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Sample records for active material preferably

  1. Preference for bedding material in Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lanteigne, M; Reebs, S G

    2006-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether Syrian (golden) hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus, prefer certain bedding materials and whether bedding material can affect paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity. In a first experiment, 26 male hamsters had access to two connected cages, each cage containing a different bedding material (either pine shavings, aspen shavings, corn cob or wood pellets). In a second experiment, 14 male hamsters had access to four connected cages that contained the different bedding materials and also a piece of paper towel to serve as nest material. In a third experiment, 30 male hamsters were each placed in a single cage, 10 of them with pine shavings, 10 with aspen shavings and 10 with corn cob, and they were monitored for 50 days. Significant preferences in the first experiment were: pine shavings over aspen shavings, corn cob over wood pellets, pine shavings over corn cob and aspen shavings over wood pellets (aspen shavings versus corn cob was not tested). However, there was no significant preference expressed in the second experiment, suggesting that the general preference for shavings in the first experiment was based on bedding material suitability as a nesting material. No significant effect of bedding material on paw condition, body weight gain and wheel-running activity was detected. None of the four bedding materials tested in this study can be judged to be inappropriate in the short term if nesting material is added to the cage and if the litter is changed regularly. PMID:17018212

  2. Preferred longitudes in solar and stellar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyugina, S. V.

    An analysis of the distribution of starspots on the surfaces of very active stars, such as RS CVn- FK Com-type stars as well as young solar analogs, reveals preferred longitudes of spot formation and their quasi-periodic oscillations, i.e. flip-flop cycles. A non-linear migration of the preferred longitudes suggests the presence of the differential rotation and variations of mean spot latitudes. It enables recovering stellar butterfly diagrams. Such phenomena are found to persist in the sunspot activity as well. A comparison of the observed properties of preferred longitudes on the Sun with those detected on more active stars leads to the conclusion that we can learn fine details of the stellar dynamo by studying the Sun, while its global parameters on the evolutionary time scale are provided by a sample of active stars.

  3. Preferred frequencies for three unconsolidated earth materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilcrist, Laura E.; Baker, Gregory S.; Sen, Surajit

    2007-12-01

    Exploring near-surface mechanical wave propagation through cohesive and noncohesive soils is important for detecting buried objects (i.e., landmines and unexploded ordnance). Here, we determine that certain preferred frequencies travel through specific soils more efficiently. A controlled-frequency acoustic seismic source was developed to modulate the applied frequency and amplitude. Surface response due to continuous waves traveling through soils was recorded both instantaneously and after a finite load time. Preferred frequencies for sand, clay loam, and silt loam were measured to be 300-330, 100-140, and 140-260Hz, respectively. Observed frequency shifts were dependent upon applied amplitude and load time.

  4. [Development of patient education materials for the "German Prostate Cancer Trial PREFERE"].

    PubMed

    Sänger, Sylvia; Wiegel, Thomas; Stöckle, Michael; Härter, Martin; Bergelt, Corinna

    2015-01-01

    The German prostate cancer study PREFERE (www.prefere.de) started in January 2014. It is the first randomised controlled and preference-based trial to investigate all four options available for the treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer. According to the "Interdisciplinary evidence-based S3 guideline for the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of the different stages of prostate cancer" [1], these options include: radical prostatectomy, external radiotherapy, brachytherapy and active surveillance. In the context of PREFERE preference-based means that potential study participants who do not agree to being randomised into all four treatment arms can maximally refuse two treatment arms. This poses a big challenge to the patient education strategy employed and the information material it requires. In order to inform patients in the context of the PREFERE trial patient education materials (patient leaflet and video) had to be designed that provide patients with balanced and guideline-based information about the disease and the treatment options available, about the need for randomisation and, in particular, about the PREFERE trial and support their individual preference finding and shared decision making for participating in the trial. An iterative structured approach was used to develop the information materials on the basis of a previous literature search. Six focus groups with a total of 40 participants from three different self-help groups, affected men that do not belong to a self-help group, healthy men as well as experts, the members of the steering committee of the PREFERE trial and a focus group consisting of 18 male and female urologists were involved in the development and testing of both the patient information leaflet and the patient video. Both the patient information leaflet and the video supporting preference finding and decision making for participating in the PREFERE trial were tested for understandability and suitability by using a

  5. E-Book versus Printed Materials: Preferences of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumaoglu, Gonca; Sacici, Esra; Torun, Kerem

    2013-01-01

    Reading habits, accessing resources, and material preferences change rapidly in a digital world. University students, as digital natives, are accessing countless resources, from lecture notes to research papers electronically. The change of reading habits with a great scale has led to differentiation on accessibility of resources, archiving them…

  6. An Examination of Parents' Preferred School Counselor Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine parent preferences for school counselor professional activities. The primary focus of research was to determine if any relationship exists between (1) parents' demographic factors--gender, age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity--and their preferences for school counselors' professional activities; (2)…

  7. Bedroom Design and Decoration: Gender Differences in Preference and Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Randall M.; Taylor, Denise E.; Dick, Andrew J.; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social…

  8. Assessing physical activity preferences in Latino and white preadolescents.

    PubMed

    Olvera, Norma; McCarley, Kendall E; Leung, Patrick; McLeod, Jessica; Rodriguez, Augusto X

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess physical activity preferences (PAP) in preadolescent children. 191 Latino and White children (M = 11.9, SD = +/- 0.7) participated. Demographic, anthropometric, and PAP measures were employed. Both Latino and White children reported water play, basketball, and bicycling as their most preferred activities while indoor chores were least preferred. Compared with Latino, White children reported a higher preference for baseball/softball. Exploratory factor analysis of PAP measure indicated a three-factor solution: free play, sports, and exercise. Multiple linear regression models revealed that PAP varied as a function of ethnicity, gender, age, and body mass index. PMID:20128360

  9. Local Individual Preferences for Nest Materials in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Mennerat, Adèle; Perret, Philippe; Lambrechts, Marcel M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Variation in the behavioural repertoire of animals is acquired by learning in a range of animal species. In nest-building birds, the assemblage of nest materials in an appropriate structure is often typical of a bird genus or species. Yet plasticity in the selection of nest materials may be beneficial because the nature and abundance of nest materials vary across habitats. Such plasticity can be learned, either individually or socially. In Corsican populations of blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus, females regularly add in their nests fragments of several species of aromatic plants during the whole breeding period. The selected plants represent a small fraction of the species present in the environment and have positive effects on nestlings. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated spatiotemporal variations of this behaviour to test whether the aromatic plant species composition in nests depends on 1) plant availability in territories, 2) female experience or 3) female identity. Our results indicate that territory plays a very marginal role in the aromatic plant species composition of nests. Female experience is not related to a change in nest plant composition. Actually, this composition clearly depends on female identity, i.e. results from individual preferences which, furthermore, are repeatable both within and across years. A puzzling fact is the strong difference in plant species composition of nests across distinct study plots. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that plant species composition of nests results from individual preferences that are homogeneous within study plots. We propose several hypotheses to interpret this pattern of spatial variation before discussing them in the light of preliminary results. As a conclusion, we cannot exclude the possibility of social transmission of individual preferences for aromatic plants. This is an exciting perspective for further work in birds, where nest construction behaviour has

  10. Face Preference in Infancy and Its Relation to Motor Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libertus, Klaus; Needham, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Infants' preference for faces was investigated in a cross-sectional sample of 75 children, aged 3 to 11 months, and 23 adults. A visual preference paradigm was used where pairs of faces and toys were presented side-by-side while eye gaze was recorded. In addition, motor activity was assessed via parent report and the relation between motor…

  11. Preferred computer activities among individuals with dementia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tak, Sunghee H; Zhang, Hongmei; Hong, Song Hee

    2015-03-01

    Computers offer new activities that are easily accessible, cognitively stimulating, and enjoyable for individuals with dementia. The current descriptive study examined preferred computer activities among nursing home residents with different severity levels of dementia. A secondary data analysis was conducted using activity observation logs from 15 study participants with dementia (severe = 115 logs, moderate = 234 logs, and mild = 124 logs) who participated in a computer activity program. Significant differences existed in preferred computer activities among groups with different severity levels of dementia. Participants with severe dementia spent significantly more time watching slide shows with music than those with both mild and moderate dementia (F [2,12] = 9.72, p = 0.003). Preference in playing games also differed significantly across the three groups. It is critical to consider individuals' interests and functional abilities when computer activities are provided for individuals with dementia. A practice guideline for tailoring computer activities is detailed. PMID:25369583

  12. Walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Russell, Daniel M; Apatoczky, Dylan T

    2016-03-01

    This study determined whether walking at the preferred stride frequency minimizes muscle activity compared with other cadences at the same speed. Anthropometric measurements were recorded from 10 subjects and used to estimate their predicted resonant stride frequency. The preferred walking speed and stride frequency were determined from freely adopted walking on a treadmill. For the experimental trials the treadmill was set at each individual's preferred walking speed. Participants walked for 6 min at eight cadences prescribed by an auditory metronome: preferred stride frequency and -35, -25, -15, 0, +15, +25, +35% of predicted resonant stride frequency. Oxygen consumption was measured via gas analysis. Muscle activity of the right leg gastrocnemius (GA), tibialis anterior (TA), biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles was recorded via electromyography (EMG). On average, participants preferred to walk with a stride frequency .07 Hz lower than their predicted resonant stride frequency, however a strong positive correlation was observed between these variables. Stride frequency had a significant and large quadratic effect on VO2 (RLR(2)=.76), and activity of the GA (RLR(2)=.66), TA (RLR(2)=.83), BF (RLR(2)=.70) and RF (RLR(2)=.78) muscles. VO2, GA and TA activity were all minimal at the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster or slower cadences. BF and RF activity were minimal across a broad range of slow frequencies including the preferred stride frequency and increased for faster frequencies. The preferred stride frequency that humans readily adopt during walking minimizes the activation of the GA, TA, BF and RF muscles, which in turn minimizes the overall metabolic cost. PMID:26979903

  13. Activity Preferences of Middle School Physical Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Michael; Stillwell, Jim; Byars, Allyn

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the physical education activity preferences of middle school students who completed a checklist featuring a variety of activities. Overall, middle school boys and girls both differed and agreed on their interests for specific activities. Most students liked basketball, bicycling, roller skating, soccer, swimming, and volleyball but…

  14. Bedroom design and decoration: gender differences in preference and activity.

    PubMed

    Jones, Randall M; Taylor, Denise E; Dick, Andrew J; Singh, Archana; Cook, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined gender differences in niche-building preference and activity among 238 8th and 9th grade boys and girls. A questionnaire was developed to measure both the actual and preferred bedroom content, bedroom design activity, and the level of perceived influence by the immediate and extended family, friends, and social institutions. Gender differences were identified for preference, activity, and influence in bedroom design and decoration. Girls and boys differed in the type of items contained in their bedrooms. Girls' rooms contained stuffed animals and pictures of people, including themselves, more frequently than the boys' rooms. In contrast, boys' rooms contained sports-related items, and things for building or that they had built themselves. Although bedroom design activity for both boys and girls was influenced by older teens, friends, media, and popular culture, boys (but not girls) were also influenced by their mothers, fathers, girlfriends, and activities such as sports, Boy or Girl Scouts, and music lessons. PMID:18047237

  15. Ventral striatum activity when watching preferred pornographic pictures is correlated with symptoms of Internet pornography addiction.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Snagowski, Jan; Laier, Christian; Maderwald, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    One type of Internet addiction is excessive pornography consumption, also referred to as cybersex or Internet pornography addiction. Neuroimaging studies found ventral striatum activity when participants watched explicit sexual stimuli compared to non-explicit sexual/erotic material. We now hypothesized that the ventral striatum should respond to preferred pornographic compared to non-preferred pornographic pictures and that the ventral striatum activity in this contrast should be correlated with subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. We studied 19 heterosexual male participants with a picture paradigm including preferred and non-preferred pornographic materials. Subjects had to evaluate each picture with respect to arousal, unpleasantness, and closeness to ideal. Pictures from the preferred category were rated as more arousing, less unpleasant, and closer to ideal. Ventral striatum response was stronger for the preferred condition compared to non-preferred pictures. Ventral striatum activity in this contrast was correlated with the self-reported symptoms of Internet pornography addiction. The subjective symptom severity was also the only significant predictor in a regression analysis with ventral striatum response as dependent variable and subjective symptoms of Internet pornography addiction, general sexual excitability, hypersexual behavior, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and sexual behavior in the last days as predictors. The results support the role for the ventral striatum in processing reward anticipation and gratification linked to subjectively preferred pornographic material. Mechanisms for reward anticipation in ventral striatum may contribute to a neural explanation of why individuals with certain preferences and sexual fantasies are at-risk for losing their control over Internet pornography consumption. PMID:26803060

  16. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  17. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  18. Music Preferences and Civic Activism of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Ambrose; Kier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between music preferences and civic activism among 182 participants aged 14-24 years. Our analyses show that participants who regularly listened to certain music genres such as classical, opera, musicals, new age, easy listening, house, world music, heavy metal, punk, and ska were significantly more likely to…

  19. 75 FR 6679 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... Register (74 FR 65543) on December 10, 2009, allowing for a 60- day comment period. This notice allows for... officers to document preferential tariff treatment under the provisions of the Andean Trade Preferences Act... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean...

  20. Differential Gambling Motivations and Recreational Activity Preferences Among Casino Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong-Ki; Bernhard, Bo Jason; Kim, Jungsun; Fong, Timothy; Lee, Tae Kyung

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated three different types of gamblers (recreational, problem, and pathological gamblers) to determine differences in gambling motivations and recreational activity preferences among casino gamblers. We collected data from 600 gamblers recruited in an actual gambling environment inside a major casino in South Korea. Findings indicate that motivational factors of escape, sightseeing, and winning were significantly different among these three types of gamblers. When looking at motivations to visit the casino, pathological gamblers were more likely to be motivated by winning, whereas recreational gamblers were more likely to be motivated by scenery and culture in the surrounding casino area. Meanwhile, the problem gamblers fell between these two groups, indicating higher preferences for non-gambling activities than the pathological gamblers. As this study builds upon a foundational previous study by Lee et al. (Psychiatry Investig 6(3):141-149, 2009), the results of this new study were compared with those of the previous study to see if new developments within a resort-style casino contribute to changes in motivations and recreational activity preferences. PMID:25398482

  1. Active Biological Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Daniel A.; Geissler, Phillip L.

    2011-01-01

    Cells make use of dynamic internal structures to control shape and create movement. By consuming energy to assemble into highly organized systems of interacting parts, these structures can generate force and resist compression, as well as adaptively change in response to their environment. Recent progress in reconstituting cytoskeletal structures in vitro has provided an opportunity to characterize the mechanics and dynamics of filament networks formed from purified proteins. Results indicate that a complex interplay between length scales and timescales underlies the mechanical responses of these systems and that energy consumption, as manifested in molecular motor activity and cytoskeletal filament growth, can drive transitions between distinct material states. This review discusses the basic characteristics of these active biological materials that set them apart from conventional materials and that create a rich array of unique behaviors. PMID:18999991

  2. Preference for Sucrose Solutions Modulates Taste Cortical Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Piques, Agnès; Mouillot, Thomas; Gigot, Vincent; Meillon, Sophie; Leloup, Corinne; Penicaud, Luc; Brondel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution is required to reliably measure neuronal activity in the gustatory cortex in response to taste stimuli. Hedonic aspects of gustatory processing have never been explored using gustatory evoked potentials (GEPs), a high-time-resolution technique. Our aim was to study cerebral processing of hedonic taste in humans using GEPs in response to sucrose solutions in subjects with different ratings of pleasantness regarding sucrose. In this exploratory study, 30 healthy volunteers were randomly stimulated with 3 sucrose solutions. The sucrose stimulus was presented to the tongue for 1s 20 times. GEPs were recorded from 9 cortical sites with EEG sensors at Cz, Fz, Pz, C3, C4, F3, F4, Fp1, and Fp2 (10/20 system). The main result was that subjects who preferred the high-concentration (20g/100mL) sucrose solution had higher GEP amplitudes on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes than did subjects who preferred the low-concentration (5g/100mL) or the moderate-concentration (10g/100mL) solutions regardless of stimulus intensity. The difference in P1N1 amplitude on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to sucrose preference of the subjects was described with stronger significance with stimulation by the 20 g-sucrose solution than by the 5 and 10g sucrose solutions. Using the reliable and safe GEP technique, we provide an original demonstration of variability of the gustatory response on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to a sweet preference in humans. Further studies are needed to correlate the electric signal recorded by surface electrodes to the neural generator. PMID:27235187

  3. Activated carbon material

    DOEpatents

    Evans, A. Gary

    1978-01-01

    Activated carbon particles for use as iodine trapping material are impregnated with a mixture of selected iodine and potassium compounds to improve the iodine retention properties of the carbon. The I/K ratio is maintained at less than about 1 and the pH is maintained at above about 8.0. The iodine retention of activated carbon previously treated with or coimpregnated with triethylenediamine can also be improved by this technique. Suitable flame retardants can be added to raise the ignition temperature of the carbon to acceptable standards.

  4. VISUAL ELEMENTS OF SUBJECTIVE PREFERENCE MODULATE AMYGDALA ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Bar, Moshe; Neta, Maital

    2010-01-01

    What are the basic visual cues that determine our preference towards mundane everyday objects? We previously showed that a highly potent cue is the nature of the object’s contour: people generally like objects with a curved contour compared with objects that have pointed features and a sharp-angled contour. This bias is hypothesized here to stem from an implicit perception of potential threat conveyed by sharp elements. Using human neuroimaging to test this hypothesis, we report that the amygdala, a brain structure that is involved in fear processing and has been shown to exhibit activation level that is proportional to arousal in general, is significantly more active for everyday sharp objects (e.g., a sofa with sharp corners) compared with their curved-contour counterparts. Therefore, our results indicate that a preference bias towards a visual object can be induced by low-level perceptual properties, independent of semantic meaning, via visual elements that on some level could be associated with threat. We further present behavioral results that provide initial support for the link between the sharpness of the contour and threat perception. Our brains might be organized to extract these basic contour elements rapidly for deriving an early warning signal in the presence of potential danger. PMID:17462678

  5. Guiding principles for printed education materials: design preferences of people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Tanya A; Worrall, Linda E; Hickson, Louise M; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain the preferences of people with aphasia for the design of stroke and aphasia printed education materials (PEMs) and to compare these preferences with recommendations in the literature for developing written information for other populations. A face-to-face quantitative questionnaire was completed with 40 adults with aphasia post-stroke. The questionnaire explored preferences for: (1) the representation of numbers, (2) font size and type, (3) line spacing, (4) document length, and (5) graphic type. Most preferences (62.4%, n = 146) were for numbers expressed as figures rather than words. The largest proportion of participants selected 14 point (28.2%, n = 11) and Verdana ref (33.3%, n = 13) as the easiest font size and type to read, and a preference for 1.5 line spacing (41.0%, n = 16) was identified. Preference for document length was not related to the participant's reading ability or aphasia severity. Most participants (95.0%, n = 38) considered graphics to be helpful, with photographs more frequently reported as a helpful graphic type. The identified preferences support many of the formatting recommendations found within the literature. This research provides guiding principles for developing PEMs in preferred formats for people with aphasia. PMID:22136650

  6. Mechanically Active Electrospun Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Jaimee M.

    Electrospinning, a technique used to fabricate small diameter polymer fibers, has been employed to develop unique, active materials falling under two categories: (1) shape memory elastomeric composites (SMECs) and (2) water responsive fiber mats. (1) Previous work has characterized in detail the properties and behavior of traditional SMECs with isotropic fibers embedded in an elastomer matrix. The current work has two goals: (i) characterize laminated anisotropic SMECs and (ii) develop a fabrication process that is scalable for commercial SMEC manufacturing. The former ((i)) requires electrospinning aligned polymer fibers. The aligned fibers are similarly embedded in an elastomer matrix and stacked at various fiber orientations. The resulting laminated composite has a unique response to tensile deformation: after stretching and releasing, the composite curls. This curling response was characterized based on fiber orientation. The latter goal ((ii)) required use of a dual-electrospinning process to simultaneously electrospin two polymers. This fabrication approach incorporated only industrially relevant processing techniques, enabling the possibility of commercial application of a shape memory rubber. Furthermore, the approach had the added benefit of increased control over composition and material properties. (2) The strong elongational forces experienced by polymer chains during the electrospinning process induce molecular alignment along the length of electrospun fibers. Such orientation is maintained in the fibers as the polymer vitrifies. Consequently, residual stress is stored in electrospun fiber mats and can be recovered by heating through the polymer's glass transition temperature. Alternatively, the glass transition temperature can be depressed by introducing a plasticizing agent. Poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) is plasticized by water, and its glass transition temperature is lowered below room temperature. Therefore, the residual stress can be relaxed at room

  7. Preferred Materials and Methods Employed for Endodontic Treatment by Iranian General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Raoof, Maryam; Zeini, Negar; Haghani, Jahangir; Sadr, Saeedeh; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment (RCT) by general dental practitioners (GDPs) in Iran. Methods and Materials: A questionnaire was distributed among 450 dentists who attended the 53th Iranian Dental Association congress. Participants were asked to consider demographic variables and answer the questions regarding the materials and methods commonly used in RCT. Descriptive statistics were given as absolute frequencies and valid percentages. The chi-square test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the employed materials and techniques. Results: The response rate was 84.88%. The results showed that 61.5% of the participants did not perform pulp sensitivity tests prior to RCT. Less than half of the general dental practitioners (47.4%) said that they would trace a sinus tract before starting the treatment. Nearly 16% of practitioners preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Over 36% of the practitioners reported using formocresol for pulpotomy. The combined approach of working length (WL) radiographs and electronic apex locators was used by 35.2% of the practitioners. Most of the respondents used K-file hand instruments for canal preparation and the technique of choice was step-back (43.5%), while 40.1% of respondents used NiTi rotary files, mostly ProTaper and RaCe. The most widely used irrigant was normal saline (61.8%). Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used inter appointment medicament (84.6%). The most popular obturation technique was cold lateral condensation (81.7%) with 51% using zinc oxide-eugenol-based sealers. Conclusions: The majority of Iranian GDPs who participated in the present survey do not comply with quality guidelines of endodontic treatment. PMID:25834595

  8. Age, Sex and Socioeconomic Background as Factors in Preschool Children's Preference for Play Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdanoff, Ruth F.; Peebles, Linda M.

    A total of 103 preschool children of lower and middle socioeconomic status families were observed in three preschool programs during 15 standardized free play periods for the purpose of investigating preschool children's preferences for different types of traditionally used play materials. The influence of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES)…

  9. Self-Efficacy, Textbook Use, and Activity Preferences of College Students in a High-Poverty Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aagaard, Lola; Skidmore, Ronald L.; Conner, Timothy W., II

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic self-efficacy and preferences regarding the use of text materials and in-class activities of college students at a university that serves one of the highest-poverty regions in the United States. A convenient cluster sample of 105 students taking summer classes at a…

  10. Can Gymnastic Teacher Predict Leisure Activity Preference among Children with Developmental Coordination Disorders (DCD)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hanna-Kassis, Amany; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to analyze: (1) whether significant differences exist between children with typical development and children with developmental coordination disorders (DCD) in their preference to participate in leisure activities (2) whether the teacher estimation of activity form (TEAF) evaluation predicts participation preference.…

  11. Peer Preferences in Toddlerhood: Influences of Friendship and Activity Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee

    Are children's same-sex affiliations due to genetically sex-linked behavioral tendencies or are they a result of power and privilege differentials in the larger society that discourage girls from engaging in cross-sex interaction? Sex cleavages in naturally occurring toddler peer groups were investigated by examining playmate preferences and…

  12. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods preferred in root canal therapy by general dental practice in Turkey: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Gul Celik; Kaya, Bulem Ureyen; Tac, Ali Gurhan; Kececi, Ayse Diljin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment by dentists in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1,527 dentists who attended the Turkish Dental Association Congress. Respondents were asked to choose one or more suitable answers for the questions. Data was gathered for demographic and professional information regarding stages, materials, and methods commonly used in endodontic therapy. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical package SPSS. Descriptive statistics were given as frequencies (n) and percent (%). Chi-square (χ2) test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the materials and techniques employed. Results: The response rate was 49%. A total of 97% of respondents were working in a general dental practice. Of respondents, 44% were using an agent containing arsenic or aldehyde. Only 5.1% of the respondents preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Sodium hypochlorite was the most popular choice (73%) as a root canal irrigation solution. Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used medicament (53%). Most of the practitioners (77%) preferred radiographs for working-length determination. Root canal preparation done solely with K-Files or in combination with other instruments was preferred by 73.1% of the respondents. Ni-Ti hand or rotary files were used by 79.7% of the practitioners. Polymer based root canal sealers were the sealers most frequently chosen (48.4%). The majority of the respondents (66.2%) preferred cold lateral condensation as an obturation technique. Gender affected the preference of intracanal medicament, periapical radiographs for working-length determination, root canal instrument, root canal sealers, and root canal obturation technique (P<.05). Years of professional experience affected the preference of devitalizing agents, irrigation solutions, intracanal medicament, root canal instrument, root canal sealer, and

  13. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activity predicts the accuracy in estimating others' preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Pyungwon; Lee, Jongbin; Sul, Sunhae; Kim, Hackjin

    2013-01-01

    The ability to accurately estimate another person's preferences is crucial for a successful social life. In daily interactions, we often do this on the basis of minimal information. The aims of the present study were (a) to examine whether people can accurately judge others based only on a brief exposure to their appearances, and (b) to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants were asked to make guesses about unfamiliar target individuals' preferences for various items after looking at their faces for 3 s. The behavioral results showed that participants estimated others' preferences above chance level. The fMRI data revealed that higher accuracy in preference estimation was associated with greater activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) when participants were guessing the targets' preferences relative to thinking about their own preferences. These findings suggest that accurate estimations of others' preferences may require increased activity in the DMPFC. A functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher accuracy in preference estimation was related to increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the brain regions that are known to be involved in theory of mind processing, such as the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus, during correct vs. incorrect guessing trials. On the contrary, the tendency to refer to self-preferences when estimating others' preference was related to greater activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings imply that the DMPFC may be a core region in estimating the preferences of others and that higher accuracy may require stronger communication between the DMPFC and the TPJ and PCC/precuneus, part of a neural network known to be engaged in mentalizing. PMID:24324419

  14. Early Hormonal Influences on Childhood Sex-Typed Activity and Playmate Preferences: Implications for the Development of Sexual Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Snyder, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Examined hormonal influences on activity and playmate preferences in children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) age 2.5 to 12 years and their relatives. Found that girls with CAH preferred boys' toys and activities, whereas boys with CAH did not differ significantly from controls. Activity and playmate preferences were not related. (MDM)

  15. Jump into the void? Factors related to a preferred retirement age: gender, social interests, and leisure activities.

    PubMed

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study, concentrating on workers 40-61 years old, thinking about retirement (n=2339). Results indicate that some leisure activities and interests are associated with preferences for early retirement, while other activities and interests are associated with preferences for later retirement. Different leisure activities and interests are related to men's and women's retirement preferences. Single women prefer to retire later than married women. Findings suggest that leisure activities and social interests have different relevance for men's and women's preferences for leaving the labor force. Women active in voluntary work prefer later retirement, while men engaged in fishing and hunting prefer early retirement. PMID:23350345

  16. Effects of Density, Activity, and Personality on Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozby, Paul C.

    1973-01-01

    The effects of room density, type of ongoing activity (party vs studying), and a personality variable ( personal space'' or the distance which subjects place between themselves and others) on room liking were investigated. (Author)

  17. Fitness, Fun and Friends through Participation in Preferred Physical Activities: Achievable for Children with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Astrid; Moser, Thomas; Jahnsen, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the preferences for actual participation in and enjoyment of physical out-of-school activities in children with physical disabilities, including what particular activities they are actually participating in, how often, with whom, where, and how enjoyable they find these activities. The data are based on structured…

  18. A Developmental Study of Destereotyping and Androgynous Activity Preferences of Tomboys, Nontomboys, and Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Pat; Cowan, Gloria

    1984-01-01

    Male and female high school students and adults (n=210) completed a questionnaire seeking preference responses to 12 male and 12 female traditional activities. Boys' activities were more destereotyped than girls'--but by females, not males. The unique finding was that self-described tomboys do not substitute boys' activities for girls'. (KH)

  19. Conformational Preferences Underlying Reduced Activity of a Thermophilic Ribonuclease H

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Kate A.; Trbovic, Nikola; Butterwick, Joel A.; Abel, Robert; Friesner, Richard A.; Palmer, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The conformational basis for reduced activity of the thermophilic ribonuclease HI enzyme from Thermus thermophilus, compared to its mesophilic homolog from Escherichia coli, is elucidated using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Explicit-solvent all-atom MD simulations of the two wild-type proteins and an E. coli mutant in which a glycine residue is inserted after position 80 to mimic the T. thermophilus protein reproduce the differences in conformational dynamics determined from 15N spin-relaxation NMR spectroscopy of three loop regions that surround the active site and contain functionally important residues: the glycine-rich region, the handle region, and the β5/αE loop. Examination of the MD trajectories indicates that the thermophilic protein samples conformations productive for substrate binding and activity less frequently than the mesophilic enzyme, although these differences may manifest as either increased or decreased relative flexibility of the different regions. Additional MD simulations indicate that mutations increasing activity of the T. thermophilus enzyme at mesophilic temperatures do so by reconfiguring the local environments of the mutated sites to more closely resemble active conformations. Taken together, the results show that both locally increased and decreased flexibility contribute to an overall reduction in activity of T. thermophilus ribonuclease H compared to its mesophilic E. coli homolog. PMID:25550198

  20. Epac Activation Initiates Associative Odor Preference Memories in the Rat Pup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimes, Matthew T.; Powell, Maria; Gutierrez, Sandra Mohammed; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Here we examine the role of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) in ß-adrenergic-dependent associative odor preference learning in rat pups. Bulbar Epac agonist (8-pCPT-2-O-Me-cAMP, or 8-pCPT) infusions, paired with odor, initiated preference learning, which was selective for the paired odor. Interestingly, pairing odor with Epac…

  1. Women’s Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Okada, Rieko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman’s perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1) the giver and (2) the type of the gift (the gift’s social meaning). In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift’s social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1) the female participant’s attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting) and (2) the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]). We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC), an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods—preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing. PMID:26301954

  2. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Okada, Rieko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1) the giver and (2) the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning). In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1) the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting) and (2) the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]). We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC), an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing. PMID:26301954

  3. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  4. The impact of active/cooperative instruction on beginning nursing student learning strategy preference.

    PubMed

    Sand-Jecklin, Kari

    2007-07-01

    Rapid changes in the nursing field and high demand for practicing nurses put pressure on nursing faculty to educate increasing numbers of nursing students, often without corresponding increases in resources. Although the use of active and cooperative instruction methods in the classroom has been associated with improved student learning, these practices require increased effort on the part of both faculty and students. In addition, little is known about whether these methods influence student nurses' use of these more elaborative processing strategies in their independent study. The purpose of this quasi-experimental investigation was to identify the impact of incorporating active and cooperative classroom instructional activities on student preference for teaching methods and use of learning strategies in independent study. A convenience sample of beginning baccalaureate nursing students at a large Mid-Atlantic University was randomly assigned by the registrar to two class sections. Students in one section received primarily active/cooperative instruction, while the other received primarily traditional lecture-based instruction. Results indicated that student nurses exposed to active/cooperative instructional methods had an increased preference for these methods after a semester of instruction, while those exposed to traditional instruction had a higher preference for traditional methods. In addition, students participating in active class instruction reported increased preference for more elaborative independent study strategies, although overall preference for both groups indicated a reliance on surface study strategies of memorization and recall. Implications for use of instruction and student testing methodologies are presented. PMID:17030077

  5. Newly diagnosed lung cancer patients' preferences for and beliefs about physical activity prior to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Vallance, Jeff; Walker, Paul R

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity has been found to have a number of benefits for lung cancer patients yet very little information is available concerning physical activity beliefs and preferences for this population. The purpose of the study was to explore physical activity programming and counseling preferences and beliefs about physical activity in newly diagnosed lung cancer patients scheduled to receive chemotherapy. A total of 43 new diagnosed lung cancer patients completed a researcher-administered survey prior to commencing chemotherapy. Results indicated that only 7 participants (17%) reported meeting public health recommendations for physical activity yet the majority of participants (n = 28) indicated interest or possible interest in physical activity counseling. Many participants also indicated interest or possible interest in an exercise program (n = 29) for lung cancer survivors, preferring it to start during chemotherapy (n = 20), for it to be home based (n = 21), and moderate in intensity (n = 22). The most common behavioral belief (advantage) of physical activity was to build/maintain strength (n = 26) and the most common control belief (barrier) was fatigue (n = 11). These data suggest that physical activity counseling and programming may be well received by newly diagnosed lung cancer patients. Information about physical activity and programming preferences and beliefs from this study may be useful for the design of optimal physical activity interventions for lung cancer patients. PMID:26813963

  6. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  7. Associations between young adults' use of sexually explicit materials and their sexual preferences, behaviors, and satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Elizabeth M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how levels of sexually explicit material (SEM) use during adolescence and young adulthood were associated with sexual preferences, sexual behaviors, and sexual and relationship satisfaction. Participants included 782 heterosexual college students (326 men and 456 women; M(age) = 19.9) who completed a questionnaire online. Results revealed high frequencies and multiple types and contexts of SEM use, with men's usage rates systematically higher than women's. Regression analyses revealed that both the frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were uniquely associated with more sexual experience (a higher number of overall and casual sexual intercourse partners, as well as a lower age at first intercourse). Higher frequencies of SEM use were associated with less sexual and relationship satisfaction. The frequency of SEM use and number of SEM types viewed were both associated with higher sexual preferences for the types of sexual practices typically presented in SEM. These findings suggest that SEM use can play a significant role in a variety of aspects of young adults' sexual development processes. PMID:21259151

  8. Music Activities in Primary School: Students' Preferences in the Spanish Region of Murcia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicente-Nicolás, Gregorio; Mac Ruairc, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the preferences of primary school children in relation to the types of activities that typically take place in music classrooms. For the purposes of this study, these classroom-based music activities have been categorised into five areas: singing, playing instruments, listening, reading and writing music and…

  9. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  10. Leisure Activity Preferences for 6- To 12-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majnemer, Annette; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Chokron, Nathalie; Law, Mary; Shevell, Michael; Chilingaryan, Gevorg; Poulin, Chantal; Rosenbaum, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective was to describe leisure activity preferences of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and their relationship to participation. Factors associated with greater interest in leisure activities were identified. Method: Fifty-five school-aged children (36 males, 19 females; mean age 9y 11mo; range 6y 1mo-12y 11mo) with CP (Gross Motor…

  11. Gender Differences in Game Activity Preferences of Middle School Children: Implications for Educational Game Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzie, Mable B.; Joseph, Dolly R. D.

    2008-01-01

    Educators and learning theorists suggest that play is one of the most important venues for learning, and games a useful educational tool. This study considers game activity preferences of middle school-aged children, so that educational games might be made more appealing to them. Based on children's activity modes identified in our prior research,…

  12. High School Counselors' Perceived Self-Efficacy and Relationships with Actual and Preferred Job Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jellison, Vickie Dawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between School Counselor self-efficacy, role definition and actual and preferred school counseling activities in a sample drawn from a population of school counselors. To measure these variables, the School Counselor Self-Efficacy Scale (SCSE) and the School Counselor Activity Rating…

  13. Influencing Preschoolers' Free-Play Activity Preferences: An Evaluation of Satiation and Embedded Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanley, Gregory P.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Cammilleri, Anthony P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of classwide satiation and embedded reinforcement procedures on preschoolers' activity preferences during scheduled free-play periods. The goal of the study was to increase time allocation to originally nonpreferred, but important, activities (instructional zone, library, and science) while continuing to…

  14. Hands On or Hands Off? Disgust Sensitivity and Preference for Environmental Education Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixler, Robert D.; Floyd, Myron F.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses barriers to environmental education. Middle school students completed a science-activity-preference scale and a disgust-sensitivity scale. Respondents who expressed the lowest interest in activities that required manipulation of organic substances also had the highest disgust-sensitivity scores. (Author/CCM)

  15. What Teachers Want: A Statewide Survey of Reading and English Language Arts Teachers' Instructional Materials, Preferences, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenski, Susan; Larson, Mindy; McElhone, Dot; Davis, Dennis S.; Lauritzen, Carol; Villagómez, Amanda; Yeigh, Maika; Landon-Hays, Melanie; LeJeune, Marie; Scales, W. David

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the results of a survey of a representative sample of 1,206 elementary reading and English Language Arts teachers in Oregon to learn (1) what materials are currently being used, (2) what materials teachers would prefer, and (3) what instructional practices teachers use. Qualitative data included 365 comments and 34 interviews…

  16. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference. PMID:10519843

  17. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A Glimpse into Their Orientations towards Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in…

  18. 78 FR 15031 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Andean Trade Preferences Act AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60... Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3505(c)(2)). DATES: Written comments should be received...

  19. Predicting the Relative Efficacy of Verbal, Pictorial, and Tangible Stimuli for Assessing Preferences of Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vries, Cecile; Yu, C. T.; Sakko, Gina; Wirth, Kirsten M.; Walters, Kerri L.; Marion, Carole; Martin, Garry L.

    2005-01-01

    We measured the relationships between choice stimulus modalities and three basic discriminations (visual, visual matching-to-sample, and auditory-visual) using the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities test. Participants were 9 adults who had moderate to profound developmental disabilities. Their most and least preferred leisure activities,…

  20. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  1. Preferences for Deep-Surface Learning: A Vocational Education Case Study Using a Multimedia Assessment Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Simon; Robertson, Ian

    2010-01-01

    This research tests the proposition that the integration of a multimedia assessment activity into a Diploma of Events Management program promotes a deep learning approach. Firstly, learners' preferences for deep or surface learning were evaluated using the revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire. Secondly, after completion of an assessment…

  2. Ability, Affect, and Children's Out of School Activity and Interest Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Fredric M.; Chandler, Theodore A.

    This study examined the relationships between fourth graders' performance on two intelligence, eight achievement, three creative thinking, three attitude, and two locus of responsibility scales and their self-reported out of school preferences for activities involving (1) peers, (2) television, (3) radio, (4) adults or parents, (5) reading, and…

  3. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services.

    PubMed

    McPhail, Steven M; Schippers, Mandy; Maher, Carol A; Marshall, Alison L

    2015-01-01

    This study examined patients' preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n = 221 of 296 eligible) accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for "how much" they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented "not at all"; 10 represented "very much"). Results. Most (n = 155, 70%) desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. "Print and post" communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10), followed by email and telephone (both 5/10), text messaging (1/10), and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10). Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p < 0.001), telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p < 0.001), and email (coefficient = 2.059, p = 0.02). Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = -0.100, p < 0.001), texting (coefficient = -0.096, p < 0.001), and social network messages (coefficient = -0.065, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls. PMID:26491667

  4. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe motor function and participation in, barriers to, and preferences for physical activity (PA) in adolescents during and after treatment of cancer and to discuss PA promotion in the context of developmental and cancer transitions. Method: A cross-sectional survey study used the Transfer and Basic Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning self-report and parent-report scales of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and questions about PA participation and preferences to collect information from 80 adolescents and 63 parents. Results: PODCI scores for adolescents receiving treatment were more variable and significantly lower than those of adolescents who had been off treatment for more than 2 years. Fatigue, pain, general health, and doctor's orders were frequently identified as barriers to PA for adolescents receiving treatment. Many did not achieve recommended levels of PA. The adolescents expressed preferences for being active with friends and family, at home or in school, in the afternoon or evening, and through daily recreational and sports activities typical of teenagers. Conclusions: Physical abilities and participation in and barriers to PA vary across the cancer journey. Interventions should be sensitive to variability and acknowledge individual preferences and environments throughout the trajectories and transitions of cancer treatment and youth development to achieve lifelong healthy lifestyles. PMID:26839461

  5. Crystallographic preferred orientations may develop in nanocrystalline materials on fault planes due to surface energy interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, Virginia G.; Mitchell, Thomas M.; Druiventak, Anthony; Wirth, Richard

    2015-09-01

    A layer of substantially noncrystalline material, composed of partially annealed nanopowder with local melt, was experimentally generated by comminution during ˜1.5 mm total slip at ˜2.5 × 10-6 m s-1, Pconf ˜ 0.5 GPa, and 450°C or 600°C, on saw cut surfaces in novaculite. The partially annealed nanopowder comprises angular grains mostly 5-200 nm diameter in a variably dense packing arrangement. A sharp transition from wall rock to partially annealed nanopowder illustrates that the nanopowder effectively localizes shear, consistent with generation of nanoparticles during initial fragmentation, not by progressive grain size reduction. Dislocation densities in nanopowder grains or immediate wall rock are not significantly high, but there are planar plastic defects spaced at 5-200 nm parallel to the host quartz grain's basal plane. We propose these plastic defects developed into through-going fractures to generate nanocrystals. The partially annealed nanopowder has a crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) that we hypothesize developed due to surface energy interactions to maximize coincident site lattices (CSL) during annealing. This mechanism may also have generated CPOs recently described in micro/nanocrystalline calcite fault gouges.

  6. Learner Preferences for Varying Screen Densities Using Realistic Stimulus Materials with Single and Multiple Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of learner preferences for text densities on computer screen displays highlights two studies of college students that compared preferences for multiple or single screen presentations with high-, medium-, or low-density screens from an actual course using computer-assisted instruction. Results are analyzed, and further research needs are…

  7. Learner Preferences for Varying Screen Densities Using Realistic Stimulus Materials with Single and Multiple Screen Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; And Others

    Learner preferences for varying screen density levels were examined using multiple screen designs (high external validity) and single screen designs (high internal validity). Subjects were 23 graduate and 23 undergraduate student volunteers. When viewing multiple screens for each design in Study I, they indicated the highest preference for medium…

  8. Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Song, Shuyan; Xue, Dongfeng; Zhang, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications. PMID:22353373

  9. Selective crystallization with preferred lithium-ion storage capability of inorganic materials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries are supposed to be a key method to make a more efficient use of energy. In the past decade, nanostructured electrode materials have been extensively studied and have presented the opportunity to achieve superior performance for the next-generation batteries which require higher energy and power densities and longer cycle life. In this article, we reviewed recent research activities on selective crystallization of inorganic materials into nanostructured electrodes for lithium-ion batteries and discuss how selective crystallization can improve the electrode performance of materials; for example, selective exposure of surfaces normal to the ionic diffusion paths can greatly enhance the ion conductivity of insertion-type materials; crystallization of alloying-type materials into nanowire arrays has proven to be a good solution to the electrode pulverization problem; and constructing conversion-type materials into hollow structures is an effective approach to buffer the volume variation during cycling. The major goal of this review is to demonstrate the importance of crystallization in energy storage applications. PMID:22353373

  10. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  11. Comparison of Customer Preference for Bulk Material Handling Equipment through Fuzzy-AHP Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Kingshuk; Ghosh, Surojit; Sarkar, Bijan

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, customer's perception has played one of the important roles for selection of the exact equipment out of available alternatives. The present study is dealt with the method of optimization of selection criteria of a material handling equipment, based on the technical specifications considered to be available at the user end. In this work, the needs of customers have been identified and prioritized, that lead to the selection of number of criteria, which have direct effect upon the performance of the equipment. To check the consistency of selection criteria, first of all an AHP based methodology is adopted with the identified criteria and available product categories, based upon which, the judgments of the users are defined to derive the priority scales. Such judgments expressed the relative strength or intensity of the impact of the elements of the hierarchy. Subsequently, all the alternatives have ranked for each identified criteria with subsequent constitution of weighted matrices. The same has been compared with the normalized values of approximate selling prices of the equipments to determine individual cost-benefit ratio. Based on the cost-benefit ratio, the equipment is ranked. With same conditions, the study is obtained again with a Fuzzy AHP concept, where a fuzzy linguistic approach has reduced the amount of uncertainty in decision making, caused by conventional AHP due to lack of deterministic approach. The priority vectors of category and criteria are determined separately and multiplied to obtain composite score. Subsequently, the average of fuzzy weights was determined and the preferences of equipment are ranked.

  12. Arm hand skilled performance in cerebral palsy: activity preferences and their movement components

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of arm-hand use is very important in children with cerebral palsy (CP) who encounter arm-hand problems. To determine validity and reliability of new instruments to assess actual performance, a set of standardized test situations including activities of daily living (ADL) is required. This study gives information with which such a set for upper extremity skill research may be fine-tuned, relative to a specific research question. Aim of this study is to a) identify upper extremity related ADL children with CP want to improve on, b) determine the 10 most preferred goals of children with CP, and c) identify movement components of all goals identified. Method The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to identify upper extremity-related ADL preferences (goals) of 53 children with CP encountering arm-hand problems (mean age 9 ± 4.5 year). Goals were ranked based on importance attributed to each goal and the number of times a goal was mentioned, resulting in a gross list with goals. Additionally, two studies were performed, i.e. study A to determine the 10 most preferred goals for 3 age groups (2.5-5 years; 6-11 years, 12-19 years), based on the total preference score, and study B to identify movement components, like reaching and grasping, of all goals identified for both the leading and the assisting arm-hand. Results Seventy-two goals were identified. The 10 most preferred goals differed with age, changing from dressing and leisure-related goals in the youngest children to goals regarding personal care and eating for children aged 6-11 years. The oldest children preferred goals regarding eating, personal care and computer use. The movement components ‘positioning’, ‘reach’, ‘grasp’, and ‘hold’ were present in most tasks. ‘Manipulating’ was more important for the leading arm-hand, whereas ‘fixating’ was more important for the assisting arm-hand. Conclusion This study gave insight into the preferences regarding

  13. Food preference and foraging activity of ants: recommendations for field applications of low-toxicity baits.

    PubMed

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species ( Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  14. Food Preference and Foraging Activity of Ants: Recommendations for Field Applications of Low-Toxicity Baits

    PubMed Central

    Nyamukondiwa, Casper; Addison, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Control of ants using baits of low toxicity cannot be effective without knowledge of bait distribution patterns and bait station densities, which are determined by ants' foraging activities. Furthermore, the success of toxic baits also depends upon attractiveness of bait carriers. Here, we assessed ground and vine foraging activity and food preferences for the three ant species (Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Anoplolepis custodiens (F. Smith) and Crematogaster peringueyi Emery) under field conditions. We found that L. humile's vineyard foraging activity was high and that movement of ant bait by C. peringueyi and A. custodiens in the vineyard was relatively low. Consequently, more bait stations need to be dispensed for more effective control of C. peringueyi and A. custodiens than for L. humile. Different bait densities are discussed for the various ant species. Food preference trials indicated that vineyard foraging ants preferred wet bait attractants over dry ones, making liquids the most ideal carriers for baiting these ants. Linepithema humile was attracted to 25% sugar water, while C. peringueyi was attracted to both 25% sugar water and honey. Anoplolepis custodiens was attracted to tuna but was also attracted to 25% sugar water. Thus, future bait formulations should be tailor made to suit these specific food requirements if baits are to be successful in ant pest management. PMID:25373195

  15. Core Muscle Activity, Exercise Preference, and Perceived Exertion during Core Exercise with Elastic Resistance versus Machine

    PubMed Central

    Vinstrup, Jonas; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Calatayud, Joaquin; Andersen, Lars L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate core muscle activity, exercise preferences, and perceived exertion during two selected core exercises performed with elastic resistance versus a conventional training machine. Methods. 17 untrained men aged 26–67 years participated in surface electromyography (EMG) measurements of five core muscles during torso-twists performed from left to right with elastic resistance and in the machine, respectively. The order of the exercises was randomized and each exercise consisted of 3 repetitions performed at a 10 RM load. EMG amplitude was normalized (nEMG) to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC). Results. A higher right erector spinae activity in the elastic exercise compared with the machine exercise (50% [95% CI 36–64] versus 32% [95% CI 18–46] nEMG) was found. By contrast, the machine exercise, compared with the elastic exercise, showed higher left external oblique activity (77% [95% CI 64–90] versus 54% [95% CI 40–67] nEMG). For the rectus abdominis, right external oblique, and left erector spinae muscles there were no significant differences. Furthermore, 76% preferred the torso-twist with elastic resistance over the machine exercise. Perceived exertion (Borg CR10) was not significantly different between machine (5.8 [95% CI 4.88–6.72]) and elastic exercise (5.7 [95% CI 4.81–6.59]). Conclusion. Torso-twists using elastic resistance showed higher activity of the erector spinae, whereas torso-twist in the machine resulted in higher activity of the external oblique. For the remaining core muscles the two training modalities induced similar muscular activation. In spite of similar perceived exertion the majority of the participants preferred the exercise using elastic resistance. PMID:26557405

  16. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  17. Factors Influencing Entering Teacher Candidates' Preferences for Instructional Activities: A glimpse into their orientations towards teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talanquer, Vicente; Novodvorsky, Ingrid; Tomanek, Debra

    2010-07-01

    The present study was designed to identify and characterize the major factors that influence entering science teacher candidates' preferences for different types of instructional activities, and to analyze what these factors suggest about teacher candidates' orientations towards science teaching. The study involved prospective teachers enrolled in the introductory science teaching course in an undergraduate science teacher preparation program. Our analysis was based on data collected using a teaching and learning beliefs questionnaire, together with structured interviews. Our results indicate that entering science teacher candidates have strong preferences for a few activity types. The most influential factors driving entering science teacher candidates' selections were the potential of the instructional activities to motivate students, be relevant to students' personal lives, result in transfer of skills to non-science situations, actively involve students in goal-directed learning, and implement curriculum that represents what students need to know. This set of influencing factors suggests that entering science teacher candidates' orientations towards teaching are likely driven by one or more of these three central teaching goals: (1) motivating students, (2) developing science process skills, and (3) engaging students in structured science activities. These goals, and the associated beliefs about students, teaching, and learning, can be expected to favor the development or enactment of three major orientations towards teaching in this population of future science teachers: "motivating students," "process," and "activity-driven."

  18. Exoemissive noise activity of different metallic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichevin, V.; Käämbre, H.; Sammelselg, V.; Kelle, H.; Asari, E.; Saks, O.

    1996-11-01

    A method is proposed for testing the exoemission activity of different metals, used as materials in high sensitivity electrometry (attoammetry). The presented test results allow us to select materials with weaker exoelectron spurious currents.

  19. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  20. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  1. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  2. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  3. 25 CFR 1000.406 - Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Does Indian preference apply to services, activities, programs, and functions performed under a self-governance AFA? 1000.406 Section 1000.406 Indians OFFICE OF... functions performed under a self-governance AFA? Tribal law must govern Indian preference in...

  4. Mephedrone ('bath salt') elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation.

    PubMed

    Lisek, Renata; Xu, Wei; Yuvasheva, Ekaterina; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Reitz, Allen B; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone has been obtained primarily from surveys of drug abusers and emergency room visits rather than experimental studies. The present study used motor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) assays to investigate behavioral effects of mephedrone. Acute mephedrone (3, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg, ip) administration increased ambulatory activity in rats. Mephedrone (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced ambulation was inhibited by pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) and enhanced by pretreatment with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) (2 mg/kg, ip). Rats injected for 5 days with low dose mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and then challenged with mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) following 10 days of abstinence displayed sensitization of ambulatory activity. In CPP experiments, mephedrone (30 mg/kg, ip) conditioning elicited a preference shift in both rats and mice. The CPP and dopamine-sensitive motor activation produced by mephedrone is suggestive of abuse liability and indicates commonalities between the neuropharmacological profiles of mephedrone and established drugs of abuse. PMID:22652295

  5. Identification of SRC3/AIB1 as a Preferred Coactivator for Hormone-activated Androgen Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, X. Edward; Suino-Powell, Kelly M.; Li, Jun; He, Yuanzheng; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.; Melcher, Karsten; Yong, Eu-Leong; Xu, H.Eric

    2010-09-17

    Transcription activation by androgen receptor (AR), which depends on recruitment of coactivators, is required for the initiation and progression of prostate cancer, yet the mechanisms of how hormone-activated AR interacts with coactivators remain unclear. This is because AR, unlike any other nuclear receptor, prefers its own N-terminal FXXLF motif to the canonical LXXLL motifs of coactivators. Through biochemical and crystallographic studies, we identify that steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC3) (also named as amplified in breast cancer-1 or AIB1) interacts strongly with AR via synergistic binding of its first and third LXXLL motifs. Mutagenesis and functional studies confirm that SRC3 is a preferred coactivator for hormone-activated AR. Importantly, AR mutations found in prostate cancer patients correlate with their binding potency to SRC3, corroborating with the emerging role of SRC3 as a prostate cancer oncogene. These results provide a molecular mechanism for the selective utilization of SRC3 by hormone-activated AR, and they link the functional relationship between AR and SRC3 to the development and growth of prostate cancer.

  6. Activation of porous MOF materials

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2014-04-01

    A method for the treatment of solvent-containing MOF material to increase its internal surface area involves introducing a liquid into the MOF in which liquid the solvent is miscible, subjecting the MOF to supercritical conditions for a time to form supercritical fluid, and releasing the supercritical conditions to remove the supercritcal fluid from the MOF. Prior to introducing the liquid into the MOF, occluded reaction solvent, such as DEF or DMF, in the MOF can be exchanged for the miscible solvent.

  7. Activation of porous MOF materials

    DOEpatents

    Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2013-04-23

    A method for the treatment of solvent-containing MOF material to increase its internal surface area involves introducing a liquid into the MOF in which liquid the solvent is miscible, subjecting the MOF to supercritical conditions for a time to form supercritical fluid, and releasing the supercritical conditions to remove the supercritical fluid from the MOF. Prior to introducing the liquid into the MOF, occluded reaction solvent, such as DEF or DMF, in the MOF can be exchanged for the miscible solvent.

  8. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  9. Orexin/hypocretin neuron activation is correlated with alcohol seeking and preference in a topographically specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, David E.; James, Morgan H.; Kilroy, Elisabeth A.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Orexin (ORX, also known as hypocretin, HRCT) neurons are located exclusively in the posterior hypothalamus and are involved in a wide range of behaviors, including motivation for drugs of abuse such as alcohol. Hypothalamic subregions contain functionally distinct populations of ORX neurons that may play different roles in regulating drug- and alcohol-motivated behaviors. To investigate the role of ORX neurons in alcohol seeking, we measured Fos activation of ORX neurons in rats following three different measures of alcohol seeking and preference: 1) context-induced reinstatement, or ABA renewal, 2) cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding for alcohol, and 3) a home cage task in which preference for alcohol (vs. water) was measured in the absence of either reinforcer. We found significant activation of ORX neurons in multiple subregions across all three behavioral tests. Notably, ORX neuron activation in lateral hypothalamus (LH) correlated with the degree of seeking in context reinstatement and degree of preference in home cage preference testing. In addition, Fos activation in ORX neurons in dorsomedial (DMH) and perifornical (PF) areas was correlated with context- and home cage seeking/preference, respectively. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between the degree of cue-induced reinstatement and ORX neuron activation in any region despite robust activation overall during reinstatement. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between ORX neuron activation and alcohol seeking/preference, but one that is differentially expressed across ORX field subregions depending on reinstatement modality. PMID:26750264

  10. Healthcare Worker Preferences for Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Programs in South Africa: A Best-Worst Scaling Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Nathan N.; Roy, Lilla; O’Hara, Lyndsay M.; Spiegel, Jerry M.; Lynd, Larry D.; FitzGerald, J. Mark; Yassi, Annalee; Nophale, Letshego E.; Marra, Carlo A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Healthcare workers (HCWs) in South Africa are at a high risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) due to their occupational exposures. This study aimed to systematically quantify and compare the preferred attributes of an active TB case finding program for HCWs in South Africa. Methods A Best–Worst Scaling choice experiment estimated HCW’s preferences using a random-effects conditional logit model. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to explore heterogeneity in preferences. Results “No cost”, “the assurance of confidentiality”, “no wait” and testing at the occupational health unit at one’s hospital were the most preferred attributes. LCA identified a four class model with consistent differences in preference strength. Sex, occupation, and the time since a previous TB test were statistically significant predictors of class membership. Conclusions The findings support the strengthening of occupational health units in South Africa to offer free and confidential active TB case finding programs for HCWs with minimal wait times. There is considerable variation in active TB case finding preferences amongst HCWs of different gender, occupation, and testing history. Attention to heterogeneity in preferences should optimize screening utilization of target HCW populations. PMID:26197344

  11. Encouraging overweight students with intellectual disability to actively perform walking activity using an air mouse combined with preferred stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Jui; Chang, Man-Ling; Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    This study continues the research on using an air mouse as a physical activity detector. An air mouse is embedded with a MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) gyro sensor, which can measure even the slightest movement in the air. The air mouse was strapped to one of each participant's calves to detect walking activity. This study was conducted to evaluate whether four students with intellectual disability who were overweight and disliked exercising could be motivated to engage in walking actively by linking the target response with preferred stimulation. Single-subject research with ABAB design was adopted in this study. The experimental data showed substantial increases in the participants' target responses (i.e. the performance of the activity of walking) during the intervention phases compared to the baseline phases. The practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:27037988

  12. Eating as the "Means" Activity in a Contingency: Effects on Young Children's Food Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann Lipps; And Others

    1984-01-01

    To investigate the effects of instrumental eating on food preferences, 45 preschool children were assigned to either instrumental eating or control conditions. Preference data obtained before and after a series of snack sessions (consisting of milk beverages) demonstrated a significant negative shift in preference for the instrumental groups.…

  13. The developmental inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Lukkes, Jodi L; Thompson, Britta S; Freund, Nadja; Andersen, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Increased locomotion, novelty-seeking, and impulsivity are risk factors associated with substance use. In this study, the inter-relationships between activity, novelty preferences, and delay discounting, a measure of impulsivity, were examined across three stages: juvenile/early adolescence (postnatal Day [P] 15, 19, and 42 for activity, novelty, and impulsivity, respectively), adolescent/late adolescent (P28, 32, 73), and adult (P90, 94, 137) in male and female rats. Our estimates of impulsive choice, where animals were trained to criterion, revealed an age × sex interaction where early adolescent females had the lowest levels of impulsivity. The relationships of activity and novelty to impulsivity significantly changed across age within each sex. Early adolescent males with high activity, but low novelty preferences, were more impulsive; however, low activity and high novelty preferences were related to high impulsivity in adult males. Female activity gradually increased across age, but did not show a strong relationship with impulsivity. Novelty preferences are moderately related to impulsivity into adulthood in females. These data show that males and females have different developmental trajectories for these behaviors. Males show greater sensation-seeking (e.g., activity) and risky behavior (e.g., novelty preferences) earlier in life, whereas these behaviors emerge during adolescence in females. PMID:26419783

  14. How Are Preferences Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2009-01-01

    Revealed preferences are tastes that rationalize an economic agent’s observed actions. Normative preferences represent the agent’s actual interests. It sometimes makes sense to assume that revealed preferences are identical to normative preferences. But there are many cases where this assumption is violated. We identify five factors that increase the likelihood of a disparity between revealed preferences and normative preferences: passive choice, complexity, limited personal experience, third-party marketing, and intertemporal choice. We then discuss six approaches that jointly contribute to the identification of normative preferences: structural estimation, active decisions, asymptotic choice, aggregated revealed preferences, reported preferences, and informed preferences. Each of these approaches uses consumer behavior to infer some property of normative preferences without equating revealed and normative preferences. We illustrate these issues with evidence from savings and investment outcomes. PMID:24761048

  15. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  16. Adult activity and temperature preference drives region-wide damselfly (Zygoptera) distributions under a warming climate

    PubMed Central

    Corser, Jeffrey D.; White, Erin L.; Schlesinger, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We analysed a recently completed statewide odonate Atlas using multivariate linear models. Within a phylogenetically explicit framework, we developed a suite of data-derived traits to assess the mechanistic distributional drivers of 59 species of damselflies in New York State (NYS). We found that length of the flight season (adult breeding activity period) mediated by thermal preference drives regional distributions at broad (105 km2) scales. Species that had longer adult flight periods, in conjunction with longer growing seasons, had significantly wider distributions. These intrinsic traits shape species' responses to changing climates and the mechanisms behind such range shifts are fitness-based metapopulation processes that adjust phenology to the prevailing habitat and climate regime through a photoperiod filter. PMID:25878048

  17. Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankovich, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Development and Implementation of a Video-Based Physical Activity Preference Assessment for Children with Autism and Their Parents Individuals with autism often lack the necessary motivation to engage in physical activity. In addition, due to the characteristics defining autism, such as deficits in social skills, motor coordination, and behavior,…

  18. A Comparison of 9th Grade Male and Female Physical Education Activities Preferences and Support for Coeducational Groupings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Cleven, Brian

    2005-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the physical education activity preferences of 9th grade students in a southern California school district, to identify which activities students felt should be offered in coeducation or gender separate formats, and to determine whether physical education is one of their favorite classes. Results…

  19. Orexin/hypocretin neuron activation is correlated with alcohol seeking and preference in a topographically specific manner.

    PubMed

    Moorman, David E; James, Morgan H; Kilroy, Elisabeth A; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2016-03-01

    Orexin (ORX) (also known as hypocretin) neurons are located exclusively in the posterior hypothalamus, and are involved in a wide range of behaviours, including motivation for drugs of abuse such as alcohol. Hypothalamic subregions contain functionally distinct populations of ORX neurons that may play different roles in regulating drug-motivated and alcohol-motivated behaviours. To investigate the role of ORX neurons in ethanol (EtOH) seeking, we measured Fos activation of ORX neurons in rats following three different measures of EtOH seeking and preference: (i) context-induced reinstatement, or ABA renewal; (ii) cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished responding for EtOH; and (iii) a home cage task in which preference for EtOH (vs. water) was measured in the absence of either reinforcer. We found significant activation of ORX neurons in multiple subregions across all three behavioural tests. Notably, ORX neuron activation in the lateral hypothalamus correlated with the degree of seeking in context reinstatement and the degree of preference in home cage preference testing. In addition, Fos activation in ORX neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamic and perifornical areas was correlated with context and home cage seeking/preference, respectively. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between the degree of cue-induced reinstatement and ORX neuron activation in any region, despite robust activation overall during reinstatement. These results demonstrate a strong relationship between ORX neuron activation and EtOH seeking/preference, but one that is differentially expressed across ORX field subregions, depending on reinstatement modality. PMID:26750264

  20. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  1. "I Prefer Not Text": Developing Japanese Learners' Communicative Competence with Authentic Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmore, Alex

    2011-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study reports on a 10-month classroom-based longitudinal investigation, exploring the potential of authentic materials to develop Japanese learners' communicative competence in English. Sixty-two second-year university students were assigned to either a control group receiving textbook input or an experimental group…

  2. Phase locked neural activity in the human brainstem predicts preference for musical consonance

    PubMed Central

    Bones, Oliver; Hopkins, Kathryn; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Plack, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    When musical notes are combined to make a chord, the closeness of fit of the combined spectrum to a single harmonic series (the ‘harmonicity’ of the chord) predicts the perceived consonance (how pleasant and stable the chord sounds; McDermott, Lehr, & Oxenham, 2010). The distinction between consonance and dissonance is central to Western musical form. Harmonicity is represented in the temporal firing patterns of populations of brainstem neurons. The current study investigates the role of brainstem temporal coding of harmonicity in the perception of consonance. Individual preference for consonant over dissonant chords was measured using a rating scale for pairs of simultaneous notes. In order to investigate the effects of cochlear interactions, notes were presented in two ways: both notes to both ears or each note to different ears. The electrophysiological frequency following response (FFR), reflecting sustained neural activity in the brainstem synchronised to the stimulus, was also measured. When both notes were presented to both ears the perceptual distinction between consonant and dissonant chords was stronger than when the notes were presented to different ears. In the condition in which both notes were presented to the both ears additional low-frequency components, corresponding to difference tones resulting from nonlinear cochlear processing, were observable in the FFR effectively enhancing the neural harmonicity of consonant chords but not dissonant chords. Suppressing the cochlear envelope component of the FFR also suppressed the additional frequency components. This suggests that, in the case of consonant chords, difference tones generated by interactions between notes in the cochlea enhance the perception of consonance. Furthermore, individuals with a greater distinction between consonant and dissonant chords in the FFR to individual harmonics had a stronger preference for consonant over dissonant chords. Overall, the results provide compelling

  3. Manifestation of optical activity in different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinova, A. F.; Golovina, T. G.; Konstantinov, K. K.

    2014-07-01

    Various manifestations of optical activity (OA) in crystals and organic materials are considered. Examples of optically active enantiomorphic and nonenantiomorphic crystals of 18 symmetry classes are presented. The OA of enantiomorphic organic materials as components of living nature (amino acids, sugars, and proteins) is analyzed. Questions related to the origin of life on earth are considered. Examples of differences in the enantiomers of drugs are shown. The consequences of replacing conventional left-handed amino acids with additionally right-handed amino acids for living organisms are indicated.

  4. Video game genre preference, physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Hayden T; Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Babic, Mark J; Lubans, David R

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between the types of video games played by adolescent boys and their participation in physical activity and recreational screen-time. Participants were 320 boys (mean age = 12.7, ±0.5 years) from 14 secondary schools located in low-income areas of New South Wales, Australia. Outcomes included height, weight, physical activity (accelerometers), total screen-time, and video game genre preference. Significant differences in both weekday and weekend screen-time were found between video game genre groups. In addition, significant differences in overall activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were found between genre groups on weekdays. Between-group differences in physical activity on weekends were not statistically significant. This cross-sectional study has demonstrated that video game genre preference is associated with physical activity and screen-time in adolescent boys from low-income communities. PMID:25448829

  5. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    PubMed

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). PMID:22280793

  6. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  7. Activation of σ-Receptors Induces Binge-like Drinking in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, Valentina; Cottone, Pietro; Blasio, Angelo; Iyer, Malliga R; Steardo, Luca; Rice, Kenner C; Conti, Bruno; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2011-01-01

    Sigma (σ) receptors have been implicated in the behavioral and motivational effects of alcohol and psychostimulants. Sigma receptor antagonists reduce the reinforcing effects of alcohol and excessive alcohol intake in both genetic (alcohol-preferring rats) and environmental (chronic alcohol-induced) models of alcoholism. The present study tested the hypothesis that pharmacological activation of σ-receptors facilitates ethanol reinforcement and induces excessive, binge-like ethanol intake. The effects of repeated subcutaneous treatment with the selective σ-receptor agonist 1,3-di-(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG; 15 mg/kg, twice a day for 7 days) on operant ethanol (10%) self-administration were studied in Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats. To confirm that the effect of DTG was mediated by σ-receptors, the effects of pretreatment with the selective σ-receptor antagonist BD-1063 (7 mg/kg, subcutaneously) were determined. To assess the specificity of action, the effects of DTG on the self-administration of equally reinforcing solutions of saccharin or sucrose were also determined. Finally, gene expression of opioid receptors in brain areas implicated in ethanol reinforcement was analyzed in ethanol-naive sP rats treated acutely or repeatedly with DTG, because of the well-established role of the opioid system in alcohol reinforcement and addiction. Repeatedly administered DTG progressively and dramatically increased ethanol self-administration in sP rats and increased blood alcohol levels, which reached mean values close to 100 mg% in 1 h drinking sessions. Repeated DTG treatment also increased the rats' motivation to work for alcohol under a progressive-ratio schedule of reinforcement. BD-1063 prevented the effects of DTG, confirming that σ-receptors mediate the effects of DTG. Repeated DTG treatment also increased the self-administration of the non-drug reinforcers saccharin and sucrose. Naive sP rats repeatedly treated with DTG showed increased m

  8. A Correlational Study of Self-Directed Learning Readiness and Learning Activity Preference for Continuing Medical Education among Family Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Theresa J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative, nonexperimental, correlational study sought to determine whether a relationship exists between family physicians' levels of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and their preferences for continuing medical education (CME) activities. The study also sought to determine whether years in clinical practice or size of clinical…

  9. Jump into the Void? Factors Related to a Preferred Retirement Age: Gender, Social Interests, and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…

  10. The Influence of Religiosity, Gender, and Language Preference Acculturation on Sexual Activity among Latino/a Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Fehring, Richard J.; Jarrett, Keyona M.; Haglund, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the main and interactive effects of religiosity, gender, and language preference acculturation on sexual activity among 570 Latino/a adolescents from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Results indicated that adolescents who viewed religion as very important, had frequent church attendance, and had…

  11. Active Nuclear Material Detection and Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Daren Norman; James Jones; KevinHaskell; Peter E. Vanmier; Leon Forman

    2005-10-01

    An experimental evaluation has been conducted to assess the operational performance of a coded-aperture, thermal neutron imaging system and its detection and imaging capability for shielded nuclear material in pulsed photonuclear environments. This evaluation used an imaging system developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The active photonuclear environment was produced by an operationallyflexible, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) pulsed electron accelerator. The neutron environments were monitored using INL photonuclear neutron detectors. Results include experimental images, operational imaging system assessments and recommendations that would enhance nuclear material detection and imaging performance.

  12. The development of the MIBBO: A measure of resident preferences for physical activity in long term care settings.

    PubMed

    Kleynen, Melanie; Braun, Susy M; van Vijven, Kim; van Rossum, Erik; Beurskens, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    Offering physical activities matching with the preferences of residents in long-term care facilities could increase compliance and contribute to client-centered care. A measure to investigate meaningful activities by using a photo-interview has been developed ("MIBBO"). In two pilot studies including 133 residents living on different wards in long-term care facilities, feasibility, most chosen activities, and consistency of preferences were investigated. It was possible to conduct the MIBBO on average in 30 min with the majority (86.4%) of residents. The most frequently chosen activities were: gymnastics and orchestra (each 28%), preparing a meal (31%), walking (outside, 33%), watering plants (38%), and feeding pets (40%). In a retest one week after the initial interview 69.4% agreement of chosen activities was seen. The MIBBO seems a promising measure to help health care professionals in identifying residents' preferred activities. Future research should focus on the implementation of the tailored activity plan, incorporating it into the daily routine. PMID:25784078

  13. Optical pumping of generalized laser active materials.

    PubMed

    Fry, F H

    1967-11-01

    Results are presented of a computer-based study on the rate of excitation in the active cores of two types of optically pumped lasers as a function of a number of parameters of the active core. The absorption bands of the active materials are generated by Lorentzian and Gaussian functions. The excitation rate of the active core is proportional to the width of the absorption band at all depths of penetration. The plots of excitation rate as a function of frequency show curves similar to line reversal spectra and emphasize the importance of excitation some distance from the center of the absorption band in the slab model. In the cylindrical model, this wing pumping is even more important due to focusing. The effect of refractive index on the excitation rate is also described. PMID:20062337

  14. Relationship between Age, Experience, and Student Preference for Types of Learning Activities in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonds, Thomas A.; Brock, Barbara L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two researchers explored student learning preferences in online courses. They used the scholarship of teaching and learning process as a research model, and embedded a web-based survey and online focus groups in the online courses they were teaching. After collecting data, the researchers conducted multiple logistic regression…

  15. Can You Hear Me Now? Assessing Students' Classroom Communication Preferences via a Telephone Conference Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilmann, Sharon G.

    2012-01-01

    Telephone conference presentation delivery was compared to face-to-face classroom delivery in an undergraduate business course setting to assess whether concern over presenting in front of the class and/or gender impacted presentation mode preference. After completing a classroom exercise, students (n = 102) were surveyed and asked to compare…

  16. Changing Preference from Tangible to Social Activities through an Observation Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaf, Justin B.; Oppenheim-Leaf, Misty L.; Townley-Cochran, Donna; Leaf, Jeremy A.; Alcalay, Aditt; Milne, Christine; Kassardjian, Alyne; Tsuji, Kathleen; Dale, Stephanie; Leaf, Ronald; Taubman, Mitchell; McEachin, John

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have qualitative impairments in social interaction and often prefer food or tangible reinforcement to social reinforcement. Thus, therapists who work with children with ASD often use food or tangible items as reinforcers to increase appropriate behaviors or decrease problem behaviors. The goal of the…

  17. Sensation Seeking and Internet Activities, Music Preference, and Personal Relationships among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisskirch, Robert S.; Murphy, Laurel C.

    Individuals vary in their need for excitement, involving a personality trait known as sensation seeking (SS). Previous research has found that a preference for rock music and participation in more self-disclosing behaviors are characteristic of high sensation seekers. This study examines if college student sensation seeking relates to the…

  18. Information Behaviour of Slovenian Researchers: Investigation of Activities, Preferences and Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilar, Polona; Juznic, Primoz; Bartol, Tomaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The paper presents one segment of the first comprehensive national study investigating information behaviour of Slovenian researchers in all research disciplines in relation to selected demographic variables. Research questions addressed various types of information behaviour, format preferences, use of different types of sources,…

  19. Active vibration damping using smart material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baras, John S.; Yan, Zhuang

    1994-01-01

    We consider the modeling and active damping of an elastic beam using distributed actuators and sensors. The piezoelectric ceramic material (PZT) is used to build the actuator. The sensor is made of the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). These materials are glued on both sides of the beam. For the simple clamped beam, the closed loop controller has been shown to be able to extract energy from the beam. The shape of the actuator and its influence on the closed loop system performance are discussed. It is shown that it is possible to suppress the selected mode by choosing the appropriate actuator layout. It is also shown that by properly installing the sensor and determining the sensor shape we can further extract and manipulate the sensor signal for our control need.

  20. Effects of mouthguards on vertical dimension, muscle activation, and athlete preference: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gage, C Colby; Huxel Bliven, Kellie C; Bay, R Curtis; Sturgill, Jeremiah S; Park, Jae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Mandibular repositioning and subsequent neuromuscular signaling are proposed mechanisms of action for commercial mouthguards marketed for performance enhancement. A prospective cross-sectional study of 24 healthy adult weightlifters with normal occlusal relationships was designed to determine whether 2 self-fit performance mouthguards; a custom-fabricated, bilaterally balanced, dual-laminated mouthguard; and no mouthguard (control) differed in their effects on vertical dimension, muscle activation, and user preference during a 75% maximum power clean lift. Each subject was tested for each of the mouthguard categories: Power Balance POWERUP, Under Armour ArmourBite, custom, and no mouthguard. Interocclusal distance was measured at baseline and with each mouthguard. Mean and peak activity of the anterior temporalis, masseter, sternocleidomastoid, and cervical paraspinal muscles was measured during sitting and during a 75% maximum power clean lift. A mouthguard preference questionnaire was completed. Analyses were conducted to determine whether interocclusal distance differed among mouthguard type and to examine the effect of mouthguard type on mean and peak muscle activation during the clean lift. Interocclusal distance was affected by mouthguard type (P = 0.01). Mean and peak activity of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles and mean activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscle differed among mouthguards (P < 0.05). Mouthguard type did not influence muscle activation of the cervical paraspinal muscle group. Overall, the Power Balance mouthguard produced more muscle activity. Participants preferred custom mouthguards nearly 2:1 over self-fit performance mouthguards (P = 0.05). Participants perceived that they were stronger and were less encumbered when using a custom mouthguard during submaximum power clean lifts. PMID:26545275

  1. Plasmonic Biofoam: A Versatile Optically Active Material.

    PubMed

    Tian, Limei; Luan, Jingyi; Liu, Keng-Ku; Jiang, Qisheng; Tadepalli, Sirimuvva; Gupta, Maneesh K; Naik, Rajesh R; Singamaneni, Srikanth

    2016-01-13

    Owing to their ability to confine and manipulate light at the nanoscale, plasmonic nanostructures are highly attractive for a broad range of applications. While tremendous progress has been made in the synthesis of size- and shape-controlled plasmonic nanostructures, their integration with other materials and application in solid-state is primarily through their assembly on rigid two-dimensional (2D) substrates, which limits the plasmonically active space to a few nanometers above the substrate. In this work, we demonstrate a simple method to create plasmonically active three-dimensional biofoams by integrating plasmonic nanostructures with highly porous biomaterial aerogels. We demonstrate that plasmonic biofoam is a versatile optically active platform that can be harnessed for numerous applications including (i) ultrasensitive chemical detection using surface-enhanced Raman scattering; (ii) highly efficient energy harvesting and steam generation through plasmonic photothermal heating; and (iii) optical control of enzymatic activity by triggered release of biomolecules encapsulated within the aerogel. Our results demonstrate that 3D plasmonic biofoam exhibits significantly higher sensing, photothermal, and loading efficiency compared to conventional 2D counterparts. The design principles and processing methodology of plasmonic aerogels demonstrated here can be broadly applied in the fabrication of other functional foams. PMID:26630376

  2. Photonic crystals with active organic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yeheng

    The concept of photonic crystals, which involves periodically arranged dielectrics that form a new type of material having novel photonic properties, was first proposed about two decades ago. Since then, a number of applications in photonic technology have been explored. Specifically, organic and hybrid photonic crystals are promising because of the unique advantages of the organic materials. A one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (multilayer) has high reflectance across a certain wavelength range. We report on studies of 1D multilayer polymer films that were fabricated using spin-coating, free film stacking, and co-extrusion techniques. For example, a stack fabricated by placing a laser dye-doped gain medium between two multilayer reflecting polymer films forms a micro-resonator laser or distributed Bragg laser. The resulting laser system is made entirely of plastic and is only several tens of micrometers in thickness. When the gain, a dye-doped medium, comprises one type of a two-type multilayer film, it results a laser exhibiting distributed feedback. At the edge of the photonic band, the group velocity becomes small and the density of photon states becomes high, which leads to laser emission. Such distributed feedback lasers were fabricated using the co-extrusion technique. The refractive indices and the photonic lattice determine the photonic band gap, which can be tuned by changing these parameters. Materials with Kerr nonlinearity exhibit a change in refractive index depending on the incident intensity of the light. To demonstrate such switching, electrochemical etching techniques on silicon wafers were used to form two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. By incorporating the nonlinear organic material into the 2D structure, we have made all-optical switches. The reflection of a beam from the 2D photonic crystal can be controlled by another beam because it induces a refractive index change in the active material by altering the reflection band. A mid

  3. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred learning style.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2004-05-01

    Concept maps that integrate and relate concepts in a nonlinear fashion are widely accepted as an educational tool that can underpin meaningful learning in medical education. However, student take-up may be affected by a number of cognitive and non-cognitive influences. In the present study, student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 conjoint MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were examined in relation to preferred learning styles according to the Felder-Silverman model. There was no statistically significant influence of dichotomous learning style dimension (sensing/intuitive; visual/verbal; active/reflector; sequential/global) on the self-reported utility of such concept maps to learning. However, when strength of preference was analysed within each dimension, moderate/strong verbal learners were found to be significantly less likely to self-report concept maps as useful relative to mild verbal learners. With this important exception, these data now suggest that student attitudes to concept maps are broadly not influenced by preferred learning styles and furthermore highlight the potential of concept maps to address a variety of different learning styles and thereby facilitate 'teaching to all types'. Concept maps could therefore potentially assist motivation, engagement and deep learning in medical and biomedical science education when used as a supplement to more traditional teaching/learning activities. PMID:15203499

  4. Activation and inhibition of tph2 serotonergic neurons operate in tandem to influence larval zebrafish preference for light over darkness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ruey-Kuang; Krishnan, Seetha; Jesuthasan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Serotonergic neurons have been implicated in a broad range of processes, but the principles underlying their effects remain a puzzle. Here, we ask how these neurons influence the tendency of larval zebrafish to swim in the light and avoid regions of darkness. Pharmacological inhibition of serotonin synthesis reduces dark avoidance, indicating an involvement of this neuromodulator. Calcium imaging of tph2-expressing cells demonstrates that a rostral subset of dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons fire continuously while the animal is in darkness, but are inhibited in the light. Optogenetic manipulation of tph2 neurons by channelrhodopsin or halorhodopsin expression modifies preference, confirming a role for these neurons. In particular, these results suggest that fish prefer swimming in conditions that elicits lower activity in tph2 serotonergic neurons in the rostral raphe. PMID:26868164

  5. Perceptions of testicular cancer and testicular self-examination among college men: a report on intention, vulnerability, and promotional material preferences.

    PubMed

    Rovito, Michael J; Gordon, Thomas F; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ducette, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    Testicular self-exam (TSE) is an important tool to prevent late-stage diagnosis of testicular cancer (TC). However, most young men remain unaware of their risk for TC despite a growing number of interventions promoting knowledge and awareness of the disease. Of those interventions, very few discuss perceived vulnerability, perceived value of health promotion, and/or preference for informational materials as viable predictors of behavioral change. In this study, 300 university males were surveyed on their perceptions of vulnerability, perceived value of health promotion methods, TC/TSE knowledge, and preference for health promotional information. The results indicated that men were generally unaware of TC and were unsure of their risk of developing the disease. Participants reported very positive responses to questions about the value of health promotion methods, particularly TSE, and indicated a high intention to perform health promotion behaviors. Most important, participants noted that they preferred personalized, tailored information to learn about TC and TSE. Significant predictors of intention to perform TSE include knowledge and awareness of TC/TSE, perceived value of health promotion, and attitudes. Significant predictors of promotional tool preferences differed among generalized pamphlets, personalized messages, and group training sessions. The authors recommend that researchers tailor promotional messages in TC/TSE awareness campaigns with an individual's preference for promotional tool. PMID:21659352

  6. Central oxytocin receptors mediate mating-induced partner preferences and enhance correlated activation across forebrain nuclei in male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zachary V; Walum, Hasse; Jamal, Yaseen A; Xiao, Yao; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Young, Larry J

    2016-03-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is a deeply conserved nonapeptide that acts both peripherally and centrally to modulate reproductive physiology and sociosexual behavior across divergent taxa, including humans. In vertebrates, the distribution of the oxytocin receptor (OTR) in the brain is variable within and across species, and OTR signaling is critical for a variety of species-typical social and reproductive behaviors, including affiliative and pair bonding behaviors in multiple socially monogamous lineages of fishes, birds, and mammals. Early work in prairie voles suggested that the endogenous OT system modulates mating-induced partner preference formation in females but not males; however, there is significant evidence that central OTRs may modulate pair bonding behavior in both sexes. In addition, it remains unclear how transient windows of central OTR signaling during sociosexual interaction modulate neural activity to produce enduring shifts in sociobehavioral phenotypes, including the formation of selective social bonds. Here we re-examine the role of the central OT system in partner preference formation in male prairie voles using a selective OTR antagonist delivered intracranially. We then use the same antagonist to examine how central OTRs modulate behavior and immediate early gene (Fos) expression, a metric of neuronal activation, in males during brief sociosexual interaction with a female. Our results suggest that, as in females, OTR signaling is critical for partner preference formation in males and enhances correlated activation across sensory and reward processing brain areas during sociosexual interaction. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that central OTR signaling facilitates social bond formation by coordinating activity across a pair bonding neural network. PMID:26643557

  7. Neutron activation analysis of some building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salagean, M. N.; Pantelica, A. I.; Georgescu, I. I.; Muntean, M. I.

    1999-01-01

    Concentrations of As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mo, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, U. Yb, W and Zn in seven Romanian building materials were determined by the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) method using the VVR-S Reactor of NIPNE- Bucharest. Raw matarials used in cement obtaining ≈ 75% of limestone and ≈ 25% of clay, cement samples from three different factories, furnace slag, phosphogypsum, and a type of brick have been analyzed. The brick was compacted from furnace slay, fly coal ash, phosphogypsum, lime and cement. The U, Th and K concentrations determined in the brick are in agreement with the natural radioactivity measurements of226Ra,232Th and40K. These specific activities were found about twice and 1.5 higher than the accepted levels in the case of226Ra and232Th, as well as40K, respectively. By consequence, the investigated brick is considered a radioactive waste. The rather high content of Co, Cr, K, Th, and Zh in the brick is especially due to the slag and fly ash, the main componets. The presence of U, Th and K in slag is mainly correlated with the limestone and dolomite as fluxes in matallurgy.

  8. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine whether tracker interest and use, and use of advanced trackers over pedometers is a function of demographics. Preferences for tracker features and reasons for not wanting to wear a tracker are also presented. Results Over one-third of participants (35%) had used a tracker, and 16% are interested in using one. Multinomial regression (n=1257) revealed that the use of trackers was lower in males (OR=0.48, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.65), non-working participants (OR=0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.61), participants with lower education (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72) and inactive participants (OR=0.52, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.70). Interest in using a tracker was higher in younger participants (OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.58). The most frequently used tracker was a pedometer (59%). Logistic regression (n=445) revealed that use of advanced trackers compared with pedometers was higher in males (OR=1.67, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.79) and younger participants (OR=2.96, 95% CI 1.71 to 5.13), and lower in inactive participants (OR=0.35, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.63). Over half of current or interested tracker users (53%) prefer to wear it on their wrist, 31% considered counting steps the most important function and 30% regarded accuracy as the most important characteristic. The main reasons for not wanting to use a tracker were, ‘I don't think it would help me’ (39%), and ‘I don't want to increase my activity’ (47%). Conclusions Activity trackers are a promising tool to engage people in self-monitoring a physical activity

  9. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children.

    PubMed

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children's behavior. The participants were 6-8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6-8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children's perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children's preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children's behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life. PMID:27199842

  10. The Effects of Activating the Money Concept on Perseverance and the Preference for Delayed Gratification in Children

    PubMed Central

    Trzcińska, Agata; Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The psychological model of thinking about money assumes that implicit reminders of money lead to self-sufficient motivation. Previous research has demonstrated that children react to money in similar ways to adults. The priming of young children with money related concepts or images has negatively affected their social behavior and social preferences, leading them to make more individualist and less pro-social choices and be less willing to help others. The aim of this research was to investigate the positive influence of money activation on children’s behavior. The participants were 6–8 year old children who do not yet fully understand the instrumental function of money due to their young age. Two experimental studies were performed, the first of which analyzed the effect of perseverance and performance on a challenging task and the second investigated preferences with respect to delaying gratification. Sixty-one children aged 6 took part in the first study and forty-six scout camp participants 6–8 years of age were involved in the second experiment. The results support the hypotheses concerning the effects of money activation stating that (1) money activation influences children’s perseverance and effectiveness in difficult individual tasks, and that (2) it increases children’s preferences for delayed gratification. These results suggest that money has a symbolic power which may exert both positive and negative effects on children’s behavior. Since children between the ages of 6 and 8 do not understand the instrumental function of money fully, certain symbolic meanings of money may have been responsible for the money priming effects. The findings suggest that the symbolic function of money is more primal than its instrumental function and that it probably develops at an earlier stage in life. PMID:27199842

  11. Light activated nitric oxide releasing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muizzi Casanas, Dayana Andreina

    The ability to control the location and dosage of biologically active molecules inside the human body can be critical to maximizing effective treatment of cardiovascular diseases like angina. The current standard of treatment relies on the metabolism of organonitrate drugs into nitric oxide (NO), which are not specific, and also show problems with densitization with long-term use. There is a need then to create a treatment method that gives targeted release of NO. Metal-nitrosyl (M-NO) complexes can be used for delivery of NO since the release of NO can be controlled with light. However, the NO-releasing drug must be activated with red light to ensure maximum penetration of light through tissue. However, the release of NO from M-NO complexes with red-light activation is a significant challenge since the energy required to break the metal-NO bond is usually larger than the energy provided by red light. The goal of this project was to create red- sensitive, NO-releasing materials based on Ru-salen-nitrosyl compounds. Our approach was to first modify Ru salen complexes to sensitize the photochemistry for release of NO after red light irradiation. Next, we pursued polymerization of the Ru-salen complexes. We report the synthesis and quantitative photochemical characterization of a series of ruthenium salen nitrosyl complexes. These complexes were modified by incorporating electron donating groups in the salen ligand structure at key locations to increase electron density on the Ru. Complexes with either an --OH or --OCH3 substituent showed an improvement in the quantum yield of release of NO upon blue light irradiation compared to the unmodified salen. These --OH and --OCH3 complexes were also sensitized for NO release after red light activation, however the red-sensitive complexes were unstable and showed ligand substitution on the order of minutes. The substituted complexes remained sensitive for NO release, but only after blue light irradiation. The Ru

  12. Activity and electrophoretic profiles of liver aldehyde dehydrogenases from mice of inbred strains with different alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, H; Nishiguchi, K; Miyamoto, R; Ogita, Z I; Nakanishi, S

    1983-01-01

    1. The activity of low Km-aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) in the liver mitochondrial fraction (MT-fraction) from male C57BL/6J strain mice (alcohol preferring) was significantly higher than that from DBA/2 mice (alcohol avoiding). The F1 hybrids (C57BL/6J X DBA/2) did not exhibit the intermediate activity to these two strains. 2. Strain differences in liver mitochondrial ALDH isozymes were observed by isoelectric focusing. C57BL/6J strain had two isozymes at pH 7.1 while DBA/2 had no band at this pH. F1 hybrid mice had similar two bands with lower density to those of C57BL/6J at pH 7.1. There was no difference in zymograms of the soluble fraction between C57BL/6J and DBA/2 strains. 3. The present results suggest that the difference in alcohol preference of mice may depend on some restricted ALDH isozymes with different pl or electric mobility rather than the enzymatic activity in the liver MT-fraction. PMID:6822317

  13. [beta]1-Adrenoceptor or [alpha]1-Adrenoceptor Activation Initiates Early Odor Preference Learning in Rat Pups: Support for the Mitral Cell/cAMP Model of Odor Preference Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Carolyn W.; Darby-King, Andrea; McCann, Jennifer; McLean, John H.

    2006-01-01

    We proposed that mitral cell [beta]1-adrenoceptor activation mediates rat pup odor preference learning. Here we evaluate [beta]1-, [beta]2-, [alpha]1-, and [alpha]2-adrenoceptor agonists in such learning. The [beta]1-adrenoceptor agonist, dobutamine, and the [alpha]1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, induced learning, and both exhibited an…

  14. Magnesium Based Materials and their Antimicrobial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Duane Allan

    The overall goals of this body of work were to characterize the antimicrobial properties of magnesium (Mg) metal and nano-magnesium oxide (nMgO) in vitro, to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Mg metal, and to incorporate MgO nanoparticles into a polymeric implant coating and evaluate its in vitro antimicrobial properties. In the course of this work it was found that Mg metal, Mg-mesh, and nMgO have in vitro antimicrobial properties that are similar to a bactericidal antibiotic. For Mg metal, the mechanism of this activity appears to be related to an increase in pH (i.e. a more alkaline environment) and not an increase in Mg2+. Given that Mg-mesh is a Mg metal powder, the assumption is that it has the same mechanism of activity as Mg metal. The mechanism of activity for nMgO remains to be elucidated and may be related to a combination of interaction of the nanoparticles with the bacteria and the alkaline pH. It was further demonstrated that supernatants from suspensions of Mg-mesh and nMgO had the same antimicrobial effect as was noted when the particles were used. The supernatant from Mg-mesh and nMgO was also noted to prevent biofilm formation for two Staphylococcus strains. Finally, poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) composites of Mg-mesh (PCL+Mg-mesh) and nMgO (PCL+nMgO) were produced. Coatings applied to screws inhibited growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and in thin disc format inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus in addition to the E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Pure Mg metal was noted to have some cytotoxic effect on murine fibroblast and osteoblast cell lines, although this effect needs to be characterized further. To address the need for an in vivo model for evaluating implant associated infections, a new closed fracture osteomyelitis model in the femur of the rat was developed. Magnesium, a readily available and inexpensive metal was shown to have antimicrobial properties that appear to be related to its corrosion products and

  15. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  16. Health Behavior and Behavioral Economics: Economic Preferences and Physical Activity Stages of Change in a Low-Income African American Community

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Tammy; Shuval, Kerem; de Oliveira, Angela; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Eckel, Catherine; Murdoch, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between physical activity stages of change and preferences for financial risk and time. Design A cross-sectional, community-based study. Setting A low-income, urban, African American neighborhood. Subjects 169 adults Measures Self-reported physical activity stages of change—precontemplation to maintenance, objectively measured BMI and waist circumference, and economic preferences for time and risk measured via incentivized economic experiments. Analysis Multivariable ordered logistic regression models were used to examine the association between physical activity stages of change and economic preferences while controlling for demographic characteristics of the individuals. Results Individuals who are more tolerant of financial risks (OR=1.31, p<0.05) and whose time preferences indicate more patience (OR=1.68, p<0.01) are more likely to be in a more advanced physical activity stage (e.g. from preparation to action). The likelihood of being in the maintenance stage increases by 5.6 and 10.9 percentage points for each 1 unit increase in financial risk tolerance or 1 unit increase in the time preference measure, respectively. Conclusions Greater tolerance of financial risk and more patient time preferences among this low-income ethnic minority population are associated with a more advanced physical activity stage. Further exploration is clearly warranted in larger and more representative samples. PMID:23448410

  17. Exploring Preferences of Mentoring Activities among Generational Groups of Registered Nurses in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey-Goodwin, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions of mentoring activities from four generations of registered nurses in Florida, using the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaire ® (AMAQ ®). Statistical procedures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to explore differences among 65 registered nurses in Florida from…

  18. Leisure Activities during School Break among Children with Learning Disabilities: Preference vs. Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalon-Chamovitz, Shira; Mano, Tali; Jarus, Tal; Weinblatt, Nurit

    2006-01-01

    Participation in leisure activities may contribute to the development of social, motor, and language skills, and is therefore especially important for children with learning disabilities. Leisure activities of students in educational settings are performed mostly during breaks. While there have been some studies of the effect of breaks on…

  19. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution. PMID:18240895

  20. Dyadic social interaction inhibits cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated activation of the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. In substance use disorders, impaired social interaction is triply harmful (a) because addicts increasingly prefer the drug of abuse to the natural reward of drug-free social interaction, thus worsening the progression of the disease by increasing their drug consumption, (b) because treatment adherence and, consequently, treatment success itself depends on the ability of the recovering addict to maintain social interaction and adhere to treatment, and (c) because socially interacting with an individual suffering from a substance use disorder may be harmful for others. Helping the addict reorient his/her behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would therefore be of considerable therapeutic benefit. This article reviews our work on the neural basis of such a reorientation from cocaine, as a prototypical drug of abuse, toward dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction and compares our findings with the effects of other potentially beneficial interventions, that is, environmental enrichment or paired housing, on the activation of the accumbens and other brain regions involved in behavior motivated by drugs of abuse or nondrug stimuli. Our experimental models are based on the conditioned place preference paradigm. As the therapeutically most promising finding, only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction were able to inhibit both the subsequent reacquisition/re-expression of preference for cocaine and the neural activation associated with this behavior, that is, an increase in the expression of the immediate early gene Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in the nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. The time spent in the cocaine-associated conditioning compartment was correlated with the density of EGR1-activated neurons not only in the medial core (AcbCm) and medial shell (AcbShm) of the nucleus

  1. Activation of materials proposed for use in superconducting linac applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, A.L.; Snead, C.L.; Greene, G.A.; Chan, K.C.D.; Safa, H.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of construction materials proposed for use in both superconducting and conventional high-power linear accelerators have been activated with 800 and 2,000 MeV protons to study the decay characteristics of these activated materials. Irradiation times ranged from 10 minutes to 18.67 hours. The decay characteristics of these activated materials were measured and compared to calculated decay curves based on simplified assumptions.

  2. Human castration resistant prostate cancer rather prefer to decreased 5α-reductase activity

    PubMed Central

    Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Nagata, Hirohiko; Maeda, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Eiji; Oya, Mototsugu

    2013-01-01

    Physiologically relevant steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) activity that is essential for dihydrotestosterone (DHT) biosynthesis in human castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) has not been fully characterized yet. In this study to ascertain the potential SRD5A activity, we cultured two human CRPC cell lines, C4-2 and C4-2AT6, with the steroid precursor: 13C-[2,3,4]-androstenedione (13C-Adione), and analyzed the sequential biosynthesis of 13C-[2,3,4]-testosterone (13C-T) and 13C-[2,3,4]-DHT (13C-DHT) by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The 13C-DHT/13C-T concentration ratio detected by LC/MS/MS in C4-2AT6 cells appeared to reflect the SRD5A activity. The ratio in C4-2AT6 was significantly lower than that in C4-2. An increased concentration of DHT did not have a positive effect on cell proliferation, rather it exhibited inhibitory effects. 5α-reductase inhibitors did not have any inhibitory effect at clinically achievable concentrations. These results indicate that CRPC cells may have an unknown regulation system to protect themselves from an androgenic suppressive effect mediated by SRD5A activity. PMID:23429215

  3. 24 CFR 1000.48 - Are Indian preference requirements applicable to IHBG activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.48 Are Indian..., or other organized group or community including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, which is...

  4. Analyses of Oxyanion Materials by Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Leung, K.-N.; Garabedian, G.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-03-24

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to analyze metal ion oxyanion materials that have multiple applications, including medicine, materials, catalysts, and electronics. The significance for the need for accurate, highly sensitive analyses for the materials is discussed in the context of quality control of end products containing the parent element in each material. Applications of the analytical data for input to models and theoretical calculations related to the electronic and other properties of the materials are discussed.

  5. A test of the longevity of impact-induced faults as preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that impact-induced faults have been preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses has been suggested for several planets and satellites. This hypothesis is investigated on earth by examining whether terrestrial impact structures show higher rates of nearby earthquake activity than do surrounding intraplate regions. For 28 of 30 probable impact structures having an original crater 20 km or more in diameter, the rates of nearby seismicity have been no higher than the regional background rates. For two large probable impact structures, Vredefort and Charlevoix, with higher than normal rates of nearby seismicity, factors other than slip on impact-induced faults appear to control the occurrence of earthquakes. It is concluded that impact-induced faults, at least on earth, do not persist as lithospheric 'weak zones' for periods in excess of several million years after the impact event.

  6. Technical activities 1980: Center for Materials Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachtman, J. B., Jr.; Hoffman, J. D.

    1980-10-01

    Part of the National Measurement Laboratory, one of the principal laboratories comprising the National Bureau of Standards, the Materials Science Center is organized in six divisions, each having responsibility in different areas of materials science appropriate to the major classes of materials metals, polymers, and ceramics and glass. These Divisions vary in their balance between theory and experiments, between direct standards work and research, and in their orientation toward industrial and Government needs and the needs of other components of the scientific and technical community. Achievements reported relate to signal processing and imaging; fracture theory; conformational changes in polymers; chemical stability and corrosion; fracture deformation; polymer science and standards; metallurgy and alloys; ceramics, glass, and solid state; and reactor radiation.

  7. Relationships among affective factors and preferred engagement in science-related activities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huann-Shyang; Lawrenz, Frances; Lin, Shu-Fen; Hong, Zuway-R

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated how affective factors impact participation in science learning using structural equation modeling. Using a dataset from Taiwan, a model was obtained that showed the relationships among science-related interest, enjoyment, self-efficacy, self-concept, competency, leisure time engagement, and future interest in science. The paths relating to engagement and future interest were much stronger for interest and enjoyment than for self-efficacy and self-concept. There was no significant path between science competency and future science interest or engagement. The results suggest that the affective and cognitive pathways to scientific competency are divergent and that they might be differentially activated by different contexts and activities. This indicates that school science educators might wish to reconsider the merit of overemphasizing achievement in comparison to interest. Finally, the results suggest that the development of science competency per se may not be the best way to ensure public engagement and understanding of science. PMID:24151085

  8. Active nematic materials with substrate friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-12-01

    Active turbulence in dense active systems is characterized by high vorticity on a length scale that is large compared to that of individual entities. We describe the properties of active turbulence as momentum propagation is screened by frictional damping. As friction is increased, the spacing between the walls in the nematic director field decreases as a consequence of the more rapid velocity decays. This leads to, first, a regime with more walls and an increased number of topological defects, and then to a jammed state in which the walls deliminate bands of opposing flow, analogous to the shear bands observed in passive complex fluids.

  9. Shape Preferred Orientation of Porphyroclasts in the Active Gouge Zones of the San Andreas Fault at SAFOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sills, D. W.; Chester, J. S.; Chester, F. M.

    2009-12-01

    Recovered core samples from the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) offer a unique opportunity to study the products of faulting and to learn about the mechanisms of slip at 3 km depth. Active creep is occurring at two locations in the borehole that correspond to meters-thick intervals of gouge recovered by coring. Both gouge layers consist of a clay-bearing, ultrafine grain matrix containing porphyroclasts of sandstone and serpentinite; these layers correspond to the southwest creeping zone at 3194 m measured depth (MD) and the main creeping zone at 3301 m MD. We have used X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) imaging to investigate the mesoscale structure of the core samples, specifically to characterize the shape, preferred orientation, and size distribution of the porphyroclasts. Using various image processing techniques, porphyroclast shape and size are characterized in 3D by best-fit ellipsoids. The resolution of the XCT imaging to date permits characterization of porphyroclasts with equivalent spherical diameters greater than 8 mm; current work involves higher resolution imaging of representative samples to investigate the 3D shape of porphyroclasts to the sub-millimeter size. The porphyroclast population in each gouge layer can be approximated with a scalene-oblate ellipsoid; size and aspect ratio (major to minor axis ratios) distributions also are similar throughout. Aspect ratios generally range between 1.5 and 4, with the majority occurring between 2-2.5. A strong shape preferred orientation (SPO) exists in both creeping zones, where the minor axes form a SPO normal to the plane of the San Andreas Fault, and the major axes define a lineation in the plane of the fault. The SPO in the main creeping zone is particularly well defined, and the orientation distribution, assuming the major-axis lineation is horizontal (strike-slip kinematics), indicates a slight synthetic asymmetry relative to the macroscopic orientation of the San Andreas Fault. The

  10. Roots of sex preference.

    PubMed

    Lee H-t; Choe, E H

    1982-12-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of not yet fully analyzed 1974 World Fertility Survey for Korea data on sex preference, and also parental gender role stereotyping and gender preference, as they relate to sex preference and fertility behavior of the individual parents of childbearing age. The data includes the mother's background and numbers of children desired. Fertility preferences reflect sociocultural, economic and psychological aspects of individual parents' habits and perceptions of the world. Attitude, which is difficult to measure, is often connected to and can predict behavior. Age, residence, educational level, and spouse's occupation are related. Sex preference for sons is affected by how many parents hope to send a son to college (75.2%), compared to those hoping to send a daughter to college (52%). Parents under 25 also prefer boys. Gender preference is the pattern of sociocultural behavior associated with the awareness of being masculine or feminine. Sex preference is the patterns arising from the biological fact of being male or female. A 1981 son preference survey covered the province of Kyongbuk, conservative in gender preference, polling 832 women, ages 15 to 49. The survey covered questions about gender associated activities, occupations and personality traits. These items were divided into 4 gender role discriminant scales, covering most and least masculine or feminine degrees within each category. Respondents with less extreme gender role stereotyping are less sex biased; extreme sex preference is closely related to the respondents' extreme gender role stereotypic traits. Korean society has conferred differential value upon gender specific work and the main criterion for the division of labor is gender, not biological sex. This contributes to a parent's sex preferential attitude, which is unlikely to change without a modification of premodern neoconfucian gender based behaviors. PMID:12264918

  11. Acquired Substrate Preference for GAB1 Protein Bestows Transforming Activity to ERBB2 Kinase Lung Cancer Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ying-Xin; Wong, Lily; Marino, Michael P.; Ou, Wu; Shen, Yi; Wu, Wen Jin; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Reiser, Jakob; Johnson, Gibbes R.

    2013-01-01

    Activating mutations in the αC-β4 loop of the ERBB2 kinase domain, such as ERBB2YVMA and ERBB2G776VC, have been identified in human lung cancers and found to drive tumor formation. Here we observe that the docking protein GAB1 is hyper-phosphorylated in carcinomas from transgenic mice and in cell lines expressing these ERBB2 cancer mutants. Using dominant negative GAB1 mutants lacking canonical tyrosine residues for SHP2 and PI3K interactions or lentiviral shRNA that targets GAB1, we demonstrate that GAB1 phosphorylation is required for ERBB2 mutant-induced cell signaling, cell transformation, and tumorigenesis. An enzyme kinetic analysis comparing ERBB2YVMA to wild type using physiologically relevant peptide substrates reveals that ERBB2YVMA kinase adopts a striking preference for GAB1 phosphorylation sites as evidenced by ∼150-fold increases in the specificity constants (kcat/Km) for several GAB1 peptides, and this change in substrate selectivity was predominantly attributed to the peptide binding affinities as reflected by the apparent Km values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ERBB2YVMA phosphorylates GAB1 protein ∼70-fold faster than wild type ERBB2 in vitro. Notably, the mutation does not significantly alter the Km for ATP or sensitivity to lapatinib, suggesting that, unlike EGFR lung cancer mutants, the ATP binding cleft of the kinase is not significantly changed. Taken together, our results indicate that the acquired substrate preference for GAB1 is critical for the ERBB2 mutant-induced oncogenesis. PMID:23612964

  12. Acquired substrate preference for GAB1 protein bestows transforming activity to ERBB2 kinase lung cancer mutants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ying-Xin; Wong, Lily; Marino, Michael P; Ou, Wu; Shen, Yi; Wu, Wen Jin; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Reiser, Jakob; Johnson, Gibbes R

    2013-06-01

    Activating mutations in the αC-β4 loop of the ERBB2 kinase domain, such as ERBB2(YVMA) and ERBB2(G776VC), have been identified in human lung cancers and found to drive tumor formation. Here we observe that the docking protein GAB1 is hyper-phosphorylated in carcinomas from transgenic mice and in cell lines expressing these ERBB2 cancer mutants. Using dominant negative GAB1 mutants lacking canonical tyrosine residues for SHP2 and PI3K interactions or lentiviral shRNA that targets GAB1, we demonstrate that GAB1 phosphorylation is required for ERBB2 mutant-induced cell signaling, cell transformation, and tumorigenesis. An enzyme kinetic analysis comparing ERBB2(YVMA) to wild type using physiologically relevant peptide substrates reveals that ERBB2(YVMA) kinase adopts a striking preference for GAB1 phosphorylation sites as evidenced by ∼150-fold increases in the specificity constants (kcat/Km) for several GAB1 peptides, and this change in substrate selectivity was predominantly attributed to the peptide binding affinities as reflected by the apparent Km values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that ERBB2(YVMA) phosphorylates GAB1 protein ∼70-fold faster than wild type ERBB2 in vitro. Notably, the mutation does not significantly alter the Km for ATP or sensitivity to lapatinib, suggesting that, unlike EGFR lung cancer mutants, the ATP binding cleft of the kinase is not significantly changed. Taken together, our results indicate that the acquired substrate preference for GAB1 is critical for the ERBB2 mutant-induced oncogenesis. PMID:23612964

  13. Determinants of pollinator activity and flower preference in the early spring blooming Crocus vernus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totland, Ørjan; Matthews, Ingrid

    1998-04-01

    This study examines the effects of environmental factors on the pollination activity on Crocus vernus by Apis mellifera, and also whether bees discriminate among flowers on the basis of floral display size and colour. Flower density was much more important than temperature, humidity, and time of day and season in explaining variation in bee numbers, the total number of flowers visited, the number of flowers visited by individual bees and the total number of visits per flower (visitation rate) during 10 min observation periods. Although flower density positively influenced bee abundance and the number of flowers visited by individual bees, we found a negative relationship between flower density and visitation rates, suggesting that the pool of available pollinators was saturated at flower densities below maximum. Despite this, visitation rates were high. On average a flower received 3.42 visits during one hour; thus there seems to be little intraspecific competition for pollinators despite saturation of the pollinator pool. There was no significant difference between the size or colour of flowers that were visited, approached, or ignored by bees, and duration of visits was not related to floral display size or colour. Thus, on average A. mellifera did not appear to discriminate between flowers on the basis of floral display. Consequently, the data indicate that there is no pollinator mediated selection on floral display, driven by discriminating pollinators.

  14. In vitro antibacterial activity of different pulp capping materials

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Riccardo; Colombo, Marco; Ceci, Matteo; Dagna, Alberto; Chiesa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Direct pulp capping involves the application of a dental material to seal communications between the exposed pulp and the oral cavity (mechanical and carious pulp exposures) in an attempt to act as a barrier, protect the dental pulp complex and preserve its vitality. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare, by the agar disc diffusion test, the antimicrobial activity of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), Biodentine (Septodont). Material and Methods Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mutans strains were selected to evaluate the antimicrobial activity by the agar disc diffusion test of different pulp capping materials. Paper disks were impregnated whit each pulp capping materials and placed onto culture agar-plates pre-adsorbed with bacterial cells and further incubated for 24 h at 37°C. The growth inhibition zones around each pulp capping materials were recorded and compared for each bacterial strain. Results For the investigation of the antibacterial properties the ANOVA showed the presence of significant differences among the various materials. Tukey test showed that MTA-based materials induced lower growth inhibition zones. Conclusions MTA-based products show a discrete antibacterial activity varying from calcium hydroxide-based materials which present an higher antibacterial activity. Key words:Agar disc diffusion test, antimicrobial activity, calcium hydroxide, MTA, pulp capping materials. PMID:26644833

  15. Nociceptin receptor activation does not alter acquisition, expression, extinction and reinstatement of conditioned cocaine preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Sartor, G C; Powell, S K; Wiedner, H J; Wahlestedt, C; Brothers, S P

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence indicates that targeting nociceptin receptor (NOP) signaling may have therapeutic efficacy in treating alcohol and opioid addiction. However, little is known about the therapeutic value of selective NOP agonists for the treatment of cocaine dependence. Recently, we identified a highly selective, brain-penetrant NOP small molecule agonist (SR-8993), and using this compound, we previously showed that nociceptin receptor activation attenuated consolidation of fear-related memories. Here, we sought to determine whether SR-8993 also affects the rewarding properties of cocaine. Using a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, we show that SR-8993 (3 or 10 mg/kg) failed to disrupt acquisition or expression of cocaine CPP (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) in C57BL/6 mice. Additionally, SR-8993 did not affect rate of extinction or reinstatement (yohimbine- and cocaine-induced) of cocaine CPP. These studies indicate that selective activation of NOP may not be sufficient in reducing behavioral responses to cocaine. PMID:26657743

  16. Active infrared materials for beam steering.

    SciTech Connect

    Brener, Igal; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Gin, Aaron V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Miao, Xiaoyu; Barrick, Todd A.

    2010-10-01

    The mid-infrared (mid-IR, 3 {micro}m -12 {micro}m) is a highly desirable spectral range for imaging and environmental sensing. We propose to develop a new class of mid-IR devices, based on plasmonic and metamaterial concepts, that are dynamically controlled by tunable semiconductor plasma resonances. It is well known that any material resonance (phonons, excitons, electron plasma) impacts dielectric properties; our primary challenge is to implement the tuning of a semiconductor plasma resonance with a voltage bias. We have demonstrated passive tuning of both plasmonic and metamaterial structures in the mid-IR using semiconductors plasmas. In the mid-IR, semiconductor carrier densities on the order of 5E17cm{sup -3} to 2E18cm{sup -3} are desirable for tuning effects. Gate control of carrier densities at the high end of this range is at or near the limit of what has been demonstrated in literature for transistor style devices. Combined with the fact that we are exploiting the optical properties of the device layers, rather than electrical, we are entering into interesting territory that has not been significantly explored to date.

  17. Activation of a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent by a triboluminescent material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Stacey; Schreyer, Magdalena; Finlay, W. H.; Löbenberg, R.; Moussa, W.

    2006-03-01

    Given the recent emphasis on applications of triboluminescent materials, we investigate the ability of a triboluminescent material to activate a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent. Using compressed sucrose doped with wintergreen, which luminesces when fractured, we demonstrate the activation of riboflavin (vitamin B2), a photosensitizer. A product of activation is the highly reactive singlet oxygen. We add ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an antioxidant, and measure the amount of ascorbic acid oxidation to correlate with the amount of riboflavin activation. Up to 17% ascorbic acid oxidation is observed, indicating triboluminescence is worth exploring as a mechanism for activation of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

  18. Activation of a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent by a triboluminescent material

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Stacey; Schreyer, Magdalena; Finlay, W.H.; Loebenberg, R.; Moussa, W.

    2006-03-20

    Given the recent emphasis on applications of triboluminescent materials, we investigate the ability of a triboluminescent material to activate a photosensitive pharmaceutical agent. Using compressed sucrose doped with wintergreen, which luminesces when fractured, we demonstrate the activation of riboflavin (vitamin B2), a photosensitizer. A product of activation is the highly reactive singlet oxygen. We add ascorbic acid (vitamin C), an antioxidant, and measure the amount of ascorbic acid oxidation to correlate with the amount of riboflavin activation. Up to 17% ascorbic acid oxidation is observed, indicating triboluminescence is worth exploring as a mechanism for activation of photosensitizers in photodynamic therapy.

  19. Office-Based Physical Activity and Nutrition Intervention: Barriers, Enablers, and Preferred Strategies for Workplace Obesity Prevention, Perth, Western Australia, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Jancey, Jonine; Howat, Peter; Ledger, Melissa; Lee, Andy H.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Workplace health promotion programs to prevent overweight and obesity in office-based employees should be evidence-based and comprehensive and should consider behavioral, social, organizational, and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to identify barriers to and enablers of physical activity and nutrition as well as intervention strategies for health promotion in office-based workplaces in the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan area in 2012. Methods We conducted an online survey of 111 employees from 55 organizations. The online survey investigated demographics, individual and workplace characteristics, barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. We used χ2 and Mann–Whitney U statistics to test for differences between age and sex groups for barriers and enablers, intervention-strategy preferences, and physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Stepwise multiple regression analysis determined factors that affect physical activity and nutrition behaviors. Results We identified several factors that affected physical activity and nutrition behaviors, including the most common barriers (“too tired” and “access to unhealthy food”) and enablers (“enjoy physical activity” and “nutrition knowledge”). Intervention-strategy preferences demonstrated employee support for health promotion in the workplace. Conclusion The findings provide useful insights into employees’ preferences for interventions; they can be used to develop comprehensive programs for evidence-based workplace health promotion that consider environmental and policy influences as well as the individual. PMID:24028834

  20. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger

  1. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. PMID:27507423

  2. A Portable Hot Spot Recognition Loop Transfers Sequence Preferences from APOBEC Family Members to Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase*

    PubMed Central

    Kohli, Rahul M.; Abrams, Shaun R.; Gajula, Kiran S.; Maul, Robert W.; Gearhart, Patricia J.; Stivers, James T.

    2009-01-01

    Enzymes of the AID/APOBEC family, characterized by the targeted deamination of cytosine to generate uracil within DNA, mediate numerous critical immune responses. One family member, activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), selectively introduces uracil into antibody variable and switch regions, promoting antibody diversity through somatic hypermutation or class switching. Other family members, including APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G, play an important role in retroviral defense by acting on viral reverse transcripts. These enzymes are distinguished from one another by targeting cytosine within different DNA sequence contexts; however, the reason for these differences is not known. Here, we report the identification of a recognition loop of 9–11 amino acids that contributes significantly to the distinct sequence motifs of individual family members. When this recognition loop is grafted from the donor APOBEC3F or 3G proteins into the acceptor scaffold of AID, the mutational signature of AID changes toward that of the donor proteins. These loop-graft mutants of AID provide useful tools for dissecting the biological impact of DNA sequence preferences upon generation of antibody diversity, and the results have implications for the evolution and specialization of the AID/APOBEC family. PMID:19561087

  3. Reliability of the Norwegian Version of the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE) and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtorp, Heidi L.; Nyquist, Astrid; Jahnsen, Reidun; Moser, Thomas; Strand, Liv Inger

    2013-01-01

    This study examined test-retest reliability of the Norwegian version of Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE), and Preferences for Activities of Children (PAC) in children with and without disabilities. Totally 141 children, 107 typically developing, mean age 11.1, and 34 with disabilities, mean age 14.2 years participated. A…

  4. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.01). The frequency of Baird's tapir photos was higher in the dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p < 0.5). In the rainy season, the tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p < 0.5). Considering population structure, a 95.08% of adult animals was obtained in photographic records (n = 58). Three types of activity pattern were observed, with more nocturnal records (88.33%; Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The Chimalapas forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America. PMID:25720176

  5. A distinct type of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase with sn-2 preference and phosphatase activity producing 2-monoacylglycerol.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weili; Pollard, Mike; Li-Beisson, Yonghua; Beisson, Fred; Feig, Michael; Ohlrogge, John

    2010-06-29

    The first step in assembly of membrane and storage glycerolipids is acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). All previously characterized membrane-bound, eukaryotic G3P acyltransferases (GPATs) acylate the sn-1 position to produce lysophosphatidic acid (1-acyl-LPA). Cutin is a glycerolipid with omega-oxidized fatty acids and glycerol as integral components. It occurs as an extracellular polyester on the aerial surface of all plants, provides a barrier to pathogens and resistance to stress, and maintains organ identity. We have determined that Arabidopsis acyltransferases GPAT4 and GPAT6 required for cutin biosynthesis esterify acyl groups predominantly to the sn-2 position of G3P. In addition, these acyltransferases possess a phosphatase domain that results in sn-2 monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) rather than LPA as the major product. Such bifunctional activity has not been previously described in any organism. The possible roles of 2-MAGs as intermediates in cutin synthesis are discussed. GPAT5, which is essential for the accumulation of suberin aliphatics, also exhibits a strong preference for sn-2 acylation. However, phosphatase activity is absent and 2-acyl-LPA is the major product. Clearly, plant GPATs can catalyze more reactions than the sn-1 acylation by which they are currently categorized. Close homologs of GPAT4-6 are present in all land plants, but not in animals, fungi or microorganisms (including algae). Thus, these distinctive acyltransferases may have been important for evolution of extracellular glycerolipid polymers and adaptation of plants to a terrestrial environment. These results provide insight into the biosynthetic assembly of cutin and suberin, the two most abundant glycerolipid polymers in nature. PMID:20551224

  6. Activation product release from fusion structural materials in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maya, I.; Montgomery, F.; Trester, P.; Burnette, R.; Johnson, W.; Schultz, K.

    1985-08-01

    The release and transport of activated materials-of-construction in a fusion reactor during an accident scenario involving overheating and ingress of oxidants is an important area of safety research. This investigation quantified material release characteristics which result from surface oxide spallation and vaporization for the steel alloys PCA and HT-9 in impure helium and air environments.

  7. Calcium alloy as active material in secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Roche, Michael F.; Preto, Sandra K.; Martin, Allan E.

    1976-01-01

    Calcium alloys such as calcium-aluminum and calcium-silicon, are employed as active material within a rechargeable negative electrode of an electrochemical cell. Such cells can use a molten salt electrolyte including calcium ions and a positive electrode having sulfur, sulfides, or oxides as active material. The calcium alloy is selected to prevent formation of molten calcium alloys resulting from reaction with the selected molten electrolytic salt at the cell operating temperatures.

  8. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  9. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOEpatents

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  10. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang Sun, Yang

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  11. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  12. The Role of Patient Activation in Preferences for Shared Decision Making: Results From a National Survey of U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Samuel G.; Pandit, Anjali; Rush, Steven R.; Wolf, Michael S.; Simon, Carol J.

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating preferences for shared decision making (SDM) have focused on associations with sociodemographic variables, with few investigations exploring patient factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between patient activation and preferences for SDM in 6 common medical decisions among a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of American adults. Adults older than 18 were recruited online (n = 2,700) and by telephone (n = 700). Respondents completed sociodemographic assessments and the Patient Activation Measure. They were also asked whether they perceived benefit (yes/no) in SDM in 6 common medical decisions. Nearly half of the sample (45.9%) reached the highest level of activation (Level 4). Activation was associated with age (p < .001), higher income (p = .001), higher education (p = .010), better self-rated health (p < .001), and fewer chronic conditions (p = .050). The proportion of people who agreed that SDM was beneficial varied from 53.1% (deciding the necessity of a diagnostic test) to 71.8% (decisions associated with making lifestyle changes). After we controlled for participant characteristics, higher activation was associated with greater perceived benefit in SDM across 4 of the 6 decisions. Preferences for SDM varied among 6 common medical scenarios. Low patient activation is an important barrier to SDM that could be ameliorated through the development of behavioral interventions. PMID:26313690

  13. Design of electro-active polymer gels as actuator materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, Suzana

    Smart materials, alternatively called active or adaptive, differ from passive materials in their sensing and activation capability. These materials can sense changes in environment such as: electric field, magnetic field, UV light, pH, temperature. They are capable of responding in numerous ways. Some change their stiffness properties (electro-rheological fluids), other deform (piezos, shape memory alloys, electrostrictive materials) or change optic properties (electrochromic polymers). Polymer gels are one of such materials which can change the shape, volume and even optical properties upon different applied stimuli. Due to their low stiffness property they are capable of having up to 100% of strain in a short time, order of seconds. Their motion resembles the one of biosystems, and they are often seen as possible artificial muscle materials. Despite their delicate nature, appropriate design can make them being used as actuator materials which can form controllable surfaces and mechanical switches. In this study several different groups of polymer gel material were investigated: (a) acrylamide based gels are sensitive to pH and electric field and respond in volume change, (b) polyacrylonitrile (PAN) gel is sensitive to pH and electric field and responds in axial strain and bending, (c) polyvinylalcohol (PVA) gel is sensitive to electric field and responds in axial strain and bending and (d) perfluorinated sulfonic acid membrane, Nafion RTM, is sensitive to electric field and responds in bending. Electro-mechanical and chemo-mechanical behavior of these materials is a function of a variety of phenomena: polymer structure, affinity of polymer to the solvent, charge distribution within material, type of solvent, elasticity of polymer matrix, etc. Modeling of this behavior is a task aimed to identify what is driving mechanism for activation and express it in a quantitative way in terms of deformation of material. In this work behavior of the most promising material as

  14. Thermochemically activated carbon as an electrode material for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Ostafiychuk, Bogdan K; Budzulyak, Ivan M; Rachiy, Bogdan I; Vashchynsky, Vitalii M; Mandzyuk, Volodymyr I; Lisovsky, Roman P; Shyyko, Lyudmyla O

    2015-01-01

    The results of electrochemical studies of nanoporous carbon as electrode material for electrochemical capacitors (EC) are presented in this work. Nanoporous carbon material (NCM) was obtained from the raw materials of plant origin by carbonization and subsequent activation in potassium hydroxide. It is established that there is an optimal ratio of 1:1 between content of KOH and carbon material at chemical activation, while the maximum specific capacity of NCM is 180 F/g. An equivalent electrical circuit, which allows modeling of the impedance spectra in the frequency range of 10(-2) to 10(5) Hz, is proposed, and a physical interpretation of each element of the electrical circuit is presented. PMID:25852362

  15. Soft Active Materials for Actuation, Sensing, and Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Rebecca Krone

    Future generations of robots, electronics, and assistive medical devices will include systems that are soft and elastically deformable, allowing them to adapt their morphology in unstructured environments. This will require soft active materials for actuation, circuitry, and sensing of deformation and contact pressure. The emerging field of soft robotics utilizes these soft active materials to mimic the inherent compliance of natural soft-bodied systems. As the elasticity of robot components increases, the challenges for functionality revert to basic questions of fabrication, materials, and design - whereas such aspects are far more developed for traditional rigid-bodied systems. This thesis will highlight preliminary materials and designs that address the need for soft actuators and sensors, as well as emerging fabrication techniques for manufacturing stretchable circuits and devices based on liquid-embedded elastomers.

  16. Long-lived activation products in reactor materials

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, J.C.; Lepel, E.L.; Sanders, R.W.; Wilkerson, C.L.; Silker, W.; Thomas, C.W.; Abel, K.H.; Robertson, D.R.

    1984-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to assess the problems posed to reactor decommissioning by long-lived activation products in reactor construction materials. Samples of stainless steel, vessel steel, concrete, and concrete ingredients were analyzed for up to 52 elements in order to develop a data base of activatable major, minor, and trace elements. Large compositional variations were noted for some elements. Cobalt and niobium concentrations in stainless steel, for example, were found to vary by more than an order of magnitude. A thorough evaluation was made of all possible nuclear reactions that could lead to long lived activation products. It was concluded that all major activation products have been satisfactorily accounted for in decommissioning planning studies completed to date. A detailed series of calculations was carried out using average values of the measured compositions of the appropriate materials to predict the levels of activation products expected in reactor internals, vessel walls, and bioshield materials for PWR and BWR geometries. A comparison is made between calculated activation levels and regulatory guidelines for shallow land disposal according to 10 CFR 61. This analysis shows that PWR and BWR shroud material exceeds the Class C limits and is, therefore, generally unsuitable for near-surface disposal. The PWR core barrel material approaches the Class C limits. Most of the remaining massive components qualify as either Class A or B waste with the bioshield clearly Class A, even at the highest point of activation. Selected samples of activated steel and concrete were subjected to a limited radiochemical analysis program as a verification of the computer model. Reasonably good agreement with the calculations was obtained where comparison was possible. In particular, the presence of /sup 94/Nb in activated stainless steel at or somewhat above expected levels was confirmed.

  17. Extending the energy range of materials activation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.

    2004-08-01

    Activation calculations are an essential contribution to understanding the interactions of fusion materials with neutrons. The existing state-of-the-art tools such as EASY-2003 enable calculations to be carried out with neutrons up to 20 MeV. Plans to expose fusion components to high neutron fluxes include the IFMIF materials testing facility. This accelerator-based device will produce neutrons with a high-energy tail up to about 55 MeV. In order to carry out activation calculations on materials exposed to such neutrons it is necessary to extend the energy range of the data libraries. An extension of the European Activation System (EASY) to a new version, EASY-2004, for testing has been completed. The existing reactions have been extended up to 60 MeV and new classes of reactions added using calculated cross sections. Results of preliminary calculations in an IFMIF relevant neutron field are given.

  18. Monothioanthraquinone as an organic active material for greener lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, Adriana; Maurel, Vincent; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Pécaut, Jacques; Dubois, Lionel; Gutel, Thibaut

    2014-12-01

    In order to reduce the environmental impact of human activities especially transportation and portable electronics, a more sustainable way is required to produce and store electrical energy. Actually lithium battery is one of the most promising solutions for energy storage. Unfortunately this technology is based on the use of transition metal-based active materials for electrodes which are rare, expensive, extracted by mining, can be toxic and hard to recycle. Organic materials are an interesting alternative to replace inorganic counterparts due to their high electrochemical performances and the possibility to produce them from renewable resources. A quinone derivative is synthetized and investigated as novel active material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries which shows higher performances.

  19. Active Neutron Interrogation of Non-Radiological Materials with NMIS

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Mark E; Mihalczo, John T

    2012-02-01

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), although primarily designed for analyzing special nuclear material, is capable of identifying nonradiological materials with a wide range of measurement techniques. This report demonstrates four different measurement methods, complementary to fast-neutron imaging, which can be used for material identification: DT transmission, DT scattering, californium transmission, and active time-tagged gamma spectroscopy. Each of the four techniques was used to evaluate how these methods can be used to identify four materials: aluminum, polyethylene, graphite, and G-10 epoxy. While such measurements have been performed individually in the past, in this project, all four measurements were performed on the same set of materials. The results of these measurements agree well with predicted results. In particular, the results of the active gamma spectroscopy measurements demonstrate the technique's applicability in a future version of NMIS which will incorporate passive and active gamma-ray spectroscopy. This system, designated as a fieldable NMIS (FNMIS), is under development by the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Verification.

  20. Material Flows in an Active Nematic Liquid Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decamp, Stephen; Redner, Gabriel; Baskaran, Aparna; Hagan, Michael; Dogic, Zvonimir

    Active matter systems are composed of energy consuming constituent components which drive far-from-equilibrium dynamics. As such, active materials exhibit energetic states which would be unfavorable in passive, equilibrium materials. We study one such material; an active nematic liquid crystal which exists in a dynamical steady state where +/-1/2 defects are continuously generated and annihilated at a constant rate. The active nematic is composed of micron-sized microtubule filaments which are highly concentrated into a quasi-2D film that resides on an oil-water interface. Kinesin motor proteins drive inter-filament sliding which results in net extensile motion of the microtubule film. Notably, we find a mesophase in which motile +1/2 defects, acquire system-spanning orientational order. Currently, we are tracking material flows generated by the active stresses in the system to measure length scales at which energy is dissipated, and to measure the relation between internally generated flows and bend in the nematic field.

  1. Mechanical Activation of Construction Binder Materials by Various Mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediuk, R. S.

    2016-04-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical grinding down to the nano powder of construction materials. During mechanical activation a composite binder active molecules cement minerals occur in the destruction of the molecular defects in the areas of packaging and breaking metastable phase decompensation intermolecular forces. The process is accompanied by a change in the kinetics of hardening of portland cement. Mechanical processes during grinding mineral materials cause, along with the increase in their surface energy, increase the Gibbs energy of powders and, respectively, their chemical activity, which also contributes to the high adhesion strength when contacting them with binders. Thus, the set of measures for mechanical activation makes better use of the weight of components filled with cement systems and adjust their properties. At relatively low cost is possible to provide a spectacular and, importantly, easily repeatable results in a production environment.

  2. Characteristics and antimicrobial activity of copper-based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bowen

    In this study, copper vermiculite was synthesized, and the characteristics, antimicrobial effects, and chemical stability of copper vermiculite were investigated. Two types of copper vermiculite materials, micron-sized copper vermiculite (MCV) and exfoliated copper vermiculite (MECV), are selected for this research. Since most of the functional fillers used in industry products, such as plastics, paints, rubbers, papers, and textiles prefer micron-scaled particles, micron-sized copper vermiculite was prepared by jet-milling vermiculite. Meanwhile, since the exfoliated vermiculite has very unique properties, such as high porosity, specific surface area, high aspect ratio of laminates, and low density, and has been extensively utilized as a functional additives, exfoliated copper vermiculite also was synthesized and investigated. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was qualitatively evaluated by the diffusion methods (both liquid diffusion and solid diffusion) against the most common pathogenic species: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae). The result showed that the release velocity of copper from copper vermiculite is very slow. However, copper vermiculite clearly has excellent antibacterial efficiency to S. aureus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli. The strongest antibacterial ability of copper vermiculite is its action on S. aureus. The antibacterial efficiency of copper vermiculite was also quantitatively evaluated by determining the reduction rate (death rate) of E. coli versus various levels of copper vermiculite. 10 ppm of copper vermiculite in solution is sufficient to reduce the cell population of E. coli, while the untreated vermiculite had no antibacterial activity. The slow release of copper revealed that the antimicrobial effect of copper vermiculite was due to the strong interactions between copper ions and bacteria cells. Exfoliated copper vermiculite has even stronger

  3. Spontaneous Motion in Hierarchically Assembled Active Cellular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    With exquisite precision and reproducibility, cells orchestrate the cooperative action of thousands of nanometer-sized molecular motors to carry out mechanical tasks at much larger length scales, such as cell motility, division and replication. Besides their biological importance, such inherently far-from-equilibrium processes are an inspiration for the development of soft materials with highly sought after biomimetic properties such as autonomous motility and self-healing. I will describe our exploration of such a class of biologically inspired soft active materials. Starting from extensile bundles comprised of microtubules and kinesin, we hierarchically assemble active analogs of polymeric gels, liquid crystals and emulsions. At high enough concentration, microtubule bundles form an active gel network capable of generating internally driven chaotic flows that enhance transport and fluid mixing. When confined to emulsion droplets, these 3D networks buckle onto the water-oil interface forming a dense thin film of bundles exhibiting cascades of collective buckling, fracture, and self-healing driven by internally generated stresses from the kinesin clusters. When compressed against surfaces, this active nematic cortex exerts traction stresses that propel the locomotion of the droplet. Taken together, these observations exemplify how assemblies of animate microscopic objects exhibit collective biomimetic properties that are fundamentally distinct from those found in materials assembled from inanimate building blocks. These assemblies, in turn, enable the generation of a new class of materials that exhibit macroscale flow phenomena emerging from nanoscale components.

  4. The Empirical Attitude, Material Practice and Design Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apedoe, Xornam; Ford, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This article is an argument about something that is both important and severely underemphasized in most current science curricula. The empirical attitude, fundamental to science since Galileo, is a habit of mind that motivates an active search for feedback on our ideas from the material world. Although more simple views of science manifest the…

  5. Getting Started: Materials and Equipment for Active Learning Preschools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Nancy

    This book provides information to guide the development of an active learning early childhood program by assisting in the selection of materials and equipment to support children's cognitive, physical and social development. The guide considers the arrangement of classroom areas, and elements of the daily routine. The following classroom interest…

  6. Characterization of surface active materials derived from farm products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface active materials obtained by chemical modification of plant protein isolates (lupin, barley, oat), corn starches (dextrin, normal, high amylose, and waxy) and soybean oil (soybean oil based polysoaps, SOPS) were investigated for their surface and interfacial properties using axisymmetric dro...

  7. Fluoride release and antibacterial activity of selected dental materials.

    PubMed

    Marczuk-Kolada, Grazyna; Jakoniuk, Piotr; Mystkowska, Joanna; Łuczaj-Cepowicz, Elzbieta; Waszkiel, Danuta; Dabrowski, Jan Ryszard; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the fluoride ion release and antibacterial activities of the glassionomer cement Fuji IX and the compomer (composite modified polyacid) Dyract AP. Fluoride ion release was measured using direct potentiometry with an Orion fluoride ion selective electrode. The measurement was carried out after 1, 4, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days of storage in phosphate buffer at pH 6.8. The antibacterial activity of the materials was evaluated against the bacteria Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419, Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei ATCC 393. The agar diffusion test was applied. The material specimens were assessed twice: after setting and seven days later. Zones of bacterial growth inhibition were measured in millimeters after 24 hours. The results of the study showed that both materials released ion fluoride, with a higher emission of Fuji IX than Dyract AP. The highest level of emission was observed on the seventh day of the study in both materials. After 24 hours of bonding there was inhibition of bacterial growth by Fuji IX, whereas Dyract AP did not show similar activity. On the eighth day after polymerization, Dyract AP was significantly more active towards Streptococcus sanguis and salivarius. PMID:18493226

  8. Organic thin film transistors: from active materials to novel applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsi, L.; Cioffi, N.; Di Franco, C.; Sabbatini, L.; Zambonin, P. G.; Bleve-Zacheo, T.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper, a bird's eye view of most of the organic materials employed as n-channel and p-channel transistor active layers is given along with the relevant device performances; organic thin film transistors (OTFT) operation regimes are discussed and an interesting perspective application of OTFT as multi-parameter gas sensor is proposed.

  9. Carbon Nanotube Materials for Substrate Enhanced Control of Catalytic Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Heben, M.; Dillon, A. C.; Engtrakul, C.; Lee, S.-H.; Kelley, R. D.; Kini, A. M.

    2007-05-01

    Carbon SWNTs are attractive materials for supporting electrocatalysts. The properties of SWNTs are highly tunable and controlled by the nanotube's circumferential periodicity and their surface chemistry. These unique characteristics suggest that architectures constructed from these types of carbon support materials would exhibit interesting and useful properties. Here, we expect that the structure of the carbon nanotube support will play a major role in stabilizing metal electrocatalysts under extreme operating conditions and suppress both catalyst and support degradation. Furthermore, the chemical modification of the carbon nanotube surfaces can be expected to alter the interface between the catalyst and support, thus, enhancing the activity and utilization of the electrocatalysts. We plan to incorporate discrete reaction sites into the carbon nanotube lattice to create intimate electrical contacts with the catalyst particles to increase the metal catalyst activity and utilization. The work involves materials synthesis, design of electrode architectures on the nanoscale, control of the electronic, ionic, and mass fluxes, and use of advanced optical spectroscopy techniques.

  10. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  11. Active-solar-energy-system materials research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, S.A.; Hien, L.K.; Silberglitt, R.

    1983-01-01

    THis report describes and prioritizes materials research alternatives to improve active solar heating and cooling system cost-effectiveness. Materials research areas analyzed are (polymer) glazings, heat mirrors, (selective) absorber surfaces, absorber adhesives, absorber substrates, fluids, thermal storage materials, and desiccants. Three classes of solar collectors are considered in the cost-effectiveness analysis: medium-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70/sup 0/C); high-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70 to 120/sup 0/C); and evacuated tubes (operating temperature 70 to 230/sup 0/C). We found the highest priority for medium-temperature flat-plate collectors to be research on polymeric materials to improve performance and durability characteristics. For the high-temperature, flat-plate collectors and evacuated tubes, heat mirror and selective absorber research is the highest priority. Research on storage materials, fluids, and desiccants is of relatively low priority for improving cost-effectiveness in all cases. The highest priority materials research areas identified include: optical properties and degradation of transparent conducting oxide heat mirrors and thickness insensitive selective paints; uv and thermal stabilization of polymeric glazing materials; and systems analysis of integrated polymeric collectors.

  12. Comparison of activation effects in {gamma}-ray detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, P.R.; Evans, H.E.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Flatman, J.C.; Cosby, M.; Knight, P.; Moss, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    Activation induced by cosmic and trapped radiation in {gamma}-ray detector materials represents a significant source of background for space-based detector systems. Selection of detector materials should therefore include consideration of this background source. Results are presented from measurements of induced radioactivity in different scintillators activated either as a result of irradiation by mono-energetic protons at accelerator facilities, or flight on board the Space Shuttle. Radiation transport computer codes are used to help compare the effects observed from the scintillators, by identifying and quantifying the influence on the background spectra from more than one hundred of the radionuclides produced by spallation. For the space experiment data, the simulation results also permit determination of the contributions to detector activation from the different sources of radiation in the Shuttle cabin.

  13. Activation of a Ca-bentonite as buffer material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Hsing; Chen, Wen-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    Swelling behavior is an important criterion in achieving the low-permeability sealing function of buffer material. A potential buffer material may be used for radioactive waste repository in Taiwan is a locally available clayey material known as Zhisin clay, which has been identified as a Ca-bentonite. Due to its Ca-based origin, Zhisin was found to exhibit swelling capacity much lower than that of Na-bentonite. To enhance the swelling potential of Zhisin clay, a cation exchange process by addition of Na2CO3 powder was introduced in this paper. The addition of Na2CO3 reagent to Zhisin clay, in a liquid phase, caused the precipitation of CaCO3 and thereby induced a replacement of Ca2+ ions by Na+ ions on the surface of bentonite. Characterization test conducted on Zhisin clay includes chemical analysis, cation exchange capacity, X-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetry (TG). Free-swelling test apparatus was developed according to International Society of Rock Mechanics recommendations. A series of free-swelling tests were conducted on untreated and activated specimens to characterize the effect of activation on the swelling capacity of Zhisin clay. Efforts were made to determine an optimum dosage for the activation, and to evaluate the aging effect. Also, the activated material was evaluated for its stability in various hydrothermal conditions for potential applications as buffer material in a repository. Experimental results show that Na2CO3-activated Zhisin clay is superior in swelling potential to untreated Zhisin clay. Also, there exists an optimum amount of activator in terms of improvements in the swelling capacity. A distinct time-swell relationship was discovered for activated Zhisin clay. The corresponding mechanism refers to exchange of cations and breakdown of quasi-crystal, which results in ion exchange hysteresis of Ca-bentonite. Due to the ion exchange hysteresis, activated bentonite shows a post-rise time-swell relationship different than the sigmoid

  14. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  15. Foraging activity and seasonal food preference of Linepithema micans (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), a species associated with the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae).

    PubMed

    Nondillo, Aline; Ferrari, Leonardo; Lerin, Sabrina; Bueno, Odair Correa; Bottona, Marcos

    2014-08-01

    Linepithema micans (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is the main ant species responsible for the spread of Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), a soil scale that damages vine plants in southern Brazil. The daily foraging activity of L. micans and its seasonal preference for protein- and carbohydrate-based foods were evaluated. The study was carried out in a greenhouse using seedlings of the Paulsen 1103 rootstock (Vitis berlandieri x Vitis rupestris) planted individually in pots and infested with colonies of L. micans. To determine the daily foraging activity and seasonal preference, a cricket (Gryllus sp.) and a 70% solution of inverted sugar and water were offered once a month for 12 mo. The ants foraging on each food source were counted hourly for 24 h. L. micans foraged from dusk until the end of the next morning, with higher intensity in the spring and summer. Workers of L. micans showed changes in food preference during the year, with a predominance of protein-based food during winter and spring and carbohydrate-based food during autumn. The implications of this behavior for control of the species with the use of toxic baits are discussed. PMID:25195426

  16. Thermally activated delayed fluorescence materials towards the breakthrough of organoelectronics.

    PubMed

    Tao, Ye; Yuan, Kai; Chen, Ting; Xu, Peng; Li, Huanhuan; Chen, Runfeng; Zheng, Chao; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Wei

    2014-12-17

    The design and characterization of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications represents an active area of recent research in organoelectronics. Noble metal-free TADF molecules offer unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and interconversion between the lowest singlet (S1 ) and triplet (T1 ) excited states. Their ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T1 →S1 ) could directly impact their properties and performances, which is attractive for a wide variety of low-cost optoelectronic devices. TADF-based organic light-emitting diodes, oxygen, and temperature sensors show significantly upgraded device performances that are comparable to the ones of traditional rare-metal complexes. Here we present an overview of the quick development in TADF mechanisms, materials, and applications. Fundamental principles on design strategies of TADF materials and the common relationship between the molecular structures and optoelectronic properties for diverse research topics and a survey of recent progress in the development of TADF materials, with a particular emphasis on their different types of metal-organic complexes, D-A molecules, and fullerenes, are highlighted. The success in the breakthrough of the theoretical and technical challenges that arise in developing high-performance TADF materials may pave the way to shape the future of organoelectronics. PMID:25230116

  17. Transient assembly of active materials fueled by a chemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhoven, Job; Hendriksen, Wouter E.; Koper, Ger J. M.; Eelkema, Rienk; van Esch, Jan H.

    2015-09-01

    Fuel-driven self-assembly of actin filaments and microtubules is a key component of cellular organization. Continuous energy supply maintains these transient biomolecular assemblies far from thermodynamic equilibrium, unlike typical synthetic systems that spontaneously assemble at thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we report the transient self-assembly of synthetic molecules into active materials, driven by the consumption of a chemical fuel. In these materials, reaction rates and fuel levels, instead of equilibrium composition, determine properties such as lifetime, stiffness, and self-regeneration capability. Fibers exhibit strongly nonlinear behavior including stochastic collapse and simultaneous growth and shrinkage, reminiscent of microtubule dynamics.

  18. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) modulates the thermogenic and physical activity responses to high fat feeding and markedly influences dietary fat preference

    PubMed Central

    Tung, YC Loraine; Rimmington, Debra; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Coll, Anthony P

    2008-01-01

    Complete POMC deficiency causes a human syndrome of hypoadrenalism, altered skin and hair pigmentation and severe hyperphagic obesity. Heterozygote carriers of nonsense mutations are strongly predisposed to obesity. Pomc+/- mice have normal body weight on a chow diet but increase food intake and become more obese than wild-type littermates when placed on a high fat diet. In order to further explore the mechanisms whereby dietary fat interacts with Pomc genotype to produce obesity we examined Pomc-null, Pomc+/-, and wild type mice for a) changes in the components of energy balance in response to provision of a high fat diet and b) macronutrient preference when presented with a selection of dietary choices. In contrast to wild type mice, Pomc null mice did not increase their resting energy expenditure or their spontaneous physical activity when given a high fat diet. Pomc+/- mice increased resting energy expenditure similarly to wild types but their increase in physical activity was significantly less than that seen in wild-type mice. In two independent experimental tests of macronutrient preference, Pomc genotype was a strong predictor of dietary fat preference with Pomc null animals choosing to eat approximately twice as much fat, but similar amounts of carbohydrate and protein, as wild type animals. Pomc+/- mice showed an intermediate response. In summary, POMC-derived peptides have influences on multiple aspects of the organism’s response to the presentation of high fat diet. This includes a major influence, readily discernible even in heterozygote animals, on the dietary preference for fat. PMID:17717049

  19. Module Design, Materials, and Packaging Research Team: Activities and Capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T. J.; del Cueto, J.; Glick, S.; Jorgensen, G.; Kempe, M.; Kennedy, C.; Pern, J.; Terwilliger, K

    2005-01-01

    Our team activities are directed at improving PV module reliability by incorporating new, more effective, and less expensive packaging materials and techniques. New and existing materials or designs are evaluated before and during accelerated environmental exposure for the following properties: (1) Adhesion and cohesion: peel strength and lap shear. (2) Electrical conductivity: surface, bulk, interface and transients. (3) Water vapor transmission: solubility and diffusivity. (4) Accelerated weathering: ultraviolet, temperature, and damp heat tests. (5) Module and cell failure diagnostics: infrared imaging, individual cell shunt characterization, coring. (6) Fabrication improvements: SiOxNy barrier coatings and enhanced wet adhesion. (7) Numerical modeling: Moisture ingress/egress, module and cell performance, and cell-to-frame leakage current. (8) Rheological properties of polymer encapsulant and sheeting materials. Specific examples will be described.

  20. Application of smart materials to helicopter rotor active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Friedrich K.; Ealey, Mark A.; Schetky, Lawrence M.

    1997-05-01

    Helicopter design is limited by the compromise inherent in meeting hover and forward flight requirements, and the unsteady environment encountered in forward flight. Active control of helicopter rotors using smart material, in-blade actuation can overcome these barriers and provide substantial reductions in noise and vibrations and improved performance. The present study covers the blade/actuator integration and actuator development for a full scale system to demonstrate active control of noise and vibrations as well as inflight blade tracking on the MD Explorer helicopter. A piezoelectric multilayer stack actuator, driving a trailing edge flap, is used for active control. A shape memory alloy torsion actuator, driving a trailing edge trim tab, is used for inflight tracking. Overall, this DARPA sponsored program entails the design, development, and fabrication of the full scale active control rotor system. If successful, an entry in the NASA Ames 40 X 80 foot wind tunnel and flight tests are planned for a follow on program.

  1. Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role.

    PubMed

    Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men. PMID:24466136

  2. Materials for Active Engagement in Nuclear and Particle Physics Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loats, Jeff; Schwarz, Cindy; Krane, Ken

    2013-04-01

    Physics education researchers have developed a rich variety of research-based instructional strategies that now permeate many introductory courses. Carrying these active-engagement techniques to upper-division courses requires effort and is bolstered by experience. Instructors interested in these methods thus face a large investment of time to start from scratch. This NSF-TUES grant, aims to develop, test and disseminate active-engagement materials for nuclear and particle physics topics. We will present examples of these materials, including: a) Conceptual discussion questions for use with Peer Instruction; b) warm-up questions for use with Just in Time Teaching, c) ``Back of the Envelope'' estimation questions and small-group case studies that will incorporate use of nuclear and particle databases, as well as d) conceptual exam questions.

  3. Acute effects of advertisements on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours: a randomised controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Atlantis, Evan; Salmon, Jo; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-11-01

    The acute decision prompting effects of social marketing via television (TV) advertisements promoting physical activity to children are unknown. This pilot study aimed to determine the acute effects of an Australian government-sponsored TV advertisement (called 'Get Moving'), promoting more physical activity and less sedentary behaviour, on children's choices, preferences, and ratings of liking for physical activities and sedentary behaviours. Thirty-one children aged 10-12 years were recruited from a single public school, and randomised to one of two treatment groups or two control groups (Solomon four-group design). Treatment participants watched an episode of The Simpsons embedded every 10min with three 30s Get Moving advertisements plus standard advertisements. Control participants watched the same episode plus standard advertisements, but without the Get Moving advertisements. The following dependent variables were assessed immediately before and/or after exposure: activity preference (participants selected either verbally or by pointing to one of eight picture cards depicting four physical activities and four sedentary behaviours); ratings of liking (participants rated how much they liked or disliked each of these activities/behaviours either verbally or by pointing to one of nine values with an adjacent smile or frown on a Likert-type scale); and time spent in physical activities was assessed by direct observation during a 10min free-time session. No significant effects or trends were seen for any of the dependent variables. Further research is needed to determine whether different content and/or higher doses of exposure to physical activity promoting advertisements are needed to influence children's activity choices. PMID:17928265

  4. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  5. Indoor Chemistry: Materials, Ventilation Systems, and Occupant Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.C.; Corsi, R.L.; Destaillats, H.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Wells, J.R.

    2006-05-01

    Chemical processes taking place in indoor environments can significantly alter the nature and concentrations of pollutants. Exposure to secondary contaminants generated in these reactions needs to be evaluated in association with many aspects of buildings to minimize their impact on occupant health and well-being. Focusing on indoor ozone chemistry, we describe alternatives for improving indoor air quality by controlling chemical changes related to building materials, ventilation systems, and occupant activities.

  6. Positive Active Material For Alkaline Electrolyte Storage Battert Nickel Electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Bernard, Patrick; Baudry, Michelle

    2000-12-05

    A method of manufacturing a positive active material for nickel electrodes of alkaline storage batteries which consists of particles of hydroxide containing mainly nickel and covered with a layer of a hydroxide phase based on nickel and yttrium is disclosed. The proportion of the hydroxide phase is in the range 0.15% to 3% by weight of yttrium expressed as yttrium hydroxide relative to the total weight of particles.

  7. Engaging Scientists in Meaningful E/PO: How the NASA SMD E/PO Community Addresses Informal Educators' Preferences for PD and Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolone, Lindsay; Nelson, Andi; Smith, Denise A.; NASA SMD Astrophysics E/PO Community

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Science Education and Public Outreach Forum (SEPOF) coordinates the work of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO projects. These teams work together to capitalize on the cutting-edge discoveries of NASA Astrophysics missions to support educators in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and to enable youth to engage in doing STEM inside and outside of school. The Astrophysics Forum assists scientists and educators with becoming involved in SMD E/PO, which is uniquely poised to foster collaboration between scientists with content expertise and educators with pedagogy expertise, and makes SMD E/PO resources and expertise accessible to the science and education communities. Informal educators participated in a recent nationally-distributed survey from the NASA SMD SEPOF Informal Education Working Group. The results show the preferences of staff from museums, parks, public libraries, community/afterschool centers, and others with regard to professional development and material resources. The results of the survey will be presented during this session.In addition, we present opportunities for the astronomy community to participate in collaborations supporting the NASA SMD efforts in K-12 Formal Education, Informal Science Education, and Outreach. These efforts focus on enhancing instruction, as well as youth and public engagement, in STEM via use of research-based best practices, collaborations with libraries, partnerships with local and national organizations, and remote engagement of audiences. The Forums' efforts for the Formal, Informal Science Education and Outreach communities include a literature review, appraisal of informal educators' needs, coordination of audience-based NASA resources and opportunities, professional development, plus support with the Next Generation Science Standards. Learn how to join in our collaborative efforts to support the K-12 Formal Education community and to reach the informal

  8. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials.more » DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.« less

  9. Using DFT Methods to Study Activators in Optical Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Mao-Hua

    2015-08-17

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of various activators (ranging from transition metal ions, rare-earth ions, ns2 ions, to self-trapped and dopant-bound excitons) in phosphors and scintillators are reviewed. As a single-particle ground-state theory, DFT calculations cannot reproduce the experimentally observed optical spectra, which involve transitions between multi-electronic states. However, DFT calculations can generally provide sufficiently accurate structural relaxation and distinguish different hybridization strengths between an activator and its ligands in different host compounds. This is important because the activator-ligand interaction often governs the trends in luminescence properties in phosphors and scintillators, and can be used to search for new materials. DFT calculations of the electronic structure of the host compound and the positions of the activator levels relative to the host band edges in scintillators are also important for finding optimal host-activator combinations for high light yields and fast scintillation response. Mn4+ activated red phosphors, scintillators activated by Ce3+, Eu2+, Tl+, and excitons are shown as examples of using DFT calculations in phosphor and scintillator research.

  10. Active-Site-Accessible, Porphyrinic Metal;#8722;Organic Framework Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Farha, Omar K.; Shultz, Abraham M.; Sarjeant, Amy A.; Nguyen, SonBinh T.; Hupp, Joseph T.

    2012-02-06

    On account of their structural similarity to cofactors found in many metallo-enzymes, metalloporphyrins are obvious potential building blocks for catalytically active, metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. While numerous porphyrin-based MOFs have already been described, versions featuring highly accessible active sites and permanent microporosity are remarkably scarce. Indeed, of the more than 70 previously reported porphyrinic MOFs, only one has been shown to be both permanently microporous and contain internally accessible active sites for chemical catalysis. Attempts to generalize the design approach used in this single successful case have failed. Reported here, however, is the synthesis of an extended family of MOFs that directly incorporate a variety of metalloporphyrins (specifically Al{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 3+}, and Fe{sup 3+} complexes). These robust porphyrinic materials (RPMs) feature large channels and readily accessible active sites. As an illustrative example, one of the manganese-containing RPMs is shown to be catalytically competent for the oxidation of alkenes and alkanes.

  11. Vibration attenuation of aircraft structures utilizing active materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnes, Gregory S.; Whitehouse, Stephen R.; Mackaman, John R.

    1993-09-01

    The need for active vibration control for airborne laser systems was demonstrated during the late 1970s by the Airborne Laser Laboratory. Other possible applications include sonic fatigue alleviation, reduction of buffet induced fatigue, vibration control for embedded antennae, and active aeroelastic control. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of active vibration control technology and its application to aircraft. Classification of classic aircraft vibration problems and currently available solutions are used to provide a framework for the study. Current solutions are classified as being either passive or active and by the methodology (modal modification or addition) used to reduce vibration. Possible applications for this technology in aircraft vibration control are presented within this framework to demonstrate the increased versatility active materials technologies provide the designer. An in- depth study of an active pylon to reduce wing/store vibration is presented as an example. Finally, perceived gaps in the existing technology base are identified and both on-going and future research plans in these areas are discussed.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of filling materials used in primary teeth pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Filling Materials Used in Primary Teeth Pulpotomy

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Hévelin Couto; Borges, Álvaro Henrique; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Neves, Ana Thereza Sabóia; Fontes, Rodrigo Gusmão; da Silva, Priscila Vieira; Aranha, Andreza Maria Fábio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of pulp capping materials used in primary teeth (formocresol [FC], zinc oxide and eugenol cement [ZOE], ZOE mixed with FC [ZOEFC], mineral trioxide aggregate [MTA] and calcium hydroxide [CH]) against cariogenic bacteria. The agar plate diffusion test was used for the cultures, including saline solution as a negative control. A base layer of 15 mL of brain heart infusion agar was inoculated with 300 mL of each inoculum. Twelve wells were made and completely filled with one of the testing materials for each bacteria strain. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 h. Zones of microbial inhibition and material diffusion were measured and photographed. The results obtained were analyzed by Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests. Respectively, the medium zones of bacteria inhibition of FC, ZOE, ZOEFC, MTA and CH against Streptococcus mutans growth were 28.5, 15.2, 20.8, 9.3 and 11.6; against Lactobacillus acidophilus growth were 28.7, 14.8, 15.3, 15.2 and 20.0, and against Actinomyces viscosus growth were 13.6, 13.5, 14.7, 10.0 and 13.6. We might confirmed the high antibacterial activity of FC solution, especially against S. mutans and L. acidophilus, as wells as, the low inhibitory effect of MTA cement on the cariogenic bacteria studied. PMID:25954072

  14. Design of Responsive and Active (Soft) Materials Using Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Bedolla Pantoja, Marco; Mushenheim, Peter C; Wang, Xiaoguang; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2016-06-01

    Liquid crystals (LCs) are widely known for their use in liquid crystal displays (LCDs). Indeed, LCDs represent one of the most successful technologies developed to date using a responsive soft material: An electric field is used to induce a change in ordering of the LC and thus a change in optical appearance. Over the past decade, however, research has revealed the fundamental underpinnings of potentially far broader and more pervasive uses of LCs for the design of responsive soft material systems. These systems involve a delicate interplay of the effects of surface-induced ordering, elastic strain of LCs, and formation of topological defects and are characterized by a chemical complexity and diversity of nano- and micrometer-scale geometry that goes well beyond that previously investigated. As a reflection of this evolution, the community investigating LC-based materials now relies heavily on concepts from colloid and interface science. In this context, this review describes recent advances in colloidal and interfacial phenomena involving LCs that are enabling the design of new classes of soft matter that respond to stimuli as broad as light, airborne pollutants, bacterial toxins in water, mechanical interactions with living cells, molecular chirality, and more. Ongoing efforts hint also that the collective properties of LCs (e.g., LC-dispersed colloids) will, over the coming decade, yield exciting new classes of driven or active soft material systems in which organization (and useful properties) emerges during the dissipation of energy. PMID:26979412

  15. Active Neutron Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-05-01

    Portable electronic neutron generators (ENGs) may be used to interrogate suspicious items to detect, characterize, and quantify the presence fissionable material based upon the measurement of prompt and/or delayed emissions of neutrons and/or photons resulting from fission. The small size (<0.2 m3), light weight (<12 kg), and low power consumption (<50 W) of modern ENGs makes them ideally suited for use in field situations, incorporated into systems carried by 2-3 individuals under rugged conditions. At Idaho National Laboratory we are investigating techniques and portable equipment for performing active neutron interrogation of moderate sized objects less than ~2-4 m3 to detect shielded fissionable material. Our research in this area relies upon the use of pulsed deuterium-tritium ENGs and the measurement of die-away prompt fission neutrons and other neutron signatures in-between neutron pulses from the ENG and after the ENG is turned off.

  16. Enhancing activated-peroxide formulations for porous materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Tucker, Mark D.; Tezak, Matthew S.; Boucher, Raymond

    2012-12-01

    During an urban wide-area incident involving the release of a biological warfare agent, the recovery/restoration effort will require extensive resources and will tax the current capabilities of the government and private contractors. In fact, resources may be so limited that decontamination by facility owners/occupants may become necessary and a simple decontamination process and material should be available for this use. One potential process for use by facility owners/occupants would be a liquid sporicidal decontaminant, such as pHamended bleach or activated-peroxide, and simple application devices. While pH-amended bleach is currently the recommended low-tech decontamination solution, a less corrosive and toxic decontaminant is desirable. The objective of this project is to provide an operational assessment of an alternative to chlorine bleach for low-tech decontamination applications activated hydrogen peroxide. This report provides the methods and results for activatedperoxide evaluation experiments. The results suggest that the efficacy of an activated-peroxide decontaminant is similar to pH-amended bleach on many common materials.

  17. Active Printed Materials for Complex Self-Evolving Deformations

    PubMed Central

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus. PMID:25522053

  18. Active printed materials for complex self-evolving deformations.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Dan; Zhao, Wei; McKnelly, Carrie; Papadopoulou, Athina; Kadambi, Achuta; Shi, Boxin; Hirsch, Shai; Dikovsky, Daniel; Zyracki, Michael; Olguin, Carlos; Raskar, Ramesh; Tibbits, Skylar

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new design of complex self-evolving structures that vary over time due to environmental interaction. In conventional 3D printing systems, materials are meant to be stable rather than active and fabricated models are designed and printed as static objects. Here, we introduce a novel approach for simulating and fabricating self-evolving structures that transform into a predetermined shape, changing property and function after fabrication. The new locally coordinated bending primitives combine into a single system, allowing for a global deformation which can stretch, fold and bend given environmental stimulus. PMID:25522053

  19. Mechanisms of the Antimicrobial Activities of Graphene Materials.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xuefeng; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhaojun; Luo, Yang

    2016-02-24

    A thorough understanding of the antimicrobial mechanisms of graphene materials (GMs) is critical to the manipulation of highly efficient antimicrobial nanomaterials for future biomedical applications. Here we review the most recent studies of GM-mediated antimicrobial properties. This review covers the physicochemical properties of GMs, experimental surroundings, and selected microorganisms as well as the interaction between GMs and selected microorganisms to explore controversial antimicrobial activities. Finally, we rationally analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed mechanisms and provide new insights into the remaining challenges and perspectives for future studies. PMID:26824139

  20. Consumer preference study of the female condom in a sexually active population at risk of contracting AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sakondhavat, C; Weeravatrakul, Y; Benette, T; Pinitsoontorn, P; Kuchaisit, C; Kukieattikool, P; Pongsatra, K

    2001-07-01

    To determine the acceptability of the female condom among commercial sex workers in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Twenty sex workers from a massage parlor and 21 from a brothel were trained in the use of the female condom. The voluntary participants were instructed about the risk of HIV and advised that they could use the female condom as an alternative method to the male condom for protection. The female condom was used in 28.4 per cent and 17.8 per cent episodes of sex in each site during the two weeks. Continuation of use of the female condom increased from 0 per cent in the first group to 43 per cent in the second group. The reasons for discontinuing its use were that it was inconvenient and because of their partners' objection. More users said they liked the female condom even though more thought it was difficult to insert and it did cause pain. However, they would recommend it to others and most felt that other women would want to try it. The participants also saw the advantage of the female condom as a back-up method in case of clients' refusal to use the male condom but all prefered the male condom if there was a choice. PMID:11759978

  1. A test of the hypothesis that impact-induced fractures are preferred sites for later tectonic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, Sean C.; Duxbury, Elizabeth D.

    1987-01-01

    Impact cratering has been an important process in the solar system. The cratering event is generally accompanied by faulting in adjacent terrain. Impact-induced faults are nearly ubiquitous over large areas on the terrestrial planets. The suggestion is made that these fault systems, particularly those associated with the largest impact features are preferred sites for later deformation in response to lithospheric stresses generated by other processes. The evidence is a perceived clustering of orientations of tectonic features either radial or concentric to the crater or basin in question. An opportunity exists to test this suggestion more directly on Earth. The terrestrial continents contain more than 100 known or probable impact craters, with associated geological structures mapped to varying levels of detail. Prime facie evidence for reactivation of crater-induced faults would be the occurrence of earthquakes on these faults in response to the intraplate stress field. Either an alignment of epicenters with mapped fault traces or fault plane solutions indicating slip on a plane approximately coincident with that inferred for a crater-induced fault would be sufficient to demonstrate such an association.

  2. Plasma material interaction studies on low activation materials used for plasma facing or blanket component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, T.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamauchi, Y.; Hashiba, M.; Kohyama, A.; Katoh, Y.; Lee, Y.; Jinushi, T.; Akiba, M.; Nakamura, K.; Yoshida, H.; Sengoku, S.; Tsuzuki, K.; Kusama, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Muroga, T.

    2004-08-01

    Numerous issues on the plasma material interactions were investigated for low activation materials. Co-deposited carbon dust was prepared and the deuterium concentration was measured. The concentration was approximately half of the present design value for ITER. For ferritic steel, the deuterium retention was observed to be comparable to that of stainless steel. Physical sputtering yield was roughly the same as that for stainless steel. For the reduction of absorption rate in vanadium alloy, titanium oxide coating was conducted, and the coating was observed to be very effective for reduction of hydrogen absorption. Helium gas permeability was measured for numerous SiC/SiC composites, and the SiC/SiC composite made by the NITE process showed quite low permeability. The SiC/SiC blanket may be able to be used without helium leakage into plasma.

  3. Active millimeter wave detection of concealed layers of dielectric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, N. J.; Baker, J. G.; Rezgui, N. D.; Southgate, M.; Alder, J. F.

    2007-04-01

    Extensive work has been published on millimetre wave active and passive detection and imaging of metallic objects concealed under clothing. We propose and demonstrate a technique for revealing the depth as well as the outline of partially transparent objects, which is especially suited to imaging layer materials such as explosives and drugs. The technique uses a focussed and scanned FMCW source, swept through many GHz to reveal this structure. The principle involved is that a parallel sided dielectric slab produces reflections at both its upper and lower surfaces, acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. This produces a pattern of alternating reflected peaks and troughs in frequency space. Fourier or Burg transforming this pattern into z-space generates a peak at the thickness of the irradiated sample. It could be argued that though such a technique may work for single uniform slabs of dielectric material, it will give results of little or no significance when the sample both scatters the incident radiation and gives erratic reflectivities due to its non-uniform thickness and permittivity . We show results for a variety of materials such as explosive simulants, powder and drugs, both alone and concealed under clothing or in a rucksack, which display strongly directional reflectivities at millimeter wavelengths, and whose location is well displayed by a varying thickness parameter as the millimetre beam is scanned across the target. With this system we find that samples can easily be detected at standoff distances of at least 4.6m.

  4. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H. C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M. F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc; Spätig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E.

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  5. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaleskiewicz, Ted; Lightner, G. Samuel; Reiland, Robert

    1998-11-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists. The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION - Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". This chart is available in WallSize, PosterSize and StudentSize versions. Ancillary materials - - including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, and the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion WebSite (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html).

  6. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, T. P.; Reiland, Robert

    2001-10-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists (see http://cpepweb.org). The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, ``FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source''. Ancillary materials including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, The Allegheny Intermediate Unit, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. The chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Laminated versions of the poster and notebook size charts are also available as well as an overhead transparency of the chart. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.llnl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  7. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, Ted; Reiland, Robert

    1999-11-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists. The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". This chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Ancillary materials, including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities, are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjuction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  8. CPEP Fusion/Plasma Physics Education Materials/Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightner, G. Samuel; Zaleskiewicz, P. T.; Reiland, Robert

    2000-10-01

    The Contemporary Physics Education Project (CPEP) is a not-for-profit organization of teachers, educators, and physicists (see http://cpepweb.org). The goals in its charter include the development and implementation of teaching materials about contemporary physics topics for use in the introductory courses. To this end, the CPEP Fusion/plasma group has produced the teaching chart, "FUSION-Physics of a Fundamental Energy Source". Ancillary materials including an Instructors Guide and a packet of classroom activities are under development. In order to promote effective classroom use of its educational materials, CPEP presents workshops for high school and college teachers. These workshops have been sponsored by or held in conjunction with a variety of organizations including; the APS/DPP, the AAPT, the Space Science Institute, the American Nuclear Science Teachers Association, and the University of Pittsburgh at Greensburg. The chart is available in wall-size, poster-size and student notebook-size, and has been translated into six languages. Laminated versions of the poster and notebook size charts are also available as well as an overhead transparency of the chart. For more information, visit the CPEP/Fusion website (http://FusEdWeb.pppl.gov/CPEP/Chart.html)

  9. Materials and Process Activities for NASA's Composite Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polis, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    In January 2007, the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrator for the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate chartered the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to design, build, and test a full-scale Composite Crew Module (CCM). The overall goal of the CCM project was to develop a team from the NASA family with hands-on experience in composite design, manufacturing, and testing in anticipation of future space exploration systems being made of composite materials. The CCM project was planned to run concurrently with the Orion project s baseline metallic design within the Constellation Program so that features could be compared and discussed without inducing risk to the overall Program. The materials and process activities were prioritized based on a rapid prototype approach. This approach focused developmental activities on design details with greater risk and uncertainty, such as out-of-autoclave joining, over some of the more traditional lamina and laminate building block levels. While process development and associated building block testing were performed, several anomalies were still observed at the full-scale level due to interactions between process robustness and manufacturing scale-up. This paper describes the process anomalies that were encountered during the CCM development and the subsequent root cause investigations that led to the final design solutions. These investigations highlight the importance of full-scale developmental work early in the schedule of a complex composite design/build project.

  10. Potential active materials for photo-supercapacitor: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, C. H.; Lim, H. N.; Hayase, S.; Harrison, I.; Pandikumar, A.; Huang, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    The need for an endless renewable energy supply, typically through the utilization of solar energy in most applications and systems, has driven the expansion, versatility, and diversification of marketed energy storage devices. Energy storage devices such as hybridized dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC)-capacitors and DSSC-supercapacitors have been invented for energy reservation. The evolution and vast improvement of these devices in terms of their efficiencies and flexibilities have further sparked the invention of the photo-supercapacitor. The idea of coupling a DSSC and supercapacitor as a complete energy conversion and storage device arose because the solar energy absorbed by dye molecules can be efficiently transferred and converted to electrical energy by adopting a supercapacitor as the energy delivery system. The conversion efficiency of a photo-supercapacitor is mainly dependent on the use of active materials during its fabrication. The performances of the dye, photoactive metal oxide, counter electrode, redox electrolyte, and conducting polymer are the primary factors contributing to high-energy-efficient conversion, which enhances the performance and shelf-life of a photo-supercapacitor. Moreover, the introduction of compact layer as a primary adherent film has been earmarked as an effort in enhancing power conversion efficiency of solar cell. Additionally, the development of electrolyte-free solar cell such as the invention of hole-conductor or perovskite solar cell is currently being explored extensively. This paper reviews and analyzes the potential active materials for a photo-supercapacitor to enhance the conversion and storage efficiencies.

  11. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression in the prostatic tissue of two ethanol-preferring rat models.

    PubMed

    Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz Aparecida; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Mendes, Leonardo O; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F; Delella, Flávia Karina; Kurokawa, Cilmery S; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether chronic ethanol intake is capable of altering the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and TIMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression in the dorsal and lateral prostatic lobes of low (UChA) and high (UChB) ethanol-preferring rats. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression were significantly reduced in the lateral prostatic lobe of the ethanol drinking animals. Dorsal prostatic lobe was less affected showing no significant alterations in these proteins, except for a reduction in the TIMP-1 expression in UChA rats. These important findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol intake impairs the physiological balance of the prostate extracellular matrix turnover, through downregulation of MMPs, which may contribute to the development of prostatic diseases. Furthermore, since these proteins are also components of prostate secretion, the negative impact of chronic ethanol intake on fertility may also involve reduction of MMPs and TIMPs in the seminal fluid. PMID:26258010

  12. MMP-2 and MMP-9 Activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 Expression in the Prostatic Tissue of Two Ethanol-Preferring Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz Aparecida; Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A.; Mendes, Leonardo O.; Pinheiro, Patricia Fernanda F.; Delella, Flávia Karina; Kurokawa, Cilmery S.; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis; Martinez, Francisco Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether chronic ethanol intake is capable of altering the MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and TIMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression in the dorsal and lateral prostatic lobes of low (UChA) and high (UChB) ethanol-preferring rats. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression were significantly reduced in the lateral prostatic lobe of the ethanol drinking animals. Dorsal prostatic lobe was less affected showing no significant alterations in these proteins, except for a reduction in the TIMP-1 expression in UChA rats. These important findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol intake impairs the physiological balance of the prostate extracellular matrix turnover, through downregulation of MMPs, which may contribute to the development of prostatic diseases. Furthermore, since these proteins are also components of prostate secretion, the negative impact of chronic ethanol intake on fertility may also involve reduction of MMPs and TIMPs in the seminal fluid. PMID:26258010

  13. What type of narrative do children prefer in active video games? An exploratory study of cognitive and emotional responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is critical in preventing childhood obesity, and lowering risk of certain cancers. Active video games (AVGs) provide an innovative promising method for increasing PA and enhancing health outcomes, especially among children. While AVGs could prevent childhood obesity, a child's...

  14. Activation of p38 signaling in the microglia in the nucleus accumbens contributes to the acquisition and maintenance of morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Qin; Cui, Yu; Cui, Yue; Chen, Yu; Na, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Feng-Ying; Wei, Xu-Hong; Li, Yong-Yong; Liu, Xian-Guo; Xin, Wen-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that activated glia contributes to morphine-induced reward (conditioned place preference, CPP). Compared to well-defined roles of astrocyte in morphine CPP, the role of microglia in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) remains poorly characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distinct role of microglia in morphine-induced CPP. Systemic administration of morphine (7.5 mg/kg for 5 days) induced significant preference for the morphine-paired compartment in rats, which lasted for at least 6 days after cessation of morphine treatment. Immunohistochemistry results showed that activation of p38 in the NAc microglia induced by chronic morphine treatment maintained on day 11. Bilateral intra-NAc injection of minocycline, a putative microglia inhibitor, or SB203580, an inhibitor of p38, prior to morphine administration not only inhibited p38 activation in the microglia but impaired the acquisition of CPP. On the day following the acquisition of morphine CPP, a single injection of minocycline or SB203580 failed to block the expression of CPP. Notably, pretreatment with minocycline or SB203580 for 5 days following the acquisition of morphine CPP significantly suppressed the activation of p38 and attenuated the maintenance of morphine CPP. Collectively, our present study indicates that the p38 signaling in the NAc microglia may play an important role in the acquisition and maintenance but not the expression of morphine CPP, and provides new evidence that microglia might be a potential target for the therapy of morphine addiction. PMID:22004988

  15. Host-seeking activity and avian host preferences of mosquitoes associated with West Nile virus transmission in the northeastern U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suom, Channsotha; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Bernick, Andrew; Klein, Coby; Buckley, P.A.; Salvatore, Christa; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito host-seeking activity was studied using a custom-designed trap to explore: (1) at which time interval of the night adult mosquito abatement would be most effective, and (2) if there exists an avian-specific host-seeking preference. Overnight trials using traps baited with dry ice showed that Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) was most active at dusk and was then captured throughout the night. In contrast, Culex spp. (Cx. pipiens (Linnaeus) and Cx. restuans (Theobald) delayed most activity until about two h after dusk and were then captured through the night. This pattern suggests that management activities directed at adult Culex spp. would be most effective if initiated well after sunset. Mosquito capture rates in traps baited with birds in net bags were significantly greater than those with empty net bags, indicating that mosquitoes were attracted to the birds and not incidentally being sucked in by the custom trap's strong fan motor (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, n = 24, t = 30, p 2 = 0.21, p = 0.02). Trials with paired traps that contained different native bird species showed that Gray Catbirds, Dumatella carolinensis, attracted more mosquitoes than the heavier Northern Cardinals, Cardinalis cardinalis (paired samples t-test, t = 2.58, df = 7, p = 0.04). However, attractiveness did not differ substantially among bird species, and Gray Catbirds did not attract more mosquitoes than all other birds combined as a group. American Robins, Turdus migratorius (n = 4) were comparable in attractiveness to other bird species, but not enough American Robins were captured for a comprehensive study of mosquito avian preference.

  16. Manipulating lipid bilayer material properties using biologically active amphipathic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafuzzaman, Md; Lampson, M. A.; Greathouse, D. V.; Koeppe, R. E., II; Andersen, O. S.

    2006-07-01

    Lipid bilayers are elastic bodies with properties that can be manipulated/controlled by the adsorption of amphipathic molecules. The resulting changes in bilayer elasticity have been shown to regulate integral membrane protein function. To further understand the amphiphile-induced modulation of bilayer material properties (thickness, intrinsic monolayer curvature and elastic moduli), we examined how an enantiomeric pair of viral anti-fusion peptides (AFPs)—Z-Gly-D-Phe and Z-Gly-Phe, where Z denotes a benzyloxycarbonyl group, as well as Z-Phe-Tyr and Z-D-Phe-Phe-Gly—alters the function of enantiomeric pairs of gramicidin channels of different lengths in planar bilayers. For both short and long channels, the channel lifetimes and appearance frequencies increase as linear functions of the aqueous AFP concentration, with no apparent effect on the single-channel conductance. These changes in channel function do not depend on the chirality of the channels or the AFPs. At pH 7.0, the relative changes in channel lifetimes do not vary when the channel length is varied, indicating that these compounds exert their effects primarily by causing a positive-going change in the intrinsic monolayer curvature. At pH 4.0, the AFPs are more potent than at pH 7.0 and have greater effects on the shorter channels, indicating that these compounds now change the bilayer elastic moduli. When AFPs of different anti-fusion potencies are compared, the rank order of the anti-fusion activity and the channel-modifying activity is similar, but the relative changes in anti-fusion potency are larger than the changes in channel-modifying activity. We conclude that gramicidin channels are useful as molecular force transducers to probe the influence of small amphiphiles upon lipid bilayer material properties.

  17. Active smart material control system for buffet alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheta, Essam F.; Moses, Robert W.; Huttsell, Lawrence J.

    2006-05-01

    Vertical tail buffeting is a serious multidisciplinary problem that limits the performance and maneuverability of twin-tail fighter aircraft. The buffet problem occurs at high angles of attack when the vortical flow breaks down ahead of the vertical tails resulting in unsteady and unbalanced loads on the tails leading to their premature fatigue failure. An active smart material control system, using distributed piezoelectric (PZT) actuators, is developed for buffet alleviation and is presented. The surfaces of the vertical tail are equipped with PZT actuators to control the buffet responses in the first bending and torsion modes. The electrodynamics of the PZT actuators are modeled using a finite-element model. A single-input/single-output controller is designed to drive the active PZT actuators. High-fidelity analysis modules for the fluid dynamics, structural dynamics, electrodynamics of the PZT actuators, control law, fluid-structure interfacing, and grid motion are integrated into a multidisciplinary computing environment that controls the temporal synchronization of the analysis modules. The results of this study indicate that the actively controlled PZT actuators are an effective tool for buffet alleviation over wide range of angels of attack. Peak values of power spectral density of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 22% in the first bending mode and by as much as 82% in the first torsion mode. The root mean square values of tail-tip acceleration are reduced by as much as 12%.

  18. Addressing Different Active Neutron Interrogation Signatures from Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2009-10-01

    In a continuing effort to examine portable methods for implementing active neutron interrogation for detecting shielded fissionable material research is underway to investigate the utility of analyzing multiple time-correlated signatures. Time correlation refers here to the existence of unique characteristics of the fission interrogation signature related to the start and end of an irradiation, as well as signatures present in between individual pulses of an irradiating source. Traditional measurement approaches in this area have typically worked to detect die-away neutrons after the end of each pulse, neutrons in between pulses related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products, or neutrons or gamma rays related to the decay of neutron emitting fission products after the end of an irradiation exposure. In this paper we discus the potential weaknesses of assessing only one signature versus multiple signatures and make the assertion that multiple complimentary and orthogonal measurements should be used to bolster the performance of active interrogation systems, helping to minimize susceptibility to the weaknesses of individual signatures on their own. Recognizing that the problem of detection is a problem of low count rates, we are exploring methods to integrate commonly used signatures with rarely used signatures to improve detection capabilities for these measurements. In this paper we will discuss initial activity in this area with this approach together with observations of some of the strengths and weaknesses of using these different signatures.

  19. Low copulatory activity in selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) relative to alcohol-preferring (sP) rats

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Oskar; Colombo, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that similar neural mechanisms are involved in the reinforcing properties of natural rewards, like food and sex, and drugs of abuse. Rat lines selectively bred for high and low oral alcohol intake and preference have been useful for understanding factors contributing to excessive alcohol intake and may constitute proper animal models for investigating the neurobiological basis of natural rewarding stimuli. Methods The present study evaluated copulatory behavior in alcohol and sexually naïve Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -nonpreferring (sNP) male rats in three consecutive copulatory behavior tests. Results The main finding was that, under the conditions used in this study, sNP rats were sexually inactive relative to sP rats. To gain more information about the sexual behavior in sP rats, Wistar rats were included as an external reference strain. Only minor differences between sP and Wistar rats were revealed. Conclusions The reason behind the low copulatory activity of sNP rats remains to be elucidated, but may in part be mediated by innate differences in brain transmitter systems. The comparison between sP and Wistar rats may also suggest that the inherent proclivity to excessive alcohol drinking in sP rats may mainly be dependent on its anxiolytic properties, as previously proposed, and not changes in the reward system. PMID:25728453

  20. Circadian activity rhythms and voluntary ethanol intake in male and female ethanol-preferring rats: effects of long-term ethanol access.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; McCulley, Walter D; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  1. Circadian Activity Rhythms and Voluntary Ethanol Intake in Male and Female Ethanol-Preferring Rats: Effects of Long-Term Ethanol Access

    PubMed Central

    Rosenwasser, Alan M.; McCulley, Walter D.; Fecteau, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol (ethanol) intake alters fundamental properties of the circadian clock. While previous studies have reported significant alterations in free-running circadian period during chronic ethanol access, these effects are typically subtle and appear to require high levels of intake. In the present study we examined the effects of long-term voluntary ethanol intake on ethanol consumption and free-running circadian period in male and female, selectively bred ethanol-preferring P and HAD2 rats. In light of previous reports that intermittent access can result in escalated ethanol intake, an initial 2-week water-only baseline was followed by either continuous or intermittent ethanol access (i.e., alternating 15-day epochs of ethanol access and ethanol deprivation) in separate groups of rats. Thus, animals were exposed to either 135 days of continuous ethanol access or to five 15-day access periods alternating with four 15-day periods of ethanol deprivation. Animals were maintained individually in running-wheel cages under continuous darkness throughout the experiment to allow monitoring of free-running activity and drinking rhythms, and 10% (v/v) ethanol and plain water were available continuously via separate drinking tubes during ethanol access. While there were no initial sex differences in ethanol drinking, ethanol preference increased progressively in male P and HAD2 rats under both continuous and intermittent-access conditions, and eventually exceeded that seen in females. Free-running period shortened during the initial ethanol-access epoch in all groups, but the persistence of this effect showed complex dependence on sex, breeding line, and ethanol-access schedule. Finally, while females of both breeding lines displayed higher levels of locomotor activity than males, there was little evidence for modulation of activity level by ethanol access. These results are consistent with previous findings that chronic ethanol intake alters free-running circadian

  2. Bid chimeras indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate Bak and Bax, and show no preference for Bak versus Bax

    PubMed Central

    Hockings, C; Anwari, K; Ninnis, R L; Brouwer, J; O'Hely, M; Evangelista, M; Hinds, M G; Czabotar, P E; Lee, E F; Fairlie, W D; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis is initiated by Bcl-2 homology region 3 (BH3)-only members of the Bcl-2 protein family. On upregulation or activation, certain BH3-only proteins can directly bind and activate Bak and Bax to induce conformation change, oligomerization and pore formation in mitochondria. BH3-only proteins, with the exception of Bid, are intrinsically disordered and therefore, functional studies often utilize peptides based on just their BH3 domains. However, these reagents do not possess the hydrophobic membrane targeting domains found on the native BH3-only molecule. To generate each BH3-only protein as a recombinant protein that could efficiently target mitochondria, we developed recombinant Bid chimeras in which the BH3 domain was replaced with that of other BH3-only proteins (Bim, Puma, Noxa, Bad, Bmf, Bik and Hrk). The chimeras were stable following purification, and each immunoprecipitated with full-length Bcl-xL according to the specificity reported for the related BH3 peptide. When tested for activation of Bak and Bax in mitochondrial permeabilization assays, Bid chimeras were ~1000-fold more effective than the related BH3 peptides. BH3 sequences from Bid and Bim were the strongest activators, followed by Puma, Hrk, Bmf and Bik, while Bad and Noxa were not activators. Notably, chimeras and peptides showed no apparent preference for activating Bak or Bax. In addition, within the BH3 domain, the h0 position recently found to be important for Bax activation, was important also for Bak activation. Together, our data with full-length proteins indicate that most BH3-only proteins can directly activate both Bak and Bax. PMID:25906158

  3. Transitivity of Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regenwetter, Michel; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.

    2011-01-01

    Transitivity of preferences is a fundamental principle shared by most major contemporary rational, prescriptive, and descriptive models of decision making. To have transitive preferences, a person, group, or society that prefers choice option "x" to "y" and "y" to "z" must prefer "x" to "z". Any claim of empirical violations of transitivity by…

  4. Reflux composition influences the level of NF-κB activation and upstream kinase preference in oesophageal adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    McAdam, E; Haboubi, H N; Griffiths, A P; Baxter, J N; Spencer-Harty, S; Davies, C; Jenkins, G J

    2015-02-01

    Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) incidence is rising and prognosis is poor. Understanding the molecular basis of this malignancy is key to finding new prevention and treatment strategies. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the primary cause of OA, usually managed with acid suppression therapy. However, this often does little to control carcinogenic bile acid reflux. The transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of OA and its activity is associated with a poor response to chemotherapy, making it an attractive therapeutic target. We sought to decipher the role of different bile acids in NF-κB activation in oesophageal cell lines using short, physiologically relevant exposure times. The effect of an acidic or neutral extracellular pH was investigated concurrently, to mimic in vivo conditions associated with or without acid suppression. We found that some bile acids activated NF-κB to a greater extent when combined with acid, whereas others did so in its absence, at neutral pH. The precise composition of an individual's reflux, coupled with whether they are taking acid suppressants may therefore dictate the extent of NF-κB activation in the oesophagus, and hence the likelihood of histological progression and chemotherapy success. Regardless of pH, the kinase inhibitor of κB kinase was pivotal in mediating reflux induced NF-κB activation. Its importance was confirmed further as its increased activation was associated with histological progression in patient samples. We identified further kinases important in acid or bile induced NF-κB signalling in oesophageal cells, which may provide suitable targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24931696

  5. Enhancement of Buckling Load with the Use of Active Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, F. G.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, active buckling control of a beam using piezoelectric materials is investigated. Under small deformation, mathematical models are developed to describe the behavior of the beams subjected to an axial compressive load with geometric imperfections and load eccentricities under piezoelectric force. Two types of supports, simply supported and clamped, of the beam with a partially bonded piezoelectric actuator are used to illustrate the concept. For the beam with load eccentricities and initial geometric imperfections, the load- carrying capacity can be significantly enhanced by counteracting moments from the piezoelectric actuator. For the single piezoelectric actuator, using static feedback closed-loop control, the first buckling load can be eliminated. In the case of initially straight beams, analytical solutions of the enhanced first critical buckling load due to the increase of bending stiffness by piezoelectric actuators are derived based on linearized buckling analysis.

  6. Surface modification of active material structures in battery electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Michael; Tikhonov, Konstantin

    2016-02-02

    Provided herein are methods of processing electrode active material structures for use in electrochemical cells or, more specifically, methods of forming surface layers on these structures. The structures are combined with a liquid to form a mixture. The mixture includes a surface reagent that chemically reacts and forms a surface layer covalently bound to the structures. The surface reagent may be a part of the initial liquid or added to the mixture after the liquid is combined with the structures. In some embodiments, the mixture may be processed to form a powder containing the structures with the surface layer thereon. Alternatively, the mixture may be deposited onto a current collecting substrate and dried to form an electrode layer. Furthermore, the liquid may be an electrolyte containing the surface reagent and a salt. The liquid soaks the previously arranged electrodes in order to contact the structures with the surface reagent.

  7. Impaired hippocampal activity at the goal zone on the place preference task in a DISC1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yuichiro; Sawa, Akira; Hikida, Takatoshi

    2016-05-01

    Learning deficit is a clinical feature of many mental disorders and is hypothesized to result from an inability to integrate information in neural systems. We showed that transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of DISC1, a risk gene for neuropsychiatric disorders, exhibited impaired performance in a reward-place association task when combined with a mild isolation stress. CA1 cells in the mutant mice showed normal place cell properties, but their activity at the goal zone was diminished. This abnormality in hippocampal activity at the goal zone during the task may underlie the learning deficit observed in the DISC1 mutant mice. PMID:26497623

  8. Overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Srikumar

    2014-12-01

    This paper on overview of Indian activities on fusion reactor materials describes in brief the efforts India has made to develop materials for the first wall of a tokamak, its blanket and superconducting magnet coils. Through a systematic and scientific approach, India has developed and commercially produced reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel that is comparable to Eurofer 97. Powder of low activation ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened steel with characteristics desired for its application in the first wall of a tokamak has been produced on the laboratory scale. V-4Cr-4Ti alloy was also prepared in the laboratory, and kinetics of hydrogen absorption in this was investigated. Cu-1 wt%Cr-0.1 wt%Zr - an alloy meant for use as heat transfer elements for hypervapotrons and heat sink for the first wall - was developed and characterized in detail for its aging behavior. The role of addition of a small quantity of Zr in its improved fatigue performance was delineated, and its diffusion bonding with both W and stainless steel was achieved using Ni as an interlayer. The alloy was produced in large quantities and used for manufacturing both the heat transfer elements and components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). India has proposed to install and test a lead-lithium cooled ceramic breeder test blanket module (LLCB-TBM) at ITER. To meet this objective, efforts have been made to produce and characterize Li2TiO3 pebbles, and also improve the thermal conductivity of packed beds of these pebbles. Liquid metal loops have been set up and corrosion behavior of RAFM steel in flowing Pb-Li eutectic has been studied in the presence as well as absence of magnetic fields. To prevent permeation of tritium and reduce the magneto-hydro-dynamic drag, processes have been developed for coating alumina on RAFM steel. Apart from these activities, different approaches being attempted to make the U-shaped first wall of the TBM box

  9. Integrated optical devices using bacteriorhodopsin as active nonlinear optical material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dér, András; Fábián, László; Valkai, Sándor; Wolff, Elmar; Ramsden, Jeremy; Ormos, Pál

    2006-08-01

    Coupling of optical data-processing devices with microelectronics, telecocommunication and sensory functions, is among the biggest challenges in molecular electronics. Intensive research is going on to find suitable nonlinear optical materials that could meet the demanding requirements of optoelectronic applications, especially regarding high sensitivity and stability. In addition to inorganic and organic crystals, biological molecules have also been considered for use in integrated optics, among which the bacterial chromoprotein, bacteriorhodopsin (bR) generated the most interest. bR undergoes enormous absorption and concomitant refractive index changes upon initiation of a cyclic series of photoreactions by a burst of actinic light. This effect can be exploited to create highly versatile all-optical logical elements. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by investigating the static and dynamic response of several basic elements of integrated optical devices. Our results show that, due to its relatively high refractive index changes, bR can be used as an active nonlinear optical material to produce a variety of integrated optical switching and modulation effects.

  10. The Effects of Passive and Active Learning on Student Preference and Performance in an Undergraduate Basic Science Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minhas, Paras Singh; Ghosh, Arundhati; Swanzy, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Active learning is based on self-directed and autonomous teaching methods, whereas passive learning is grounded in instructor taught lectures. An animal physiology course was studied over a two-year period (Year 1, n = 42 students; Year 2, n = 30 students) to determine the effects of student-led seminar (andragogical) and lecture (pedagogical)…

  11. Transcriptional cofactors exhibit differential preference toward peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and delta in uterine cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyunjung J; Moon, Irene; Han, Kyuyong

    2004-06-01

    We previously showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARdelta) is crucial for embryo implantation as a receptor for cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin in mice. PPARs belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. They form heterodimer with a retinoid X receptor, recruit transcriptional cofactors, and bind to a specific recognition element for regulation of target genes. Although cofactors are generally shared by various nuclear receptors, some are involved in cell-specific events. The objective of this investigation was to examine interactions of transcriptional cofactors with PPARdelta in uterine cells for its effectiveness in regulating gene expression. We chose two uterine cellular systems: periimplantation mouse uterus and AN(3)CA human uterine cell line. As examined by in situ hybridization, steroid receptor coactivator (SRC)-2, SRC-3, PPAR-interacting protein, receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140), nuclear receptor corepressor (N-CoR), and silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) exhibit overlapping expression with that of PPARdelta in the periimplantation mouse uterus. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down assays show that PPARdelta physically interacts with SRC 1-3, RIP140, PPAR-binding protein, N-CoR, and SMRT in the absence of ligands, suggesting their potent interactions with PPARdelta. Transient transfection assays in AN(3)CA cells show that among members of the SRC family, only SRC-2 serves as a true coactivator for PPARdelta, whereas all SRC members could enhance PPARalpha-induced transcriptional activation. Interestingly, N-CoR and SMRT potently repress PPARdelta-induced transcriptional activation but fail to repress PPARalpha activity. RIP140 is effective in repressing basal and PPAR-induced transcriptional activation. Collectively, the results suggest that gene regulation by PPARdelta in the uterine cells uniquely responds to SRC-2, N-CoR, SMRT, or RIP140, and these interactions may be

  12. Characterization of the ATPase activity of the Escherichia coli RecG protein reveals that the preferred cofactor is negatively supercoiled DNA

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Stephen L.; Buss, Jackson A.; Kimura, Yuji; Bianco, Piero R.

    2007-01-01

    RecG is a member of the Superfamily 2 helicase family. Its possible role in vivo is ATP hydrolysis driven regression of stalled replication forks. To gain mechanistic insight into how this is achieved, a coupled spectrophotometric assay was utilized to characterize the ATPase activity of RecG in vitro. The results demonstrate an overwhelming preference for negatively supercoiled DNA as cofactor for the hydrolysis of ATP. In the presence of (−)scDNA, the catalytic efficiency of RecG and the processivity (as revealed through heparin trapping), were higher than on any other cofactor examined. The activity of RecG on (−)scDNA was not due to the presence of single-stranded regions functioning as loading sites for the enzyme as relaxed circular DNA treated with DNA gyrase, resulted in the highest levels of ATPase activity. Relaxation of (−)scDNA by a topoisomerase resulted in a 12-fold decrease in ATPase activity, comparable to that observed on both linear dsDNA and (+)scDNA. In addition to the elevated activity in the presence of (−)scDNA, RecG also has high activity on model 4Y-substrates (i.e., chickenfoot structures). This is due largely to the high apparent affinity of the enzyme for this DNA substrate which is 46-fold higher than a 2Y-substrate (i.e., a 3-way with two ssDNA arms). Finally, the enzyme exhibited significant, but lower activity on ssDNA. This activity was enhanced by the E. coli SSB protein, which occurs through stabilizing of the binding of RecG to ssDNA. Stabilization is not afforded by the bacteriophage gene 32 protein, indicating a species specific, protein-protein interaction is involved. These results combine to provide significant insight into the manner and timing of the interaction of RecG with DNA at stalled replication forks. PMID:17292398

  13. 77 FR 38395 - Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection Activities (Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment Materials, and... ``OMB Control No. 2900-0682.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Advertising, Sales, and Enrollment... advertising, sales materials, enrollment materials, or candidate handbooks that educational institutions...

  14. Three exploratory studies of relations between young adults' preference for activities involving a specific sense modality and sensory attributes of early memories.

    PubMed

    Westman, A S; Stuve, M

    2001-04-01

    Three studies explored whether young adults' preference for using a sense modality, e.g., hearing, correlated with presence or clarity of attributes of that sense modality in earliest memories from childhood, elementary school, or high school. In Study 1, 75 graduates or seniors in fine arts, fashion merchandising, music, conducting, or dance showed no greater frequency or clarity of any modality's sensory attributes. In Study 2, 213 beginning university students' ratings of current importance of activities emphasizing a sense modality correlated with sensory contents of recollections only for smell and taste. In Study 3, 102 beginning students' ratings of current enjoyment in using a sense modality and sensory contents of recollections were correlated and involved every modality except vision. PMID:11361304

  15. Activation and waste management considerations of fusion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, E. T.; Saji, G.

    1994-09-01

    Inconel-625 (Ni625), SS316, Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64), ferritic steel (FS), reduced activity ferritic steel (RAFS), manganese steel (Mn-steel), and V5Cr5Ti (V55), were examined for a near-term experimental D-T fueled fusion power reactor with respect to waste management. Activation calculations for these materials were performed assuming one year continuous operation at 1 MW/m 2 wall loading. The results show that the blanket components made of V55, Ti64, Mn-steel, and FS will be allowed for transfer to an on-site dry storage facility after 10 years of cooling after discharge. To transport the discharged blanket components to a permanent disposal site, the cooling time needed can be within 10 years for Ti64 and V55, provided that the impurities (mainly Ni, Nb and Mo) be controlled to an acceptable level. The RAFS and Mn-steel will need about 30 y cooling time because of its Fe and Mn contents. Ni625, 316SS, and FS, however, will require more than 50000 y cooling time because of their Nb and Mo contents. The RAFS, Mn-steel, Ti64 and V55 can be shallow-land wastes if the impurity level for Nb and Mo is dropped below 10 ppm.

  16. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhoff, Lee; Williams, Kenneth H.; Long, Philip E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-15

    Uranium contaminated groundwaters are a legacy concern for the U.S. Department of Energy. Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) site have demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduces the ambient soluable uranium concentration, sequestering the radionuclide as uraninite. However, questions remain regarding which microorganism(s) are consuming this acetate and if active groundwater microorganisms are different from active particle-associated bacteria. In this report, 13-C acetate was used to assess the active microbes that synthesize DNA on 3 size fractions [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 micron), groundwater (0.2-8 micron)] over a 24 -day time frame. Results indicated a stronger signal from 13-C acetate associated with the “fines” fraction compared with smaller amounts of 13-C uptake on the sand fraction and groundwater samples during the SIP incubations. TRFLP analysis of this 13-C-labeled DNA, indicated 31+ 9 OTU's with 6 peaks dominating the active profiles (166, 187, 210, 212, and 277 bp peaks using MnlI). Cloning/sequencing of the amplification products indicated a Geobacter-like group (187, 210, 212 bp) primarily synthesized DNA from acetate in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium (166 bp) primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. (277 bp) utilized much of the 13C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria during field-scale acetate addition and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  17. Friends, porn, and punk: sensation seeking in personal relationships, internet activities, and music preference among college students.

    PubMed

    Weisskirch, Robert S; Murphy, Laurel C

    2004-01-01

    One hundred thirty-eight college students completed a questionnaire assessing level of sensation seeking, number of close and casual friends, Internet usage, liking certain styles of music, and genre of music listened to most often. It was found that the number of casual and close friends was positively associated with sensation seeking. Individuals who reported using the Internet to get sex-oriented material, download or play music, play games, and chat/instant message with friends in the previous 24 hours had higher levels of sensation seeking. Liking punk, heavy metal, and reggae music were related to higher levels of sensation seeking. Higher sensation seeking was also associated with spending more time listening to punk music. PMID:15563033

  18. Activities for Teaching about Hazardous Materials in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Robert W.; And Others

    Materials containing hazardous substances present serious problems to human health and to the health of the environment. There are many potential problems related to the site of a house or apartment, the construction materials used in the house or the apartment, products and materials used in and around the home, and disposal of materials.…

  19. ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals for Materials Control and Accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, G.D.; Younkin, J.R.; Bell, Z.W.

    2002-01-01

    The ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals system, a continuously monitored fiber optic, active seal technology, provides real-time tamper indication for large arrays of storage containers. The system includes a PC running the RFAS software, an Immediate Detection Unit (IDU), an Optical Time Domain Reflectometer (OTDR), links of fiber optic cable, and the methods and devices used to attach the fiber optic cable to the containers. When a breach on any of the attached fiber optic cable loops occurs, the IDU immediately signals the connected computer to control the operations of an OTDR to seek the breach location. The ReflectoActive{trademark} Seals System can be adapted for various types of container closure designs and implemented in almost any container configuration. This automatic protection of valued assets can significantly decrease the time and money required for surveillance. The RFAS software is the multi-threaded, client-server application that monitors and controls the components of the system. The software administers the security measures such as a two-person rule as well as continuous event logging. Additionally the software's architecture provides a secure method by which local or remote clients monitor the system and perform administrative tasks. These features provide the user with a robust system to meet today's material control and accountability needs. A brief overview of the hardware, and different hardware configurations will be given. The architecture of the system software, and its benefits will then be discussed. Finally, the features to be implemented in future versions of the system will be presented.

  20. The Allometry of Prey Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Kalinkat, Gregor; Rall, Björn Christian; Vucic-Pestic, Olivera; Brose, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of weak and strong non-linear feeding interactions (i.e., functional responses) across the links of complex food webs is critically important for their stability. While empirical advances have unravelled constraints on single-prey functional responses, their validity in the context of complex food webs where most predators have multiple prey remain uncertain. In this study, we present conceptual evidence for the invalidity of strictly density-dependent consumption as the null model in multi-prey experiments. Instead, we employ two-prey functional responses parameterised with allometric scaling relationships of the functional response parameters that were derived from a previous single-prey functional response study as novel null models. Our experiments included predators of different sizes from two taxonomical groups (wolf spiders and ground beetles) simultaneously preying on one small and one large prey species. We define compliance with the null model predictions (based on two independent single-prey functional responses) as passive preferences or passive switching, and deviations from the null model as active preferences or active switching. Our results indicate active and passive preferences for the larger prey by predators that are at least twice the size of the larger prey. Moreover, our approach revealed that active preferences increased significantly with the predator-prey body-mass ratio. Together with prior allometric scaling relationships of functional response parameters, this preference allometry may allow estimating the distribution of functional response parameters across the myriads of interactions in natural ecosystems. PMID:21998724

  1. Phase Preference by Active, Acetate-Utilizing Bacteria at the Rifle, CO Integrated Field Research Challenge Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kerkhof, L.; Williams, K.H.; Long, P.E.; McGuinness, L.

    2011-02-21

    Previous experiments at the Rifle, Colorado Integrated Field Research Challenge (IFRC) site demonstrated that field-scale addition of acetate to groundwater reduced the ambient soluble uranium concentration. In this report, sediment samples collected before and after acetate field addition were used to assess the active microbes via {sup 13}C acetate stable isotope probing on 3 phases [coarse sand, fines (8-approximately 150 {micro}m), groundwater (0.2-8 {micro}m)] over a 24-day time frame. TRFLP results generally indicated a stronger signal in {sup 13}C-DNA in the 'fines' fraction compared to the sand and groundwater. Before the field-scale acetate addition, a Geobacter-like group primarily synthesized {sup 13}C-DNA in the groundwater phase, an alpha Proteobacterium primarily grew on the fines/sands, and an Acinetobacter sp. and Decholoromonas-like OTU utilized much of the {sup 13}C acetate in both groundwater and particle-associated phases. At the termination of the field-scale acetate addition, the Geobacter-like species was active on the solid phases rather than the groundwater, while the other bacterial groups had very reduced newly synthesized DNA signal. These findings will help to delineate the acetate utilization patterns of bacteria in the field and can lead to improved methods for stimulating distinct microbial populations in situ.

  2. Gender differences regarding preferences for specific heterosexual practices.

    PubMed

    Purnine, D M; Carey, M P; Jorgensen, R S

    1994-01-01

    Few investigations of sexual attitudes have restricted their focus to individuals' preferences for specific behaviors within a heterosexual relationship. None have examined gender differences in a broad and multidimensional array of such behavioral particulars. As part of an effort to develop a measure of preferred scripts in heterosexual couples, 258 men and women reported how much they agreed or disagreed with 74 statements of preference. A reduced and factor analyzed questionnaire included 38 items and was administered to a second sample (N = 228). Results offer qualified support that, compared to women, men are more erotophilic and show a stronger preference for incorporating erotic materials as well as drugs and alcohol into sexual relations with their partner. These results were more robust in the second sample, in which almost half of the subjects were tested in same-sex groups. Across both samples, women showed stronger preferences for activities reflecting romanticism. No gender differences were evident in sexual conventionality or in preference regarding the general use of contraceptives. However, results suggest that both sexes respond more favorably to a partner-focused or unspecified contraceptive method than to a self-focused method. PMID:7897676

  3. Comparative analysis of the substrate preferences of two post-proline cleaving endopeptidases, prolyl oligopeptidase and fibroblast activation protein α

    PubMed Central

    Jambunathan, Kalyani; Watson, Douglas S.; Endsley, Aaron N.; Kodukula, Krishna; Galande, Amit K.

    2012-01-01

    Post-proline cleaving peptidases are promising therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases, psychiatric conditions, metabolic disorders, and many cancers. Prolyl oligopeptidase (POP; E.C. 3.4.21.26) and fibroblast activation protein α (FAP; E.C. 3.4.24.B28) are two post-proline cleaving endopeptidases with very similar substrate specificities. Both enzymes are implicated in numerous human diseases, but their study is impeded by the lack of specific substrate probes. We interrogated a combinatorial library of proteolytic substrates and identified novel and selective substrates of POP and FAP. These new sequences will be useful as probes for fundamental biochemical study, scaffolds for inhibitor design, and triggers for controlled drug delivery. PMID:22750443

  4. Attitudes to concept maps as a teaching/learning activity in undergraduate health professional education: influence of preferred approach to learning.

    PubMed

    Laight, David W

    2006-03-01

    Pre-prepared concept maps that organise knowledge in a non-linear fashion appeal to a variety of cognitive learning styles and may thus represent an educational tool that supports 'teaching to all types'. However, another central cognitive factor, learning approach, may have a bearing on student take-up of this learning resource. Student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps introduced in Stage 2 MPharm and BSc Pharmacology lectures were therefore examined in relation to the principal learning orientations according to Duff's 30-item revised approaches to study inventory (RASI). Approximately one half of students (49.6 +/- 4.5%) reported pre-prepared concept maps to be useful to their learning (n = 121). When preferred learning approach was examined, derived from the highest RASI score per individual and excluding ties, 31.9 +/- 4.3%, 29.3 +/- 4.2% and 38.8 +/- 4.5% of students demonstrated a preference for the deep approach (DA), strategic approach (STA) and surface approach (SUA), respectively (P > 0.05, chi2 goodness-of-fit test, n = 116). There was a weak but statistically significant association between preferred learning approach identified by Duff's 30-item RASI and the self-reported usefulness of concept maps (P < 0.05, chi2 test of independence; Cramer's V = 0.235; lambda = 0.193). In contrast, gender was not significantly associated with attitude to concept maps in this student cohort. A preliminary analysis of standardised residuals based on observed and expected frequencies revealed that the greatest contributions to this significant association were: a positive influence of DA and a negative influence of STA, respectively, on attitude to concept maps. These data now indicate a contribution of the principal learning orientations vis-à-vis student attitudes to pre-prepared concept maps when employed alongside more traditional teaching/learning activities in medical and biomedical science education, and may further suggest a role for concept maps in the

  5. (Bio)hybrid materials based on optically active particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitzig, Manuela; Härtling, Thomas; Opitz, Jörg

    2014-03-01

    In this contribution we provide an overview of current investigations on optically active particles (nanodiamonds, upconversion phospors) for biohybrid and sensing applications. Due to their outstanding properties nanodiamonds gain attention in various application elds such as microelectronics, optical monitoring, medicine, and biotechnology. Beyond the typical diamond properties such as high thermal conductivity and extreme hardness, the carbon surface and its various functional groups enable diverse chemical and biological surface functionalization. At Fraunhofer IKTS-MD we develop a customization of material surfaces via integration of chemically modi ed nanodiamonds at variable surfaces, e.g bone implants and pipelines. For the rst purpose, nanodiamonds are covalently modi ed at their surface with amino or phosphate functionalities that are known to increase adhesion to bone or titanium alloys. The second type of surface is approached via mechanical implementation into coatings. Besides nanodiamonds, we also investigate the properties of upconversion phosphors. In our contribution we show how upconversion phosphors are used to verify sterilization processes via a change of optical properties due to sterilizing electron beam exposure.

  6. Active metameric security devices using an electrochromic material.

    PubMed

    Baloukas, Bill; Lamarre, Jean-Michel; Martinu, Ludvik

    2011-03-20

    In order to increase the anticounterfeiting performance of interference security image structures, we propose to implement an active component using an electrochromic material. This novel device, based on metamerism, offers the possibility of creating various surprising optical effects, it is more challenging to duplicate due to its complexity, and it adds a second level of authentication. By designing optical filters that match the bleached and colored states of the electrochromic device, one can obtain two hidden images-one appearing when the device is tilted, and the other one disappearing when the device is colored under an applied potential. Specifically, we present an example of a filter that is metameric with the colored state of the electrochromic device, demonstrate how the dynamic nature of the device offers more fabrication flexibility, and discuss its performance. We also describe a design methodology for metameric filters based on the luminous efficiency curve of the human eye: this approach results in filters with a lower number of layers and hence lower fabrication costs, and with a lower color difference sensitivity under various illuminants and for nonstandard observers. PMID:21460974

  7. Molecularly imprinted hydrogels as functional active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Benito-Peña, Elena; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Rico-Yuste, Alberto; Barbosa-Pereira, Letricia; Cruz, José Manuel; Bilbao, Ainhoa; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of novel molecularly imprinted hydrogels (MIHs) for the natural antioxidant ferulic acid (FA), and their application as packaging materials to prevent lipid oxidation of butter. A library of MIHs was synthesized using a synthetic surrogate of FA, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)propionic acid (HFA), as template molecule, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linker, and 1-allylpiperazine (1-ALPP) or 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), in combination with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) as functional monomers, at different molar concentrations. The DMAEMA/HEMA-based MIHs showed the greatest FA loading capacity, while the 1-ALLP/HEMA-based polymers exhibited the highest imprinting effect. During cold storage, FA-loaded MIHs protected butter from oxidation and led to TBARs values that were approximately half those of butter stored without protection and 25% less than those recorded for butter covered with hydrogels without FA, potentially extending the shelf life of butter. Active packaging is a new field of application for MIHs with great potential in the food industry. PMID:26213001

  8. Rotational preference in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-06-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast's rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast's rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  9. Rotational Preference in Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Thomas; Jeraj, Damian; Vinken, Pia M.; Velentzas, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    In gymnastics, most skills incorporate rotations about one or more body axes. At present, the question remains open if factors such as lateral preference and/or vestibulo-spinal asymmetry are related to gymnast’s rotational preference. Therefore, we sought to explore relationships in gymnast’s rotation direction between different gymnastic skills. Furthermore, we sought to explore relationships between rotational preference, lateral preference, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry. In the experiment n = 30 non-experts, n = 30 near-experts and n = 30 experts completed a rotational preference questionnaire, a lateral preference inventory, and the Unterberger-Fukuda Stepping Test. The results revealed, that near-experts and experts more often rotate rightward in the straight jump with a full turn when rotating leftward in the round-off and vice versa. The same relationship was found for experts when relating the rotation preference in the handstand with a full turn to the rotation preference in the straight jump with a full turn. Lateral preference was positively related to rotational preference in non-expert gymnasts, and vestibulo-spinal asymmetry was positively related to rotational preference in experts. We suggest, that gymnasts should explore their individual rotational preference by systematically practicing different skills with a different rotation direction, bearing in mind that a clearly developed structure in rotational preference between different skills may be appropriate to develop more complex skills in gymnastics. PMID:23486362

  10. Measuring Children's Food Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…

  11. Color preference in red-green dichromats.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-07-28

    Around 2% of males have red-green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats' preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats' pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red-green activity in deuteranopes' preference. Dichromats' color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  12. Color preference in red–green dichromats

    PubMed Central

    Álvaro, Leticia; Moreira, Humberto; Lillo, Julio; Franklin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Around 2% of males have red–green dichromacy, which is a genetic disorder of color vision where one type of cone photoreceptor is missing. Here we investigate the color preferences of dichromats. We aim (i) to establish whether the systematic and reliable color preferences of normal trichromatic observers (e.g., preference maximum at blue, minimum at yellow-green) are affected by dichromacy and (ii) to test theories of color preference with a dichromatic sample. Dichromat and normal trichromat observers named and rated how much they liked saturated, light, dark, and focal colors twice. Trichromats had the expected pattern of preference. Dichromats had a reliable pattern of preference that was different to trichromats, with a preference maximum rather than minimum at yellow and a much weaker preference for blue than trichromats. Color preference was more affected in observers who lacked the cone type sensitive to long wavelengths (protanopes) than in those who lacked the cone type sensitive to medium wavelengths (deuteranopes). Trichromats’ preferences were summarized effectively in terms of cone-contrast between color and background, and yellow-blue cone-contrast could account for dichromats’ pattern of preference, with some evidence for residual red–green activity in deuteranopes’ preference. Dichromats’ color naming also could account for their color preferences, with colors named more accurately and quickly being more preferred. This relationship between color naming and preference also was present for trichromat males but not females. Overall, the findings provide novel evidence on how dichromats experience color, advance the understanding of why humans like some colors more than others, and have implications for general theories of aesthetics. PMID:26170287

  13. E-Learning Activity-Based Material Recommendation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Feng-jung; Shih, Bai-jiun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Computer based systems have great potential for delivering learning material. However, problems are encountered, such as: difficulty of Learning resource sharing, high redundancy of learning material, and deficiency of the course brief. In order to solve these problems, this paper aims to propose an automatic inquiring system for learning…

  14. Effects of the D3 preferring dopamine agonist pramipexole on sleep and waking, locomotor activity and striatal dopamine release in rats.

    PubMed

    Lagos, P; Scorza, C; Monti, J M; Jantos, H; Reyes-Parada, M; Silveira, R; Ponzoni, A

    1998-05-01

    Quantitation of 2 h sessions after administration of the D3 preferring dopamine (DA) agonist pramipexole (10-500 microg/kg) showed dose-related effects on wakefulness (W), slow wave sleep (SWS) and REM sleep in rats. The 30 microg/kg dose of the DA agonist increased SWS and REM sleep and reduced W during the first recording hour, while the 500 microg/kg dose augmented W. On the other hand, W was increased while SWS and REMS were decreased after the 500 microg/kg dose during the second recording hour. The mixed D2- and D3 receptor antagonist YM-09151-2 (30-500 microg/kg), which per se affected sleep variables prevented the increase of REMS induced by pramipexole. Furthermore, the highest doses (500-1000 microg/kg) of the DA antagonist effectively antagonized the increase of W and reduction of SWS induced by the 500 microg/kg dose of the DA agonist. Pramipexole (30-100 microg/kg) induced a decrease of locomotor activity during the 2 h recording period. In addition, the 500 microg/kg dose gave rise to an initial reduction of motor behavior which was reverted 2 h later. Pramipexole (30 and 500 microg/kg) did not significantly affect striatal DA release during the first two hours following drug administration, as measured by microdialysis. It is tentatively suggested that D3 receptor could be involved in the pramipexole-induced increase of sleep and reduction of locomotor activity. On the other hand, the increase of W and of motor behavior after relatively high doses could be related to activation of postsynaptic D2 receptor. PMID:9619689

  15. Octopamine influences honey bee foraging preference.

    PubMed

    Giray, Tugrul; Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Oskay, Devrim

    2007-07-01

    Colony condition and differences in individual preferences influence forage type collected by bees. Physiological bases for the changing preferences of individual foragers are just beginning to be examined. Recently, for honey bees octopamine is shown to influence age at onset of foraging and probability of dance for rewards. However, octopamine has not been causally linked with foraging preference in the field. We tested the hypothesis that changes in octopamine may alter forage type (preference hypothesis). We treated identified foragers orally with octopamine or its immediate precursor, tyramine, or sucrose syrup (control). Octopamine-treated foragers switched type of material collected; control bees did not. Tyramine group results were not different from the control group. In addition, sugar concentrations of nectar collected by foragers after octopamine treatment were lower than before treatment, indicating change in preference. In contrast, before and after nectar concentrations for bees in the control group were similar. These results, taken together, support the preference hypothesis. PMID:17574568

  16. Octopamine influences honey bee foraging preference

    PubMed Central

    Giray, Tugrul; Galindo, Alberto; Oskay, Devrim

    2010-01-01

    Colony condition and differences in individual preferences influence forage type collected by bees. Physiological bases for the changing preferences of individual foragers are just beginning to be examined. Recently, for honey bees octopamine is shown to influence age at onset of foraging and probability of dance for rewards. However, octopamine has not been causally linked with foraging preference in the field. We tested the hypothesis that changes in octopamine may alter forage type (preference hypothesis). We treated identified foragers orally with octopamine or its immediate precursor, tyramine, or sucrose syrup (control). Octopamine treated foragers switched type of material collected, control bees did not. Tyramine group results were not different from the control group. In addition, sugar concentrations of nectar collected by foragers after octopamine treatment were lower than before treatment, indicating change in preference. In contrast, before and after nectar concentrations for bees in the control group were similar. These results, taken together, support the preference hypothesis. PMID:17574568

  17. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines. PMID:27455227

  18. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; He, J.; Han, M-K.; Sootsman, J. R.; Girard, S.; Arachchige, I. U.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Dravid, V. P.

    2011-08-01

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  19. Electron-beam activated thermal sputtering of thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Jinsong; Dravid, Vinayak P.; He Jiaqing; Han, Mi-Kyung; Sootsman, Joseph R.; Girard, Steven; Arachchige, Indika U.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-08-15

    Thermoelectricity and Seebeck effect have long been observed and validated in bulk materials. With the development of advanced tools of materials characterization, here we report the first observation of such an effect in the nanometer scale: in situ directional sputtering of several thermoelectric materials inside electron microscopes. The temperature gradient introduced by the electron beam creates a voltage-drop across the samples, which enhances spontaneous sputtering of specimen ions. The sputtering occurs along a preferential direction determined by the direction of the temperature gradient. A large number of nanoparticles form and accumulate away from the beam location as a result. The sputtering and re-crystallization are found to occur at temperatures far below the melting points of bulk materials. The sputtering occurs even when a liquid nitrogen cooling holder is used to keep the overall temperature at -170 deg. C. This unique phenomenon that occurred in the nanometer scale may provide useful clues to understanding the mechanism of thermoelectric effect.

  20. Multiple-Coincidence Active Neutron Interrogation of Fissionable Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tinsley, J.R., Hurley, J.P., Trainham, R., Keegan, R.P.

    2008-11-14

    In an extension of the Associated Particle Imaging technique that is used for the detection and imaging of hidden explosives, the present measurements use a beam of tagged 14.1 MeV neutrons in coincidence with two or more gammas to probe for the presence of fissionable materials. We have measured neutron-gamma-gamma coincidences with targets of depleted uranium, tungsten, lead, iron, and carbon and will present results that show the multiple-coincidence counting rate for the depleted uranium is substantially higher than any of the non-fissionable materials. In addition, the presence of coincidences involving delayed particle spectra provides a signature for fissionable materials that is distinct from that for non-fissionable ones. Information from the tagged neutron involved in the coincidence event is used to compute the position of the fissionable material in all three dimensions. The result is an imaging probe for fissionable materials that is compact and portable, and produces relatively low levels of background radiation. Simultaneous measurements on packages of interest for both explosives and fissionable materials are now feasible.

  1. The impact of materials selection on long-term activation in fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. P.; Forty, C. B. A.; Petti, D. A.; McCarthy, K. A.

    2000-12-01

    Neutron-induced transmutation of materials in a D-T fusion power plant will give rise to the potential for long-term activation. To ensure that the attractive safety and environmental characteristics of fusion power are not degraded, careful design choices are necessary. An aim of optimising power plant design must be to minimise both the level of activation and the total volume of active material that might ultimately be categorised as waste requiring disposal. Materials selection is central to this optimisation. In this paper we assess the influence of materials choices for a power plant on the waste volume and the potential to clear (i.e. remove from regulatory control) and recycle material. Although the use of low activation materials in regions of high neutron flux is an important part of the strategy to minimise the level of activation, different choices may result from a strategy aimed at minimising the volume of active waste.

  2. [The use of Dnipro activated charcoal filamentous material in performing extracorporeal sorption detoxification].

    PubMed

    Popov, V D; Serheiev, V P; Sobko, I V; Litvinov, V F

    1998-01-01

    Experimental estimation of properties of an activated carbonic fibrillar material "Dnipro" was conducted. Its application perspectivity while conduction of plasmo-, lympho- and hemosorption was proved. PMID:10050405

  3. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The United States imports 50-100 percent of certain metals critical to the aerospace industry, namely, cobalt, columbium, chromium, and tantalum. In an effort to reduce this dependence on foreign sources, NASA is planning a program called Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM), which will provide technology minimizing strategic metal content in the components of aerospace structures such as aircraft engines. With a proposed starting date of October 1981, the program will consist of strategic element substitution, process technology development, and alternate materials research. NASA's two-fold pre-COSAM studies center on, first, substitution research involving nickel-base and cobalt-base superalloys (Waspaloy, Udimet-700, MAE-M247, Rene 150, HA-188) used in turbine disks, low-pressure blades, turbine blades, and combustors; and, second, alternate materials research devoted initially to investigating possible structural applications of the intermetallic alloys nickel aluminide and iron aluminide.

  4. Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.

  5. Review of activities in USA on HTS materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.

    1995-02-01

    Rapid progress in attaining practical applications of High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) has been made since the discovery of these new materials. Many critical parameters influencing HTS powder synthesis and wire processing have been identified through a combination of fundamental exploration and applied research. The complexity of these novel materials with regard to phase behavior and physical properties has become evident as a result of these careful studies. Achieving optimal mechanical and superconducting properties in wires and tapes will require further understanding and synergy among several different technical disciplines. Highlights of efforts towards producing practical superconductors for electric power applications based on rare earth-, bismuth-, and thallium-based systems are reviewed.

  6. Genotoxic activity of particulate material in petroleum refinery effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, C.D.; Sonstegard, R.A.; Quilliam, M.A.

    1985-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic hazard associated with the discharge of suspended particulates in oil refinery effluents. Particulate extracts were tested by in vitro assays for mutagenic (Ames test) and clastogenic (sister chromatid exchange assay) activity, both with and without mammalian microsomal activation.

  7. A Conserved Active Site Tyrosine Residue of Proline Dehydrogenase Helps Enforce the Preference for Proline over Hydroxyproline as the Substrate†,‡

    PubMed Central

    Ostrander, Elizabeth L.; Larson, John D.; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Tanner, John J.

    2009-01-01

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) catalyzes the oxidation of L-proline to Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate. PRODHs exhibit a pronounced preference for proline over hydroxyproline (trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline) as the substrate, but the basis for specificity is unknown. The goal of this study, therefore, is to gain insights into the structural determinants of substrate specificity of this class of enzyme, with a focus on understanding how PRODHs discriminate between the two closely related molecules, proline and hydroxyproline. Two site-directed mutants of the PRODH domain of Escherichia coli PutA were created: Y540A and Y540S. Kinetics measurements were performed with both mutants. Crystal structures of Y540S complexed with hydroxyproline, proline, and the proline analog L-tetrahydro-2-furoic acid were determined at resolutions of 1.75 Å, 1.90 Å and 1.85 Å. Mutation of Tyr540 increases the catalytic efficiency for hydroxyproline three-fold and decreases the specificity for proline by factors of twenty (Y540S) and fifty (Y540A). The structures show that removal of the large phenol side chain increases the volume of the substrate-binding pocket, allowing sufficient room for the 4-hydroxyl of hydroxyproline. Furthermore, the introduced serine residue participates in recognition of hydroxyproline by forming a hydrogen bond with the 4-hydroxyl. This result has implications for understanding substrate specificity of the related enzyme human hydroxyproline dehydrogenase, which has serine in place of tyrosine at this key active site position. The kinetic and structural results suggest that Tyr540 is an important determinant of specificity. Structurally, it serves as a negative filter for hydroxyproline by clashing with the 4-hydroxyl group of this potential substrate. PMID:19140736

  8. Administration of activated glial condition medium in the nucleus accumbens extended extinction and intensified reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Moradi, Marzieh; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Tomaz, Carlos; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug with significant abuse potential and neurotoxic effects. A high percentage of users relapse to use after detoxification and no effective medication has been developed for treatment of METH addiction. Developing evidences indicated the role of glial cells in drugs abused related phenomena. However, little is known about the role of these cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. Therefore, the current study was conducted to clarify the role of glial cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Astrocyte condition medium (ACM) and neuroglia conditioned medium (NCM) are liquid mediums prepared from primary astrocyte and neuroglia cells. These mediums seem to contain many factors that release by glia cells. CPP was induced by systemic administration of METH (1mg/kg for 5days, s.c.). Following the establishment of CPP, the rats were given daily bilateral injections (0.5μl/side) of either vehicle, ACM or NCM into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and then were tested for the maintenance and reinstatement. Intra-NAc administration of ACM treated with METH, could extend the extinction period and also, intensified the magnitude of METH reinstatement. Furthermore, intra-accumbal administration of NCM treated with METH notably delayed the extinction period by four days and significantly increased the magnitude of CPP score in the reinstatement phase compared to the post-test phase. Collectively, these findings suggested that activation of glial cells may be involved in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. It provides new evidence that glia cells might be considered as a potential target for the treatment of METH addiction. PMID:27346277

  9. NASA's activities in the conservation of strategic aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary objective of the Conservation of Strategic Aerospace Materials (COSAM) Program is to help reduce the dependence of the United States aerospace industry on strategic metals by providing the materials technology needed to minimize the strategic metal content of critical aerospace components with prime emphasis on components for gas turbine engines. Initial emphasis was placed in the area of strategic element substinction. Specifically, the role of cobalt in nickel base and cobalt base superalloys vital to the aerospace industry is being examined in great detail by means of cooperative university-industry-government research efforts. Investigations are underway in the area of "new classes" of alloys. Specifically, a study was undertaken to investigate the mechanical and physical properties of intermetallics that contain a minimum of the strategic metals. Current plans for the much larger COSAM Program are also presented.

  10. Materials for Consideration in Standardized Canister Design Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Ilgen, Anastasia Gennadyevna; Enos, David George; Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Hardin, Ernest

    2014-10-01

    This document identifies materials and material mitigation processes that might be used in new designs for standardized canisters for storage, transportation, and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. It also addresses potential corrosion issues with existing dual-purpose canisters (DPCs) that could be addressed in new canister designs. The major potential corrosion risk during storage is stress corrosion cracking of the weld regions on the 304 SS/316 SS canister shell due to deliquescence of chloride salts on the surface. Two approaches are proposed to alleviate this potential risk. First, the existing canister materials (304 and 316 SS) could be used, but the welds mitigated to relieve residual stresses and/or sensitization. Alternatively, more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic or duplex stainless steels, could be used. Experimental testing is needed to verify that these alternatives would successfully reduce the risk of stress corrosion cracking during fuel storage. For disposal in a geologic repository, the canister will be enclosed in a corrosion-resistant or corrosion-allowance overpack that will provide barrier capability and mechanical strength. The canister shell will no longer have a barrier function and its containment integrity can be ignored. The basket and neutron absorbers within the canister have the important role of limiting the possibility of post-closure criticality. The time period for corrosion is much longer in the post-closure period, and one major unanswered question is whether the basket materials will corrode slowly enough to maintain structural integrity for at least 10,000 years. Whereas there is extensive literature on stainless steels, this evaluation recommends testing of 304 and 316 SS, and more corrosion-resistant steels such as super-austenitic, duplex, and super-duplex stainless steels, at repository-relevant physical and chemical conditions. Both general and localized corrosion testing methods would be used to

  11. Class Scheduling Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Irving E.; And Others

    In order to ascertain students' preferences for the number of times a class should meet each week, 375 questionnaires administered to students during the 1989 summer session at Cuyahoga Community College, Western Campus (Ohio) were evaluated. Results indicated that 49% of respondents preferred classes meeting twice each week, and 29% preferred…

  12. The Learning Preference Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Rezmovic, Victor

    1981-01-01

    Describes the development, validity, and reliability of the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and its use with health professions students and practitioners. Use of the LPI allows identification of individual learning preferences with a fair degree of accuracy. Ways to improve motivation for learning are suggested. (JOW)

  13. Activated Charcoal—A Potential Material in Glucoamylase Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Kareem, S. O.; Akpan, I.; Popoola, T. O. S.; Sanni, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of activated charcoal in the purification of fungal glucoamylase was investigated. Various concentrations of activated charcoal (1–4% w/v) were used to concentrate crude glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus at different temperature values (30–50°C). Effects of pH (3.0–6.0) and contact time (0–60 min) on enzyme purification were also monitored. Activated charcoal (3% w/v) gave a 16-fold purification in a single-step purification at 50°C for 20 min and pH 5.5. The result of SDS-PAGE analysis of purified glucoamylase showed two major protein bands with corresponding molecular weight of 36 kDa and 50 kDa. The method is inexpensive, rapid, and simple which could facilitate downstream processing of industrial enzyme. PMID:22235364

  14. Impaired antipneumococcal activity of bronchoalveolar lining material of neonatal rats.

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, J D; Jarrells, M C

    1989-01-01

    Pulmonary clearance of inhaled pneumococci is markedly impaired in neonatal rats compared with that in adult rats. To determine whether this impairment is due to a deficiency of extracellular bactericidal factors, the antipneumococcal activity of free fatty acids (FFA) in lung surfactant and the levels of lysozyme and transferrin in lavage fluids were quantified. Surfactant from adult rats averaged 68 U of antipneumococcal activity per g (dry weight) of lung, compared with less than 0.25 U for rats less than 1 week old (P less than 0.001). The kinds of FFA in surfactant of neonatal and adult rats were essentially identical, and the antipneumococcal activity of highly purified FFA from surfactant of neonatal and adult rats was also the same. However, the quantity of FFA in surfactant varied significantly with age, and rats less than 3 weeks old had much lower levels of surfactant FFA than did adults (P less than 0.001). In addition, lavage fluids from neonatal rats inhibited the antipneumococcal activity of surfactant FFA more than lavage fluids from adults did (P less than 0.02). This inhibitory activity did not appear to be due to protein binding. Lavage fluids from neonates showed an age-related deficiency of lysozyme (P less than 0.001), but lysozyme appeared to play no role in pneumococcal killing by the surfactant fraction of lavage fluids in vitro. Transferrin levels in lavage fluids were similar for neonates and adults. It was concluded that lung surfactant from neonatal rats was deficient in antipneumococcal activity, due mostly to low levels of FFA and to a lesser degree to increased levels of inhibitor(s) in lavage fluids. PMID:2912894

  15. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2001-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  16. Activated carbon fiber composite material and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Burchell, Timothy D.; Weaver, Charles E.; Chilcoat, Bill R.; Derbyshire, Frank; Jagtoyen, Marit

    2000-01-01

    An activated carbon fiber composite for separation and purification, or catalytic processing of fluids is described. The activated composite comprises carbon fibers rigidly bonded to form an open, permeable, rigid monolith capable of being formed to near-net-shape. Separation and purification of gases are effected by means of a controlled pore structure that is developed in the carbon fibers contained in the composite. The open, permeable structure allows the free flow of gases through the monolith accompanied by high rates of adsorption. By modification of the pore structure and bulk density the composite can be rendered suitable for applications such as gas storage, catalysis, and liquid phase processing.

  17. Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH). Program Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Margaret

    Self contained multi-media kits for grades 1 through 6 involve students directly in the learning process. Emphasis is on non-verbal learning which takes place when youngsters examine real objects and engage in learning activities. Involved in the discovery and inquiry process, students hypothesize, classify, and categorize. In an interdisciplinary…

  18. ALKALI-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENTS AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and characterize alkali-activated slag cements with minimal carbon footprints, as well as to answer scientific questions that have yet to be satisfactorily addressed by prior research. These questions include the final disposition...

  19. Digital active material processing platform effort (DAMPER), SBIR phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1992-01-01

    Applied Technology Associates, Inc., (ATA) has demonstrated that inertial actuation can be employed effectively in digital, active vibration isolation systems. Inertial actuation involves the use of momentum exchange to produce corrective forces which act directly on the payload being actively isolated. In a typical active vibration isolation system, accelerometers are used to measure the inertial motion of the payload. The signals from the accelerometers are then used to calculate the corrective forces required to counteract, or 'cancel out' the payload motion. Active vibration isolation is common technology, but the use of inertial actuation in such systems is novel, and is the focus of the DAMPER project. A May 1991 report was completed which documented the successful demonstration of inertial actuation, employed in the control of vibration in a single axis. In the 1 degree-of-freedom (1DOF) experiment a set of air bearing rails was used to suspend the payload, simulating a microgravity environment in a single horizontal axis. Digital Signal Processor (DSP) technology was used to calculate in real time, the control law between the accelerometer signals and the inertial actuators. The data obtained from this experiment verified that as much as 20 dB of rejection could be realized by this type of system. A discussion is included of recent tests performed in which vibrations were actively controlled in three axes simultaneously. In the three degree-of-freedom (3DOF) system, the air bearings were designed in such a way that the payload is free to rotate about the azimuth axis, as well as translate in the two horizontal directions. The actuator developed for the DAMPER project has applications beyond payload isolation, including structural damping and source vibration isolation. This report includes a brief discussion of these applications, as well as a commercialization plan for the actuator.

  20. Cortisol shifts financial risk preferences.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Narayanan; Hardy, Ben; Page, Lionel; Schaffner, Markus; Graggaber, Johann; Powlson, Andrew S; Fletcher, Paul C; Gurnell, Mark; Coates, John

    2014-03-01

    Risk taking is central to human activity. Consequently, it lies at the focal point of behavioral sciences such as neuroscience, economics, and finance. Many influential models from these sciences assume that financial risk preferences form a stable trait. Is this assumption justified and, if not, what causes the appetite for risk to fluctuate? We have previously found that traders experience a sustained increase in the stress hormone cortisol when the amount of uncertainty, in the form of market volatility, increases. Here we ask whether these elevated cortisol levels shift risk preferences. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over protocol we raised cortisol levels in volunteers over 8 d to the same extent previously observed in traders. We then tested for the utility and probability weighting functions underlying their risk taking and found that participants became more risk-averse. We also observed that the weighting of probabilities became more distorted among men relative to women. These results suggest that risk preferences are highly dynamic. Specifically, the stress response calibrates risk taking to our circumstances, reducing it in times of prolonged uncertainty, such as a financial crisis. Physiology-induced shifts in risk preferences may thus be an underappreciated cause of market instability. PMID:24550472

  1. Exploratory research on mutagenic activity of coal-related materials

    SciTech Connect

    Warshawsky, D.; Schoeny, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    The following samples were found to be mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98 and TA100 Salmonella typhimurium: ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16, and ETTM-17. ETTM-13 was marginally mutagenic for TA1537. ETTM-14 was slightly mutagenic for TA1537, TA1538, and TA98. Mutagenicity by all samples was demonstrated only in the presence of hepatic enzyme extracts (S9) which provided metabolic activation. ETTM-11 was shown to be the most mutagenic sample assayed thus far; specific activity was 2.79 x 10/sup 4/ TA98 revertants/mg sample. Fractionation by serial extractions with increasingly polar organic solvents was done at least 2 x with ETTM-10, ETTM-11, ETTM-15, ETTM-16 and ETTM-17. For some samples highly mutagenic fractions were observed.

  2. Activation instead of blocking mesolimbic dopaminergic reward circuitry is a preferred modality in the long term treatment of reward deficiency syndrome (RDS): a commentary

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Chen, Amanda Lih Chuan; Chen, Thomas JH; Braverman, Eric R; Reinking, Jeffrey; Blum, Seth H; Cassel, Kimberly; Downs, Bernard W; Waite, Roger L; Williams, Lonna; Prihoda, Thomas J; Kerner, Mallory M; Palomo, Tomas; Comings, David E; Tung, Howard; Rhoades, Patrick; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2008-01-01

    . Proposal and conclusion The authors propose that D2 receptor stimulation can be accomplished via the use of Synapatmine™, a natural but therapeutic nutraceutical formulation that potentially induces DA release, causing the same induction of D2-directed mRNA and thus proliferation of D2 receptors in the human. This proliferation of D2 receptors in turn will induce the attenuation of craving behavior. In fact as mentioned earlier, this model has been proven in research showing DNA-directed compensatory overexpression (a form of gene therapy) of the DRD2 receptors, resulting in a significant reduction in alcohol craving behavior in alcohol preferring rodents. Utilizing natural dopaminergic repletion therapy to promote long term dopaminergic activation will ultimately lead to a common, safe and effective modality to treat Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS) behaviors including Substance Use Disorders (SUD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Obesity and other reward deficient aberrant behaviors. This concept is further supported by the more comprehensive understanding of the role of dopamine in the NAc as a "wanting" messenger in the meso-limbic DA system. PMID:19014506

  3. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  4. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  5. Activation analysis of admixtures in certain semiconductive materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artyukhin, P. I.; Gilbert, E. P.; Pronin, V. A.

    1978-01-01

    The use of extractions and chromatographic operations to separate macrobases, and to divide elements into groups convenient for gamma-spectrometric analysis is discussed. Methods are described for the activation detection of some impurities in silicon, arsenic, thallium, and trichloromethylsilane, on the basis of the extraction properties of bis(2-chlorethyl ether) and dimethylbenzylalkylammonium chloride. A schematic diagram of the extraction separation of elements-admixture is presented showing the aqueous and organic phases. The content percentage of the various elements are given in tables.

  6. Expression and site-directed mutagenesis of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C of Bacillus cereus: probing the role of the active site Glu146.

    PubMed

    Martin, S F; Spaller, M R; Hergenrother, P J

    1996-10-01

    A series of site-specific mutants of the phosphatidylcholine-preferring phospholipase C from Bacillus cereus (PLCBc) was prepared in which the glutamic acid residue at position 146 was replaced with glutamine, aspartic acid, histidine, and leucine to elucidate what role Glu146 might play in catalysis. An expression system for the native enzyme in Escherichia coli was first developed to provide PLCBc that was fused via an intervening factor Xa protease recognition sequence at its N-terminus to maltose binding protein (MBP). This MBP-PLCBc fusion protein was isolated at levels of 50-70 mg/L of culture; selective trypsin digestion of the MBP-PLCBc fusion protein followed by chromatographic purification yielded recombinant PLCBc at levels of ca. 10 mg/L. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mutagenesis on the PLCBc gene (plc) was then used to replace the Glu146 codon with those for glutamine (E146Q), aspartic acid (E146D), histidine (E146H), and leucine (E146L). The catalytic efficiency of the E146Q mutant was 1.6% that of native PLCBc, while the other mutants each possessed activities of 0.2-0.3% of the wild type. The kcat/Km vs pH profiles for both E146Q and native PLCBc have ascending acidic limbs, suggesting that Glu146 does not serve as the general base in the hydrolysis reaction. As measured by circular dichroism, all of the mutant proteins contained less helical structure and underwent denaturation at lower temperatures than the wild type in the order: wild type > E146Q > E146D approximately E146H approximately E146L. Atomic absorption analyses indicated that the mutant proteins also exhibited lower Zn2+ content than the wild type. Thus, the Glu146 residue in PLCBc stabilizes the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme and serves as a critical ligand for Zn2, but it does not appear to have any specific catalytic role. PMID:8841144

  7. Catalog of programs, activities, assistance, and materials for young inventors

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.E. . Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Div.)

    1990-01-01

    An important issue to Americans during the 1990s will be improving the country's economic health by nurturing creative problem-solving in today's youth. The Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP) at the US Department of Energy is contributing to this important effort by funding the development and annual revision of this catalog. The purpose of the catalog is to act as a springboard for involving educators and inventor organizations in programs for young inventors by describing existing programs in the US and Canada, including names, addresses, and telephone numbers. We especially encourage collaboration between educators and inventors in developing local programs. The first part of the catalog describes how 39 inventor organizations have acted as catalysts in statewide programs, developed special programs for young inventors outside the classroom, and written curriculum materials. The second part of the catalog describes local, statewide, and national programs and contests developed by a variety of organizations, individuals, and school systems. Program types are located by geographic region, and entries are indexed by state/province, program name, and grade level. 1 fig.

  8. Mechanical properties of materials obtained via alkaline activation of illite-based clays of Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sperberga, I.; Rundans, M.; Cimmers, A.; Krage, L.; Sidraba, I.

    2015-04-01

    Materials has been synthesized in the temperature range from 60-100 °C from two illite based clays of Latvia under activation of KOH and NaOH solutions (4-6 M). Compressive strength and apparent porosity were measured. The effect of concentration of KOH and NaOH solutions on the material mechanical properties was investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy (IR). Compressive strength data of the materials showed that via such activation could obtain building materials with good quality.

  9. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA`s, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  10. Characterization of the airborne activity confinement system prefilter material

    SciTech Connect

    Long, T.A.; Monson, P.R.

    1992-05-01

    A general concern with assessing the effects of postulated severe accidents is predicting and preventing the release of radioactive isotopes to the environment at the Savannah River Site (SRS) reactor. Unless the confinement systems are breached in an accident the Airborne Activity Confinement System forces all of the internal air through the filter compartments. Proper modeling of the radioactivity released to the environment requires knowledge of the filtering characteristics of the demisters, the HEPA's, and the charcoal beds. An investigation of the mass loading characteristics for a range of particle sizes was performed under the direction of Vince Novick of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) in connection with the restart of the K reactor. Both solid and liquid aerosols were used to challenge sample prefilter and HEPA filters. The results of the ANL investigation are reported in this document.

  11. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  12. Impact of active material surface area on thermal stability of LiCoO2 cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geder, Jan; Hoster, Harry E.; Jossen, Andreas; Garche, Jürgen; Yu, Denis Y. W.

    2014-07-01

    Thermal stability of charged LiCoO2 cathodes with various surface areas of active material is investigated in order to quantify the effect of LiCoO2 surface area on thermal stability of cathode. Thermogravimetric analyses and calorimetry have been conducted on charged cathodes with different active material surface areas. Besides reduced thermal stability, high surface area also changes the active material decomposition reaction and induces side reactions with additives. Thermal analyses of LiCoO2 delithiated chemically without any additives or with a single additive have been conducted to elaborate the effect of particle size on side reactions. Stability of cathode-electrolyte system has been investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Arrhenius activation energy of cathode decomposition has been calculated as function of conversion at different surface area of active material.

  13. Supercritical adsorption testing of porous silicon, activated carbon, and zeolite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, Brendan

    The supercritical adsorption of methane gas on porous silicon, activated carbon, and zeolite materials was studied. An apparatus that utilizes the volumetric adsorption measurement technique was designed and constructed to conduct the experiments. Activated carbon materials consisted of Norit RX3 Extra, Zorflex FM30K woven activated carbon cloth, and Zorflex FM10 knitted activated carbon cloth. Zeolite materials consisted of 3A, 4A, 5A, and 13X zeolites. Porous silicon materials consisted of stain etched and electrochemically etched porous films, and stain etched porous powder. All adsorption tests were conducted at room temperature (approximately 298 K) and pressures up to approximately 5 MPa. Overall, the Norit RX3 Extra granulated activated carbon produced the highest excess adsorption and effective storage capacities. Effective storage and delivery capacities of 109 and 90 stpmlml were obtained at a pressure of 3.5 MPa and a temperature of approximately 298 K.

  14. Poly(3-phenylthiophene) derivatives as active materials for electrochemical capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Mona M.

    Poly(3-(4-methylsulfonylphenyl)thiophenes) (PMSPT), (3-(4-cyanophenyl)-thiophene) (PCNPT), (3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)thiophene) (MPFPT), (3-(3,5difluorophenyl)thiophene) (MMFPT), and (3-(3-fluorophenyl)thiophene) (MFPT) polymers were prepared and electrochemically characterized in various organic electrolytes. The morphologies and electrochemical performance of the films were shown to depend on both the growth and cycling electrolytes. Constant current multicycle tests were performed on single cell devices using the type III capacitor configuration at high voltage (2.8-2.9 V) employing MPFPT, PCNPT, PMSPT and PFPT polymers. Energy and power densities of up to 50 Wh/kg and 5 kW/kg were achieved and excellent stabilities (up to 1200 n-doping/dedoping cycles) were demonstrated. Industrial practicum. The industrial practicum report on "Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Performance Polymeric Thin Films for Advanced Interconnect Applications" determined the copolymerization and characterization of four novel copolymers of Parylene-N by a CVD process at low temperature. These copolymers retain the advantages of the CVD process and also modify the properties of the Parylene homopolymer significantly such as lowering the dielectric constant from 2.65 to ˜2.0, increasing the thermal stability and enhancing the adhesion. Apprenticeship practicum. The study on "Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of The Zeolite Encapsulated Ruthenium hexadeca-fluorophthalocyanine Complexes" determined the catalytic activity of this fluorinated ruthenium phthalocyanine which was encapsulated in zeolite NaX during crystallization. Both the free complex RuFsb{16}Pc and the encapsulated (RuFsb{16}Pc-NaX) were found to be effective catalysts for the oxidation of cyclohexane with high efficiency and stability.

  15. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  16. Cellular activity of bioactive nanograined/ultrafine-grained materials.

    PubMed

    Misra, R D K; Thein-Han, W W; Mali, S A; Somani, M C; Karjalainen, L P

    2010-07-01

    Our recent electron microscopy study on biomimetic nanostructured coatings on nanograined/ultrafine-grained (NG/UFG) substrates [Mater Sci Eng C 2009;29:2417-27] indicated that electrocrystallized nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) on phase-reversion-induced NG/UFG substrates exhibited a vein-type interconnected and fibrillar structure that closely mimicked the hierarchical structure of bone. The fibrillar structure on NG/UFG substrate is expected to be more favorable for cellular response than a planar surface. In contrast, hydroxyapatite (HA) coating on coarse-grained (CG) substrate more closely resembled a film rather than a fibrillar structure. Inspired by the differences in the structure of HA coating, we describe here the cell-substrate interactions of pre-osteoblasts (MC 3T3-E1) on bioactive NG/UFG and CG austenitic stainless steel substrates. NG/UFG austenitic stainless steel was obtained by a novel controlled phase-reversion annealing of cold-deformed austenite. This example provides an illustration of how a combination of cellular and molecular biology, materials science and engineering can advance our understanding of cell-substrate interactions. Interestingly, the cellular response of nanohydroxyapatite (nHA)-coated NG/UFG substrate demonstrated superior cytocompatibility, improved initial cell attachment, higher viability and proliferation, and well-spread morphology in relation to HA-coated CG substrate and their respective uncoated (bare) counterparts as implied by fluorescence and electron microscopy and MTT assay. Similar conclusions were derived from an immunofluorescence study that involved examination of the expression levels of vinculin focal adhesion contacts associated with dense actin stress fibers and fibronectin, protein analysis through protein bands in SDS-PAGE, and quantitative total protein assay. The enhancement of cellular response followed the sequence: nHA-coated NG/UFG>nHA-coated CG>NG/UFG>CG substrates. The outcomes of the study are

  17. Active smart material system for buffet load alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarus, Kenneth B.; Saarmaa, Erik; Agnes, Gregory S.

    1995-05-01

    This paper addressed the feasibility of using an active piezoelectric buffet suppression system to reduce buffet vibrations in vertical tail aircraft. During the assessment, functional requirements were defined, models were developed, and full-scale piezoelectric buffet suppression systems were designed and evaluated. A variety of actuator distributions, sensor locations and controller architectures were examined and it was found that significant performance improvements could be achieved (greater than 70 percent) with minimal weight penalties (less than 8 percent). This work enabled the evaluation of issues such as system performance versus added weight and piezoelectric actuator control authority and power requirements. The study showed that the added performance benefit (in terms of vibration reduction and fatigue life) are far greater than the weight penalty, and that piezoelectric actuators have the control authority required to suppress high energy buffet forces within aircraft geometry, weight, and power constraints. Further, the high performance achieved (much greater than that defined in the functional requirements) suggests that systems can be designed with a much lower weight penalty (1/2 to 1/4) than that assumed in this study.

  18. Active control of acoustic pressure fields using smart material technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Smith, R. C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview describing the use of piezoceramic patches in reducing noise in a structural acoustics setting is presented. The passive and active contributions due to patches which are bonded to an Euler-Bernoulli beam or thin shell are briefly discussed and the results are incorporated into a 2-D structural acoustics model. In this model, an exterior noise source causes structural vibrations which in turn lead to interior noise as a result of nonlinear fluid/structure coupling mechanism. Interior sound pressure levels are reduced via patches bonded to the flexible boundary (a beam in this case) which generate pure bending moments when an out-of-phase voltage is applied. Well-posedness results for the infinite dimensional system are discussed and a Galerkin scheme for approximating the system dynamics is outlined. Control is implemented by using linear quadratic regulator (LQR) optimal control theory to calculate gains for the linearized system and then feeding these gains back into the nonlinear system of interest. The effectiveness of this strategy for this problem is illustrated in an example.

  19. THERMAL IMAGING OF ACTIVE MAGNETIC REGERNERATOR MCE MATERIALS DURING OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Shassere, Benjamin; West, David L; Abdelaziz, Omar; Evans III, Boyd Mccutchen

    2012-01-01

    An active magnetic regenerator (AMR) prototype was constructed that incorporates a Gd sheet into the regenerator wall to enable visualization of the system s thermal transients. In this experiment, the thermal conditions inside the AMR are observed under a variety of operating conditions. An infrared (IR) camera is employed to visualize the thermal transients within the AMR. The IR camera is used to visually and quantitatively evaluate the temperature difference and thus giving means to calculate the performance of the system under the various operating conditions. Thermal imaging results are presented for two differing experimental test runs. Real time imaging of the thermal state of the AMR has been conducted while operating the system over a range of conditions. A 1 Tesla twin-coil electromagnet (situated on a C frame base) is used for this experiment such that all components are stationary during testing. A modular, linear reciprocating system has been realized in which the effects of regenerator porosity and utilization factor can be investigated. To evaluate the performance variation in porosity and utilization factor the AMR housing was constructed such that the plate spacing of the Gd sheets may be varied. Each Gd sheet has dimensions of 38 mm wide and 66 mm long with a thickness of 1 mm and the regenerator can hold a maximum of 29 plates with a spacing of 0.25 mm. Quantitative and thermal imaging results are presented for several regenerator configurations.

  20. Preferences for Pink and Blue: The Development of Color Preferences as a Distinct Gender-Typed Behavior in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wang I; Hines, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    Many gender differences are thought to result from interactions between inborn factors and sociocognitive processes that occur after birth. There is controversy, however, over the causes of gender-typed preferences for the colors pink and blue, with some viewing these preferences as arising solely from sociocognitive processes of gender development. We evaluated preferences for gender-typed colors, and compared them to gender-typed toy and activity preferences in 126 toddlers on two occasions separated by 6-8 months (at Time 1, M = 29 months; range 20-40). Color preferences were assessed using color cards and neutral toys in gender-typed colors. Gender-typed toy and activity preferences were assessed using a parent-report questionnaire, the Preschool Activities Inventory. Color preferences were also assessed for the toddlers' parents using color cards. A gender difference in color preferences was present between 2 and 3 years of age and strengthened near the third birthday, at which time it was large (d > 1). In contrast to their parents, toddlers' gender-typed color preferences were stronger and unstable. Gender-typed color preferences also appeared to establish later and were less stable than gender-typed toy and activity preferences. Gender-typed color preferences were largely uncorrelated with gender-typed toy and activity preferences. These results suggest that the factors influencing gender-typed color preferences and gender-typed toy and activity preferences differ in some respects. Our findings suggest that sociocognitive influences and play with gender-typed toys that happen to be made in gender-typed colors contribute to toddlers' gender-typed color preferences. PMID:25680819

  1. Micro- and Nanostructured Materials for Active Devices and Molecular Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Peter M.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Burrows, Paul E.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Mast, Eric S.; Hall, Michael G.; Bonham, Charles C.; Zumhoff, Mac R.; Williford, Rick E.

    2003-10-01

    Traditional single layer barrier coatings are not adequate in preventing degradation of the performance of organic molecular electronic and other active devices. Most advanced devices used in display technology now consist of micro and nanostructured small molecule, polymer and inorganic coatings with thin high reactive group 1A metals. This includes organic electronics such as organic light emitting devices (OLED). The lifetimes of these devices rapidly degrades when they are exposed to atmospheric oxygen and water vapor. Thin film photovoltaics and batteries are also susceptible to degradation by moisture and oxygen. Using in-line coating techniques we apply a composite nanostructured inorganic/polymer thin film barrier that restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels using conventional permeation test equipment. We describe permeation mechanisms for this encapsulation coating and flat panel display and other device applications. Permeation through the multilayer barrier coating is defect and pore limited and can be described by Knudsen diffusion involving a long and tortuous path. Device lifetime is also enhanced by the long lag times required to reach the steady state flux regime. Permeation rates in the range of 10-6 cc,g/m2/d have been achieved and OLED device lifetimes. The structure is robust, yet flexible. The resulting device performance and lifetimes will also be described. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide yielding an engineered nanostructured device for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. This enables, for the first time, thin film encapsulation of emissive organic displays.

  2. Progress Report {number_sign}1 on the materials identification, characterization and evaluation activity: Acquisition of materials data from the Exploratory Studies Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Meike, A., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    This paper reports on the initial work within the Materials Identification, Characterization and Evaluation Sub-activity Integration Activity within the Introduced Materials Task (IMT) (WBS 1.2.3.12.5). The goals of this activity are twofold.: (1) to identify and characterize types and usage of materials that are most likely to be introduced into a potential High Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a result of its construction and operation and (2) to provide tools for the Integration Activity to evaluate the chemical impact on the repository based on information gathered from sources external and internal to the Introduced Materials Task-by the Literature Survey Sub-activity (Integration Activity, IMT). Based on this information and assessment, the Integration Activity activates relevant activities within the Introduced Materials Task and provides information to other Tasks within the Yucca Mountain Project.

  3. Micromechanics and constitutive models for soft active materials with phase evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Binglian

    Soft active materials, such as shape memory polymers, liquid crystal elastomers, soft tissues, gels etc., are materials that can deform largely in response to external stimuli. Micromechanics analysis of heterogeneous materials based on finite element method is a typically numerical way to study the thermal-mechanical behaviors of soft active materials with phase evolution. While the constitutive models that can precisely describe the stress and strain fields of materials in the process of phase evolution can not be found in the databases of some commercial finite element analysis (FEA) tools such as ANSYS or Abaqus, even the specific constitutive behavior for each individual phase either the new formed one or the original one has already been well-known. So developing a computationally efficient and general three dimensional (3D) thermal-mechanical constitutive model for soft active materials with phase evolution which can be implemented into FEA is eagerly demanded. This paper first solved this problem theoretically by recording the deformation history of each individual phase in the phase evolution process, and adopted the idea of effectiveness by regarding all the new formed phase as an effective phase with an effective deformation to make this theory computationally efficient. A user material subroutine (UMAT) code based on this theoretical constitutive model has been finished in this work which can be added into the material database in Abaqus or ANSYS and can be easily used for most soft active materials with phase evolution. Model validation also has been done through comparison between micromechanical FEA and experiments on a particular composite material, shape memory elastomeric composite (SMEC) which consisted of an elastomeric matrix and the crystallizable fibre. Results show that the micromechanics and the constitutive models developed in this paper for soft active materials with phase evolution are completely relied on.

  4. Oil-containing waste water treating material consisting of modified active carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, S.; Takenaka, Y.

    1982-03-16

    An oil-containing waste water treating material comprises an active carbon upon whose surface is chemically bonded at least one nitrogenous compound which is an amine or a quaternarized derivative thereof.

  5. "Go Be a Writer": Intra-Activity with Materials, Time and Space in Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuby, Candace R.; Rucker, Tara Gutshall; Kirchhofer, Jessica M.

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on research in a United States second-grade classroom during a multimodal literacy workshop. Observing students working with tissue paper, foam board, string, pipe cleaners and other materials, we asked how is intra-activity with materials, time and space influencing literacy learning in Room 203? While the research…

  6. The risks and consequences from the transport of low specific activity materials by truck

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, N.C.; McClure, J.D.; Cashwell, J.W.; Ostmeyer, R.O.; Wangler, M.

    1989-01-01

    The packaging and transport category of low specific activity (LSA) material was conceived for radioactive materials (RAM) that were considered inherently safe for transport. Such materials could be transported in ''strong, tight'' packages. The primary concern for the radionuclide content in LSA materials was associated with the potential for inhalation of particulate radioactive material. Thus, the specifications for the category in terms of specific activity were structured to preclude excessive inhalation hazard. The current version of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations maintains the inhalation-related limits but also shows concern that the restrictions on the LSA category may not preclude an excessive external radiation hazard for gamma-emitting materials. This paper presents the results of an investigation of the potential for such excessive external radiation hazards, particularly for LSA materials with specific activity levels near the current regulatory limit. Analyses are discussed that were performed to evaluate the potential radiological impacts of highway accidents leading to the release of high radiation level-low specific activity (HRL-LSA) materials from their packagings. The results of the analyses are intended to provide a basis for evaluating restrictions on the quantity of gamma-emitting radionuclides that can be contained in an LSA shipment. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers: comparison to quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2016-03-01

    We review a microscopic laser theory for quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers, in which carrier collisions are treated at the level of quantum kinetic equations. The computed characteristics of such a quantum-dot active material are compared to a state-of-the-art quantum-well quantum cascade laser. We find that the current requirement to achieve a comparable gain-length product is reduced compared to that of the quantum-well quantum cascade laser.

  8. Rattling Nucleons: New Developments in Active Interrogation of Special Nuclear Material

    SciTech Connect

    Robert C. Runkle; David L. Chichester; Scott J. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Active interrogation is a vigorous area of research and development due to its promise of offering detection and characterization capabilities of special nuclear material in environments where passive detection fails. The primary value added by active methods is the capability to penetrate shielding - special nuclear material itself, incidental materials, or intentional shielding - and advocates hope that active interrogation will provide a solution to the problem of detecting shielded uranium, which is at present the greatest obstacle to interdiction efforts. The technique also provides a unique benefit for quantifying nuclear material in high background-radiation environments, an area important for nuclear material safeguards and material accountancy. Progress has been made in the field of active interrogation on several fronts, most notably in the arenas of source development, systems integration, and the integration and exploitation of multiple fission and non-fission signatures. But penetration of interrogating radiation often comes at a cost, not only in terms of finance and dose but also in terms of induced backgrounds, system complexity, and extended measurement times (including set up and acquisition). These costs make the calculus for deciding to implement active interrogation more subtle than may be apparent. The purpose of this review is thus to examine existing interrogation methods, compare and contrast their attributes and limitations, and identify missions where active interrogation may hold the most promise.

  9. Low-activation properties of novel Cr-based materials for fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Merola, Mario

    1996-10-01

    Due to the low neutron-induced radioactivity of their main constituent, two novel Cr-based structural materials are examined, from the low-activation properties viewpoint, as candidate first-wall materials for fusion reactors. The two alloys are Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, and Cr sbnd 44Fe sbnd 5Al sbnd 0.3Ti sbnd 0.5Y 2O 3. Their low-activation properties have been compared with those of some reference materials, in particular the austenitic steel AISI 316L, the Mn-based reduced-activation steel OPTSTAB, a V sbnd 5Ti alloy and a ceramic matrix composite (SiC/SiC). Impurities and tramp elements have been included in the calculations. Irradiation conditions envisaged for the SEAFP (Safety and Environmental Assessment of Fusion Power) study have been adopted. Advantages of the proposed materials with respect to steels, either reference alloys or reduced-activation ones, appear evident from the results of the activation analysis. Cr sbnd 5Fe sbnd 1Y 2O 3, in particular, show excellent low-activation characteristics. This material can be a good choice for further development and characterization of first-wall and blanket structural materials for fusion power reactors.

  10. Efficiency of biological activator formulated material (BAFM) for volatile organic compounds removal--preliminary batch culture tests with activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Corre, Charline; Couriol, Catherine; Amrane, Abdeltif; Dumont, Eric; Andrès, Yves; Le Cloirec, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    During biological degradation, such as biofiltration of air loaded with volatile organic compounds, the pollutant is passed through a bed packed with a solid medium acting as a biofilm support. To improve microorganism nutritional equilibrium and hence to enhance the purification capacities, a Biological Activator Formulated Material (BAFM) was developed, which is a mixture of solid nutrients dissolving slowly in a liquid phase. This solid was previously validated on mineral pollutants: ammonia and hydrogen sulphide. To evaluate the efficiency of such a material for biodegradation of some organic compounds, a simple experiment using an activated sludge batch reactor was carried out. The pollutants (sodium benzoate, phenol, p-nitrophenol and 2-4-dichlorophenol) were in the concentration range 100 to 1200 mg L(-1). The positive impact of the formulated material was shown. The improvement of the degradation rates was in the range 10-30%. This was the consequence of the low dissolution of the nutrients incorporated during material formulation, followed by their consumption by the biomass, as shown for urea used as a nitrogen source. Owing to its twofold interest (mechanical resistance and nutritional supplementation), the Biological Activator Formulated Material seems to be a promising material. Its addition to organic or inorganic supports should be investigated to confirm its relevance for implementation in biofilters. PMID:22988627

  11. The preference for potential.

    PubMed

    Tormala, Zakary L; Jia, Jayson S; Norton, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    When people seek to impress others, they often do so by highlighting individual achievements. Despite the intuitive appeal of this strategy, we demonstrate that people often prefer potential rather than achievement when evaluating others. Indeed, compared with references to achievement (e.g., "this person has won an award for his work"), references to potential (e.g., "this person could win an award for his work") appear to stimulate greater interest and processing, which can translate into more favorable reactions. This tendency creates a phenomenon whereby the potential to be good at something can be preferred over actually being good at that very same thing. We document this preference for potential in laboratory and field experiments, using targets ranging from athletes to comedians to graduate school applicants and measures ranging from salary allocations to online ad clicks to admission decisions. PMID:22775472

  12. [Food preferences among students].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, R; Villalbí, J R

    1993-07-01

    The results of a food preference survey using a questionnaire on 2,567 schoolchildren of sixth, seventh and eighth grade (11 to 14 years of age) from 26 public schools in the city of Barcelona (Spain) are presented. Foods based on potatoes and cereals have the maximum acceptability, followed by dairy and meat products. Chicken is the meat with highest acceptance. Fish has a medium acceptance, and preference for dry beans and peas, fruits and vegetables is lower, although it is high for some specific foods. Important differences among sexes are observed. Boys have higher preference for meat, milk and yogurt, and girls for fish and some vegetables. Differences among genders increase with increasing age. These results are relevant for planning interventions on diet in schools from a health promotion perspective, and for the planning of school lunch programs. PMID:8363142

  13. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, R.

    1983-11-07

    A battery electrode material comprises a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  14. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    DOEpatents

    Varma, Ravi

    1987-01-01

    A battery electrode material comprising a non-stoichiometric electrode-active material which forms a redox pair with the battery electrolyte, an electrically conductive polymer present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, and a binder. The conductive polymer provides improved proton or ion conductivity and is a ligand resulting in metal ion or negative ion vacancies of less than about 0.1 atom percent. Specific electrodes of nickel and lead are disclosed.

  15. Metal Preferences and Metallation*

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Andrew W.; Osman, Deenah; Robinson, Nigel J.

    2014-01-01

    The metal binding preferences of most metalloproteins do not match their metal requirements. Thus, metallation of an estimated 30% of metalloenzymes is aided by metal delivery systems, with ∼25% acquiring preassembled metal cofactors. The remaining ∼70% are presumed to compete for metals from buffered metal pools. Metallation is further aided by maintaining the relative concentrations of these pools as an inverse function of the stabilities of the respective metal complexes. For example, magnesium enzymes always prefer to bind zinc, and these metals dominate the metalloenzymes without metal delivery systems. Therefore, the buffered concentration of zinc is held at least a million-fold below magnesium inside most cells. PMID:25160626

  16. Determination of contamination in rare earth materials by promptgamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay,Zs.

    2004-11-09

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and understanding of contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions such as the rare earth ions themselves in bulk material matrices.

  17. Activation of polymeric materials towards enzymatic postgrafting and cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Fatarella, E; Ciabatti, I; Cortez, J

    2012-10-10

    A methodology to activate inert polymeric materials to enzymatic functionalisation is described herein. Plasma irradiation can be used to graft compounds containing a moiety that is reactive towards an enzyme of interest. Subsequently, such enzyme can be used to either postgraft functional compounds or cross-link the polymeric materials. Argon plasma was utilised to graft 2-aminoethyl methacrylate onto cotton and wool fibres, introducing surface alkylamine groups to impart reactivity towards transglutaminase and tyrosinase. The efficiency of plasma grafting was verified by ATR-FTIR. Enzyme postgrafting of fluorescent peptides coupled with confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate transglutaminase activity towards cotton, a material typically inert to this enzyme. The grafting of alkylamines onto wool resulted in additional cross-linking by both enzymes, leading to significantly increased yarn breaking load and elongation at break. This technology permits the activation of inert materials towards enzymatic postgrafting, with applications in fields as diverse as textiles and biomaterials. PMID:22975121

  18. Covalent attachment of lysozyme to cotton/cellulose materials: protein verses solid support activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covalent attachment of enzymes to cellulosic materials like cotton is of interest where either release or loss of enzyme activity over time needs to be avoided. The covalent attachment of an enzyme to a cellulosic substrate requires either activation of a protein side chain or an organic functional ...

  19. Tools for Activating Materials and Tasks in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Most teachers have seen the reactions students can have to tasks and activities that they do not find engaging: the glassy or rolling eyes, the unfocused behavior, and the cries of "Not again!" This article provides practical techniques that the author's students have helped him learn over the years to better "activate" materials and tasks in the…

  20. How Do Distance Learners Use Activities in Self-Instructional Materials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Sanjaya; Gaba, Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of a study on the use of learning activities in self-instructional materials by distance learners of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It shows that learners make use of the activities extensively as they have positive perceptions about benefits of Self-Assessment Questions and Terminal Questions given in the…

  1. Performance of Nonmigratory Iron Chelating Active Packaging Materials in Viscous Model Food Systems.

    PubMed

    Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2015-09-01

    Many packaged food products undergo quality deterioration due to iron promoted oxidative reactions. Recently, we have developed a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material that represents a novel approach to inhibit oxidation of foods while addressing consumer demands for "cleanˮ labels. A challenge to the field of nonmigratory active packaging is ensuring that surface-immobilized active agents retain activity in a true food system despite diffusional limitations. Yet, the relationship between food viscosity and nonmigratory active packaging activity retention has never been characterized. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of food viscosity on iron chelation by a nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging material. Methyl cellulose was added to aqueous buffered iron solutions to yield model systems with viscosities ranging from ∼1 to ∼10(5)  mPa·s, representing viscosities ranging from beverage to mayonnaise. Iron chelation was quantified by material-bound iron content using colorimetry and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).  Maximum iron chelation was reached in solutions up to viscosity ∼10(2)  mPa·s. In more viscous solutions (up to ∼10(4)  mPa·s), there was a significant decrease in iron chelating capacity (P < 0.05). However, materials still retained at least 76% iron chelating capacity. Additionally, the influence of different food hydrocolloids on the performance of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging was characterized. Methyl cellulose and carrageenan did not compete with the material for specific iron chelation (P > 0.05). Materials retained 32% to 45% chelating capacity when in contact with competitively chelating hydrocolloids guar gum, locust bean gum, and xanthan gum. This work demonstrates the potential application of nonmigratory iron chelating active packaging in liquid and semi-liquid foods to allow for the removal of synthetic chelators, while

  2. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-02-13

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.

  3. IFMIF - International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility Conceptual Design Activity/Interim Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rennich, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    Environmental acceptability, safety, and economic viability win ultimately be the keys to the widespread introduction of fusion power. This will entail the development of radiation- resistant and low- activation materials. These low-activation materials must also survive exposure to damage from neutrons having an energy spectrum peaked near 14 MeV with annual radiation doses in the range of 20 displacements per atom (dpa). Testing of candidate materials, therefore, requires a high-flux source of high energy neutrons. The problem is that there is currently no high-flux source of neutrons in the energy range above a few MeV. The goal, is therefore, to provide an irradiation facility for use by fusion material scientists in the search for low-activation and damage-resistant materials. An accellerator-based neutron source has been established through a number of international studies and workshops` as an essential step for materials development and testing. The mission of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is to provide an accelerator-based, deuterium-lithium (D-Li) neutron source to produce high energy neutrons at sufficient intensity and irradiation volume to test samples of candidate materials up to about a full lifetime of anticipated use in fusion energy reactors. would also provide calibration and validation of data from fission reactor and other accelerator-based irradiation tests. It would generate material- specific activation and radiological properties data, and support the analysis of materials for use in safety, maintenance, recycling, decommissioning, and waste disposal systems.

  4. Review of Physics Related Research and Development Activities in Nondestructive Characterization of Solid Rocket Motor Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Lee H.

    1998-10-01

    The perception that solid rocket motors (srm) are of relatively simple mechanical construction with a long history in private, military, and NASA applications may lead some to believe that little is left to be done in terms of basic and applied research and development in support of this technology. The fact is that srm?s are very complicated primarily because of the complexity of the materials from which they are built. The reliability and performance of srm?s are determined by the ballistic and mechanical properties of each individual material component, and by the manufacturing processes that conjoin these materials. In order to insure reliability and good performance, there are on-going materials research and development activities in the srm community. Included are activities involving the development of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods used for materials and processes characterization. Typical applications include: detection and characterization of defects in fiber reinforced composite materials, detection of weak bonds and debonds, verification of surface cleanliness prior to bonding, characterization of aging materials and bondlines, measurement of elastic properties in filled polymeric materials, monitoring of cure in polymeric materials, and measurement of film or coating thicknesses. NDE methods and physics principles upon which they are based will be described. Challenges and future research and development directions will be identified.

  5. The activity of nanocrystalline Fe-based alloys as electrode materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Christian Immanuel; Sellschopp, Kai; Tegel, Marcus; Rauscher, Thomas; Kieback, Bernd; Röntzsch, Lars

    2016-02-01

    In view of alkaline water electrolysis, the activities for the hydrogen evolution reaction of nanocrystalline Fe-based electrode materials were investigated and compared with the activities of polycrystalline Fe and Ni. Electrochemical methods were used to elucidate the overpotential value, the charge transfer resistance and the double layer capacity. Structural properties of the electrode surface were determined with SEM, XRD and XPS analyses. Thus, a correlation between electrochemical and structural parameters was found. In this context, we report on a cyclic voltammetric activation procedure which causes a significant increase of the surface area of Fe-based electrodes leading to a boost in effective activity of the activated electrodes. It was found that the intrinsic activity of activated Fe-based electrodes is very high due to the formation of a nanocrystalline surface layer. In contrast, the activation procedure influences only the intrinsic activity of the Ni electrodes without the formation of a porous surface layer.

  6. Activated carbon from leather shaving wastes and its application in removal of toxic materials.

    PubMed

    Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2010-07-15

    In this study, utilization of a solid waste as raw material for activated carbon production was investigated. For this purpose, activated carbons were produced from chromium and vegetable tanned leather shaving wastes by physical and chemical activation methods. A detailed analysis of the surface properties of the activated carbons including acidity, total surface area, extent of microporosity and mesoporosity was presented. The activated carbon produced from vegetable tanned leather shaving waste produced has a higher surface area and micropore volume than the activated carbon produced from chromium tanned leather shaving waste. The potential application of activated carbons obtained from vegetable tanned shavings as adsorbent for removal of water pollutants have been checked for phenol, methylene blue, and Cr(VI). Adsorption capacities of activated carbons were found to be comparable to that of activated carbons derived from biomass. PMID:20382474

  7. Real space mapping of ionic diffusion and electrochemical activity in energy storage and conversion materials

    DOEpatents

    Kalinin, Sergei V; Balke, Nina; Kumar, Amit; Dudney, Nancy J; Jesse, Stephen

    2014-05-06

    A method and system for probing mobile ion diffusivity and electrochemical reactivity on a nanometer length scale of a free electrochemically active surface includes a control module that biases the surface of the material. An electrical excitation signal is applied to the material and induces the movement of mobile ions. An SPM probe in contact with the surface of the material detects the displacement of mobile ions at the surface of the material. A detector measures an electromechanical strain response at the surface of the material based on the movement and reactions of the mobile ions. The use of an SPM tip to detect local deformations allows highly reproducible measurements in an ambient environment without visible changes in surface structure. The measurements illustrate effective spatial resolution comparable with defect spacing and well below characteristic grain sizes of the material.

  8. Material Activation Benchmark Experiments at the NuMI Hadron Absorber Hall in Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumura, H.; Matsuda, N.; Kasugai, Y.; Toyoda, A.; Yashima, H.; Sekimoto, S.; Iwase, H.; Oishi, K.; Sakamoto, Y.; Nakashima, H.; Leveling, A.; Boehnlein, D.; Lauten, G.; Mokhov, N.; Vaziri, K.

    2014-06-15

    In our previous study, double and mirror symmetric activation peaks found for Al and Au arranged spatially on the back of the Hadron absorber of the NuMI beamline in Fermilab were considerably higher than those expected purely from muon-induced reactions. From material activation bench-mark experiments, we conclude that this activation is due to hadrons with energy greater than 3 GeV that had passed downstream through small gaps in the hadron absorber.

  9. Preferring the Contemporary Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Marc

    1980-01-01

    Describes a study that indicated that readers of college newspapers prefer a front page style that is contemporary and emphasizes a horizontal layout to either an avant-garde style that features an entirely horizontal layout or a traditional layout having a vertical page. (TJ)

  10. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  11. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26301463

  12. Electrode-active material for electrochemical batteries and method of preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R.

    1987-08-18

    A method is described of preparing a battery electrode comprising providing an electrode-active material selected from chalogen-containing compounds of Ni, Fe, Pb, Co, Cu and mixtures thereof for a positive electrode and selected from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu, Si, Al, Pb and alloys thereof for the negative electrode, mixing a ligand in the form of an electrically conductive polymer with the electrode-active material wherein the polymer is present in the range of from about 2% by weight to about 5% by weight of the electrode-active material, to provide metal ion or negative ion vacancies in the range of from about 0.05 to about 0.1 atom percent, the ligands for a positive electrode being selected from the class consisting of polyacetylene polymers having molecular weights in excess of 10,000 and cyclic polyamide with 3-5 functional groups. The ligands for a negative electrode are selected from the class consisting of tertiary butyl cyclohexyl-15-crown-5, TTF-TCNQ, and polymers of polyethylene oxide and one or more of LiCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/, LiBr, Na/sub 2/S, and NaCN, mixing a binder with the electrode-active material and polymer, and forming the mixed electrode-active material and polymer and binder into a battery electrode.

  13. Relationship of endogenous circadian melatonin and temperature rhythms to self-reported preference for morning or evening activity in young and older people

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Hall, E. F.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morningness-eveningness refers to interindividual differences in preferred timing of behavior (i.e., bed and wake times). Older people have earlier wake times and rate themselves as more morning-like than young adults. It has been reported that the phase of circadian rhythms is earlier in morning-types than in evening types, and that older people have earlier phases than young adults. These changes in phase have been considered to be the chronobiological basis of differences in preferred bed and wake times and age-related changes therein. Whether such differences in phase are associated with changes in the phase relationship between endogenous circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle has not been investigated previously. METHODS: We investigated the association between circadian phase, the phase relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms, and morningness-eveningness, and their interaction with aging. In this circadian rhythm study, 68 young and 40 older subjects participated. RESULTS: Among the young subjects, the phase of the melatonin and core temperature rhythms occurred earlier in morning than in evening types and the interval between circadian phase and usual wake time was longer in morning types. Thus, while evening types woke at a later clock hour than morning types, morning types actually woke at a later circadian phase. Comparing young and older morning types we found that older morning types had an earlier circadian phase and a shorter phase-wake time interval. The shorter phase-waketime interval in older "morning types" is opposite to the change associated with morningness in young people, and is more similar to young evening types. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate an association between circadian phase, the relationship between the sleep-wake cycle and circadian phase, and morningness-eveningness in young adults. Furthermore, they demonstrate that age-related changes in phase angle cannot be attributed fully to

  14. Alcohol-preferring rats show decreased corticotropin-releasing hormone 2 receptor expression and differences in HPA activation compared to alcohol-nonpreferring rats

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Weidong; Spence, John Paul; Eskay, Robert; Fitz, Stephanie D.; Damadzic, Ruslan; Lai, Dongbing; Foroud, Tatiana; Carr, Lucinda G.; Shekhar, Anantha; Chester, Julia A.; Heilig, Markus; Liang, Tiebing

    2014-01-01

    Background Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and urocortins (UCNs) bind to corticotropin releasing hormone type 2 receptor (CRH-R2), a Gs protein-coupled receptor that plays an important role in modulation of anxiety and stress responses. The Crhr2 gene maps to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4 previously identified in inbred alcohol-preferring (iP) and non-preferring (iNP) F2 rats. Methods and Results Crhr2 mRNA expression was determined in male alcohol-naïve iP and iNP rats in several brain regions, and lower levels of Crhr2 mRNA were observed in iP rats compared to iNP rats. To identify genetic variation that may underlie differences detected in Crhr2 expression, DNA sequencing was performed and variations were identified in the promoter region, coding region and 3’-untranslated region between the iP and iNP rats. A 7bp insertion in the Crhr2 promoter of iP rats altered expression in vitro as measured by reporter assays. While CRH-R2 binding affinity did not significantly differ between male iP and iNP receptor variants, CRH-R2 density was lower in the amygdala of iP as compared to iNP rats. Male P rats displayed decreased social interaction and significantly higher corticosterone levels directly following 30 minute restraint when compared to male NP rats. Conclusions This study identified Crhr2 as a candidate gene of interest underlying the chromosome 4 QTL for alcohol consumption that was previously identified in the P and NP model. Crhr2 promoter polymorphism reduced mRNA expression in certain brain regions, particularly the amygdala, and lowered the density of CRH-R2 in the amygdala of iP compared to iNP rats. Together, these differences between the animals may contribute to the drinking disparity as well as the anxiety differences of the P and NP animals. PMID:24611993

  15. Materials Property Profiles for Actively Cooled Panels: An Illustration for Scramjet Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermaak, N.; Valdevit, L.; Evans, A. G.

    2009-04-01

    A scheme for identifying and visualizing the material properties that limit the performance of candidate materials for actively cooled aerospace propulsion components is presented and illustrated for combustor panels for Mach 7 hypersonic vehicles. The method provides a framework for exploring the nonlinear interactions between design and materials optimization. By probing the active constraints along the border of feasible design space, the limiting properties have been elucidated for a representative group of candidate materials. Property vectors that enhance design options have also been determined. For one of the promising candidate alloys (the Ni-based superalloy, INCONEL X-750), the possibilities of reclaiming design space and lowering optimal combustor panel weight by tailoring its strength properties are assessed.

  16. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  17. METAMORPHOSE VI - the Virtual Institute for artificial electromagnetic materials and metamaterials: origin, mission, and activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilotti, Filiberto; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Schuchinsky, Alex; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, we outline the background, mission, and activities of the Virtual Institute for Artificial Electromagnetic Materials and Metamaterials (METAMORPHOSE VI). This international association, founded in the framework of the FP-6 Network of Excellence METAMORPHOSE, aims at promoting and developing research, training, and dissemination activities in the emerging and highly dynamic field of advanced electromagnetic materials and metamaterials at both European and International levels. More than 300 researchers are currently associated with the METAMORPHOSE VI which networks them together in a learnt society. After a brief description of the association and its mission, we present an overview of the activities developed by the METAMORPHOSE VI, with a particular emphasis on the coordination of the European Doctoral Program on Metamaterials (EUPROMETA) and the organization of the International Congress on Advanced Electromagnetic Materials in Microwaves and Optics - metamaterials congress.

  18. Use of silicon carbide sludge to form porous alkali-activated materials for insulating application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prud'homme, E.; Joussein, E.; Rossignol, S.

    2015-07-01

    One of the objectives in the field of alkali-activated materials is the development of materials having greater thermal performances than conventional construction materials such as aerated concrete. The aim of this paper is to present the possibility to obtain controlled porosity and controlled thermal properties with geopolymer materials including a waste like silicon carbide sludge. The porosity is created by the reaction of free silicon contains in silicon carbide sludge leading to the formation of hydrogen. Two possible ways are investigated to control the porosity: modification of mixture formulation and additives introduction. The first way is the most promising and allowed the formation of materials presenting the same density but various porosities, which shows that the material is adaptable to the application. The insulation properties are logically linked to the porosity and density of materials. A lower value of thermal conductivity of 0.075 W.m-1.K-1 can be reached for a material with a low density of 0.27 g.cm-3. These characteristics are really good for a mineral-based material which always displays non-negligible resistance to manipulation.

  19. Patient education preferences in ophthalmic care

    PubMed Central

    Rosdahl, Jullia A; Swamy, Lakshmi; Stinnett, Sandra; Muir, Kelly W

    2014-01-01

    Background The learning preferences of ophthalmology patients were examined. Methods Results from a voluntary survey of ophthalmology patients were analyzed for education preferences and for correlation with race, age, and ophthalmic topic. Results To learn about eye disease, patients preferred one-on-one sessions with providers as well as printed materials and websites recommended by providers. Patients currently learning from the provider were older (average age 59 years), and patients learning from the Internet (average age 49 years) and family and friends (average age 51 years) were younger. Patients interested in cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and dry eye were older; patients interested in double vision and glasses were younger. There were racial differences regarding topic preferences, with Black patients most interested in glaucoma (46%), diabetic retinopathy (31%), and cataracts (28%) and White patients most interested in cataracts (22%), glaucoma (22%), and macular degeneration (19%). Conclusion Most ophthalmology patients preferred personalized education: one-on-one with their provider or a health educator and materials (printed and electronic) recommended by their provider. Age-related topics were more popular with older patients, and diseases with racial risk factors were more popular with high risk racial groups. PMID:24812493

  20. Material characterization of active fiber composites for integral twist-actuated rotor blade application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2004-10-01

    The primary objective of this work was to perform material characterization of the active fiber composite (AFC) actuator system for the Boeing active material rotor (AMR) blade application. The purpose of the AMR was to demonstrate active vibration control in helicopters through integral twist-actuation of the blade. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to enhance actuation performance. These conformable actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural control. Therefore, extensive electromechanical material characterization was required to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included nominal actuation tests, stress-strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing procedure developed to evaluate the relevant properties of the AFCs for structural application. The material characterization tests provided an invaluable insight into the behavior of the AFCs under various electromechanical conditions. The results from this comprehensive material characterization of the AFC actuator system supported the design and operation of the AMR blades scheduled for wind tunnel tests.

  1. Preferences, needs and QALYs.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, J

    1996-01-01

    Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) have become a household word among health economists. Their use as a means of comparing the value of health programmes and medical interventions has stirred up controversy in the medical profession and the academic community. In this paper, I argue that QALY analysis does not adequately take into account the differentiated nature of the health state values it measures. Specifically, it does not distinguish between needs and preferences with respect to its valuation of health states. I defend the view that needs and preferences are clearly distinguishable, and that the concept of needs cannot be dispensed with, as many health economists suggest. It is argued that the scale along which health states are measured in QALY analysis is not a continuous interval scale, but one which concerns two distinctly different value dimensions. Measuring the values of health state intervals may reveal the weighting attached to the different value dimensions. PMID:8910777

  2. Son preference in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Haughton, J; Haughton, D

    1995-01-01

    This article assesses the strength of son preference in Vietnam, as reflected in fertility behavior. It formulates and estimates a proportional hazards model applied to birth intervals, and a contraceptive prevalence model, using household survey data from 2,636 ever-married women aged 15-49 with at least one living child who were interviewed for the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1992-1993. Son preference is found to be strong by world standards, but nevertheless, it has a minor effect on fertility; in its absence, the total fertility rate would fall by roughly 10 percent from the current level of about 3.2 children per woman of reproductive age. PMID:8826072

  3. Activity concentration of natural radioactive nuclides in nonmetallic industrial raw materials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Tabe, Hiroyuki; Yonehara, Hidenori

    2014-11-01

    Natural materials such as rock, ore, and clay, containing natural radioactive nuclides are widely used as industrial raw materials in Japan. If these are high concentrations, the workers who handle the material can be unknowingly exposed to radiation at a high level. In this study, about 80 nonmetallic natural materials frequently used as industrial raw materials in Japan were comprehensively collected from several industrial companies, and the activity concentrations of (238)U series, (232)Th series and (40)K in the materials was determined by ICP-MS (inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer) and gamma ray spectrum analyses. Effective doses to workers handling them were estimated by using methods for dose estimation given in the RP 122. We found the activity concentrations to be lower than the critical values defined by regulatory requirements as described in the IAEA Safety Guide. The maximum estimated effective dose to workers handling these materials was 0.16 mSv y(-1), which was lower than the reference level (1-20 mSv y(-1)) for existing situation given in the ICRP Publ.103. PMID:25046866

  4. Determination of elements in National Bureau of Standards' geological Standard Reference Materials by neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, C.C.; Glascock, M.D.; Carni, J.J.; Vogt, J.R.; Spalding, T.G.

    1982-08-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) have been used to determine elemental concentrations in two recently issued National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Materials (SRM's). The results obtained are in good agreement with the certified and information values reported by NBS for those elements in each material for which comparisons are available. Average concentrations of 35 elements in SRM 278 obsidian rock and 32 elements in SRM 688 basalt rock are reported for comparison with results that may be obtained by other laboratories.

  5. Coaching preferences of athletes.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Howe, B L

    1984-12-01

    The study examined the coaching preferences of 80 male and 80 female athletes, as measured by the Leadership Scale for Sports (Chelladurai and Saleh, 1978, 1980). In addition, it attempted to assess the applicability to sport of the Life-cycle and Path-goal theories of leadership. Comparisons between groups were made on the basis of sex, age, and type of sport. A MANOVA indicated that athletes in independent sports preferred more democratic behaviour (p less than .001) and less autocratic behaviour (p = .028) than athletes in interdependent sports. No differences in coaching preferences were found which could be attributed to the age or sex of the athlete, or the variability of the sports task. These results partially supported the Path-goal theory, but did not support the Life-cycle theory. Athletes of all groups tended to favour coaches who displayed training behaviour and rewarding behaviour "often", democratic behaviour and social support behaviour "occasionally", and autocratic behaviour "seldom". This consistency may be a useful finding for those organizations and institutions interested in preparing coaches. PMID:6525751

  6. Perspectives on Preference Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Regenwetter, Michel

    2009-07-01

    For centuries, the mathematical aggregation of preferences by groups, organizations, or society itself has received keen interdisciplinary attention. Extensive theoretical work in economics and political science throughout the second half of the 20th century has highlighted the idea that competing notions of rational social choice intrinsically contradict each other. This has led some researchers to consider coherent democratic decision making to be a mathematical impossibility. Recent empirical work in psychology qualifies that view. This nontechnical review sketches a quantitative research paradigm for the behavioral investigation of mathematical social choice rules on real ballots, experimental choices, or attitudinal survey data. The article poses a series of open questions. Some classical work sometimes makes assumptions about voter preferences that are descriptively invalid. Do such technical assumptions lead the theory astray? How can empirical work inform the formulation of meaningful theoretical primitives? Classical "impossibility results" leverage the fact that certain desirable mathematical properties logically cannot hold in all conceivable electorates. Do these properties nonetheless hold true in empirical distributions of preferences? Will future behavioral analyses continue to contradict the expectations of established theory? Under what conditions do competing consensus methods yield identical outcomes and why do they do so? PMID:26158988

  7. Clay Mineral Preferred Orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anisotropy of the orientation of clay minerals, often referred to as texture, may be unique to sediments' deposition, composition, deformation or diagenetic history. The literature is rich with studies that include preferred orientation generation in fault gouge, low-grade metamorphic rocks, sediments with variable clay content and during the smectite-to-illite transformation. Untangling the interplay between many competing factors in any one geologic situation has proven a significant challenge over many years. Understanding how, where and when clay minerals develop a preferred orientation has significant implications for permeability anisotropy in shallow burial, the way mechanical properties are projected from shallower to deeper settings in basin modeling packages and the way velocity anisotropy is accounted for in seismic data processing. The assessment of the anisotropic properties of fine-grained siliciclastic rocks is gaining significant momentum in rock physics research. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of how clay minerals develop a preferred orientation in space and time is crucial to the understanding of anisotropy of physical properties. The current study brings together a wealth of data that may be used in a predictive sense to account for fabric anisotropy that may impact any number of rock properties.

  8. Are College Students' Textbook Reading and Instructional Preferences Related to Their Self-Efficacy and Disposition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Ronald L.; Conner, Timothy W., II; Aagaard, Lola

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between academic self-efficacy, dispositional optimism/pessimism, and preferences regarding the use of text materials and in-class activities of college students at a university that serves one of the highest-poverty regions in the United States. A sample of 105 students was surveyed.…

  9. Corrosion susceptibility study of candidate pin materials for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovard, Francine S.; Cieslak, Wendy R.

    1987-09-01

    The corrosion susceptibilities of eight alternate battery pin material candidates for ALTC (Active Lithium/Thionyl Chloride) batteries in 1.5M LiAlCl4/SOCl2 electrolyte have been investigated using ampule exposure and electrochemical tests. The thermal expansion coefficients of these candidate materials are expected to match Sandia-developed Li-corrosion resistant glasses. The corrosion resistances of the candidate materials, which included three stainless steels (15-5 PH, 17-4 PH, and 446), three Fe-Ni glass sealing alloys (Kovar, Alloy 52, and Niromet 426), a Ni-based alloy (Hastelloy B-2) and a zirconium-based alloy (Zircaloy), were compared to the reference materials Ni and 316L SS. All of the candidate materials showed some evidence of corrosion and, therefore, did not perform as well as the reference materials. The Hastelloy B-2 and Zircaloy are clearly unacceptable materials for this application. Of the remaining alternate materials, the 446 SS and Alloy 52 are the most promising candidates.

  10. The shy prefer familiar congeners.

    PubMed

    Benhaïm, David; Ferrari, Sébastien; Chatain, Béatrice; Bégout, Marie-Laure

    2016-05-01

    The shy-bold continuum is both a fundamental aspect of human behavior and a relatively stable behavioral trait for many other species. Here we assessed whether shy individuals prefer familiar congeners, taking the European sea bass, a recently domesticated fish showing similar behavioral responses to wild fish, as a model to better understand the inter-individual variability in social behavior previously observed in this species. In the wild, the link between familiarity i.e., the preference of fish for familiar congeners and boldness could be part of the mechanism underlying shoaling formation in fish. Thirty fish were individually tested in a device designed to assess the preference for a familiar vs. an unfamiliar congener on the basis of visual cues only. An open field test (OFT) with shelter was performed on the same fish 32 days later to assess the boldness of each individual. Variables of interest included the proportion of time spent in the shelter, border and center zone of the arena and variables of activity. Variables measured in OFT were collapsed into first principal component scores using Principal Components Analysis (PCA) which allowed characterizing a shy-bold continuum. Time spent near the familiar congener was negatively correlated with boldness i.e., shy individuals spent most of the time near the familiar congener. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the understanding of the behavior of European sea bass and suggest that the link between familiarity and shyness is a general aspect of both animal and human behavior. PMID:26995491

  11. Activated sampling in complex materials at finite temperature: The properly obeying probability activation-relaxation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, Henk; Chubynsky, M. V.; Barkema, G. T.; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-12-01

    While the dynamics of many complex systems is dominated by activated events, there are very few simulation methods that take advantage of this fact. Most of these procedures are restricted to relatively simple systems or, as with the activation-relaxation technique (ART), sample the conformation space efficiently at the cost of a correct thermodynamical description. We present here an extension of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART), that obeys detailed balance and samples correctly the thermodynamic ensemble. Testing POP-ART on two model systems, a vacancy and an interstitial in crystalline silicon, we show that this method recovers the proper thermodynamical weights associated with the various accessible states and is significantly faster than molecular dynamics in the simulations of a vacancy below 700 K.

  12. Activated sampling in complex materials at finite temperature: the properly obeying probability activation-relaxation technique.

    PubMed

    Vocks, Henk; Chubynsky, M V; Barkema, G T; Mousseau, Normand

    2005-12-22

    While the dynamics of many complex systems is dominated by activated events, there are very few simulation methods that take advantage of this fact. Most of these procedures are restricted to relatively simple systems or, as with the activation-relaxation technique (ART), sample the conformation space efficiently at the cost of a correct thermodynamical description. We present here an extension of ART, the properly obeying probability ART (POP-ART), that obeys detailed balance and samples correctly the thermodynamic ensemble. Testing POP-ART on two model systems, a vacancy and an interstitial in crystalline silicon, we show that this method recovers the proper thermodynamical weights associated with the various accessible states and is significantly faster than molecular dynamics in the simulations of a vacancy below 700 K. PMID:16396563

  13. Comparison of dielectric materials for the activation of a macro-scale hinge configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordi, C.; Schmidt, A.; Kovacs, G.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2011-04-01

    While much of the research on dielectric elastomer actuators used to concentrate on VHB 4910 as dielectric material, lately many new, specifically developed materials have come into focus. The acrylic VHB has been thoroughly characterized in a macro-scale agonist-antagonist configuration on an active hinge. This was carried out with the aim of using it on an airship, which was activated, undulating body and a fin and thus propelled in a fish-like manner. The concept was proved in flight, but still lifetime and viscosity of the actuators and the time-costing fabrication due to the necessary large pre-stretches of the dielectric membrane caused severe inconveniences. In order to evaluate the usability of other materials for this specific purpose, two other materials, a corrugated silicone with silver electrodes (by PolyPower) and an acrylic with interpenetrating network (IPN) developed by Pei et al. were characterized under similar conditions. The influence of the material on performance and design of the actuators and the conclusions for the use of the materials on the airship (and on applications with similar performance requirements) are presented.

  14. Active Learning and Just-in-Time Teaching in a Material and Energy Balances Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberatore, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    The delivery of a material and energy balances course is enhanced through a series of in-class and out-of-class exercises. An active learning classroom is achieved, even at class sizes over 150 students, using multiple instructors in a single classroom, problem solving in teams, problems based on YouTube videos, and just-in-time teaching. To avoid…

  15. NREL Develops Accelerated Sample Activation Process for Hydrogen Storage Materials (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-12-01

    This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in developing a new sample activation process that reduces the time to prepare samples for measurement of hydrogen storage from several days to five minutes and provides more uniform samples. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center.

  16. Teaching about Hazardous and Toxic Materials. Teaching Activities in Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Disinger, John F.; Lisowski, Marylin

    Designed to assist practitioners of both formal and non-formal settings, this 18th volume of the ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education's Teaching Activities in Environmental Education series specifically focuses on the theme of hazardous and toxic materials. Initially, basic environmental concepts that deal with…

  17. People* Working . . . *Especially Women . . . A Book of Materials, Activities, and Ideas for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valiant, Sharon

    This bibliography lists publications and other media, historical facts, and suggestions for activities that show women as working and accomplishing people. Materials are from all grade levels (K-12) and many subject areas. Arrangement is in three sections. Part I deals with women who have worked but not for wages, the pioneer, the homemaker, and…

  18. Coordinating and Performing Activities for Employer. Using Other Reference Materials. Student Manual and Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Maleeta M.

    Supporting performance objective 45 of the V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States) Secretarial Catalog, both a set of student materials and an instructor's manual on using reference books are included in this packet. (The packet is the third in a set of four on coordinating and performing activities for employers--CE 016…

  19. UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; Rodriguez-Lafuente, A; Alfaro, P; Nerin, C

    2012-10-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is a useful tool in the analysis of non-volatile compounds, and the use of a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass analyzer allows a high sensitivity and accuracy when acquiring full fragment mode, providing a high assurance of correct identification of unknown compounds. In this work, UPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology has been applied to the analysis of non-volatile migrants from new active packaging materials. The materials tested were based on polypropylene (PP), ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The active packaging materials studied were one PP film containing a natural antioxidant, and two PP/EVOH films, two PET/EVOH films and one coextruded PP/EVOH/PP film containing natural antimicrobials. The chemical structure of several compounds was unequivocally identified. The analysis revealed the migration of some of the active substances used in the manufacture of active packaging, such as caffeine (0.07 ± 0.01 μg/g), carvacrol (0.31 ± 0.03 μg/g) and citral (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/g). Unintentionally added substances were also found, such as citral reaction compounds, or citral impurities present in the raw materials. PMID:22836481

  20. Active photonic crystal devices in self-assembled electro-optic polymeric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Neyman, P. J.; Vercellino, M.; Heflin, J. R.; Duncan, R.; Evoy, S.

    2004-03-01

    Photonic crystals (PC) offer novel and potent approaches for the control of light compared to traditional technologies. The development of a photonic crystal technology in electro-optic (EO) materials would now provide a novel approach for the development and integration of important "active devices" such as switch, interferometers, etc. We report the development of an active photonic crystal technology that uses ionically self-assembled multilayer (ISAM) as materials platform. Specifically, we concentrate on ISAM film grown from the alternate deposition of individual monolayers of Procion Red MX-5B (PR) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). Films grown with this method show a second harmonic generation (SHG) factor (2) as high as 11 x 10-9 esu, and a r33 coefficient of 3 pm/V. Active photonic crystal are designed and demonstrated in this material using the FEMLAB software. In a first design, a simple switch is implemented by simple shift of the photonic crystal bandgap of a waveguiding structure. A Mach-Zehnder photonic crystal interferometer structure is also demonstrated, in which a 1800 phase shift is obtained between the two arms. We will report on the preliminary realization of active photonic devices using this material self-assembly and nanofabrication platform.

  1. Active packaging materials from Poly(Lactic Acid)and Pectin composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Active packaging of foods is receiving considerable attention from the food industry and food researchers. The ability to wrap foods in packaging materials that can provide additional functions, such as retaining freshness or preventing spoilage and pathogen growth, would be very important for the f...

  2. Active Optical Metasurfaces Based on Defect-Engineered Phase-Transition Materials.

    PubMed

    Rensberg, Jura; Zhang, Shuyan; Zhou, You; McLeod, Alexander S; Schwarz, Christian; Goldflam, Michael; Liu, Mengkun; Kerbusch, Jochen; Nawrodt, Ronny; Ramanathan, Shriram; Basov, D N; Capasso, Federico; Ronning, Carsten; Kats, Mikhail A

    2016-02-10

    Active, widely tunable optical materials have enabled rapid advances in photonics and optoelectronics, especially in the emerging field of meta-devices. Here, we demonstrate that spatially selective defect engineering on the nanometer scale can transform phase-transition materials into optical metasurfaces. Using ion irradiation through nanometer-scale masks, we selectively defect-engineered the insulator-metal transition of vanadium dioxide, a prototypical correlated phase-transition material whose optical properties change dramatically depending on its state. Using this robust technique, we demonstrated several optical metasurfaces, including tunable absorbers with artificially induced phase coexistence and tunable polarizers based on thermally triggered dichroism. Spatially selective nanoscale defect engineering represents a new paradigm for active photonic structures and devices. PMID:26690855

  3. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008) Adaptive and Active Materials: Selected Papers from the ASME 2008 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 08) (Maryland, USA, 28-30 October 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    The rapid development of the field of Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures, and Materials Systems led the Aerospace Division ASMS TC to launch the new annual SMASIS conference in 2008. The conference focuses on the multi-disciplinary challenges of developing new multifunctional materials and implementing them in advanced systems. The research spans length scales from nano-structured materials to civil, air, and space structures. The first conference consisted of six symposia, each focusing on a different research area. This special issue of Smart Materials and Structures summarizes some of the top research presented at the 2008 SMASIS conference in the materials-focused symposia. These symposia focused on the behavior and mechanics of active materials, on multifunctional materials, and on bio-inspired materials. The behavior and mechanics of active materials is an approach that combines observed material behavior with mechanism-based models that not only give insight into the observed behavior, but guide the development of new materials. This approach has been applied to shape memory metals and polymers, ferroelectrics, ferromagnetics, and recently to multiferroic materials, and has led to considerable improvements in our understanding of multi-field phenomena. Multifunctional materials are the next generation of active materials. These materials include structural, sensing, and actuation components integrated into a material system. A natural extension of multifunctional materials is a new class of bio-inspired materials. Bio-inspired materials range from detailed bio-mimicry of sensing and self healing materials to nano and microstructures that take advantage of features observed in biological systems. The Editors would like to express their sincere thanks to all of the authors for their contributions to this special issue on 'Adaptive and Active Materials' for Smart Materials and Structures. We convey our gratitude to all of the reviewers for their time and

  4. Student learning style preferences in college-level biology courses: Implications for teaching and academic performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitton, Jennifer Susan

    Education research has focused on defining and identifying student learning style preferences and how to incorporate this knowledge into teaching practices that are effective in engaging student interest and transmitting information. One objective was determining the learning style preferences of undergraduate students in Biology courses at New Mexico State University by using the online VARK Questionnaire and an investigator developed survey (Self Assessed Learning Style Survey, LSS). Categories include visual, aural, read-write, kinesthetic, and multimodal. The courses differed in VARK single modal learning preferences (p = 0.035) but not in the proportions of the number of modes students preferred (p = 0.18). As elsewhere, the majority of students were multimodal. There were similarities and differences between LSS and VARK results and between students planning on attending medical school and those not. Preferences and modalities tended not to match as expected for ratings of helpfulness of images and text. To detect relationships between VARK preferred learning style and academic performance, ANOVAs were performed using modality preferences and normalized learning gains from pre and post tests over material taught in the different modalities, as well as on end of semester laboratory and lecture grades. Overall, preference did not affect the performance for a given modality based activity, quiz, or final lecture or laboratory grades (p > 0.05). This suggests that a student's preference does not predict an improved performance when supplied with material in that modality. It is recommended that methods be developed to aid learning in a variety of modalities, rather than catering to individual learning styles. Another topic that is heavily debated in the field of education is the use of simulations or videos to replace or supplement dissections. These activities were compared using normalized learning gains from pre and post tests, as well as attitude surveys

  5. 36 CFR 228.61 - Preference right negotiated sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preference right negotiated sales. 228.61 Section 228.61 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials Types and Methods of Disposal § 228.61 Preference right negotiated sales. (a) Qualification for...

  6. Large-Area, Highly Ordered Array of Graphitic Carbon Materials Using Surface Active Chitosan Prepatterns.

    PubMed

    Baek, Youn-Kyoung; Kim, Dae Woo; Yang, Seung Bo; Lee, Jung-Goo; Kim, Young Kuk; Jung, Hee-Tae

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate that chitosan prepatterns can generate not only highly periodic DNA pattern but also various types of graphitic carbon materials such as single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (RGO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), fluorescence imaging and Raman spectroscopic results revealed that the graphitic carbon materials were selectively deposited on the surface of the periodic chitosan patterns by the electrostatic interaction between protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative charged carbon materials. One proof-of-concept application of the system to the fabrication of electrical devices based on the micropatterns of SWNTs and RGO was also demonstrated. The strategy to use highly surface active chitosan pattern that can easily fabricate highly periodic pattern via a variety of lithographic tools may pave the way for the production of periodic arrays of graphitic carbon materials for large area device integration. PMID:26353637

  7. Shifting Preferences in Pornography Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zillmann, Dolf; Bryant, Jennings

    1986-01-01

    Concludes that subjects with considerable prior exposure to common, nonviolent pornography preferred to watch uncommon pornography. Male nonstudents preferred it almost exclusively, as did male students to a lesser extent. Females also exhibited this consumption preference, though it was far less pronounced, especially in female students. (JD)

  8. IMPACT OF TARGET MATERIAL ACTIVATION ON PERSONNEL EXPOSURE AND RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION IN THE NATIONAL IGNITION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, H; Epperson, P; Thacker, R; Beale, R; Kohut, T; Brereton, S

    2009-06-30

    Detailed activation analyses are performed for the different materials under consideration for use in the target capsules and hohlraums used during the ignition campaign on the National Ignition Facility. Results of the target material activation were additionally used to estimate the levels of contamination within the NIF target chamber and the workplace controls necessary for safe operation. The analysis examined the impact of using Be-Cu and Ge-doped CH capsules on the external dose received by workers during maintenance activities. Five days following a 20 MJ shot, dose rates inside the Target Chamber (TC) due to the two proposed capsule materials are small ({approx} 1 {micro}rem/h). Gold and depleted-uranium (DU) are considered as potential hohlraum materials. Following a shot, gold will most probably get deposited on the TC first wall. On the other hand, while noble-gas precursors from the DU are expected to stay in the TC, most of the noble gases are pumped out of the chamber and end up on the cryopumps. The dose rates inside the TC due to activated gold or DU, at 5 days following a 20 MJ shot, are about 1 mrem/h. Dose rates in the vicinity of the cryo-pumps (containing noble 'fission' gases) drop-off to about 1 mrem/h during the first 12 hours following the shot. Contamination from activation of NIF targets will result in the NIF target chamber exceeding DOE surface contamination limits. Objects removed from the TC will need to be managed as radioactive material. However, the results suggest that airborne contamination from resuspension of surface contamination will not be significant and is at levels that can be managed by negative ventilation when accessing the TC attachments.

  9. Resource format preferences across the medical curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This research study sought to determine the formats (print or electronic) of articles and book chapters most-preferred by first-year medical students, third-year medical students entering clinical clerkships, and incoming residents and to determine if these preferences change during the course of the medical curriculum. These trends will enable academic health sciences libraries to make appropriate collection development decisions to best cater to their user populations. Methods First-year medical students, third-year medical students, and incoming medical residents were asked to complete a paper survey from September 2014 to June 2015. The survey consisted of five multiple-choice questions, with two questions given space for optional short answers. Quantitative and qualitative responses were collected and calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results First-year students, third-year students, and incoming residents all preferred to read journal articles and book chapters in print, except in cases where the article or book chapter is under ten pages in length. Although print is preferred, demand for electronic articles and book chapters increases as students progress from undergraduate medical education into residency. The only category where a majority of incoming residents chose an electronic resource was which format they would give to a colleague, if the article or book chapter was critical to the care of an individual patient. Conclusions The preference for print resources is strong across the medical curriculum, although residents show an increased preference for electronic materials when compared to first- and third-year students. Academic health sciences libraries should take these preferences into account when making decisions regarding collection development. PMID:27366119

  10. Electrokinetic removal of charged contaminant species from soil and other media using moderately conductive adsorptive materials

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Mattson, Earl D.

    2001-01-01

    Method for collecting and concentrating charged species, specifically, contaminant species in a medium, preferably soil. The method utilizes electrokinesis to drive contaminant species into and through a bed adjacent to a drive electrode. The bed comprises a moderately electrically conductive adsorbent material which is porous and is infused with water or other solvent capable of conducting electrical current. The bed material, preferably activated carbon, is easily removed and disposed of. Preferably, where activated carbon is used, after contaminant species are collected and concentrated, the mixture of activated carbon and contaminant species is removed and burned to form a stable and easily disposable waste product.

  11. Ultrastrong Chemiluminescence Activity of Nanocarbon Materials after Ozonation and Their Effects on Different Chemiluminescent Systems.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; He, Duhong; Wang, Meina; Zheng, Baozhan; Wu, Li; Xiao, Dan; Guo, Yong

    2016-06-20

    Ozonized nanocarbon materials with different dimensionalities, structures, and components exhibited significantly different chemiluminescence (CL) activities. The ozonation time and the weight ratio of hydroxyl carbon nanotubes (d≈8 nm, hyCNTs-8) and graphene oxide (GO) strongly affected the CL activity of ozonized hybrids. Among GO, hyCNTs-8, and GO/hyCNTs-8, the GO/hyCNTs-8 hybrids exhibited the strongest CL-enhancing properties toward the luminol/H2 O2 system, in contrast to previous reports. This study provides new understanding of the CL activity and CL-enhancing properties of nanocarbon materials in signal-enhanced analytical and biomedical fields. PMID:27144483

  12. Effect of wall material on the antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of Rubus fruticosus juice microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Dafne I; Beristain, Cesar I; Azuara, Ebner; Luna, Guadalupe; Jimenez, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus) juice possesses compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be protected by different biopolymers used in the microencapsulation. Therefore, the effects of cell wall material including maltodextrin (MD), Arabic gum (GA) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) were evaluated on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of encapsulated blackberries using a spray-drying technique. Anthocyanin concentration, polymeric colour, total polyphenols, radical scavenging activity of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhydrazil radical, reducing power and the stability at different storage conditions were evaluated. GA and MD conferred a similar protection to the antioxidant compounds when the microcapsules were stored at low water activities (aw < 0.515) in contrast to at a high moisture content (aw > 0.902), whereas WPC presented a high protection. Therefore, the selection of the best wall material for blackberry juice encapsulation depends of the conditions of storage of the powder. PMID:26006741

  13. Development of Highly Active Titania-Based Nanoparticles for Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, David L.; Kreitz, Kevin R.; Stephens, Matthew A.; King, Jessica; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Petersen, Eric L.; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-05-11

    Recent advances in nanostructured fuels and oxidizers may lead to high-performance energetic materials for propulsion, but these nanoparticulates present serious challenges due to their inherent instability and safety hazards and difficulty of manufacture. In this paper, we develop an alternate route, the use of nanoscale metal-oxides to catalyze reactions between micrometer-scale energetic constituents. Methods to synthesize TiO2-based nanoparticles that are highly active toward energetic reactions and effectively incorporate them into energetic composites are reported. Activity was maximized by tuning the physical and chemical properties of the nano-TiO2 dispersion in the composite. An 81% increase in combustion rate was achieved with a nanoparticle loading of 1 wt %, making energetically active nano-TiO2 a viable material for advanced propulsion, without the hazards and difficulties of competing technologies.

  14. CO2 Activated Carbon Aerogel with Enhanced Electrochemical Performance as a Supercapacitor Electrode Material.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eo Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jeong Kwon; Hong, Ung Gi; Yi, Jongheop; Yoon, Jung Rag; Song, In Kyu

    2015-11-01

    Carbon aerogel (CA) was prepared by a sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol and formaldehyde in ambient conditions. A series of activated carbon aerogels (ACA-X, X = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h) were then prepared by CO2 activation of CA with a variation of activation time (X) for use as an electrode material for supercapacitor. Specific capacitances of CA and ACA-X electrodes were measured by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge methods in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Among the samples, ACA-5 h showed the highest BET surface area (2574 m2/g) and the highest specific capacitance (100 F/g). It was found that CO2 activation was a very efficient method for enhancing physicochemical property and supercapacitive electrochemical performance of activated carbon aerogel. PMID:26726618

  15. Biopolymer-Activated Graphitic Carbon Nitride towards a Sustainable Photocathode Material

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanjian; Schnepp, Zoë; Cao, Junyu; Ouyang, Shuxin; Li, Ying; Ye, Jinhua; Liu, Songqin

    2013-01-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) conversion of solar light into chemical fuels is one of the most promising solutions to the challenge of sustainable energy. Graphitic carbon (IV) nitride polymer (g-CN) is an interesting sustainable photocathode material due to low-cost, visible-light sensitivity, and chemical stability up to 500°C in air. However, grain boundary effects and limited active sites greatly hamper g-CN activity. Here, we demonstrate biopolymer-activation of g-CN through simultaneous soft-templating of a sponge-like structure and incorporation of active carbon-dopant sites. This facile approach results in an almost 300% increase in the cathodic PEC activity of g-CN under simulated solar-irradiation. PMID:23831846

  16. Assembly of a Metalloporphyrin-Polyoxometalate Hybrid Material for Highly Efficient Activation of Molecular Oxygen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shu-Lan; Xu, Xuan; Ou, Sha; Zhao, Min; He, Wei-Long; Wu, Chuan-De

    2016-08-01

    Organic metalloporphyrins and inorganic polyoxometalates (POMs) are two kinds of efficient molecular catalysts to prompt a variety of chemical reactions. They have been used as active moieties for the synthesis of porous materials to realize highly efficient heterogeneous catalysis. Both of them are regarded as the organic/inorganic equivalent counterparts to complement the individual features. Therefore, the combination of metalloporphyrins and POMs in the same hybrid materials might generate interesting catalytic properties by emerging their unique individual functions. To avoid the random connections between metalloporphyrins, POMs, and lanthanide connecting nodes, we have developed a "step-by-step" aggregation strategy, including the reaction of POMs with metal ions to bind metal nodes on the surfaces of POMs at the first step and the reaction of the resulting POM derivatives with metalloporphyrin linkers to result in hybrid materials at the second step. Catalytic experiments demonstrate that the resulting hybrid material exhibits interesting catalytic properties in the heterogeneous epoxidation of olefins, in which the conversion, epoxide selectivity, turnover number, and turnover frequency for the epoxidation of styrene to (1,2-epoxyethyl)benzene are >99%, 94%, 220000, and 22000 h(-1), respectively. These results demonstrate that the collaborative work of multiple active sites in hybrid materials can achieve superior high efficiency in heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:27408952

  17. Carbon fibers: Thermochemical recovery from advanced composite materials and activation to an adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Todd Andrew

    This research addresses an expanding waste disposal problem brought about by the increasing use of advanced composite materials, and the lack of technically and environmentally viable recycling methods for these materials. A thermochemical treatment process was developed and optimized for the recycling of advanced composite materials. Counter-current gasification was employed for the treatment of carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy resin composite wastes. These materials were treated, allowing the reclamation of the material's valuable components. As expected in gasification, the organic portion of the waste was thermochemically converted to a combustible gas with small amounts of organic compounds that were identified by GC/MS. These compounds were expected based on data in the literature. The composites contain 70% fiber reinforcement, and gasification yielded approximately 70% recovered fibers, representing nearly complete recovery of fibers from the waste. Through SEM and mechanical testing, the recovered carbon fibers were found to be structurally and mechanically intact, and amenable to re-use in a variety of applications, some of which were identified and tested. In addition, an application was developed for the carbon fiber component of the waste, as an activated carbon fiber adsorbent for the treatment of wastewaters. This novel class of adsorbent was found to have adsorption rates, for various organic molecules, up to a factor of ten times those of commercial granular activated carbon, and adsorption capacities similar to conventional activated carbons. Overall, the research addresses an existing environmental waste problem, employing a thermochemical technique to recycle and reclaim the waste. Components of the reclaimed waste material are then employed, after further modification, to address other existing and potential environmental waste problems.

  18. 43 CFR 4110.2-2 - Specifying grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., where BLM authorizes livestock use based upon forage availability, or designated annual rangelands. Preference includes active use and any suspended use. Active use is based on the amount of forage available... forage production within the service area of the water....

  19. Patient Preferences for OCD treatment

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sapana R.; Simpson, Helen Blair

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore preferences for the treatment of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that OCD patients will select a combination of medication and psychotherapy as their most preferred choice overall. Methods The authors designed a treatment preference survey using two health economics methods, forced choice and contingent ranking methods, to elicit preferences for OCD treatment available in mainstream care (Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors [SRIs]), Exposure and Ritual Prevention [EX/RP], and their combination), and for novel treatments under development at OCD research clinics. This survey was given by telephone to 89 individuals with OCD who called the OCD research clinic at the New York State Psychiatric Institute between July 2008 and January 2009. Results Most participants chose combination treatment (43%) or EX/RP (42%) over SRI medication (16%). Participants ranked investigational psychotherapy as their most preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 48% of participants) and deep brain stimulation as their least preferred novel treatment (endorsed by 77% of participants). Qualitative data suggest that prior treatment experience, concerns about medications, and logistical and practical concerns about treatment regimens affect preferences. Conclusions Patients with OCD have identifiable treatment preferences. In this sample of convenience, most preferred either combination treatment or psychotherapy. Future studies should investigate prospectively what modifies these preferences and how these preferences affect treatment outcome. PMID:21114948

  20. Evaluation of cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity and physicochemical properties of a calcium aluminate-based endodontic material

    PubMed Central

    SILVA, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; HERRERA, Daniel Rodrigo; ROSA, Tiago Pereira; DUQUE, Thais Mageste; JACINTO, Rogério Castilho; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto

    2014-01-01

    A calcium aluminate-based endodontic material, EndoBinder, has been developed in order to reduce MTA negative characteristics, preserving its biological properties and clinical applications. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, pH, solubility and water sorption of EndoBinder and to compare them with those of white MTA (WMTA). Material and Methods Cytotoxicity was assessed through a multiparametric analysis employing 3T3 cells. Antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Staphylococcus aureus. (ATCC 25923) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10556) was determined by the agar diffusion method. pH was measured at periods of 3, 24, 72 and 168 hours. Solubility and water sorption evaluation were performed following ISO requirements. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test with a significance level of 5%. Results EndoBinder and WMTA were non-cytotoxic in all tested periods and with the different cell viability parameters. There was no statistical differences between both materials (P>.05). All tested materials were inhibitory by direct contact against all microbial strains tested. EndoBinder and WMTA presented alkaline pH in all tested times with higher values of pH for WMTA (P<.05). Both materials showed values complying with the solubility minimum requirements. However, EndoBinder showed lower solubility than WMTA (P<.05). No statistical differences were observed regarding water sorption (P>.05). Conclusion Under these experimental conditions, we concluded that the calcium aluminate-based endodontic material EndoBinder demonstrated suitable biological and physicochemical properties, so it can be suggested as a material of choice in root resorption, perforations and root-end filling. PMID:24626250

  1. Investigation of the adsorption of blood plasma proteins by activated carbon fiber material

    SciTech Connect

    Eretskaya, E.V.; Nikolaev, V.G.; Sergeev, V.P.; Stefanov, A.V.; Vovyanko, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    The authors study the adsorption of fibrinogen, albumin, and gamma globulin by carbon fibrous materials by physical immobilization of protein ligands on their surface. The adsorption of proteins from model solutions under standard conditions was studied by an indirect method according to the decrease in the concentration of the adsorbate in solution, determining the protein content. The adsorption of the same proteins from the plasma and their desorption from activated carbon fibrous materials were estimated by a direct radiometric method using /sup 125/I-labeled proteins.

  2. Evaluation of homogeneity of a certified reference material by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kratochvil, B.; Duke, M.J.M.; Ng, D.

    1986-01-01

    The homogeneity of the marine reference material TORT-1, a spray-dried and acetone-extracted hepatopancreatic material from the lobster, was tested for 26 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Through a one-way analysis of variance based on six analyses on each of six bottles of TORT-1, it was concluded that the between-bottle heterogeneity is no greater than the within-bottle heterogeneity. The analytical results for those elements for which values were provided by NRC agree with the NRC values within 95% confidence limits. 8 references, 6 tables.

  3. Development of Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials with Shortened Emissive Lifetimes.

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, Andreas; Patze, Christian; Schwaebel, S Thimon; Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-09-18

    We have prepared a thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) capable molecular system carrying halogen substituents at the carbazole units. The attachment of the halogen atoms considerably decreases the half-life of the delayed fluorescence. The effect is significant. The heavier the halogen, the greater the effect. Our materials have the shortest reported emissive lifetimes for TADF achieved to date. Intersystem crossing (ISC) is improved through the heavy atom effect, yet high quantum yields are achieved both in solution as well as in thin doped films. The simple and efficient synthesis of our targets uses inexpensive and easily obtained starting materials. PMID:26291027

  4. Push for new materials, chemicals from biomass sparks active R and D

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, S. )

    1990-09-01

    This paper discusses how a resurgence of interest in the production of new materials, chemicals, and fuels from biomass resources such as wood, cellulose, lignin, starch, and chitin is sparking active R and D efforts in these areas. Biobased materials and chemicals currently under development include composites of conventional plastics with lignocellulosics (chemicals from wood and other plant sources); lignocellulosic nonwoven mates that can be pressed into rigid shapes to form doors, walls, and even auto body parts; phenolic chemicals produced from wood waste and bark; membranes made from chitosan (a substance derived from crustacean shells); and biodegradable plastics containing starch.

  5. Transmutation and activation analysis for divertor materials in a HCLL-type fusion power reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, U.; Pereslavtsev, P.; Möslang, A.; Rieth, M.

    2009-04-01

    The activation and transmutation of tungsten and tantalum as plasma facing materials was assessed for a helium cooled divertor irradiated in a typical fusion power reactor based on the use of Helium-cooled Lithium Lead (HCLL) blankets. 3D activation calculations were performed by applying a programme system linking the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP and the fusion inventory code FISPACT through an appropriate interface. Special attention was given to the proper treatment of the resonance shielding of tungsten and tantalum by using reaction rates provided directly by MCNP on the basis of continuous energy activation cross-section data. It was shown that the long-term activation behaviour is dominated by activation products of the assumed tramp material while the short-term behaviour is due to the activation of the stable Ta and W isotopes. The recycling limit for remote handling of 100 mSv/h can be achieved after decay times of 10 and 50 years for Ta and W, respectively. The elemental transmutation rates of Ta and W were shown to be on a moderate level for the HCLL-type fusion power reactor.

  6. Effect of different mulch materials on the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in an organic pepper crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Peco, Jesús; Campos, Juan; Villena, Jaime; González, Sara; Moreno, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The use biodegradable materials (biopolymers of different composition and papers) as an alternative to conventional mulches has increased considerably during the last years mainly for environmental reason. In order to assess the effect of these materials on the soil microbial activity during the season of a pepper crop organically grown in Central Spain, the soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) was measured in laboratory. The mulch materials tested were: 1) black polyethylene (PE, 15 μm); black biopolymers (15 μm): 2) Mater-Bi® (corn starch based), 3) Sphere 4® (potato starch based), 4) Sphere 6® (potato starch based), 5) Bioflex® (polylactic acid based), 6) Ecovio® (polylactic acid based), 7) Mimgreen® (black paper, 85 g/m2). A randomized complete block design with four replications was adopted. The crop was drip irrigated following the water demand of each treatment. Soil samples (5-10 cm depth) under the different mulches were taken at different dates (at the beginning of the crop cycle and at different dates throughout the crop season). Additionally, samples of bare soil in a manual weeding and in an untreated control were taken. The results obtained show the negative effect of black PE on the DHA activity, mainly as result of the higher temperature reached under the mulch and the reduction in the gas interchange between the soil and the atmosphere. The values corresponding to the biodegradable materials were variable, although highlighting the low DHA activity observed under Bioflex®. In general, the uncovered treatments showed higher values than those reached under mulches, especially in the untreated control. Keywords: mulch, biodegradable, biopolymer, paper, dehydrogenase activity (DHA). Acknowledgements: the research was funded by Project RTA2011-00104-C04-03 from the INIA (Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness).

  7. Social categories guide young children's preferences for novel objects

    PubMed Central

    Shutts, Kristin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2009-01-01

    To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, three-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own gender, but less consistent preferences for objects and activities endorsed by children of their own race. In Experiment 2, children selected objects and activities favored by people of their own gender and age. In neither study did most children acknowledge the influence of these social categories. These findings suggest that gender and age categories are encoded spontaneously and influence children's preferences and choices. For young children, gender and age may be more powerful guides to preferences than race. PMID:20590724

  8. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  9. Broad spectrum antibacterial and antifungal polymeric paint materials: synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and membrane-active mode of action.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Jiaul; Akkapeddi, Padma; Yadav, Vikas; Manjunath, Goutham B; Uppu, Divakara S S M; Konai, Mohini M; Yarlagadda, Venkateswarlu; Sanyal, Kaustuv; Haldar, Jayanta

    2015-01-28

    Microbial attachment and subsequent colonization onto surfaces lead to the spread of deadly community-acquired and hospital-acquired (nosocomial) infections. Noncovalent immobilization of water insoluble and organo-soluble cationic polymers onto a surface is a facile approach to prevent microbial contamination. In the present study, we described the synthesis of water insoluble and organo-soluble polymeric materials and demonstrated their structure-activity relationship against various human pathogenic bacteria including drug-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and beta lactam-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae as well as pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp. and Cryptococcus spp. The polymer coated surfaces completely inactivated both bacteria and fungi upon contact (5 log reduction with respect to control). Linear polymers were more active and found to have a higher killing rate than the branched polymers. The polymer coated surfaces also exhibited significant activity in various complex mammalian fluids such as serum, plasma, and blood and showed negligible hemolysis at an amount much higher than minimum inhibitory amounts (MIAs). These polymers were found to have excellent compatibility with other medically relevant polymers (polylactic acid, PLA) and commercial paint. The cationic hydrophobic polymer coatings disrupted the lipid membrane of both bacteria and fungi and thus showed a membrane-active mode of action. Further, bacteria did not develop resistance against these membrane-active polymers in sharp contrast to conventional antibiotics and lipopeptides, thus the polymers hold great promise to be used as coating materials for developing permanent antimicrobial paint. PMID:25541751

  10. FACILE SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CELLULOSE-CHITOSAN-HYDROXYAPATITE COMPOSITE MATERIAL, A POTENTIAL MATERIAL FOR BONE TISSUE ENGINEERING

    PubMed Central

    Mututuvari, Tamutsiwa M.; Harkins, April L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is often used as a bone-implant material because it is biocompatible and osteoconductive. However, HAp possesses poor rheological properties and it is inactive against disease-causing microbes. To improve these properties, we developed a green method to synthesize multifunctional composites containing: (1) cellulose (CEL) to impart mechanical strength; (2) chitosan (CS) to induce antibacterial activity thereby maintaining a microbe-free wound site; and (3) HAp. In this method, CS and CEL were co-dissolved in an ionic liquid (IL) and then regenerated from water. HAp was subsequently formed in situ by alternately soaking [CEL+CS] composites in aqueous solutions of CaCl2 and Na2HPO4. At least 88% of IL used was recovered for reuse by distilling the aqueous washings of [CEL+CS]. The composites were characterized using FTIR, XRD and SEM. These composites retained the desirable properties of their constituents. For example, the tensile strength of the composites was enhanced 1.9X by increasing CEL loading from 20% to 80%. Incorporating CS in the composites resulted in composites which inhibited the growth of both Gram positive (MRSA, S. aureus and VRE) and Gram negative (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) bacteria. These findings highlight the potential use of [CEL+CS+HAp] composites as scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. PMID:23595871

  11. Recognition of wall materials through active thermography coupled with numerical simulations.

    PubMed

    Pietrarca, Francesca; Mameli, Mauro; Filippeschi, Sauro; Fantozzi, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of historical buildings, wall thickness as well as wall constituents are not often known a priori, and active IR thermography can be exploited as a nonintrusive method for detecting what kind of material lies beneath the external plaster layer. In the present work, the wall of a historical building is subjected to a heating stimulus, and the surface temperature temporal trend is recorded by an IR camera. A hybrid numerical model is developed in order to simulate the transient thermal response of a wall made of different known materials underneath the plaster layer. When the numerical thermal contrast and the appearance time match with the experimental thermal images, the material underneath the plaster can be qualitatively identified. PMID:27607254

  12. Studies on Supercapacitor Electrode Material from Activated Lignin-Derived Mesoporous Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Dipendu; Li, Yunchao; Bi, Zhonghe; Chen, Jihua; Keum, Jong Kahk; Hensley, Dale K; Grappe, Hippolyte A.; Meyer III, Harry M; Dai, Sheng; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Naskar, Amit K

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized mesoporous carbon from pre-cross-linked lignin gel impregnated with a surfactant as the pore-forming agent, and then activated the carbon through physical and chemical methods to obtain activated mesoporous carbon. The activated mesoporous carbons exhibited 1.5- to 6-fold increases in porosity with a maximum BET specific surface area of 1148 m2/g and a pore volume of 1.0 cm3/g. Slow physical activation helped retain dominant mesoporosity; however, aggressive chemical activation caused some loss of the mesopore volume fraction. Plots of cyclic voltammetric data with the capacitor electrode made from these carbons showed an almost rectangular curve depicting the behavior of ideal double-layer capacitance. Although the pristine mesoporous carbon exhibited the same range of surface-area-based capacitance as that of other known carbon-based supercapacitors, activation decreased the surface-area-based specific capacitance and increased the gravimetric-specific capacitance of the mesoporous carbons. Surface activation lowered bulk density and electrical conductivity. Warburg impedance as a vertical tail in the lower frequency domain of Nyquist plots supported good supercapacitor behavior for the activated mesoporous carbons. Our work demonstrated that biomass-derived mesoporous carbon materials continue to show potential for use in specific electrochemical applications.

  13. Electrodes and electrochemical storage cells utilizing tin-modified active materials

    DOEpatents

    Anani, Anaba; Johnson, John; Lim, Hong S.; Reilly, James; Schwarz, Ricardo; Srinivasan, Supramaniam

    1995-01-01

    An electrode has a substrate and a finely divided active material on the substrate. The active material is ANi.sub.x-y-z Co.sub.y Sn.sub.z, wherein A is a mischmetal or La.sub.1-w M.sub.w, M is Ce, Nd, or Zr, w is from about 0.05 to about 1.0, x is from about 4.5 to about 5.5, y is from 0 to about 3.0, and z is from about 0.05 to about 0.5. An electrochemical storage cell utilizes such an electrode as the anode. The storage cell further has a cathode, a separator between the cathode and the anode, and an electrolyte.

  14. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials

    PubMed Central

    Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A. O.; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W.; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials. PMID:25740351

  15. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials.

    PubMed

    Borisenko, Konstantin B; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A O; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials. PMID:25740351

  16. Photo-induced optical activity in phase-change memory materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, Konstantin B.; Shanmugam, Janaki; Williams, Benjamin A. O.; Ewart, Paul; Gholipour, Behrad; Hewak, Daniel W.; Hussain, Rohanah; Jávorfi, Tamás; Siligardi, Giuliano; Kirkland, Angus I.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that optical activity in amorphous isotropic thin films of pure Ge2Sb2Te5 and N-doped Ge2Sb2Te5N phase-change memory materials can be induced using rapid photo crystallisation with circularly polarised laser light. The new anisotropic phase transition has been confirmed by circular dichroism measurements. This opens up the possibility of controlled induction of optical activity at the nanosecond time scale for exploitation in a new generation of high-density optical memory, fast chiroptical switches and chiral metamaterials.

  17. Inter/intra granular exchange and thermal activation in nanoscale granular magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, C.; Saharan, L.; Hrkac, G.; Schrefl, T.; Ikeda, Y.; Takano, K.; Miles, J. J.; Thomson, T.

    2011-09-01

    We explain the effect of inter/intra granular exchange coupling and thermal activation on the switching behavior of nano-scale granular magnetic materials. For an ideal, non-interacting granular system, the minimum switching field occurs at 45° from the easy axis of the grains. We show through simulation and measurements, using a CoCrPt oxide-segregated granular film as a model system, that there is a clear shift in the angle of applied field at which the minimum switching field occurs. This arises solely due to incoherent reversal induced by inter-granular exchange coupling or incoherency within larger grains, rather than thermal activation.

  18. Recent progress in blanket materials development in the Broader Approach activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishitani, T.; Tanigawa, H.; Nozawa, T.; Jitsukawa, S.; Nakamichi, M.; Hoshino, T.; Yamanishi, T.; Baluc, N.; Möslang, A.; Lindou, R.; Tosti, S.; Hodgson, E. R.; Clement Lorenzo, S.; Kohyama, A.; Kimura, A.; Shikama, T.; Hayashi, K.; Araki, M.

    2011-10-01

    As a part of the Broader Approach activities, R&D on blanket related materials, reduced-activation ferritic martensitic (RAFM) steels as a structural material, SiC f/SiC composites for flow channel insert in the liquid blanket and/or use as advanced structural material, advanced tritium breeders and neutron multiplier, has been initiated directed at DEMO. As part of the RAFM steel mass production development, a 5 ton heat of RAFM steel (F82H) was procured by Electro Slag Re-melting as the secondary melting method, which was effective in controlling unwanted impurities. An 11 ton heat of EUROFER was also produced. For the SiC f/SiC composite development, NITE- and CVI-SiC f/SiC composites were prepared as reference materials and preliminary mechanical and physical properties were measured. Also compatibility tests between SiC and Pb-17Li have been prepared, related to the He-cooled Li-Pb blanket concept. For the beryllide neutron multiplayer Be-Ti alloy development, large size rods of about 30 mm diameter were fabricated successfully in EU.

  19. Verification of cardiac mechanics software: benchmark problems and solutions for testing active and passive material behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Gurev, Viatcheslav; Arens, Sander; Augustin, Christoph M.; Baron, Lukas; Blake, Robert; Bradley, Chris; Castro, Sebastian; Crozier, Andrew; Favino, Marco; Fastl, Thomas E.; Fritz, Thomas; Gao, Hao; Gizzi, Alessio; Griffith, Boyce E.; Hurtado, Daniel E.; Krause, Rolf; Luo, Xiaoyu; Nash, Martyn P.; Pezzuto, Simone; Plank, Gernot; Rossi, Simone; Ruprecht, Daniel; Seemann, Gunnar; Smith, Nicolas P.; Sundnes, Joakim; Rice, J. Jeremy; Trayanova, Natalia; Wang, Dafang; Jenny Wang, Zhinuo; Niederer, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Models of cardiac mechanics are increasingly used to investigate cardiac physiology. These models are characterized by a high level of complexity, including the particular anisotropic material properties of biological tissue and the actively contracting material. A large number of independent simulation codes have been developed, but a consistent way of verifying the accuracy and replicability of simulations is lacking. To aid in the verification of current and future cardiac mechanics solvers, this study provides three benchmark problems for cardiac mechanics. These benchmark problems test the ability to accurately simulate pressure-type forces that depend on the deformed objects geometry, anisotropic and spatially varying material properties similar to those seen in the left ventricle and active contractile forces. The benchmark was solved by 11 different groups to generate consensus solutions, with typical differences in higher-resolution solutions at approximately 0.5%, and consistent results between linear, quadratic and cubic finite elements as well as different approaches to simulating incompressible materials. Online tools and solutions are made available to allow these tests to be effectively used in verification of future cardiac mechanics software. PMID:26807042

  20. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  1. Critical Dimensions of Water-tamped Slabs and Spheres of Active Material

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Greuling, E.; Argo, H.: Chew, G.; Frankel, M. E.; Konopinski, E.J.; Marvin, C.; Teller, E.

    1946-08-06

    The magnitude and distribution of the fission rate per unit area produced by three energy groups of moderated neutrons reflected from a water tamper into one side of an infinite slab of active material is calculated approximately in section II. This rate is directly proportional to the current density of fast neutrons from the active material incident on the water tamper. The critical slab thickness is obtained in section III by solving an inhomogeneous transport integral equation for the fast-neutron current density into the tamper. Extensive use is made of the formulae derived in "The Mathematical Development of the End-Point Method" by Frankel and Goldberg. In section IV slight alterations in the theory outlined in sections II and III were made so that one could approximately compute the critical radius of a water-tamper sphere of active material. The derived formulae were applied to calculate the critical dimensions of water-tamped slabs and spheres of solid UF{sub 6} leaving various (25) isotope enrichment fractions. Decl. Dec. 16, 1955.

  2. Role of Activation Energy in Resistance Drift of Amorphous Phase Change Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer, Martin; Kaes, Matthias; Dellen, Christian; Salinga, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The time evolution of the resistance of amorphous thin films of the phase change materials Ge2Sb2Te5, GeTe and AgIn-Sb2Te is measured during annealing at T=80°C. The annealing process is interrupted by several fast temperature dips to determine the changing temperature dependence of the resistance. This procedure enables us to identify to what extent the resistance increase over time can be traced back to an increase in activation energy EA or to a rise of the prefactor R*. We observe that, depending on the material, the dominating contribution to the increase in resistance during annealing can be either a change in activation energy (Ge2Sb2Te5) or a change in prefactor (AgIn-Sb2Te). In the case of GeTe, both contribute about equally. We conclude that any phenomenological model for the resistance drift in amorphous phase change materials that is based on the increase of one parameter alone (e.g. the activation energy) cannot claim general validity.

  3. Using Photon Activation Analysis To Determine Concentrations Of Unknown Components In Reference Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Jaromy; Sun, Zaijing; Wells, Doug; Maschner, Herb

    2011-06-01

    Using certified multi-element reference materials for instrumental analyses one frequently is confronted with the embarrassing fact that the concentration of some desired elements are not given in the respective certificate, nonetheless are detectable, e.g. by photon activation analysis (PAA). However, these elements might be determinable with sufficient quality of the results using scaling parameters and the well-known quantities of a reference element within the reference material itself. Scaling parameters include: activation threshold energy, Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) peak and endpoint energy of the bremsstrahlung continuum; integrated photo-nuclear cross sections for the isotopes of the reference element; bremsstrahlung continuum integral; target thickness; photon flux density. Photo-nuclear cross sections from the unreferenced elements must be known, too. With these quantities, the integral was obtained for both the known and unknown elements resulting in an inference of the concentration of the unreported element based upon the reported value, thus also the concentration of the unreferenced element in the reference material. A similar method to determine elements using the basic nuclear and experimental data has been developed for thermal neutron activation analysis some time ago (k{sub 0} Method).

  4. Alkali-Activated Aluminium-Silicate Composites as Insulation Materials for Industrial Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembovska, L.; Bajare, D.; Pundiene, I.; Bumanis, G.

    2015-11-01

    The article reports on the study of thermal stability of alkali-activated aluminium- silicate composites (ASC) at temperature 800-1100°C. ASC were prepared by using calcined kaolinite clay, aluminium scrap recycling waste, lead-silicate glass waste and quartz sand. As alkali activator, commercial sodium silicate solution modified with an addition of sodium hydroxide was used. The obtained alkali activation solution had silica modulus Ms=1.67. Components of aluminium scrap recycling waste (aluminium nitride (AlN) and iron sulphite (FeSO3)) react in the alkali media and create gases - ammonia and sulphur dioxide, which provide the porous structure of the material [1]. Changes in the chemical composition of ASC during heating were identified and quantitatively analysed by using DTA/TG, dimension changes during the heating process were determined by using HTOM, pore microstructure was examined by SEM, and mineralogical composition of ASC was determined by XRD. The density of ASC was measured in accordance with EN 1097-7. ASC with density around 560 kg/m3 and heat resistance up to 1100°C with shrinkage less than 5% were obtained. The intended use of this material is the application as an insulation material for industrial purposes at elevated temperatures.

  5. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  6. Using Electronic Neutron Generators in Active Interrogation to Detect Shielded Fissionable Material

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury

    2008-10-01

    Experiments have been performed at Idaho National Laboratory to study methodology and instrumentation for performing neutron active interrogation die-away analyses for the purpose of detecting shielded fissionable material. Here we report initial work using a portable DT electronic neutron generator with a He-3 fast neutron detector to detect shielded fissionable material including >2 kg quantities of enriched uranium and plutonium. Measurements have been taken of bare material as well as of material hidden within a large plywood cube. Results from this work have demonstrated the efficacy of the die-away neutron measurement technique for quickly detecting the presence of special nuclear material hidden within plywood shields by analyzing the time dependent neutron signals in-between neutron generator pulses. Using a DT electronic neutron generator operating at 300 Hz with a yield of approximately 0.36 x 10**8 neutrons per second, 2.2 kg of enriched uranium hidden within a 0.60 m x 0.60 m x 0.70 m volume of plywood was positively detected with a measurement signal 2-sigma above the passive background within 1 second. Similarly, for a 500 second measurement period a lower detection limit of approaching the gram level could be expected with the same simple set-up.

  7. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  8. Assessment of Uncertainty in the Determination of Activation Energy for Polymeric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darby, Stephania P.; Landrum, D. Brian; Coleman, Hugh W.

    1998-01-01

    An assessment of the experimental uncertainty in obtaining the kinetic activation energy from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data is presented. A neat phenolic resin, Borden SC1O08, was heated at three heating rates to obtain weight loss vs temperature data. Activation energy was calculated by two methods: the traditional Flynn and Wall method based on the slope of log(q) versus 1/T, and a modification of this method where the ordinate and abscissa are reversed in the linear regression. The modified method produced a more accurate curve fit of the data, was more sensitive to data nonlinearity, and gave a value of activation energy 75 percent greater than the original method. An uncertainty analysis using the modified method yielded a 60 percent uncertainty in the average activation energy. Based on this result, the activation energy for a carbon-phenolic material was doubled and used to calculate the ablation rate In a typical solid rocket environment. Doubling the activation energy increased surface recession by 3 percent. Current TGA data reduction techniques that use the traditional Flynn and Wall approach to calculate activation energy should be changed to the modified method.

  9. Food Preferences of Winter Bird Communities in Different Forest Types

    PubMed Central

    Renner, Swen C.; Baur, Sofia; Possler, Astrid; Winkler, Julia; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Bates, Paul J. J.; Mello, Marco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Food availability for forest birds is a function of habitat type, forest management regime, and season. In winter, it is also impacted by variations in the weather. In the current study we assessed the food preferences of wild bird populations in two types of forest (spruce and beech) during the months of November 2010 to April 2011 in the Schwäbische Alb Biodiversity Exploratory, south-western Germany. Our aim was to investigate whether local bird communities preferred fat-rich, carbohydrate-rich or wild fruits and to determine how forest structure, seasonality and local weather conditions affected food preferences. We found higher bird activity in beech forests for the eleven resident species. We observed a clear preference for fat-rich food for all birds in both forest types. Snow cover affected activity at food stations but did not affect food preferences. Periods of extreme low temperatures increased activity. PMID:23300878

  10. Development of Pupils' Transfer Skills by Means of Hands On Activities with Artisan Materials in Natural Sciences Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciascai, Liliana; Chicinas, Luminita

    2008-01-01

    Hands on activities with artisan materials used in order to realize different practical devices helpful in learning process are one of the most frequently used activity in science classes. Usually, the main strength of these activities are: a deeper learning, an increased motivation of pupils for actively learning and development of practical…

  11. 40 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  12. What and How Teacher Educators Prefer to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dengerink, Jurriën; Lunenberg, Mieke; Kools, Quinta

    2015-01-01

    In which areas and domains do individual teacher educators prefer to work on their professional development? What kind of learning activities do they want to take on and with whom? Are there significant differences in these preferences between teacher educators? This article reports on a recent survey (N = 268) about the professional development…

  13. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  14. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  15. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  16. 18 CFR 1317.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preference in admission... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1317.305 Preference in admission....

  17. Social Categories Guide Young Children's Preferences for Novel Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shutts, Kristin; Banaji, Mahzarin R.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    To whom do children look when deciding on their own preferences? To address this question, 3-year-old children were asked to choose between objects or activities that were endorsed by unfamiliar people who differed in gender, race (White, Black), or age (child, adult). In Experiment 1, children demonstrated robust preferences for objects and…

  18. 14 CFR 1253.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 1253.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  19. 28 CFR 54.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  20. 45 CFR 618.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 618.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  1. 43 CFR 41.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  2. 28 CFR 54.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 54.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  3. 43 CFR 41.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 41.305 Preference in admission. A recipient to... or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  4. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A... predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the...

  5. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A... predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the...

  6. 45 CFR 86.22 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 86.22 Preference in admission. A... predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect of discriminating on the...

  7. 40 CFR 5.305 - Preference in admission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.305 Preference in admission. A... students only or predominantly members of one sex, if the giving of such preference has the effect...

  8. Evaluating Preschool Children's Preferences for Motivational Systems during Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2007-01-01

    Preschool teachers rely on several strategies for motivating children to participate in learning activities. In the current study, we evaluated the effectiveness of and preference for three teaching contexts in which embedded, sequential, or no programmed reinforcement was arranged. The embedded context included highly preferred teaching…

  9. Photocatalytic activity of titanium dioxide modified concrete materials - influence of utilizing recycled glass cullets as aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Poon, Chi-Sun

    2009-08-01

    Combining the use of photocatalysts with cementitious materials is an important development in the field of photocatalytic air pollution mitigation. This paper presents the results of a systematic study on assessing the effectiveness of pollutant degradation by concrete surface layers that incorporate a photocatalytic material - Titanium Dioxide. The photocatalytic activity of the concrete samples was determined by photocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide (NO) in the laboratory. Recycled glass cullets, derived from crushed waste beverage bottles, were used to replace sand in preparing the concrete surface layers. Factors, which may affect the pollutant removal performance of the concrete layers including glass color, aggregate size and curing age, were investigated. The results show a significant enhancement of the photocatalytic activity due to the use of glass cullets as aggregates in the concrete layers. The samples fabricated with clear glass cullets exhibited threefold NO removal efficiency compared to the samples fabricated with river sand. The light transmittance property of glass was postulated to account for the efficiency improvement, which was confirmed by a separate simulation study. But the influence of the size of glass cullets was not evident. In addition, the photocatalytic activity of concrete surface layers decreased with curing age, showing a loss of 20% photocatalytic activity after 56-day curing. PMID:19540649

  10. The development of structural materials for reduced long-term activation

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, K.; Cierjacks, S.W.; Kelzenberg, S.; Moeslang, A.

    1996-12-31

    A reliable calculation of neutron-induced activation of materials requires the inclusion of all kinematically allowed reactions and subsequent reaction chains. While neutron-induced reactions have been sufficiently covered in the past, sequential (x,n) reactions with charged particles x, produced in a first-step reaction, were neglected. To include this type of reaction three new libraries and a preparatory code were developed to produce pseudo cross sections for the European reference code FISPACT. Inventory calculations with the updated FISPACT code, done for all stable elements, showed for 30 elements an increase of at least one of the radiological quantities activity, dose rate and decay heat. Two types of candidate structural materials were investigated: ferritic-martensitic steels and vanadium-based alloys. While V-Cr-Ti alloys without impurities are known to have far superior long-term activation properties, a realistic assumption of technically achievable amounts of tramp elements leads nearly to the same level of activation as for the optimized ferritic-martensitic steels.

  11. The Short French Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities: Validation and Links With Online Sexual Preferences and Addiction Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners. PMID:26422118

  12. Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, David J.; Lee, Kang; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.

    2008-01-01

    Human infants, just a few days of age, are known to prefer attractive human faces. We examined whether this preference is human-specific. Three- to 4-month-olds preferred attractive over unattractive domestic and wild cat (tiger) faces (Experiments 1 and 3). The preference was not observed when the faces were inverted, suggesting that it did not arise from low-level image differences (Experiments 2 and 3). In addition, the spontaneous preference for attractive tiger faces influenced performance in a recognition memory task involving attractive versus unattractive tiger face pairings (Experiment 4). The findings suggest that infant preference for attractive faces reflects the activity of general processing mechanisms rather than a specific adaptation to mate choice. PMID:18171370

  13. Eye preferences in captive chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Braccini, Stephanie N; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-09-01

    Over the last century, the issue of brain lateralization in primates has been extensively investigated and debated, yet no previous study has reported eye preference in great apes. This study examined eye preference in 45 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in response to various stimuli. Eye preference was assessed when animals looked through a hole that only accommodated one eye at an empty box, a mirror, a picture of a dog, a rubber snake, food biscuits, bananas, a rubber duck, and a video camera. Main effects of stimulus type were found for direction of eye preference, number of looks, and looking duration, but not for strength of eye preference. A left-eye bias was found for viewing the rubber snake and a right-eye bias was found for viewing the bananas, supporting theories that emotional valence may affect lateralized behaviors. In addition, a significant shift in eye preference took place from the initial look to subsequent looks when viewing the snake. These results are not consistent with previous reports of human eye preference and may reflect lateralization differences for emotional processing. No relationship between eye preference and previously recorded hand preference was found. PMID:22733385

  14. Development of an antimicrobial material based on a nanocomposite cellulose acetate film for active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Francisco J; Torres, Alejandra; Peñaloza, Ángela; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Galotto, María J; Guarda, Abel; Bruna, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposites based on biopolymers have been recognised as potential materials for the development of new ecofriendly food packaging. In addition, if these materials incorporate active substances in their structure, the potential applications are much higher. Therefore, this work was oriented to develop nanocomposites with antimicrobial activity based on cellulose acetate (CA), a commercial organoclay Cloisite30B (C30B), thymol (T) as natural antimicrobial component and tri-ethyl citrate (TEC) as plasticiser. Nanocomposites were prepared by a solvent casting method and consisted of 5% (w/w) of C30B, 5% (w/w) of TEC and variable content of T (0%, 0.5% and 2% w/w). To evaluate the effect of C30B into the CA matrix, CA films without this organoclay but with T were also prepared. All nanocomposites showed the intercalation of CA into the organoclay structure; furthermore this intercalation was favoured when 2% (w/w) of T was added to the nanocomposite. In spite of the observed intercalation, the presence of C30B inside the CA matrices increased the opacity of the films significantly. On the other hand, T showed a plasticiser effect on the thermal properties of CA nanocomposites decreasing glass transition, melting temperature and melting enthalpy. The presence of T in CA nanocomposites also allowed the control de Listeria innocua growth when these materials were placed in contact with this Gram-positive bacterium. Interestingly, antimicrobial activity was increased with the presence of C30B. Finally, studies on T release showed that the clay structure inside the CA matrix did not affect its release rate; however, this nanofiller affected the partition coefficient KP/FS which was higher to CA nanocomposites films than in CA films without organoclay. The results obtained in the present study are really promising to be applied in the manufacture of food packaging materials. PMID:24345085

  15. Examining porous bio-active glass as a potential osteo-odonto-keratoprosthetic skirt material.

    PubMed

    Huhtinen, Reeta; Sandeman, Susan; Rose, Susanna; Fok, Elsie; Howell, Carol; Fröberg, Linda; Moritz, Niko; Hupa, Leena; Lloyd, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Bio-active glass has been developed for use as a bone substitute with strong osteo-inductive capacity and the ability to form strong bonds with soft and hard tissue. The ability of this material to enhance tissue in-growth suggests its potential use as a substitute for the dental laminate of an osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis. A preliminary in vitro investigation of porous bio-active glass as an OOKP skirt material was carried out. Porous glass structures were manufactured from bio-active glasses 1-98 and 28-04 containing varying oxide formulation (1-98, 28-04) and particle size range (250-315 μm for 1-98 and 28-04a, 315-500 μm for 28-04b). Dissolution of the porous glass structure and its effect on pH was measured. Structural 2D and 3D analysis of porous structures were performed. Cell culture experiments were carried out to study keratocyte adhesion and the inflammatory response induced by the porous glass materials. The dissolution results suggested that the porous structure made out of 1-98 dissolves faster than the structures made from glass 28-04. pH experiments showed that the dissolution of the porous glass increased the pH of the surrounding solution. The cell culture results showed that keratocytes adhered onto the surface of each of the porous glass structures, but cell adhesion and spreading was greatest for the 98a bio-glass. Cytokine production by all porous glass samples was similar to that of the negative control indicating that the glasses do not induce a cytokine driven inflammatory response. Cell culture results support the potential use of synthetic porous bio-glass as an OOKP skirt material in terms of limited inflammatory potential and capacity to induce and support tissue ingrowth. PMID:23386212

  16. Partially Hydrogenated Graphene Materials Exhibit High Electrocatalytic Activities Related to Unintentional Doping with Metallic Impurities.

    PubMed

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Libánská, Alena; Bouša, Daniel; Sedmidubský, David; Matějková, Stanislava; Sofer, Zdeněk

    2016-06-13

    Partially hydrogenated graphene materials, synthesized by the chemical reduction/hydrogenation of two different graphene oxides using zinc powder in acidic environment or aluminum powder in alkaline environment, exhibit high electrocatalytic activities, as well as electrochemical sensing properties. The starting graphene oxides and the resultant hydrogenated graphenes were characterized in detail. Their electrocatalytic activity was examined in the oxygen reduction reaction, whereas sensing properties towards explosives were tested by using picric acid as a redox probe. Findings indicate that the high electrocatalytic performance originates not only from the hydrogenation of graphene, but also from unintentional contamination of graphene with manganese and other metals during synthesis. A careful evaluation of the obtained data and a detailed chemical analysis are necessary to identify the origin of this anomalous electrocatalytic activity. PMID:27167069

  17. Nomex-derived activated carbon fibers as electrode materials in carbon based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, K.; Lerf, A.; Winter, M.; Besenhard, J. O.; Villar-Rodil, S.; Suárez-García, F.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.

    Electrochemical characterization has been carried out for electrodes prepared of several activated carbon fiber samples derived from poly (m-phenylene isophthalamide) (Nomex) in an aqueous solution. Depending on the burn-off due to activation the BET surface area of the carbons was in the order of 1300-2800 m 2 g -1, providing an extensive network of micropores. Their capability as active material for supercapacitors was evaluated by using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Values for the capacitance of 175 F g -1 in sulfuric acid were obtained. Further on, it was observed that the specific capacitance and the performance of the electrode increase significantly with increasing burn-off degree. We believe that this fact can be attributed to the increase of surface area and porosity with increasing burn-off.

  18. Time perceptions and time allocation preferences among adolescent boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Bruno, J E

    1996-01-01

    How time is allocated between competing directed and nondirected activities can greatly define persona and lifestyle objectives. The important process of learning about time and the consequences of its various uses begins in childhood and adolescence, and provides the foundation for later life. This study examines whether girls differ from boys with regard to certain directed and nondirected types of time allocation preferences. Lifestyle objectives related to personal development (spending time), material achievement (selling time), social acceptance (giving time), and passive entertainment (passing or killing time), are explored using a time allocation preference model that defines a person's time investment portfolio. This study extends recent research by psychologists, sociologists, and anthropologists regarding the allocation and perception of time by examining student time allocation preferences and their association with teacher-observed behaviors in school. It was found that adolescent girls, whether considered by their teachers to exhibit at-risk or normal behaviors, seem to be less inclined toward nondirected activities and more toward other-directed activities. Boys seem to be more inclined toward nondirected activities. Being at risk as a school behavioral classification, is particularly associated with a large amount of nondirected activities in boys and large amounts of other-directed activities in girls. PMID:9173777

  19. Childcare Service Centers’ Preferences and Intentions to Use a Web-Based Program to Implement Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policies and Practices: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher Michael; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John Henry; Nathan, Nicole; Dodds, Pennie; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity is a significant public health problem that impacts a large number of children globally. Supporting childcare centers to deliver healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices is a recommended strategy for obesity prevention, given that such services provide access to a substantial proportion of children during a key developmental period. Electronic Web-based interventions represent a novel way to support childcare service providers to implement such policies and practices. Objective This study aimed to assess: (1) childcare centers’ current use of technology, (2) factors associated with intention to use electronic Web-based interventions, and (3) Web-based features that managers rated as useful to support staff with implementing healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. Methods A computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) was conducted with service managers from long day care centers and preschools. The CATI assessed the following: (1) childcare center characteristics, (2) childcare centers’ use of electronic devices, (3) intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program—assessed using the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) with ratings between 1 (strongly disagree) and 7 (strongly agree), and (4) features rated as useful to include in a Web-based program. Results Overall, 214 service centers out of 277 (77.3%) consented to participate. All service centers except 2 reported using computers (212/214, 99.1%), whereas 40.2% (86/214) used portable tablets. A total of 71.9% (151/210) of childcare service managers reported a score of 6 or more for intention to use a hypothetical electronic Web-based program. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, intention to use the program was significantly associated with perceived ease of use (P=.002, odds ratio [OR] 3.9, 95% CI 1.6-9.2) and perceived usefulness (P<.001, OR 28,95% CI 8.0-95.2). Features reported by

  20. Evaluation of flow injection analysis for determination of cholinesterase activities in biological material.

    PubMed

    Cabal, Jiri; Bajgar, Jiri; Kassa, Jiri

    2010-09-01

    The method for automatic continual monitoring of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in biological material is described. It is based on flexible system of plastic pipes mixing samples of biological material with reagents for enzyme determination; reaction product penetrates through the semipermeable membrane and it is spectrophotometrically determined (Ellman's method). It consists of sampling (either in vitro or in vivo), adding the substrate and flowing to dialyzer; reaction product (thiocholine) is dialyzed and mixed with 5,5'-dithio-bis-2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) transported to flow spectrophotometer. Flowing of all materials is realised using peristaltic pump. The method was validated: time for optimal hydratation of the cellophane membrane; type of the membrane; type of dialyzer; conditions for optimal permeation of reaction components; optimization of substrate and DTNB concentrations (linear dependence); efficacy of peristaltic pump; calibration of analytes after permeation through the membrane; excluding of the blood permeation through the membrane. Some examples of the evaluation of the effects of AChE inhibitors are described. It was demonstrated very good uniformity of peaks representing the enzyme activity (good reproducibility); time dependence of AChE inhibition caused by VX in vitro in the rat blood allowing to determine the half life of inhibition and thus, bimolecular rate constants of inhibition; reactivation of inhibited AChE by some reactivators, and continual monitoring of the activity in the whole blood in vivo in intact and VX-intoxicated rats. The method is simple and not expensive, allowing automatic determination of AChE activity in discrete or continual samples in vitro or in vivo. It will be evaluated for further research of cholinesterase inhibitors. PMID:20188079

  1. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W; Hensch, Takao K

    2012-10-16

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a "critical period" for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR(-/-)) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular "brakes" on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  2. Critical period for acoustic preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun-Jin; Lin, Eric W.; Hensch, Takao K.

    2012-01-01

    Preference behaviors are often established during early life, but the underlying neural circuit mechanisms remain unknown. Adapting a unique nesting behavior assay, we confirmed a “critical period” for developing music preference in C57BL/6 mice. Early music exposure between postnatal days 15 and 24 reversed their innate bias for silent shelter, which typically could not be altered in adulthood. Instead, exposing adult mice treated acutely with valproic acid or carrying a targeted deletion of the Nogo receptor (NgR−/−) unmasked a strong plasticity of preference consistent with a reopening of the critical period as seen in other systems. Imaging of cFos expression revealed a prominent neuronal activation in response to the exposed music in the prelimbic and infralimbic medial prefrontal cortex only under conditions of open plasticity. Neither behavioral changes nor selective medial prefrontal cortex activation was observed in response to pure tone exposure, indicating a music-specific effect. Open-field center crossings were increased concomitant with shifts in music preference, suggesting a potential anxiolytic effect. Thus, music may offer both a unique window into the emotional state of mice and a potentially efficient assay for molecular “brakes” on critical period plasticity common to sensory and higher order brain areas. PMID:23045690

  3. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  4. Alternative disposal for Investigation Derived Wastes (IDW) containing low activity source material

    SciTech Connect

    Downey, H.T.; Majer, T.

    2007-07-01

    As part of a Remedial Investigation (RI) at a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Site, approximately 77,111 kg (85 tons) I would use the actual tons of investigation derived wastes (IDW) were generated from exploratory soil borings and as part of removal activities at a former drum burial area. Characterization of these materials indicated elevated concentrations of metals including uranium and thorium (source material). Concentrations of uranium and thorium were at levels less than 0.05% by mass, which is the threshold for exempt source material under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations. Disposal of this material was evaluated as low-level radioactive waste and as exempt radioactive waste. The NRC has established a process for evaluation and review of exempt source material transfer and direct disposal in a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) landfill. These requests are normally approved if the dose to a member of the general public is unlikely to exceed 0.25 mSv per year (25 milli-rem per year). The soil was evaluated for disposal as exempt radioactive waste at a RCRA landfill, which included dose modeling to workers during transportation and disposal as well as potential dose to members of the public after closure of the disposal facility. These evaluations determined that the potential dose was very small, and review by the agreement state regulatory agency indicated that this disposal process should not result in any undue hazard to public health and safety or property. The advantage of this approach is that disposal of 77,111 kg (85 tons) of IDW at a RCRA landfill is estimated to result in a savings of $80,000 as compared to disposal as low-level radioactive waste. Alternative waste disposal of exempt source material provides more disposal options and can lead to significant cost savings. (authors)

  5. Kraft lignin/silica-AgNPs as a functional material with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Klapiszewski, Łukasz; Rzemieniecki, Tomasz; Krawczyk, Magdalena; Malina, Dagmara; Norman, Małgorzata; Zdarta, Jakub; Majchrzak, Izabela; Dobrowolska, Anna; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2015-10-01

    Advanced functional silica/lignin hybrid materials, modified with nanosilver, were obtained. The commercial silica Syloid 244 was used, modified with N-(2-aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to increase its chemical affinity to lignin. Similarly, kraft lignin was oxidized using a solution of sodium periodate to activate appropriate functional groups on its surface. Silver nanoparticles were grafted onto the resulting silica/lignin hybrids. The systems obtained were comprehensively tested using available techniques and methods, including transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. An evaluation was also made of the electrokinetic stability of the systems with and without silver nanoparticles. Conclusions were drawn concerning the chemical nature of the bonds between the precursors and the effectiveness of the method of binding nanosilver to the hybrid materials. The antimicrobial activity of the studied materials was tested against five species of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The addition of silver nanoparticles to the silica/lignin hybrids led to inhibition of the growth of the analyzed bacteria. The best results were obtained against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a dangerous human pathogen. PMID:26204502

  6. Moisture-uptake by the positive active material from the casting solvent and the ambient environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saharan, Vijay; Roberts, Jeffrey; Manev, Vesselin; Chia, Yee Ho; MacLean, Greg; McMullen, Steven R.

    It is widely recognized that the presence of residual moisture has significant detrimental effects on the performance of lithium ion batteries. Studies have shown that the positive active material can be a major source of moisture contributors to the overall cell moisture. The aim of the present study is to understand the factors affecting moisture uptake by the doped-lithium nickel cobalt oxide material from the casting solvent, acetone, and the ambient environment. As-is and the air-dried powders under various conditions (300 °C for 24 h, 500 °C for 8 h, and 500 °C for 24 h) were exposed to ambient and humid air for various lengths of time. Similarly, all these powders were exposed to extra dry (47 ppm) and wet (5789 ppm) acetone. Karl Fisher measurements at 160 °C and 290 °C show that humidity levels (80-85% relative humidity versus 20-25%) and the exposure times are the critical factors. Acetone wetness and the length of exposure in it do not contribute significantly to the moisture uptake by the active material. Cathode powder drying helps in minimizing the amount of moisture uptake from the environment.

  7. Microscopic theory of the glassy dynamics of passive and active network materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2013-03-01

    Signatures of glassy dynamics have been identified experimentally for a rich variety of materials in which molecular networks provide rigidity. Here we present a theoretical framework to study the glassy behavior of both passive and active network materials. We construct a general microscopic network model that incorporates nonlinear elasticity of individual filaments and steric constraints due to crowding. Based on constructive analogies between structural glass forming liquids and random field Ising magnets implemented using a heterogeneous self-consistent phonon method, our scheme provides a microscopic approach to determine the mismatch surface tension and the configurational entropy, which compete in determining the barrier for structural rearrangements within the random first order transition theory of escape from a local energy minimum. The influence of crosslinking on the fragility of inorganic network glass formers is recapitulated by the model. For active network materials, the mapping, which correlates the glassy characteristics to the network architecture and properties of nonequilibrium motor processes, is shown to capture several key experimental observations on the cytoskeleton of living cells: Highly connected tense networks behave as strong glass formers; intense motor action promotes reconfiguration. The fact that our model assuming a negative motor susceptibility predicts the latter suggests that on average the motorized processes in living cells do resist the imposed mechanical load. Our calculations also identify a spinodal point where simultaneously the mismatch penalty vanishes and the mechanical stability of amorphous packing disappears.

  8. Microscopic theory of the glassy dynamics of passive and active network materials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G

    2013-03-28

    Signatures of glassy dynamics have been identified experimentally for a rich variety of materials in which molecular networks provide rigidity. Here we present a theoretical framework to study the glassy behavior of both passive and active network materials. We construct a general microscopic network model that incorporates nonlinear elasticity of individual filaments and steric constraints due to crowding. Based on constructive analogies between structural glass forming liquids and random field Ising magnets implemented using a heterogeneous self-consistent phonon method, our scheme provides a microscopic approach to determine the mismatch surface tension and the configurational entropy, which compete in determining the barrier for structural rearrangements within the random first order transition theory of escape from a local energy minimum. The influence of crosslinking on the fragility of inorganic network glass formers is recapitulated by the model. For active network materials, the mapping, which correlates the glassy characteristics to the network architecture and properties of nonequilibrium motor processes, is shown to capture several key experimental observations on the cytoskeleton of living cells: Highly connected tense networks behave as strong glass formers; intense motor action promotes reconfiguration. The fact that our model assuming a negative motor susceptibility predicts the latter suggests that on average the motorized processes in living cells do resist the imposed mechanical load. Our calculations also identify a spinodal point where simultaneously the mismatch penalty vanishes and the mechanical stability of amorphous packing disappears. PMID:23556772

  9. Synthesis of Iminodiacetate Functionalized Polypropylene Films and Their Efficacy as Antioxidant Active-Packaging Materials.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhuangsheng; Roman, Maxine J; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2016-06-01

    The introduction of metal-chelating ligands to the food-contact surface of packaging materials may enable the removal of synthetic chelators (e.g., ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA)) from food products. In this study, the metal-chelating ligand iminodiacetate (IDA) was covalently grafted onto polypropylene surfaces to produce metal-chelating active-packaging films. The resulting films were able to chelate 138.1 ± 26 and 210.0 ± 28 nmol/cm(2) Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions, respectively, under acidic conditions (pH 3.0). The films demonstrated potent antioxidant efficacy in two model food systems. In an emulsified-oil system, the chelating materials extended the lag phase of both lipid hydroperoxide and hexanal formation from 5 to 25 days and were as effective as EDTA. The degradation half-life of ascorbic acid in an aqueous solution was extended from 5 to 14 days. This work demonstrates the potential application of surface-grafted chelating IDA ligands as effective antioxidant active food-packaging materials. PMID:27243793

  10. Photoluminescence Mechanism and Photocatalytic Activity of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials Formed by Sequential Vapor Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Akyildiz, Halil I; Stano, Kelly L; Roberts, Adam T; Everitt, Henry O; Jur, Jesse S

    2016-05-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials formed by sequential vapor infiltration (SVI) of trimethylaluminum into polyester fibers are demonstrated, and the photoluminescence of the fibers is evaluated using a combined UV-vis and photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy approach. The optical activity of the modified fibers depends on infiltration thermal processing conditions and is attributed to the reaction mechanisms taking place at different temperatures. At low temperatures a single excitation band and dual emission bands are observed, while, at high temperatures, two distinct absorption bands and one emission band are observed, suggesting that the physical and chemical structure of the resulting hybrid material depends on the SVI temperature. Along with enhancing the photoluminescence intensity of the PET fibers, the internal quantum efficiency also increased to 5-fold from ∼4-5% to ∼24%. SVI processing also improved the photocatalytic activity of the fibers, as demonstrated by photodeposition of Ag and Au metal particles out of an aqueous metal salt solution onto fiber surfaces via UVA light exposure. Toward applications in flexible electronics, well-defined patterning of the metallic materials is achieved by using light masking and focused laser rastering approaches. PMID:27063955

  11. Active metal-matrix composites with embedded smart materials by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the development of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. Composites created through this process experience temperatures as low as 25 °C during fabrication, in contrast to current metal-matrix fabrication processes which require temperatures of 500 °C and above. UAM thus provides unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make these materials and components attractive. This research focuses on developing UAM composites with aluminum matrices and embedded shape memory NiTi, magnetostrictive Galfenol, and electroactive PVDF phases. The research on these composites will focus on: (i) electrical insulation between NiTi and Al phases for strain sensors, investigation and modeling of NiTi-Al composites as tunable stiffness materials and thermally invariant structures based on the shape memory effect; (ii) process development and composite testing for Galfenol-Al composites; and (iii) development of PVDF-Al composites for embedded sensing applications. We demonstrate a method to electrically insulate embedded materials from the UAM matrix, the ability create composites containing up to 22.3% NiTi, and their resulting dimensional stability and thermal actuation characteristics. Also demonstrated is Galfenol-Al composite magnetic actuation of up to 54 μ(see manuscript), and creation of a PVDF-Al composite sensor.

  12. Simultaneous comparison of thrombogenic reactions to different combinations of anticoagulants, activated clotting times, and materials.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mirei; Iwasaki, Kiyotaka; Umezu, Mitsuo; Ozaki, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    Thrombogenic reactions under multiple interactions of pharmacological agents, doses, and materials have not been well understood yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability to simultaneously compare thrombogenic reactions to different combinations of anticoagulants, doses, and blood-contacting materials, in a single human blood using an in vitro test method. Four venous blood samples were drawn from each of six healthy volunteers into syringes that contained two different amounts of heparin and argatroban to set the activated clotting time (ACT) to approximately 200 or 500 s, respectively. The four blood samples from each volunteer were immediately poured into two clinical-grade extracorporeal circulation tubes: a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube and a poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate)-coated (PMEA) PVC tube. These tubes with an inner diameter of 12.7 mm were rotated at 183 rpm in a 37°C chamber for 10 min. The results indicated that the in vitro thrombogenicity test method was capable of assessing differences in platelet factor 4 and β-thromboglobulin increases among different combinations of the two materials, two anticoagulants, and two ACTs. Higher amounts of total plasma proteins were absorbed on PVC tubes than on PMEA-coated tubes when using the same anticoagulant and dose. These data elucidate that the in vitro thrombogenicity test method is useful for the simultaneous quantitative evaluation of the influences of various combinations of materials, pharmacological agents, and doses on thrombogenicity in a single human blood. PMID:24652689

  13. Evaluation of precision and accuracy of selenium measurements in biological materials using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.R.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials has become increasingly important in view of the essential nature of this element for human nutrition and its possible role as a protective agent against cancer. Unfortunately, the accurate determination of selenium in biological materials is often difficult for most analytical techniques for a variety of reasons, including interferences, complicated selenium chemistry due to the presence of this element in multiple oxidation states and in a variety of different organic species, stability and resistance to destruction of some of these organo-selenium species during acid dissolution, volatility of some selenium compounds, and potential for contamination. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) can be one of the best analytical techniques for selenium determinations in biological materials for a number of reasons. Currently, precision at the 1% level (1s) and overall accuracy at the 1 to 2% level (95% confidence interval) can be attained at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for selenium determinations in biological materials when counting statistics are not limiting (using the {sup 75}Se isotope). An example of this level of precision and accuracy is summarized. Achieving this level of accuracy, however, requires strict attention to all sources of systematic error. Precise and accurate results can also be obtained after radiochemical separations.

  14. Carbazole dendrimers as solution-processable thermally activated delayed-fluorescence materials.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Ken; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Yamamoto, Kimihisa

    2015-05-01

    Recently, thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials have received increasing attention as effective emitters for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, most of them are usually employed as dopants in a host material. In this report, carbazole dendrimers with a triphenyl-s-triazine core are reported, which are the first solution-processable, non-doped, high-molecular-weight TADF materials. The dendrimers were obtained by a new and facile synthetic route using the tert-butyldimethylsilyl moiety as a protecting group. All dendrimers showed TADF in toluene. Measurements of the temperature-dependent luminescence lifetime revealed that spin-coated neat films also showed TADF with moderate quantum yields. OLED devices incorporating these dendrimers as spin-coated emitting layers gave external quantum efficiencies of up to a 3.4 %, which suggests that this device is harvesting triplet excitons. This result indicates that carbazole dendrimers with attached acceptors are potential TADF materials owing to their polarized electronic structure (with HOMO-LUMO separation). PMID:25753430

  15. The Accuracy of Managerial Prediction of Employee Preference: A Brief Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, David A.; Rost, Kristen; McMahon, Meghan

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which managers could accurately predict what items/activities their employees report as preferred was examined. First, managers were asked to rank order a list of items/activities they thought their employees would most prefer to be incorporated into a performance improvement plan. Next, employee preference for these same items was…

  16. Removal of Basic Violet 14 from aqueous solution using sulphuric acid activated materials.

    PubMed

    Suresh, S

    2016-01-01

    In this study the adsorption of Basic Violet, 14 from aqueous solution onto sulphuric acid activated materials prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum (CS) and Theobroma cacao (TS) shells were investigated. The experimental data were analysed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. The results showed that CS has a superior adsorption capacity compared to the TS. The adsorption capacity was found to be 1416.43 mg/g for CS and 980.39 mg/g for TS. The kinetic data results at different concentrations were analysed using pseudo first-order and pseudo-second order model. Boyd plot indicates that the dye adsorption onto CS and TS is controlled by film diffusion. The adsorbents were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The materials used in this study were economical waste products and hence can be an attractive alternative to costlier adsorbents for dye removal in industrial wastewater treatment processes. PMID:27330899

  17. Determination of boron in materials by cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Rick L

    2005-01-01

    An instrument for cold neutron prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), located at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), has proven useful for the measurement of boron in a variety of materials. Neutrons, moderated by passage through liquid hydrogen at 20 K, pass through a (58)Ni coated guide to the PGAA station in the cold neutron guide hall of the NCNR. The thermal equivalent neutron fluence rate at the sample position is 9 x 10(8) cm(-2) s(-1). Prompt gamma rays are measured by a cadmium- and lead-shielded high-purity germanium detector. The instrument has been used to measure boron mass fractions in minerals, in NIST SRM 2175 (Refractory Alloy MP-35-N) for certification of boron, and most recently in semiconductor-grade silicon. The limit of detection for boron in many materials is <10 ng g(-1). PMID:15614360

  18. A computational investigation on radiation damage and activation of structural material for C-ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tairan; Shen, Fei; Yin, Wen; Yu, Quanzhi; Liang, Tianjiao

    2015-11-01

    The C-ADS (China Accelerator-Driven Subcritical System) project, which aims at transmuting high-level radiotoxic waste (HLW) and power generation, is now in the research and development stage. In this paper, a simplified ADS model is set up based on the IAEA Th-ADS benchmark calculation model, then the radiation damage as well as the residual radioactivity of the structural material are estimated using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The peak displacement production rate, gas productions, activity and residual dose rate of the structural components like beam window and outer casing of subcritical reactor core are calculated. The calculation methods and the corresponding results provide the basic reference for making reasonable predictions for the lifetime and maintenance operations of the structural material of C-ADS.

  19. Zwitterionic Cellulose Carbamate with Regioselective Substitution Pattern: A Coating Material Possessing Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Elschner, Thomas; Lüdecke, Claudia; Kalden, Diana; Roth, Martin; Löffler, Bettina; Jandt, Klaus D; Heinze, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A polyzwitterion is synthesized by regioselective functionalization of cellulose possessing a uniform charge distribution. The positively charged ammonium group is present at position 6, while the negative charge of carboxylate is located at positions 2 and 3 of the repeating unit. The molecular structure of the biopolymer derivative is proved by NMR spectroscopy. This cellulose-based zwitterion is applied to several support materials by spin-coating and characterized by means of atomic force microscope, contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The coatings possess antimicrobial activity depending on the support materials (glass, titanium, tissue culture poly(styrene)) as revealed by confocal laser scanning microscopy and live/dead staining. PMID:26632022

  20. Analysis of marine sediment and lobster hepatopancreas reference materials by instrumental photon activation

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberger, S.; Davidson, W.F.

    1985-01-01

    By use of instrumental photon activation analysis, twelve trace (As, Ba, Cr, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, U, Zn, and Zr) and eight minor (C, Na, Mg, Co, K, Ca, Tl, and Fe) elements were determined in a certified marine sediment standard reference material as well as eight trace (Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cd, and Pb) and four minor (Na, Mg, Cl, and Ca) elements in a certified marine tissue (lobster hepatopancreas) standard reference material. The precision and accuracy of the present results when compared to the accepted values clearly demonstrate the reliability of this nondestructive technique and its applicability to marine environmental or marine geochemical studies. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Overview of recent European materials R&D activities related to ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. T.; Barabash, V.; Dänner, W.; Rödig, M.; Lorenzetto, P.; Marmy, P.; Merola, M.; Singh, B. N.; Tähtinen, S.; van der Laan, J.; Wu, C. H.

    2004-08-01

    An overview is given of the wide range of activities contained within recent R&D being performed within Europe on In-vessel materials for structural, heat sink and plasma facing purposes for ITER. The effect of creep-fatigue interaction on the fatigue life of CuCrZr and the effects of irradiation on over-aged CuCrZr are given. In addition the lifetime of ITER components has been further investigated by the performance of in situ experiments with both neutrons and high-energy protons. The effect of hydrogen on the crack initiation fracture toughness of Ti is reported at a range of irradiation temperatures. The irradiation induced stress relaxation of Alloy 718 used for bolting applications is being studied and initial results will be described. Work in the area of plasma facing materials and re-welding issues will also be presented.

  2. Multifunctional radical-doped polyoxometalate-based host-guest material: photochromism and photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jian-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Sa-Sa; Yong, Jian-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Yu, Rongmin; Lu, Can-Zhong

    2015-05-01

    An effective strategy to synthesize multifunctional materials is the incorporation of functional organic moieties and metal oxide clusters via self-assembly. A rare multifunctional radical-doped zinc-based host-guest crystalline material was synthesized with a fast-responsive reversible ultraviolet visible light photochromism, photocontrolled tunable luminescence, and highly selective photocatalytic oxidation of benzylic alcohols as a result of blending of distinctively different functional components, naphthalenediimide tectons, and polyoxometalates (POMs). It is highly unique to link π-electron-deficient organic tectons and POMs by unusual POMs anion-π interactions, which are not only conducive to keeping the independence of each component but also effectively promoting the charge transfer or exchange among the components to realize the fast-responsive photochromism, photocontrolled tunable luminescence, and photocatalytic activity. PMID:25859742

  3. Use of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions in the manufacture of fur materials.

    PubMed

    Danylkovych, Anatoliy G; Lishchuk, Viktor I; Romaniuk, Oksana O

    2016-01-01

    The influence of characteristics of electrochemically activated aqueous processing mediums in the treatment of fur skins with different contents of fatty substances was investigated. The use of electroactive water, namely anolytes and catholytes, forgoing antiseptics or surface-active materials, helped to restore the hydration of fur skins and to remove from them soluble proteins, carbohydrates and fatty substances. The activating effect of anolyte and catholyte in solutions of water on the processes of treating raw furs is explained by their special physical and chemical properties, namely the presence of free radicals, ions and molecules of water which easily penetrate cells' membranes and into the structure of non-collagen components and microfiber structure of dermic collagen. The stage of lengthy acid and salt treatment is excluded from the technical treatment as a result of using electroactivated water with high oxidizing power. A low-cost technology of processing different kinds of fur with the use of electroactivated water provides for substantial economy of water and chemical reagents, a two to threefold acceleration of the soaking and tanning processes and creation of highly elastic fur materials with a specified set of physical and chemical properties. At the same time the technology of preparatory processes of fur treatment excludes the use of such toxic antiseptics as formalin and sodium silicofluoride, which gives grounds to regard it as ecologically safe. PMID:27026908

  4. Characterization of environmentally-friendly alkali activated slag cements and ancient building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakulich, Aaron Richard

    Alternative cement technologies are an area of increasing interest due to growing environmental concerns and the relatively large carbon footprint of the cement industry. Many new cements have been developed, but one of the most promising is that made from granulated, ground blast furnace slag activated by a high-pH solution. Another is related to the discovery that some of the pyramid limestone blocks may have been cast using a combination of diatomaceous earth activated by lime which provides the high pH needed to dissolve the diatomaceous earth and bind the limestone aggregate together. The emphasis of this thesis is not on the latter---which was explored elsewhere---but on the results supplying further evidence that some of the pyramid blocks were indeed reconstituted limestone. The goal of this work is to chemically and mechanically characterize both alkali-activated slag cements as well as a number of historic materials, which may be ancient analogues to cement. Alkali activated slag cements were produced with a number of additives; concretes were made with the addition of a fine limestone aggregate. These materials were characterized mechanically and by XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TGA. Samples from several Egyptian pyramids, an 'ancient floor' in Colorado, and the 'Bosnian Pyramids' were investigated. In the cements, it has been unequivocally shown that C-S-H, the same binding phase that is produced in ordinary portland cement, has been produced, as well as a variety of mineral side products. Significant recarbonation occurs during the first 20 months, but only for the Na2CO3-activated formulae. Radiocarbon dating proves that the 'Bosnian Pyramids' and 'ancient floors' are not made from any type of recarbonated lime; however, Egyptian pyramid limestones were finite, thus suggesting that they are of a synthetic nature. XRD and FTIR results were inconclusive, while TGA results indicate the limestones are identical to naturally occurring limestones, and SEM

  5. Voter-Weighted Environmental Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Jason; Huber, Joel; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the political economy of preferences with respect to the environment using a new stated preference survey that presents the first benefit values for national water quality levels. The mean valuation greatly exceeds the median value, as the distribution of valuations is highly skewed. The study couples the survey valuations…

  6. Music, Hemisphere Preference and Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette H.

    Two experiments were conducted to determine a possible relationship between the right hemisphere, music perception, and mental imagery. The first experiment compared two groups of college students, one of which showed a preference for left hemisphere thinking (n=22) and the other a preference for right hemisphere thinking (n=20), in order to test…

  7. Preferences for Academic Advising Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Susan B.; Dickman, Marcia M.; Fuqua, Dale R.

    2005-01-01

    This psychometric study was designed to test the feasibility of measuring college students' preferences for developmental and prescriptive advising styles as separate constructs. Part 5 of the Academic Advising Inventory (Winston & Sandor, 1984b) was revised into two independent scales, one for measuring preferences for developmental advising and…

  8. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  9. Assessing Preference for Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Casey J.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Bogoev, Bistra K.; Boyle, Megan A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined a procedure to assess preference for social interactions in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Preferences were identified in five individuals using a paired-choice procedure in which participants approached therapists who provided different forms of social interactions. A subsequent tracking test showed that…

  10. Gender Preferences in Learning Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rae; Gray, Donald

    1999-01-01

    Reports on preference patterns among gender and age groups for school-science topics and learning experiences among respondents chosen to be nationally representative of Scottish primary and secondary pupils. Finds that girls have a stronger preference for biological topics than boys. Concludes that much of what goes on in science classrooms is…

  11. Children Reason about Shared Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…

  12. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  13. An active thermography approach for thermal and electrical characterization of thermoelectric materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Longuemart, S.; Guilmeau, E.; Strzalkowski, K.; Touati, K.; Depriester, M.; Maignan, A.; Sahraoui, A. Hadj

    2016-07-01

    The enhancement of figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectrics is becoming extremely important for an efficient conversion of thermal energy into electrical energy. In this respect, reliable measurements of thermal and electrical parameters are of paramount importance in order to characterize thermoelectric materials in terms of their efficiency. In this work, a combined theoretical-experimental active thermography approach is presented. The method consists of selecting the right sequential interdependence between the excitation frequency and the sampling rate of the infrared camera, by computing a temporal Fourier analysis of each pixel of the recorded IR image. The method is validated by using a reference sample which is then applied to a recent synthesized titanium trisulphide thermoelectric material (TiS3). By combining AC and steady-state experiments, one can obtain information on both thermal and electrical parameters of TE materials (namely thermal diffusivity, Seebeck coefficient). The thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of TiS3 are also measured using photothermal radiometry technique (PTR) and the resulting values of these parameters are α  =  9.7*10‑7 m2 s‑1 and k  =  2.2 W m‑1 K, respectively. The results obtained with the two techniques are in good agreement. In the case of TE materials, the main benefit of the proposed method is related to its non-contact nature and the possibility of obtaining the electric potential and temperature at the same probes. The Seebeck coefficient obtained by active IR thermography (S  =  ‑554 μV K‑1) is consistent with the one obtained using an ULVAC-ZEM3 system (S  =  ‑570 μV K‑1). For a large number of users of thermographic cameras, which are not equipped with a lock-in thermography module, the present approach provides an affordable and cheaper solution.

  14. Activated carbon made from cow dung as electrode material for electrochemical double layer capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjya, Dhrubajyoti; Yu, Jong-Sung

    2014-09-01

    Cow dung is one of the most abundant wastes generated on earth and has been traditionally used as fertilizer and fuel in most of the developing countries. In this study activated carbon is synthesized from cow dung by a modified chemical activation method, where partially carbonized cow dung is treated with KOH in different ratio. The synthesized activated carbon possesses irregular surface morphology with high surface area in the range of 1500-2000 m2 g-1 with proper amount of micropore and mesopore volume. In particular, we demonstrate that the surface morphology and porosity parameters change with increase in KOH ratio. These activated carbons are tested as electrode material in two-electrode symmetric supercapacitor system in non-aqueous electrolyte and found to exhibit high specific capacitance with excellent retention of it at high current density and for long term operation. In particular, the activated carbon synthesized at 2:1 ratio of KOH and the pre-carbonized char shows the best performance with specific capacitance of 124 F g-1 at 0.1 A g-1 and retains up to 117 F g-1 at 1.0 A g-1 current density. The performance is attributed to high surface area along with optimum amount of micropore and mesopore volume.

  15. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition

    PubMed Central

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called “Zero price” is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024

  16. A Neural Mechanism of Preference Shifting Under Zero Price Condition.

    PubMed

    Votinov, Mikhail; Aso, Toshihiko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Mima, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    In everyday life, free products have a strong appeal to us, even if we do not need them. Behavioral studies demonstrated that people have a tendency to switch their preference from preferred more expensive products to less preferable, cheaper alternatives, when the cheaper option becomes free. However, the neural representation of this behavioral anomaly called "Zero price" is still unclear. Using fMRI, we studied subjects while they performed binary preference choice task for items with different prices. We found that zero-related change of preference was associated with activation of the choice network, which includes inferior parietal lobule (IPL), posterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex. Moreover, the amount of activation in medial prefrontal cortex was positively correlated with the subjective happiness score of getting free products. Our findings suggest that the Zero-price effect is driven by affective evaluations during decision-making. PMID:27148024

  17. Play Preference and Play Performance in Normal Boys and Boys with Sensory Integrative Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Jane M.; Bundy, Anita C.

    1989-01-01

    The Preschool Play Scale (PPS) and the Preschool Play Materials Preference Inventory were administered to 35 normal preschool boys and 31 with sensory integrative dysfunction (SID). Results indicated no differences in regard to play preference, lower scores for SID boys on the PPS, and no relationship between performance and preference for SID…

  18. The Astronomy Workshop: Computer Assisted Learning Tools with Instructor Support Materials and Student Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Grace; Hamilton, D.; Hayes-Gehrke, M.

    2006-12-01

    The Astronomy Workshop (http://janus.astro.umd.edu) is a collection of interactive World Wide Web tools that were developed under the direction of Doug Hamilton for use in undergraduate classes, as supplementary materials appropriate for grades 9-12, and by the general public. The philosophy of the website is to foster student and public interest in astronomy by capitalizing on their fascination with computers and the internet. Many of the tools were developed by graduate and undergraduate students at UMD. This website contains over 20 tools on topics including scientific notation, giant impacts, extrasolar planets, astronomical distances, planets, moons, comets, and asteroids. Educators around the country at universities, colleges, and secondary schools have used the Astronomy Workshop’s tools and activities as homework assignments, in-class demos, or extra credit. Since 2005, Grace Deming has assessed several of the Astronomy Workshop’s tools for clarity and effectiveness by interviewing students as they used tools on the website. Based on these interviews, Deming wrote student activities and instructor support materials and posted them to the website. Over the next three years, we will continue to interview students, develop web materials, and field-test activities. We are targeting classes in introductory undergraduate astronomy courses and grades 11-12 for our Spring 2007 field tests. We are interested in hearing your ideas on how we can make the Astronomy Workshop more appealing to educators, museum directors, specialty programs, and professors. This research is funded by NASA EPO grants NNG04GM18G and NNG06GGF99G.

  19. Optimal design of hollow core-shell structural active materials for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenjuan; Li, Tingting; Ma, Zengsheng; Lin, Jianguo; Lu, Chunsheng

    To mitigate mechanical and chemical degradation of active materials, hollow core-shell structures have been applied in lithium ion batteries. Without embedding of lithium ions, the rigid coating shell can constrain the inward volume deformation. In this paper, optimal conditions for the full use of inner hollow space are identified in terms of the critical ratio of shell thickness and inner size and the state of charge. It is shown that the critical ratios are 0.10 and 0.15 for Si particle and tube (0.12 and 0.18 for Sn particle and tube), and above which there is lack of space for further lithiation.

  20. M-transfer activity of MCM-41 materials in 1-hexene isomerization reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, J.M.; Hernandez, F.; Terres, E.; Toledo, A.; Navarrete, J.

    1996-10-01

    The gasoline reformulation scheme includes the use of oxygenated additives MTBE (methyl-ter-butyl-ether), TAME (ter-amyl-methyl-ether), ETBE (ethyl-ter-butyl-ether) and DIPE (di-isopropyl-ether), which have the iso-olefins (i-C{sub 3}{sup =}, i-C{sub 4}{sup =}, i-C{sub 5}{sup =}) as precursors. In this respect, olefin production from FCC units must be enhanced to cover the demand. A series of new catalytic materials with lower hydrogen transfer activity could enhance the olefin yield from the FCC reactors.