDI method finds an optimal input signal that guarantees FDI in a finite time horizon. The input signal is updated at each iteration in a decreasing receding horizon manner based on the set-valued estimation of the current states and un-falsified models at the current sample time. The problem is solved by a number of linear and quadratic programming problems, which result in a computationally efficient algorithm. The method is tested on a numerical example as well as on the pitch actuator of a benchmark wind turbine.

  4. Marginally Stable Nuclear Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Altamirano, D.

    2012-01-01

    Thermonuclear X-ray bursts result from unstable nuclear burning of the material accreted on neutron stars in some low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). Theory predicts that close to the boundary of stability oscillatory burning can occur. This marginally stable regime has so far been identified in only a small number of sources. We present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the bursting, high- inclination LMXB 4U 1323-619 that reveal for the first time in this source the signature of marginally stable burning. The source was observed during two successive RXTE orbits for approximately 5 ksec beginning at 10:14:01 UTC on March 28, 2011. Significant mHz quasi- periodic oscillations (QPO) at a frequency of 8.1 mHz are detected for approximately 1600 s from the beginning of the observation until the occurrence of a thermonuclear X-ray burst at 10:42:22 UTC. The mHz oscillations are not detected following the X-ray burst. The average fractional rms amplitude of the mHz QPOs is 6.4% (3 - 20 keV), and the amplitude increases to about 8% below 10 keV.This phenomenology is strikingly similar to that seen in the LMXB 4U 1636-53. Indeed, the frequency of the mHz QPOs in 4U 1323-619 prior to the X-ray burst is very similar to the transition frequency between mHz QPO and bursts found in 4U 1636-53 by Altamirano et al. (2008). These results strongly suggest that the observed QPOs in 4U 1323-619 are, like those in 4U 1636-53, due to marginally stable nuclear burning. We also explore the dependence of the energy spectrum on the oscillation phase, and we place the present observations within the context of the spectral evolution of the accretion-powered flux from the source.

  5. Gender, aging, and the economics of "active aging": Setting a new research agenda.

    PubMed

    Paz, Amira; Doron, Israel; Tur-Sinai, Aviad

    2017-04-03

    The world is aging, and the percentages of older people are on a dramatic ascent. This dramatic demographic aging of human society is not gender neutral; it is mostly about older women. One of the key policy approaches to address the aging revolution is known as "active aging," crystalized by the WHO in 2002 by three pillars: participation, health, and security. The active aging policy has financial and economic aspects and affects both men and women. However, as argued in this article, a gender-based approach has not been adopted within the existing active aging framework. Therefore, a new gender-specific research agenda is needed, one that focuses on an interrelation between gender and different economic aspects of "active aging" from international, comparative, cultural, and longitudinal perspectives.

  6. Perturbative correction for the basis set incompleteness error of complete-active-space self-consistent field.

    PubMed

    Kong, Liguo; Valeev, Edward F

    2010-11-07

    To reduce the basis set incompleteness of the complete-active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and energy we develop a second-order perturbation correction due to single excitations to complete set of unoccupied states. Other than the one- and two-electron integrals, only one- and two-particle reduced density matrices are required to compute the correction, denoted as [2](S). Benchmark calculations on prototypical ground-state bond-breaking problems show that only the aug-cc-pVXZ basis is needed with the [2](S) correction to match the accuracy of CASSCF energies of the aug-cc-pV(X+1)Z quality.

  7. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Ponzoni, Chiara; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-04-15

    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%. - Graphical abstract: Chemical stability as a function of curing conditions. Highlights: ► Metakaolin in highly alkaline solutions produced solid materials at room temperature. ► Curing time and temperature, relative humidity, reagents temperature were optimized. ► Leaching tests were used to confirm final hardening. ► FTIR spectroscopy, SEM analysis and X-ray diffractometry were used to interpret matrix stability.

  8. Inorganic polymers from alkali activation of metakaolin: Effect of setting and curing on structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancellotti, Isabella; Catauro, Michelina; Ponzoni, Chiara; Bollino, Flavia; Leonelli, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Geopolymers, obtained by chemical reaction between aluminosilicate oxides and silicates under highly alkaline conditions, are studied in this paper. The proposed mechanism of geopolymer setting and hardening or curing consists of a dissolution, a transportation or an orientation, as well as a polycondensation step. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of the curing time and temperature, the relative humidity and the reagents temperature on the geopolymerization process in order to obtain a resistant matrix usable for inertization of hazardous wastes. The evolution of the process from the precursors dissolution to final geopolymer matrix hardening has been followed by FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, SEM/EDS and leaching tests. The results show the significant influence of both curing temperature in the curing stage and of the mould materials on the matrix stability. The easy-to-run preparation procedure for a chemically stable metakaolin geopolymer individuated can be summarized as reagents setting and curing at room temperature and material mould which permits moisture level around 40%.

  9. Balance of calcineurin Aα and CDK5 activities sets release probability at nerve terminals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Ryan, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    The control of neurotransmitter release at nerve terminals is of profound importance for neurological function and provides a powerful control system in neural networks. We show that the balance of enzymatic activities of the alpha isoform of the phosphatase calcineurin (CNAα) and the kinase CDK5 has a dramatic influence over single AP-driven exocytosis at nerve terminals. Acute or chronic loss of these enzymatic activities results in a 7-fold impact on single action potential-driven exocytosis. We demonstrate that this control is mediated almost entirely through Cav2.2 (N-type) voltage-gated calcium channels as blocking these channels with a peptide toxin eliminates modulation by these enzymes. We found that a fraction of nerve terminals are kept in a presynaptically silent state with no measurable Ca2+ influx driven by single AP stimuli due to the balance of CNAα and CDK5 activities as blockade of either CNAα or CDK5 activity changes the proportion of presynaptically silent nerve terminals. Thus CNAα and CDK5 enzymatic activities are key determinants of release probability. PMID:23699505

  10. Candidacidal Activity of Selected Ceragenins and Human Cathelicidin LL-37 in Experimental Settings Mimicking Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Durnaś, Bonita; Wnorowska, Urszula; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Deptuła, Piotr; Wątek, Marzena; Piktel, Ewelina; Głuszek, Stanisław; Gu, Xiaobo; Savage, Paul B.; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Bucki, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections, especially those caused by antibiotic resistant pathogens, have become a serious public health problem due to the growing number of immunocompromised patients, including those subjected to anticancer treatment or suffering from HIV infection. In this study we assessed fungicidal activity of the ceragenins CSA-13, CSA-131 and CSA-192 against four fluconazole–resistant Candida strains. We found that ceragenins activity against planktonic Candida cells was higher than activity of human LL-37 peptide and synthetic cationic peptide omiganan. Compared to LL-37 peptide, ceragenins in the presence of DNase I demonstrated an increased ability to kill DNA-induced Candida biofilm. Microscopy studies show that treatment with LL-37 or ceragenins causes Candida cells to undergo extensive surface changes indicating surface membrane damage. This conclusion was substantiated by observation of rapid incorporation of FITC-labeled CSA-13, CSA-131 or LL-37 peptide into the more lipophilic environment of the Candida membrane. In addition to activity against Candida spp., ceragenins CSA-131 and CSA-192 display strong fungicidal activity against sixteen clinical isolates including Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus. These results indicate the potential of ceragenins for future development as new fungicidal agents. PMID:27315208

  11. Eastern Venezuela Basin's Post-Jurassic evolution as a passive transform margin basin

    SciTech Connect

    George, R.P. Jr. ); Sams, R.H. )

    1993-02-01

    Passive transform margins are segments of rifted continental margins bounded by transform faults that are active during rifting and that become inactive during drifting. Examples include the northern coast of Brazil and its matching margin along the Liberia-Nigeria coast. We propose that the northern margin of the Eastern Venezuela Basin was dominantly a passive transform margin during the Cretaceous and early Paleogene, rather than a purely passive margin. Published microplate reconstructions of the southern Caribbean show Jurassic separation of the Bahamas platform from northern South America along a northwest-trending transform fault postulated to lie just northeast of Trinidad and the Guianas. We conjecture that the [open quotes]Deflexion de Barcelona[close quotes] (a northwest-trending zone of strike slip faults along the southwestern edge of the Serrania del Interior) is controlled by a basement geofracture that is the onshore expression of Jurassic transform fault southwest of and subparallel to the southwestern Bahamas transform. Implications of this conjecture for the Eastern Venezuela Basin include: (1) absence of McKenzie-type regional crustal stretching, Mesozoic thermal anomaly, and Mesozoic thermal-tectonic subsidence; (2) abrupt rather than gradual seaward changes in crustal thickness; (3)abrupt lateral changes in thickness and facies of Mesozoic sediments, as in the Piaui-Ceara basins of northern Brazil; (4) tendency for structural styles developed during Neogene compression to include more strike-slip faults and en enchelon fold sets (because of reactivation of Mesozoic transforms) than would be expected by structural inversion of a purely passive margin.

  12. Novel zinc alginate hydrogels prepared by internal setting method with intrinsic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Straccia, Maria Cristina; d'Ayala, Giovanna Gomez; Romano, Ida; Laurienzo, Paola

    2015-07-10

    In this paper, a controlled gelation of alginate was performed for the first time using ZnCO3 and GDL. Uniform and transparent gels were obtained and investigated as potential wound dressings. Homogeneity, water content, swelling capability, water evaporation rate, stability in normal saline solution, mechanical properties and antibacterial activity were assessed as a function of zinc concentration. Gelation rate increased at increasing zinc content, while a decrease in water uptake and an improvement of stability were found. Release of zinc in physiological environments showed that concentration of zinc released in solution lies below the cytotoxicity level. Hydrogels showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. The hydrogel with highest zinc content was stabilized with calcium by immersion in a calcium chloride solution. The resulting hydrogel preserved homogeneity and antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it showed even an improvement of stability and mechanical properties, which makes it suitable as long-lasting wound dressing.

  13. [Psychophysiologic pattern of pilot's activity during flight as a basis for setting up his workplace].

    PubMed

    Frolov, N I

    1997-01-01

    The psychophysiological pattern of a pilot is considered on the basis of experiments made during flights. Five components of his activity, which may be estimated, are identified. These include sensory, motor, autonomic, occupational, and psychological components. The "reserves of attention" are singled out as an objective independent parameter that characterizes the activity of a pilot. Five determinants of the level of physiological responses are identified in a pilot during flight. Their mechanisms are most efficiently analyzed in terms of the basic concepts developed by P.K. Anokhin, P.V. Simonov, K.V. Sudakov. The objective activity estimates make it possible to assess the adequacy of a working place to the problems to be solved, to apply the anthrocentric principle in working out the pilot's working place by taking into account his psychophysiological capacities.

  14. Late Pleistocene-Holocene Faulting History Along the Northern El Carrizal Fault, Baja California Sur, Mexico: Earthquake Recurrence at a Persistently Active Rifted Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, S. J.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Gutiérrez, G. M.; Santillanez, A. U.; Rittenour, T. R.

    2007-12-01

    The El Carrizal fault is a NW striking, east dipping normal fault located 25 km west of the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico and is the westernmost bounding fault of the gulf-margin system at this latitude. The fault is ~70 km long onshore and ~50 km long offshore to the north in La Paz Bay. As many as three Quaternary geomorphic surfaces formed on the footwall and were identified on the basis of mapping and topographic profiling. In the north, the El Carrizal fault splays into multiple strands and exhibits a pattern of alternating N-S and NW-trending segments. Results from geologic mapping, paleoseismic investigations, and preliminary optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) geochronology provide some of the first numerical constraints on late Pleistocene-Holocene faulting along the El Carrizal fault. A 20 m long, 2-3 m deep trench (Trench 28) was excavated across the fault 23 km south of La Paz Bay. The trench was photographed, hand logged, and sampled for OSL dating. The trench revealed a succession of fluvial and channel deposits of sands, gravels, and cobbles. The main fault zone is manifested by a 0.5 m thick wedge-shaped deposit that consists of silty-sand and also contains rotated blocks of caliche- cemented gravels. Preliminary OSL ages from a silty-sand unit offset 2 m by the fault average latest Pleistocene. A trench 4 km south of Trench 28 (Cuadradito Trench) was also documented and sampled for OSL analysis. Preliminary OSL ages from a fluvial sand unit deposited against faulted bedrock range from mid to late Holocene. Sedimentary comparisons and surficial mapping suggest that the Holocene unit at Cuadradito Trench may be correlative to sediment that overlies faulted units from Trench 28. Such a correlation would constrain the timing of the 2 m offset at Trench 28 to be between latest Pleistocene and mid Holocene. A quarry 10 km north of Trench 28 exposes Quaternary sand and gravels buttressed against a 5-10 m wide bedrock shear zone. Here

  15. Child goal setting of dietary and physical activity in a serious videogame

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To inform child obesity prevention programs, the current article identified what children thought were the most important goals, values, and perceived barriers related to healthy eating and physical activity (PA) within a serious video game for health, "Escape from Diab" (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX...

  16. Accelerating wavefunction in density-functional-theory embedding by truncating the active basis set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennie, Simon J.; Stella, Martina; Miller, Thomas F.; Manby, Frederick R.

    2015-07-01

    Methods where an accurate wavefunction is embedded in a density-functional description of the surrounding environment have recently been simplified through the use of a projection operator to ensure orthogonality of orbital subspaces. Projector embedding already offers significant performance gains over conventional post-Hartree-Fock methods by reducing the number of correlated occupied orbitals. However, in our first applications of the method, we used the atomic-orbital basis for the full system, even for the correlated wavefunction calculation in a small, active subsystem. Here, we further develop our method for truncating the atomic-orbital basis to include only functions within or close to the active subsystem. The number of atomic orbitals in a calculation on a fixed active subsystem becomes asymptotically independent of the size of the environment, producing the required O ( N 0 ) scaling of cost of the calculation in the active subsystem, and accuracy is controlled by a single parameter. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated for the embedded many-body expansion of binding energies of water hexamers and calculation of reaction barriers of SN2 substitution of fluorine by chlorine in α-fluoroalkanes.

  17. Darwin and Evolution: A Set of Activities Based on the Evolution of Mammals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haresnape, Janet M.

    2010-01-01

    These activities, prepared for key stage 5 students (ages 16-18) and also suitable for key stage 4 (ages 14-16), show that physical appearance is not necessarily the best way to classify mammals. DNA structure is examined to show how similarities and differences between DNA sequences of mammals can be used to establish evolutionary relationships.…

  18. Role of guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) in setting the flash sensitivity of rod photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Ana; Burns, Marie E.; Sokal, Izabela; Dizhoor, Alexander M.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Baylor, Denis A.; Chen, Jeannie

    2001-01-01

    The retina's photoreceptor cells adjust their sensitivity to allow photons to be transduced over a wide range of light intensities. One mechanism thought to participate in sensitivity adjustments is Ca2+ regulation of guanylate cyclase (GC) by guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs). We evaluated the contribution of GCAPs to sensitivity regulation in rods by disrupting their expression in transgenic mice. The GC activity from GCAPs−/− retinas showed no Ca2+ dependence, indicating that Ca2+ regulation of GCs had indeed been abolished. Flash responses from dark-adapted GCAPs−/− rods were larger and slower than responses from wild-type rods. In addition, the incremental flash sensitivity of GCAPs−/− rods failed to be maintained at wild-type levels in bright steady light. GCAP2 expressed in GCAPs−/− rods restored maximal light-induced GC activity but did not restore normal flash response kinetics. We conclude that GCAPs strongly regulate GC activity in mouse rods, decreasing the flash sensitivity in darkness and increasing the incremental flash sensitivity in bright steady light, thereby extending the rod's operating range. PMID:11493703

  19. Students´ Perspectives on eLearning Activities in Person-Centered, Blended Learning Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselberger, David; Motsching, Renate

    2016-01-01

    Blended or hybrid learning has become a frequent practice in higher education. In this article our primary research interest was to find out how students perceived eLearning activities in blended learning courses based on the person-centered paradigm. Through analyzing the content of a series of semi-structured interviews we found out that…

  20. Active Learning in a Large Medical Classroom Setting for Teaching Renal Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietz, John R.; Stevenson, Frazier T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an active learning exercise which has been used to replace some lecture hours in the renal portion of an integrated, organ system-based curriculum for first-year medical students. The exercise takes place in a large auditorium with ~150 students. The authors, who are faculty members, lead the discussions,…

  1. Peace Perceptions of Prospective Teachers for Promoting Peace Activities for School Settings in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousuf, Muhammad Imran; Sarwar, Muhammad; Dart, Gareth; Naseer-ud-Din, Muhmmad

    2010-01-01

    Peace has been recognized as a matter of education and to be promoted at the initial level. The present study attempts to generate a profile of activities toward peace education among prospective teachers. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) was used by selecting fifteen prospective teachers as a Nominal Group (NG). NGT was applied under a sequence…

  2. Wearable accelerometry-based technology capable of assessing functional activities in neurological populations in community settings: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Integrating rehabilitation services through wearable systems has the potential to accurately assess the type, intensity, duration, and quality of movement necessary for procuring key outcome measures. Objectives This review aims to explore wearable accelerometry-based technology (ABT) capable of assessing mobility-related functional activities intended for rehabilitation purposes in community settings for neurological populations. In this review, we focus on the accuracy of ABT-based methods, types of outcome measures, and the implementation of ABT in non-clinical settings for rehabilitation purposes. Data sources Cochrane, PubMed, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, and IEEE Xplore. The search strategy covered three main areas, namely wearable technology, rehabilitation, and setting. Study selection Potentially relevant studies were categorized as systems either evaluating methods or outcome parameters. Methods Methodological qualities of studies were assessed by two customized checklists, depending on their categorization and rated independently by three blinded reviewers. Results Twelve studies involving ABT met the eligibility criteria, of which three studies were identified as having implemented ABT for rehabilitation purposes in non-clinical settings. From the twelve studies, seven studies achieved high methodological quality scores. These studies were not only capable of assessing the type, quantity, and quality measures of functional activities, but could also distinguish healthy from non-healthy subjects and/or address disease severity levels. Conclusion While many studies support ABT’s potential for telerehabilitation, few actually utilized it to assess mobility-related functional activities outside laboratory settings. To generate more appropriate outcome measures, there is a clear need to translate research findings and novel methods into practice. PMID:24625308

  3. Fault Orientations at Obliquely Rifted Margins: Where? When? Why?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha

    2015-04-01

    Present-day knowledge of rifted margin formation is largely based on 2D seismic lines, 2D conceptual models, and corroborated by 2D numerical experiments. However, the 2D assumption that the extension direction is perpendicular to the rift trend is often invalid. In fact, worldwide more than 75% of all rifted margin segments have been formed under significant obliquity exceeding 20° (angle measured between extension direction and rift trend normal): During formation of the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting dominated at the sheared margins of South Africa and Patagonia, the Equatorial Atlantic margins, separation of Greenland and North America, and it played a major role in the protracted rift history of the North East Atlantic. Outside the Atlantic Ocean, oblique rifting occurred during the split between East and West Gondwana, the separation of India and Australia, India and Madagascar, Australia and Antarctica, as well as Arabia and Africa. It is presently observed in the Gulf of California, the Aegean and in the East African Rift. Despite its significance, the degree to which oblique lithospheric extension affects first-order rift and passive margin properties like surface stress pattern, fault azimuths, and basin geometry, is still not entirely clear. This contribution provides insight in crustal stress patterns and fault orientations by applying a 3D numerical rift model to oblique extensional settings. The presented forward experiments cover the whole spectrum of oblique extension (i.e. rift-orthogonal extension, low obliquity, high obliquity, strike-slip deformation) from initial deformation to breakup. They are conducted using an elasto-visco-plastic finite element model and involve crustal and mantle layers accounting for self-consistent necking of the lithosphere. Results are thoroughly compared to previous analogue experiments, which yields many similarities but also distinct differences for late rift stages and for high obliquity. Even though the model

  4. Steric structure-activity relationship of cyproheptadine derivatives as inhibitors of histone methyltransferase Set7/9.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takashi; Ohira, Kasumi; Urushibara, Ko; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru; Kanai, Misae; Tanatani, Aya; Kagechika, Hiroyuki; Hirano, Tomoya

    2016-09-15

    Set7/9 is a histone lysine methyltransferase, but it is also thought to be involved in a wide variety of pathophysiological functions. We previously identified cyproheptadine, which has a characteristic butterfly-like molecular conformation with bent tricyclic dibenzosuberene and chair-form N-methylpiperidine moieties, as a Set7/9 inhibitor. In this work, we synthesized several derivatives in order to examine the steric structure-inhibitory activity relationship. We found that even a small change of molecular shape due to reduction or replacement of the 10,11-olefinic bond of the tricyclic ring generally resulted in a drastic decrease of the inhibitory activity. Our results should be useful not only for development of more potent and selective inhibitors, but also for the construction of novel inhibitor scaffolds.

  5. Activated glucocorticoid receptor interacts with the INHAT component Set/TAF-Ibeta and releases it from a glucocorticoid-responsive gene promoter, relieving repression: implications for the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistance in acute undifferentiated leukemia with Set-Can translocation.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Takamasa; Chrousos, George P; Kino, Tomoshige

    2008-02-13

    Set/template-activating factor (TAF)-Ibeta, part of the Set-Can oncogene product found in acute undifferentiated leukemia, is a component of the inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) complex. Set/TAF-Ibeta interacted with the DNA-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in yeast two-hybrid screening, and repressed GR-induced transcriptional activity of a chromatin-integrated glucocorticoid-responsive and a natural promoter. Set/TAF-Ibeta was co-precipitated with glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) of these promoters in the absence of dexamethasone, while addition of the hormone caused dissociation of Set/TAF-Ibeta from and attraction of the p160-type coactivator GRIP1 to the promoter GREs. Set-Can fusion protein, on the other hand, did not interact with GR, was constitutively co-precipitated with GREs and suppressed GRIP1-induced enhancement of GR transcriptional activity and histone acetylation. Thus, Set/TAF-Ibeta acts as a ligand-activated GR-responsive transcriptional repressor, while Set-Can does not retain physiologic responsiveness to ligand-bound GR, possibly contributing to the poor responsiveness of Set-Can-harboring leukemic cells to glucocorticoids.

  6. Assessing fault activity in intracontinental settings: paleoseismology and geomorphology in SE Kazakhstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Carson, Emily; Mackenzie, David; Elliott, Austin; Campbell, Grace; Walker, Richard; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2016-04-01

    Earthquake recurrence intervals of active faults often exceed the time span covered by instrumental, historical, and archaeological earthquake records in continental interiors. The identification of active faults then often relies on finding the geomorphological expression of surface faulting preserved in the landscape. In rather arid areas, single earthquake scarps can be preserved for thousands of years, but erosional and depositional processes will eventually obliterate features such as fault scarps and offset geological markers. Active faults with very long intervals between surface ruptures might therefore remain undetected, which constitutes a major problem for tectonic studies and seismic hazard assessment. Here we present data from the 50 km-long 'Charyn Canyon' thrust fault in the northern Tien Shan (SE Kazakhstan). Remote sensing, Structure-from-Motion (SfM), differential GPS, field mapping, and paleoseismic trenching were used to reveal the earthquake history of this fault. Radiocarbon dating, infra-red stimulated luminescence (IRSL), and scarp diffusion modelling were used for bracketing the occurrence of paleo-earthquakes. In the paleoseismological trenches we identified two surface rupturing events within the last ~37 ka BP. The most recent earthquake took place between 3.5 - 7.3 ka BP, the penultimate event occurred between ~17-37 ka BP. We estimate magnitudes of ~MW6.5-7.3. Only the younger event has a morphological expression as a 25 km-long fault scarp of ~2 m height. This implicates that a major landscape reset occurred between these two earthquakes, most likely related to the significant climatic change that marked the end of the last glacial maximum. Similar observations from other paleoseismic investigation sites in this area support this interpretation. Our study shows that faults in the northern Tien Shan tend to break in strong earthquakes with very long recurrence intervals. As a consequence, morphological evidence for the most recent

  7. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  8. Inferring Meal Eating Activities in Real World Settings from Ambient Sounds: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Thomaz, Edison; Zhang, Cheng; Essa, Irfan; Abowd, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective method for weight-loss, but it remains an onerous task despite recent advances in food journaling systems. Semi-automated food journaling can reduce the effort of logging, but often requires that eating activities be detected automatically. In this work we describe results from a feasibility study conducted in-the-wild where eating activities were inferred from ambient sounds captured with a wrist-mounted device; twenty participants wore the device during one day for an average of 5 hours while performing normal everyday activities. Our system was able to identify meal eating with an F-score of 79.8% in a person-dependent evaluation, and with 86.6% accuracy in a person-independent evaluation. Our approach is intended to be practical, leveraging off-the-shelf devices with audio sensing capabilities in contrast to systems for automated dietary assessment based on specialized sensors. PMID:25859566

  9. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  10. Applying Activity Theory to Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning and Work-Based Activities in Corporate Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush

    2004-01-01

    Business needs in many corporations call for learning outcomes that involve problem solutions, and creating and sharing new knowledge within workplace situations that may involve collaboration among members of a team. We argue that work-based activities (WBA) and computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) are appropriate components for…

  11. A Group-Lasso Active Set Strategy for Multiclass Hyperspectral Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuia, D.; Courty, N.; Flamary, R.

    2014-08-01

    Hyperspectral images have a strong potential for landcover/landuse classification, since the spectra of the pixels can highlight subtle differences between materials and provide information beyond the visible spectrum. Yet, a limitation of most current approaches is the hypothesis of spatial independence between samples: images are spatially correlated and the classification map should exhibit spatial regularity. One way of integrating spatial smoothness is to augment the input spectral space with filtered versions of the bands. However, open questions remain, such as the selection of the bands to be filtered, or the filterbank to be used. In this paper, we consider the entirety of the possible spatial filters by using an incremental feature learning strategy that assesses whether a candidate feature would improve the model if added to the current input space. Our approach is based on a multiclass logistic classifier with group-lasso regularization. The optimization of this classifier yields an optimality condition, that can easily be used to assess the interest of a candidate feature without retraining the model, thus allowing drastic savings in computational time. We apply the proposed method to three challenging hyperspectral classification scenarios, including agricultural and urban data, and study both the ability of the incremental setting to learn features that always improve the model and the nature of the features selected.

  12. Hands-on Activities for Exploring the Solar System in K-14 Formal and Informal Education Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.

    2004-12-01

    Introduction: Activities developed by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. Educators may choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum from activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to exploring the solar system. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. The web sites for the activities contain current information so students experience recent mission information such as data from Mars rovers or the status of Stardust sample return. The Johnson Space Center Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic syllabus useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the syllabus is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting, educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. In both the informal and the primary education levels the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest, arouse curiosity and easily take the participants from pre-awareness to the awareness stage. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered may easily be adapted for the upper

  13. Data set of optimal parameters for colorimetric red assay of epoxide hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel Stephani; Adriani, Patricia Pereira; Borges, Flavia Garcia; Lopes, Adriana Rios; Campana, Patricia T; Chambergo, Felipe S

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Epoxide hydrolase of Trichoderma reesei: Biochemical properties and conformational characterization" [1]. Epoxide hydrolases (EHs) are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of epoxides to the corresponding vicinal diols. This article describes the optimal parameters for the colorimetric red assay to determine the enzymatic activity, with an emphasis on the characterization of the kinetic parameters, pH optimum and thermal stability of this enzyme. The effects of reagents that are not resistant to oxidation by sodium periodate on the reactions can generate false positives and interfere with the final results of the red assay.

  14. Epidemic activity after natural disasters without high mortality in developing settings

    PubMed Central

    Loayza-Alarico, Manuel J; Lescano, Andres G; Suarez-Ognio, Luis A; Ramirez-Prada, Gladys M; Blazes, David L

    2013-01-01

    Natural disasters with minimal human mortality rarely capture headlines but occur frequently and result in significant morbidity and economic loss. We compared the epidemic activity observed after a flood, an earthquake, and volcanic activity in Peru. Following post-disaster guidelines, healthcare facilities and evacuation centers surveyed 10–12 significant health conditions for ~45 days and compared disease frequency with Poisson regression. The disasters affected 20,709 individuals and 15% were placed in evacuation centers. Seven deaths and 6,056 health conditions were reported (mean: 0.29 per person). Health facilities reported fewer events than evacuation centers (0.06–0.24 vs. 0.65–2.02, P < 0.001) and disease notification increased 1.6 times after the disasters (95% CI: 1.5–1.6). Acute respiratory infections were the most frequent event (41–57%) and psychological distress was second/third (7.6% to 14.3%). Morbidity increased after disasters without substantial casualties, particularly at evacuation centers, with frequent respiratory infections and psychological distress. Post-disaster surveillance is valuable even after low-mortality events. PMID:28228992

  15. Comparison of chiropractic student scores before and after utilizing active learning techniques in a classroom setting.

    PubMed

    Guagliardo, Joseph G; Hoiriis, Kathryn T

    2013-01-01

    Objective : We report the differences in final examination scores achieved by students at the culmination of two different teaching strategies in an introductory skills course. Methods : Multiple choice examination scores from six consecutive academic calendar sessions over 18 months (n = 503) were compared. Two groups were used: Cohort A (n = 290) represented students who were enrolled in the course 3 consecutive academic sessions before an instructional change and Cohort B (n = 213) included students who were enrolled in 3 consecutive academic sessions following the instructional change, which included a more active learning format. Statistical analyses used were 2-tailed independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD), and effect size. Results : The 2-tailed independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (t = -3.71, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-4.20). Significant difference was found in the highest performing subgroup compared to the lowest performing subgroup in Cohort A (F = 3.343, p = .037). For Cohort A subgroups 1 and 2, Tukey's HSD was p < .028. In Cohort B, no difference was found among subgroups (F = 1.912, p = .150, HSD p > .105). Conclusion : Compared to previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, the students in the new course design performed better, suggesting that using active learning techniques helps improve student achievement.

  16. Comparison of chiropractic student scores before and after utilizing active learning techniques in a classroom setting

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Joseph G.; Hoiriis, Kathryn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report the differences in final examination scores achieved by students at the culmination of two different teaching strategies in an introductory skills course. Methods Multiple choice examination scores from six consecutive academic calendar sessions over 18 months (n = 503) were compared. Two groups were used: Cohort A (n = 290) represented students who were enrolled in the course 3 consecutive academic sessions before an instructional change and Cohort B (n = 213) included students who were enrolled in 3 consecutive academic sessions following the instructional change, which included a more active learning format. Statistical analyses used were 2-tailed independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD), and effect size. Results The 2-tailed independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (t = −3.71, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–4.20). Significant difference was found in the highest performing subgroup compared to the lowest performing subgroup in Cohort A (F = 3.343, p = .037). For Cohort A subgroups 1 and 2, Tukey's HSD was p < .028. In Cohort B, no difference was found among subgroups (F = 1.912, p = .150, HSD p > .105). Conclusion Compared to previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, the students in the new course design performed better, suggesting that using active learning techniques helps improve student achievement. PMID:23964739

  17. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings. Distinct differences in

  18. Young children's hand contact activities: an observational study via videotaping in primarily outdoor residential settings.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Willa; Canales, Robert A; Beamer, Paloma; Ferguson, Alesia C; Leckie, James O

    2006-09-01

    Microlevel activity time series (MLATS) data were gathered on hand contact activities of 38 children (1-6 years old) by videotaping in primarily outdoor residential environments. The videotape recordings were then translated into text files using a specialized software called VirtualTimingDevicetrade mark. Contact frequency (contacts/h), duration per contact (s/contact), and hourly contact duration (min/h) were summarized for outdoor hand contacts with 15 distinct object/surface categories ("Animal", "Body", "Clothes/Towels", "Fabric", "Floor", "Food", "Footwear", "Metal", "Non-dietary Water", "Paper/Wrapper", "Plastic", "Rock/Brick", "Toys", "Vegetation/Grass", and "Wood") and two aggregate object/surface categories ("Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces"). For outdoor both hand contacts with "Total objects/surfaces", contact frequencies ranged from 229.9 to 1517.7 contacts/h, median durations/contact ranged from < 1 to 5 s, and hourly contact durations ranged from 42.6 to 102.2 m/h. The data were analyzed for significant differences in hand contact activities as a function of (1) age, (2) location, (3) gender, and (4) hand. Significant differences (P < or = 0.05) were found for all four factors analyzed. Hourly contact durations with "Non-dietary objects/surfaces" and "Total objects/surfaces" increased with age (P = 0.01, rs = 0.42 and P = 0.005, rs = 0.46, respectively), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Wood" decreased with age (P = 0.02, rs = -0.38 and P = 0.05, rs = -0.32, respectively). Location was found to affect contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with certain objects/surfaces. For example, contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Fabric" were higher indoors (P = 0.02 for both), while contact frequencies and hourly contact durations with "Vegetation/Grass" were higher outdoors (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Girls had longer hourly contact durations with "Footwear" (P = 0

  19. Dopamine receptors set the pattern of activity generated in subthalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Baufreton, J; Zhu, Z-T; Garret, M; Bioulac, B; Johnson, S W; Taupignon, A I

    2005-11-01

    Information processing in the brain requires adequate background neuronal activity. As Parkinson's disease progresses, patients typically become akinetic; the death of dopaminergic neurons leads to a dopamine-depleted state, which disrupts information processing related to movement in a brain area called the basal ganglia. Using agonists of dopamine receptors in the D1 and D2 families on rat brain slices, we show that dopamine receptors in these two families govern the firing pattern of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, a crucial part of the basal ganglia. We propose a conceptual frame, based on specific properties of dopamine receptors, to account for the dominance of different background firing patterns in normal and dopamine-depleted states.

  20. Assessing sustainability of InSHAPE participants' fitness activities in a community mental health setting.

    PubMed

    Lesley, Marsha L; Livingood, Kristi; Livingwood, Kristi

    2015-02-01

    InSHAPE (Self Help Action Plan for Empowerment), an exercise and nutrition wellness program, is gaining national recognition for its success in helping individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) improve physical fitness and dietary habits. Although gains have been reported in objective measures of fitness as participants progressed through the year-long program, there is little information about what happens with participants after program completion. To address this gap in knowledge, the authors conducted a longitudinal qualitative study in which 11 InSHAPE participants were interviewed both near the end of their year in the program and 9 months later. Participants identified the trainer's ability to contain their initial feelings of distress and form a working alliance as factors that contributed to their exercise persistence. Current findings suggest that individuals with SMI may need a longer period of time working closely with fitness trainers to sustain physical activity levels achieved during the program.

  1. Parsing radiographs by integrating landmark set detection and multi-object active appearance models.

    PubMed

    Montillo, Albert; Song, Qi; Liu, Xiaoming; Miller, James V

    2013-03-13

    This work addresses the challenging problem of parsing 2D radiographs into salient anatomical regions such as the left and right lungs and the heart. We propose the integration of an automatic detection of a constellation of landmarks via rejection cascade classifiers and a learned geometric constellation subset detector model with a multi-object active appearance model (MO-AAM) initialized by the detected landmark constellation subset. Our main contribution is twofold. First, we propose a recovery method for false positive and negative landmarks which allows to handle extreme ranges of anatomical and pathological variability. Specifically we (1) recover false negative (missing) landmarks through the consensus of inferences from subsets of the detected landmarks, and (2) choose one from multiple false positives for the same landmark by learning Gaussian distributions for the relative location of each landmark. Second, we train a MO-AAM using the true landmarks for the detectors and during test, initialize the model using the detected landmarks. Our model fitting allows simultaneous localization of multiple regions by encoding the shape and appearance information of multiple objects in a single model. The integration of landmark detection method and MO-AAM reduces mean distance error of the detected landmarks from 20.0mm to 12.6mm. We assess our method using a database of scout CT scans from 80 subjects with widely varying pathology.

  2. Target Prediction for an Open Access Set of Compounds Active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Jiménez, Francisco; Papadatos, George; Yang, Lun; Wallace, Iain M.; Kumar, Vinod; Pieper, Ursula; Sali, Andrej; Brown, James R.; Overington, John P.; Marti-Renom, Marc A.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), infects an estimated two billion people worldwide and is the leading cause of mortality due to infectious disease. The development of new anti-TB therapeutics is required, because of the emergence of multi-drug resistance strains as well as co-infection with other pathogens, especially HIV. Recently, the pharmaceutical company GlaxoSmithKline published the results of a high-throughput screen (HTS) of their two million compound library for anti-mycobacterial phenotypes. The screen revealed 776 compounds with significant activity against the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain, including a subset of 177 prioritized compounds with high potency and low in vitro cytotoxicity. The next major challenge is the identification of the target proteins. Here, we use a computational approach that integrates historical bioassay data, chemical properties and structural comparisons of selected compounds to propose their potential targets in M. tuberculosis. We predicted 139 target - compound links, providing a necessary basis for further studies to characterize the mode of action of these compounds. The results from our analysis, including the predicted structural models, are available to the wider scientific community in the open source mode, to encourage further development of novel TB therapeutics. PMID:24098102

  3. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  4. Field evaluation of a blood based test for active tuberculosis in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Khaliq, Aasia; Ravindran, Resmi; Hussainy, Syed Fahadulla; Krishnan, Viwanathan V; Ambreen, Atiqa; Yusuf, Noshin Wasim; Irum, Shagufta; Rashid, Abdul; Jamil, Muhammad; Zaffar, Fareed; Chaudhry, Muhammad Nawaz; Gupta, Puneet K; Akhtar, Muhammad Waheed; Khan, Imran H

    2017-01-01

    Over 9 million new active tuberculosis (TB) cases emerge each year from an enormous pool of 2 billion individuals latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) worldwide. About 3 million new TB cases per year are unaccounted for, and 1.5 million die. TB, however, is generally curable if diagnosed correctly and in a timely manner. The current diagnostic methods for TB, including state-of-the-art molecular tests, have failed in delivering the capacity needed in endemic countries to curtail this ongoing pandemic. Efficient, cost effective and scalable diagnostic approaches are critically needed. We report a multiplex TB serology panel using microbead suspension array containing a combination of 11 M.tb. antigens that demonstrated overall sensitivity of 91% in serum/plasma samples from TB patients confirmed by culture. Group wise sensitivities for sputum smear positive and negative patients were 95%, and 88%, respectively. Specificity of the test was 96% in untreated COPD patients and 91% in general healthy population. The sensitivity of this test is superior to that of the frontline sputum smear test with a comparable specificity (30-70%, and 93-99%, respectively). The multiplex serology test can be performed with scalability from 1 to 360 patients per day, and is amenable to automation for higher (1000s per day) throughput, thus enabling a scalable clinical work flow model for TB endemic countries. Taken together, the above results suggest that well defined antibody profiles in blood, analyzed by an appropriate technology platform, offer a valuable approach to TB diagnostics in endemic countries.

  5. An active-set equality constrained Newton solver with feasibility restoration for inverse coefficient problems in elliptic variational inequalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hintermüller, M.

    2008-06-01

    An output-least-squares formulation for a class of parameter identification problems for elliptic variational inequalities is considered. Based on the concept of C-stationarity an active set type solver with feasibility restoration is introduced. It is shown that the new method relates to the so-called implicit programming techniques in the context of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints. In the discrete setting, in order to overcome the ill-posedness of the problem, the parameter of interest is discretized on a coarser mesh than the state of the system. In addition, if the parameter corresponds to the coefficient in the bilinear form of the underlying differential operator, an interior-point treatment is employed to maintain the coercivity of the elliptic operator. Moreover, the computational domain for the coefficient depends on the measurement data. The paper ends with a report on numerical tests including an application to a simplified lubrication problem in a rolling element device.

  6. Variants of the protein PRDM9 differentially regulate a set of human meiotic recombination hotspots highly active in African populations.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ingrid L; Neumann, Rita; Sarbajna, Shriparna; Odenthal-Hesse, Linda; Butler, Nicola J; Jeffreys, Alec J

    2011-07-26

    PRDM9 is a major specifier of human meiotic recombination hotspots, probably via binding of its zinc-finger repeat array to a DNA sequence motif associated with hotspots. However, our view of PRDM9 regulation, in terms of motifs defined and hotspots studied, has a strong bias toward the PRDM9 A variant particularly common in Europeans. We show that population diversity can reveal a second class of hotspots specifically activated by PRDM9 variants common in Africans but rare in Europeans. These African-enhanced hotspots nevertheless share very similar properties with their counterparts activated by the A variant. The specificity of hotspot activation is such that individuals with differing PRDM9 genotypes, even within the same population, can use substantially if not completely different sets of hotspots. Each African-enhanced hotspot is activated by a distinct spectrum of PRDM9 variants, despite the fact that all are predicted to bind the same sequence motif. This differential activation points to complex interactions between the zinc-finger array and hotspots and identifies features of the array that might be important in controlling hotspot activity.

  7. The Mobile Margin of (Far) North America: GPS Constraints on Active Deformation in Alaska and the Role of the Yakutat Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Larsen, C. F.; Motyka, R. J.

    2010-12-01

    GPS data from southern Alaska and the northern Canadian Cordillera have helped redefine the region’s tectonic landscape. Instead of a comparatively simple interaction between the Pacific and North American plates, with relative motion accommodated on a single boundary fault, we find a margin made up of a number of small blocks and deformation zones with relative motion distributed across a variety of structures. Much of this complexity can be attributed to the Yakutat block, an allochthonous terrane that has been colliding with southern Alaska since the Miocene. We present a GPS-derived tectonic model for the Yakutat block collision and its effects on southern Alaska and eastern Canada. The Yakutat block moves NNW at a rate of 50 mm/a, resulting in ~ 45 mm/a of NW-directed convergence with southern Alaska. Along its eastern edge, the Yakutat block is deforming, represented in our model by two small northwesterly moving blocks outboard of the Fairweather fault. Part of the strain from the collision is transferred east of the Fairweather - Queen Charlotte fault system, causing the region inboard of the Fairweather fault to undergo a distinct clockwise rotation into the northern Canadian Cordillera. Further south, the region directly east of the Queen Charlotte fault displays a much slower clockwise rotation, suggesting that it is at least partially pulled along by the northern block motion. About 5% of the relative motion is transferred even further east, causing small northeasterly motions well into the northern Cordillera. The northwestern edge of the Yakutat block marks the main deformation front between that block and southern Alaska. Multiple narrow, northwesterly moving blocks bounded by N- to NW-dipping thrust faults are required to explain the GPS data between the Malaspina Glacier and the Bagley Ice Valley. These “blocks” may be more aptly termed crustal slivers or deformation zones due to their size and because their bounding faults may sole out into

  8. Stepwise Signal Extraction via Marginal Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Du, Chao; Kao, Chu-Lan Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the estimation of stepwise signal. To determine the number and locations of change-points of the stepwise signal, we formulate a maximum marginal likelihood estimator, which can be computed with a quadratic cost using dynamic programming. We carry out extensive investigation on the choice of the prior distribution and study the asymptotic properties of the maximum marginal likelihood estimator. We propose to treat each possible set of change-points equally and adopt an empirical Bayes approach to specify the prior distribution of segment parameters. Detailed simulation study is performed to compare the effectiveness of this method with other existing methods. We demonstrate our method on single-molecule enzyme reaction data and on DNA array CGH data. Our study shows that this method is applicable to a wide range of models and offers appealing results in practice. PMID:27212739

  9. Public involvement in the priority setting activities of a wait time management initiative: a qualitative case study

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Rebecca A; Laupacis, Andreas; Levinson, Wendy; Martin, Douglas K

    2007-01-01

    Background As no health system can afford to provide all possible services and treatments for the people it serves, each system must set priorities. Priority setting decision makers are increasingly involving the public in policy making. This study focuses on public engagement in a key priority setting context that plagues every health system around the world: wait list management. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate priority setting for the Ontario Wait Time Strategy, with special attention to public engagement. Methods This study was conducted at the Ontario Wait Time Strategy in Ontario, Canada which is part of a Federal-Territorial-Provincial initiative to improve access and reduce wait times in five areas: cancer, cardiac, sight restoration, joint replacements, and diagnostic imaging. There were two sources of data: (1) over 25 documents (e.g. strategic planning reports, public updates), and (2) 28 one-on-one interviews with informants (e.g. OWTS participants, MOHLTC representatives, clinicians, patient advocates). Analysis used a modified thematic technique in three phases: open coding, axial coding, and evaluation. Results The Ontario Wait Time Strategy partially meets the four conditions of 'accountability for reasonableness'. The public was not directly involved in the priority setting activities of the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Study participants identified both benefits (supporting the initiative, experts of the lived experience, a publicly funded system and sustainability of the healthcare system) and concerns (personal biases, lack of interest to be involved, time constraints, and level of technicality) for public involvement in the Ontario Wait Time Strategy. Additionally, the participants identified concern for the consequences (sustainability, cannibalism, and a class system) resulting from the Ontario Wait Times Strategy. Conclusion We described and evaluated a wait time management initiative (the Ontario Wait Time Strategy

  10. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bronikowski, Michal; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Glapa, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA) and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE) classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2), 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2) and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4). An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities. PMID:27649219

  11. Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of a Set of Hetero Bicylic Methylthiadiazole Hydrazones: A Structure-Activity Study

    PubMed Central

    Kodisundaram, Paulrasu; Duraikannu, Arul; Balasankar, Thirunavukkarasu; Sundarao Ambure, Pravin; Roy, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    The current study highlights the in vitro antioxidant and antitumor activity of the previously-synthesized hydrazone derivatives against various free radicals and human cancer cell lines, respectively. The anticancer efficacies of the compound were tested by measuring cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines HeLa, A549, and non-cancerous NL20 cells. Compounds possessing electron-donor methoxy and methyl substitutions at the para position of the phenyl ring moiety showed a concentration dependent free radical scavenging effects. The free radical-scavenging potential of synthetic compounds 11 and 14 may have significant impact on the prevention of free radical-induced oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. The results from cytotoxicity and cell migration assay showed that the substitution of electron-withdrawing fluoro, chloro and bromo functional groups induced a significant (P< 0.001) loss of cell viability and inhibited the invasive potential of the human cancer cells. Additionally, these compounds showed significantly (P< 0.05) a less toxicity toward non-cancerous NL20 cells. Docking studies revealed interactions of compound 10 with p38α MAP kinase, which may be responsible of its anti-invasive and anti-proliferative effects. PMID:26261802

  12. A self-tunable Titanium Sapphire laser by rotating a set of parallel plates of active material.

    PubMed

    Iparraguirre, Ignacio; Azkargorta, Jon; Fernandez, Joaquín; Balda, Rolindes; Del Río Gaztelurrutia, Teresa; Illarramendi, M Asunción; Aramburu, Ibon

    2009-03-02

    In a recent work, the authors reported the experimental demonstration of wavelength tuning in a single birefringent plate of Ti:sapphire crystal based on its own birefringence properties. In that device, the thickness of the active plate, limited by the width of the single order tuning spectral region, imposed a strong constraint in the power performance of the laser. The aim of this work is to overcome this limitation by using a set of several identical birefringent plates so that the wavelength tuning of the laser is obtained by synchronously rotating the plates in their own plane. A discussion about the laser performance is presented.

  13. Extended Functional Groups (EFG): An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds.

    PubMed

    Salmina, Elena S; Haider, Norbert; Tetko, Igor V

    2015-12-23

    The article describes a classification system termed "extended functional groups" (EFG), which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool (http://ochem.eu/alerts) of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM) environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models.

  14. The Physics of a Volcanic System: What is the Actual Role Played by Tectonic Setting in Controlling Volcanic Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canon-Tapia, E.

    2005-12-01

    Modern text-books commonly explain volcanic activity as a direct consequence of plate tectonics, overlooking the different scales characteristic of both types of processes. By acknowledging such differences, however, it is possible to envisage a model of a volcanic system that is based in the same principles of hydrostatics established by Blaise Pascal over 300 yrs ago. Such principles allow us to estimate the local conditions required for the occurrence of volcanism at a given location highlighting the importance of the rock strength and the density difference between melt and its surroundings. This model shows that the minimum thickness of the zone of partial melting in the mantle (or seismically defined Low Velocity Zone) that is required to feed volcanic activity might range from 5 to over 100 km, but also that under certain circumstances a rock strength < 200 MPa may suffice to keep magma trapped at depth whereas in other cases a strength > 600 MPa will not suffice to stop magma ascent resulting in volcanic activity at the surface. Consequently, the model of volcanism developed here explains why is that a given LVZ may lead to volcanic activity in some places whereas a completely identical LVZ may not result in volcanic activity in a different location. Consequently, this model provides a general framework that allows us to better understand the actual role played by tectonic setting in controlling volcanism at a planetary scale.

  15. Optogenetic silencing of locus coeruleus activity in mice impairs cognitive flexibility in an attentional set-shifting task

    PubMed Central

    Janitzky, Kathrin; Lippert, Michael T.; Engelhorn, Achim; Tegtmeier, Jennifer; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Ohl, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) is the sole source of noradrenergic projections to the cortex and essential for attention-dependent cognitive processes. In this study we used unilateral optogenetic silencing of the LC in an attentional set-shifting task (ASST) to evaluate the influence of the LC on prefrontal cortex-dependent functions in mice. We expressed the halorhodopsin eNpHR 3.0 to reversibly silence LC activity during task performance, and found that silencing selectively impaired learning of those parts of the ASST that most strongly rely on cognitive flexibility. In particular, extra-dimensional set-shifting (EDS) and reversal learning was impaired, suggesting an involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, those parts of the task that are less dependent on cognitive flexibility, i.e., compound discrimination (CD) and the intra-dimensional shifts (IDS) were not affected. Furthermore, attentional set formation was unaffected by LC silencing. Our results therefore suggest a modulatory influence of the LC on cognitive flexibility, mediated by different frontal networks. PMID:26582980

  16. A Physical Activity Reference Data-Set Recorded from Older Adults Using Body-Worn Inertial Sensors and Video Technology—The ADAPT Study Data-Set

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, Alan Kevin; Ihlen, Espen Alexander F.; Bergquist, Ronny; Wik, Per Bendik; Vereijken, Beatrix; Helbostad, Jorunn L.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity monitoring algorithms are often developed using conditions that do not represent real-life activities, not developed using the target population, or not labelled to a high enough resolution to capture the true detail of human movement. We have designed a semi-structured supervised laboratory-based activity protocol and an unsupervised free-living activity protocol and recorded 20 older adults performing both protocols while wearing up to 12 body-worn sensors. Subjects’ movements were recorded using synchronised cameras (≥25 fps), both deployed in a laboratory environment to capture the in-lab portion of the protocol and a body-worn camera for out-of-lab activities. Video labelling of the subjects’ movements was performed by five raters using 11 different category labels. The overall level of agreement was high (percentage of agreement >90.05%, and Cohen’s Kappa, corrected kappa, Krippendorff’s alpha and Fleiss’ kappa >0.86). A total of 43.92 h of activities were recorded, including 9.52 h of in-lab and 34.41 h of out-of-lab activities. A total of 88.37% and 152.01% of planned transitions were recorded during the in-lab and out-of-lab scenarios, respectively. This study has produced the most detailed dataset to date of inertial sensor data, synchronised with high frame-rate (≥25 fps) video labelled data recorded in a free-living environment from older adults living independently. This dataset is suitable for validation of existing activity classification systems and development of new activity classification algorithms. PMID:28287449

  17. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  18. Activation of Marginally Reactive Boron Enolates by MeLi for the Formation of Enol Phosphates and Synthesis of the Δ(9)-THC Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Hiroki; Ikoma, Atsushi; Ogawa, Narihito; Kobayashi, Yuichi

    2015-09-18

    The addition of MeLi to boron enolates produced by the 1,4-addition of Ar2Cu(CN)Li2 to BF3·OEt2-activated enones was followed by the reaction with ClP(O)(OEt)2 to afford the corresponding enol phosphates in moderate to good yields. The scope of this method was examined with sterically hindered or electronically biased enones and/or reagents. This activation of boron enolates was successfully applied to the synthesis of the methyl ether of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol.

  19. Storm tracks near marginal stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambaum, Maarten; Novak, Lenka

    2015-04-01

    The variance of atmospheric storm tracks is characterised by intermittent bursts of activity interspersed with relatively quiescent periods. Most of the poleward heat transport by storm tracks is due to a limited number of strong heat flux events, which occur in a quasi-periodic fashion. This behaviour is in contradiction with the usual conceptual model of the storm tracks, which relies on high growth rate background flows which then spawn weather systems that grow in an exponential or non-normal fashion. Here we present a different conceptual model of the atmospheric storm tracks which is built on the observation that, when including diabatic and other dissipative effects, the storm track region is in fact most of the time marginally stable. The ensuing model is a nonlinear oscillator, very similar to Volterra-Lotka predator-prey models. We demonstrate the extensions of this model to a stochastically driven nonlinear oscillator. The model produces quasi-periodic behaviour dominated by intermittent heat flux events. Perhaps most surprisingly, we will show strong evidence from re-analysis data for our conceptual model: the re-analysis data produces a phase-space plot that is very similar indeed to the phase-space plot for our nonlinear oscillator model.

  20. Set7 mediated Gli3 methylation plays a positive role in the activation of Sonic Hedgehog pathway in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Lin; Wu, Hailong; Cheng, Steven Y; Gao, Daming; Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog signaling plays very important roles in development and cancers. Vertebrates have three transcriptional factors, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3. Among them, Gli3 is a very special transcriptional factor which closely resembles Cubitus interruptus (Ci, in Drosophila) structurally and functionally as a ‘double agent’ for Shh target gene expression. Here we show that Gli3 full-length, but not the truncated form, can be methylated at K436 and K595. This methylation is specifically catalyzed by Set7, a lysine methyltransferase (KMT). Methylation at K436 and K595 respectively increases the stability and DNA binding ability of Gli3, resulting in an enhancement of Shh signaling activation. Furthermore, functional experiments indicate that the Gli3 methylation contributes to the tumor growth and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, we propose that Set7 mediated methylation is a novel PTM of Gli3, which positively regulates the transactivity of Gli3 and the activation of Shh signaling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15690.001 PMID:27146893

  1. SARANEA: a freely available program to mine structure-activity and structure-selectivity relationship information in compound data sets.

    PubMed

    Lounkine, Eugen; Wawer, Mathias; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    We introduce SARANEA, an open-source Java application for interactive exploration of structure-activity relationship (SAR) and structure-selectivity relationship (SSR) information in compound sets of any source. SARANEA integrates various SAR and SSR analysis functions and utilizes a network-like similarity graph data structure for visualization. The program enables the systematic detection of activity and selectivity cliffs and corresponding key compounds across multiple targets. Advanced SAR analysis functions implemented in SARANEA include, among others, layered chemical neighborhood graphs, cliff indices, selectivity trees, editing functions for molecular networks and pathways, bioactivity summaries of key compounds, and markers for bioactive compounds having potential side effects. We report the application of SARANEA to identify SAR and SSR determinants in different sets of serine protease inhibitors. It is found that key compounds can influence SARs and SSRs in rather different ways. Such compounds and their SAR/SSR characteristics can be systematically identified and explored using SARANEA. The program and source code are made freely available under the GNU General Public License.

  2. Sedimentary loading, lithospheric flexure and subduction initiation at passive margins

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.G. . Dept. of Earth Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Recent theoretical models have demonstrated the difficulty of subduction initiation at passive margins, whether subduction is assumed to initiate by overcoming the shear resistance on a thrust fault through the lithosphere or by failure of the entire lithosphere in bending due to sedimentary loading. A mechanism for subduction initiation at passive margins that overcomes these difficulties incorporates the increased subsidence of a marginal basin during decoupling of a previously locked margin. A passive margin may decouple by reactivation of rift-related faults in a local extensional or strike-slip setting. Flexure of marginal basins by sedimentary loading is modeled here by the bending of infinite and semi-infinite elastic plates under a triangular load. The geometry of a mature marginal basin fits the deflection produced by loading of an infinite plate in which the flexural rigidity of continental lithosphere is larger than that of oceanic lithosphere. Decoupling of such a locked passive margin by fault reactivation may cause the lithospheric bending behavior of the margin to change from that of an infinite plate to that of a semi-infinite plate, with a resultant increase in deflection of the marginal basin. The increase in deflection depends on the flexural rigidities of continental and oceanic lithosphere. For flexural rigidities of 10[sup 30]-10[sup 31] dyn-cm (elastic lithosphere thicknesses 24--51 km), the difference in deflections between infinite and semi-infinite plates is 15--17 km, so that decoupling sinks the top of the oceanic lithosphere to depths of ca 35 km. Additional sedimentation within the basin and phase changes within the oceanic crust may further increase this deflection. Subduction may initiate if the top of the oceanic lithosphere sinks to the base of the adjacent elastic lithosphere.

  3. Marginalized Discourses and Scientific Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Obed

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the marginalized discourses that have arisen to oppose the racism, sexism, and classism espoused and advocated by mainstream science since its institutionalization up until the first half of the 20th century. Contains 39 references. (Author/PVD)

  4. Application of geoinformation techniques in sustainable development of marginal rural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynska, G.

    2009-04-01

    The basic objective of the studies is to create a geographic information system that would assure integration of activities aimed at protecting biological diversity with sustainable development of marginal rural areas through defining the conditions for development of tourism and recreation in the identified areas. The choice of that solution is a consequence of the fact that numerous phenomena and processes presented in maps are linked to functional relations or they can be viewed as functions of space, time and attributes. The paper presents the system development stage aimed at elaborating the template for the system serving solution of the above-presented problem. In case of this issue the geographic information system will be developed to support development of marginal rural areas through selection of appropriate forms of tourism for the endangered areas including indication of locations for development of appropriate tourist infrastructure. Selection of the appropriate form of tourism will depend on natural, tourist and infrastructure values present in a given area and conditioned by the need to present the biodiversity component present in those areas together with elements of traditional agricultural landscape. The most important problem is to reconcile two seemingly contradictory aims: 1. Preventing social and economic marginalization of the restructured rural areas. 2. Preserving biological diversity in the restructured areas.Agriculture influences many aspects of the natural environment such as water resources, biodiversity and status of natural habitats, status of soils, landscape and, in a wider context, the climate. Project implementation will involve application of technologies allowing analysis of the systems for managing marginal rural areas as spatial models based on geographic information systems. Modelling of marginal rural areas management using the GIS technologies will involve creating spatial models of actual objects. On the basis of data

  5. Rat cardiovascular telemetry: Marginal distribution applied to positive control drugs.

    PubMed

    Accardi, M V; Troncy, E; Abtout, S; Ascah, A; Maghezzi, S; Authier, S

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects are considered frequent during drug safety testing. This investigation aimed to characterize the pharmacological response of the conscious telemetered rat in vivo model to known cardiovascular active agents. These effects were analyzed using statistical analysis and cloud representation with marginal distribution curves for the contractility index and heart rate as to assess the effect relationship between cardiac variables. Arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, electrocardiogram and body temperature were monitored. The application of data cloud with marginal distribution curves to heart rate and contractility index provided an interesting tactic during the interpretation of drug-induced changes particularly during selective time resolution (i.e. marginal distribution curves restricted to Tmax). Taken together, the present data suggests that marginal distribution curves can be a valuable interpretation strategy when using the rat cardiovascular telemetry model to detect drug-induced cardiovascular effects. Marginal distribution curves could also be considered during the interpretation of other inter-dependent parameters in safety pharmacology studies.

  6. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  7. Realistic respiratory motion margins for external beam partial breast irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, Leigh; Quirk, Sarah; Smith, Wendy L.

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Respiratory margins for partial breast irradiation (PBI) have been largely based on geometric observations, which may overestimate the margin required for dosimetric coverage. In this study, dosimetric population-based respiratory margins and margin formulas for external beam partial breast irradiation are determined. Methods: Volunteer respiratory data and anterior–posterior (AP) dose profiles from clinical treatment plans of 28 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) PBI patient plans were used to determine population-based respiratory margins. The peak-to-peak amplitudes (A) of realistic respiratory motion data from healthy volunteers were scaled from A = 1 to 10 mm to create respiratory motion probability density functions. Dose profiles were convolved with the respiratory probability density functions to produce blurred dose profiles accounting for respiratory motion. The required margins were found by measuring the distance between the simulated treatment and original dose profiles at the 95% isodose level. Results: The symmetric dosimetric respiratory margins to cover 90%, 95%, and 100% of the simulated treatment population were 1.5, 2, and 4 mm, respectively. With patient set up at end exhale, the required margins were larger in the anterior direction than the posterior. For respiratory amplitudes less than 5 mm, the population-based margins can be expressed as a fraction of the extent of respiratory motion. The derived formulas in the anterior/posterior directions for 90%, 95%, and 100% simulated population coverage were 0.45A/0.25A, 0.50A/0.30A, and 0.70A/0.40A. The differences in formulas for different population coverage criteria demonstrate that respiratory trace shape and baseline drift characteristics affect individual respiratory margins even for the same average peak-to-peak amplitude. Conclusions: A methodology for determining population-based respiratory margins using real respiratory motion patterns and dose profiles in the AP direction was

  8. Worst-Case Flutter Margins from F/A-18 Aircraft Aeroelastic Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick; Brenner, Marty

    1997-01-01

    An approach for computing worst-case flutter margins has been formulated in a robust stability framework. Uncertainty operators are included with a linear model to describe modeling errors and flight variations. The structured singular value, micron, computes a stability margin which directly accounts for these uncertainties. This approach introduces a new method of computing flutter margins and an associated new parameter for describing these margins. The micron margins are robust margins which indicate worst-case stability estimates with respect to the defined uncertainty. Worst-case flutter margins are computed for the F/A-18 SRA using uncertainty sets generated by flight data analysis. The robust margins demonstrate flight conditions for flutter may lie closer to the flight envelope than previously estimated by p-k analysis.

  9. Feasibility of activity-promoting video games among obese adolescents and young adults in a clinical setting.

    PubMed

    Radon, Katja; Fürbeck, Barbara; Thomas, Silke; Siegfried, Wolfgang; Nowak, Dennis; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    One component of the recent obesity epidemic is the sedentary behaviour of children and adolescents e.g., use of video games consoles. The new generation of video games requires body movements and might thus increase activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether such games could have an effect on physical activity in obese adolescents in a clinical setting. Between March and May 2007 activity-promoting video games ("apvg") were offered to all 84 inpatients (aged 13-28 years) registered in a long-term rehabilitation programme on a voluntary base. Reasons for (non-)attendance were assessed. Frequency and duration of use of the activity-promoting video game sessions were documented. Furthermore, heart rate and activity counts during use of "apvg", endurance training, and strength training were measured. Of 84 inpatients, 51 used the "apvg" at least once (69%) over the study period. The median weekly use of the intervention was 27 min during the first week (range 0-182 min), declining to zero (range 0-74 min) in week four. Mean heart rate during the sessions (mean 115 bpm; 95% confidence interval 108-122 bpm) was similar to the heart rate during strength training (106 bpm; 101-112 bpm). The results indicate that the video games could have an impact on the activity of obese adolescents and young adults. However, as the interest in the devices seems to be too low the suitability of them for weight reduction programmes in young people cannot be ensured.

  10. Testing for conditional multiple marginal independence.

    PubMed

    Bilder, Christopher R; Loughin, Thomas M

    2002-03-01

    Survey respondents are often prompted to pick any number of responses from a set of possible responses. Categorical variables that summarize this kind of data are called pick any/c variables. Counts from surveys that contain a pick any/c variable along with a group variable (r levels) and stratification variable (q levels) can be marginally summarized into an r x c x q contingency table. A question that may naturally arise from this setup is to determine if the group and pick any/c variable are marginally independent given the stratification variable. A test for conditional multiple marginal independence (CMMI) can be used to answer this question. Since subjects may pick any number out of c possible responses, the Cochran (1954, Biometrics 10, 417-451) and Mantel and Haenszel (1959, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 22, 719-748) tests cannot be used directly because they assume that units in the contingency table are independent of each other. Therefore, new testing methods are developed. Cochran's test statistic is extended to r x 2 x q tables, and a modified version of this statistic is proposed to test CMMI. Its sampling distribution can be approximated through bootstrapping. Other CMMI testing methods discussed are bootstrap p-value combination methods and Bonferroni adjustments. Simulation findings suggest that the proposed bootstrap procedures and the Bonferroni adjustments consistently hold the correct size and provide power against various alternatives.

  11. Maximum Margin Clustering of Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazmardi, S.; Safari, A.; Homayouni, S.

    2013-09-01

    In recent decades, large margin methods such as Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are supposed to be the state-of-the-art of supervised learning methods for classification of hyperspectral data. However, the results of these algorithms mainly depend on the quality and quantity of available training data. To tackle down the problems associated with the training data, the researcher put effort into extending the capability of large margin algorithms for unsupervised learning. One of the recent proposed algorithms is Maximum Margin Clustering (MMC). The MMC is an unsupervised SVMs algorithm that simultaneously estimates both the labels and the hyperplane parameters. Nevertheless, the optimization of the MMC algorithm is a non-convex problem. Most of the existing MMC methods rely on the reformulating and the relaxing of the non-convex optimization problem as semi-definite programs (SDP), which are computationally very expensive and only can handle small data sets. Moreover, most of these algorithms are two-class classification, which cannot be used for classification of remotely sensed data. In this paper, a new MMC algorithm is used that solve the original non-convex problem using Alternative Optimization method. This algorithm is also extended for multi-class classification and its performance is evaluated. The results of the proposed algorithm show that the algorithm has acceptable results for hyperspectral data clustering.

  12. Investigations of the bottom current sculpted margin of Hatton Bank, NE Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLachlan, S. E.; Elliott, G. M.; Parson, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    The NW Hatton Bank in the NE Atlantic represents a unique opportunity to examine the interaction of bottom currents with complex seabed topography and to analyse the affects on the morphology and distribution of sediments along the margin. The NW Hatton Bank margin is a slope located remote from any major terrigenous sediment supply and at present is over 200 NM from the closest sediment source onshore. The data presented in this study were collected on the research vessel R.R.S. Charles Darwin in 1999, for the purpose of determining the outer limit of the legal continental shelf according to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Swath bathymetry and high resolution acoustic data allow us to evaluate both local and regional controls on slope sedimentation and the possible mechanisms for bottom current velocity variability across a slope setting within the NW European continental margin. The slope is characterised by an intense bottom current flow related to the Deep Northern Boundary Current. Along the slope, bottom-current sedimentation is dominant, leading to the development of the Hatton drift and sediment wave fields. Non-depositional and erosional features related to bottom current activity were also identified and include moats encircling the volcanic cones and deep erosional scours. The interaction between bottom current circulation and complex margin morphology controls the distribution, geometry and scale of the sediment wave fields.

  13. Continental margin sedimentation: from sediment transport to sequence stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Austin, James A.; Field, Michael E.; Kravitz, Joseph H.; Syvitski, James P.M.; Wiberg, Patricia L.; Nittrouer, Charles A.; Austin, James A.; Field, Michael E.; Kravitz, Joseph H.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2007-01-01

    This volume on continental margin sedimentation brings together an expert editorial and contributor team to create a state-of-the-art resource. Taking a global perspective, the book spans a range of timescales and content, ranging from how oceans transport particles, to how thick rock sequences are formed on continental margins. - Summarizes and integrates our understanding of sedimentary processes and strata associated with fluvial dispersal systems on continental shelves and slopes - Explores timescales ranging from particle transport at one extreme, to deep burial at the other - Insights are presented for margins in general, and with focus on a tectonically active margin (northern California) and a passive margin (New Jersey), enabling detailed examination of the intricate relationships between a wide suite of sedimentary processes and their preserved stratigraphy - Includes observational studies which document the processes and strata found on particular margins, in addition to numerical models and laboratory experimentation, which provide a quantitative basis for extrapolation in time and space of insights about continental-margin sedimentation - Provides a research resource for scientists studying modern and ancient margins, and an educational text for advanced students in sedimentology and stratigraphy

  14. Observations at convergent margins concerning sediment subduction, subduction erosion, and the growth of continental crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Huene, R.; Scholl, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    subducted beneath the frontal accretionary body and its active buttress. In rounded figures the contemporary rate of solid-volume sediment subduction at convergent ocean margins (???43,500 km) is calculated to be 1.5 km3/yr. Correcting type 1 margins for high rates of terrigenous seafloor sedimentation during the past 30 m.y. or so sets the long-term rate of sediment subduction at 1.0 km3/yr. The bulk of the subducted material is derived directly or indirectly from continental denudation. Interstitial water currently expulsed from accreted and deeply subducted sediment and recycled to the ocean basins is estimated at 0.9 km3/yr. The thinning and truncation caused by subduction erosion of the margin's framework rock and overlying sedimentary deposits have been demonstrated at many convergent margins but only off northern Japan, central Peru, and northern Chile has sufficient information been collected to determine average or long-term rates, which range from 25 to 50 km3/m.y. per kilometer of margin. A conservative long-term rate applicable to many sectors of convergent margins is 30 km3/km/m.y. If applied to the length of type 2 margins, subduction erosion removes and transports approximately 0.6 km3/yr of upper plate material to greater depths. At various places, subduction erosion also affects sectors of type 1 margins bordered by small- to medium-sized accretionary prisms (for example, Japan and Peru), thus increasing the global rate by possibly 0.5 km3/yr to a total of 1.1 km3/yr. Little information is available to assess subduction erosion at margins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Mass balance calculations allow assessments to be made of the amount of subducted sediment that bypasses the prism and underthrusts the margin's rock framework. This subcrustally subducted sediment is estimated at 0.7 km3/yr. Combined with the range of terrestrial matter removed from the margin's rock framework by subduction erosion, the global volume of subcrustally subducted materia

  15. Development of the Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) for predicting the impact of storms on high-energy, active-margin coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick; Maarten van Ormondt,; Erikson, Li H.; Jodi Eshleman,; Hapke, Cheryl J.; Peter Ruggiero,; Peter Adams,; Foxgrover, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) applies a predominantly deterministic framework to make detailed predictions (meter scale) of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers). CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications (i.e., nowcasts and multiday forecasts), and future climate scenarios (i.e., sea-level rise + storms) to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm hazards information that may be used to increase public safety, mitigate physical damages, and more effectively manage and allocate resources within complex coastal settings. The prototype system, developed for the California coast, uses the global WAVEWATCH III wave model, the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimetry-based global tide model, and atmospheric-forcing data from either the US National Weather Service (operational mode) or Global Climate Models (future climate mode), to determine regional wave and water-level boundary conditions. These physical processes are dynamically downscaled using a series of nested Delft3D-WAVE (SWAN) and Delft3D-FLOW (FLOW) models and linked at the coast to tightly spaced XBeach (eXtreme Beach) cross-shore profile models and a Bayesian probabilistic cliff failure model. Hindcast testing demonstrates that, despite uncertainties in preexisting beach morphology over the ~500 km alongshore extent of the pilot study area, CoSMoS effectively identifies discrete sections of the coast (100s of meters) that are vulnerable to coastal hazards under a range of current and future oceanographic forcing conditions, and is therefore an effective tool for operational and future climate scenario planning.

  16. [Condition setting for the measurement of blood coagulation factor XIII activity using a fully automated blood coagulation analyzer, COAGTRON-350].

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nobuko; Kaneko, Makoto; Tanabe, Kumiko; Jyona, Masahiro; Yokota, Hiromitsu; Yatomi, Yutaka

    2012-12-01

    The automated laboratory analyzer COAGTRON-350 (Trinity Biotech) is used for routine and specific coagulation testing for the detection of fibrin formation utilizing either mechanical principles (ball method) or photo-optical principles, chromogenic kinetic enzyme analysis, and immune-turbidimetric detection systems in one benchtop unit. In this study, we demonstrated and established a parameter for the measurement of factor XIII (FXIII) activity using Berichrom FXIII reagent and the COAGTRON-350 analyzer. The usual protocol used for this reagent, based on the handling method, was slightly modified for this device. The analysis showed that fundamental study for the measurement of FXIII activity under our condition setting was favorable in terms of reproducibility, linearity, and correlation with another assays. Since FXIII is the key enzyme that plays important roles in hemostasis by stabilizing fibrin formation, the measurement of FXIII is essential for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders. Therefore, FXIII activity assessment as well as a routine coagulation testing can be conducted simultaneously with one instrument, which is useful in coagulopathy assessment.

  17. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  18. A Conceptual Framework for Organizational Readiness to Implement Nutrition and Physical Activity Programs in Early Childhood Education Settings

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Mudita; Schober, Daniel J.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    Across multiple sectors, organizational readiness predicts the success of program implementation. However, the factors influencing readiness of early childhood education (ECE) organizations for implementation of new nutrition and physical activity programs is poorly understood. This study presents a new conceptual framework to measure organizational readiness to implement nutrition and physical activity programs in ECE centers serving children aged 0 to 5 years. The framework was validated for consensus on relevance and generalizability by conducting focus groups; the participants were managers (16 directors and 2 assistant directors) of ECE centers. The framework theorizes that it is necessary to have “collective readiness,” which takes into account such factors as resources, organizational operations, work culture, and the collective attitudes, motivation, beliefs, and intentions of ECE staff. Results of the focus groups demonstrated consensus on the relevance of proposed constructs across ECE settings. Including readiness measures during program planning and evaluation could inform implementation of ECE programs targeting nutrition and physical activity behaviors. PMID:25357258

  19. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  20. The Choiyoi Group from central Argentina: a subalkaline transitional to alkaline association in the craton adjacent to the active margin of the Gondwana continent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llambías, Eduardo J.; Quenardelle, Sonia; Montenegro, Teresita

    2003-08-01

    Permian and Lower Triassic igneous rocks from La Pampa province, central Argentina, are part of the Choiyoi Group, whose extension in Argentina exceeds 500,000 km 2. In La Pampa, the distribution of these outcrops occurs along a NW-SE belt that cuts obliquely across the N-S structures of the Lower Paleozoic rocks. The basement of the Choiyoi Group in western La Pampa consists of Mesoproterozoic to Lower Paleozoic rocks that form part of the exotic Cuyania terrane. In central La Pampa, the basement consists of Lower Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks affected by the Lower Paleozoic Famatinian orogeny. The Choiyoi Group from La Pampa shares features with the Choiyoi Group elsewhere, such as an abundance of mesosilicic to silicic ignimbrites, subvolcanic domes, and granite plutons emplaced at sallow levels. In La Pampa, we recognize two suites: shoshonitic and trachydacitic to rhyolitic. The shoshonite suite is overlain by trachydacites and rhyolites. The plutonic rocks that belong to the cupola of the intrusive bodies are monzogranitic. The most significant difference between the Choiyoi Group from La Pampa and that from the Cordillera Frontal and the San Rafael block is that the San Rafael orogenic phase (Lower Permian) is not obvious in La Pampa. Therefore, we cannot attribute to the Choiyoi Group a postorogenic character, as in the Cordillera Frontal or the San Rafael Block. This difference in the tectonic setting is reflected in the composition of the igneous rocks of La Pampa, in that they generally have a higher alkali content with respect to silica, a weak enrichment in TiO 2, and a depletion in CaO. Both suites are transitional from subalkaline to alkaline series. The shoshonitic suite is rich in clinopyroxene and apatite. Whole-rock compositions have high content of P 2O 5 (0.5-3.9%) and Sr (1320-1890 ppm). Zr is weakly enriched (273-502 ppm), and Nb (29-37 ppm) is depleted. The Th (16-45 ppm) and U (3-14 ppm) content is high. We postulate a crustal

  1. Goal-setting intervention in patients with active asthma: protocol for a pilot cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Supporting self-management behaviours is recommended guidance for people with asthma. Preliminary work suggests that a brief, intensive, patient-centred intervention may be successful in supporting people with asthma to participate in life roles and activities they value. We seek to assess the feasibility of undertaking a cluster-randomised controlled trial (cRCT) of a brief, goal-setting intervention delivered in the context of an asthma review consultation. Methods/design A two armed, single-blinded, multi-centre, cluster-randomised controlled feasibility trial will be conducted in UK primary care. Randomisation will take place at the practice level. We aim to recruit a total of 80 primary care patients with active asthma from at least eight practices across two health boards in Scotland (10 patients per practice resulting in ~40 in each arm). Patients in the intervention arm will be asked to complete a novel goal-setting tool immediately prior to an asthma review consultation. This will be used to underpin a focussed discussion about their goals during the asthma review. A tailored management plan will then be negotiated to facilitate achieving their prioritised goals. Patients in the control arm will receive a usual care guideline-based review of asthma. Data on quality of life, asthma control and patient confidence will be collected from both arms at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Data on health services resource use will be collected from all patient records 6 months pre- and post-intervention. Semi-structured interviews will be carried out with healthcare staff and a purposive sample of patients to elicit their views and experiences of the trial. The outcomes of interest in this feasibility trial are the ability to recruit patients and healthcare staff, the optimal method of delivering the intervention within routine clinical practice, and acceptability and perceived utility of the intervention among patients and staff. Trial

  2. Marginal selenium status in northern Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Jeffrey M; Ball, Madeleine J

    2011-09-01

    Se plays many important roles in humans. Marginal Se status has been associated with adverse health effects including an increased risk of chronic disease such as cancer. There are few Australian data, but the population of Tasmania, Australia, is potentially at risk of marginal Se status. A cross-sectional study of 498 men and women aged 25-84 years was undertaken to assess the Se status of the northern Tasmanian population. Se status was assessed using dietary estimates and measures of serum Se and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Mean Se intakes were 77·4 (sd 31·3) and 65·1 (sd 23·7) μg/d for men and women, respectively; 27 % of the subjects consumed less than the Australian/New Zealand estimated average requirement. Mean serum Se concentration was 89·1 (sd 15·1) μg/l; 83 % of the study subjects had serum Se concentrations below 100 μg/l and 60 % had serum Se concentration below 90 μg/l, suggesting that Se status in many subjects was inadequate for maximal GPx activity. This was supported by the positive association between serum Se and serum GPx (P < 0·001), indicating that enzyme activity was limited by Se concentrations. The lowest mean serum Se concentrations were observed in the oldest age ranges; however, the prevalence of marginal Se status was similar across age ranges and did not appear to be influenced by sex or socio-economic status. The prevalence of marginal Se status was high in all sex and age subgroups, suggesting that the northern Tasmanian population could benefit from increasing Se intakes.

  3. Conjugate volcanic rifted margins, spreading and micro-continent: Lessons from the Norwegian-Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernigon, L.; Blischke, A.; Nasuti, A.; Sand, M.

    2014-12-01

    We have acquired and processed new aeromagnetic data that covers the entire Norway Basin oceanic spreading system located between the Møre volcanic rifted margin and its (intermediate) conjugate system, the Jan Mayen microcontinent (JMMC). The new compilation allows us to revisit its entire structure and spreading evolution from the Early Eocene breakup to the Late Oligocene abortion of the Aegir Ridge. We here discuss the dynamics of conjugate volcanic (rifted) margin formation and reconstruct the subsequent spreading evolution of the Norway Basin until its abortion. We have estimated a new set of Euler poles of rotation for the Norway Basin derived from more than 88,000 km of new magnetic profiles. The new compilation confirms that a fan-shaped spreading evolution of the Norway Basin was particularly active before the cessation of seafloor spreading and abortion of the Aegir Ridge. The Norway Basin shows a more complex system of micro-plates and asymmetric segments locally affected by episodic ridge jumps. The new observations have implications for the syn- and post-breakup stratigraphic and rifted-margin tectonic development of the JMMC and its conjugate margins. In particular, an important Mid-Eocene geodynamic event at around magnetic chron C21r is recognized in the Norway Basin. This event coincides with the onset of diking and rifting between the proto-JMMC and the East Greenland margin, leading to a second phase of breakup in the Norwegian-Greenland Sea ~26 My later in the Oligocene. Restored in its pre-breakup configuration, the new surveys also allow us to discuss further the tectonic and crustal evolution of the conjugate volcanic rifted margins and associated transform and oblique segments. The applicability of magma-poor concepts, off Norway, for example, remains questionable for us. The significant amount of breakup magmatism, the huge amount of pre-breakup sag sedimentation and the presence of thinned and preserved continental crust without the

  4. Surgical margins in breast conservation.

    PubMed

    Chiappa, Corrado; Rovera, Francesca; Corben, Adriana Dionigi; Fachinetti, Anna; De Berardinis, Valentina; Marchionini, Valentina; Rausei, Stefano; Boni, Luigi; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Dionigi, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common tumor affecting women worldwide. Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) followed by irradiation nowadays is the treatment of choice for early-stage disease; there is no difference in long-term survival between mastectomy and BCT combined with external radiotherapy. A positive margin is associated with increased risk of local recurrences after BCT for invasive breast cancer and ductal carcinoma in situ. The exact definition of an adequate surgical margin after breast cancer resection has long been debated among physicians and represents an area of considerable variation in clinical practice. There is a lack of standardization in the pathology methods of margin evaluation, which yields little consensus regarding what constitutes an adequate negative margin. As a consequence, patient management varies widely based on the threshold that surgeons accept for adequate margins and the subsequent need for re-excision. We analyze and discuss recent literature about this topic both from the pathological and from the surgical point of view.

  5. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  6. Actively evolving microplate formation by oblique collision and sideways motion along strike-slip faults: An example from the northeastern Caribbean plate margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Paul; Taylor, F. W.; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Ku, Teh-Lung

    1995-06-01

    The pattern of folding, faulting, and late Quaternary coral-reef uplift rates in western and central Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) suggest that the elongate Gonave microplate, a 190,000-km 2 area of the northeastern Caribbean plate, is in the process of shearing off the Caribbean plate and accreting to the North American plate. Late Cenozoic transpression between the southeastern Bahama Platform and the Caribbean plate in Hispaniola has inhibited the eastward motion of the northeastern corner of the plate. Transpression is manifested in western and central Hispaniola by the formation of regional scale folds that correspond to present-day, anticlinal topographic mountain chains continuous with offshore anticlinal ridges. Areas of most rapid Quaternary uplift determined from onland coral reefs 125 ka and younger, coincide with the axial traces of these folds. Offshore data suggest recent folding and faulting of the seafloor. Onshore reef data do not conclusively require late Quaternary folding, but demonstrate that tectonic uplift rates of the axial areas of the anticlines decrease from the Northwest Peninsula of Haiti (0.37 mm/yr) to to the central part of the coast of western Haiti (0.19 mm/yr) to the south-central part of western Haiti (0 mm/yr). Formation of the 1200-km-long Enriquillo-Plantain Garden-Walton fault zone as a 'bypass' strike-slip fault has isolated the southern edge of the Gonave microplate and is allowing continued, unimpeded eastward motion of a smaller Caribbean plate past the zone of late Neogene convergence and Quaternary uplift of coral reefs in Hispaniola. Offshore seismic reflection data from the Jamaica Passage, the marine strait separating Jamaica and Haiti, show that the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone forms a narrow but deep, active fault-bounded trough beneath the passage. The active fault is continuous with active faults mapped onshore in western Haiti and eastern Jamaica; the bathymetric deep is present because the

  7. Validity of the New Lifestyles NL-1000 Accelerometer for Measuring Time Spent in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity in School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, David; Rowe, David A.; Stark, Michelle; Nicol, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in promoting physical activity in the school environment necessitates an inexpensive, accurate method of measuring physical activity in such settings. Additionally, it is recognized that physical activity must be of at least moderate intensity in order to yield substantial health benefits. The purpose of the study, therefore, was…

  8. Types and Evolution of Gas Hydrate System along the Tectonically Active Zones of the Western Pacific: Nankai Trough vs. Eastern Margin of Japan Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, R.; Tomaru, H.; Takeuchi, L.; Hiruta, A.; Ishizaki, O.; Aoyama, C.; Machiyama, H.; Goto, T.

    2007-12-01

    are widely distributed throughout the area, while no double BSRs are observed. BSRs within gas chimneys are very strong and often exhibit pull-up structure. A number of piston corers have recovered chunks of massive gas hydrate from the mounds. ROV dives observed gas hydrates exposed atop the mounds. Furthermore, electric ocean floor survey has revealed that sediments below the pockmark-mound zones were not conductive. These lines of evidence suggest that the mounds are more-or-less composed of or at least contain significant amounts of methane. Sea-level fall during the last glacial, 120 m in Japan Sea, should have caused instability of gas hydrate, in particular, those within pockmarks. Pull-up structures within the chimney seem to support the model that the mounds are gas hydrate dome and the pockmark, probably a relic hydrate mound. Glacial sea level fall should have caused massive dissociation of subsurface methane hydrate as in case of the Nankai trough. However the methane from the dissociation of massive hydrate in the chimney should escape to seawater to form a crater-like depression pockmarks. Considering active venting, gigantic plumes, inferred violent venting and perhaps floating of massive gas hydrates, gas hydrate deposits are to be formed during warmer, high-sea level periods, and episodic dissociation and massive emission of methane to ocean/atmosphere system.

  9. Large-scale thrusting along the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau and the southwest Tarim basin: 230 km long active Hotian thrust sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Suppe, John; Liang, Hang; He, Dengfa

    2014-05-01

    We present the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of large-scale thrusting in the West Kunlun Shan and the southwest Tarim Basin, which is associated with the northward motion of Tibet. The great frontal structure is the ~230km long intact bedding parallel Hotian thrust sheet composed of strata of the Tarim Basin lying above a regional gypsum horizon at the base of the Cenozoic sequence. The toe of the Hotian thrust sheet steps steeply to the surface two thirds of the way across the basin forming the Selibuya-Mazartag hills in the sand desert. The Hotan thrust constitutes one of the longest active intact thrust sheets in the world, showing little internal deformation, however at its back it steps down to a Cambrian detachment at the base of the Paleozoic below a belt of complex high-amplitude anticlines near the front of the West Kunlun Shan, which display break-forward imbricate and wedge structure. More interior, steep reverse faults such as the Tieklik thrust bring older strata to the surface, including Paleozoic basement. The Cambrian detachment also extends northward under the Tarim basin with minor hanging-wall deformation that warps the Hotian Thrust sheet locally, causing the development of growth strata in the Hotian thrust sheet that providesa quantitative record of its motion over these warps. Seismic profiles in the southwest Tarim basin reveal widespread growth strata that record much of the structural history beginning in the early Pliocene Atushi Formation. Ages of seismic reflectors are calibrated to a surface magnetostratigraphic sequence(from Zheng et al., 2000)and traced throughout the seismic grid. The bottom of the growth strata is dated at 3.6 Ma indicating a Pliocene and younger age of thrusting and folding in the southwest Tarim Basin. Structural restoration suggests minimum shortening greater than 35km. The Tieklik thrust consumed at least 10 km in early Pliocene. The fold-and-thrust belts of the southwest Tarim basin shortened >25km in

  10. Marginal Comment: Reservations about "Murder at the Margin."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimand, Mary Ann

    1991-01-01

    Reexamines the use of the novel, "Murder at the Margin," in college and high school economics instruction. Identifies errors in the book's application of economic principles. Explores the novel's approach to the "prisoner's dilemma" and the making of choices. Concludes that despite problems, the book remains valuable to…

  11. Electromyographical and Perceptual Responses to Different Resistance Intensities in a Squat Protocol: Does Performing Sets to Failure With Light Loads Produce the Same Activity?

    PubMed

    Looney, David P; Kraemer, William J; Joseph, Michael F; Comstock, Brett A; Denegar, Craig R; Flanagan, Shawn D; Newton, Robert U; Szivak, Tunde K; DuPont, William H; Hooper, David R; Häkkinen, Keijo; Maresh, Carl M

    2016-03-01

    This investigation examined peak motor unit activity during sets that differed in resistance (50, 70, or 90% 1 repetition maximum [1RM]). Ten resistance-trained men (age, 23 ± 3 years; height, 187 ± 7 cm; body mass, 91.5 ± 6.9 kg; squat 1RM, 141 ± 28 kg) were assessed by electromyography (EMG) on the vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles in a randomized within-subject experiment consisting of 2 test visits: a drop-set day and a single-set day using only the 50% of 1RM intensity performed to failure. At the start of each day, subjects performed 2 submaximal repetition sets (50% 1RM × 10 repetitions and 70% 1RM × 7 repetitions). On the drop-set day, subjects performed 3 consecutive maximal repetition sets at 90%, 70%, and 50% 1RM to failure with no rest periods in between. On the single-set day, subjects performed a maximal repetition set at 50% 1RM to failure. Overall, the maximal repetition sets to failure at 50% and 70% 1RM resulted in higher peak EMG amplitude than during submaximal repetition sets with the same resistance. However, peak EMG amplitude was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater in the maximal 90% 1RM set than all other sets performed. When sets were performed to failure, ratings of perceived exertion (CR-10) did not differ over the intensity range of loads and suggests that perception is not capable of accurately detecting the actual amount of motor unit activation. The results of this investigation indicate that using higher external resistance is a more effective means of increasing motor unit activity than increasing the number of repetitions performed with lighter weights even when the end point is muscular failure. Accordingly, previous recommendations for the use of heavier loads during resistance training programs to stimulate the maximal development of strength and hypertrophy are further supported.

  12. Anomalous subsidence at South China Sea rifted margin: Sediments digging their own hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brune, Sascha; Clift, Peter; Quinteros, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Rifted continental margins subside as a consequence of combined crustal thinning and mantle lithosphere cooling. While standard models predict a slowing of subsidence after the end of rifting, the deep basins on the northern margin of the South China Sea, notably the Baiyun Sag exhibit subsidence that accelerated several million years after the end of active extension. Additionally, backstripping analysis at the South China margin has shown that the amount of subsidence is much greater than that predicted from the degree of brittle upper crustal extension seen in seismic profiles. Here we explain these observations by linking climate change onshore and deformation of the crystalline crust offshore: Early Miocene monsoon intensification increased erosion and thus the sediment flux to offshore basins after the cessation of active extension. When the sediment load encountered the weak crust of the South China Sea margin, it induced lower crustal flow away from the basin axis so that the deep Baiyun basin was formed nearly without brittle extension. We corroborate this concept using seismic observations and backstripping techniques, as well as thermo-mechanical forward modeling. The numerical forward model is a 2D version of the finite element code SLIM3D. The code includes nonlinear temperature- and stress-dependent elasto-visco-plastic rheology and is able to reproduces a wide range of rift-related deformation processes such as flexure, lower crustal flow, and faulting. We find that two factors allow to satisfy the observational constraints: (1) Post-rift increase of sediment load: The East Asian Summer Monsoon strengthened around the start of the Miocene (~23 Ma), several million years after continental rupture. Changes in the flora of continental China date from around this time and sedimentation rates across continental margins and deltas in South and Southeast Asia increased, as might be expected under the influence of heavier precipitation driving faster erosion

  13. Modelling the role of magmatic intrusions in the post-breakup thermal evolution of Volcanic Passive Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peace, Alexander; McCaffrey, Ken; Imber, Jonny; van Hunen, Jeroen; Hobbs, Richard; Gerdes, Keith

    2013-04-01

    Passive margins are produced by continental breakup and subsequent seafloor spreading, leaving a transition from continental to oceanic crust. Magmatism is associated with many passive margins and produces diagnostic criteria that include 1) abundant breakup related magmatism resulting in a thick igneous crust, 2) a high velocity zone in the lower crust and 3) seaward dipping reflectors (SDRs) in seismic studies. These Volcanic Passive Margins (VPMs) represent around 75% of the Atlantic passive margins, but beyond this high level description, these magma-rich settings remain poorly understood and present numerous challenges to petroleum exploration. In VPMs the extent to which the volume, timing, location and emplacement history of magma has played a role in controlling heat flow and thermal evolution during margin development remains poorly constrained. Reasons for this include; 1) paucity of direct heat flow and thermal gradient measurements at adequate depth ranges across the margins, 2) poor onshore exposure 3) highly eroded flood basalts and 4) poor seismic imaging beneath thick offshore basalt sequences. As a result, accurately modelling the thermal history of the basins located on VPMs is challenging, despite the obvious importance for determining the maturation history of potential source rocks in these settings. Magmatism appears to have affected the thermal history of the Vøring Basin on the Norwegian VPM, in contrast the effects on the Faeroe-Shetland Basin was minimal. The more localised effects in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin compared to Vøring Basin may be explained by the fact that the main reservoir sandstones appear to be synchronous with thermal uplift along the basin margin and pulsed volcanism, indicating that the bulk of the magmatism occurred at the basin extremities in the Faeroe-Shetland Basin, where its effect on source maturation was lessened. Our hypothesis is that source maturation occurs as a result of regional temperature and pressure

  14. Pulsed basin development on northern margin of South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, K.; Pigott, J.D.

    1987-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the geothermal gradients, structural architecture, genetic stratigraphy, and subsidence rate history of the sedimentary basins on the northern margin of the South China Sea (NMSC) reveal three temporally distinct but regionally correlative tectonic extensional episodes. The timing of these pulsed episodes of basin development are: Episode One, Late Cretaceous to Paleocene; Episode Two, late Eocene to early Oligocene; and Episode Three, middle Miocene. Each initiating episode on the NMSC is characterized by an ephemeral (< 10 m.y.) increase in heat flow (> 3 HFU), formation of regionally en echelon grabens or half-grabens, ensuing transgression, and high subsidence rate (> 50 m/m.y.). Trends of basin boundaries and major fault trends evolved from predominantly northeast for Episode One, to northeast and east-west for Episode Two, and to northwest and east-west and for Episode Three. Tectonically, the northeast and east-west trends resulted primarily from rifting along northwest and north-south extensional directions, respectively. The orientation, sense of displacement and time of activation of the Red River fault, Vietnam fracture zone, and the northeast-east-west and northwest-east-west multiple sets of fractures may be explained as responses to episodic changes in the regional stress field utilizing the guidance of inherited zones of crustal weakness. The timing and extent of the hydrocarbon maturation, reservoir development, and stratigraphic-structural closure in the NMSC were directly affected by this pulsed tectonic activity. Therefore, exploration strategies based purely upon the NMSC being a passive rifted margin are both inappropriate and misleading.

  15. Trace element characteristics of graywackes and tectonic setting discrimination of sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Mukul R.; Crook, Keith A. W.

    1986-02-01

    The graywackes of Paleozoic turbidite sequences of eastern Australia show a large variation in their trace element characteristics, which reflect distinct provenance types and tectonic settings for various suites. The tectonic settings recognised are oceanic island arc, continental island arc, active continental margin, and passive margins. Immobile trace elements, e.g. La, Ce, Nd, Th, Zr, Nb, Y, Sc and Co are very useful in tectonic setting discrimination. In general, there is a systematic increase in light rare earth elements (La, Ce, Nd), Th, Nb and the Ba/Sr, Rb/Sr, La/Y and Ni/Co ratios and a decrease in V, Sc and the Ba/Rb, K/Th and K/U ratios in graywackes from oceanic island arc to continental island arc to active continental margin to passive margin settings. On the basis of graywacke geochemistry, the optimum discrimination of the tectonic settings of sedimentary basins is achieved by La-Th, La-Th-Sc, Ti/Zr-La/Sc, La/Y-Sc/Cr, Th-Sc-Zr/10 and Th-Co-Zr/10 plots. The analysed oceanic island arc graywackes are characterised by extremely low abundances of La, Th, U, Zr, Nb; low Th/U and high La/Sc, La/Th, Ti/Zr, Zr/Th ratios. The studied graywackes of the continental island arc type setting are characterised by increased abundances of La, Th, U, Zr and Nb, and can be identified by the La-Th-Sc and La/Sc versus Ti/Zr plots. Active continental margin and passive margin graywackes are discriminated by the Th-Sc-Zr/10 and Th-Co-Zr/10 plots and associated parameters (e.g. Th/Zr, Th/Sc). The most important characteristic of the analysed passive margin type graywackes is the increased abundance of Zr, high Zr/Th and lower Ba, Rb, Sr and Ti/Zr ratio compared to the active continental margin graywackes.

  16. Field grading in capacitor margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, T. E.; Sarjeant, W. J.; Nunnally, W. C.

    1981-06-01

    Some of the results of modeling electric fields in the margin of a bogey plastic film liquid impregnant capacitor are presented where effects of foil edge shape, different impregnants, and grading wires are examined. It is concluded that placement tolerance and connection problems make grading wires impractical and that folded foil edges are still the best solution to field grading.

  17. Evolution of the elevated passive margin of northwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Cornelia; Reiter, Wolfgang; Lisker, Frank; Damm, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    The geomorphic evolution of high-standing passive continental margins is still controversially discussed. This is particularly true for the elevated margins of Greenland. They have alternatively been explained by resulting from prolonged very slow erosion following Paleozoic orogeny, resulting from rifting and opening of ocean basins adjacent to the Greenland continental margins, or as young geomorphic features only formed during the Cenozoic. This study focuses on the northwestern margin of Greenland, north of the Melville Bugt at the northern end of Baffin Bay, using a combination of apatite fission track and (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronology. Opening and formation of oceanic crust of Baffin Bay took place during the Late Cretaceous. The study area is also situated at the southern termination of the postulated Wegener Fault, a controversially discussed large-scale strike-slip fault system supposedly active during the Paleogene, which has been described as one of the last problems of global plate tectonic reconstructions. Our data show that several normal faults dissecting the northwest Greenland margin were active during or after the Cretaceous, presumably related to extension associated with the opening of Baffin Bay. Also, our data show a clear - although not very pronounced - cooling signal at the end of the Cretaceous, which we interpret as reflecting initial formation of an elevated margin during and after continental breakup. Margin formation was followed by subsidence, with maximum burial at c. 30 Ma, again followed by a period of relatively rapid exhumation associated with net denudation of 2 - 3 km. This post-30 Ma denudation period may be related to tectonic activity associated with ongoing northward movement of Greenland, or to climatic changes such as early glaciation of the Arctic realm. In any case, our data imply that the present morphologic expression of the northwest Greenland margin results from young Cenozoic processes unrelated to earlier

  18. A Presentation on Robust Flutter Margin Analysis and a Flutterometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper documents an invited presentation given to The Boeing Company, Seattle, Washington, on September 9, 1997. The audience consisted of structural dynamic and flight test engineers from the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group who were interested in discussing research which may be applied to future flight flutter test programs. A method to compute robust flutter margins is described which is a significant departure from traditional methods. This method uses the structured singular value, mu, to compute a flutter margin which directly accounts for modeling errors such that a worst-case flutter margin is computed with respect to those errors. This method may be applied in several ways. A post-flight application uses data sets from multiple test points to compute worst-case flutter margins and a worst-case flight envelope. An on-line implementation computes flutter margins at each test point to track the flutter margins during a flight test. This on-line implementation is the basis for a flutterometer flight test tool that displays the distance to flutter at a given test point. Such a tool was not previously possible using traditional flutter flight test analysis methods. The F/A-18 System Research Aircraft was used to demonstrate these applications using flight data recorded from test points throughout the flight envelope.

  19. Whole abdominal wall segmentation using augmented active shape models (AASM) with multi-atlas label fusion and level set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes.

  20. HoxBlinc RNA recruits Set1/MLL complexes to activate Hox gene expression patterns and mesoderm lineage development

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Changwang; Li, Ying; Zhou, Lei; Cho, Joonseok; Patel, Bhavita; Terada, Nao; Li, Yangqiu; Bungert, Jörg; Qiu, Yi; Huang, Suming

    2015-01-01

    Summary Trithorax proteins and long-intergenic noncoding RNAs are critical regulators of embryonic stem cell pluripotency; however, how they cooperatively regulate germ layer mesoderm specification remains elusive. We report here that HoxBlinc RNA first specifies Flk1+ mesoderm and then promotes hematopoietic differentiation through regulating hoxb gene pathways. HoxBlinc binds to the hoxb genes, recruits Setd1a/MLL1 complexes, and mediates long-range chromatin interactions to activate transcription of the hoxb genes. Depletion of HoxBlinc by shRNA-mediated KD or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genetic deletion inhibits expression of hoxb genes and other factors regulating cardiac/hematopoietic differentiation. Reduced hoxb gene expression is accompanied by decreased recruitment of Set1/MLL1 and H3K4me3 modification, as well as by reduced chromatin loop formation. Re-expression of hoxb2-b4 genes in HoxBlinc-depleted embryoid bodies rescues Flk1+ precursors that undergo hematopoietic differentiation. Thus, HoxBlinc plays an important role in controlling hoxb transcription networks that mediate specification of mesoderm-derived Flk1+ precursors and differentiation of Flk1+ cells into hematopoietic lineages. PMID:26725110

  1. HoxBlinc RNA Recruits Set1/MLL Complexes to Activate Hox Gene Expression Patterns and Mesoderm Lineage Development.

    PubMed

    Deng, Changwang; Li, Ying; Zhou, Lei; Cho, Joonseok; Patel, Bhavita; Terada, Naohiro; Li, Yangqiu; Bungert, Jörg; Qiu, Yi; Huang, Suming

    2016-01-05

    Trithorax proteins and long-intergenic noncoding RNAs are critical regulators of embryonic stem cell pluripotency; however, how they cooperatively regulate germ layer mesoderm specification remains elusive. We report here that HoxBlinc RNA first specifies Flk1(+) mesoderm and then promotes hematopoietic differentiation through regulation of hoxb pathways. HoxBlinc binds to the hoxb genes, recruits Setd1a/MLL1 complexes, and mediates long-range chromatin interactions to activate transcription of the hoxb genes. Depletion of HoxBlinc by shRNA-mediated knockdown or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genetic deletion inhibits expression of hoxb genes and other factors regulating cardiac/hematopoietic differentiation. Reduced hoxb expression is accompanied by decreased recruitment of Set1/MLL1 and H3K4me3 modification, as well as by reduced chromatin loop formation. Re-expression of hoxb2-b4 genes in HoxBlinc-depleted embryoid bodies rescues Flk1(+) precursors that undergo hematopoietic differentiation. Thus, HoxBlinc plays an important role in controlling hoxb transcription networks that mediate specification of mesoderm-derived Flk1(+) precursors and differentiation of Flk1(+) cells into hematopoietic lineages.

  2. Comparison of active-set method deconvolution and matched-filtering for derivation of an ultrasound transit time spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wille, M-L; Zapf, M; Ruiter, N V; Gemmeke, H; Langton, C M

    2015-06-21

    The quality of ultrasound computed tomography imaging is primarily determined by the accuracy of ultrasound transit time measurement. A major problem in analysis is the overlap of signals making it difficult to detect the correct transit time. The current standard is to apply a matched-filtering approach to the input and output signals. This study compares the matched-filtering technique with active set deconvolution to derive a transit time spectrum from a coded excitation chirp signal and the measured output signal. The ultrasound wave travels in a direct and a reflected path to the receiver, resulting in an overlap in the recorded output signal. The matched-filtering and deconvolution techniques were applied to determine the transit times associated with the two signal paths. Both techniques were able to detect the two different transit times; while matched-filtering has a better accuracy (0.13 μs versus 0.18 μs standard deviations), deconvolution has a 3.5 times improved side-lobe to main-lobe ratio. A higher side-lobe suppression is important to further improve image fidelity. These results suggest that a future combination of both techniques would provide improved signal detection and hence improved image fidelity.

  3. Whole Abdominal Wall Segmentation using Augmented Active Shape Models (AASM) with Multi-Atlas Label Fusion and Level Set

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes. PMID:27127333

  4. Mokken Scale Analysis for Dichotomous Items Using Marginal Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Croon, Marcel A.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2008-01-01

    Scalability coefficients play an important role in Mokken scale analysis. For a set of items, scalability coefficients have been defined for each pair of items, for each individual item, and for the entire scale. Hypothesis testing with respect to these scalability coefficients has not been fully developed. This study introduces marginal modelling…

  5. Development of volcanic passive margins: Three-dimensional laboratory models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callot, Jean-Paul; Geoffroy, Laurent; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2002-12-01

    Continental breakup above an anomalously hot mantle may lead to the development of volcanic margins. Volcanic margins are characterized by (1) thick seaward dipping lava flow sequences, (2) central intrusive complexes associated with dyke swarms parallel to the coast, and (3) high seismic velocity bodies in the lower crust attributable to magma underplating. A conceptual model for volcanic margins development has recently been proposed based on onshore studies of the Greenland margins and the British Tertiary Igneous Province. It is proposed that the long-lived central intrusions are genetically linked to underlying persistent zones of mantle fusion. These localized melting domains (or soft spots), equivalent to small mantle diapirs, may locally soften the extending continental lithosphere. The low-viscosity diapirs would (1) localize tectonic strain and (2) feed the volcanic margin with magma. Thus such soft spots can control the along-strike magmatic and tectonic segmentation of volcanic margins. Recent geophysical investigations appear to show that the along-strike structure of volcanic passive margins is compatible with such a segmentation process. Here we present a set of scaled experiments designed to study how such localized rheological heterogeneities in the sub-Moho mantle may have a mechanical effect on continental breakup. Four-layer models were constructed using sand and silicone putties to represent the brittle and ductile layers of both crust and mantle. The soft spots are simulated by low-viscosity silicone putty emplaced within the brittle material. At the scale of the entire breakup zone, the soft spots display an oceanic-type strength profile defining low-strength zones where continental breakup is initiated. The rift orientation and segmentation are strongly controlled by the distribution of the low-viscosity heterogeneities, rather than by the direction of regional extension. The experiments are compared with the geometry and segmentation of the

  6. The role of Variscan to pre-Jurassic active extension in controlling the architecture of the rifted passive margin of Adria: the example of the Canavese Zone (Western Southern Alps, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Succo, Andrea; De Caroli, Sara; Centelli, Arianna; Barbero, Edoardo; Balestro, Gianni; Festa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Canavese Zone, in the Italian Western Southern Alps, represents the remnant of the Jurassic syn-rift stretching, thinning and dismemberment of the distal passive margin of Adria during the opening of the Penninic Ocean (i.e., Northern Alpine Tethys). Our findings, based on detailed geological mapping, structural analysis and stratigraphic and petrographic observations, document however that the inferred hyper-extensional dismemberment of this distal part of the passive margin of Adria, up to seafloor spreading, was favored by the inherited Variscan geometry and crustal architecture of the rifted margin, and by the subsequent Alpine-related strike-slip deformation. The new field data document, in fact, that the limited vertical displacement of syn-extensional (syn-rift) Jurassic faults was ineffective in producing and justifying the crustal thinning observed in the Canavese Zone. The deformation and thinning of the continental basement of Adria are constrained to the late Variscan time by the unconformable overlying of Late Permian deposits. Late Cretaceous-Early Paleocene and Late Cenozoic strike-slip faulting (i.e., Alpine and Insubric tectonic stages) reactivated previously formed faults, leading to the formation of a complex tectonic jigsaw which only partially coincides with the direct product of the Jurassic syn-rift dismemberment of the distal part of the passive margin of Adria. Our new findings document that this dismemberment of the rifted continental margin of Adria did not simply result from the syn-rift Jurassic extension, but was strongly favored by the inheritance of older (Variscan and post-Variscan) tectonic stages, which controlled earlier lithospheric weakness. The formation of rifted continental margins by extension of continental lithosphere leading to seafloor spreading is a complex and still poorly understood component of the plate tectonic cycle. Geological mapping of rifted continental margins may thus provide significant information to

  7. Crosstalk between NSL histone acetyltransferase and MLL/SET complexes: NSL complex functions in promoting histone H3K4 di-methylation activity by MLL/SET complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaoming; Su, Jiaming; Wang, Fei; Liu, Da; Ding, Jian; Yang, Yang; Conaway, Joan W; Conaway, Ronald C; Cao, Lingling; Wu, Donglu; Wu, Min; Cai, Yong; Jin, Jingji

    2013-11-01

    hMOF (MYST1), a histone acetyltransferase (HAT), forms at least two distinct multiprotein complexes in human cells. The male specific lethal (MSL) HAT complex plays a key role in dosage compensation in Drosophila and is responsible for histone H4K16ac in vivo. We and others previously described a second hMOF-containing HAT complex, the non-specific lethal (NSL) HAT complex. The NSL complex has a broader substrate specificity, can acetylate H4 on K16, K5, and K8. The WD (tryptophan-aspartate) repeat domain 5 (WDR5) and host cell factor 1 (HCF1) are shared among members of the MLL/SET (mixed-lineage leukemia/set-domain containing) family of histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes. The presence of these shared subunits raises the possibility that there are functional links between these complexes and the histone modifications they catalyze; however, the degree to which NSL and MLL/SET influence one another's activities remains unclear. Here, we present evidence from biochemical assays and knockdown/overexpression approaches arguing that the NSL HAT promotes histone H3K4me2 by MLL/SET complexes by an acetylation-dependent mechanism. In genomic experiments, we identified a set of genes including ANKRD2, that are affected by knockdown of both NSL and MLL/SET subunits, suggested they are co-regulated by NSL and MLL/SET complexes. In ChIP assays, we observe that depletion of the NSL subunits hMOF or NSL1 resulted in a significant reduction of both H4K16ac and H3K4me2 in the vicinity of the ANKRD2 transcriptional start site proximal region. However, depletion of RbBP5 (a core component of MLL/SET complexes) only reduced H3K4me2 marks, but not H4K16ac in the same region of ANKRD2, consistent with the idea that NSL acts upstream of MLL/SET to regulate H3K4me2 at certain promoters, suggesting coordination between NSL and MLL/SET complexes is involved in transcriptional regulation of certain genes. Taken together, our results suggest a crosstalk between the NSL and MLL/SET

  8. Development of passive volcanic margins of the Central Atlantic and initial opening of ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melankholina, E. N.; Sushchevskaya, N. M.

    2015-01-01

    Geological and geophysical data on the Central Atlantic are discussed in order to elucidate the tectonic setting of the initial magmatic activity, rifting, and breakup resulting in the origination of Mesozoic ocean. The structural, magmatic, and historical aspects of the problem are considered. It has been established that the initial dispersed rifting and low-capacity magmatism at proximal margins was followed by the migration of the process toward the central part of region with the formation of distal zones and the development of vigorous magmmatism, further breakup of the lithosphere and ocean opening. Magmatism, its sources, and the features of newly formed magmatic crust at both the rifting and breakup stages of margin development are discussed and compared with subsequent spreading magmatism. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions show that the magmatic evolution of the Central Atlantic proximal margins bears the features of two enriched components, one of which is related to the EM-1 source, developing only at the North American margin. Another enriched component typical of the province as a whole is related to the EM-2 source. To a lesser extent, this component is expressed in igneous rocks of Guyana, which also bear the signature of the MORB-type depleted source typical of spreading tholeiites in the Atlantic Ocean. Similar conditions are assumed for subsequent magmatism at the distal margins and for the early spreading basalts in the adjacent Atlantic belt, which also contain a small admixture of enriched material. A comparison of the magmatism at the margins of Central and North Atlantic reveals their specificity distinctly expressed in isotopic compositions of igneous rocks. In contrast to the typical region of the North Atlantic, the immediate melting of the enriched lithospheric source without the participation of plume-related melts is reconstructed for the proximal margins of the Central Atlantic. At the same time, decompression and melting in the

  9. Concordance of computer-extracted image features with BI-RADS descriptors for mammographic mass margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Paramagul, Chintana; Nees, Alexis; Helvie, Mark; Shi, Jiazheng

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate computer-extracted features for characterizing mammographic mass margins according to BI-RADS spiculated and circumscribed categories. The mass was automatically segmented using an active contour model. A spiculation measure for a pixel on the mass boundary was defined by using the angular difference between the image gradient vector and the normal to the mass, averaged over pixels in a spiculation search region. For the circumscribed margin feature, the angular difference between the principal eigenvector of the Hessian matrix and the normal to the mass was estimated in a band of pixels centered at each point on the boundary, and the feature was extracted from the resulting profile along the boundary. Three MQSA radiologists provided BI-RADS margin ratings for a data set of 198 regions of interest containing breast masses. The features were evaluated with respect to the individual radiologists' characterization using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, as well as with respect to that from the majority rule, in which a mass was labeled as spiculated (circumscribed) if it was characterized as such by 2 or 3 radiologists, and non-spiculated (non-circumscribed) otherwise. We also investigated the performance of the features for consensus masses, defined as those labeled as spiculated (circumscribed) or nonspiculated (non-circumscribed) by all three radiologists. When masses were labeled according to radiologists R1, R2, and R3 individually, the spiculation feature had an area A z under the ROC curve of 0.90+/-0.04, 0.90+/-0.03, 0.88+/-0.03, respectively, while the circumscribed margin feature had an A z value of 0.77+/-0.04, 0.74+/-0.04, and 0.80+/-0.03, respectively. When masses were labeled according to the majority rule, the A z values for the spiculation and the circumscribed margin features were 0.92+/-0.03 and 0.80+/-+/-0.03, respectively. When only the consensus masses were considered, the A z

  10. Anthrax SET protein: a potential virulence determinant that epigenetically represses NF-κB activation in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Shiraz; Winer, Benjamin Y; Jaganathan, Anbalagan; Patel, Jigneshkumar; Sgobba, Miriam; Schuch, Raymond; Gupta, Yogesh K; Haider, Shozeb; Wang, Rong; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-08-09

    Toxins play a major role in the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis by subverting the host defenses. However, besides toxins, B. anthracis expresses effector proteins, whose role in pathogenesis are yet to be investigated. Here we present that suppressor-of-variegation, enhancer-of-zeste, trithorax protein from B. anthracis (BaSET) methylates human histone H1, resulting in repression of NF-κB functions. Notably, BaSET is secreted and undergoes nuclear translocation to enhance H1 methylation in B. anthracis-infected macrophages. Compared with wild type Sterne, delayed growth kinetics and altered septum formation were observed in the BaSET knock-out (BaΔSET) bacilli. Uncontrolled BaSET expression during complementation of the BaSET gene in BaΔSET partially restored growth during stationary phase but resulted in substantially shorter bacilli throughout the growth cycle. Importantly, in contrast to Sterne, the BaΔSET B. anthracis is avirulent in a lethal murine bacteremia model of infection. Collectively, BaSET is required for repression of host transcription as well as proper B. anthracis growth, making it a potentially unique virulence determinant.

  11. Review and Assessment of JPL's Thermal Margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siebes, G.; Kingery, C.; Farguson, C.; White, M.; Blakely, M.; Nunes, J.; Avila, A.; Man, K.; Hoffman, A.; Forgrave, J.

    2012-01-01

    JPL has captured its experience from over four decades of robotic space exploration into a set of design rules. These rules have gradually changed into explicit requirements and are now formally implemented and verified. Over an extended period of time, the initial understanding of intent and rationale for these rules has faded and rules are now frequently applied without further consideration. In the meantime, mission classes and their associated risk postures have evolved, coupled with resource constraints and growing design diversity, bringing into question the current "one size fits all" thermal margin approach. This paper offers a systematic review of the heat flow path from an electronic junction to the eventual heat rejection to space. This includes the identification of different regimes along this path and the associated requirements. The work resulted in a renewed understanding of the intent behind JPL requirements for hot thermal margins and a framework for relevant considerations, which in turn enables better decision making when a deviation to these requirements is considered.

  12. Computerized segmentation of liver in hepatic CT and MRI by means of level-set geodesic active contouring.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenji; Huynh, Hieu Trung; Liu, Yipeng; Calabrese, Dominic; Zhou, Karen; Oto, Aytekin; Hori, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Computerized liver volumetry has been studied, because the current "gold-standard" manual volumetry is subjective and very time-consuming. Liver volumetry is done in either CT or MRI. A number of researchers have developed computerized liver segmentation in CT, but there are fewer studies on ones for MRI. Our purpose in this study was to develop a general framework for liver segmentation in both CT and MRI. Our scheme consisted of 1) an anisotropic diffusion filter to reduce noise while preserving liver structures, 2) a scale-specific gradient magnitude filter to enhance liver boundaries, 3) a fast-marching algorithm to roughly determine liver boundaries, and 4) a geodesic-active-contour model coupled with a level-set algorithm to refine the initial boundaries. Our CT database contained hepatic CT scans of 18 liver donors obtained under a liver transplant protocol. Our MRI database contains 23 patients with 1.5T MRI scanners. To establish "gold-standard" liver volumes, radiologists manually traced the contour of the liver on each CT or MR slice. We compared our computer volumetry with "gold-standard" manual volumetry. Computer volumetry in CT and MRI reached excellent agreement with manual volumetry (intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.94 and 0.98, respectively). Average user time for computer volumetry in CT and MRI was 0.57 ± 0.06 and 1.0 ± 0.13 min. per case, respectively, whereas those for manual volumetry were 39.4 ± 5.5 and 24.0 ± 4.4 min. per case, respectively, with statistically significant difference (p < .05). Our computerized liver segmentation framework provides an efficient and accurate way of measuring liver volumes in both CT and MRI.

  13. pH-stimulated concurrent mechanical activation of two DNA "tweezers". A "SET-RESET" logic gate system.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Johann; Wang, Zhen-Gang; Orbach, Ron; Willner, Itamar

    2009-12-01

    A DNA tweezer consisting of C-rich arms is kept in the "closed" form by hybridization of the arms with a nucleic acid cross-linker. At acidic pH (pH = 5.2), the arms are stabilized through the formation of the i-motif, C-quadruplex structures, releasing the cross-linking nucleic acid and transforming the tweezer to its "opened" state. At neutral pH (pH = 7.2), the C-quadruplex structures are dissociated, resulting in the capturing of the cross-linking nucleic acid and the closure of the tweezer. By the reversible treatment of the tweezer at pH = 5.2 and at pH = 7.2, the tweezer system is cycled between the open and closed states, respectively, followed by a FRET process between a fluorophore-quencher pair that labels the tweezer. Also the concurrent activation of two DNA tweezers by pH stimuli is described. The pH-induced opening of one tweezer (tweezer A) by the formation of C-quadruplex (pH = 5.2) and the release of the cross-linking nucleic acid result in the closure of a second tweezer (tweezer B) by the hybridization of the released strand with the arms of tweezer B. The dissociation of the C-quadruplex structures (pH = 7.2) results in the favored translocation of the cross-linking nucleic acid from tweezer B to A. By the cycling of the pH of the system between pH = 5.2 and pH = 7.2, the concurrent opening and closure of the two tweezers are accomplished. The two tweezers system performs a SET-RESET logic gate operation, where the pH stimuli act as inputs.

  14. Using a Team Approach to Address Bullying of Students with Asperger's Syndrome in Activity-Based Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia; Simpson, Cynthia; Gaus, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The rate of bullying among individuals with disabilities is alarming. Because of the social and motor deficiencies that individuals with Asperger's syndrome (AS) often display, they are frequently targets of bullying. The physical education setting often consists of a larger number of students than the typical academic instructional setting. This…

  15. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  16. Using the Sampling Margin of Error to Assess the Interpretative Validity of Student Evaluations of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David E.; Schraw, Gregory; Kuch, Fred

    2015-01-01

    We present an equation, derived from standard statistical theory, that can be used to estimate sampling margin of error for student evaluations of teaching (SETs). We use the equation to examine the effect of sample size, response rates and sample variability on the estimated sampling margin of error, and present results in four tables that allow…

  17. Marginal Space Deep Learning: Efficient Architecture for Volumetric Image Parsing.

    PubMed

    Ghesu, Florin C; Krubasik, Edward; Georgescu, Bogdan; Singh, Vivek; Zheng, Yefeng; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2016-03-07

    Robust and fast solutions for anatomical object detection and segmentation support the entire clinical workflow from diagnosis, patient stratification, therapy planning, intervention and follow-up. Current state-of-the-art techniques for parsing volumetric medical image data are typically based on machine learning methods that exploit large annotated image databases. There are two main challenges that need to be addressed, these are the efficiency in processing large volumetric input images and the need for strong, representative image features. When the object of interest is parametrized in a high dimensional space, standard volume scanning techniques do not scale up to the enormous number of potential hypotheses and representative image features are subject to significant efforts of manual engineering. We propose a pipeline for object detection and segmentation in the context of volumetric image parsing, solving a two-step learning problem: anatomical pose estimation and boundary delineation. For this task we introduce Marginal Space Deep Learning (MSDL), a novel framework exploiting both the strengths of efficient object parametrization in hierarchical marginal spaces and the automated feature design of Deep Learning (DL) network architectures. Deep learning systems automatically identify, disentangle and learn explanatory attributes directly from low-level image data, however their application in the volumetric setting is limited by the very high complexity of the parametrization. More specifically 9 parameters are necessary to describe a restricted affine transformation in 3D (3 for each location, orientation, and scale) resulting in a prohibitive number of scanning hypotheses, in the order of billions for typical sampling. The mechanism of marginal space learning provides excellent run-time performance by learning classifiers in clustered, high-probability regions in spaces of gradually increasing dimensionality, for example starting from location only (3D

  18. Localized Deformation along an Inverted Rifted Margin: Example of the Northern Ligurian Margin, Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAGE, F.; Beslier, M.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Béthoux, N.; Gaullier, V.; Larroque, C.; Corradi, N.; Schenini, L.; Dessa, J.; Bigot, A.; Migeon, S.; Ruiz-Constán, A.

    2013-12-01

    Along rifted margins, continental edges are heterogeneous systems that juxtapose lithospheres with different nature, mechanical behavior and structural inheritance. In this study, we focus on the northern Ligurian margin to examine how such complex systems might deform when they are submitted to a compressive stress field. The northern Ligurian margin, of Oligo-Miocene age, has been undergoing contraction over at least the past ~ 6 Ma. Active thrust faults and folds responsible for the regional uplift of the continental edge have previously been identified below the margin. Although seismicity extends as far as the axis of the basin, no recent or active crustal compressional structure has been identified so far in the oceanic domain. We used new 12-channel high-resolution seismic data (FABLES cruise, 2012) and other seismic reflexion lines from the last decades to image the sedimentary cover in the Ligurian oceanic basin, down to the bottom of the Messinian salt layer ~ 3 km below the seafloor. Because the Messinian event is well dated over the Mediterranean (5.96-5.32 Ma) and well identified in the seismic data, it forms a clear marker characterizing the recent deformation related to both salt and crustal tectonics. Noticeable deformation within the oceanic domain is restricted to large, SW-NE elongated salt walls located 10 to 40 km from the margin toe, over a 70-km length. The salt walls have a specific structure and arrangement that cannot result from salt tectonics only. We thus interpret them as resulting from combined deep-seated crustal and thin-skinned deformations. However, although the salt walls are well expressed in the seafloor morphology, their seismic images do not reveal any significant vertical throw across their trace, and they gradually disappear toward the SW. We thus interpret the salt walls as strike-slip structures with possibly very moderate compression. Overall, the post-Messinian deformation taken along these features is likely moderate

  19. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, L.; Burov, E. B.; Werner, P.

    2015-01-01

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle. PMID:26442807

  20. Volcanic passive margins: another way to break up continents.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, L; Burov, E B; Werner, P

    2015-10-07

    Two major types of passive margins are recognized, i.e. volcanic and non-volcanic, without proposing distinctive mechanisms for their formation. Volcanic passive margins are associated with the extrusion and intrusion of large volumes of magma, predominantly mafic, and represent distinctive features of Larges Igneous Provinces, in which regional fissural volcanism predates localized syn-magmatic break-up of the lithosphere. In contrast with non-volcanic margins, continentward-dipping detachment faults accommodate crustal necking at both conjugate volcanic margins. These faults root on a two-layer deformed ductile crust that appears to be partly of igneous nature. This lower crust is exhumed up to the bottom of the syn-extension extrusives at the outer parts of the margin. Our numerical modelling suggests that strengthening of deep continental crust during early magmatic stages provokes a divergent flow of the ductile lithosphere away from a central continental block, which becomes thinner with time due to the flow-induced mechanical erosion acting at its base. Crustal-scale faults dipping continentward are rooted over this flowing material, thus isolating micro-continents within the future oceanic domain. Pure-shear type deformation affects the bulk lithosphere at VPMs until continental breakup, and the geometry of the margin is closely related to the dynamics of an active and melting mantle.

  1. Pebble and bedrock abrasion during fluvial transport in active orogenic setting : experimental study and application to natural hydrographic networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attal, M.; Lavé, J.

    2003-04-01

    At mountain range scale, rivers play an important role in shaping the landscape : in response to active uplift, they incise into bedrock and ensure base level lowering for hillslopes erosion. At the same time, they ensure evacuation of erosion products out of the range as suspended- or bedload. Incision rates are commonly equated with a stream power law, assuming that river incision depends only on hydrodynamic variables. However, this simplification is not mechanically satisfying : in many settings, river bedload fluxes exert an important control on incision rates, by limiting bedrock exposure or by providing an efficient tool for river mechanical abrasion. It is therefore important to better quantify the abrasion processes during bedload transport both to deduce pebble size reduction that controls carrying capacity and bedrock exposure, and to derive bedrock incision laws. Such characterization can be constrained through experimental studies or field measurements. Experimental studies on pebble and bedrock abrasion have been conducted for a long time [e.g. Daubree, 1879]. They generally provide incision rates around two orders of magnitude below natural downstream fining rates. Previous authors have suggested that this discrepancy could be explained by the fact that experimental device doesn’t reproduce really the abrasion phenomena effective in natural rivers, like saltation and following impacts. In this way, we have built an experimental device in order to reproduce these abrasion phenomena. It consists of a circular flume of 30 cm width and of 60 cm curvature radius. Water is injected tangentially on four points ; it generates a flow that produce sediment motion. Velocity vertical profile is roughly similar to what could be observed in natural rivers. The bottom and the sides of the device are interchangeable, in order to measure distinctly pebble abrasion or the interactions between sediment load and substratum. The aim of this experimental study is to

  2. Strain distribution across magmatic margins during the breakup stage: Seismicity patterns in the Afar rift zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.; Gregg, T.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Aronovitz, A.; Campbell, E.

    2008-12-01

    Fault patterns record the strain history along passive continental margins, but geochronological constraints are, in general, too sparse to evaluate these patterns in 3D. The Afar depression in Ethiopia provides a unique setting to evaluate the time and space relations between faulting and magmatism across an incipient passive margin that formed above a mantle plume. The margin comprises a high elevation flood basalt province with thick, underplated continental crust, a narrow fault-line escarpment underlain by stretched and intruded crust, and a broad zone of highly intruded, mafic crust lying near sealevel. We analyze fault and seismicity patterns across and along the length of the Afar rift zone to determine the spatial distribution of strain during the final stages of continental breakup, and its relation to active magmatism and dike intrusions. Seismicity data include historic data and 2005-2007 data from the collaborative US-UK-Ethiopia Afar Geodynamics Project that includes the 2005-present Dabbahu rift episode. Earthquake epicenters cluster within discrete, 50 km-long magmatic segments that lack any fault linkage. Swarms also cluster along the fault-line scarp between the unstretched and highly stretched Afar rift zone; these earthquakes may signal release of stresses generated by large lateral density contrasts. We compare Coulomb static stress models with focal mechanisms and fault kinematics to discriminate between segmented magma intrusion and crank- arm models for the central Afar rift zone.

  3. Illustrations of the importance of mass wasting in the evolution of continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Pratson, L.; Ryan, W. ); Twichell, D. )

    1990-05-01

    Side-looking sonar imagery and swath bathymetry from a variety of contemporary continental slopes all display erosional scars and debris aprons, illustrating the importance of mass wasting in the evolution of continental margins. The continental slopes examined include slopes fed directly from the fronts of ice sheets, slopes adjacent to continental shelves that were the sites of glacial outwash, slopes supplied exclusively by fluvial drainage, slopes at carbonate platforms, and slopes on accretionary prisms. Examples are drawn from the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Mediterranean Sea in both passive and active continental margin settings. The sonar imagery and bathymetry used in this study indicate that continental slopes in different tectonic and climatic environments show similar forms of mass wasting. However, in some cases the dominant mode of erosion and/or the overall degree of mass wasting appears to be distinct to particular sedimentary environments. Timing of both recent and older exhumed erosional surfaces identified in the imagery and in seismic reflection profiles is obtained by ground truth observations using submersibles, towed camera sleds, drilling, and coring. These observations suggest that eustatic fluctuations common to all the margins examined do not explain the range in magnitude and areal density of the observed mass wasting. More localized factors such as lithology, diagenesis, pore fluid conditions, sediment supply rates, and seismic ground motion appear to have a major influence in the evolution of erosional scars and their corresponding unconformities.

  4. The Human Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5), a Sequentially and Structurally Divergent SET Domain-Containing Protein with No Intrinsic Catalytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Teyssier, Catherine; Déméné, Hélène; Carvalho, João E.; Bird, Louise E.; Lebedev, Andrey; Fattori, Juliana; Schubert, Michael; Dumas, Christian; Bourguet, William; le Maire, Albane

    2016-01-01

    Mixed Lineage Leukemia 5 (MLL5) plays a key role in hematopoiesis, spermatogenesis and cell cycle progression. Chromatin binding is ensured by its plant homeodomain (PHD) through a direct interaction with the N-terminus of histone H3 (H3). In addition, MLL5 contains a Su(var)3-9, Enhancer of zeste, Trithorax (SET) domain, a protein module that usually displays histone lysine methyltransferase activity. We report here the crystal structure of the unliganded SET domain of human MLL5 at 2.1 Å resolution. Although it shows most of the canonical features of other SET domains, both the lack of key residues and the presence in the SET-I subdomain of an unusually large loop preclude the interaction of MLL5 SET with its cofactor and substrate. Accordingly, we show that MLL5 is devoid of any in vitro methyltransferase activity on full-length histones and histone H3 peptides. Hence, the three dimensional structure of MLL5 SET domain unveils the structural basis for its lack of methyltransferase activity and suggests a new regulatory mechanism. PMID:27812132

  5. 77 FR 77016 - Authorization of Production Activity: Foreign-Trade Zone 230: Sonoco Corrflex (Kitting-Gift Sets...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... (Kitting-Gift Sets); Rural Hall and Winston-Salem, North Carolina On August 20, 2012, the Piedmont Triad...-Salem, North Carolina. The notification was processed in accordance with the regulations of the...

  6. Passive margin formation, Timor Sea, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, R.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Recent ODP data show that sea-floor spreading began in the Argo Abyssal Plain in the earliest Cretaceous, and not the Callovian-Oxfordian as had previously been believed. These data are now consistent with the Callovian-Valanginian rifting observed on seismic records over the adjacent continental shelf (Vulcan subbasin, western Timor Sea). Tectonic subsidence plots have been constructed for well, extrapolated well, and significant off-well (seismically based) locations in the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent highs. The fully corrected plots show relatively little tectonic subsidence during the Callovian-Valanginian rift phase, even in the depocenter of the Swan Graben, where the Callovian-Valanginian interval reaches its maximum thickness. This is atypical for a passive margin basin. Assuming an extensional origin for the margin, the absence of tectonic subsidence is considered to indicate that continental rifting in the area was wet (accompanied by major volcanic activity). Recent studies have shown that extensive volcanism may occur where rift zones cut through regions of anomalously hot mantle (100-200{degree}C above normal). The addition to the crust of igneous material, the density of which has been modified by adiabatic decompression, inhibits syn-rift subsidence. A wet rifting model also has implications for the origin of the nearby marginal plateaux such as the Scott Plateau. Their relatively thick crust and lack of subsidence may be due to igneous underplating associated with wet rifting. As such the plateaux may be regarded as transitional between oceanic and continental crust. The post-Valanginian Cretaceous subsidence of the Vulcan subbasin and adjacent areas is consistent with typical post-rift thermal subsidence, the predicted exponentially decaying subsidence history for a wet rift being indistinguishable from that of a dry rift.

  7. Marginal adaptation of composite resins under two adhesive techniques.

    PubMed

    Dačić, Stefan; Veselinović, Aleksandar M; Mitić, Aleksandar; Nikolić, Marija; Cenić, Milica; Dačić-Simonović, Dragica

    2016-11-01

    In the present research, different adhesive techniques were used to set up fillings with composite resins. After the application of etch and rinse or self etch adhesive technique, marginal adaptation of composite fillings was estimated by the length of margins without gaps, and by the microretention of resin in enamel and dentin. The study material consisted of 40 extracted teeth. Twenty Class V cavities were treated with 35% phosphorous acid and restored after rinsing by Adper Single Bond 2 and Filtek Ultimate-ASB/FU 3M ESPE composite system. The remaining 20 cavities were restored by Adper Easy One-AEO/FU 3M ESPE composite system. Marginal adaptation of composite fillings was examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The etch and rinse adhesive technique showed a significantly higher percentage of margin length without gaps (in enamel: 92.5%, in dentin: 57.3%), compared with the self-etch technique with lower percentage of margin length without gaps, in enamel 70.4% (p < .001), and in dentin-22.6% (p < .05). In the first technique, microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers as well as resin tugs in interprismatic spaces of enamel, while the dentin microretention was composed of adhesive and hybrid layers with resin tugs in dentin canals. In the second technique, resin tugs were rarely seen and a microgap was dominant along the border of restoration margins. The SEM analysis showed a better marginal adaptation of composite resin to enamel and dentin with better microretention when the etch and rinse adhesive procedure was applied.

  8. Healthy Kids Out of School: Using Mixed Methods to Develop Principles for Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Out-of-School Settings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H.; Dolan, Peter R.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Newman, Molly B.; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. Methods The Institute of Medicine’s L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children’s healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children’s perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations’ administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Results Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Conclusion Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity. PMID:25551182

  9. Silenced, Silence, Silent: Motherhood in the Margins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Lorelei; Austin, Helena

    2007-01-01

    This project explores the experiences of women who mother children with ADHD. The authors use the metaphor of the text and the margin. The text is the "motherhood myth" that describes a particular sort of "good" mothering. The margin is the space beyond that text. This marginal space is inhabited by some or all of the mothers they spoke with, some…

  10. [Erosive marginal keratitis due to pilocarpine allergy].

    PubMed

    Radian, A B

    1999-01-01

    In 3 patients under local pilocarpine medication, corneal marginal infiltration and limbic ulcerations were noted that were typical for allergic marginal keratitis. A classical allergic conjunctivitis was present in every case. They healed after pilocarpine instillations were suspended and local corticosteroids together with oral antihistaminic drugs were applied. Marginal allergic erosions of the cornea is another form of secondary complication in patients using pilocarpine.

  11. Marginal Costs and Formula-Based Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Ellen

    Marginal cost is the cost of producing an additional unit. In higher education, one marginal cost would be cost of educating an additional student. Formula-based budget determination for public higher education is usually based on average cost per student. This study estimates marginal cost and compares it with average cost. There are several…

  12. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding...

  13. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p < .001) of goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed.

  14. Formation and evolution of magma-poor margins, an example of the West Iberia margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gussinye, Marta; Andres-Martinez, Miguel; Morgan, Jason P.; Ranero, Cesar R.; Reston, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The West Iberia-Newfoundland (WIM-NF) conjugate margins have been geophysically and geologically surveyed for the last 30 years and have arguably become a paradigm for magma-poor extensional margins. Here we present a coherent picture of the WIM-NF rift to drift evolution that emerges from these observations and numerical modeling, and point out important differences that may exist with other magma-poor margins world-wide. The WIM-NF is characterized by a continental crust that thins asymmetrically and a wide and symmetric continent-ocean transition (COT) interpreted to consist of exhumed and serpentinised mantle with magmatic products increasing oceanward. The architectural evolution of these margins is mainly dominated by cooling under very slow extension velocities (<~6 mm/yr half-rate) and a lower crust that most probably was not extremely weak at the start of rifting. These conditions lead to a system where initially deformation is distributed over a broad area and the upper, lower crust and lithosphere are decoupled. As extension progresses upper, lower, crust and mantle become tightly coupled and deformation localizes due to strengthening and cooling during rifting. Coupling leads to asymmetric asthenospheric uplift and weakening of the hanginwall of the active fault, where a new fault forms. This continued process leads to the formation of an array of sequential faults that dip and become younger oceanward. Here we show that these processes acting in concert: 1) reproduce the margin asymmetry observed at the WIM-NF, 2) explain the fault geometry evolution from planar, to listric to detachment like by having one common Andersonian framework, 3) lead to the symmetric exhumation of mantle with little magmatism, and 4) explain the younging of the syn-rift towards the basin centre and imply that unconformities separating syn- and post-rift may be diachronous and younger towards the ocean. Finally, we show that different lower crustal rheologies lead to different

  15. Canada basin: age and history of its continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J.F.

    1985-02-01

    Presently available age controls suggest that the Canada basin formed during the Cretaceous Period between about 131 and 79 Ma. The opening process began with continental breakup that may have involved all parts of the North American polar margin at about the same time. The opening was completed by the formation of oceanic crust during the extended Cretaceous interval of normal geomagnetic polarity. Features characteristics of continental breakup, insofar as they are known, show systematic regional differences. From Brock to Axel Heiberg Island, continental breakup was associated with an extended (100 + Ma) stratigraphic hiatus and, northeastward from Ellef Ringnes Island, with extensive tholeiitic igneous activity. From Banks Island to northeastern Alaska, the breakup interval was abbreviated (20-30 Ma), and sparse igneous activity occurred. These differences can be produced by changes in the rate and/or amount of crustal stretching during margin formation and would imply relatively faster or more stretching northeast of Brock island. A continental margin of fixed age, exhibiting the indicated pattern of crustal stretching, could be produced along the trailing edge of a rotating block (Arctic Alaska terrane AA) with its pivot near the Mackenzie delta. When the rotation is restored, however, geological discrepancies are evident between Devonian and older rocks across the conjugate margins, suggesting an earlier history of drifting for the AA. Early Paleozoic correlations appear improved if the AA is placed, polar margin to polar margin, against northern Ellesmere Island and Greenland, where in the middle Paleozoic, it was sheared sinistrally along the Canadian margin to its pre-rotated position opposite Banks Island.

  16. Northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent in Triassic

    SciTech Connect

    Egorov, A.Yu. )

    1993-09-01

    Siliciclastic sedimentation has been predominant on the northern and eastern margins of the Siberian continent since the Triassic period. Seven transgression-regression cycles can be recognized in the Triassic succession: Griesbachien-Dienerian, Smithian-Low Spathian, Upper Spathian, Anissian (with subcycles), Ladian, Carnian, and Norlan (with subcycles). All zonal units were distinguished within transgressive portions of the cycles. Regressive portions of the cycles formed practically instantaneously. Very high sedimentation rate (300-3000 mm/1000 yr), specific structures of sedimentary rocks, and distribution of unconformities led to the conclusion that active avalanche sedimentation at the basin margins was of major significance. six facies regions are recognized in the sedimentation area: Taimyr, Kotuy-Anabar, Leno-Anabar, Bur-Olenek, Verkhoyansk, and Novosibirsk (New Siberian Islands). The main source areas were located at the Patoma Mountains for the eastern margin and at the Anabar anticline and Olenek uplift for the northern margin. Most sediments were transported to the eastern margin by a large river with a huge delta which was similar in size to the modern Lena's delta. Sediments were further distributed by contour streams. Local synsedimentary structures controlled the paleogeography of the entire area. The paleogeographical evolution of the eastern margin is the history of this delta development. The rifting activities with the trappean magmatism were the main events at the northern margin, especially in the Talmyr area. The pelagic sedimentation has been predominant in the New Siberian Islands area and most of the Laptev Sea aquatoria. The organic-rich sediments have been distinguished in Low Olenekian (Smithian), Low Anissian, Low Ladinian, and Low Carnian substages. Most of them could be hydrocarbon source rocks. Triassic oil and gas seeps have been discovered at the northern portion of the Vilyui syncline, near the Lena's delta and the Nordvic Bay.

  17. Emergency department care for trauma patients in settings of active conflict versus urban violence: all of the same calibre?

    PubMed Central

    Valles, Pola; Van den Bergh, Rafael; van den Boogaard, Wilma; Tayler-Smith, Katherine; Gayraud, Olivia; Mammozai, Bashir Ahmad; Nasim, Masood; Cheréstal, Sophia; Majuste, Alberta; Charles, James Philippe; Trelles, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is a leading cause of death and represents a major problem in developing countries where access to good quality emergency care is limited. Médecins Sans Frontières delivered a standard package of care in two trauma emergency departments (EDs) in different violence settings: Kunduz, Afghanistan, and Tabarre, Haiti. This study aims to assess whether this standard package resulted in similar performance in these very different contexts. Methods A cross-sectional study using routine programme data, comparing patient characteristics and outcomes in two EDs over the course of 2014. Results 31 158 patients presented to the EDs: 22 076 in Kunduz and 9082 in Tabarre. Patient characteristics, such as delay in presentation (29.6% over 24 h in Kunduz, compared to 8.4% in Tabarre), triage score, and morbidity pattern differed significantly between settings. Nevertheless, both EDs showed an excellent performance, demonstrating low proportions of mortality (0.1% for both settings) and left without being seen (1.3% for both settings), and acceptable triage performance. Physicians’ maximum working capacity was exceeded in both centres, and mainly during rush hours. Conclusions This study supports for the first time the plausibility of using the same ED package in different settings. Mapping of patient attendance is essential for planning of human resources needs. PMID:27810881

  18. Three-dimensional marginal separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    The three dimensional marginal separation of a boundary layer along a line of symmetry is considered. The key equation governing the displacement function is derived, and found to be a nonlinear integral equation in two space variables. This is solved iteratively using a pseudo-spectral approach, based partly in double Fourier space, and partly in physical space. Qualitatively, the results are similar to previously reported two dimensional results (which are also computed to test the accuracy of the numerical scheme); however quantitatively the three dimensional results are much different.

  19. Carboniferous granites on the northern margin of Gondwana, Anatolide-Tauride Block, Turkey - Evidence for southward subduction of Paleotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candan, O.; Akal, C.; Koralay, O. E.; Okay, A. I.; Oberhänsli, R.; Prelević, D.; Mertz-Kraus, R.

    2016-06-01

    Carboniferous metagranites with U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 331-315 Ma crop out in the Afyon zone in the northern margin of the Anatolide-Tauride Block, which is commonly regarded as part of Gondwana during the Late Palaeozoic. They are peraluminous, calc-alkaline and are characterized by increase in Rb and Ba, decrease in Nb-Ta, and enrichment in Sr and high LILE/HFSE ratios compatible with a continental arc setting. The metagranites intrude a metasedimentary sequence of phyllite, metaquartzite and marble; both the Carboniferous metagranites and metasedimentary rocks are overlain unconformably by Lower Triassic metaconglomerates, metavolcanics and Upper Triassic to Cretaceous recrystallized limestones. The low-grade metamorphism and deformation occurred at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. There is no evidence for Carboniferous deformation and metamorphism in the region. Carboniferous arc-type granites and previously described Carboniferous subduction-accretion complexes on the northern margin of the Anatolide-Tauride Block suggest southward subduction of Paleotethys under Gondwana during the Carboniferous. Considering the Variscan-related arc granites in Pelagonian and Sakarya zones on the active southern margin of Laurasia, a dual subduction of Paleotethys can be envisaged between Early Carboniferous and Late Permian. However, the southward subduction was short-lived and by the Late Permian the Gondwana margin became passive.

  20. SPOC Experiment: First Results From Seismological Studies Along the Central Chilean Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Gossler, J.

    2002-12-01

    The investigations of the RV SONNE cruise SO161 during the SPOC experiment (Subduction Processes Off Chile) concentrated on the area of the central Chilean margin west off Valparaiso. The main goal of this experiment is to investigate the effects of subducting oceanic seafloor relief on the seismicity of this domain. A marine array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophones and seismometers (OBH/S) was deployed for a period of ten weeks to monitor local earthquakes from this part of the Chilean margin where volcanic structures like the aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge enter the trench. A strong decrease in dip angle of the subducting plate (flat slab) is observed here, resulting in a segmentation of the margin. The flat slab segment correlates with the absence of Quaternary volcanism and a central valley on the South American plate. It is assumed that a connection between the buoyancy of thickened oceanic crust and the occurrence of shallow subduction earthquakes exists. We present preliminary results of hypocenter determinations, founded on about 300 localisable events based on the OBH/S recordings. The distribution of hypocenters shows a considerable seismic activity within the 15 km - 50 km depth range. The special focus on the transitional domain of the slope allowed us to map in detail the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone. In addition, we used seismological land data, recorded from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary landstations to supplement the marine data set. Comparative and joint hypocenter analysis from both marine and land data, increases the precision of locations and allows an assessment of systematic errors. We can show the need of both, on- and offshore data sets, to determine offshore earthquake locations with high precision. The seismological investigations are in close collaboration with the active seismic studies carried out during the scope of the SPOC experiment.

  1. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B.; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification. PMID:27335277

  2. Marginal Lands: Concept, Assessment and Management

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Shujiang; Post, Wilfred M; West, Tristram O.; Bandaru, Vara Prasad; Izaurralde, Dr. R. Cesar; Wang, Dali; Nichols, Dr Jeff A

    2013-01-01

    Marginal lands have received wide attention for their potential to improve food security and support bioenergy production. However, environmental, ecosystem service, and sustainability concerns have been widely raised over the use of marginal land. Knowledge of the extent, location, and quality of marginal lands as well as their assessment and management are limited and diverse. This paper provides a review of the historical development of marginal concept, its application and assessment. Limitations and priority research needs of marginal land assessment and management were discussed.

  3. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation, and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic, as seen in the number of mountain belts found at active margins during that period. Less clear is how that compression increase affects passive margins. In order to address this issue, we design a 2-D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision (or slab anchoring), respectively. This distinction changes the upper mechanical boundary condition for mantle circulation and thus, the stress field. Between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode toward a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For a constant total driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins if upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. Our results substantiate the idea that compression at passive margins is in response to the underlying mantle flow that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  4. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Philippe; Husson, Laurent; Becker, Thorsten W.; Pedoja, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Passive margins often exhibit uplift, exhumation and tectonic inversion. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. In the same time, the many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event seem readily witness this increase. However, how that compression increase affects passive margins remains unclear. In order to address this issue, we design a 2D viscous numerical model wherein a lithospheric plate rests above a weaker mantle. It is driven by a mantle conveyor belt, alternatively excited by a lateral downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, representing the cases of free convergence, and collision or slab anchoring, respectively. This distinction changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and, as a consequence, the stress field. Our results show that between these two regimes, the flow pattern transiently evolves from a free-slip convection mode towards a no-slip boundary condition above the upper mantle. In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins provided that upwellings are active. Conversely, if downwellings alone are activated, compression occurs at short distances from the trench and extension prevails elsewhere. These results are supported by Earth-like 3D spherical models that reveal the same pattern, where active upwellings are required to excite passive margins compression. These results support the idea that compression at passive margins, is the response to the underlying mantle flow, that is increasingly resisted by the Cenozoic collisions.

  5. Tracking Human Pose Using Max-Margin Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-12-01

    We present a new method for tracking human pose by employing max-margin Markov models. Representing a human body by part-based models, such as pictorial structure, the problem of pose tracking can be modeled by a discrete Markov random field. Considering max-margin Markov networks provide an efficient way to deal with both structured data and strong generalization guarantees, it is thus natural to learn the model parameters using the max-margin technique. Since tracking human pose needs to couple limbs in adjacent frames, the model will introduce loops and will be intractable for learning and inference. Previous work has resorted to pose estimation methods, which discard temporal information by parsing frames individually. Alternatively, approximate inference strategies have been used, which can overfit to statistics of a particular data set. Thus, the performance and generalization of these methods are limited. In this paper, we approximate the full model by introducing an ensemble of two tree-structured sub-models, Markov networks for spatial parsing and Markov chains for temporal parsing. Both models can be trained jointly using the max-margin technique, and an iterative parsing process is proposed to achieve the ensemble inference. We apply our model on three challengeable data sets, which contains highly varied and articulated poses. Comprehensive experimental results demonstrate the superior performance of our method over the state-of-the-art approaches.

  6. Holocene Earthquakes, Slope Failures, and Submarine Gas Hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Goldfinger, C.; Nelson, C. H.

    2002-12-01

    -term recurrent effect on hydrates in an active margin setting. Alternatively, a partial correlation to the earthquake record might suggest denudation of the ridge and subsequent destabilization of gas hydrate may be controlled by both earthquakes and additional processes such as rapid fluid expulsion or degassing of the ridge driven by local deformation.

  7. Dynamics of the continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    On 18--20 June 1990, over 70 oceanographers conducting research in the ocean margins of North America attended a workshop in Virginia Beach, Virginia. The purpose of the workshop was to provide the Department of Energy with recommendations for future research on the exchange of energy-related materials between the coastal and interior ocean and the relationship between the ocean margins and global change. The workshop was designed to optimize the interaction of scientists from specific research disciplines (biology, chemistry, physics and geology) as they developed hypotheses, research questions and topics and implementation plans. The participants were given few restraints on the research they proposed other than realistic time and monetary limits. The interdisciplinary structure of the meeting promoted lively discussion and creative research plans. The meeting was divided into four working groups based on lateral, vertical, air/sea and sediment/water processes. Working papers were prepared and distributed before the meeting. During the meeting the groups revised the papers and added recommendations that appear in this report, which was reviewed by an Executive Committee.

  8. Visual Communication in Transition: Designing for New Media Literacies and Visual Culture Art Education across Activities and Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    As an example of design-based research, this case study describes and analyses the enactment of a collaborative drawing and animation studio in a Singapore secondary school art classroom. The design embodies principles of visual culture art education and new media literacies in order to organize transitions in the settings of participation and…

  9. Respiratory muscle activity and patient–ventilator asynchrony during different settings of noninvasive ventilation in stable hypercapnic COPD: does high inspiratory pressure lead to respiratory muscle unloading?

    PubMed Central

    Duiverman, Marieke L; Huberts, Anouk S; van Eykern, Leo A; Bladder, Gerrie; Wijkstra, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction High-intensity noninvasive ventilation (NIV) has been shown to improve outcomes in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. However, there is insufficient knowledge about whether with this more controlled ventilatory mode optimal respiratory muscle unloading is provided without an increase in patient–ventilator asynchrony (PVA). Patients and methods Ten chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients on home mechanical ventilation were included. Four different ventilatory settings were investigated in each patient in random order, each for 15 min, varying the inspiratory positive airway pressure and backup breathing frequency. With surface electromyography (EMG), activities of the intercostal muscles, diaphragm, and scalene muscles were determined. Furthermore, pressure tracings were derived simultaneously in order to assess PVA. Results Compared to spontaneous breathing, the most pronounced decrease in EMG activity was achieved with the high-pressure settings. Adding a high breathing frequency did reduce EMG activity per breath, while the decrease in EMG activity over 1 min was comparable with the high-pressure, low-frequency setting. With high backup breathing frequencies less breaths were pressure supported (25% vs 97%). PVAs occurred more frequently with the low-frequency settings (P=0.017). Conclusion High-intensity NIV might provide optimal unloading of respiratory muscles, without undue increases in PVA. PMID:28138234

  10. Passive margins getting squeezed in the mantle convection vice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, Laurent; Yamato, Philippe; Becker, Thorsten; Pedoja, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    Quaternary coastal geomorphology reveals that passive margins underwent wholesale uplift at least during the glacial cycle. In addition, these not-so-passive margins often exhibit long term exhumation and tectonic inversion, which suggest that compression and tectonic shortening could be the mechanism that triggers their overall uplift. We speculate that the compression in the lithosphere gradually increased during the Cenozoic. The many mountain belts at active margins that accompany this event readily witness this increase. Less clear is how that compression increase affects passive margins. In order to address this issue, we design minimalist 2D viscous models to quantify the impact of plate collision on the stress regime. In these models, a sluggish plate is disposed on a less viscous mantle. It is driven by a "mantle conveyor belt" alternatively excited by lateral shear stresses that represent a downwelling on one side, an upwelling on the other side, or both simultaneously. The lateral edges of the plate are either free or fixed, respectively representing the cases of free convergence and collision. In practice, it dramatically changes the upper boundary condition for mantle circulation and subsequently, for the stress field. The flow pattern transiently evolves almost between two end-members, starting from a situation close to a Couette flow to a pattern that looks like a Poiseuille flow with an almost null velocity at the surface (though in the models, the horizontal velocity at the surface is not strictly null, as the lithosphere deforms). In the second case, the lithosphere is highly stressed horizontally and deforms. For an equivalent bulk driving force, compression increases drastically at passive margins if upwellings are active because they push plates towards the collision. Conversely, if only downwellings are activated, compression occurs on one half of the plate and extension on the other half, because only the downwelling is pulling the plate

  11. Comparative assessment of endocrine modulators with oestrogenic activity: I. Definition of a hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) for xeno-oestrogens against the background of European developments.

    PubMed

    Bolt, H M; Janning, P; Michna, H; Degen, G H

    2001-01-01

    A novel concept - the hygiene-based margin of safety (HBMOS) - is suggested for the assessment of the impact of potential endocrine modulators. It integrates exposure scenarios and potency data for industrial chemicals and naturally occurring dietary compounds with oestrogenic activity. An HBMOS is defined as a quotient of estimated daily intakes weighted by the relative in vivo potencies of these compounds. The Existing Chemicals Programme of the European Union provides Human and Environmental Risk Assessments of Existing Chemicals which include human exposure scenarios. Such exposure scenarios, along with potency estimates for endocrine activities, may provide a basis for a quantitative comparison of the potential endocrine-modulating effects of industrial chemicals with endocrine modulators as natural constituents of human diet. Natural phyto-oestrogens exhibit oestrogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. Important phyto-oestrogens for humans are isoflavones (daidzein, genistein) and lignans, with the highest quantities found in soybeans and flaxseed, respectively. Daily isoflavone exposures calculated for infants on soy-based formulae were in the ranges of 4.5-8 mg/kg body wt.; estimates for adults range up to 1 mg/kg body wt. The Senate Commission on the Evaluation of Food Safety (SKLM) of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft has also indicated a wide range of dietary exposures. For matters of risk assessment, the SKLM has based recommendations on dietary exposure scenarios, implying a daily intake of phyto-oestrogens in the order of 1 mg/kg body wt. On the basis of information compiled within the Existing Chemicals Programme of the EU, it appears that a daily human exposure to nonylphenol of 2 microg/kg body wt. may be a worst-case assumption, but which is based on valid scenarios. The intake of octylphenol is much lower, due to a different use pattern and applications, and may be neglected. Data from migration studies led to estimations of the daily human

  12. SenseWearMini and Actigraph GT3X Accelerometer Classification of Observed Sedentary and Light-Intensity Physical Activities in a Laboratory Setting.

    PubMed

    Feehan, Lynne M; Goldsmith, Charles H; Leung, April Y F; Li, Linda C

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the ability of SenseWear Mini (SWm) and Actigraph GT3X (AG3) accelerometers to differentiate between healthy adults' observed sedentary and light activities in a laboratory setting. Methods: The 22 participants (15 women, 7 men), ages 19 to 72 years, wore SWm and AG3 monitors and performed five sedentary and four light activities for 5 minutes each while observed in a laboratory setting. Performance was examined through comparisons of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Correct identification of both types of activities was examined using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Results: Both monitors demonstrated excellent ability to identify sedentary activities (sensitivity>0.89). The SWm monitor was better at identifying light activities (specificity 0.61-0.71) than the AG3 monitor (specificity 0.27-0.47) and thus also showed a greater ability to correctly identify both sedentary and light activities (SWm AUC 0.84; AG3 AUC 0.62-0.73). Conclusions: SWm may be a more suitable monitor for detecting time spent in sedentary and light-intensity activities. This finding has clinical and research relevance for evaluation of time spent in lower intensity physical activities by sedentary adults.

  13. Collision processes at the northern margin of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobarenko, V. S.; Murovskaya, A. V.; Yegorova, T. P.; Sheremet, E. E.

    2016-07-01

    Extended along the Crimea-Caucasus coast of the Black Sea, the Crimean Seismic Zone (CSZ) is an evidence of active tectonic processes at the junction of the Scythian Plate and Black Sea Microplate. A relocation procedure applied to weak earthquakes (mb ≤ 3) recorded by ten local stations during 1970-2013 helped to determine more accurately the parameters of hypocenters in the CSZ. The Kerch-Taman, Sudak, Yuzhnoberezhnaya (South Coast), and Sevastopol subzones have also been recognized. Generalization of the focal mechanisms of 31 strong earthquakes during 1927-2013 has demonstrated the predominance of reverse and reverse-normal-faulting deformation regimes. This ongoing tectonic process occurs under the settings of compression and transpression. The earthquake foci with strike-slip component mechanisms concentrate in the west of the CSZ. Comparison of deformation modes in the western and eastern Crimean Mountains according to tectonophysical data has demonstrated that the western part is dominated by strike-slip and normal- faulting, while in the eastern part, reverse-fault and strike-slip deformation regimes prevail. Comparison of the seismicity and gravity field and modes of deformation suggests underthusting of the East Black Sea Microplate with thin suboceanic crust under the Scythian Plate. In the Yuzhnoberezhnaya Subzone, this process is complicated by the East Black Sea Microplate frontal part wedging into the marginal part of the Scythian Plate crust. The indentation mechanism explains the strong gravity anomaly in the Crimean Mountains and their uplift.

  14. Automatic sets and Delone sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbé, A.; von Haeseler, F.

    2004-04-01

    Automatic sets D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m are characterized by having a finite number of decimations. They are equivalently generated by fixed points of certain substitution systems, or by certain finite automata. As examples, two-dimensional versions of the Thue-Morse, Baum-Sweet, Rudin-Shapiro and paperfolding sequences are presented. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for an automatic set D\\subset{\\bb Z}^m to be a Delone set in {\\bb R}^m . The result is then extended to automatic sets that are defined as fixed points of certain substitutions. The morphology of automatic sets is discussed by means of examples.

  15. The Feasibility of Using Nature-Based Settings for Physical Activity Programming: Views from Urban Youth and Program Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanton, Jedediah E.; Oregon, Evelyn M.; Flett, M. Ryan; Gould, Daniel R.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Given the urgency to design programs to increase physical activity, especially to combat obesity in children, the primary purpose of this study was to investigate perceptions and opinions of a nature-based physical activity intervention designed for low-income urban adolescents. Methods: Four focus groups of adolescents,…

  16. Investigating the Impact of Formal Reflective Activities on Skill Adaptation in a Work-Related Instrumental Learning Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessger, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In work-related, instrumental learning contexts the role of reflective activities is unclear. Kolb's (1985) experiential learning theory and Mezirow's transformative learning theory (2000) predict skill-adaptation as a possible outcome. This prediction was experimentally explored by manipulating reflective activities and assessing participants'…

  17. Development of Junior High School Students' Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity in a Naturalistic Physical Education Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalaja, Sami Pekka; Jaakkola, Timo Tapio; Liukkonen, Jarmo Olavi; Digelidis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Background: There is evidence showing that fundamental movement skills and physical activity are related with each other. The ability to perform a variety of fundamental movement skills increases the likelihood of children participating in different physical activities throughout their lives. However, no fundamental movement skill interventions…

  18. Free amino acid content and metabolic activities of setting and aborting soybean ovaries. [Glycine max (L. ) Merr

    SciTech Connect

    Ghiasi, H.; Paech, C.; Dybing, C.D.

    1987-09-01

    Fruits of soybean (glycine max (L.) Merr.) that are destined to abscise shortly after anthesis grow more slowly than fruits that will be retained. In this work, amino acid composition, protein metabolism, and nucleic acid metabolism were studied in setting and abscising soybean ovaries from anthesis to 6 days after anthesis. Principal free amino acids were asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine, and glutamine. Percent aspartate and glutamate declined as the ovaries grew, with aspartate declining more in abscising and glutamate more in setting ovaries. Percent glutamate was positively correlated to percent abscission throughout the period. Proline, serine, and leucine were positively correlated to abscission from 0 to 2 days after anthesis, whereas significant negative correlations were observed at these ages for ethanolamine and arginine. /sup 75/Se fed as selenate and /sup 14/C fed as sucrose, glycine, and alanine were readily incorporated into soluble and insoluble proteins in a 24-hour in vitro incubation. Radioactivity of total proteins, expressed on a per-ovary basis, was negatively correlated with percent abscission and positively correlated with ovary weight. (/sup 14/C)Glutamine and serine followed the opposite pattern, with greater protein labeling in abscising than in setting ovaries. When data were expressed as disintegrations per minute per milligram ovary fresh weight, protein labeling from alanine was seen to be significantly greater in abscising ovaries at anthesis and throughout the sampling period. Nucleic acid labeling from uridine was highly correlated to ovary weight; labeling from thymidine was greater in setting than abscising ovaries at anthesis and in abscising ovaries at later stages of development.

  19. Post-Rift Compressional Deformation on the Passive Margin of a young Mediterranean Backarc Basin (Eastern Sardinian Margin, Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanier, F.; Gaullier, V.; Maillard, A.; Thinon, I.; Sage, F.; Lymer, G.; Vendeville, B.; Giresse, P.; Bassetti, M. A.; Lofi, J.

    2014-12-01

    Compressional deformation has been reported on many passive margins, mostly attributed to thin-skinned tectonics in response to gravity gliding or spreading from viscous layers (overpressured shales, salt décollement). However some of the reported structures are obviously related to regional stress and also affect the basement, not only the upper sedimentary cover. Such deformation has been documented and discussed in the last decade mainly from the northern Atlantic margins (Doré et al., 2008 ; Pereira et al., 2011, & ref. herein). The compressional structures on passive margins have been notably considered as linked to tectonomagmatic and active asthenospheric upwelling, post-breakup compression and compactional stresses. The western margin of the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean) is a passive margin formed during the late Miocene opening of a back-arc basin in relation with the roll-back and retreat of the Ionian subducting lithosphere (African Plate). From our new data, we can show evidence for compressional features that developed in the Pliocene, shortly after the main rifting period on the western Tyrrhenian Sea (Middle to Late Miocene) and beginning of oceanic spreading (Earliest Pliocene). We could describe such structures across the inner margin onshore, from field analysis, as well as offshore, from newly acquired seismic data (METYSS 1 & 3; Gaullier et al. 2014). The characters and distribution of such compressional deformation, occurring very shortly after the onset of oceanic spreading in the deep basin (earliest Pliocene), allow us to discuss the possible interactions between breakup processes and inversion episodes on passive margins. Doré A.G., Lundin E.R., Kusznir N.J., & Pascal C., 2008. Potential mechanisms for the genesis of Cenozoic domal structures on the NE Atlantic margin: Pros and cons and some new ideas. Geol. Soc. London Spec. Pub., 306, 1-26. Gaullier V., Chanier F., et al., 2014. Salt tectonics and crustal tectonics along the

  20. The development of the MIBBO: A measure of resident preferences for physical activity in long term care settings.

    PubMed

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; van Vijven, Kim; van Rossum, Erik; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Offering physical activities matching with the preferences of residents in long-term care facilities could increase compliance and contribute to client-centered care. A measure to investigate meaningful activities by using a photo-interview has been developed ("MIBBO"). In two pilot studies including 133 residents living on different wards in long-term care facilities, feasibility, most chosen activities, and consistency of preferences were investigated. It was possible to conduct the MIBBO on average in 30 min with the majority (86.4%) of residents. The most frequently chosen activities were: gymnastics and orchestra (each 28%), preparing a meal (31%), walking (outside, 33%), watering plants (38%), and feeding pets (40%). In a retest one week after the initial interview 69.4% agreement of chosen activities was seen. The MIBBO seems a promising measure to help health care professionals in identifying residents' preferred activities. Future research should focus on the implementation of the tailored activity plan, incorporating it into the daily routine.

  1. Tectonic evolution of Brazilian equatorial continental margin basins

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, R.P. )

    1993-02-01

    The structural style and stratigraphic relationships of sedimentary basins along the Brazilian Equatorial Atlantic Continental Margin were used to construct an empirical tectonic model for the development of ancient transform margins. The model is constrained by detailed structural and subsidence analyses of several basins along the margin. The structural framework of the basins was defined at shallow and deep levels by the integration of many geophysical and geological data sets. The Barreirinhas and Para-Maranhao Basins were divided in three tectonic domains: the Tutoia, Caete, and Tromai subbasins. The Caete area is characterized by northwest-southeast striking and northeast-dipping normal faults. A pure shear mechanism of basin formation is suggested for its development. The structure of the Tutoia and Tromai subbasins are more complex and indicative of a major strike-slip component with dextral sense of displacement, during early stages of basin evolution. These two later subbasins were developed on a lithosphere characterized by an abrupt transition (<50 km wide) from an unstretched continent to an oceanic lithosphere. The subsidence history of these basins do not comply with the classical models developed for passive margins or continental rifting. The thermo-mechanical model proposed for the Brazilian equatorial margin includes heterogeneous stretching combined with shearing at the plate margin. The tectonic history comprises: (1) Triassic-Jurassic limited extension associated with the Central Atlantic evolution; (2) Neocomian intraplate deformation consisting of strike-slip reactivation of preexisting shear zones; (3) Aptian-Cenomanian two-phase period of dextral shearing; and (4) Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sea-floor spreading.

  2. Marginally compact hyperbranched polymer trees.

    PubMed

    Dolgushev, M; Wittmer, J P; Johner, A; Benzerara, O; Meyer, H; Baschnagel, J

    2017-03-29

    Assuming Gaussian chain statistics along the chain contour, we generate by means of a proper fractal generator hyperbranched polymer trees which are marginally compact. Static and dynamical properties, such as the radial intrachain pair density distribution ρpair(r) or the shear-stress relaxation modulus G(t), are investigated theoretically and by means of computer simulations. We emphasize that albeit the self-contact density diverges logarithmically with the total mass N, this effect becomes rapidly irrelevant with increasing spacer length S. In addition to this it is seen that the standard Rouse analysis must necessarily become inappropriate for compact objects for which the relaxation time τp of mode p must scale as τp ∼ (N/p)(5/3) rather than the usual square power law for linear chains.

  3. The Cryogenian intra-continental rifting of Rodinia: Evidence from the Laurentian margin in eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, Elizabeth; Gazel, Esteban

    2014-10-01

    The geologic history of the eastern North American (Laurentian) margin encompasses two complete Wilson cycles that brought about the assembly and subsequent disaggregation of two supercontinents, Rodinia and Pangea. In the southern and central Appalachian region, basement rocks were affected by two episodes of crustal extension separated by > 100 m.y.; a Cryogenian phase spanning the interval 765-700 Ma and an Ediacaran event at ~ 565 Ma. During the Cryogenian phase, the Mesoproterozoic continental crust was intruded by numerous A-type felsic plutons and extensional mafic dikes. At ~ 760-750 Ma a bimodal volcanic sequence erupted onto the uplifted and eroded basement. This sequence, known as the Mount Rogers Formation (MRF), comprises a bimodal basalt-rhyolite lower section and an upper section of dominantly peralkaline rhyolitic sheets. Here, we provide new geochemical evidence from the well-preserved volcanic rocks of the Cryogenian lower MRF, with the goal of elucidating the process that induced the initial stage of the break-up of Rodinia and how this affected the evolution of the eastern Laurentian margin. The geochemical compositions of the Cryogenian lavas are remarkably similar to modern continental intra-plate settings (e.g., East African Rift, Yellowstone-Snake River Plain). Geochemical, geophysical and tectonic evidence suggests that the common denominator controlling the melting processes in these settings is deep mantle plume activity. Thus, evidence from the MRF suggests that the initial phase of extension of the Laurentian margin at ~ 760-750 Ma was possibly triggered by mantle plume activity. It is possible that lithospheric weakness caused by a mantle plume that impacted Rodinia triggered the regional extension and produced the intra-continental rifting that preceded the breakup of the Laurentian margin.

  4. Recent acoustic studies of western Canadian continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bornhold, B.D.; Brandon, M.T.; Clowes, R.M.; Currie, R.G.; Davis, E.E.; Hussong, D.M.; Hyndman, R.D.; Riddihough, R.P.; Rogers, G.C.; Yorath, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    A regional survey of the western Canadian continental margin from the central Queen Charlotte Island, 52/sup 0/40'N, to the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 47/sup 0/40'N, has been completed with the acoustic imaging system SeaMARC II. These data, combined with single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection data, reveal many new insights concerning the deep structure of the subduction margin off Vancouver Island. Clearly evident in the imagery are the deformation of sediments at the base of the slope, the surface expression of seismically active faults, the mass wasting of sediment frequently observed at the base of the slope, and the erosional canyons and sediment transport channels on the slope and adjacent abyssal plain. The variability in the surficial and deep structures along the length of the margin is great and corresponds well with the postulated variations in the local ocean/continent motion vectors: motion along the southern Queen Charlotte Islands margin is primarily transform (about 55 mm/year) with a small component of convergence (about 10 mm/year); motion south of the triple junction at the Wilson Knolls is convergent but at a very slow rate (about 10 mm/year); and motion along the central and southern Vancouver Island margin is nearly orthogonal to the coast and more rapid (about 40 mm/year).

  5. Clinical Outcomes of Endoscopic Hemostasis in Marginal Ulcer Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yasushi; Takenaka, Ryuta; Hori, Keisuke; Takemoto, Koji; Kawano, Seiji; Kawahara, Yoshiro; Fujiki, Shigeatsu; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2016-12-01

    The usefulness of endoscopy in marginal ulcer bleeding has rarely been studied, and the optimal method for preventing rebleeding is unclear. Here we assessed the efficacy of endoscopy in marginal ulcer bleeding and examined the efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in the prevention of rebleeding. A total of 28 patients with marginal ulcer bleeding (21 men, 7 women; median age 58.5 years) were treated by endoscopy. We analyzed the clinical characteristics, results of endoscopic therapy, characteristics of rebleeding patients, and relation between the use of PPIs and the duration of rebleeding. Sixteen patients had active bleeding. Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure-related adverse events. Rebleeding occurred in one patient within the first month and in 7 patients thereafter. There was a significant difference in the rebleeding rate between the patients who received a PPI and those who did not. In a multivariate analysis, the non-use of PPIs was a risk factor for rebleeding (hazard ratio, 6.22). Therapeutic endoscopy is effective in achieving hemostasis from marginal ulcer bleeding. PPIs may prevent rebleeding from marginal ulcers.

  6. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  7. A miniaturized video system for monitoring the locomotor activity of walking Drosophila melanogaster in space and terrestrial settings.

    PubMed

    Inan, Omer T; Etemadi, Mozziyar; Sanchez, Max E; Marcu, Oana; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2009-02-01

    A novel method is presented for monitoring movement of Drosophila melanogaster (the fruit fly) in space. Transient fly movements were captured by a $60, 2.5-cm-cubed monochrome video camera imaging flies illuminated by a uniform light source. The video signal from this camera was bandpass filtered (0.3-10 Hz) and amplified by an analog circuit to extract the average light changes as a function of time. The raw activity signal output of this circuit was recorded on a computer and digitally processed to extract the fly movement "events" from the waveform. These events corresponded to flies entering and leaving the image and were used for extracting activity parameters such as interevent duration. The efficacy of the system in quantifying locomotor activity was evaluated by varying environmental temperature and measuring the activity level of the flies. The results of this experiment matched those reported in the literature.

  8. Allochthonous deep-water basin deposits of the western US: Implications for Paleozoic paleogeography and plate margin tectonics

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, E.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-04-01

    The stratigraphy and sedimentology of the lower Paleozoic Roberts Mts. and upper Paleozoic Golconda allochthons can be used to reconstruct their general paleogeographic setting in the Paleozoic. Basalt pillow lavas and radiolarian chert, were once considered straightforward evidence that the allochthons represented imbricated ocean crust formed at sites far removed from continental influences. Better stratigraphic definition, provenance studies and geochemistry of lavas now indicate that clastic components were derived from the continental shelf or interior and basalts in the Roberts Mountains allocht