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Sample records for active men performed

  1. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  2. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA. PMID:25992659

  3. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  4. Comparison Between Pre-Exhaustion and Traditional Exercise Order on Muscle Activation and Performance in Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Serpa, Érica Paes; da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Junior, Guanis de Barros Vilela; Fioravanti, Gustavo zorzi; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height: 174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press+triceps pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p = 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain, at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual

  5. Accumulated oxygen deficit and shuttle run performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, R; Nevill, M E; Nevill, A M; Hazeldine, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the validity of using shuttle run performance over 20 m to predict accumulated oxygen deficit. A new high-intensity shuttle run test (HIST) was devised, during which subjects ran to exhaustion at a speed equivalent to 120% of their performance attained during a progressive shuttle run test. The reliability of the new test was examined and found to be acceptable for 18 subjects who performed the test twice on separate days (r = 0.84, P < 0.01, study I). The discriminating ability of the new test was examined by comparing the distance covered by eight sprint- and eight endurance-trained athletes at 120% of their respective progressive shuttle run performances (615 +/- 111 vs 273 +/- 84 m, P < 0.01, study II). The strongest predictor of accumulated oxygen deficit for 27 subjects was found to be the geometric mean of the performances on the new test and on the progressive shuttle run test (r = 0.74, study III). The regression equation for this relationship was then used to estimate the accumulated oxygen deficit for a second group of 16 subjects (study IV). The correlation between the estimated and measured accumulated oxygen deficits was significant (r = 0.79, P < 0.01). The results from studies III and IV were therefore combined with the data from six new subjects to give a regression equation for predictive purposes based on 49 subjects.

  6. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:24263657

  7. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  8. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  9. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA.

  10. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's…

  11. Testosterone levels and mental rotation performance in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Hooven, Carole K; Boynes, Matthew; Gray, Peter B; Pope, Harrison G

    2007-03-01

    Males achieve markedly higher scores than females on mental rotation tests (MRTs). Therefore, it might be hypothesized that, within groups of males, testosterone levels modulate MRT performance. However, studies of this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, a recent study of 28 American men, using the computerized Shepard and Metzler MRT (SM), found significant associations between salivary testosterone levels and the intercepts of the functions relating response time and error rate to the angular disparity between comparison objects. Conversely, a study of 35 British men, using the same methodology, found no such associations. We attempted a cross-cultural replication of these studies, in which we obtained salivary testosterone levels, together with performance measures on the SM, from 92 heterosexual right-handed men, aged 21-38, in Beijing, China. We hypothesized that Chinese men might perform more slowly and carefully than Western men on this test (which imposes no time limitations), but that associations of testosterone levels with performance, if real, should nevertheless be detectable across cultures. We found that the Chinese men indeed displayed significantly longer response times than the American men, although the Chinese men were equally accurate. Interestingly, testosterone was significantly associated with the slope of the response time function in Chinese men, whereas the earlier American study had found that testosterone was associated with the intercept, but not the slope, of this function. These observations suggest that differing cultural values regarding speed and accuracy may influence MRT performance--and that these values must be considered in future studies of testosterone and MRT measures.

  12. Testosterone levels and mental rotation performance in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chi-Fu Jeffrey; Hooven, Carole K; Boynes, Matthew; Gray, Peter B; Pope, Harrison G

    2007-03-01

    Males achieve markedly higher scores than females on mental rotation tests (MRTs). Therefore, it might be hypothesized that, within groups of males, testosterone levels modulate MRT performance. However, studies of this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Notably, a recent study of 28 American men, using the computerized Shepard and Metzler MRT (SM), found significant associations between salivary testosterone levels and the intercepts of the functions relating response time and error rate to the angular disparity between comparison objects. Conversely, a study of 35 British men, using the same methodology, found no such associations. We attempted a cross-cultural replication of these studies, in which we obtained salivary testosterone levels, together with performance measures on the SM, from 92 heterosexual right-handed men, aged 21-38, in Beijing, China. We hypothesized that Chinese men might perform more slowly and carefully than Western men on this test (which imposes no time limitations), but that associations of testosterone levels with performance, if real, should nevertheless be detectable across cultures. We found that the Chinese men indeed displayed significantly longer response times than the American men, although the Chinese men were equally accurate. Interestingly, testosterone was significantly associated with the slope of the response time function in Chinese men, whereas the earlier American study had found that testosterone was associated with the intercept, but not the slope, of this function. These observations suggest that differing cultural values regarding speed and accuracy may influence MRT performance--and that these values must be considered in future studies of testosterone and MRT measures. PMID:17292367

  13. Endogenous testosterone levels are associated with neural activity in men with schizophrenia during facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Ji, Ellen; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Catts, Stanley V; Vercammen, Ans; White, Christopher; Gur, Raquel E; Weickert, Thomas W

    2015-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that testosterone may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia given that testosterone has been linked to cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Here, we determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels are related to neural activity in affective processing circuitry in men with schizophrenia. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal changes as 32 healthy controls and 26 people with schizophrenia performed a facial emotion identification task. Whole brain analyses were performed to determine regions of differential activity between groups during processing of angry versus non-threatening faces. A follow-up ROI analysis using a regression model in a subset of 16 healthy men and 16 men with schizophrenia was used to determine the extent to which serum testosterone levels were related to neural activity. Healthy controls displayed significantly greater activation than people with schizophrenia in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). There was no significant difference in circulating testosterone levels between healthy men and men with schizophrenia. Regression analyses between activation in the IFG and circulating testosterone levels revealed a significant positive correlation in men with schizophrenia (r=.63, p=.01) and no significant relationship in healthy men. This study provides the first evidence that circulating serum testosterone levels are related to IFG activation during emotion face processing in men with schizophrenia but not in healthy men, which suggests that testosterone levels modulate neural processes relevant to facial emotion processing that may interfere with social functioning in men with schizophrenia.

  14. Running performance differences between men and women:an update.

    PubMed

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Carter, Robert; Deruisseau, Keith C; Moffatt, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was reported in the journal Nature that the slope of improvement in the men's and women's running records, extrapolated from mean running velocity plotted against historical time, would eventually result in a performance intersection of the sexes across a variety of running distances. The first of these intersections was to occur for 42 000 m before the 21st century. Most of the error in this prediction is probably explained by the linear mathematical treatment and extrapolation of limited performance data, since including world record-setting running performances for women before and after 1985 results in a non-linear data fit. The reality of early, disproportionate improvements in women's running that gave the appearance of an impending convergence with men is best explained by an historical social sports bias. Women's times have now reached a plateau similar to that observed for men at comparative performance milestones in the marathon. Sex differences at distances from 100 to 10 000 m show similar trends. The remaining sex gaps in performance appear biological in origin. Success in distance running and sprinting is determined largely by aerobic capacity and muscular strength, respectively. Because men possess a larger aerobic capacity and greater muscular strength, the gap in running performances between men and women is unlikely to narrow naturally.

  15. The Effects of Solo Status on Women's and Men's Success: The Moderating Role of the Performance Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viallon, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Delphine

    2009-01-01

    A considerable body of research has shown that being the only representative of one's gender group (solo status) when performing an activity affects women more than men. The aim of our two experiments was to show that the performance context can moderate the effects of numerical status (majority vs. solo) on performance and that men can also be…

  16. Active surveillance of prostate cancer in African American men.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Feibus, Allison H; Maddox, Michael M; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Moparty, Krishnarao; Thomas, Raju; Sartor, Oliver

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment strategy for prostate cancer (PCa) whereby patients diagnosed with PCa undergo ongoing characterization of their disease with the intent of avoiding radical treatment. Previously, AS has been demonstrated to be a reasonable option for men with low-risk PCa, but existing cohorts largely consist of Caucasian Americans. Because African Americans have a greater incidence, more aggressive, and potentially more lethal PCa than Caucasian Americans, it is unclear if AS is appropriate for African Americans. We performed a review of the available literature on AS with a focus on African Americans.

  17. Loss of MEN1 activates DNMT1 implicating DNA hypermethylation as a driver of MEN1 tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ziqiang; Claros, Carmen Sánchez; Suzuki, Masako; Maggi, Elaine C.; Kaner, Justin D.; Kinstlinger, Noah; Gorecka, Jolanta; Quinn, Thomas J.; Geha, Rula; Corn, Amanda; Pastoriza, Jessica; Jing, Qiang; Adem, Asha; Wu, Hao; Alemu, Girum; Du, Yi-Chieh; Zheng, Deyou; Greally, John M.; Libutti, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome results from mutations in the MEN1 gene and causes tumor formation via largely unknown mechanisms. Using a novel genome-wide methylation analysis, we studied tissues from MEN1-parathyroid tumors, Men1 knockout (KO) mice, and Men1 null mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cell lines. We demonstrated that inactivation of menin (the protein product of MEN1) increases activity of DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) by activating retinoblastoma-binding protein 5 (Rbbp5). The increased activity of DNMT1 mediates global DNA hypermethylation, which results in aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway through inactivation of Sox regulatory genes. Our study provides important insights into the role of menin in DNA methylation and its impact on the pathogenesis of MEN1 tumor development. PMID:26871472

  18. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women.

  19. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  20. Effects of caffeine on time trial performance in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Laurence, George; Wallman, Karen; Guelfi, Kym

    2012-01-01

    It is not known if ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion in athletic groups occur in the sedentary. To investigate this, we used a counterbalanced, double-blind, crossover design to examine the effects of caffeine ingestion (6 mg · kg⁻¹ body-mass) on exercise performance, substrate utilisation and perceived exertion during 30 minutes of self-paced stationary cycling in sedentary men. Participants performed two trials, one week apart, after ingestion of either caffeine or placebo one hour before exercise. Participants were instructed to cycle as quickly as they could during each trial. External work (J · kg⁻¹) after caffeine ingestion was greater than after placebo (P = 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.3). Further, heart rate, oxygen uptake and energy expenditure during exercise were greater after caffeine ingestion (P = 0.031, ES = 0.4; P = 0.009, ES = 0.3 and P = 0.018, ES = 0.3; respectively), whereas ratings of perceived exertion and respiratory exchange ratio values did not differ between trials (P = 0.877, ES = 0.1; P = 0.760, ES = 0.1; respectively). The ability to do more exercise after caffeine ingestion, without an accompanying increase in effort sensation, could motivate sedentary men to participate in exercise more often and so reduce adverse effects of inactivity on health.

  1. Reliability of 1RM Split-Squat Performance and the Efficacy of Assessing Both Bilateral Squat and Split-Squat 1RM in a Single Session for Non-Resistance-Trained Recreationally Active Men.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Brian G; Moir, Gavin L; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) split squat (SS) and establish the efficacy of collecting 1RM-SS and 1RM bilateral squat (BLS) data in the same session, for a non-resistance-trained recreationally active population. Fourteen males performed a submaximal familiarization session and 5 testing sessions. After familiarization, the 1RM-SS was tested in the following 3 sessions. In session 4, subjects were tested in both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS, with half performing SS then BLS and the remainder BLS then SS. In session 5, the testing order was reversed. Reliability statistics calculated included the following: changes in mean across sessions, coefficient of variation calculated from the typical error (TE) scores (%CV(TE)), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) of 1RM-SS. Statistically significant differences between the mean 1RM-SS in sessions 1 and 2 (2.14 kg, p = 0.001), and sessions 1 and 3 (2.86 kg, p < 0.003) were found, indicating the requirement for an additional familiarization session before 1RM-SS data collection. The %CV(TE) was 2.53% and the ICC was 0.97 for the 1RM-SS protocol. Performing SS before BLS tended to increase the mean 1RM-BLS (+2.1%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.055). A reliable measure of 1RM-SS can be determined after 1 submaximal and 1 maximal familiarization session in non-resistance-trained recreationally active men. Analysis of the current data suggests that it is appropriate to perform both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS tests within the same testing session if 1RM-SS is performed before 1RM-BLS. However, further testing is warranted to firmly establish the effects of 1RM-SS on subsequent 1RM-BLS.

  2. Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men.

    PubMed

    Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Marzano, Stefania; Lopez, Rebecca M; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

    2011-11-01

    The present study assessed the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood of young males. A total of twenty-six men (age 20·0 (sd 0·3) years) participated in three randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures trials: exercise-induced dehydration plus a diuretic (DD; 40 mg furosemide); exercise-induced dehydration plus placebo containing no diuretic (DN); exercise while maintaining euhydration plus placebo (EU; control condition). Each trial included three 40 min treadmill walks at 5·6 km/h, 5 % grade in a 27·7°C environment. A comprehensive computerised six-task cognitive test battery, the profile of mood states questionnaire and the symptom questionnaire (headache, concentration and task difficulty) were administered during each trial. Paired t tests compared the DD and DN trials resulting in >1 % body mass loss (mean 1·59 (sd 0·42) %) with the volunteer's EU trial (0·01 (sd 0·03) %). Dehydration degraded specific aspects of cognitive performance: errors increased on visual vigilance (P = 0·048) and visual working memory response latency slowed (P = 0·021). Fatigue and tension/anxiety increased due to dehydration at rest (P = 0·040 and 0·029) and fatigue during exercise (P = 0·026). Plasma osmolality increased due to dehydration (P < 0·001) but resting gastrointestinal temperature was not altered (P = 0·238). In conclusion, mild dehydration without hyperthermia in men induced adverse changes in vigilance and working memory, and increased tension/anxiety and fatigue.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome and Physical Performance In Elderly Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Paudel, Misti; Taylor, Brent C.; Dam, Tien; Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; LeBlanc, Erin; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with objective measures of physical performance. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the cohort study, the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. Setting Six clinical sites in the US. Participants 5,457 ambulatory men (mean (±SD), age, 73.6 (5.9) years). Measurements Physical performance assessed by grip strength, narrow walk speed, walking speed, and time to complete five repeated chair stands. Individual scores were converted to quintiles (worst [1] to best [5]; unable to complete=0) and summed for an overall score (mean (±SD), 11.6 (4.3), range, 1–20). MetS was defined by World Health Organization criteria that include evidence of glucose dysregulation (insulin resistance, diabetes, or hyperinsulinemia), and at least two additional characteristics: high blood pressure, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, high triglycerides, or obesity. Results 26.3% of participants met criteria for MetS. In separate linear regression models, four of five MetS components were related to performance (P<.001); only high blood pressure was unrelated. Men with MetS had a 1.11-point lower performance score (mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) =10.81 (10.61, 11.00)) than men without MetS (mean (95% CI) =11.92 (11.81, 12.03)) (P<.001), adjusting for age, race, education and site. With further covariate adjustment this difference was reduced but remained significant (β=−0.78, P<.001). A graded association was observed between number of MetS components (0, 1, 2, or 3+) and performance (P for trend <.001). Findings were similar excluding men with diabetes or obese men. Conclusion Metabolic dysregulation is related to objectively-assessed poorer physical performance among relatively healthy older men. PMID:21806561

  4. Effect of competitiveness on forty-yard dash performance in college men and women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashley N; Decker, Aaron J; Baarts, Jennifer N; Dupont, Andrea M; Epema, John S; Reuther, Michael C; Houser, Jeremy J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p < 0.05) for women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p < 0.05). A competitive environment does not appear to improve short sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.

  5. Sex Trade Behavior Among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Kennedy, David P.; Golinelli, Daniela; Ewing, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Sex trade behavior is fairly common among homeless adults and may contribute to higher rates of HIV/AIDS in this population. This study provides a detailed examination of the sex trade-related attitudes and behaviors of homeless men by: (1) determining the prevalence of sex trade-related behaviors, including sex with female sex workers (FSWs); (2) identifying risk factors for having sex with FSWs; and (3) comparing men's relationships with FSWs and non-FSWs in terms of relationship qualities and HIV-related risk behaviors, such as condom use. Structured interviews were conducted with a probability sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men recruited from meal lines in Los Angeles. Recent sex with a FSW was reported by 26% of men, and more likely among those who were older, used crack cocaine, had more sex partners, believed that sometimes men just need to have sex no matter what, and were embedded in networks that were denser and where risky sex was more normative. Compared to non-FSW partners, men with FSW partners felt less emotionally close to them, were more likely to believe the partner had never been tested for HIV, and were more likely to have sex with them under the influence of drugs or alcohol; however, they were not more likely to talk about using condoms or to use condoms with FSWs. Whether the relationship was considered “serious” was a stronger correlate of condom use than whether the partner was a FSW. Implications of these findings for HIV prevention efforts among homeless adults are discussed. PMID:23720137

  6. Do Men and Women Perform Academic Work Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…

  7. Rest/Activity Rhythms and Cardiovascular Disease in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Stone, Katie L.; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have suggested an increased risk of CVD-related mortality in older adults with disturbed circadian rest/activity rhythms (RARs). The objective goal of this study was to examine the association between disrupted RARs and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in older men. A total of 2,968 men aged 67 yrs and older wore wrist actigraphs for 115±18 consecutive hours. RAR parameters were computed from wrist actigraphy data and expressed as quartiles (Q). CVD events consisted of a composite outcome of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) events. Secondary analyses examined associations between RARs and individual components of the composite outcome (CHD, stroke, and PVD). There were 490 CVD events over an average of 4.0±1.2 yrs. Overall, reduced amplitude (HR = 1.31, 95%CI 1.01–1.71 for Q2 vs. Q4) and greater minimum (HR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.01–1.73 for Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events in multivariable-adjusted models. In secondary analyses, there was an independent association between reduced amplitude (HR = 1.36, 95%CI 1.00–1.86) and greater minimum activity counts (HR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.02–1.91) with increased risk of CHD events. Reduced F-value (HR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.41–5.87 for Q1 vs. Q4 and HR = 2.71, 95%CI 1.34–5.48 for Q2 vs. Q4) and later occurring acrophase of the RAR (HR = 1.65, 95%CI 1.04–2.63 for Q4 vs. Q2–3) were associated with an increased risk of PVD events. Results were similar in men without a history of CVD events. The findings revealed among older men, measures of decreased circadian activity rhythm robustness (reduced amplitude and greater minimum activity) were associated with an increased risk of CVD events, primarily through increased risk of CHD or stroke events, whereas measures of reduced circadian activity rhythm robustness were not associated with risk of CVD events overall, but were associated with an increased risk of PVD events. These results

  8. Muscle power and physical activity are associated with bone strength in older men: The osteoporotic fractures in men study

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Julie M.; Petit, Moira A.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Hughes, Julie M.; Cauley, Jane A.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to explore whether physical activity score, leg power or grip strength were associated with tibia and radius estimates of bone strength, cortical density, or total bone area. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to compare tibial and radial bone volumetric density (vBMD, mg/cm3), total (ToA, mm2) and cortical (CoA, mm2) bone area, and estimates of bone compressive strength (bone strength index, BSI) and bending strength (polar strength strain index, SSIp) in a subset (n=1171) of men (≥ 65 years) who participated in the multi-site Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. Physical activity was assessed by questionnaire (PASE), leg power by Nottingham Power Rig, and grip strength by a hand-held Dynamometer. Participants were categorized into quartiles of PASE, grip strength or leg power. The model was adjusted for age, race, clinic, weight, and limb length. In the tibia, BSI (+7%) and SSIp (+4%) were highest in the most active physically quartile compared to the least active (p<0.05). At the 4% site of the tibia, men with the greatest leg power had both greater ToA (+5%, p<0.001) and BSI (+5.3%, p=0.086) compared to men with the least leg power. At the 66% site of the tibia, the men with the highest leg power, compared to the men with the lowest leg power, had greater ToA (+3%, p=0.045) SSIp (+5%, p=0.008). Similar results were found at both the distal and midshaft of the radius. The findings of this study suggest the importance of maintaining levels of physical activity and muscle strength in older men to prevent bone fragility. PMID:20466088

  9. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  10. Circulating aminopeptidase activities in men and women with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Agesta Ortega, R; Arias de Saavedra-Alías, J M; Liébana-Cañada, A; Sánchez-Muñoz, B; Martínez-Martos, J M; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2013-01-01

    Essential hypertension is one of the major contributors to premature morbidity and mortality due to the incresased risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, renal disease, peripheral vascular disease and vascular dementia for both men and women. However, its basic causes remain unknown. In the present work we studied the activity of several proteolytic regulatory enzymes related to renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) (aminopeptidase A, APA; aminopeptidase N, APN; aminopeptidase B, APB; and insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, IRAP); with oxytocin regulation (oxytocinase); with the metabolism of GnRH and TRH (pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase, Pcp); and with enkephalins metabolism (enkephalindegrading activity, EDA), to elucidate their role in the mechanisms responsible of essential hypertension and to discuss the possible gender differences. Serum samples of 53 individuals with essential hypertension and 60 healthy volunteers were collected and used to assay enzyme activities, gonad hormones testosterone and estradiol, TSH and free thyroxin (fT4). Differences were observed in APA, APN, Pcp and EDA specific activities, and in serum gonad hormone levels between hypertensive and control groups. Only Pcp activity showed gender differences. Regarding the RAS, APA is reduced while APN is increased, suggesting increased levels of angiotensin II and a facilitation of the conversion of angiotensin III in angiotensin IV. Thus, the changes in several RAS-regulating specific activities and other enzyme activities involved in the neuroendocrine modulation of gonad and stress-related functions are related to essential hypertension with minor gender differences. Therefore, aminopeptidases constitute new elements for the knowledge of the causes of essential hypertension and an alternative as therapeutic targets against the illness.

  11. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the…

  12. Neuromuscular performance and bone structural characteristics in young healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Heinonen, A; Komi, P V; Linnamo, V

    2008-01-01

    Muscle mass and strength have been shown to be important factors in bone strength. Low muscular force predisposes to falling especially among elderly. Regular exercise helps to prevent falls and resulting bone fractures. Better understanding of muscle function and its importance on bone properties may thus add information to fracture prevention. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between bone strength and muscular force production. Twenty-young men [24 (2) years] and 20 [24 (3) years] women served as subjects. Bone compressive (BSI(d)) and bending strength indices (50 Imax) were measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at tibial mid-shaft and at distal tibia. Ankle plantarflexor muscle volume (MV) was estimated from muscle thickness measured with ultrasonography. Neuromuscular performance was evaluated from the measurements of maximal ground reaction force (GRF) in bilateral jumping and of eccentric maximal voluntary ankle plantarflexor torque (MVC). Specific tension (ST) of the plantarflexors was calculated by dividing the MVC with the muscle volume. Activation level (AL) was measured with superimposed twitch method. Distal tibia BSI(d) and tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax correlated positively with GRF, MVC and MV in men (r = 0.45-0.67, P < 0.05). Tibial mid-shaft 50 Imax and neuromuscular performance variables were correlated in women (r = 0.46-0.59, P < 0.05), whereas no correlation was seen in distal tibia. In the regression analysis, MV and ST could explain 64% of the variance in tibial mid-shaft bone strength and 41% of the variation in distal tibia bone strength. The study emphasizes that tibial strength is related to maximal neuromuscular performance. In addition, tibial mid-shaft seems to be more dependent on the neuromuscular performance, than distal tibia. In young adults, the association between bone adaptation and neuromuscular performance seems to be moderate and also site and loading specific.

  13. Restoring Akt1 activity in outgrowth endothelial cells from South Asian men rescues vascular reparative potential.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Yuldasheva, Nadira Y; Viswambharan, Hema; Mercer, Ben N; Baliga, Vivek; Stephen, Sam L; Askham, Jonathan; Sukumar, Piruthivi; Skromna, Anna; Mughal, Romana S; Walker, Andrew M N; Bruns, Alexander; Bailey, Marc A; Galloway, Stacey; Imrie, Helen; Gage, Matthew C; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Li, Jing; Porter, Karen E; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Beech, David J; Kearney, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Recent data suggest reduced indices of vascular repair in South Asian men, a group at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) represent an attractive tool to study vascular repair in humans and may offer potential in cell-based repair therapies. We aimed to define and manipulate potential mechanisms of impaired vascular repair in South Asian (SA) men. In vitro and in vivo assays of vascular repair and angiogenesis were performed using OEC derived from SA men and matched European controls, prior defining potentially causal molecular mechanisms. SA OEC exhibited impaired colony formation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis, associated with decreased expression of the proangiogenic molecules Akt1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Transfusion of European OEC into immunodeficient mice after wire-induced femoral artery injury augmented re-endothelialization, in contrast with SA OEC and vehicle; SA OEC also failed to promote angiogenesis after induction of hind limb ischemia. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 (E17KAkt), but not green fluorescent protein control, in SA OEC increased in vitro angiogenesis, which was abrogated by a NOS antagonist. Moreover, E17KAkt expressing SA OEC promoted re-endothelialization of wire-injured femoral arteries, and perfusion recovery of ischemic limbs, to a magnitude comparable with nonmanipulated European OEC. Silencing Akt1 in European OEC recapitulated the functional deficits noted in SA OEC. Reduced signaling via the Akt/eNOS axis is causally linked with impaired OEC-mediated vascular repair in South Asian men. These data prove the principle of rescuing marked reparative dysfunction in OEC derived from these men.

  14. Natural killer cell activity in elderly men is enhanced by beta-carotene supplementation.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Meydani, S N; Leka, L; Wu, D; Fotouhi, N; Meydani, M; Hennekens, C H; Gaziano, J M

    1996-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity has been postulated to be an immunologic link between beta-carotene and cancer prevention. In a cross-sectional, placebo-controlled, double-blind study we examined the effect of 10-12 y of beta-carotene supplementation (50 mg on alternate days) on NK cell activity in 59 (38 middle-aged men, 51-64 y; 21 elderly men, 65-86 y) Boston area participants in the Physicians' Health Study. No significant difference was seen in NK cell activity due to beta-carotene supplementation in the middle-aged group. The elderly men had significantly lower NK cell activity than the middle-aged men; however, there was no age-associated difference in NK cell activity in men supplemented with beta-carotene. beta-carotene-supplemented elderly men had significantly greater NK cell activity than elderly men receiving placebo. The reason for this is unknown; however, it was not due to an increase in the percentage of NK cells, nor to an increase in interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor expression, nor to IL-2 production. beta-carotene may be acting directly on one or more of the lytic stages of NK cell cytotoxicity, or on NK cell activity-enhancing cytokines other than IL-2, such as IL-12. Our results show that long-term beta-carotene supplementation enhances NK cell activity in elderly men, which may be beneficial for viral and tumoral surveillance.

  15. Determining activated carbon performance

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, W.F.; Rester, D.O.

    1995-07-01

    This article discusses the key elements involved in evaluating a system`s performance. Empty bed contact time (EBCT) is a term used to describe the length of time a liquid stream being treated is in contact with a granular activated carbon bed. The EBCT is the time required for a fluid to pass through the volume equivalent of the media bed, without the media being present. In a bed of granular activated carbon, the void volume or space between particles is usually about 45 percent. Therefore, the EBCT is about twice the true or actual time of contact between the fluid being treated and the GAC particles. The EBCT plays an important role in determining the effectiveness and longevity of granular activated carbon (GAC) used to treat liquids in a fixed-bed adsorber. Factors that influence and are influenced by EBCT, and their relationship to GAC performance in a treatment scheme include: adsorption, mass transfer zone, impurity concentration, adsorption affinity, flow rate and system design considerations.

  16. Gamified physical activation of young men – a Multidisciplinary Population-Based Randomized Controlled Trial (MOPO study)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inactive and unhealthy lifestyles are common among adolescent men. The planned intervention examines the effectiveness of an interactive, gamified activation method, based on tailored health information, peer networks and participation, on physical activity, health and wellbeing in young men. We hypothesize that following the intervention the physical activation group will have an improved physical activity, as well as self-determined and measured health compared with the controls. Methods/design Conscription-aged men (18 years) attending compulsory annual call-ups for military service in the city of Oulu in Finland (n = 1500) will be randomized to a 6-months intervention (n = 640) or a control group (n = 640) during the fall 2013. A questionnaire on health, health behaviour, diet and wellbeing is administered in the beginning and end of the intervention. In addition, anthropometric measures (height, weight and waist circumference), body composition, grip strength, heart rate variability and aerobic fitness will be measured. The activation group utilizes an online gamified activation method in combination with communal youth services, objective physical activity measurement, social networking, tailored health information and exercise programs according to baseline activity level and the readiness of changes of each individual. Daily physical activity of the participants is monitored in both the activation and control groups. The activation service rewards improvements in physical activity or reductions in sedentary behaviour. The performance and completion of the military service of the participants will also be followed. Discussion The study will provide new information of physical activity, health and health behaviour of young men. Furthermore, a novel model including methods for increasing physical activity among young people is developed and its effects tested through an intervention. This unique gamified service for activating young men

  17. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  18. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18-23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65-88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men's mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  19. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proportional activation of neural structures constituting the human reward system for increasing levels of reward, independent of incentive type. However, in men activation in the prospect of monetary rewards encompassed a wide network of mesolimbic brain regions compared to only limited activation for social rewards. In contrast, in women, anticipation of either incentive type activated identical brain regions. Our findings represent an important step towards a better understanding of motivated behaviour by taking into account individual differences in reward valuation. PMID:19174537

  20. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  1. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.

  2. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change. PMID:23215551

  3. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  4. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  5. The effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jonathan E; Bell, Martha Ann

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the effects of age and sex on mental rotation performance, verbal performance, and brain-wave activity. Thirty-two 8-year-olds (16 boys) and 32 college students (16 men) had EEG recorded at baseline and while performing four computerized tasks: a two-dimensional (2D) gingerbread man mental rotation, a 2D alphanumeric mental rotation, of three-dimensional (3D) basketball player mental rotation, and lexical decision making. Additionally, participants completed a paper- and pencil water level task and an oral verbal fluency task. On the 2D alphanumeric and 3D basketball player mental rotation tasks, men performed better than boys, but the performance of women and girls did not differ. On the water level task, men performed better than women whereas there was no difference between boys and girls. No sex differences were found on the 2D gingerbread man mental rotation, lexical decision-making, and verbal fluency tasks. EEG analyses indicated that men exhibited left posterior temporal activation during the 2D alphanumeric task and that men and boys both exhibited greater left parietal activation than women and girls during the 2D gingerbread man task. On the 3D basketball player mental rotation task, all participants exhibited greater activation of the right parietal area than the left parietal area. These data give insight into the brain activity and cognitive development changes that occur between childhood and adulthood.

  6. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  7. Women and Men in Sport Performance: The Gender Gap has not Evolved since 1983.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Valérie; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Helou, Nour El; Schaal, Karine; Quinquis, Laurent; Nassif, Hala; Tafflet, Muriel; Escolano, Sylvie; Hermine, Olivier; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    Sex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records. Here the evolution of the difference between men and women's best performances is characterized through the analysis of 82 quantifiable events since the beginning of the Olympic era. For each event in swimming, athletics, track cycling, weightlifting and speed skating the gender gap is fitted to compare male and female records. It is also studied through the best performance of the top 10 performers in each gender for swimming and athletics. A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events. The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming) to 18.8% (long jump). The mean gap is 10.7% for running performances, 17.5% for jumps, 8.9% for swimming races, 7.0% for speed skating and 8.7% in cycling. The top ten performers' analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%, despite the large growth in participation of women from eastern and western countries, that coincided with later- published evidence of state-institutionalized or individual doping. These results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men. Key pointsSex is a major factor influencing best performances and world records.A stabilization of the gender gap in world records is observed after 1983, at a mean difference of 10.0% ± 2.94 between men and women for all events.The gender gap ranges from 5.5% (800-m freestyle, swimming) to 36.8% (weight lifting).The top ten performers' analysis reveals a similar gender gap trend with a stabilization in 1982 at 11.7%.Results suggest that women will not run, jump, swim or ride as fast as men.

  8. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  9. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  10. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  11. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  12. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training…

  13. Beyond Bad Behaving Brothers: Productive Performances of Masculinities among College Fraternity Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on fraternity men focuses almost exclusively on problematic behaviors such as homophobia and sexism, alcohol abuse, violence against women, sexual promiscuity, and the overrepresentation of members among campus judicial offenders. Consequently, little is known about those who perform masculinities in healthy and productive ways. Presented…

  14. Deconstructing Masculinity: A Qualitative Study of College Men's Masculine Conceptualizations and Gender Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III

    2008-01-01

    Informed by the constructionist epistemological perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine socially constructed conceptualizations of masculinity and gender performance among 12 culturally diverse undergraduate men. The participants espoused seemingly productive conceptualizations of masculinity, yet their gendered behaviors were…

  15. HIV+ Men and Women Show Different Performance Patterns on Procedural Learning Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Eileen; Gonzalez, Raul; Vassileva, Jasmin; Maki, Pauline

    2010-01-01

    The literature suggests that nondeclarative, or nonconscious, learning might be impaired among HIV+ individuals compared with HIV− matched control groups, but these studies have included relatively few women. We administered measures of motor skill and probabilistic learning, tasks with a nondeclarative or procedural learning component that are dependent on integrity of prefrontal-striatal systems, to well-matched groups of 148 men and 65 women with a history of substance dependence that included 45 men and 30 women seropositive for HIV. All participants were abstinent at testing. Compared to HIV− women, HIV+ women performed significantly more poorly on both tasks, but HIV+ men’s performance did not differ significantly compared to HIV− men on either task. These different patterns of performance indicate that features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) can not always be generalized from men to women. Additional studies are needed to address directly the possibility of sex differences in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) and the possibility that women might be more vulnerable to the effects of HIV and substance dependence on some neurocognitive functions. PMID:20694870

  16. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball. PMID:27468992

  17. Caffeine Ingestion Reverses the Circadian Rhythm Effects on Neuromuscular Performance in Highly Resistance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús García; López-Samanes, Álvaro; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether caffeine ingestion counteracts the morning reduction in neuromuscular performance associated with the circadian rhythm pattern. Methods Twelve highly resistance-trained men underwent a battery of neuromuscular tests under three different conditions; i) morning (10:00 a.m.) with caffeine ingestion (i.e., 3 mg kg−1; AMCAFF trial); ii) morning (10:00 a.m.) with placebo ingestion (AMPLAC trial); and iii) afternoon (18:00 p.m.) with placebo ingestion (PMPLAC trial). A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled experimental design was used, with all subjects serving as their own controls. The neuromuscular test battery consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity during free-weight full-squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises against loads that elicit maximum strength (75% 1RM load) and muscle power adaptations (1 m s−1 load). Isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVCLEG) and isometric electrically evoked strength of the right knee (EVOKLEG) were measured to identify caffeine's action mechanisms. Steroid hormone levels (serum testosterone, cortisol and growth hormone) were evaluated at the beginning of each trial (PRE). In addition, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine were measured PRE and at the end of each trial following a standardized intense (85% 1RM) 6 repetitions bout of SQ (POST). Results In the PMPLAC trial, dynamic muscle strength and power output were significantly enhanced compared with AMPLAC treatment (3.0%–7.5%; p≤0.05). During AMCAFF trial, muscle strength and power output increased above AMPLAC levels (4.6%–5.7%; p≤0.05) except for BP velocity with 1 m s−1 load (p = 0.06). During AMCAFF, EVOKLEG and NE (a surrogate of maximal muscle sympathetic nerve activation) were increased above AMPLAC trial (14.6% and 96.8% respectively; p≤0.05). Conclusions These results indicate that caffeine ingestion reverses the morning neuromuscular declines in highly resistance

  18. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  19. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  20. Effects of noise frequency on performance and annoyance for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, K. F.; Payne, M. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of noise frequencies on both performance on a complex psychomotor task and annoyance were investigated for men (n = 30) and women (n = 30). Each subject performed a complex psychomotor task for 50 min in the presence of low-frequency noise, high-frequency noise, or ambient noise. Women and men learned the task at different rates. Little effect of noise was shown. Annoyance ratings were subsequently obtained from each subject for noises of various frequencies by the method of magnitude estimation. High-frequency noises were more annoying than low-frequency noises regardless of sex and immediate prior exposure to noise. Sex differences in annoyance did not occur. No direct relationship between learning to perform a complex task while exposed to noise and annoyance by that noise was demonstrated.

  1. Perceived Reasons, Incentives, and Barriers to Physical Activity in Swedish Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about factors influencing physical activity behavior is needed in order to tailor physical activity interventions to the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceived reasons, barriers, and incentives to increased physical activity, as well as preferable activities, among elderly men in Sweden. Methods In total, 150 men aged 50-86 years responded to a Web-based questionnaire. Men who reported that they exercised sometimes or often received questions about reasons for physical activity (n=104), while men who reported that they never or seldom exercised received questions about barriers (n=46). Results The most frequent perceived reason for being physically active was health (82%), followed by enjoyment (45%), and a desire to lose/maintain weight (27%). Lack of interest/motivation was identified as the primary perceived barrier (17%). Incentives for increasing the level of activity included becoming more motivated and having a training partner. Walking was the most preferred activity. Conclusions Enjoyment and maintaining a good health were important reasons for engaging in physical activity among Swedish elderly men. PMID:25488655

  2. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South. PMID:22808914

  3. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  4. Seroprevalence of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, A J; Christofinis, G; Coxon, A P; Davies, P M; McManus, T J; Sutherland, S; Weatherburn, P

    1990-01-01

    A non-clinic cohort of 525 homosexually active men from London and South Wales were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. A sample of blood was tested for HIV-1 antibodies. Seropositivity in London was 9.2% compared with 3.4% in South Wales. Men who were not regular STD clinic attenders had a lower rate of seropositivity than did those who were regular attenders. Men who were seropositive reported more sexual partners with whom they had anal intercourse and also reported more episodes of syphilis. Overall, rates of seropositivity were lower than those reported by studies from STD clinics. PMID:2265839

  5. Reliability and validity of the performance index evaluation among men's and women's college basketball players.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Jean-Paul; Johnson, Robert J; Russo, Paul; Cobler, Dennis C

    2007-05-01

    The Performance Index Evaluation (PIE) is a basketball-specific assessment of physical performance. The battery consists of items typically included in sport assessments, such as agility and power, but also addresses an often-overlooked performance component, namely, core strength. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability (test-retest, interrater), validity (criterion-related, construct-related), and practice effect of the PIE among men's and women's college basketball players. Test-retest estimates were moderate for men (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.79) and poor for women (ICC = 0.35), but interrater reliability was high (ICC = 0.95). Criterion-related validity evidence (i.e., relationship between PIE and playing time) was weak, but construct-related evidence was acceptable (i.e., college players had higher scores than high school players). A practice effect was also demonstrated among men. In conclusion, reliability of the battery should be improved before its use is recommended among college basketball players. Additionally, the battery does not appear to be a predictor of performance but does appear to distinguish between skill levels.

  6. Physical Activity, Aerobic Capacity, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Healthy Men and in Men with Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gawron-Skarbek, Anna; Chrzczanowicz, Jacek; Kostka, Joanna; Nowak, Dariusz; Drygas, Wojciech; Jegier, Anna; Kostka, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of the study was to assess total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of blood serum in relation with habitual leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic capacity in a group of 90 men with coronary heart disease (CHD) aged 34.8–77.0 years and in 90 age-matched peers without CHD. Methods. Two spectrophotometric methods were applied to assess TAC: Ferric Reducing Ability of Serum (TAC-FRAS) and 2.2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (TAC-DPPH) tests. Aerobic capacity was expressed as physical working capacity at 85% of the maximal heart rate (PWC85%HRmax). Results. CHD patients had higher values of TACFRAS (1.37 ± 0.28 versus 1.27 ± 0.23 mmol FeCl2·L−1; P < 0.05) but there were no group differences for TAC-DPPH and for uric acid (UA). Negative correlation was found between LTPA (also when calculated per kg of body mass) and TAC-DPPH in CHD patients. In CHD patients, TAC-FRAS and UA were lower in subjects with higher aerobic capacity expressed as PWC85%HRmax/kg. Those associations were not found in healthy men. Conclusions. We conclude that TAC of blood serum is moderately adversely related to LTPA and aerobic capacity in patients with CHD. UA, as the main determinant of serum TAC, may be partially responsible for those associations. PMID:26451234

  7. Predicting course performance in freshman and sophomore physics courses: Women are more predictable than men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, Susan; Golden, Jeannie; Wuensch, Karl L.

    This study investigated the extent to which thinking skills and mathematical competency would predict the course performance of freshman and sophomore science majors enrolled in physics courses. Multiple-regression equations revealed that algebra and critical thinking skills were the best overall predictors across several physics courses. Although arithmetic skills, math anxiety, and primary mental abilities scores also correlated with performance, they were redundant with the algebra and critical thinking. The most surprising finding of the study was the differential validity by sex; predictor variables were successful in predicting course performance for women but not for men.

  8. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  9. A comparison of the activity demands of elite and sub-elite Australian men's basketball competition.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron; Dascombe, Ben; Reaburn, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the differences in the activity demands of sub-elite and elite Australian men's basketball competition. Ten elite (age 28.3 ± 4.9 years, mass 97.0 ± 13.9 kg, height 197.4 ± 8.3 cm) and 12 sub-elite (age 26.1 ± 5.3 years, mass 85.9 ± 13.2 kg, height 191.4 ± 7.6 cm) Australian basketball players participated in the study. Player activity was analysed using video-based time-motion analysis across multiple in-season matches. Customized analytical software was used to calculate player activity into frequencies, mean and total durations (s), and mean and total distances (m) for standing/walking, jogging, running, sprinting, low shuffling, high shuffling, and dribbling movements. Only movement frequency was calculated for jumping and upper body activity. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that elite players performed significantly more total movement changes (P <0.001), and experienced greater activity workloads while jogging (P <0.01) and running (P <0.002). In contrast, sub-elite players performed significantly more standing/walking (P <0.023) and sprinting (P <0.003) activities. These data suggest that elite basketball competition requires a greater intermittent workload and more sustained activity demands, whereas sub-elite competition may involve greater bursts of activity and longer recovery periods. These differences are likely to reflect variations in player skill and fitness, as well as playing structure between playing standards.

  10. Unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men: results from a multi-level dyadic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David P; Wenzel, Suzanne L; Brown, Ryan; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela

    2013-06-01

    HIV is a serious public health problem for homeless populations. Homeless men who have sex with women have received less attention in the HIV risk literature than other homeless populations. This research uses multi-level modeling to investigate the context of unprotected sex among heterosexually active homeless men in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles. Based on interviews with 305 randomly selected men who discussed 665 of their recent female sexual relationships, this project investigates the correlates of unprotected sex during the past 6 months at the partnership, individual, and social network levels. Several different measures of relationship closeness and lack of communication about HIV/condoms were associated with unprotected sex. Controlling for relationship factors, men's negative attitudes towards condoms, mental health, and higher number of male sex partners also were associated with having unprotected sex with female partners. We discuss the implications of these findings for health interventions. PMID:23212852

  11. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission--including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants-they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission.

  12. Participation rates and the difference in performance of women and men in chess.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim; McLeod, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The superiority of men over women in chess has been cited as evidence that there are fundamental differences in male and female intelligence (Howard, 2005a, 2006; Irwing & Lynn, 2005). An alternative interpretation of the difference is that it is due to differential male and female participation rates in chess (Charness & Gerchak, 1996; Bilalić & McLeod, 2006; Chabris & Glickman, in press). This has been dismissed by Howard (2006) on the grounds that changes in the difference in skill level between top male and female players in recent years are not correlated with changing relative participation rates. Here it is shown that Howard's analysis is misleading. The data are consistent with differential participation rates as the explanation of the gap between the performance of women and men in chess.

  13. Relationship between sex hormones and cognitive performance in men with substance use*

    PubMed Central

    Zilbermint, Mihail F.; Wisniewski, Amy B.; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Selnes, Ola A.; Dobs, Adrian S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hypogonadism is common with opiate-like drug use and may contribute to cognitive abnormalities. With the increasing epidemic of HIV and substance use (SU) worldwide, it is important to understand the impact of these conditions on cognition, which may affect quality of life and possibly decrease adherence to treatment. We hypothesized that men with SU, by virtue of hypogonadism secondary to HIV and/or SU, may demonstrate impaired cognition. METHODS We recruited men aged 18-50 from a population of low income, innercity individuals. Details of HIV and SU status, serum blood levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT) and estradiol (E2) were assessed. All subjects were administered ten neuropsychological tests. RESULTS Our sample consisted of 68 men (mean age: 43.2 years (SD 5.8), African Americans: 86.6%). The recruited population was primarily from low socioeconomic status and unemployed. The mean level of TT was 553.9 ng/dL (SD 262.0), the mean level of FT was 69.5 pg/mL (SD 34.8), mean E2 was 3.2 pg/mL (SD 4.4). We found that 30.9% were hypogonadal and it was associated with higher SU. RESULTS We observed some relationships between sex hormones and cognitive domains, however, after adjustment for age, drug use category, education, depression, HIV, there was no statistically significant correlation between cognitive performance and sex hormone levels. CONCLUSIONS In this cross-sectional study of men with a high prevalence of SU and hypogonadism, endogenous levels of TT, FT or E2 were not related to cognitive performance. Other factors need to be identified which may contribute to poor cognitive function in the setting of SU. PMID:23021515

  14. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    PubMed

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  15. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  16. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

  17. The margin has many sides: diversity among gay and homosexually active men in Lima.

    PubMed

    Caceres, C F; Rosasco, A M

    1999-01-01

    This study provides a perspective on the sexual culture, self-representations and behaviors of men who have sex with men. Focus groups and semi-structured interviews were conducted with gay-identified men from both working class and middle-class backgrounds, non-gay-identified men who had sex with men, "fletes" (young men who sell homosexual sex), and transvestites. Ages among the study group ranged from 18 to 35. Issues explored included homosexuality and bisexuality, sexual experiences, socialization and support networks, "fleteo" and prostitution, AIDS-related concerns, emotional attachment, sexual identity and self-image. Findings suggest that a unitary homosexual culture does not exist in Lima. Ideologies structuring relationships within homoerotic culture range from more the more traditional, in which relationships are organized according to gender-transformed relationships, whereby ordinary males performed as "activos" with feminized "pasivo" males, to contemporary Western patterns involving equals who are able to exchange sexual roles. Awareness of this diversity should facilitate the identification of different sexual health needs and the protection of sexual rights, leading to the development of programs more sensitive to the cultural heterogeneity of male homosexualities in Lima.

  18. Getting on Track: Physical Activity and Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... online physical activity and nutrition trackers for this purpose. See the "Additional Resources" section at the end ... Information Strategic Plans & Reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees Research Areas Jobs at NIDDK FAQs Visit Us News NIDDK ...

  19. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  20. Leisure Activities, Worker Motivation, and Temperament in Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaynes, W. E.

    As a follow-up to studies by McKechnie (1974) and Marano (1976), the relation of self-report questionnaire measures of worker motivation and temperament to similar measures of participation in leisure activities was explored. One sample of 72 college students was given worker motivation and temperament questionnaires. A second sample of 126…

  1. Performance evaluation of a new rapid urine test for chlamydia in men: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nadala, Elpidio-Cesar; Goh, Beng T; Magbanua, Jose-Paolo; Barber, Penelope; Swain, Alison; Alexander, Sarah; Laitila, Vivian; Michel, Claude-Edouard; Mahilum-Tapay, Lourdes; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Ison, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a rapid test for chlamydia with first void male urine samples as a potential tool for diagnosis and screening of chlamydial infection in men. Design Evaluation of test performance in prospective cohort study. Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and a genitourinary medicine clinic (site 2) in the United Kingdom. Participants 1211 men aged 16-73 attending either of the two sites. Main outcome measures Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test versus polymerase chain reaction assay. Relation between the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test and organism load. Results Detection rates for Chlamydia trachomatis infection with polymerase chain reaction were 4.4% (20/454) at site 1 and 11.9% (90/757) at site 2. Compared with polymerase chain reaction assay, the resolved sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the Chlamydia Rapid Test was 82.6% (90/109), 98.5% (1085/1102), 84.1% (90/107), and 98.3% (1085/1104), respectively. The organism load in first void urine samples that were positive for chlamydia ranged from 7.28×102 to 6.93×106 plasmids/ml and correlated significantly with the visual signal of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (r=0.7897, P<0.001). Conclusions The performance of the new Chlamydia Rapid Test with first void male urine samples indicates that it would be an effective diagnostic tool for chlamydial infection in men. The availability of test results within an hour allows for immediate treatment and contact tracing, potentially reducing the risks of persistent infection and onward transmission. The test could also provide a simple and reliable alternative to nucleic acid amplification assays for testing of male urine in chlamydial screening programmes in high prevalence settings. PMID:19638650

  2. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  3. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  4. Cognitive performance effects of low zinc (Zn) intakes in healthy adult men

    SciTech Connect

    Penland, J.G. )

    1991-03-15

    A battery of tasks assessing sensory-motor skills and cognitive performance was administered to 14 healthy men participating in a 7-month, live-in metabolic study of Zn nutrition. Following a 33-day equilibration period, during which Zn intake was approximately 10 mg/2,500 kcal/day, all subjects were fed 1, 2, 3, or 4 mg Zn/day during each of four consecutive 35-day depletion periods administered in a random, double-blind manner. The study concluded with a 35-day repletion period providing 10 mg Zn/day. When contrasted with performance during the Zn repletion period, measures of response time and/or error on 10 of the 15 tasks administered showed a significant negative relationship to dietary Zn intake. Two sensory-motor tasks, two attention tasks, three perceptual tasks, two memory tasks, and one spatial task showed impaired performance with the low Zn intakes. However, there were few differences among the four depletion periods to support a dose effect of dietary Zn. Results suggest that even marginally low Zn intakes may have a negative effect on psychological and behavioral function in otherwise healthy young adult men.

  5. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.

  6. Food reward in active compared to inactive men: Roles for gastric emptying and body fat.

    PubMed

    Horner, Katy M; Finlayson, Graham; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2016-06-01

    Habitual exercise could contribute to weight management by altering processes of food reward via the gut-brain axis. We investigated hedonic processes of food reward in active and inactive men and characterised relationships with gastric emptying and body fat. Forty-four men (active: n=22; inactive: n=22, BMI range 21-36kg/m(2); percent fat mass range 9-42%) were studied. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast and an ad libitum lunch meal 5h later. Explicit liking, implicit wanting and preference among high-fat, low-fat, sweet and savoury food items were assessed immediately post-breakfast (fed state) and again pre-lunch (hungry state) using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Gastric emptying was assessed by (13)C-octanoic acid breath test. Active individuals exhibited a lower liking for foods overall and a greater implicit wanting for low-fat savoury foods in the fed state, compared to inactive men. Differences in the fed state remained significant after adjusting for percent fat mass. Active men also had a greater increase in liking for savoury foods in the interval between breakfast and lunch. Faster gastric emptying was associated with liking for savoury foods and with an increase in liking for savoury foods in the postprandial interval. In contrast, greater implicit wanting for high-fat foods was associated with slower gastric emptying. These associations were independent of each other, activity status and body fat. In conclusion, active and inactive men differ in processes of food reward. The rate of gastric emptying may play a role in the association between physical activity status and food reward, via the gut-brain axis.

  7. Rest/Activity Rhythms and Mortality Rates in Older Men: MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L.; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2010-01-01

    Background An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Methods Study population consisted of 2964 men aged 67 and older enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness) and alpha (peak-to-trough width). Results After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (Hazard ratio [HR]=1.57, 95%CI, 1.03–2.39) compared with men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR=2.32, 95%CI, 1.04–5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR=2.84, 95%CI, 1.29–6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta and risk of mortality. Conclusions Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing, have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  8. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association. PMID:20370475

  9. Optimal Scaling of HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors in Ethnically Diverse Homosexually Active Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Used homogeneity analysis and latent class analysis to analyze sexual behavior patterns in two samples of homosexually active men. Results support the existence of a single, nonlinear, latent dimension underlying male homosexual behaviors consistent with HIV-related risk taking, providing an efficient means to scale sexual behavior patterns. (RJM)

  10. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  11. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  12. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women's participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women's risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women's health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  13. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  14. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  15. Urbanisation and sexual health: understanding bisexually active men in Hanoi, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Peter; Reddel, Siobhan; Pham, Hanh Van; Dang, Khoat Van; Hellard, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vietnam are receiving increased attention in recognition of their high-risk behaviours and potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and transmission. Due to societal pressures, many MSM in Vietnam are also bisexually active, which ultimately increases the transmission risks beyond the MSM population. Evidence is emerging that indicates a greater proportion of women in Asia with low-risk sexual activities are contracting HIV from their male partners who have become HIV infected through male–male sex. Methodology: Fourteen focus group discussions exploring sexual and social networks were conducted in Hanoi between July 2010 and September 2010. A total of 96 individuals participated in these sessions. Findings: A risk environment approach was used to analyse the focus group themes of social stigma and marriage, sex with other men in closed settings and transactional sex in Hanoi, an increasingly urbanising and westernising city. Implications: Despite limited evidence globally that bisexual men act as a bridge for sexually transmitted diseases, there is particular concern in Vietnam about this potential risk. HIV rates amongst MSM are rapidly rising and there are reports of women contracting HIV from their male partners who are bisexually active. PMID:25750805

  16. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  17. Physical Activity among Somali Men in Minnesota: Barriers, Facilitators and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Ahmed A.; Hassan, Abdullahi M.; Weis, Jennifer A.; Sia, Irene G.; Wieland, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees arrive to the US healthier than the general population, but this advantage declines with increasing duration of residence. One factor contributing to this decline is sub-optimal physical activity, but reasons for this are poorly understood. Persons from Somalia represent the largest African refugee population to the United States, yet little is known about perceptions of physical activity among Somali men. Somali members of a community-based participatory research partnership implemented three age-stratified focus groups and three semi-structured interviews among 20 Somali men in Rochester, MN. Team-based inductive analysis generated themes for barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included less walking opportunities in the US, embarrassment about exercise clothing and lack of familiarity with exercise equipment/modalities, fear of harassment, competing priorities, facility costs, transportation, and winter weather. Facilitators to physical activity included high knowledge about how to be active, success stories from others in their community as inspiration, and community cohesion. Findings may be used to derive interventions aimed to promote physical activity among Somali men in the US. PMID:23697961

  18. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  19. Physical activity among Somali men in Minnesota: barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A; Hassan, Abdullahi M; Weis, Jennifer A; Sia, Irene G; Wieland, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    Immigrants and refugees arrive to the United States healthier than the general population, but this advantage declines with increasing duration of residence. One factor contributing to this decline is suboptimal physical activity, but reasons for this are poorly understood. Persons from Somalia represent the largest African refugee population to the United States, yet little is known about perceptions of physical activity among Somali men. Somali members of a community-based participatory research partnership implemented three age-stratified focus groups and three semistructured interviews among 20 Somali men in Rochester, Minnesota. Team-based inductive analysis generated themes for barriers and facilitators to physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included less walking opportunities in the United States, embarrassment about exercise clothing and lack of familiarity with exercise equipment/modalities, fear of harassment, competing priorities, facility costs, transportation, and winter weather. Facilitators to physical activity included high knowledge about how to be active, success stories from others in their community as inspiration, and community cohesion. Findings may be used to derive interventions aimed to promote physical activity among Somali men in the United States.

  20. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  1. Bone rigidity to neuromuscular performance ratio in young and elderly men.

    PubMed

    Rantalainen, T; Sievänen, H; Linnamo, V; Hoffrén, M; Ishikawa, M; Kyröläinen, H; Avela, J; Selänne, H; Komi, P V; Heinonen, A

    2009-11-01

    Given the adaptation of bone to prevalent loading, bone loss should follow, but lag behind, the decline in physical performance during aging. Furthermore, bone responsiveness to load-induced strains is believed to decrease with aging. However, the relationship between bone and lean body ( approximately muscle) mass appears to remain rather constant throughout adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between age and bone to neuromuscular performance ratio. Young (N=20, age 24 SD+/-2 years, body mass 77+/-11 kg, height 178+/-6 cm) and elderly (N=25, 72+/-4 years, 75+/-9 kg, 172+/-5 cm) men served as subjects. Bone structural traits were measured at the right distal tibia and tibial mid-shaft with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Maximal section modulus (Z(max50)), total area (ToA(d)), cortical area (CoA(50)), total density (ToD(d)) and cortical density (CoD(50)) were determined from the pQCT images. Neuromuscular performance was measured by recording vertical ground reaction force (GRF) in maximal bilateral hopping. Load-induced strains were estimated by calculating appropriate indices for compressive and tensile loading that took into account both the bone structure and apparent biomechanics of the given bone site. Young subjects had significantly higher maximal GRF compared to older men (4260+/-800 N vs. 3080+/-600 N, P<0.001). They also had smaller ToA(d) (1100+/-170 mm(2) vs. 1200+/-100 mm(2), P=0.028) while their ToD(d) was higher (370+/-46 g/cm(3) vs. 330+/-22 g/cm(3), P=0.002). The Z(max50) did not differ significantly between young (1660+/-320 mm(3)) and elderly men (1750+/-320 mm(3)) (P=0.224). Compressive (0.484+/-0.102 vs. 0.399+/-0.078, P=0.016) and tensile (0.107+/-0.016 vs. 0.071+/-0.018, P<0.001) strain indices were significantly higher in the younger group. In conclusion, the difference in bone to loading ratio at the tibial mid-shaft is bigger than expected from the delay in bone adaptation alone

  2. "How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses of rural…

  3. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  4. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Lakka, Timo; Niskanen, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67%) more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being. PMID:19555509

  5. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms lean mass and performance in young men.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, F Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara, Ignacio; Guerra, Borja; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Calbet, José A L; Díaz-Chico, B Nicolás

    2011-02-01

    The exon-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two repeat length polymorphisms which modify either the amount of AR protein inside the cell (GGN(n), polyglycine) or its transcriptional activity (CAG(n), polyglutamine). Shorter CAG and/or GGN repeats provide stronger androgen signalling and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that CAG and GGN repeat AR polymorphisms affect muscle mass and various variables of muscular strength phenotype traits, the length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples in 282 men (28.6 ± 7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harbouring repeat lengths of ≤ 21 and CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG >21. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN ≤ 23 or >23, respectively. No significant differences in lean body mass or fitness were observed between the CAG(S) and CAG(L) groups, or between GGN(S) and GGN(L) groups, but a trend for a correlation was found for the GGN repeat and lean mass of the extremities (r=-0.11, p=0.06). In summary, the lengths of CAG and GGN repeat of the AR gene do not appear to influence lean mass or fitness in young men.

  6. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation. PMID:26864994

  7. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation.

  8. Physical activity of men from Wroclaw compared with their discretionary income

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This paper attempted to determine the relationship between physical activity of men from Wrocław and their discretionary income. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 1,601 male survey respondents aged from 18 to 65 years old. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for the assessment of physical activity. [Results] Among respondents, low intensity physical activity was predominant. The level of physical activity of the respondents increased with their discretionary income. Statistically significant differences were observed between activities of low and high intensity and total activities in Wrocław. [Conclusion] Discretionary income seems to be better predictor of physical activity than gross income, however, this should be verified in future research. PMID:27799711

  9. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  10. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  11. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  12. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions.

    PubMed

    Conte, D; Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, T G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games. PMID:27274114

  13. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions.

    PubMed

    Conte, D; Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, T G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games.

  14. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, TG

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games. PMID:27274114

  15. Hepatitis C-seroconversion within three to six months after having contracted clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis in five homosexually active, HIV seropositive men.

    PubMed

    Pelgrom, J M; Vogelaers, D; Colle, I

    2008-01-01

    Five Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seropositive homosexually active men experienced hepatitis C-seroconversion in the period between September 2004 and January 2007 at a single HIV Reference Center (University Hospital Ghent, Belgium). There was no history of intravenous drug use. All had unprotected anal sex with multiple other HIV seropositive men in the recent past. All of them had clinical syphilis and/or lymphogranuloma venereum rectitis within three to six months before the hepatitis C-seroconversion was detected. This confirms the observations in other case reports and studies originating from the Netherlands, France, the United Kingdom and Germany, illustrating sexual transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in this high-risk group. Physicians should be aware of the persistent high-risk behaviour in a subgroup of HIV seropositive homosexually active men and perform intensive sexual counselling and screening for other sexually transmitted diseases, including HCV, during medical follow-up. PMID:19186567

  16. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  17. Men perform comparably to women in a perspective taking task after administration of intranasal oxytocin but not after placebo

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Angeliki; Rowe, Angela C.; Mohr, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is thought to play an important role in human interpersonal information processing and behavior. By inference, OT should facilitate empathic responding, i.e., the ability to feel for others and to take their perspective. In two independent double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects studies, we assessed the effect of intranasally administered OT on affective empathy and perspective taking, whilst also examining potential sex differences (e.g., women being more empathic than men). In study 1, we provided 96 participants (48 men) with an empathy scenario and recorded self-reports of empathic reactions to the scenario, while in study 2, a sample of 120 individuals (60 men) performed a computerized implicit perspective taking task. Whilst results from Study 1 showed no influence of OT on affective empathy, we found in Study 2 that OT exerted an effect on perspective taking ability in men. More specifically, men responded faster than women in the placebo group but they responded as slowly as women in the OT group. We conjecture that men in the OT group adopted a social perspective taking strategy, such as did women in both groups, but not men in the placebo group. On the basis of results across both studies, we suggest that self-report measures (such as used in Study 1) might be less sensitive to OT effects than more implicit measures of empathy such as that used in Study 2. If these assumptions are confirmed, one could infer that OT effects on empathic responses are more pronounced in men than women, and that any such effect is best studied using more implicit measures of empathy rather than explicit self-report measures. PMID:23754995

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic power in relation to age and physical activity in 354 men aged 20-88 years.

    PubMed

    Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Zaniewicz, D

    2009-03-01

    We examined simultaneously the influence of age as well as both current and historical habitual physical activity (PA) on aerobic (physical working capacity - PWC) and anaerobic (Pmax) power in 354 men aged 20.2-87.6 yrs. All the participants performed the graded aerobic exercise test and 8-second explosive power tests on a bicycle ergometer. Current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and lifetime historical LTPA were assessed. The decline in Pmax/kg (10.3% per decade) was higher than in PWC/kg (7.5% per decade). Correlation coefficients for current LTPA and aerobic indices were higher than for current LTPA and anaerobic indices. In a multiple stepwise regression, current LTPA had the main effect on PWC/kg, whereas age had the main effect on Pmax/kg. Aerobic power was related to all measures of historical PA questionnaire, while anaerobic power - only to those historical measures which pertained to adolescence and younger years of adulthood. We conclude that the age-associated decline in anaerobic power is steeper than that of aerobic power. Habitual endurance-type LTPA increases aerobic but not anaerobic fitness throughout the adult lifespan. Anaerobic fitness indices are higher in young active vs sedentary men but this difference is not discernible as early as in the middle age.

  19. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain walking speed in older men and women?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J; Reid, Kieran F; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M; Ring, Sarah A; Wu, Samuel S; Fielding, Roger A

    2014-07-01

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that the capability to produce rapid neuromuscular activation during maximal effort leg muscle contractions will be shown to be an independent predictor of mobility function in older men and women after accounting for muscle size and adiposity, body composition and age. Twenty six older men and eighteen older women (aged 70-85years) participated in this study. Mobility function was assessed by the 400-m walk test. Neuromuscular activation of the quadriceps muscle group was assessed by surface electromyography ("rate of EMG rise"). Thigh muscle cross sectional area and adiposity were assessed by computed tomography. In males, univariate regression analysis revealed strong associations between walking speed and a number of predictors including age (p<0.01), muscle area (p<0.01), intermuscular adipose tissue area (p<0.01), and rate of EMG rise (p<0.001). Subsequent multiple regression analysis with all variables accounted for 72% of the variability in walking speed (p<.0001), with age and rate of EMG rise as the dominant variables in the model. In females, univariate analysis showed a significant association only between walking speed and subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p<0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounted for only 44% of the variability in walking speed, and was not statistically significant (p=0.18). The present findings indicate that the capability to rapidly activate the quadriceps muscle group is an important factor accounting for inter-individual variability of walking speed among older men, but not among older women. This research is important for informing the design of assessments and interventions that seek to detect and prevent impairments that contribute to age-related mobility

  20. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. PMID:24899517

  1. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  2. Performance indicators of work activity.

    PubMed

    Lahoz, Manoela de Assis; Camarotto, João Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of performance is a current topic in the management of people in companies, used as a parameter of effectiveness of processes and operations of production. The methods and models of the indicators of current use in the production have concentrated in the assessment of people's performance as determinative resource of the organizational success in the search for the competitiveness. Associated with the classic indicators of performance assessment of the production proceeding, other indicators are used in the assessment of risks and hazards, however with methods focused in the tasks, without connection with the real work activity. The present article explores literature on the models of performance measurement in use in companies and a field research to understand how companies interpret and use indicators that relate health and work, to direct future studies on the subject. Regarding the literature review, one can see that health indicators can be basically divided into two major groups: the legal and managerial indicators. When conducting case studies, it can be realized that companies do not have precisely the concept of health indicator, or were unable to define which of the indicators could be considered indicators of health, considering that absenteeism was the indicator mentioned by the four companies.

  3. Barebacking among men who have sex with men recruited through a Swedish website: associations with sexual activities at last sexual encounter.

    PubMed

    Berg, R C; Tikkanen, R; Ross, M W

    2013-01-01

    The research topic of barebacking emerged in the mid-1990s. Since then, a multitude of studies, largely from the United States, have produced invaluable knowledge of factors that help explain the behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM), and that may contribute to HIV risk reduction programming and advice to counsellors working with barebackers. Given the scant empirical research about barebacking among European MSM, we conducted a survey among 3,634 MSM recruited through a web community in Nordic countries. The objectives of the study were twofold: to describe the sexual activities associated with barebacking behaviour at last sexual encounter, and to evaluate the relationship of barebacking with relevant variables. Men who reported barebacking (n=356) and men who did not (n=3,278) were compared. On the basis of the results of the analyses, the socio-sexual profile of barebackers drawn was one that is at increased risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections due to their sexual practices, particularly unprotected anal intercourse, but also group sex and rimming. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, the likelihood of engaging in barebacking was higher for MSM who reported more frequent HIV testing (odds ratio (OR)=5.16), a higher number of female sex partners (OR=16.80), using gay cruising places (OR=1.51) and gay chat rooms (OR=2.11). PMID:23557973

  4. Associations between Accelerometer-derived Physical Activity and Regional Adiposity in Young Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Smith, H A; Storti, K L; Arena, VC; Kriska, A M; Gabriel, K K Pettee; Sutton-Tyrrell, K; Hames, K C; Conroy, M B

    2013-01-01

    Objective Empirical evidence supports an inverse relationship between physical activity (PA) and adiposity, but studies using detailed measures of both are scarce. We described the relationship between regional adiposity and accelerometer-derived PA in men and women. Design and Methods Cross-sectional analysis included 253 participants from a weight loss study limited to ages 20–45 years and BMI 25–39.9 kg/m2. PA data were collected with accelerometers and expressed as total accelerometer counts and average amount of time per day accumulated in different intensity levels (sedentary, light-, and moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA)). Accumulation of time spent above 100 counts was expressed as total active time. Computed tomography (CT) was used to measure abdominal and adipose tissue (AT). Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between regional adiposity (dependent variable) and the various PA levels (independent variable), and were executed separately for men and women, adjusting for wear time, age, race, education, and BMI. Results Among males light activity was inversely associated with total AT (β=−0.19; p=0.02) as well as visceral AT (VAT) (β=−0.30; p=0.03). Among females sedentary time was positively associated with VAT (β=0.11; p=0.04) and total active time was inversely associated with VAT (β=−0.12; p=0.04). Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that PA intensity level may influence regional adiposity differently in men and women. Additional research is needed in larger samples to clarify the difference in these associations by sex, create recommendations for the frequency, duration and intensity of PA needed to target fat deposits, and determine if these recommendations should differ by sex. PMID:23408709

  5. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  6. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  7. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  8. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-06-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  9. Age-related site-specific muscle loss in the thigh and zigzag walking performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Ogawa, M; Mitsukawa, N

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the relationships between site-specific muscle loss in the thigh, muscle quality and zigzag walking performance, 40 men and 41 women aged 65-79 years had muscle thickness (MTH) measured by ultrasound at nine sites on the anterior and posterior aspects of the body. Skeletal muscle mass (SM) was estimated from an ultrasound-derived prediction equation. Site-specific thigh sarcopenia was calculated using ultrasound-measured MTH at the anterior/posterior aspects of the thigh (AP-MTH ratio). Zigzag walking time (ZWT) and maximum isometric knee extension (KE) and flexion (KF) torques were measured. Muscle quality (torque/thigh SM) and knee joint strength index (torque/body mass) were calculated. There were no significant correlations between SM index and ZWT. However, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to ZWT in men (r = -0.335) and women (r = -0.309). ZWT was also inversely correlated (P < 0.05) to KE-strength index in both sexes (men, r = -0.328; women, r = -0.372). Similarly, ZWT was correlated to KF-strength index (r = -0.497) and muscle quality (r = -0.322) in women, but not in men. After adjusting for age, height and body mass, AP-MTH ratio was inversely correlated to ZWT in men (r = -0.325) and tended to be correlated to ZWT in women (r = -0.263). Zigzag walking performance may be associated with site-specific thigh sarcopenia in older men and women.

  10. Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, James K.; DeMarco, Ashley C.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting social bonds between adult men remain uncertain. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigate the impact of intranasally administered oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on behavior and brain activity among men in the context of an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game, which models a real-life social situation. fMRI results show that, relative to both AVP and placebo, OT increases the caudate nucleus response to reciprocated cooperation, which may augment the reward of reciprocated cooperation and/or facilitate learning that another person can be trusted. OT also enhances left amygdala activation in response to reciprocated cooperation. Behaviorally, OT was associated with increased rates of cooperation following unreciprocated cooperation in the previous round compared with AVP. AVP strongly increased cooperation in response to a cooperative gesture by the partner compared with both placebo and OT. In response to reciprocated cooperation, AVP increased activation in a region spanning known vasopressin circuitry implicated in affiliative behaviors in other species. Finally, both OT and AVP increase amygdala functional connectivity with the anterior insula relative to placebo, which may increase the amygdala’s ability to elicit visceral somatic markers that guide decision making. These findings extend our knowledge of the neural and behavioral effects of OT and AVP to the context of genuine social interactions. PMID:21840129

  11. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. C-reactive protein and cardiac vagal activity following resistance exercise training in young African-American and white men.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Kevin S; Jae, Sae Young; Vieira, Victoria J; Iwamoto, Gary A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2009-04-01

    African Americans have a greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared with white Americans, and both autonomic dysregulation and inflammation have been implicated in the etiology of these disease states. The purpose of this study was to examine the cardiac autonomic and systemic inflammatory response to resistance training in young African-American and white men. Linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear (sample entropy) heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and postexercise heart rate recovery were used to assess cardiac vagal modulation. C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell count were used as inflammatory markers. Twenty two white and 19 African-American men completed 6 wk of resistance training followed by 4 wk of exercise detraining (Post 2). Sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery were increased in white and African-American men following resistance training (P < 0.05). Following detraining (Post 2), sample entropy, tonic and reflex vagal activity, and heart rate recovery returned to baseline values in white men but remained above baseline in African-American men. While there were no changes in white blood cell count or CRP in white men, these inflammatory markers decreased in African-American men following resistance training, with reductions being maintained following detraining (P < 0.05). In conclusion, resistance training improves cardiac autonomic function and reduces inflammation in African-American men, and these adaptations remained after the cessation of training. Resistance training may be an important lifestyle modification for improving cardiac autonomic health and reducing inflammation in young African-American men.

  13. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  14. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  15. Altered baseline brain activities before food intake in obese men: a resting state fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Jing; Tian, Xiao; von Deneen, Karen M; Zang, Yufeng; Walter, Martin; Liu, Yijun

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease has become a global epidemic. However, why obese individuals eat more still remains unclear. Recent functional neuroimaging studies have found abnormal brain activations in obese people. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to observe spontaneous blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese men. Using a regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis method, we measured temporal homogeneity of the regional BOLD signals. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly increased synchronicity of activity in the left putamen relative to lean men. Decreased synchronicity of activity was found in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and medial prefrontal cortex(MPFC) in the obese subjects. And, the ratings of hunger of the obese subjects were higher than those of the lean subjects before food intake. After food intake, we did not find the significant differences between the obese men and the lean men. In all participations, synchronicity of activity increased from the fasted to the satiated state in the OFC. The results indicated that OFC plays an important role in feeding behavior, and OFC signaling may be disordered in obesity. Obese men show less inhibitory control during fasting state. This study has provided strong evidence supporting the hypothesis that there is a hypo-functioning reward circuitry in obese individuals, in which the frontal cortex may fail to inhibit the striatum, and consequently lead to overeating and obesity. PMID:25459293

  16. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices.

  17. Anti-Resorptive Activity of Anti-Hypertensive Agent ACEi in Older Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, Nahid; Edwards, BeJier; Nhonthachit, Phetsamong; Messick, Amanda; Gagel, Robert; Smith, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is associated with bone loss due to activation of the renin- angiotensin system (RAS) which in turn affects bone turnover. Animal studies have shown decreased bone resorption (up to 19%) and increased bone mass (up to 2%) following treatment with RAStargeted antihypertensive medications (e.g., angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ACEi). Cross-sectional human studies have documented greater femoral neck BMD in older hypertensive men and women treated with ACEi compared to those not-treated with ACEi (nor other RAS-targeted medications). These findings raise the potential for ACEi use in preventing, or at a minimum slowing bone loss due to age or even microgravity. Based on this, we conducted a cohort study to investigate if ACEi treatment would decrease bone resorption in humans. We investigated changes in serum CTX and P1NP in 10 hypertensive men (45 years or older) treated with (N=5) without (N=5) exposure to ACEi for 3-months. Lisinopril was the ACEi used, and dose was adjusted as deemed appropriate by the attending physicians. Participants did not have any known skeletal health problem and were not exposed to any bisphosphonates or hydrochlorothiazides. A small sample size prevented detailed statistical analysis and hence, we present a preliminary descriptive report of our findings. Participants' age was 57+/-7 years (mean +/-SD), baseline body mass index was 27+/-5 kg/sq m, serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D was 66+/-17 nmol/L and parathyroid hormone was 30+/-13 pg/ml. After Lisinopril treatment, men demonstrated a 10% decrease in the bone resorption marker C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and 5% decrease in formation marker procollagen type 1 amino-terminal pro-peptide (P1NP). On the contrary, serum CTX increased 41% and P1NP increased 10% in those who were not treated with ACEi. This is the first human study to report reduction in bone resorptive activity following ACEi treatment for hypertension in older men. Our results indicates

  18. Activation of Antioxidant Defenses in Whole Saliva by Psychosocial Stress Is More Manifested in Young Women than in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Tsuber, Viktoriia; Kadamov, Yunus; Tarasenko, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been long known to have deleterious effects on health. Nevertheless, an exposure to moderate stressors enhances resilience and promotes health benefits. Male and female organisms differ in many aspects of health and disease. The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant activity and oxidative damage in saliva in a psychosocial stress paradigm in men and women. Here, we show that an acute stressor of moderate strength augments antioxidant activity and decreases oxidative damage in whole saliva of young people. An examination stress caused a significant increase of catalase activity, accompanied by a decrease of levels of oxidized proteins. Levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances did not increase at stress, indicating that lipid peroxidation was not activated. The stress-induced alterations were more manifested in young women compared to young men. Thus, antioxidant protective mechanisms are more activated by a moderate stressor in young women than in young men. PMID:25525800

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Cardiovascular Stability in Active Men Aged 45 to 65 Years.

    PubMed

    Kasch, F W; Wallace, J P; Van Camp, S P; Verity, L

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Cross-sectional studies of physical performance generally show a linear decline in maximum aerobic power (V O2 max) with increasing age (about 1% to 2% per year). In the study described in this article, 15 men were serially followed for 20 years. They performed exercises consisting of walking, running, swimming, and cycling for an average of 3.6 days per week and requiring an energy expenditure of 2,104 kcal per week. Over the 20 years, directly measured V O2 max declined 12% (from 44.4 to 38.9 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1), or 0.27 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) per year). Essentially no differences were seen in resting heart rate or arterial blood pressure. The authors conclude that physical training forestalls the decline in V O2 max until at least age 65. PMID:27427109

  20. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  1. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of The Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal/day(exp -1), 2 mmol*kg(exp -1)*day(exp -1)) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 minutes of progressive LBNP to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men (25 +/- 2 years, HiTol group), but eight men (26 +/- 3 years) reached pre-syncope after 11 +/- 1 minutes (P < 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by approx. 30%, P < 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml(exp -1)) than LoTol (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng Ang1/(ml*h) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml(exp -1)). In contrast, pVP was higher (P < 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  2. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population. PMID:22676465

  3. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations (epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the reninangiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal per day, 2 mmol per kilogram per day Na (+)) were exposed to 30 min of progressive LBNP to -50mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for 7 men (2512 yr, HiTol group), but 8 men (26 plus or minus 3 yr) reached pre-syncope after 11 plus or minus 1 min (P less than 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by 30%, P less than 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 plus or minus 0.1, HiTol 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour, per hour, P less than 0.05). LBNP increased (P less than 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 plus or minus 2.2 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour and 58 plus or minus 12 pg per milliliter) than LoTol (4.3 plus or minus 0.9 ng Angl per milliliter per hour and 28 plus or minus 6 pg per milliliter). In contrast, pVP was higher (P less than 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  4. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  5. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  6. Prevalence of non-medical drug use and dependence among homosexually active men and women in the US population

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Susan D.; Ackerman, Deborah; Mays, Vickie M.; Ross, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to compare patterns of drug use and dependence between homosexually experienced and exclusively heterosexually experienced individuals. Design We used a cross-sectional national household interview survey conducted in the United States. Setting Secondary data analysis of the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse was employed. Participants Participants were sexually active individuals, aged 18 years and older, who reported the genders of their sexual partners in the past 12 months; included 174 homosexually experienced (98 men, 96 women) and 9714 exclusively heterosexually experienced (3922 men, 5792 women) respondents. Measurements Life-time, past 30 days and daily use of nine classes of drugs. Symptoms of dysfunctional use and dependence. Findings There were consistent patterns of elevated drug use in homosexually experienced individuals for life-time drug use, but these were greatly attenuated for recent use. Homosexually experienced men were more likely to report use of marijuana, cocaine and heroin, and homosexually experienced women more likely to report use of marijuana and analgesics than individuals reporting only opposite-sex partners. Both homosexually active men and women were more likely than exclusively heterosexually active respondents to report at least one symptom indicating dysfunctional drug use across all drug classes, and to meet criteria for marijuana dependence syndrome. The only difference between homosexually experienced men and women was that men were more likely to report any daily drug use. Conclusions These data are consistent with surveys suggesting that there is a moderate elevation of drug, particularly marijuana, use and dependence in gay and bisexual men and women when compared to heterosexual men and women. PMID:15265096

  7. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  8. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  9. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, J; Kilduff, LP; Sanctuary, CE; Cook, CJ

    2016-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  10. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, J; Kilduff, LP; Sanctuary, CE; Cook, CJ

    2016-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  11. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  12. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  13. Muscle Size Not Density Predicts Variance in Muscle Strength and Neuromuscular Performance in Healthy Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Benjamin K; Gerrits, Tom A J; Horan, Sean A; Beck, Belinda R

    2016-06-01

    Weeks, BK, Gerrits, TAJ, Horan, SA, and Beck, BR. Muscle size not density predicts variance in muscle strength and neuromuscular performance in healthy adult men and women. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1577-1584, 2016-The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT)-derived measures of muscle area and density and markers of muscle strength and performance in men and women. Fifty-two apparently healthy adults (26 men, 26 women; age 33.8 ± 12.0 years) volunteered to participate. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (XR-800; Norland Medical Systems, Inc., Trumbull, CT, USA) was used to determine whole body and regional lean and fat tissue mass, whereas pQCT (XCT-3000; Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany) was used to determine muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and muscle density of the leg, thigh, and forearm. Ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor strengths were examined using isokinetic dynamometry, and grip strength was examined with dynamometry. Impulse generated during a maximal vertical jump was used as an index of neuromuscular performance. Thigh, forearm, and leg MCSA strongly predicted variance in knee extensor (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and grip strength (R = 0.77, p < 0.001) and weakly predicted variance in ankle plantar flexor strength (R = 0.20, p < 0.001), respectively, whereas muscle density was only a weak predictor of variance in knee extensor strength (R = 0.18, p < 0.001). Thigh and leg MCSA accounted for 79 and 69% of the variance in impulse generated from a maximal vertical jump (p < 0.001), whereas thigh muscle density predicted only 18% of the variance (p < 0.002). In conclusion, we found that pQCT-derived muscle area is more strongly related to strength and neuromuscular performance than muscle density in adult men and women.

  14. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27362351

  15. Soccer Practice and Functional and Social Performance of Men With Lower Limb Amputations

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rogeria; Pfeifer, Luzia; Santos, Alex; Sousa, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Practicing sports together with rehabilitative treatment improves the development of motor, social and emotional abilities of lower limb amputees. The aim of this study was to compare the functional and social performance of individuals with lower limb amputations between those who played soccer and those who did not engage in any sports activities. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study and were divided into two groups: soccer players (n = 69, 34 ± 8.1 years) and non-athletes (n = 69, 38 ± 8.9 years). A checklist, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, was used. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The soccer players group showed significantly better performance than the non-athletes group in most items of body function, body structure, occupational performance components and daily activities (p < 0.001 for all), and also in some important items of social and environment factors (p < 0.001 for all). The results strongly suggest that amputee soccer significantly improves the functional and social performance in individuals with lower limb amputations. PMID:25713642

  16. Soccer practice and functional and social performance of men with lower limb amputations.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Rogeria; Pfeifer, Luzia; Santos, Alex; Sousa, Nelson

    2014-09-29

    Practicing sports together with rehabilitative treatment improves the development of motor, social and emotional abilities of lower limb amputees. The aim of this study was to compare the functional and social performance of individuals with lower limb amputations between those who played soccer and those who did not engage in any sports activities. A total of 138 individuals participated in the study and were divided into two groups: soccer players (n = 69, 34 ± 8.1 years) and non-athletes (n = 69, 38 ± 8.9 years). A checklist, based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, was used. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The soccer players group showed significantly better performance than the non-athletes group in most items of body function, body structure, occupational performance components and daily activities (p < 0.001 for all), and also in some important items of social and environment factors (p < 0.001 for all). The results strongly suggest that amputee soccer significantly improves the functional and social performance in individuals with lower limb amputations.

  17. What kinds of website and mobile phone-delivered physical activity and nutrition interventions do middle-aged men want?

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Caperchione, Cristina M; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma S; Maeder, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch J; Karunanithi, Mohanraj; Noakes, Manny; Hooker, Cindy; Viljoen, Pierre; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Within a health context, men in Western societies are a hard-to-reach population who experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with women. Innovative technology-based interventions that specifically target men are needed; however, little is known about how these should be developed for this group. This study aimed to examine opinions and perceptions regarding the use of Internet and mobile phones to improve physical activity and nutrition behaviors for middle-aged men. The authors conducted 6 focus groups (n = 30) in Queensland, Australia. Their analyses identified 6 themes: (a) Internet experience, (b) website characteristics, (c) Web 2.0 applications, (d) website features, (e) self-monitoring, and (f) mobile phones as delivery method. The outcomes indicate that men support the use of the Internet to improve and self-monitor physical activity and dietary behaviors on the condition that the website-delivered interventions are quick and easy to use, because commitment levels to engage in online tasks are low. Participants also indicated that they were reluctant to use normal mobile phones to change health behaviors, although smartphones were perceived to be more acceptable. This pilot study suggests that there are viable avenues to engage middle-aged men in Internet- or in mobile-delivered health interventions. This study also suggests that to be successful, these interventions need to be tailor-made especially for men, with an emphasis on usability and convenience. A wider quantitative study would bring further support to these findings.

  18. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  19. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  20. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  1. Altered baseline brain activity differentiates regional mechanisms subserving biological and psychological alterations in obese men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tian, Derun; Yu, Chunshui; Li, Meng; Zang, Yufeng; Liu, Yijun; Walter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity as a chronic disease is a major factor for insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes, which has become a global health problem. In the present study, we used resting state functional MRI to investigate the amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of spontaneous signal during both hunger and satiety states in 20 lean and 20 obese males. We found that, before food intake, obese men had significantly greater baseline activity in the precuneus and lesser activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) relative to lean subjects. Furthermore, after food intake, obese males had significantly lesser activity in dACC than lean males. We further found a significant positive correlation between precuneus activation and hunger ratings before food intake, while dACC activity was negatively correlated with plasma insulin levels before and after food intake. These results indicated that both precuneus and dACC may play an important role in eating behavior. While precuneus rather seemed to mediate subjective satiety, dACC levels rather reflected indirect measures of glucose utilization. PMID:26099208

  2. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  3. Low LBNP tolerance in men is associated with attenuated activation of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N. J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaek, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (p(Epi)), norepinephrine (p(NE)), ANG II (p(ANG II)), vasopressin (p(VP)), endothelin-1 (p(ET-1))] and plasma renin activity (p(RA)) were measured periodically and compared during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system, the latter being one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, is of major importance for LBNP tolerance. Healthy men on a controlled diet (2,822 cal/day, 2 mmol. kg(-1). day(-1) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 min of LBNP from -15 to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men [25 +/- 2 yr, high-tolerance (HiTol) group], but eight men (26 +/- 3 yr) reached presyncope after 11 +/- 1 min [P < 0.001, low-tolerance (LoTol) group]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change measurably, but central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased similarly in both groups (5-6 mmHg, by approximately 30%, P < 0.05). Control (0 mmHg LBNP) hormone concentrations were similar between groups, however, p(RA) differed between them (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0. 05) p(RA) and p(ANG II), respectively, more in the HiTol group (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml) than in LoTol subjects (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml). In contrast, the increase in p(VP) was higher (P < 0.05) in the LoTol than in the HiTol group. The increases (P < 0.05) for p(NE) were nonsignificant between groups, and p(ET-1) remained unchanged. Thus there may be a causal relationship between attenuated activation of p(RA) and p(ANG II) and presyncope, with p(VP) being a possible cofactor. Measurement of resting p(RA) may be of predictive value for those with lower hypotensive tolerance.

  4. The Role of Maladaptive Cognitions in Hypersexuality among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive appraisals about sex may represent an important component of the maintenance and treatment of hypersexuality, but they are not currently represented in conceptual models of hypersexuality. Therefore, we validated a measure of maladaptive cognitions about sex and examined its unique ability to predict hypersexuality. Qualitative interviews with a pilot sample of 60 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men and expert review of items yielded a pool of 17 items regarding maladaptive cognitions about sex. A separate sample of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men completed measures of sexual inhibition and excitation, impulsivity, emotional dysregulation, depression and anxiety, sexual compulsivity, the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory proposed by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (2010). Factor analysis confirmed the presence of three subscales: perceived sexual needs, sexual costs, and sexual control efficacy. Structural equation modeling results were consistent with a cognitive model of hypersexuality whereby magnifying the necessity of sex and disqualifying the benefits of sex partially predicted minimized self-efficacy for controlling one’s sexual behavior, all of which predicted problematic hypersexuality. In multivariate logistic regression, disqualifying the benefits of sex predicted unique variance in hypersexuality, even after adjusting for the role of core constructs of existing research on hypersexuality, AOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.02, 3.10. Results suggest the utility of a cognitive approach for better understanding hypersexuality and the importance of developing treatment approaches that encourage adaptive appraisals regarding the outcomes of sex and one’s ability to control his sexual behavior. PMID:24558123

  5. What Are Men Afraid Of: The Whys and Hows of Helping Men Become Active Caretakers of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.

    Participants in the Dad's Day at the Center for Young Children program meet on Saturday mornings for a series of 12 sessions which combine play and discussion group activities. The first hour of each session is structured so that fathers and their 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children can spend time together experiencing new toys, foods, arts, and games…

  6. Willingness to Take PrEP and Potential for Risk Compensation Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Whitfield, Thomas H F; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2015-12-01

    Once-daily Truvada (Emtricitabine/Tenofovir) as a method of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one of the most promising biomedical interventions to eliminate new HIV infections; however, uptake among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men has been slow amidst growing concern in popular/social media that PrEP use will result in reduced condom use (i.e., risk compensation). We investigated demographic, behavioral, and psychosocial differences in willingness to use PrEP as well as the perceived impact of PrEP on participants' condom use in a sample of 206 highly sexually active HIV-negative gay and bisexual men. Nearly half (46.1 %) said they would be willing to take PrEP if it were provided at no cost. Although men willing to take PrEP (vs. others) reported similar numbers of recent casual male partners (<6 weeks), they had higher odds of recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS)-i.e., those already at high risk of contracting HIV were more willing to take PrEP. Neither age, race/ethnicity, nor income were associated with willingness to take PrEP, suggesting equal acceptability among subpopulations that are experiencing disparities in HIV incidence. There was limited evidence to suggest men would risk compensate. Only 10 % of men who had not engaged in recent CAS felt that PrEP would result in them starting to have CAS. Men who had not tested for HIV recently were also significantly more likely than others to indicate willingness to take PrEP. Offering PrEP to men who test infrequently may serve to engage them more in routine HIV/STI testing and create a continued dialogue around sexual health between patient and provider in order to prevent HIV infection.

  7. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  8. Cytokine response to acute running in recreationally-active and endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jonathan P R; Sale, Craig; Greeves, Julie P; Casey, Anna; Dutton, John; Fraser, William D

    2013-07-01

    To compare the cytokine response to exhaustive running in recreationally-active (RA) and endurance-trained (ET) men. Eleven RA men (VO2max 55 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) and 10 ET men (VO₂max 68 ± 7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) followed a controlled diet and refrained from volitional exercise for 8 days. On the fourth day, participants completed 60 min of treadmill running (65 % VO₂max), followed by intermittent running to exhaustion (70 % VO₂max). Fasting blood was obtained at baseline, after 20, 40 and 60 min of exercise, at the end of intermittent exercise, during 2 h of recovery and on four follow-up days (FU1-FU4). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) and creatine kinase (CK) were measured. Exercise increased the concentrations of all cytokines and CK, but there were no significant differences between groups. IL-1β increased (2.2-2.5-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise, while TNF-α was increased (1.6-2.0-fold, P < 0.001) during exercise and for 2 h post-exercise. IL-6 (71-84-fold, P < 0.001) and IL-1ra (52-64-fold, P < 0.001) were increased throughout exercise and up to FU1, peaking immediately after exercise and at 1.5-2 h post-exercise, respectively. CK concentrations were increased (P < 0.001) throughout exercise and up to FU4, peaking at FU1, but were not associated with changes in any cytokines. Exhaustive running resulted in modest and transient increases in TNF-α and IL-1β, and more marked and prolonged increases in IL-6 and IL-1ra, but improved training status did not affect this response. Increased CK might indicate either exercise-induced muscle cell disruption or increased cell permeability, although neither appears to have contributed to the increased cytokine concentrations. PMID:23463480

  9. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  10. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  11. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels ( β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 ( β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 ( β = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  12. Predictive performance of prostate cancer risk in Chinese men using 33 reported prostate cancer risk-associated SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jie; Liu, Fang; Lin, Xiaoling; Wang, Xiang; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Haowen; Chen, Hongyan; Lu, Daru; Jin, Guangfu; Hsing, Ann W.; Shao, Qiang; Qi, Jun; Ye, Yu; Wang, Zhong; Gao, Xin; Wang, Guozeng; Chu, Lisa W.; OuYang, Jun; Huang, Yichen; Chen, Yanbo; Gao, Yutang; Shi, Rong; Wu, Qijun; Wang, Meilin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Hu, Yanlin; Sun, Jielin; Zheng, S. Lilly; Gao, Xu; Xu, Chuanliang; Mo, Zengnan; Sun, Yinghao; Xu, Jianfeng

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were reproducibly associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk in populations of European descent. In aggregate, these variants have shown potential to predict risk for PCa in European men. However, their utility for PCa risk prediction in Chinese men is unknown. Methods We selected 33 PCa risk-related SNPs that were originally identified in populations of European descent. Genetic scores were estimated for subjects in a Chinese case-control study (1,108 cases and 1,525 controls) based on these SNPs. To assess the performance of the genetic score on its ability to predict risk for PCa, we calculated Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) in combination with 10-fold cross-validation. Results The genetic score was significantly higher for cases than controls (P = 5.91×10-20), and was significantly associated with risk of PCa in a dose-dependent manner (P for trend: 4.78×10-18). The AUC of the genetic score was 0.604 for risk prediction of PCa in Chinese men. When ORs derived from this Chinese study population were used to calculate genetic score, the AUCs were 0.631 for all 33 SNPs and 0.617 when using only the 11 significant SNPs. Conclusion Our results indicate that genetic variants related to PCa risk may be useful for risk prediction in Chinese men. Prospective studies are warranted to further evaluate these findings. PMID:21796652

  13. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  14. Effects of Testosterone Therapy on Muscle Performance and Physical Function in Older Men with Mobility Limitations (The TOM Trial): Design and Methods

    PubMed Central

    LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Lajevardi, Newsha; Miciek, Renee; Mazer, Norman; Storer, Thomas W.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2010-01-01

    The TOM study is the first, single-site, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial designed to comprehensively determine the effects of testosterone administration on muscle strength and physical function in older men with mobility limitations. A total of 252 community dwelling individuals aged 65 and older with low testosterone levels and self-reported limitations in mobility and short physical performance battery (SPPB) score between 4 and 9 will be randomized to receive either placebo or testosterone therapy for 6 months. The primary objective is to determine whether testosterone therapy improves maximal voluntary muscle strength as quantified by the one repetition maximum. Secondary outcomes will include measures of physical function (walking, stair climbing and a lifting and lowering task), habitual physical activity and self-reported disability. The effects of testosterone on affect, fatigue and sense of well being will also be assessed. Unique aspects of the TOM Trial include selection of men with self-reported as well as objectively demonstrable functional limitations, community-based screening and recruitment, adjustment of testosterone dose to ensure serum testosterone levels in the target range while maintaining blinding, and inclusion of a range of self-reported and performance-based physical function measures as outcomes. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00240981. PMID:18996225

  15. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Online Samples of Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843

  16. Beta-carotene-induced enhancement of natural killer cell activity in elderly men: an investigation of the role of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Santos, M S; Gaziano, J M; Leka, L S; Beharka, A A; Hennekens, C H; Meydani, S N

    1998-07-01

    We showed previously that natural killer (NK) cell activity is significantly greater in elderly men supplemented with beta-carotene than in those taking placebo. In an attempt to determine the mechanism of beta-carotene's effect, we analyzed the production of NK cell-enhancing cytokines (interferon alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukin 12). Boston-area participants in the Physicians' Health Study (men aged 65-88 y; mean age, 73 y) who had been supplemented with beta-carotene (50 mg on alternate days) for an average of 12 y were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Elderly subjects taking beta-carotene supplements had significantly greater plasma beta-carotene concentrations than those taking placebo. Beta-carotene-supplemented elderly men had significantly greater NK cell activity than did elderly men receiving placebo. Percentages of NK cells (CD16+CD56+) were not significantly different between the beta-carotene and placebo groups. Production of interleukin 12, interferon alpha, or concanavalin A-stimulated interferon gamma by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells was not significantly different between beta-carotene-supplemented elderly and those taking placebo. Our results indicate that beta-carotene-induced enhancement of NK cell activity is not mediated by changes in percentages of CD16+CD56+ NK cells nor through up-regulation of interleukin 12 or interferon alpha.

  17. Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Charette, S.; Zhou, L.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bone bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity [E] x moment of inertia [I]), a measure of bone strength, is related to its mineral content (BMC) and geometry and may be influenced by exercise. We evaluated the relationship of habitual recreational exercise and muscle strength to ulnar EI, width, and BMC in 51 healthy men, 28-61 yr of age. BMC and width were measured by single photon absorptiometry and EI by mechanical resistance tissue analysis. Maximum biceps strength was determined dynamically (1-RM) and grip strength isometrically. Subjects were classified as sedentary (S) (N = 13), moderately (M) (N = 18), or highly active (H) (N = 20) and exercised 0.2 +/- 0.2; 2.2 +/- 1.3; and 6.8 +/- 2.3 h.wk-1 (P < 0.001). H had greater biceps (P < 0.0005) and grip strength (P < 0.05), ulnar BMC (P < 0.05), and ulnar EI (P = 0.01) than M or S, who were similar. Amount of activity correlated with grip and biceps strength (r = 0.47 and 0.49; P < 0.001), but not with bone measurements, whereas muscle strength correlated with both EI and BMC (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.005). EI also correlated significantly with both BMC and ulnar width (P < 0.0001). Ulnar width and biceps strength were the only independent predictors of EI (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001). We conclude that levels of physical activity sufficient to increase arm strength influence ulnar bending stiffness.

  18. Women, men, and rheumatoid arthritis: analyses of disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments in the QUEST-RA Study

    PubMed Central

    Sokka, Tuulikki; Toloza, Sergio; Cutolo, Maurizio; Kautiainen, Hannu; Makinen, Heidi; Gogus, Feride; Skakic, Vlado; Badsha, Humeira; Peets, Tõnu; Baranauskaite, Asta; Géher, Pál; Újfalussy, Ilona; Skopouli, Fotini N; Mavrommati, Maria; Alten, Rieke; Pohl, Christof; Sibilia, Jean; Stancati, Andrea; Salaffi, Fausto; Romanowski, Wojciech; Zarowny-Wierzbinska, Danuta; Henrohn, Dan; Bresnihan, Barry; Minnock, Patricia; Knudsen, Lene Surland; Jacobs, Johannes WG; Calvo-Alen, Jaime; Lazovskis, Juris; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Karateev, Dmitry; Andersone, Daina; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Yazici, Yusuf; Pincus, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Gender as a predictor of outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has evoked considerable interest over the decades. Historically, there is no consensus whether RA is worse in females or males. Recent reports suggest that females are less likely than males to achieve remission. Therefore, we aimed to study possible associations of gender and disease activity, disease characteristics, and treatments of RA in a large multinational cross-sectional cohort of patients with RA called Quantitative Standard Monitoring of Patients with RA (QUEST-RA). Methods The cohort includes clinical and questionnaire data from patients who were seen in usual care, including 6,004 patients at 70 sites in 25 countries as of April 2008. Gender differences were analyzed for American College of Rheumatology Core Data Set measures of disease activity, DAS28 (disease activity score using 28 joint counts), fatigue, the presence of rheumatoid factor, nodules and erosions, and the current use of prednisone, methotrexate, and biologic agents. Results Women had poorer scores than men in all Core Data Set measures. The mean values for females and males were swollen joint count-28 (SJC28) of 4.5 versus 3.8, tender joint count-28 of 6.9 versus 5.4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 30 versus 26, Health Assessment Questionnaire of 1.1 versus 0.8, visual analog scales for physician global estimate of 3.0 versus 2.5, pain of 4.3 versus 3.6, patient global status of 4.2 versus 3.7, DAS28 of 4.3 versus 3.8, and fatigue of 4.6 versus 3.7 (P < 0.001). However, effect sizes were small-medium and smallest (0.13) for SJC28. Among patients who had no or minimal disease activity (0 to 1) on SJC28, women had statistically significantly higher mean values compared with men in all other disease activity measures (P < 0.001) and met DAS28 remission less often than men. Rheumatoid factor was equally prevalent among genders. Men had nodules more often than women. Women had erosions more often than men, but

  19. Vitamin and mineral status in physically active men: effects of a high-potency supplement.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Moses, F M; Deuster, P A

    1992-01-01

    Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly (P less than 0.05) by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation. PMID:1728807

  20. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  1. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-10-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2-3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2-3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men.

  2. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  3. A pilot trial of integrated behavioral activation and sexual risk reduction counseling for HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men abusing crystal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=-4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-7.48, -2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=-5.07; 95% CI=-7.85, -2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ(2)=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ(2)=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ(2)=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness testing.

  4. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  5. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  6. Measures of skin conductance and heart rate in alcoholic men and women during memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Poey, Alan; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    We examined abnormalities in physiological responses to emotional stimuli associated with long-term chronic alcoholism. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured in 32 abstinent alcoholic (ALC) and 30 healthy nonalcoholic (NC) men and women undergoing an emotional memory task in an MRI scanner. The task required participants to remember the identity of two emotionally-valenced faces presented at the onset of each trial during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. After viewing the faces, participants saw a distractor image (an alcoholic beverage, nonalcoholic beverage, or scrambled image) followed by a single probe face. The task was to decide whether the probe face matched one of the two encoded faces. Skin conductance measurements (before and after the encoded faces, distractor, and probe) were obtained from electrodes on the index and middle fingers on the left hand. HR measurements (beats per minute before and after the encoded faces, distractor, and probe) were obtained by a pulse oximeter placed on the little finger on the left hand. We expected that, relative to NC participants, the ALC participants would show reduced SCR and HR responses to the face stimuli, and that we would identify greater reactivity to the alcoholic beverage stimuli than to the distractor stimuli unrelated to alcohol. While the beverage type did not differentiate the groups, the ALC group did have reduced skin conductance and HR responses to elements of the task, as compared to the NC group. PMID:26020002

  7. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  8. Morphological evaluation of sperm from infertile men selected by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS).

    PubMed

    Curti, Gianni; Skowronek, Fernanda; Vernochi, Rita; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Ana Laura; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Juan Carlos; Casanova, Gabriela; Sapiro, Rossana

    2014-12-01

    Electron microscopy analysis performed in five infertile human subjects after sperm selection by swim-up followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrated a decrease in the number of spermatozoa with characteristics compatible with cell death. However, no significant differences were found when the swim-up/MACS semen fraction was compared with swim-up fraction alone.

  9. Cumulative lead exposure is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental exposures have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental exposure to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead exposure, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead exposure were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for age, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average age of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, age at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and age. Additional adjustment for education did not

  10. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  11. Men's aesthetic dermatology.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Anthony M

    2014-12-01

    Cosmetic dermatology is continuing to see a dramatic increase in both procedures performed and technological advancements. Men's aesthetic dermatology is burgeoning with more men seeking cosmetic consultations and intervention. Whether it is targeted cosmeceuticals for men or male-specific procedures, dermatologists must be aware of this evolving demographic and understand the biological, anatomical, and psychological aspects that separate this cohort from their female counterparts. Cosmetic dermatology has moved beyond just applying the same techniques used for females onto males. The use of our cosmetic toolbox can differ for men in terms of technique and dosage. This article will review the state of men's aesthetic dermatology with. PMID:25830252

  12. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  13. Stress and decision-making in humans: performance is related to cortisol reactivity, albeit differently in men and women.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Ruud; Harteveld, Marlies; Stoop, Hein

    2009-11-01

    Acutely elevated levels of cortisol are associated with euphoria and reward-like properties related to sensation-seeking behaviour. Thus, acute stress and elevated levels of cortisol may promote risk-taking behaviour. High cortisol responders are more sensitive to immediate rewards than low cortisol responders. In this study we therefore tested whether acute stress in male and female subjects, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), affects decision-making as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and to what extent this is related to cortisol reactivity. Control subjects did not receive the stress manipulation. We specifically predict that high responders show risk-taking behaviour in the IGT compared to low responders and controls. The data show that the more (salivary) cortisol levels are elevated after the TSST the poorer the subsequent performance in the IGT in male subjects. In female subjects an inverse relationship between cortisol levels and IGT performance is observed: slightly elevated levels of cortisol after the TSST improve IGT performance, while highly elevated levels decrease IGT performance. Thus, acute stress as induced by the TSST affects decision-making behaviour of men and women differently and cortisol reactivity is associated with decision-making performance. PMID:19497677

  14. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men.

    PubMed

    Zembron-Lacny, A; Dziubek, W; Rynkiewicz, M; Morawin, B; Woźniewski, M

    2016-06-20

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  15. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  16. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    PubMed

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs-sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin-were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels (β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 (β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 (β = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research. PMID:26546313

  17. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and haemoglobin levels in older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia and low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels are common in older people and may adversely affect morbidity and mortality. While there is some evidence for an association between low serum 25D levels and anaemia, there are limited studies among community-dwelling older people. In addition, the relationship between anaemia and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25D, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between serum 25D and 1,25D with anaemia in community-living men aged ≥70 years. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase and longitudinal analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney among men aged 70 years and older, were performed; 1666 men were seen at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men at a 2-year follow-up (2007-2009) and 917 at a 5-year follow-up (2012-2013). The main outcome measurement was haemoglobin levels as a continuous measure. Covariates included 25D and 1,25D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, demographic information, lifestyle measures, health conditions and medication information. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 13.0 g/dL, WHO definition) was 14.6 %. In cross-sectional analysis, serum 25D concentrations were positively associated with haemoglobin levels in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.004; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0009, 0.007; p = 0.01), but the associations were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment. The association between 1,25D levels and haemoglobin levels was significant in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.004; p < 0.0001) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (β value 0.001; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.003; p = 0.01). Serum 1,25D (but not 25D) levels at baseline were significantly associated with changes in haemoglobin over 2 and 5 years in unadjusted (β value 0.002; 95 % CI 0.0009, 0.003; p < 0

  18. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men.

  19. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M.; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m2) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men. PMID:27227083

  20. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men. PMID:27227083

  1. Acute L-arginine alpha ketoglutarate supplementation fails to improve muscular performance in resistance trained and untrained men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dietary supplements containing L-arginine are marketed to improve exercise performance, but the efficacy of such supplements is not clear. Therefore, this study examined the efficacy of acute ingestion of L-arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG) muscular strength and endurance in resistance trained and untrained men. Methods Eight resistance trained and eight untrained healthy males ingested either 3000mg of AAKG or a placebo 45 minutes prior to a resistance exercise protocol in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. One-repetition maximum (1RM) on the standard barbell bench press and leg press were obtained. Upon determination of 1RM, subjects completed repetitions to failure at 60% 1RM on both the standard barbell bench press and leg press. Heart rate was measured pre and post exercise. One week later, subjects ingested the other supplement and performed the identical resistance exercise protocol. Results Our data showed statistical significant differences (p<0.05) between resistance trained and untrained males for both 1RM and total load volume (TLV; multiply 60% of 1RM times the number of repetitions to failure) for the upper body. However, 1RM and TLV were not statistically different (p>0.05) between supplementation conditions for either resistance trained or untrained men in the bench press or leg press exercises. Heart rate was similar at the end of the upper and lower body bouts of resistance exercise with AAKG vs. placebo. Conclusion The results from our study indicate that acute AAKG supplementation provides no ergogenic benefit on 1RM or TLV as measured by the standard barbell bench press and leg press, regardless of the subjects training status. PMID:22510253

  2. Restricted and Adaptive Masculine Gender Performance in White Gay College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…

  3. Sublingual Nucleotides Prolong Run Time to Exhaustion in Young Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Sergej M.; Idrizovic, Kemal; Stojanovic, Marko D.

    2013-01-01

    Although dietary nucleotides have been determined to be required for normal immune function, there is limited direct interventional evidence confirming performance-enhancing effects of sublingual nucleotides in humans. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of sublingual nucleotides (50 mg/day) administered for 14 days in thirty young healthy physically active males, on endurance performance and immune responses. Fasting white blood cell count, natural killer cells (NKC) number, NKC cytotoxic activity, and serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgM, IgG), and time to exhaustion, peak rate of perceived exertion, peak heart rate, and peak running speed during the exercise test were measured at baseline (day 0) and post-intervention (day 14). Time to exhaustion, as well as serum immunoglobulin A and NKC cytotoxic activity, were significantly higher at day 14 (p < 0.05) in participants supplemented with nucleotides compared with those who consumed placebo. No significant differences in other parameters were observed between groups at post-intervention. No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study nor reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. The results of the present study suggest that sublingual nucleotides may provide pertinent benefit as both an ergogenic and immunostimulatory additive in active males. PMID:24284618

  4. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.

  5. Low dietary copper increases fecal free radical production, fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity and cytotoxicity in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D

    2003-02-01

    One possible dietary factor that may increase susceptibility to colon cancer is inadequate copper intake. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of low and adequate copper intakes on copper nutriture and putative risk factors for colon cancer susceptibility in healthy men. Seventeen healthy free-living nonsmoking men aged 21-52 y completed a 13-wk controlled feeding study in a randomized crossover design. The basal diet contained 0.59 mg Cu/13.65 MJ. After a 1-wk equilibration period in which the men consumed the basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg Cu/d, they were randomly assigned to receive either the basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 2 mg Cu/d for 6 wk. After the first dietary period, the men immediately began to consume the other level of Cu for the last 6 wk. They collected their feces during the equilibration period and during the last 2 wk of the two dietary periods for free radical and fecal water analysis. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.01) increased fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity. Low dietary copper significantly (P < 0.0001) decreased fecal water copper concentrations but did not affect fecal water volume, pH, iron or zinc concentrations. In contrast to the fecal analysis, hematological indicators of copper status were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. These results suggest that low dietary copper adversely affects fecal free radical production and fecal water alkaline phosphatase activity, which are putative risk factors for colon cancer.

  6. Quantification of trunk muscle performance in standing, semistanding and sitting postures in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Cartas, O; Nordin, M; Frankel, V H; Malgady, R; Sheikhzadeh, A

    1993-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine trunk muscle performance in the sitting, semistanding, and standing postures during isometric and dynamic extension and flexion movements. Twenty-five male subject volunteers, with no previous history of back pain participated in the study. A triaxial dynamometer that measures torque, angular position, and velocity was used to measure isometric and dynamic motor output. The dynamometer allows testing in the sitting and standing postures. A custom-designed module also allowed testing in the semistanding posture. Each subject was tested in two sessions. The first session included the physical examination and three trials of isometric maximum voluntary contractions in the three postures. The second session included the dynamic performance against a resistance equal to 50% of the effort, as measured in the first session. Subjects were instructed to perform five repetitive flexion and extension cycles as fast and accurately as possible with maximum effort. An analysis of variance with repeated measures design was used to investigate the effects of the postures (standing, semistanding and sitting), the direction of exertion (flexion and extension), and the interaction effects of the isometric and dynamic parameters (maximum and average torque, velocity, power, and range of motion). The effects of direction (F = 98, P < 0.0001) and the interaction of posture and direction (F = 7.9, P < 0.001) were significant. The maximum isometric flexion strength was significantly higher in the standing posture than in semistanding and sitting. The maximum isometric extension was not affected by the posture (sitting, semistanding and standing).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Sexual knowledge, attitudes and activity of men conscripted into the military

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Military conscripts may experience a change in their attitude towards sex at times when sexual urges are at their peak during their physical growth. This study examines the experience, understanding, knowledge and attitudes regarding sexual activity of the military conscripts. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional survey of 1127 young adult military conscripts, and were evaluated in Southern Taiwan from January to July 2009, their demographic data, sexual knowledge, attitudes and activities were assessed. Results Nearly 43% of the participants had performed penetrative vaginal intercourse at least once; 34% of the participants performed heterosexual oral sex at least once; almost 7% of participants had had homosexual intercourse, and 7.5% of participants had experienced homosexual oral sex in the past year. The mean sexual knowledge score based on 30 questions was 23.2 ± 4.0. The higher the educational level of the participants, the greater sexual knowledge they had obtained. Conclusion This study found that 43% of unmarried young recruits had experienced premarital sexual activity. However, their sexual knowledge was insufficient and should be strengthened by sex education from an earlier age. College aged and adult learners also have sex education needs, especially with regard to integrating sexuality and life, being able to relate responsibly as sexual beings to others, the use of contraception, and about sexually transmitted disease. Keywords Young recruits, Sexual behavior, Sexual knowledge, Sex education PMID:20875121

  8. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  9. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  10. Effects of caffeine or ethanol on treadmill performance and metabolic responses of well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Z V; Affrime, M B; Lowenthal, D T

    1994-10-01

    The effects of caffeine and ethanol on treadmill performance and metabolic responses to exercise were determined in four trained runners. Caffeine (2.5 mg.kg-1 body weight) or ethanol (25 ml) in 150 ml of grapefruit juice (total volume) or grapefruit juice (placebo) was randomly administered 10 minutes prior to and at 30 minutes of a 60 minutes treadmill run. The speed and grade of the treadmill was adjusted to elicit an average oxygen consumption of 80-85% of the subject's maximal oxygen consumption. All subjects completed the treadmill run for the caffeine and placebo conditions. Three of the four subjects could not complete the treadmill run following the second administration of ethanol. Exercise heart rate was significantly greater for the ethanol condition than for the placebo condition. Exercise oxygen consumption was greater following ethanol administration than for placebo, but the differences were not significant. Blood glucose rose significantly between 0 and 30 minutes of treadmill running for all three conditions. Between 30 minutes of treadmill running and either 60 minutes or the time of termination of the exercise, blood glucose decreased significantly by 24% following the second ethanol treatment. Plasma fatty acid, triglyceride, creatine phosphokinase, and renin contents followed expected exercise changes with a blunting of the rise of plasma fatty acids at 30 minutes of exercise for the ethanol condition. It was concluded that the administration of ethanol adversely influenced treadmill exercise performance by eliciting a hypoglycemic effect between 30 minutes and the termination of the exercise. PMID:7834161

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Sei; Iida, Miho; Kurihara, Ayako; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Oguma, Yuko; Suzuki, Asako; Suzuki, Chizuru; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study. Methods A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years) with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808). The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385) created by random allocation. Results Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population). The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time. Conclusions Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases. PMID:27741291

  12. Inter-limb coordination, strength, jump, and sprint performances following a youth men's basketball game.

    PubMed

    Cortis, Cristina; Tessitore, Antonio; Lupo, Corrado; Pesce, Caterina; Fossile, Eugenio; Figura, Francesco; Capranica, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to verify whether basketball players are able to maintain strength (handgrip), jump (countermovement jump [CMJ]), sprint (10 m and 10 m bouncing the ball [10 mBB]), and interlimb coordination (i.e., synchronized hand and foot flexions and extensions at 80, 120, and 180 bpm) performances at the end of their game. Ten young (age 15.7 ± 0.2 years) male basketball players volunteered for this study. During the friendly game, heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and rate of muscle pain (RMP) were assessed to evaluate the exercise intensity. Overall, players spent 80% of the time playing at intensities higher than 85% HRmax. Main effects (p < 0.05) for game periods emerged for HR and the number of players involved in a single action, with lower occurrence of maximal efforts and higher involvement of teammates after the first 2 periods. At the end of the game, players reported high (p < 0.05) RPE (15.7 ± 2.4) and RMP (5.2 ± 2.3) values; decreased (p < 0.05) sprint capabilities (10 m: pre = 1.79 ± 0.09 seconds, post = 1.84 ± 0.08 seconds; 10 mBB: pre = 1.81 ± 0.11 seconds, post = 1.96 ± 0.08 seconds); increased (p < 0.05) interlimb coordination at 180 bpm (pre = 33.3 ± 20.2 seconds, post = 43.9 ± 19.8 seconds); and maintained jump (pre = 35.2 ± 5.2 cm, post = 35.7 ± 5.2 cm), handgrip (pre = 437 ± 73 N, post = 427 ± 55 N), and coordinative performances at lower frequencies of executions (80 bpm: pre = 59.7 ± 1.3 seconds, post = 60.0 ± 0.0 seconds; 120 bpm: pre = 54.7 ± 12.3 seconds, post = 57.3 ± 6.7 seconds). These findings indicate that the heavy load of the game exerts beneficial effects on the efficiency of executive and attentive control functions involved in complex motor behaviors. Coaches should structure training sessions that couple intense physical exercises with complex coordination tasks to improve the attentional capabilities of the players.

  13. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  14. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  15. The relative utility of health-related fitness tests and skilled motor performance tests as measures of biological age in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Tanaka, K; Nakagaichi, M; Nakadomo, F; Watanabe, K; Takeshima, N; Hiyama, T; Chodzko-Zaiko, W

    1996-05-01

    In the present paper we report the results of a study in which we compared 2 different approaches to the computation of biological age (BA) in a sample of 322 Japanese men (age range 20 to 79 years). In the first approach, 4 commonly used measures of health-related fitness (VO2peak, trunk flexion from a standing position, body fat, and grip strength) were reduced to a single BA score (HRF Age) using principal component analysis. In contrast, in the second approach, 3 commonly used measures of skilled motor performance and agility (vertical jump, stepping side-to-side, and balancing on one leg with eyes closed) were reduced to a single BA score (SMP Age) using similar multivariate procedures. The criterion-related validity of both of the BA measures was examined by assessing each measure's ability to discriminate between healthy and active groups of subjects. This was achieved by classifying the original subject pool into regularly active (ACT; n = 108) and healthy (HLTH; n = 169) subgroups on the basis of self-reported activity levels. Analyses revealed that HRF Age was a more powerful discriminator between the two activity groups than SMP Age. While HRF Age of HLTH subjects was very close to their chronological age (CA), in the ACT group, HRF Age was on average 15 years less than their CA (P < 0.05). In a separate analysis, we assessed the HRF Age of patients with ischemic heart disease, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes (PAT; n = 45). The HRF Age of these subjects averaged 10 years above their CA. Our data suggest that commonly used measures of health-related fitness can be usefully employed as indices of BA which differentiate between individuals of similar ages but differing health and physical activity status. In contrast, measures of skilled motor performance were found to be less valuable measures of BA. The implication of our findings for future experimental design in exercise and aging research is discussed.

  16. Behavioral health and social normative influence: correlates of concurrent sexual partnering among heterosexually-active homeless men.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Hsu, Hsun-Ta; Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Kennedy, David P; Green, Harold D; Ewing, Brett

    2012-10-01

    Sexual concurrency poses significant HIV/STI transmission risk. The correlates of concurrency have not been examined among homeless men. A representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men utilizing meal programs in the Skid Row area of Los Angeles reported on their mental health, substance use, and social network characteristics. Nearly 40% of men reported concurrency with one of their four most recent sex partners. Results indicated that HIV seropositivity (OR = 4.39, CI: 1.10, 17.46; P = 0.04), PTSD (OR = 2.29, CI: 1.05, 5.01; P = 0.04), hard drug use (OR = 2.45, CI: 1.07, 5.58; P = 0.03), and the perception that network alters engage in risky sex (OR = 3.72, CI: 1.49, 9.30; P = 0.01) were associated with increased odds of concurrency. Programs aimed at reducing HIV/STI transmission in this vulnerable population must take into account the roles that behavioral health and social networks may play in sexual concurrency. PMID:22001933

  17. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  18. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  19. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    PubMed Central

    Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782

  20. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  1. Abdominal hollowing and lateral abdominal wall muscles' activity in both healthy men & women: An ultrasonic assessment in supine and standing positions.

    PubMed

    Manshadi, Farideh Dehghan; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Kazemnejad, Anooshirvan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Abdominal Hollowing (AH) maneuver on External Oblique (EO), Internal Oblique (IO) and Transversus Abdominis (TrA) muscles in both healthy men and women during the two postures of supine and upright standing. The study was conducted on 43 asymptomatic volunteers (22 males and 21 females) aged 19-44 (27.8±6.4) years. Rehabilitative Ultrasonic Imaging (RUSI) was simultaneously performed to measure muscle thickness in both rest and during AH maneuvers while activation of the TrA during AH was controlled by Pressure Biofeedback (PBF) device. Mixed-model ANOVA with repeated measures design, and Pearson correlation tests were used to analyze the data. Muscle thickness of all muscles was significantly higher for male subjects (F>6.2, p<0.017). The interaction effect of gender and muscle status was significant only for IO (F=7.458, p=0.009) indicating that AH maneuver increased the thickness of IO in men. Interaction effect of posture and muscle status on muscular thickness indicated that changing position only affects the resting thickness of TrA (F=5.617, p=0.023). Standing posture significantly affected the TrA contraction ratio (t=3.122, p=0.003) and TrA preferential activation ratio (t=2.76, p=0.008). There was no relationship between age and muscle thickness (r=0.262, p=0.09). The PBF has been introduced as a clinical and available device for monitoring TrA activity, while RUSI showed that both TrA and IO muscles had activated after AH maneuver. We recommend performing further investigations using electromyography and RUSI simultaneously at more functional postures such as upright standing.

  2. A survey of Canadian urologists’ opinions and prescribing patterns of testosterone replacement therapy in men on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Adam C.; Elterman, Dean S.; Goldenberg, Larry; Van Asseldonk, Brandon; Curtis, Ashley; Jarvi, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Attitudes regarding the safety of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in hypogonadal men with prostate cancer (PCa) have changed over the past few years with the emergence of case studies suggesting a low risk of cancer progression and a better understanding of the interaction of different levels of androgen with prostate cellular metabolism. This new view has the potential to change clinical practice. Methods: Active members of the Canadian Urological Association were surveyed about their opinions on the safety of TRT in men with low-risk PCa, as well as their current prescribing habits. Results: Of 57 responding urologists, 86% actively prescribe TRT in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), 93% are involved in the treatment of men with PCa, and 95% offer active surveillance as a management option for low-grade/low-stage disease. Furthermore, 65% stated that they would offer TRT to men with TDS who were on active surveillance for PCa and 63% believed that TRT did not increase the risk of progression of PCa in these men. In terms of treatment methods, 96% believed TRT was safe for men who have undergone radical prostatectomy, while a smaller number felt it was safe for patients who have undergone brachytherapy (86%) or external beam radiation (84%). Despite these figures, only 35% of the surveyed physicians had ever offered TRT for men on active surveillance and only 42% actually had men in their practice who were taking testosterone while on active surveillance. Conclusions: The discrepancy between urologists’ beliefs about the safety of TRT and their clinical practice patterns may be due to multiple factors, such as hesitation in recommending treatment in real-life practice, low numbers of eligible patients, absence of screening for testosterone deficiency in patients on active surveillance, and patient preference or fears. Furthermore, the difference in perceived safety in men treated by radical prostatectomy vs. radiation therapy

  3. The performance of learning-disabled and normal young men on the test of visual-perceptual skills.

    PubMed

    Hung, S S; Fisher, A G; Cermak, S A

    1987-12-01

    The present study explored the discriminative validity of the motor-free Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS) as an assessment for adults. The subjects were 26 learning-disabled and 26 normal young men. Overall, the subjects with learning disabilities made significantly more errors and took significantly more time on the total TVPS than did the normal subjects. The group with learning disabilities demonstrated significantly lower accuracy scores on four of the seven subtests and longer time scores on five subtests. Discriminant analysis revealed that the time score for Visual Sequential Memory and the accuracy score for Visual Closure were the two subtest scores that best discriminated between groups and, together, were able to correctly classify 84.6% of the subjects. The TVPS total accuracy score for the subjects with learning disabilities significantly correlated with their overall performance IQ but not with their verbal IQ. Their TVPS total accuracy scores also correlated with scores on Block Design, but not with scores on the Object Assembly or Picture Completion subtests of the WAIS-R. The results seem to indicate that the TVPS is valid as an assessment of visual-perceptual functions for young adult subjects. Recommendations for further study were made. PMID:3503598

  4. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  5. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  6. Circadian rest-activity rhythms predict future increases in depressive symptoms among community-dwelling older men

    PubMed Central

    Smagula, Stephen F.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Boudreau, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Paudel, Misti L.; Stone, Katie L.; Cauley, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Circadian rest-activity rhythms (CARs) have been cross-sectionally associated with depressive symptoms, however no longitudinal research has examined whether CARs are a risk factor for developing depressive symptoms. Methods We examined associations of CARs (measured with actigraphy over a mean of 4.8 days) with depressive symptoms (measured with the Geriatric Depression Scale) among 2892 community-dwelling older men (mean age: 76.2 +/− 5.5) from the MrOS Sleep Study who were without cognitive impairment. Among 2124 men with minimal (0–2) symptoms at baseline, we assessed associations between CAR parameters and increases to mild (3–5) or clinically significant (≥6) symptoms after an average of 1.2 (+/− 0.32) years later. Results Cross-sectional associations between rhythm height parameters were independent of chronic diseases, lifestyle, sleep, and self-reported physical activity covariates. For example, men in the lowest mesor quartile had 2 times the adjusted odds (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=2.04, 95% CI 1.36–3.04, p=0.0005) of having prevalent clinically significant symptoms (compared to minimal). Longitudinally, low CAR robustness (being in the lowest quartile of the pseudo-F statistic) was independently associated with increasing odds of developing symptoms (i.e. AOR for having clinically significant depressive symptoms at follow-up=2.58, 95% CI 1.11–5.99, p=0.03). Conclusion CAR disturbances are indicative of depressive symptomology. Low CAR robustness may independently contribute to the risk of worsening depression symptomology. PMID:25066948

  7. Poor Performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test Device for the Detection of Asymptomatic Infections in South African Men: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Abbai-Shaik, N S; Reddy, T; Govender, S; Ramjee, G

    2016-01-01

    Background. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no published reports on the diagnostic performance of the Chlamydia Rapid Test (CRT) Device for male urine samples. We evaluated the performance of the CRT Device when compared with that of the BD ProbeTec ET PCR Assay in a population of asymptomatic men. Methods. The study enrolled 100 men between June and July 2015. From each consenting male, 20-30 mL of urine was collected. Sensitivity and specificity of the rapid test compared to PCR were calculated. All analysis was performed in STATA version 13. Results. All men had valid rapid and PCR test results. The test showed a low sensitivity against PCR (20%) (95% CI 3.7-6.2%); however, an excellent specificity was observed (100%) (one sided 97.5% CI: 96.0-100). Conclusions. This test was not found to be suitable as a screening tool for genital Chlamydia infections in men. Our findings emphasize the need for more sensitive POC tests to be developed since the current approach for the management of STIs in Africa is confounded by poor sensitivity and specificity resulting in many infected individuals not being treated. PMID:27195171

  8. Relationship problems and extradyadic romantic and sexual activity in a web-sample of Norwegian men and women.

    PubMed

    Træen, Bente; Thuen, Frode

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence of self-reported types of extradyadic romantic and sexual activity among adult Norwegians and to explore the role of infidelity in breaking up a permanent relationship. The results are based on 1,001 web interviews with persons ranging in age from 18 to 67 years. The majority of respondents reported having engaged in some kind of extradyadic romantic and/or sexual activity. Forty-five percent of the women and 39% of the men claimed they had experienced a previous breakup from a marriage or cohabiting relationship. Among those aged 50 years or older, the most important reasons for breaking up a previous relationship were infidelity (38%) and lost love (38%). More men (44%) than women (33%) reported infidelity. Respondents younger than 50 years were more motivated by boredom. Among respondents below the age of 50 years, the most frequently reported reasons for considering termination of a present relationship were quarreling (37%), poor sex life (29%), and "other" reasons (25%). Accordingly, infidelity was not identified as an essential factor for considering a breakup from the present relationship.

  9. Game activity and blood lactate in men's elite water-polo players.

    PubMed

    Melchiorri, Giovanni; Castagna, Carlo; Sorge, Roberto; Bonifazi, Marco

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine game demands during highly competitive men's water-polo games after the introduction of the new Federation International Natation Association (FINA) rules. Participants of this study were 77 outfield international level men's water-polo players (age 25.9 ± 4.5 years, height 188 ± 4.5 cm, body mass 93 ± 10.9 kg). Game earlobe blood lactate, speed, and distance covered (semiautomatic image recognition system) were measured during 6 highly competitive matches (FINA International Tournament). In the game, players covered 1,613 ± 150 m (n = 68). This corresponds to a mean coverage rate of 54 ± 5.8 m·min (n = 68). At speeds faster than 1.4 m·s⁻¹ (high-intensity swimming), players covered 44% of the total distance. A significant decrease in coverage rate was detected during the final stage of the game. Mean blood-lactate concentration was 7.7 ± 1.0 mmol·L⁻¹ (range 2.2-14.3). Center Defenders (1,816 ± 496 m) covered significantly (p < 0.05) more distance swimming compared to Field (1,676 ± 348 m) and Center-Forward (1,317 ± 281 m) players. Mean match blood-lactate concentrations for Center Forwards, Center Defenders, and Field Players were 11.2 ± 1.0 (3-14.3), 6.7 ± 0.9 (1.4-8), and 5.3 ± 0.9 mmol·L⁻¹ (2.2-11.9), respectively. This study confirmed the high-intensity nature of male elite level water polo showing remarkable role-dependent game demands. As a result, strength and conditioning interventions should be individualized and mainly address intermittent high-intensity endurance and anaerobic fitness.

  10. The combined relationship of occupational and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, accounting for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; Kittel, France; de Smet, Patrick; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined relationship of occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, while accounting for physical fitness. The prospective Belgian Physical Fitness Study included 1,456 male workers aged 40-55 years who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Baseline data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. To estimate physical fitness, a submaximal graded exercise test was performed on a bicycle ergometer. Total mortality was registered during a mean follow-up period of 16.9 years. Main results were obtained through Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 145 deaths were registered during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, a significantly increased mortality rate was observed in workers who had low levels of both physical activity types (hazard ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 4.19) but also in workers combining high occupational physical activity and low leisure-time physical activity (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 3.91); the latter finding was particularly pronounced among workers with a low physical fitness level. The present results confirm the existence of a complex interplay among different physical activity settings and fitness levels in predicting mortality.

  11. Physical activity benefits bone density and bone-related hormones in adult men with cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Chain, Amina; Koury, Josely C; Bezerra, Flávia Fioruci

    2012-09-01

    Severe bone loss is a recognized complication of chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Physical exercise contributes to bone health; however, its influence on bone mass of cervical SCI individuals has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of physical activity on bone mass, bone metabolism, and vitamin D status in quadriplegics. Total, lumbar spine (L1-L4), femur and radius bone mineral density (BMD) were assessed in active (n = 15) and sedentary (n = 10) quadriplegic men by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], PTH, IGF1, osteocalcin and NTx were measured in serum. After adjustments for duration of injury, total body mass, and habitual calcium intake, bone indices were similar between groups, except for L1-L4 BMD Z score that was higher in the sedentary group (P < 0.05). Hours of physical exercise per week correlated positively with 25(OH)D (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) and negatively with PTH (r = -0.50; P < 0.05). Femur BMD was negatively associated with the number of months elapsed between the injury and the onset of physical activity (r = -0.60; P < 0.05). Moreover, in the active subjects, both L1-L4 BMD Z score (r = 0.72; P < 0.01) and radius BMD (r = 0.59; P < 0.05) were positively associated with calcium intake. In this cross-sectional study, both the onset of physical activity after injury and the number of hours dedicated to exercise were able to influence bone density and bone-related hormones in quadriplegic men. Our results also suggest a positive combined effect of exercise and calcium intake on bone health of quadriplegic individuals.

  12. Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.

    PubMed

    Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis.

  13. Influences of NREM sleep on activity of palatoglossus and levator palatini muscles in normal men.

    PubMed

    Tangel, D J; Mezzanotte, W S; White, D P

    1995-02-01

    Most evidence indicates that palatal position has an important influence on respiration during sleep. We have previously demonstrated during wakefulness that the levator palatini (LP) and the palatoglossus (PG) muscles function in an integrated manner in determining the route of respiration. In this study we first determined the effect of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep on LP and PG electromyograms (EMGs) and then assessed if subjects could switch from nasal (NR) to oral (OR) respiration during NREM sleep without arousal. Six normal males subjects were studied using intramuscular EMG recording electrodes (LP and PG) and a divided mask to separate NR and OR. Peak inspiratory and end-expiratory EMGs of the LP fell significantly during NREM sleep [3.7 +/- 0.4 (SE), 1.9 +/- 0.4, and 2.4 +/- 0.7 arbitrary units for LP peak inspiratory awake, stage 2, and stage 3/4, respectively; 2.7 +/- 0.2, 1.5 +/- 0.2, and 1.8 +/- 0.5 arbitrary units for LP end-expiratory awake, stage 2, and stage 3/4, respectively; P < 0.05]. In a similar manner, the peak inspiratory EMG of the PG fell from wakefulness to stage 2 NREM sleep [5.1 +/- 0.5 and 3.9 +/- 0.5 arbitrary units for PG peak inspiratory awake and stage 2, respectively]. On the other hand, the PG peak inspiratory activity returned to near waking levels during stage 3/4 sleep, with the PG end-expiratory activity never falling during sleep. A total of 14 nasal occlusions were performed during NREM sleep. In all cases except one, an arousal was required to institute a change to OR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men.

  15. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men. PMID:27652833

  16. Osteoporosis in Men

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, Sundeep; Amin, Shreyasee; Orwoll, Eric

    2008-01-01

    With the aging of the population, there is a growing recognition that osteoporosis and fractures in men are a significant public health problem, and both hip and vertebral fractures are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in men. Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous clinical entity: whereas most men experience bone loss with aging, some men develop osteoporosis at a relatively young age, often for unexplained reasons (idiopathic osteoporosis). Declining sex steroid levels and other hormonal changes likely contribute to age-related bone loss, as do impairments in osteoblast number and/or activity. Secondary causes of osteoporosis also play a significant role in pathogenesis. Although there is ongoing controversy regarding whether osteoporosis in men should be diagnosed based on female- or male-specific reference ranges (because some evidence indicates that the risk of fracture is similar in women and men for a given level of bone mineral density), a diagnosis of osteoporosis in men is generally made based on male-specific reference ranges. Treatment consists both of nonpharmacological (lifestyle factors, calcium and vitamin D supplementation) and pharmacological (most commonly bisphosphonates or PTH) approaches, with efficacy similar to that seen in women. Increasing awareness of osteoporosis in men among physicians and the lay public is critical for the prevention of fractures in our aging male population. PMID:18451258

  17. Role perception and performance of lower class black men and women of Barbados and their contraceptive behavior.

    PubMed

    Goerge, P M; Ebanks, G E; Nobbe, C E

    1974-07-01

    Data from a survey carried out in Barbados indicate that although both men's and women's role conceptions for themselves are traditional in nature as they relate to family planning decisions and behavior, the role of the male is not as insignificant as one is led to believe from the typical portrayal of what is known as the matrifocal lower class black family. The data came from 2 sample surveys, 1 comprised of 630 men and the other of 4199 women, both from lower and lower middle class black men and women. Analysis of results indicates that both the men and women consider a man's job as the bread-winner of the family as more important than his role in contraception and family planning. Concerning how one's role perception as the bread-winner is related to his role perception as the decision-maker regarding family planning, results indicate that men who consider it their duty to provide for the family do not disproportionately consider it also their duty to make the decisions regarding family planning. Joint responsibility in making contraceptive decisions is widely recognized by both the men and women. Those men and women who have discussed contraception and family with their partners tend to have a more positive attitude and are more inclined to practice birth control compared to those who have not discussed such topics with their partners. It is concluded that the impact of interspousal communication on fertility decline is significant, and the role of the male in family planning can no longer be ignored by those interested in promoting family planning. PMID:12261872

  18. College Students' Motivation for Physical Activity: Differentiating Men's and Women's Motives for Sport Participation and Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Marcus; Hebert, Edward; Bartholomew, John

    2005-01-01

    Despite the many clear benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in the college population. A key issue in physical activity research is developing an understanding of motivation. Although physical activity takes many forms, most research designed to enhance motivation for and adherence to physical…

  19. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    PubMed

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  20. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  1. Effect of a short-term diet and exercise intervention on oxidative stress, inflammation, MMP-9, and monocyte chemotactic activity in men with metabolic syndrome factors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christian K; Won, Dean; Pruthi, Sandeep; Kurtovic, Silvia; Sindhu, Ram K; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Barnard, R James

    2006-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of lifestyle modification on key contributing factors to atherogenesis, including oxidative stress, inflammation, chemotaxis, and cell adhesion. Obese men (n = 31), 15 of whom had metabolic syndrome, were placed on a high-fiber, low-fat diet in a 3-wk residential program where food was provided ad libitum and daily aerobic exercise was performed. In each subject, pre- and postintervention fasting blood was drawn for circulating levels of serum lipids, glucose and insulin (for estimation of insulin sensitivity), oxidative stress-generating enzyme myeloperoxidase and marker 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1 as an indicator of endothelial activation, sP-selectin as a marker of platelet activation, the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and total matrix metalloproteinase-9. Using subject sera and human aortic endothelial cell culture systems, we measured VCAM-1 cell surface abundance and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, nitric oxide, superoxide, and hydrogen peroxide production in vitro by fluorometric detection. Also determined in vitro was serum-induced, monocyte adhesion and monocyte chemotactic activity. After 3 wk, significant reductions (P < 0.05) in body mass index, all serum lipids and lipid ratios, fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, myeloperoxidase, 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha, C-reactive protein, soluble ICAM-1, soluble P-selectin, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were noted. In vitro, serum-stimulated cellular VCAM-1 expression, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 production, and fluorometric detection of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production decreased, whereas a concomitant increase in NO production was noted (all P < 0.01). Additionally, both monocyte adhesion (P < 0.05) and MCA (P < 0.01) decreased. Nine of 15 were no longer positive for metabolic

  2. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  3. Osteoprotegerin (OPG), but not Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand (RANKL), is Associated with Subclinical Coronary Atherosclerosis in HIV-infected Men

    PubMed Central

    Ketlogetswe, Kerunne S; McKibben, Rebeccah; Jacobson, Lisa P; Li, Xuihong; Dobs, Adrian S; Budoff, Matthew; Witt, Mallory D; Palella, Frank J; Kingsley, Lawrence; Margolick, Joseph B.; Post, Wendy S; Brown, Todd T.

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormalities in the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) axis have been observed in HIV-infected persons and have been implicated in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis in the general population. Objective To determine associations of serum OPG and RANKL concentrations with HIV infection and subclinical atherosclerosis. Design Cross-sectional study nested within the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study Setting Four US academic medical centers Participants There were 578 HIV-infected and 344 HIV-uninfected men. Main Outcome Measures Coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by non-contrast cardiac computed tomography (CT), and coronary stenosis and plaque characteristics (composition, presence and extent) were measured by coronary CT angiography. All statistical models were adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Results OPG concentrations were higher and RANKL concentrations were lower among HIV-infected men compared to –uninfected men (p<0.0001 each). Among the HIV-infected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with the presence of CAC, mixed plaque, and coronary stenosis > 50%, but not with plaque extent. In contrast, among HIV-uninfected men, higher OPG concentrations were associated with extent of both CAC and calcified plaque, but not their presence. RANKL concentrations were not associated with plaque presence or extent among HIV-infected men, but among HIV-uninfected men, lower RANKL concentrations were associated with greater extent of CAC and total plaque. Conclusions OPG and RANKL are dysregulated in HIV-infected men and their relationship to the presence and extent of subclinical atherosclerosis varies by HIV-status. The role of these biomarkers in CVD pathogenesis and risk prediction may be different in HIV-infected men. PMID:26090754

  4. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  5. A Pilot Survey of Physical Activity in Men with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and…

  6. What a man wants: understanding the challenges and motivations to physical activity participation and healthy eating in middle-aged Australian men.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Kolt, Gregory S; Duncan, Mitch; Ellison, Marcus; George, Emma; Mummery, W Kerry

    2012-11-01

    Little attention has been paid to the physical activity (PA) and nutrition behaviors of middle-aged men; thus, the aim of this study was to gather information and gain insight into the PA and nutrition behaviors of these men. Six focus group sessions were undertaken with middle-aged men (N = 30) from regional Australia to explore the challenges and motivations to PA participation and healthy eating. Men had a good understanding of PA and nutrition; however, this was sometimes confounded by inconsistent media messages. Work commitments and family responsibilities were barriers to PA, while poor cooking skills and abilities were barriers to healthy eating. Disease prevention, weight management, and being a good role model were motivators for PA and healthy eating. By understanding what a man wants, PA and nutrition interventions can be designed and delivered to meet the needs of this hard-to-reach population.

  7. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  8. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension.

    PubMed

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C; Sennhauser, C; Toigo, M; Boutellier, U; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P; Junge, A; Dvorak, J

    2010-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h training session 2.4 times/week for 12 weeks. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased in all groups but the decrease in diastolic blood pressure in F (-9 +/- 5 (+/- SD) mmHg) was higher than that in C (-4 +/- 6 mmHg). F was as effective as R in decreasing body mass (-1.6 +/- 1.8 vs-1.5 +/- 2.1 kg) and total fat mass (-2.0 +/- 1.5 vs -1.6 +/- 1.5 kg) and in increasing supine heart rate variability, whereas no changes were detected for C. Maximal stroke volume improved in F (+13.1%) as well as in R (+10.1%) compared with C (-4.9%). Total cholesterol decreased in F (5.8 +/- 1.2 to 5.5 +/- 0.9 mmol/L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running exercise in habitually active men with mild hypertension.

  9. Validity of combining heart rate and uniaxial acceleration to measure free-living physical activity energy expenditure in young men.

    PubMed

    Villars, C; Bergouignan, A; Dugas, J; Antoun, E; Schoeller, D A; Roth, H; Maingon, A C; Lefai, E; Blanc, S; Simon, C

    2012-12-01

    Combining accelerometry (ACC) with heart rate (HR) monitoring is thought to improve activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimations compared with ACC alone to evaluate the validity of ACC and HR used alone or combined. The purpose of this study was to estimate AEE in free-living conditions compared with doubly labeled water (DLW). Ten-day free-living AEE was measured by a DLW protocol in 35 18- to 55-yr-old men (11 lean active; 12 lean sedentary; 12 overweight sedentary) wearing an Actiheart (combining ACC and HR) and a RT3 accelerometer. AEE was estimated using group or individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship, based on an exercise-tolerance test. In a subset (n = 21), AEE changes (ΔAEE) were measured after 1 mo of detraining (active subjects) or an 8-wk training (sedentary subjects). Actiheart-combined ACC/HR estimates were more accurate than estimates from HR or ACC alone. Accuracy of the Actiheart group-calibrated ACC/HR estimates was modest [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.62], with no bias but high root mean square error (RMSE) and limits of agreement (LOA). The mean bias of the estimates was reduced by one-third, like RMSE and LOA, by individual calibration (ICC = 0.81). Contrasting with group-calibrated estimates, the Actiheart individual-calibrated ACC/HR estimates explained 40% of the variance of the DLW-ΔAEE (ICC = 0.63). This study supports a good level of agreement between the Actiheart ACC/HR estimates and DLW-measured AEE in lean and overweight men with varying fitness levels. Individual calibration of the HR/AEE relationship is necessary for AEE estimations at an individual level rather than at group scale and for ΔAEE evaluation.

  10. Platelet activating factor-acylhydrolase (PAF-ase) activity is higher in serum of men than women and is related to levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)

    SciTech Connect

    Farr, R.S.; Howell, S.E.; Wardlow, M.L.

    1986-03-05

    PAF-ase is a specific serum enzyme that inactivates PAF by hydrolyzing acetate from the sn-2 position of the glycerol backbone. A reproducible PAF-ase activity assay was developed. A unit is based on the amount of serum required to release 3.61 +/- 0.042 pm /sup 3/H-acetate from 10 pm /sup 3/H-labeled PAF after incubation for 1 hr at 37/sup 0/C. Assays on two single reference serums repeated 7 days were 0.63 +/- 0.013 U and 1.33 +/- 0.031 U. Serum from 20 normal men and 20 normal premenopausal women had significantly different (p = <0.001) levels of 1.32 +/- 0.072 U and 0.97 +/- 0.051 U respectively. They previously reported that PAF-ase is associated with B-lipoprotein. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), LDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) were determined on these 40 serums. Regression analysis revealed PAF-ase units were correlated with LDL (r = 0.740; p = < 0.001) and, parenthetically, with the TC (r = 0.620; p = < 0.001) but not with HDL. These correlations were similar for men and women. Thus, serum PAF-ase was partially controlled by serum LDL levels and the higher PAF-ase levels in serum from men were due in part to higher (p = < 0.01) LDL levels in men (147.6 +/- 6.9 mg/dl) as contrasted to women (119.0 +/- 7.6 mg/dl). PAF is a potent inflammatory, bronchoconstrictive and hypotensive agent. These data indicate that sex and serum LDL levels of subjects must be considered during future studies of the role of PAF vs PAF-ase in different disease states.

  11. Replacement of dietary saturated fat with trans fat reduces serum paraoxonase activity in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    de Roos, Nicole M; Schouten, Evert G; Scheek, Leo M; van Tol, Arie; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high intake of saturated fat and of trans isomers of unsaturated fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recently, we found that replacement of saturated fat by trans fat in a dietary controlled study with 32 men and women decreased serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, suggesting that trans fats have stronger adverse effects than saturated fats. To investigate this further, we measured the activity of serum paraoxonase (PON1) in serum samples of the same volunteers after consumption of both diets. PON1 protects lipoproteins from oxidative damage, and higher PON1 activity appears to be related to lower cardiovascular disease risk. PON1 activity (mean +/- SD) was 195.9 +/- 108.9 U/L after 4 weeks of consuming a diet with 22.9% of energy (en%) from saturated fat and 184.5 +/- 99.3 U/L when 9.3 en% from saturated fat was replaced by trans fat (P =.006). Thus, replacement of dietary saturated fat by trans fat not only decreased serum HDL-cholesterol and impaired endothelial function, but also decreased the activity of serum paraoxonase. Whether the changes in serum paraoxonase activity caused the changes in endothelial function needs to be further investigated.

  12. The association between endogenous free testosterone and cognitive performance: a population-based study in 35 to 90 year-old men and women.

    PubMed

    Thilers, Petra P; Macdonald, Stuart W S; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-06-01

    The relationship between testosterone (T) and cognition has yielded conflicting evidence, showing both positive and negative influences of T on cognitive performance. The association between free testosterone (FT) and cognition was revisited in a large population-based sample of 1276 women and 1107 men (35-90 years of age), assessed individually on visuospatial, verbal fluency, semantic, and episodic memory tasks. For men, higher FT levels were associated with better visuospatial abilities, semantic memory, and episodic memory, with greater positive influence with increasing age. Statistical covariates included age, education, and select medications. For women, FT was negatively associated with verbal fluency, semantic memory, and episodic memory, although only verbal fluency was significant at conventional alpha levels. These results support the claim that FT exerts sex-specific influences on cognitive performance.

  13. What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know about Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC Fact Sheet: What Gay, Bisexual and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Need to Know About Sexually Transmitted Diseases Recommend ... an STD, sexually active gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) are at ...

  14. Higher skeletal muscle α2AMPK activation and lower energy charge and fat oxidation in men than in women during submaximal exercise

    PubMed Central

    Roepstorff, Carsten; Thiele, Maja; Hillig, Thore; Pilegaard, Henriette; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Kiens, Bente

    2006-01-01

    5′AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated by perturbed cellular energy status such as during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK is thought to regulate several key metabolic pathways. We used sex comparison to investigate whether AMPK signalling in skeletal muscle regulates fat oxidation during exercise. Moderately trained women and men completed 90 min bicycle exercise at 60% V̇O2peak. Both AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation and α2AMPK activity were increased by exercise in men (∼200%, P < 0.001) but not significantly in women. The sex difference in muscle AMPK activation with exercise was accompanied by an increase in muscle free AMP (∼164%, P < 0.01), free AMP/ATP ratio (159%, P < 0.05), and creatine (∼42%, P < 0.001) in men but not in women (NS), suggesting that lack of AMPK activation in women was due to better maintenance of muscle cellular energy balance compared with men. During exercise, fat oxidation per kg lean body mass was higher in women than in men (P < 0.05). Regression analysis revealed that a higher proportion of type 1 muscle fibres (∼23%, P < 0.01) and a higher capillarization (∼23%, P < 0.05) in women than in men could partly explain the sex difference in α2AMPK activity (r = −0.54, P < 0.05) and fat oxidation (r = 0.64, P < 0.05) during exercise. On the other hand, fat oxidation appeared not to be regulated via AMPK. In conclusion, during prolonged submaximal exercise at 60% V̇O2peak, higher fat oxidation in women cannot be explained by higher AMPK signalling but is accompanied by improved muscle cellular energy balance in women probably due to sex specific muscle morphology. PMID:16600998

  15. Memoir and performance: social change and self life-writing among men who are gay pornography producers and actors.

    PubMed

    Cohler, Bertram J

    2004-01-01

    Identity may be understood both as a life-story, either told or written as memoir or autobiography, and also as a practice such as producing or acting in gay pornographic film, but always within the context of social and historical change. Study of the memoirs of gay men who have been actors and/or producers of gay pornographic films across three generation cohorts provides an opportunity for understanding the interplay of social change and life circumstances in making gay identity. This perspective on identity is illustrated through the study of the memoirs of three men from different cohorts who have produced and acted in gay pornographic films: Wakefield Poole, born in 1936; Scott O'Hara, born in 1961; and Aaron Lawrence, born in 1971. Differences in style and content of both memoir and practice in gay pornographic films reflect changing social expectations regarding men who have sex with men following the emergence of the gay rights movement and the AIDS epidemic. PMID:15451702

  16. Serum Dioxin-like Activity Is Associated with Reproductive Parameters in Young Men from the General Flemish Population

    PubMed Central

    Dhooge, Willem; van Larebeke, Nicolas; Koppen, Gudrun; Nelen, Vera; Schoeters, Greet; Vlietinck, Robert; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Comhaire, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and some related environmental contaminants are aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) ligands that exert reproductive and developmental toxicity in laboratory animals. In humans, fertility-related effects are less documented. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dioxin-like biological activity in serum and parameters of reproductive status in men from the general population 5 months after a polychlorinated biphenyl and dioxin food-contamination episode in Belgium. Design In the framework of the cross-sectional Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS), we recruited 101 men 20–40 years of age and evaluated sperm parameters, measured sex hormones, and gathered information on a number of lifestyle factors. In addition, we determined the AhR-mediated enzymatic response elicited by individual serum samples and expressed it as TCDD equivalent concentrations (CALUX-TEQs) using an established transactivation assay. Results Age (p = 0.04) and the frequency of fish (p = 0.02) and egg (p = 0.001) consumption were independent positive determinants of serum dioxin-like activity. After correcting for possible confounders, we found that a 2-fold increase in CALUX-TEQ > 16 pg/L was associated with a 7.1% and 6.8% (both p = 0.04) decrease in total and free testosterone, respectively. We also observed a more pronounced drop in semen volume of 16.0% (p = 0.03), whereas sperm concentration rose by 25.2% (p = 0.07). No relationship was found with total sperm count or sperm morphology. Conclusions These data suggest an interaction of dioxin-like compounds with the secretory function of the seminal vesicles or prostate, possibly indirectly through an effect on testosterone secretion, at levels not affecting spermatogenesis as such. PMID:17107851

  17. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  18. Does neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  19. The Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 (MEN1) Tumor Suppressor Regulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Dependent Adipocyte Differentiation▿

    PubMed Central

    Dreijerink, Koen M. A.; Varier, Radhika A.; van Beekum, Olivier; Jeninga, Ellen H.; Höppener, Jo W. M.; Lips, Cornelis J. M.; Kummer, J. Alain; Kalkhoven, Eric; Timmers, H. T. Marc

    2009-01-01

    Menin, the product of the MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1) tumor suppressor gene, is involved in activation of gene transcription as part of an MLL1 (mixed-lineage leukemia 1)/MLL2 (KMT2A/B)-containing protein complex which harbors methyltransferase activity for lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). As MEN1 patients frequently develop lipomas and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is expressed in several MEN1-related tumor types, we investigated regulation of PPARγ activity by menin. We found that menin is required for adipocyte differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 cells and PPARγ-expressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Menin augments PPARγ target gene expression through recruitment of H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Menin interacts directly with the activation function 2 transcription activation domain of PPARγ in a ligand-independent fashion. Ligand-dependent coactivation, however, is dependent on the LXXLL motif of menin and the intact helix 12 of PPARγ. We propose that menin is an important factor in PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis and that loss of PPARγ function may contribute to lipoma development in MEN1 patients. PMID:19596783

  20. The multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) tumor suppressor regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dreijerink, Koen M A; Varier, Radhika A; van Beekum, Olivier; Jeninga, Ellen H; Höppener, Jo W M; Lips, Cornelis J M; Kummer, J Alain; Kalkhoven, Eric; Timmers, H T Marc

    2009-09-01

    Menin, the product of the MEN1 (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1) tumor suppressor gene, is involved in activation of gene transcription as part of an MLL1 (mixed-lineage leukemia 1)/MLL2 (KMT2A/B)-containing protein complex which harbors methyltransferase activity for lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). As MEN1 patients frequently develop lipomas and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is expressed in several MEN1-related tumor types, we investigated regulation of PPARgamma activity by menin. We found that menin is required for adipocyte differentiation of murine 3T3-L1 cells and PPARgamma-expressing mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Menin augments PPARgamma target gene expression through recruitment of H3K4 methyltransferase activity. Menin interacts directly with the activation function 2 transcription activation domain of PPARgamma in a ligand-independent fashion. Ligand-dependent coactivation, however, is dependent on the LXXLL motif of menin and the intact helix 12 of PPARgamma. We propose that menin is an important factor in PPARgamma-mediated adipogenesis and that loss of PPARgamma function may contribute to lipoma development in MEN1 patients.

  1. Anthropometric obesity indices in relation to age, educational level, occupation and physical activity in Bulgarian men.

    PubMed

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin

    2014-09-12

    Obesity indices. Anthropometry. Men. Factors. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el nivel de obesidad y su relación con la edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física en los hombres adultos búlgaros de zona urbana. Material y métodos: La muestra incluyó hombres 1010, de 18-50 años de edad, de la ciudad de Plovdiv, Bulgaria. El estudio se realizó en el período 2004-2008. Se midieron la circunferencia del cuerpo altura, peso y cintura. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen según los puntos de corte internacional de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La obesidad abdominal fue evaluar las categorías de relación de la altura de la cintura (CT). La edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física de cada persona se investigaron a través de la consulta. Para el análisis estadístico el SPSS paquete fue utilizado. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que 42,1% de los hombres investigados eran sobrepeso y 19,4% de ellos eran obesos. Con CT irregular y obesidad central fueron 66,1% de los casos. El porcentaje de hombres con obesidad general y central aumenta con la edad. En el caso de la obesidad central y general, las diferencias entre los trabajadores físicos e intelectuales son significación, incluso después de controlar la edad.CT tiene un mayor potencial para diferenciar las personas con diversas ocupaciones que BMI. La edad y la ocupación fueron los factores más importantes que afectan la obesidad general y abdominal. El nivel educativo tiene un impacto significativo en la acumulación de grasa abdominal.La conexión entre el nivel de actividad física e IMC y CT fue menor. Conclusiónes: El estudio encuentra que los hombres trabajan y viven en ese particular área urbana tienen diferencias significativas en términos de sobrepeso y obesidad. El nivel educativo, ocupación y edad tienen un potencial grave influenciado su estado nutricional del cuerpo.

  2. Physical activity when young provides lifelong benefits to cortical bone size and strength in men.

    PubMed

    Warden, Stuart J; Mantila Roosa, Sara M; Kersh, Mariana E; Hurd, Andrea L; Fleisig, Glenn S; Pandy, Marcus G; Fuchs, Robyn K

    2014-04-01

    The skeleton shows greatest plasticity to physical activity-related mechanical loads during youth but is more at risk for failure during aging. Do the skeletal benefits of physical activity during youth persist with aging? To address this question, we used a uniquely controlled cross-sectional study design in which we compared the throwing-to-nonthrowing arm differences in humeral diaphysis bone properties in professional baseball players at different stages of their careers (n = 103) with dominant-to-nondominant arm differences in controls (n = 94). Throwing-related physical activity introduced extreme loading to the humeral diaphysis and nearly doubled its strength. Once throwing activities ceased, the cortical bone mass, area, and thickness benefits of physical activity during youth were gradually lost because of greater medullary expansion and cortical trabecularization. However, half of the bone size (total cross-sectional area) and one-third of the bone strength (polar moment of inertia) benefits of throwing-related physical activity during youth were maintained lifelong. In players who continued throwing during aging, some cortical bone mass and more strength benefits of the physical activity during youth were maintained as a result of less medullary expansion and cortical trabecularization. These data indicate that the old adage of "use it or lose it" is not entirely applicable to the skeleton and that physical activity during youth should be encouraged for lifelong bone health, with the focus being optimization of bone size and strength rather than the current paradigm of increasing mass. The data also indicate that physical activity should be encouraged during aging to reduce skeletal structural decay.

  3. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and subclinical vascular disease: Cross-sectional study in older British men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Halcox, Julian P J; Smith, Kirsten E; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Low physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary time (ST) are associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older people. However, their independent contribution and importance of duration of PA and ST bouts remain unclear. We investigated associations between objectively measured PA, ST and non-invasive vascular measures, markers of CVD risk. Cross-sectional study of 1216 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.5years, measured in 2010-2012. Carotid intima thickness (CIMT), distensibility coefficient (DC) and plaque presence were measured using ultrasound; pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index (AIx) using a Vicorder. PA and ST were measured using hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. After adjusting for covariates, each additional 1000 steps per day was associated with a 0.038m/s lower cfPWV (95% CI=-0.076, 0.0003), 0.095 10(-3) kPa(-1) higher DC (95% CI=0.006, 0.185), 0.26% lower AIx (95% CI=-0.40, -0.12) and a 0.005mm lower CIMT (95% CI=-0.008, -0.001). Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower AIx and CIMT, light PA (LPA) with lower cfPWV and CIMT and ST with higher cfPWV, AIx and CIMT and lower DC. LPA and ST were highly correlated (r=-0.62). The independence of MVPA and ST or MVPA and LPA was inconsistent across vascular measures. Bout lengths for both PA and ST were not associated with vascular measures. In our cross-sectional study of older men, all PA regardless of intensity or bout duration was beneficially associated with vascular measures, as was lower ST. LPA was particularly relevant for cfPWV and CIMT. PMID:27261410

  4. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  5. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  6. Effect of facial cooling and cold air inhalation on sympathetic nerve activity in men.

    PubMed

    Heindl, Silke; Struck, Jan; Wellhöner, Peter; Sayk, Friedhelm; Dodt, Christoph

    2004-08-20

    In nine healthy subjects, cold stimuli were administered to the forehead and hand, to the oral and nasal cavities via ice cubes and to the bronchial system via inhalation of cold air (-25 degrees C). Blood pressure, heart rate and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from the peroneal nerve were recorded. MSNA expressed as total activity increased during cold air inhalation, cooling of the forehead (P < 0.001, ANOVA), hand and mouth (P < or = 0.05), paralleled by a rise in blood pressure during cold air inhalation and cooling of the forehead and hand (P < 0.01). Cooling of the forehead provoked a faster increase of MSNA expressed as total activity (P < 0.05) and higher levels of diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.05) compared with cooling of the hand. Bradycardia was observed only during cooling of the nasal cavity (P < 0.001) and the forehead (P < 0.05). It is concluded that cooling of the skin and mucous membranes of the tracheobronchial tract elicits sympathetically mediated hemodynamic adaptations, probably via stimulation of cold-sensitive afferents. PMID:15351305

  7. Influence of sleep on genioglossus muscle activation by negative pressure in normal men.

    PubMed

    Wheatley, J R; Mezzanotte, W S; Tangel, D J; White, D P

    1993-09-01

    An important mechanism controlling genioglossus (GG) muscle activity is the reflex response to negative airway pressure. We hypothesize that this reflex response may be lost during sleep and believe that this loss may be important in the pathogenesis of airway collapse during sleep. Thus, we determined the effect of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep on the GG electromyogram (EMG) response to brief (0.2 to 0.6 s) episodes of negative pressure generation (NPG) in the upper airway of six normal subjects. Up to 100 NPGs (mean 58 +/- 12) were recorded both awake and during stable NREM sleep. During wakefulness, the change in GG moving time average EMG from basal to peak levels (during NPG) was 17.1 +/- 2.5 au (a 154 +/- 22% increase above basal levels). This response was markedly reduced during NREM sleep (2.7 +/- 1.2 au; p < 0.01). The latency of the GG EMG response was 53.8 +/- 11.5 ms during wakefulness (n = 6), but much longer during sleep (132.7 +/- 24.5 ms; n = 3; p < 0.03). We conclude that in normal subjects (1) the GG muscle responds to negative airway pressure by reflex activation during wakefulness, and (2) this reflex activation is reduced or lost during NREM sleep. We speculate that loss of this mechanism during sleep may contribute to pharyngeal collapse in obstructive apnea patients.

  8. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  9. Muscle fiber conduction velocity and fractal dimension of EMG during fatiguing contraction of young and elderly active men.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Gennaro; Dardanello, Davide; Beretta-Piccoli, Matteo; Cescon, Corrado; Coratella, Giuseppe; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Barbero, Marco; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, linear and nonlinear surface electromyography (EMG) variables highlighting different components of fatigue have been developed. In this study, we tested fractal dimension (FD) and conduction velocity (CV) rate of changes as descriptors, respectively, of motor unit synchronization and peripheral manifestations of fatigue. Sixteen elderly (69  ±  4 years) and seventeen young (23  ±  2 years) physically active men (almost 3-5 h of physical activity per week) executed one knee extensor contraction at 70% of a maximal voluntary contraction for 30 s. Muscle fiber CV and FD were calculated from the multichannel surface EMG signal recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. The main findings were that the two groups showed a similar rate of change of CV, whereas FD rate of change was higher in the young than in the elderly group. The trends were the same for both muscles. CV findings highlighted a non-different extent of peripheral manifestations of fatigue between groups. Nevertheless, FD rate of change was found to be steeper in the elderly than in the young, suggesting a greater increase in motor unit synchronization with ageing. These findings suggest that FD analysis could be used as a complementary variable providing further information on central mechanisms with respect to CV in fatiguing contractions.

  10. High performance composites with active stiffness control.

    PubMed

    Tridech, Charnwit; Maples, Henry A; Robinson, Paul; Bismarck, Alexander

    2013-09-25

    High performance carbon fiber reinforced composites with controllable stiffness could revolutionize the use of composite materials in structural applications. Here we describe a structural material, which has a stiffness that can be actively controlled on demand. Such a material could have applications in morphing wings or deployable structures. A carbon fiber reinforced-epoxy composite is described that can undergo an 88% reduction in flexural stiffness at elevated temperatures and fully recover when cooled, with no discernible damage or loss in properties. Once the stiffness has been reduced, the required deformations can be achieved at much lower actuation forces. For this proof-of-concept study a thin polyacrylamide (PAAm) layer was electrocoated onto carbon fibers that were then embedded into an epoxy matrix via resin infusion. Heating the PAAm coating above its glass transition temperature caused it to soften and allowed the fibers to slide within the matrix. To produce the stiffness change the carbon fibers were used as resistance heating elements by passing a current through them. When the PAAm coating had softened, the ability of the interphase to transfer load to the fibers was significantly reduced, greatly lowering the flexural stiffness of the composite. By changing the moisture content in PAAm fiber coating, the temperature at which the PAAm softens and the composites undergo a reduction in stiffness can be tuned. PMID:23978266

  11. Influences of NREM sleep on the activity of tonic vs. inspiratory phasic muscles in normal men.

    PubMed

    Tangel, D J; Mezzanotte, W S; Sandberg, E J; White, D P

    1992-09-01

    Studies of sleep influences on human pharyngeal and other respiratory muscles suggest that the activity of these muscles may be affected by non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep in a nonuniform manner. This variable sleep response may relate to the pattern of activation of the muscle (inspiratory phasic vs. tonic) and peripheral events occurring in the airway. Furthermore, the ability of these muscles to respond to respiratory stimuli during NREM sleep may also differ. To systematically investigate the effect of NREM sleep on respiratory muscle activity, we studied two tonic muscles [tensor palatini (TP), masseter (M)] and two inspiratory phasic ones [genioglossus (GG), diaphragm (D)], also measuring the response of these muscles to inspiratory resistive loading (12 cmH2O.l-1.s) during wakefulness and NREM sleep. Seven normal male subjects were studied on a single night with intramuscular electrodes placed in the TP and GG and surface electrodes placed over the D and M. Sleep stage, inspiratory airflow, and moving time average electromyograph (EMG) of the above four muscles were continuously recorded. The EMG of both tonic muscles fell significantly (P less than 0.05) during NREM sleep [TP awake, 4.3 +/- 0.05 (SE) arbitrary units, stage 2, 1.1 +/- 0.2; stage 3/4, 1.0 +/- 0.2. Masseter awake, 4.8 +/- 0.6; stage 2, 3.3 +/- 0.5; stage 3/4, 3.1 +/- 0.5]. On the other hand, the peak phasic EMG of both inspiratory phasic muscles (GG and D) was well maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The

  13. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The

  14. The influence of breaststroke swimming on the muscle activity of young men in thermographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Jan; Rybarova, Silvie; Zacha, Dan; Bernacikova, Martina; Ramadan, Wael Awad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and assess energetic-metabolic activity of selected muscles of upper extremities and body during breaststroke swimming through infrared thermography as electromyography cannot display such muscle activity. Thermograms were taken of 25 students from the University of Defence immediately and 15 minutes after swimming 1,000 m focused on 20 regions of interest, i.e., corresponding to selected agonists and synergists in upper extremities and body. We used FLUKE TiR infrared hand camera. It was found that there is a significant increase (normalized units) 15 minutes after swimming in triceps brachii (on the right prior to swimming 0.950 and after swimming 0.994; on the left prior to swimming 0.947 and after 0.990), and in side, rear and front parts of the deltoid muscles. On the contrary, there was a significant relative decrease in temperature in pectoralis, rhombic and lower trapezius, erector spinae lumbalis and latissimus dorsi. It can be concluded that swimming 1,000 m breaststroke affected significant increase in the temperature of regions of interest, i.e., corresponding to agonists and synergists of upper extremities for the swimmer's forward motion. A relative decrease in temperature occurred rather in body muscles. The problem of biased results due to water cooling was solved by using thermograms taken only in the 15th minute after getting out of water and calculating relative temperatures with normalized units.

  15. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the... list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. (a) The manager will notify the...

  16. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the... list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. (a) The manager will notify the...

  17. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the... list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. (a) The manager will notify the...

  18. Using the PRECEDE Planning Approach to Develop a Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Visit Barbershops: Results From the FITShop Study.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sula; Linnan, Laura; Jolly, David; Muqueeth, Sadiya; Hall, Marla B; Dixon, Carrissa; Robinson, Seronda

    2015-07-01

    African American (AA) men have a higher prevalence of many chronic disease risk behaviors compared to Caucasian men, including physical inactivity. Innovative ways to reach AA men with interventions to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease other key risk factors are needed to reduce health disparities in this population. The barbershop is a natural but underutilized setting for reaching AA men. In the Fitness in the Shop (FITShop) study, shop owners, barbers, and customers were recruited from four local barbershops to complete structured interviews and customer focus groups. We assessed knowledge, perceived barriers, and interests/concerns about PA, as well as explored how to best intervene in the barbershop. Barbers and customers endorsed the idea of receiving health and PA information in the barbershop. These formative research results generated information and strategies for developing a multilevel barbershop-based health intervention to promote PA in the barbershop. This article describes the formative research results and how PRECEDE was used to develop a culturally and contextually appropriate, multilevel barbershop-based intervention designed to promote PA and to reduce chronic disease disparities among AA men.

  19. Perceived social pressures and the internalization of the mesomorphic ideal: The role of drive for muscularity and autonomy in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; Molnar, Gyozo; Markland, David

    2016-03-01

    We examined if there were both direct and indirect relationships (via the drive for muscularity) between the perceived pressure to be muscular and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, and if autonomy moderates these relationships in physically active men. A sample of 330 men, who were undergraduate students studying sport, completed the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, the Mesomorphic Ideal Internalization subscale of the revised male version Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire, the Perceived Sociocultural Pressure Scale-Modified, and the Drive for Muscularity Scale Attitudes subscale. Perceived pressure predicted internalization directly, and indirectly through the drive for muscularity. The direct relationship between pressure and internalization was weaker under higher levels of autonomy. The indirect path, via drive for muscularity, was stronger under higher levels of autonomy. These results provide insights into why men vary in the degree to which they internalize pressure to develop a mesomorphic ideal, supporting further examination of autonomy. PMID:26688273

  20. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; McCoy, Thomas P; Vissman, Aaron T; DiClemente, Ralph J; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R; Eng, Eugenia

    2011-11-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection.

  1. Diet and physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among urban Indian men and women.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Pritpal

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of diet and physical activity with metabolic syndrome (MS) was studied among 60 male and female (40-60 y) urban Indian MS patients. Intake of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits and milk were significantly (p ≤ .01) associated with reduced fat mass and waist circumference and increased lean body mass. Energy, carbohydrates, and fat intakes were significantly (p ≤ .01) correlated with increased body fat and waist circumference and reduced lean body mass. Energy, total and saturated fat intake were positively and significantly (p ≤ .05; .01) correlated with total cholesterol. Total fat was also significantly (p ≤ .05; .01) correlated with increased systolic blood pressure (r = 0.33), serum triglycerides (r = 0.33), LDL-C (r = 0.29) and VLDL-C (r = 0.28). Increased TDEE was significantly (p ≤ .01) associated with decreased body fat and waist circumference (r = 0.53 and 0.60) and increased lean body mass (r = 0.68).

  2. Of mice, rats, and men: could Nrf2 activation protect against aflatoxin heptocarcinogenesis in humans?

    PubMed

    Eaton, David L; Schaupp, Christopher M

    2014-07-01

    In this issue, Johnson and colleagues provide a remarkable demonstration of the potential for "chemoprevention" of cancer from mutagenic chemicals. The authors demonstrated complete protection of rats from a carcinogenic treatment regimen with the potent dietary mutagen and hepatocarcinogen, aflatoxin B1 (AFB) by pretreatment with a synthetic oleanane triterpenoid, 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im). This study is notable for two reasons: (i) Activation of the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE "antioxidant response" pathway by CDDO-Im conferred complete protection against AFB-induced hepatocellular carcinomas in the Fisher F344 rat (a strain frequently used in life-time carcinogenicity bioassays), and (ii) extensive AFB-DNA adduct formation was seen in all animals at early time points, including those treated with CDDO-Im, albeit at lower levels (∼30% of the untreated animals), suggesting a strong divergence in the association between early DNA-damaging events, and tumor formation later in life. The authors suggest that this provides compelling experimental support for the concept of carcinogenic "thresholds" for mutagenic chemicals, because the treatment reduced persistent, mutagenic adducts (AFB-FAPyr adducts) only by 70%, but nearly completely eliminated tumors after approximately 2 years and preneoplastic lesions 6 weeks after the last dose of AFB. PMID:24934619

  3. Refocusing HIV / AIDS interventions in Thailand: the case for male sex workers and other homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Mccamish, M; Storer, G; Carl, G

    2000-01-01

    Although studies have shown that male sex workers in Thailand are at increased risk of HIV infection, no sustained strategy have so far been directed towards homosexually active men in the country. This paper brings together data from qualitative research carried out in Pattaya and Bangkok, with data generated during a bar-based intervention in Bangkok, to develop a taxonomy of sites in which the recruitment of male commercial sex can occur. The researchers also examined the sexual networks of Thai male sex workers and their clients in order to show the overlap of commercial and non-commercial male-male sex sites, and the intersection of male commercial sex with heterosexual sex. Previous efforts directed towards Thai male sex workers have been non-continuous; largely restricted to high-profile tourist areas; have not acknowledged the importance of recreational sex; and have not built up a capacity for ongoing intervention. With a change of focus, interventions targeted at sex workers could reduce the risks of HIV infection among organized and freelance sex workers as well as their commercial and male and female casual sex partners. Foremost, however, is the need to commit to well planned and long range interventions directed by and at male sex workers. PMID:12295881

  4. American Literature: Performance Objectives and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Hope; And Others

    This guide is a sampler of ideas and activities based on 22 minimum objectives in speech, reading, writing, and research that have been identified for American literature study. Many of the activities involve an integration of several skills that are cross-referenced to other skills in the margins of the guide. A separate section on research…

  5. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  6. Performance evaluation of salivary amylase activity monitor.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Masaki; Kanemori, Takahiro; Kanemaru, Masashi; Takai, Noriyasu; Mizuno, Yasufumi; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2004-10-15

    In order to quantify psychological stress and to distinguish eustress and distress, we have been investigating the establishment of a method that can quantify salivary amylase activity (SMA). Salivary glands not only act as amplifiers of a low level of norepinephrine, but also respond more quickly and sensitively to psychological stress than cortisol levels. Moreover, the time-course changes of the salivary amylase activity have a possibility to distinguish eustress and distress. Thus, salivary amylase activity can be utilized as an excellent index for psychological stress. However, in dry chemistry system, a method for quantification of the enzymatic activity still needs to be established that can provide with sufficient substrate in a testing tape as well as can control enzymatic reaction time. Moreover, it is necessary to develop a method that has the advantages of using saliva, such as ease of collection, rapidity of response, and able to use at any time. In order to establish an easy method to monitor the salivary amylase activity, a salivary transcription device was fabricated to control the enzymatic reaction time. A fabricated salivary amylase activity monitor consisted of three devices, the salivary transcription device, a testing-strip and an optical analyzer. By adding maltose as a competitive inhibitor to a substrate Ga1-G2-CNP, a broad-range activity testing-strip was fabricated that could measure the salivary amylase activity with a range of 0-200 kU/l within 150 s. The calibration curve of the monitor for the salivary amylase activity showed R2=0.941, indicating that it was possible to use this monitor for the analysis of the salivary amylase activity without the need to determine the salivary volume quantitatively. In order to evaluate the assay variability of the monitor, salivary amylase activity was measured using Kraepelin psychodiagnostic test as a psychological stressor. A significant difference of salivary amylase activity was recognized

  7. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been given to coconut water, a natural alternative to manufactured sport drinks, with initial evidence indicating efficacy with regard to maintaining hydration. We compared coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Methods Following a 60-minute bout of dehydrating treadmill exercise, 12 exercise-trained men (26.6 ± 5.7 yrs) received bottled water (BW), pure coconut water (VitaCoco®: CW), coconut water from concentrate (CWC), or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink (SD) [a fluid amount based on body mass loss during the dehydrating exercise] on four occasions (separated by at least 5 days) in a random order, single blind (subject and not investigators), cross-over design. Hydration status (body mass, fluid retention, plasma osmolality, urine specific gravity) and performance (treadmill time to exhaustion; assessed after rehydration) were determined during the recovery period. Subjective measures of thirst, bloatedness, refreshed, stomach upset, and tiredness were also determined using a 5-point visual analog scale. Results Subjects lost approximately 1.7 kg (~2% of body mass) during the dehydrating exercise and regained this amount in a relatively similar manner following consumption of all conditions. No differences were noted between coconut water (CW or CWC) and SD for any measures of fluid retention (p > 0.05). Regarding exercise performance, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted between BW (11.9 ± 5.9 min), CW (12.3 ± 5.8 min), CWC (11.9 ± 6.0 min), and SD (12.8 ± 4.9 min). In general, subjects reported feeling more bloated and experienced greater stomach upset with the CW and CWC conditions. Conclusion All tested beverages are capable of

  8. Statistical Performances of Resistive Active Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalléchère, Sébastien; Ravelo, Blaise; Thakur, Atul

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and sensitivity analysis of an active power splitter (PWS) is proposed. It is based on the active cell composed of a Field Effect Transistor in cascade with shunted resistor at the input and the output (resistive amplifier topology). The PWS uncertainty versus resistance tolerances is suggested by using stochastic method. Furthermore, with the proposed topology, we can control easily the device gain while varying a resistance. This provides useful tool to analyse the statistical sensitivity of the system in uncertain environment.

  9. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  10. Effects of balance training by knee joint motions on muscle activity in adult men with functional ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seung-min; Kim, Won-bok; Yun, Chang-kyo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of balance training by applying knee joint movements on muscle activity in male adults with functional ankle instability. [Subjects and Methods] 28 adults with functional ankle instability, divided randomly into an experimental group, which performed balance training by applying knee joint movements for 20 minutes and ankle joint exercises for 10 minutes, and a control group, which performed ankle joint exercise for 30 minutes. Exercises were completed three times a week for 8 weeks. Electromyographic values of the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles were obtained to compare and analyze muscle activity before and after the experiments in each group. [Results] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, and lateral gastrocnemius muscles, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis increased without significance. The control group had significant increases in muscle activity in the tibialis anterior and peroneus longus, while muscle activity in the peroneus brevis and lateral gastrocnemius muscles increased without significance. [Conclusion] In conclusion, balance training by applying knee joint movements can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with functional ankle instability. PMID:27313386

  11. The Influence of Age of Onset and Acute Anabolic Steroid Exposure on Cognitive Performance, Impulsivity, and Aggression in Men

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Langenbucher, James W.; Flores, Adrianne; Harty, Seth; Berlin, Heather A.

    2014-01-01

    A growing translational literature suggests that adolescent exposure to anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) leads to increased aggression and impulsivity. However, little is known about the cognitive effects of AASs among AAS users or the differences between adolescent and adult onset users. This study provides a test of the effects of acute naturalistic AAS use and age of onset (adolescent vs. adult) on measures of inhibitory control, planning and attention, and decision making. Seventy one active adult male AAS uses completed self-report measures of impulsivity and aggress and a subsample (11 adolescent onset vs. 11 adult onset) matched on current age were administered four computerized test from the CANTAB battery and the Iowa Gambling Task. Multiple regression analyses and a series of 2 (Adolescent vs. Adult) X 2 (On-cycle vs. Off-cycle) analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were used to examine the differential effects of age of onset and acute drug use on cognition and behavior. Regression analyses revealed larger on-cycle effects for adolescent users than adult users. Subsample analyses indicated that on-cycle users performed less well on cognitive measures of inhibitory control and attention, but not on tests of planning or decision making. Adolescent onset was associated with a greater impulsivity and a greater acute sensitivity to AAS effects on attention. These preliminary findings suggest the possibility that acute AAS use is associated with some differences in inhibitory control and impulsivity and to a lesser degree aggression. These effects may be more potent for those initiating AAS use in adolescence. PMID:24841181

  12. Differences in game-related statistics of basketball performance by game location for men's winning and losing teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel A; Lorenzo, Alberto; Barakat, Rubén; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify game-related statistics that differentiate winning and losing teams according to game location. The sample included 306 games of the 2004-2005 regular season of the Spanish professional men's league (ACB League). The independent variables were game location (home or away) and game result (win or loss). The game-related statistics registered were free throws (successful and unsuccessful), 2- and 3-point field goals (successful and unsuccessful), offensive and defensive rebounds, blocks, assists, fouls, steals, and turnovers. Descriptive and inferential analyses were done (one-way analysis of variance and discriminate analysis). The multivariate analysis showed that winning teams differ from losing teams in defensive rebounds (SC = .42) and in assists (SC = .38). Similarly, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play at home in defensive rebounds (SC = .40) and in assists (SC = .41). On the other hand, winning teams differ from losing teams when they play away in defensive rebounds (SC = .44), assists (SC = .30), successful 2-point field goals (SC = .31), and unsuccessful 3-point field goals (SC = -.35). Defensive rebounds and assists were the only game-related statistics common to all three analyses.

  13. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5).

  14. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5). PMID:25844573

  15. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  16. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.

    2009-01-01

    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  17. The association between leisure time physical activity and coronary heart disease among men with different physical work demands: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Janssens, Heidi; De Clercq, Bart; Casini, Annalisa; Braeckman, Lutgart; Kittel, France; De Backer, Guy; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    The interplay of occupational and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in affecting cardiovascular health is subject to debate. This study aimed to examine the independent and interacting associations of leisure time and occupational physical activity (OPA) with the incidence of coronary events within the BELSTRESS cohort. The study included 14,337 middle-aged men free from coronary heart disease at baseline. Standardized questionnaires and clinical examinations were used to assess socio-demographic factors, level of physical activity, job strain and classical coronary risk factors. The incidence of clinical coronary events was monitored during a mean follow-up time of 3.15 years. Results demonstrated overall a beneficial relation of LTPA and an adverse relation of physical work demands with cardiovascular health. However, an interaction effect between both physical activity types was observed, showing that men with high physical job demands who also engaged in physical activity during leisure time had an almost four times increased incidence of coronary events after adjusting for socio-demographic and classical coronary risk factors (HR 3.82; 95% CI 1.41-10.36). Stratified analyses revealed that moderate to high physical activity during leisure time was associated with a 60% reduced incidence rate of coronary events in men with low OPA (age adjusted HR 0.40; 95% CI 0.21-0.76), while this protective association was not observed in workers being exposed to high physical work demands (age adjusted HR 1.67; 95% CI 0.63-4.48). These findings suggest that recommendations regarding LTPA should be tailored according to the level of occupational physical activity.

  18. A Minority Stress – Emotion Regulation Model of Sexual Compulsivity among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Pachankis, John E.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Restar, Arjee; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual compulsivity represents a significant public health concern among gay and bisexual men given its co-occurrence with other mental health problems and HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to examine a model of sexual compulsivity based on minority stress theory and emotion regulation models of mental health among gay and bisexual men. Method Gay and bisexual men in New York City reporting at least nine past-90-day sexual partners (n = 374) completed measures of distal minority stressors (i.e., boyhood gender nonconformity and peer rejection, adulthood perceived discrimination), hypothesized proximal minority stress mediators (i.e., rejection sensitivity, internalized homonegativity), hypothesized universal mediators (i.e., emotion dysregulation, depression and anxiety), and sexual compulsivity. Results The hypothesized model fit the data well (RMSEA = 0.05, CFI = 0.98, TLI = 0.95, SRMR = 0.03). Distal minority stress processes (e.g., peer rejection) were generally found to confer risk for both proximal minority stressors (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and emotion dysregulation. Proximal minority stressors and emotion dysregulation, in turn, generally predicted sexual compulsivity both directly and indirectly through anxiety and depression. Conclusions The final model suggests that gay-specific (e.g., internalized homonegativity) and universal (e.g., emotion dysregulation) processes represent potential treatment targets to attenuate the impact of minority stress on gay and bisexual men's sexual health. Tests of interventions that address these targets to treat sexual compulsivity among gay and bisexual men represent a promising future research endeavor. PMID:25528179

  19. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  20. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P < .005) to DEXA total and abdominal fat and MRI visceral fat in both genders. Log IAUPGH was inversely related to visceral fat in women (P < .005) and men (P < .0001), but was not significantly related to total fat in either gender. In women, log IAUPGH was related inversely to total and LDL cholesterol and positively to HDL cholesterol (P < .008). In men, log IAUPGH was inversely related to total cholesterol and triglycerides (P < .005). In women, HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P < .005). In men, triglycerides were positively related (P < .001) to the WHR and DEXA abdominal and MRI visceral fat. Multivariate regression revealed log IAUPGH, but not DEXA total body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P < .001 for women and P = .01 for men) and LDL (P < .007 and P = .05) cholesterol in both sexes and of HDL cholesterol (P < .005) and triglycerides (P < .03) in women. Log IAUPGH, but not DEXA abdominal fat, was related to total (P < .005 and P < .03) and LDL (P < .03 and P = .05) cholesterol in both genders and to HDL in women (P < .05). Log IAUPGH, but not

  1. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  2. Psychometric Performance of a Novel Measure of Social Support among Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Latino Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Paul A.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    Social support is protective for a variety of health outcomes, and individuals living outside their country of origin ("sojourners") might use social support in distinctive ways. The authors performed a confirmatory factor analysis of the 18-item Index of Sojourner Social Support (ISSS) using data obtained from 190 Spanish-speaking immigrant…

  3. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  4. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread.

  5. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  6. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-05-11

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals.

  7. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  8. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan C; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  9. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948

  10. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  11. Men's reproductive and sexual health.

    PubMed

    Forrest, K A

    2001-05-01

    A broad definition of men's reproductive and sexual health (MRSH) includes medical (pathophysiological) matters such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), developmental anomalies, malignancy, trauma, and infertility. It also includes psychosocial concerns: sexuality, contraception, disease prophylaxis, developmental and lifecycle issues, tobacco and drug use, sexual identity and orientation, and partnership issues. College men, of whom a large majority are sexually active, have a range of MRSH needs, including some that are particular to their age and social environment. To reach men effectively requires approaches that are somewhat different from those used with women. Clinicians in college health services are in an excellent position to help young men recognize the importance of reproductive health and sexual responsibility. College health services therefore should offer men screening; clinical diagnosis and treatment for MRSH conditions; and information, education, and counseling services, in a manner designed to meet their unique needs. PMID:11413943

  12. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning. PMID:25676856

  13. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.001) when compared to their white counterparts. In black women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when compared to white women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population. PMID:26990726

  14. Time to pay attention: attentional performance time-stamped prefrontal cholinergic activation, diurnality and performance

    PubMed Central

    Paolone, Giovanna; Lee, Theresa M.; Sarter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Although the impairments in cognitive performance that result from shifting or disrupting daily rhythms have been demonstrated, the neuronal mechanisms that optimize fixed time daily performance are poorly understood. We previously demonstrated that daily practice of a sustained attention task (SAT) evokes a diurnal activity pattern in rats. Here we report that SAT practice at a fixed time produced practice time-stamped increases in prefrontal cholinergic neurotransmission that persisted after SAT practice was terminated and in a different environment. SAT time-stamped cholinergic activation occurred irrespective of whether the SAT was practiced during the light or dark phase or in constant light conditions. In contrast, prior daily practice of an operant schedule of reinforcement, albeit generating more rewards and lever presses per session than the SAT, neither activated the cholinergic system nor affected the animals' nocturnal activity pattern. Likewise, food-restricted animals exhibited strong food anticipatory activity (FAA) and attenuated activity during the dark period but FAA was not associated with increases in prefrontal cholinergic activity. Removal of cholinergic neurons impaired SAT performance and facilitated the reemergence of nocturnality. Shifting SAT practice away from a fixed time resulted in significantly lower performance. In conclusion, these experiments demonstrated that fixed time, daily practice of a task assessing attention generates a precisely practice time-stamped activation of the cortical cholinergic input system. Time-stamped cholinergic activation benefits fixed time performance and, if practiced during the light phase, contributes to a diurnal activity pattern. PMID:22933795

  15. The repeatability and criterion related validity of the 20 m multistage fitness test as a predictor of maximal oxygen uptake in active young men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, S; Baker, J; Tong, R; Roberts, E; Hanford, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repeatability and criterion related validity of the 20 m multistage fitness test (MFT) for predicting maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max) in active young men. Methods: Data were gathered from two phases using 30 subjects (±s; age = 21.8±3.6 years, mass = 76.9±10.7 kg, stature = 1.76±0.05 m). MFT repeatability was investigated in phase 1 where 21 subjects performed the test twice. The MFT criterion validity to predict Vo2max was investigated in phase 2 where 30 subjects performed a continuous incremental laboratory test to volitional exhaustion to determine Vo2max and the MFT. Results: Phase 1 showed non-significant bias between the two applications of the MFT (diff±sdiff = –0.4±1.4 ml kg–1 min–1; t = –1.37, p = 0.190) with 95% limits of agreement (LoA) ±2.7 ml kg–1 min–1 and heteroscedasticity 0.223 (p = 0.330). Log transformation of these data reduced heteroscedasticity to 0.056 (p = 0.808) with bias –0.007±0.025 (t = –1.35, p = 0.190) and LoA±0.049. Antilogs gave a mean bias on the ratio scale of 0.993 and random error (ratio limits) x/÷1.050. Phase 2 showed that the MFT significantly underpredicted Vo2max (diff±sdiff = 1.8±3.2 ml kg–1 min–1; t = 3.10, p = 0.004). LoA were ±6.3 ml kg–1 min–1 and heteroscedasticity 0.084 (p = 0.658). Log transformation reduced heteroscedasticity to –0.045 (p = 0.814) with LoA±0.110. The significant systematic bias was not eliminated (diff±sdiff = 0.033±0.056; t = 3.20, p = 0.003). Antilogs gave a mean bias of 1.034 with random errorx/÷1.116. Conclusions: These findings lend support to previous investigations of the MFT by identifying that in the population assessed it provides results that are repeatable but it routinely underestimates Vo2max when compared to laboratory determinations. Unlike previous findings, however, these results show that when applying an arguably more appropriate analysis method, the MFT does not provide valid predictions of Vo2max. PMID

  16. [Sexual behaviors and practices of men who have sex with men].

    PubMed

    Lima, Diego Jorge Maia; de Paula, Priscila Fontenele; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Lessa, Paula Renata Amorim; de Moraes, Maria Leonor Costa; Cunha, Denise de Fátima Fernandes; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to identify behaviors and sexual practices of men who have sexual relations with other men in the context of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory and descriptive study. It was carried out in a gay sociability place in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, between November 2010 and March 2011, through interviews with 189 men who have sex with men. The ethical aspects were respected. We found a sample consisting mostly by young, single, and highly educated men. The sexual history demonstrated the early onset of sexual activity, with a high prevalence of sexual intercourse with a partner of the opposite sex. There was also a high prevalence of HIV testing. Sexual practices revealed high prevalence of performing oral and anal sex, as well as high levels of protection in anal sex, despite the low protection in oral sex. A greater incorporation of prevention practices was found compared to the national scene in the beginning of the disease outbreak. PMID:25590877

  17. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  18. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Silva, J Padmaka; Gunathunga, M W; Jayasinghe, S

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread. PMID:26489433

  19. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  20. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  1. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  2. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kuhman, Daniel J.; Joyner, Keanan J.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood. PMID:26610558

  3. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel J; Joyner, Keanan J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2015-11-19

    Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood.

  4. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel J; Joyner, Keanan J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood. PMID:26610558

  5. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  6. The effects of a unilateral gluteal activation protocol on single leg drop jump performance.

    PubMed

    Healy, Robin; Harrison, Andrew J

    2014-03-01

    Warm-up protocols are commonly used to acutely enhance the performance of dynamic activities. This study examined the acute effect of low-load gluteal exercises on the biomechanics of single-leg drop jumps. Eight men and seven women (18-22 years old) performed 10 single-leg drop jumps on three separate days. The gluteal exercises were performed within the warm-up on day 2. Contact time, flight time, peak vertical ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development, vertical leg-spring stiffness, and reactive strength index were determined. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine differences on all variables across days. Significant differences were found for contact time, peak GRF, and flight time between days 1 and 2 and for flight time between days 1 and 3 (p < or = 0.05) with no significant difference in any variables between days 2 and 3. This suggested that the improvements in day 2 were due to practice effects rather than the gluteal activation exercises. In addition, a typical error analysis was used to determine individual responses to the gluteal exercises. The results using this analysis showed no discernible response pattern of enhancement or fatigue for any participant. PMID:24968509

  7. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  8. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.

    PubMed

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S

    1999-10-15

    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  9. Physical activity and implications on well-being in mild Alzheimer's disease: A qualitative case study on two men with dementia and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Cedervall, Ylva; Aberg, Anna Cristina

    2010-05-01

    To improve the understanding of experiences of people with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their significant others, related to the physical activity of the afflicted persons and its perceived importance. A qualitative case study design was used. The study comprised two men with mild AD and their wives. Data were collected by qualitative interviews and participant observations. Data analysis followed a thematic guideline as described by Braun and Clarke ( 2006 ). Three central themes of experiences related to physical activity in AD were identified: 1) physical activity as health reinforcement; 2) barriers to physical activity; and 3) adaptation strategies. Important motivations for outdoor walks were enjoyable experiences of nature, body movement, and positive attitudes toward physical activity. Several factors were experienced as barriers to physical activity (e.g., tiredness, difficulties in finding one's way, and "peculiar behavior"). Significant others made considerable adjustments in everyday life to enable their partners to retain a physically active lifestyle. The findings indicate that in persons with AD, physical activities such as outdoor walking can play an important part in everyday life by creating meaningful routines and improving experienced well-being and health.

  10. Serum hepatic enzyme activity in relation to semen quality and serum reproductive hormone levels among Estonian fertile Men.

    PubMed

    Ehala-Aleksejev, K; Punab, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations of basic semen parameters and reproductive hormones with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). In addition, to examine possible interaction between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and liver tests in relation to male reproductive health, standard semen analysis was performed and serum levels of reproductive hormones and liver tests were measured in 245 male partners of pregnant women at a University Hospital Andrology Centres in Estonia. Quartile analysis revealed that after adjustment for covariates GGT was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. These significant changes appeared from a GGT >35.5 U/L. Next to these changes ALT was not related to sperm parameters. Both enzymes, GGT and ALT, were not related to reproductive hormones. Alcohol consumption was positively related to GGT and in cases with elevated GGT alcohol use was negatively related to sperm concentration and total sperm count. Alcohol consumption was positively related to body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Our findings also confirm results of previous studies that BMI and WC are associated positively with ALT and GGT. According to the study, increased GGT activity might represent a possible connection between adiposity, alcohol consumption, and semen quality.

  11. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer,'' to be held December 5-7, 2011, in the... cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. It...

  12. Aerodynamic Performance of Electro-Active Membrane Wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbu, Ioan-Alexandru; de Kat, Roeland; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram

    2014-11-01

    Electro-active polymers offer due to their multivariate compliant nature a great potential for integrating the lift producing system and the control system into one. This work presents the first step in describing both the mechanical and aerodynamic performance of such materials and focuses on both understanding their behaviour in aerodynamic applications and on analysing their aerodynamic performance. Photogrammetry and load measurements are conducted in a wind tunnel for both silicone-based and acrylic-based membranes at zero prestrain supported in a perimeter reinforced frame in electrically passive, active and pulsing conditions. A wide range of fixed voltages and pulsing frequencies are considered. Due to their hyper-viscoelastic nature, both short and long term hysteresis analysis are conducted in terms of aerodynamic performance. Along with these tests, analyses of the effects of the percentage electrode area and silicone content on aerodynamic performance are conducted.

  13. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  14. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  15. Electroencephalogram associations to cognitive performance in clinically active nurses.

    PubMed

    Lees, Ty; Khushaba, Rami; Lal, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is traditionally identified via cognitive screening tools that have limited ability in detecting early or transitional stages of impairment. The dynamic nature of physiological variables such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) may provide alternate means for detecting these transitions. However, previous research examining EEG and cognitive performance is largely confined to samples with diagnosed cognitive impairments, and research examining non-impaired, and occupation specific samples, is limited. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between frontal pole and central EEG and cognitive performance in a sample of male and female nurses, and to determine the significance of these associations. Fifty seven nurses participated in the study, in which two lead bipolar EEG was recorded at positions Fp1 (frontal polar), Fp2, C3 (central) and C4 during a baseline and an active phase involving the common neuropsychological Stroop test. Participants' cognitive performance was assessed using the mini-mental state exam (MMSE) and Cognistat screening tools. Significant correlations between EEG beta activity and the outcome of MMSE and Cognistat were revealed, where an increased beta activity was associated to an increased global cognitive performance. Additionally, domain specific cognitive performance was also significantly associated to various EEG variables. The study identified potential EEG biomarkers for global and domain specific cognitive performance, and provides initial groundwork for the development of future EEG based biomarkers for detection of cognitive pathologies. PMID:27244262

  16. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  17. A relative profile of HIV-negative users of French websites for men seeking men and predictors of their regular risk taking: a comparison with HIV-positive users.

    PubMed

    Leobon, Alain; Velter, Annie; Engler, Kim; Drouin, Marie-Claude; Otis, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    The Net Gay Barometre is a biennial survey among users of France's most popular websites for men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the recent increases in HIV infection and sexual risk practices among French MSM, this study aims to: (1) create a socio-sexual profile of HIV-negative men (HIV-); (2) identify predictors of regular unprotected anal intercourse (RUAI) in this group, and responding to a call for stratifying analyses of online samples of MSM by HIV status; and (3) perform the former two aims by comparing HIV- men with HIV-positive men (HIV+). Statistical analyses were conducted with 11,771 HIV- men and 2130 HIV+ men who completed the online survey between December 2008 and March 2009. Regarding the first aim, fewer HIV- men, relative to HIV+ men, were exposed to factors conducive to sexually transmitted infection; in the previous 12 months, smaller proportions of this group had gone to venues where sexual encounters were possible, engaged in an esoteric sexual activity, had a high number of casual partners, and practiced unprotected anal sex, RUAI or barebacking. However, multivariate regression analyses identifying predictors of RUAI in each group revealed common predictors: sensation-seeking, esoteric activities, oral contact with sperm, and barebacking (in a couple), although odds were generally higher in HIV+ men. Our findings raise the possibility of a sexual culture accentuating pleasure and adventurism that may gain in amplitude once seroconversion takes place. PMID:21218274

  18. Optimal cutoff values of waist circumference and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices to detect the clustering of cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women

    PubMed Central

    Nanri, Hinako; Hara, Megumi; Higaki, Yasuki; Imaizumi, Takeshi; Taguchi, Naoto; Sakamoto, Tatsuhiko; Horita, Mikako; Shinchi, Koichi; Tanaka, Keitaro

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the pertinent cutoffs of waist circumference (WC) and the discriminatory performance of other anthropometric indices to detect clustering cardiovascular risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Japan, where the current WC cutoffs for MetS (85 cm for men and 90 cm for women) remain controversial. Methods We analyzed the baseline data from 844 subjects (330 men and 514 women) aged 40–69 years who participated in a cohort study in Saga city, Japan, between November 2005 and December 2007. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were performed to find an appropriate cutoff (defined as the point nearest to the upper left corner of the ROC curve) of each anthropometric index for the presence of multiple risk factors among dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia [which was defined as hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels at and above 5.2, 5.5, or 5.8%, values approximately corresponding to fasting plasma glucose levels of 100, 110, and 120 mg/dL, respectively]. Results The optimal WC cutoff was 88 cm (sensitivity 60%, specificity 70%) for men and 82 cm (sensitivity 78%, specificity 62%) for women; changing the HbA1c cutoff affected the results in women only (~85 cm). For the currently defined WC cutoffs in Japan, specificity was low (53–57%) in men, whereas sensitivity was very low (32–42%) in women. Body mass index, proportion of body fat, waist-to-height ratio, and waist-to-hip ratio showed area under the curve values similar to that of WC. Conclusion The current Japanese criteria of WC for MetS may be low for men and too high and insensitive for women in our study population. Other anthropometric indices such as waist-to-height ratio did not confer an improved discriminatory performance compared with WC. PMID:21432217

  19. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb. PMID:27405970

  20. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb.

  1. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and randomly…

  2. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  3. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  4. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. PMID:26416708

  5. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women.

  6. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives. PMID:26281958

  7. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  8. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier. PMID:27593883

  9. Delta Activity at Sleep Onset and Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Makoto; Beaudreau, Sherry A.; Gould, Christine E.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Jordan, Josh T.; O'Hara, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) has long been considered to be an abnormal variant in the electroencephalogram (EEG) among older adults. Prior work also indicates a predominance of slow wave EEG activity among patients with dementia. However, instability of state control occurring with aging generally and among many neurodegenerative diseases raises the possibility that FIRDA might represent the intrusion of sleep related elements of the EEG into the waking state. We examined delta activity at sleep onset (DASO) in community-dwelling, older adults without dementia, and examined whether this activity is related to poorer cognitive performance. Methods: 153 community-dwelling, older adults without dementia underwent overnight polysomnography and measures of global cognition, delayed verbal memory, information processing speed, attention, inhibition, verbal naming, and visuospatial ability. Delta activity during sleep/wake transitions (scored either as Waking or N1) was analyzed visually. Results: Participants were 83 women and 70 men, mean age 71.3 ± 0.6 y. DASO was present in 30 participants (19.6%). Age, years of education, sex, and body mass index did not differ between DASO (+) and (−) groups. Multiple regression analyses indicated faster reading of the Stroop color words in DASO (+) subjects (P = 0.007). None of the other cognitive domains differed between the two groups. Conclusions: DASO was relatively common in our sample of community-dwelling, older adults without dementia. DASO was not associated with poorer performance on any cognitive domain. Instead, individuals with DASO demonstrated better performance on a simple reading task. Although these findings suggest that an abnormal EEG activity may represent normal variation, our work underscores the importance of distinguishing DASO from FIRDA when examining sleep in older adults. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 725. Citation

  10. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  11. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  12. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  13. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  14. Flight test and performance of a nongated active television system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Kelly, John M.; Ehlen, Jon

    1999-07-01

    A series of helicopter flight tests were conducted to test the feasibility and assess the performance of a gimbaled active television system and co-located IR system. The laser light was provided to the gimbal via a fiber optic cable from a remote semiconductor laser. A high power, divergent beam was used to illuminate a scene providing enhanced performance in poor weather, the recording of registry and augmentation to existing night vision devices. The flight tests were conducted in clear-weather conditions over land and water. Additionally, a series of ground test were conducted.

  15. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Farrell, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  16. APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  17. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  18. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week−1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week−1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent “factor” describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week−1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10–15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  19. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations. PMID:27529339

  20. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  1. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    PubMed

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (p<0.05, 0.005, and 0.01, respectively) during testosterone replacement compared with the induced hypogonadal condition (leuprolide plus placebo); cortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (p<0.1). Paradoxically, CRH-stimulated corticotropin (ACTH) was increased significantly during testosterone replacement (p<0.05). The cortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (p<0.1). A mixed effects regression model showed that testosterone but not estradiol or CBG significantly contributed to the variance of cortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  2. Changes in Familiarity with and Willingness to Take Preexposure Prophylaxis in a Longitudinal Study of Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H.F.; Ventuneac, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: For gay and bisexual men (GBM), research suggests that familiarity with preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been increasing since being approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2012. However, it is less clear how willingness to start using PrEP has changed over time. Likewise, some have expressed concerns regarding the potential for risk compensation (i.e., reduced condom use) were one to start PrEP; however, again, it is unclear how risk compensation may have changed over time. Methods: We conducted baseline and 12-month assessments with 158 highly sexually active HIV-negative GBM in New York City who were assessed between 2011 and 2014. We examined change over time both between participants (based on when they entered the study), as well as within each participant (over the 12 months of his involvement). Results: Familiarity with PrEP increased over time (both between and within participants); however, willingness to take PrEP did not change (neither between nor within participants). Few men believed taking PrEP would cause their condomless anal sex (CAS) to increase and this did not change over time. However, a majority believed PrEP would increase temptation for CAS, and this did not change over time within participants. Sexual compulsivity symptomology was associated with higher willingness to take PrEP and perceiving that PrEP would increase one's temptations for CAS. Furthermore, recent CAS was associated with greater willingness to take PrEP, a perception that PrEP would increase one's likelihood to engage in CAS, and a perception that being on PrEP would increase one's temptation for CAS. Conclusions: Participants became more familiar with PrEP over time; however, willingness to start PrEP did not change, and this may serve as an opportunity for providers to discuss PrEP with their patients. Men who engaged in CAS were interested in PrEP and preexisting patterns of sexual behavior may be the primary determinant of CAS

  3. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  4. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  5. Impact of Four Weeks of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Muscular Strength, Body Composition, and Anabolic Hormones in Resistance-Trained Young Men.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Vince C; Allman, Brittany R; Kinsey, Amber W; Moffatt, Robert J; Hickner, Robert C; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Although multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have increased in popularity because of their array of ergogenic ingredients, their efficacy and safety remain in question. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of supplementation with T+ (SUP; Onnit Labs, Austin, TX, USA), an MIPS containing long jack root, beta-alanine, and branched-chain amino acids, and other proprietary blends, on strength, body composition, and hormones in young resistance-trained men. Subjects were randomized to consume either T+ (SUP; n = 14; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 18.3 ± 4.7%) or an isocaloric placebo (PL; n = 13; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 21.5 ± 6.2%) for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent a progressive, 4-week high-intensity resistance training protocol. Before and after the training protocol, mood state, body composition, blood hormones (also collected at midpoint), and maximal strength were measured. SUP had significantly greater increases in bench press (SUP, 102 ± 16 kg to 108 ± 16 kg vs. PL, 96 ± 22 kg to 101 ± 22 kg; p < 0.001) and total weight lifted (SUP, 379 ± 59 kg to 413 ± 60 kg vs. PL, 376 ± 70 kg to 400 ± 75 kg; p < 0.001) compared with PL. Additionally, deadlift strength relative to total body mass (calculated as weight lifted/body mass; kg:kg) (2.08 ± 0.18 to 2.23 ± 0.16; p = 0.036) and lean mass (2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.021) increased significantly in SUP but not PL (2.02 ± 0.30 to 2.15 ± 0.36 and 2.56 ± 0.31 to 2.70 ± 0.36, respectively). No other significant differences were detected between groups for the remaining variables. Supplementing with SUP enhanced resistance training adaptations independent of hormonal status, and thus SUP use may warrant inclusion into peri-workout nutrition regimens. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01971723). PMID:26595135

  6. Impact of Four Weeks of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Muscular Strength, Body Composition, and Anabolic Hormones in Resistance-Trained Young Men.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Vince C; Allman, Brittany R; Kinsey, Amber W; Moffatt, Robert J; Hickner, Robert C; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Although multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have increased in popularity because of their array of ergogenic ingredients, their efficacy and safety remain in question. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of supplementation with T+ (SUP; Onnit Labs, Austin, TX, USA), an MIPS containing long jack root, beta-alanine, and branched-chain amino acids, and other proprietary blends, on strength, body composition, and hormones in young resistance-trained men. Subjects were randomized to consume either T+ (SUP; n = 14; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 18.3 ± 4.7%) or an isocaloric placebo (PL; n = 13; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 21.5 ± 6.2%) for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent a progressive, 4-week high-intensity resistance training protocol. Before and after the training protocol, mood state, body composition, blood hormones (also collected at midpoint), and maximal strength were measured. SUP had significantly greater increases in bench press (SUP, 102 ± 16 kg to 108 ± 16 kg vs. PL, 96 ± 22 kg to 101 ± 22 kg; p < 0.001) and total weight lifted (SUP, 379 ± 59 kg to 413 ± 60 kg vs. PL, 376 ± 70 kg to 400 ± 75 kg; p < 0.001) compared with PL. Additionally, deadlift strength relative to total body mass (calculated as weight lifted/body mass; kg:kg) (2.08 ± 0.18 to 2.23 ± 0.16; p = 0.036) and lean mass (2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.021) increased significantly in SUP but not PL (2.02 ± 0.30 to 2.15 ± 0.36 and 2.56 ± 0.31 to 2.70 ± 0.36, respectively). No other significant differences were detected between groups for the remaining variables. Supplementing with SUP enhanced resistance training adaptations independent of hormonal status, and thus SUP use may warrant inclusion into peri-workout nutrition regimens. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01971723).

  7. Motives for regular physical activity in women and men: a qualitative study in French adults with type 2 diabetes, belonging to a patients' association.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Perrin, Claire; Nasarre, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Patients' associations are an integral but often overlooked component of the French healthcare system dominated by the medical profession. Very few patients' associations exist to enable patients to self-manage into physical activity programmes. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine perceived motives for regular physical activity in male and female individuals, with type 2 diabetes involved in one French patients' association, called 'Move for Health'. Twenty-three adults (14 women and 9 men) with type 2 diabetes ranging in age from 35 to 78 volunteered to participate. The participants undertook regular physical activities autonomously with some medico-sporting educators' help. Results showed that participants reported intrinsic motives such as enjoyment, interest, fun, stimulation and highlighted gender differences. Female participants were more likely than male participants to emphasise the importance of emotional support obtained from the group meetings, and the pleasure of doing something together, and male participants emphasised the knowledge acquisition and skill development for disease control. Moreover, female participants indicated the importance of the sense of well-being and the positive body image related to regular physical activity, and male participants underlined the strength of the relationship between physical activity and health-promoting behaviours. This study provides insights into how gender motives are related to the interest and usefulness of physical activities in the management of diabetes. Findings lend support to the setting up of this type of patients' association in the French healthcare system and underline its contribution to self-determination and the behaviour change process in people with diabetes.

  8. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of

  9. Ingesting a preworkout supplement containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days is both safe and efficacious in recreationally active men.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Fairman, Ciaran M; Spradley, Brandon D; Tai, Chih-Yin; Falcone, Paul H; Carson, Laura R; Mosman, Matt M; Joy, Jordan M; Kim, Michael P; Serrano, Eric R; Esposito, Enrico N

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of consuming a preworkout supplement (SUP) containing caffeine, creatine, β-alanine, amino acids, and B vitamins for 28 days. We hypothesized that little to no changes in kidney and liver clinical blood markers or resting heart rate and blood pressure (BP) would be observed. In addition, we hypothesized that body composition and performance would improve in recreationally active males after 28 days of supplementation. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, participants were randomly assigned to ingest one scoop of either the SUP or placebo every day for 28 days, either 20 minutes before exercise or ad libitum on nonexercise days. Resting heart rate and BP, body composition, and fasting blood samples were collected before and after supplementation. Aerobic capacity as well as muscular strength and endurance were also measured. Significant (P < .05) main effects for time were observed for resting heart rate (presupplementation, 67.59 ± 7.90 beats per minute; postsupplementation, 66.18 ± 7.63 beats per minute), systolic BP (presupplementation, 122.41 ± 11.25 mm Hg; postsupplementation, 118.35 ± 11.58 mm Hg), blood urea nitrogen (presupplementation, 13.12 ± 2.55 mg/dL; postsupplementation, 15.24 ± 4.47 mg/dL), aspartate aminotransferase (presupplementation, 34.29 ± 16.48 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.76 ± 4.71 IU/L), and alanine aminotransferase (presupplementation, 32.76 ± 19.72 IU/L; postsupplementation, 24.88 ± 9.68 IU/L). Significant main effects for time were observed for body fat percentage (presupplementation, 15.55% ± 5.79%; postsupplementation, 14.21% ± 5.38%; P = .004) and fat-free mass (presupplementation, 70.80 ± 9.21 kg; postsupplementation, 71.98 ± 9.27 kg; P = .006). A significant decrease in maximal oxygen consumption (presupplementation, 47.28 ± 2.69 mL/kg per minute; postsupplementation, 45.60 ± 2.81 mL/kg per minute) and a significant increase in percentage of

  10. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  11. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  12. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  13. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  14. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options.

  15. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  16. Metabolic demand and muscle activation during different forms of bodyweight supported locomotion in men with incomplete SCI.

    PubMed

    Fenuta, Alyssa M; Hicks, Audrey L

    2014-01-01

    Body weight supported locomotor training uses neuroplasticity principles to improve recovery following a spinal cord injury (SCI). Steady state locomotion using the same body weight support (BWS) percent was compared in 7 males (42.6 ± 4.29 years) with incomplete SCI and matched (gender, age) noninjured controls (42.7 ± 5.4 years) using the Lokomat, Manual Treadmill, and ZeroG. The VO2000, Polar Heart Rate (HR) Monitor, and lower limb electromyography (EMG) electrodes were worn during the 2-minute sessions. Oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR were expressed as percentage of peak values obtained using progressive arm ergometry; VO2 was also expressed relative to resting metabolic equivalents (METS). Filtered EMG signals from tibialis anterior (TA), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were normalized to ZeroG stepping. The Lokomat required 30% of VO2 peak (2METS) compared to ~54% (3METS) for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG sessions. HR was 67% of peak during Lokomat sessions compared to ~83% for Manual Treadmill and ZeroG. Muscle activation was higher in treadmill conditions compared to the ZeroG primarily due to increased BF activity. At the same level of BWS, locomotion using the Manual Treadmill or the ZeroG is more aerobically demanding than the Lokomat. Treadmill modalities encourage greater hip extensor activation compared to overground locomotion.

  17. The Internet profiles of men who have sex with men within bareback websites.

    PubMed

    Nodin, Nuno; Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Maynard, Emily; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2011-10-01

    The Internet has become a venue for men who have sex with men to search for sexual partners. Some of these men intentionally seek unprotected anal intercourse with other men ('bareback' sex). This paper focuses on the creation, use, and content of Internet personal profiles of men who have sex with men in the greater New York City metropolitan area who use bareback sites for sexual networking. We used a mixed-methods approach to examine data from a cybercartography of Internet sites conducted during the first phase of the research (199 personal profiles) and from in-depth interviews conducted during its second phase (120 men who have sex with men who sought partners online for bareback sex). Results indicate that men generally followed offline stereotypical patterns in their online profiles. However, men who disclosed being HIV-positive were more likely to include face and head pictures. Overall, the images they used were heavily sexualised in accordance with group norms perceived and reinforced by the websites' design and imagery. Bottom-identified men tended to be more explicit in the exposition of their sexual and drug use interests online. This paper highlights how certain virtual and social performances play upon and reinforce other, in the flesh, performances.

  18. Cannabis abstinence during treatment and one-year follow-up: relationship to neural activity in men.

    PubMed

    Kober, Hedy; DeVito, Elise E; DeLeone, Cameron M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis is among the most frequently abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity before treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and 1-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task before a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions, including those strongly implicated in cognitive-control and addiction-related processes (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not differ significantly in response times (cannabis-dependent, N=12; healthy-comparison, N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during 1-year posttreatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic 'control' regions (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic 'salience/reward/learning' regions (eg, ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent individuals from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long-term follow

  19. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  20. Nutrition for Older Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Facts Fitness Fitness Find out more Categories Sports and Performance Training and Recovery Exercise Topics Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Man ...

  1. Metabolic responses to high-fat or low-fat meals and association with sympathetic nervous system activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, energy from fat) or an isoenergetic low-fat (20% energy from fat) meal served in random order. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed using power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). After the high-fat meal, increases in thermoregulatory SNS activity (very low-frequency component of HRV, 0.007-0.035 Hz, 577.4+/-45.9 vs. 432.0+/-49.3 ms2, p<0.05) and fat oxidation (21.0+/-5.3 vs. 13.3+/-4.3 g, p<0.001) were greater than those after the low-fat meal. However, thermic effects of the meal (TEM) were lower after the high-fat meal than after the low-fat meal (27.5+/-11.2 vs. 36.1+/-10.9 kcal, p<0.05). In conclusion, the high-fat meal can stimulate thermoregulatory SNS and lipolysis, but resulted in lower TEM, suggesting that a high proportion of dietary fat intake, even with a normal daily range of calories, may be a potent risk factor for further weight gain.

  2. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  3. Neuromuscular fatigue in young and older men using constant or variable resistance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Simon; Peltonen, Heikki; Avela, Janne; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine: (1) if different acute neuromuscular responses occur between constant versus variable external resistance machines, two commonly used resistance machines and (2) whether the potential differences in fatigability between young and older men influence the magnitude of acute response between these resistance machines. Twelve young men (28 ± 5 year) and 13 older men (65.4 ± 4 year) performed 15 × 1 repetition maximum and 5 × 10 repetitions isotonic knee extension resistance loadings with both constant and variable resistance (four loadings in total). Maximum isometric knee extension torque, superimposed twitch, resting twitch torque, maximal M wave properties, electromyograph, and blood lactate concentration measured the effects of loading. Concentric torque reduced to a greater extent during variable 15 × 1 versus constant loading in young men only (P < 0.05). While three out of the four loadings caused decreased voluntary activation in young men, only 15 × 1 using variable resistance caused reductions in older men (P < 0.05). 5 × 10 variable resistance loading significantly increased M wave duration and decreased EMG median frequency, which was not observed following constant resistance loading in both age groups. Acute decreases in force production were significantly greater in young men following all loading protocols (P < 0.05). Both young and older men showed indications of greater fatigue from variable resistance loadings. Differing muscle properties may have led to different magnitudes of fatigue between groups, and older subjects may benefit from specifically tailored training programs.

  4. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  5. Tobacco Stem-Based Activated Carbons for High Performance Supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Xiaohong; Liu, Hongbo; Shi, Lei; He, Yuede

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco stem-based activated carbons (TS-ACs) were prepared by simple KOH activation and their application as electrodes in the electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) performed successfully. The BET surface area, pore volume, and pore size distribution of the TS-ACs were evaluated based on N2 adsorption isotherms at 77 K. The surface area of the obtained activated carbons varies over a wide range (1472.8-3326.7 m2/g) and the mesoporosity was enhanced significantly as the ratio of KOH to tobacco stem (TS) increased. The electrochemical behaviors of series TS-ACs were characterized by means of galvanostatic charging/discharging, cyclic voltammetry, and impedance spectroscopy. The correlation between electrochemical properties and pore structure was investigated. A high specific capacitance value as 190 F/g at 1 mA/cm2 was obtained in 1 M LiPF6-EC/DMC/DEC electrolyte solution. Furthermore, good performance is also achieved even at high current densities. A development of new use for TS into a valuable energy storage material is explored.

  6. Electromyographic quantification of hand performance during simulated extravehicular activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranniger, Claudia Ute

    Pressure-suited humans are the most versatile work system in the space environment. Improvements in extravehicular activity (EVA) technology strive to enhance performance of manual tasks on orbit; however, methods with which to quantitatively assess these improvements are rare. This research encompasses the development of a system which can be used to quantify gloved hand performance during end-to-end EVA tasks, based both on hand motion and muscle activity. The system is unique in that it incorporates the physiological characteristics of the hand and forearm within the pressure suit glove, rather than simply evaluating the glove alone. Tracking of electromyographic (EMG) activity in the large flexor and extensor muscles of the hand, and of finger deflection within the glove, enables examination of both muscle activity levels and fatigue throughout a task. Two metrics suited to analysis of realistic, dynamic activities have been developed. A Task Intensity metric based on the amplitude distribution of the EMG signal provides a measure of the muscular effort required to complete individual activities. A mean power frequency (MPF) analysis tool derived from wavelet theory provides EMG spectral information indicative of muscle fatigue. The wavelet-based frequency analysis method is superior to traditional Fourier-based methods because it inherently provides temporal resolution of the signal, enabling decomposition of dynamic (nonstationary) and isometric (stationary) EMG signals alike. The Task Intensity and wavelet MPF analysis tools have been used to assess the gloved hand performance during representative EVA tasks completed in the suited neutral buoyancy environment, and to assess changes in muscle use during trials of a new power-assisted EVA glove. Results suggest that the metrics developed herein can be used to rank tasks based on relative muscular effort and fatigue, and that the scope of the results is naturally limited to the muscles under investigation

  7. A different pattern of lateralised brain activity during processing of loved faces in men and women: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Tiedt, Hannes O; Beier, Klaus M; Lueschow, Andreas; Pauls, Alfred; Weber, Joachim E

    2014-12-01

    Viewing personally familiar and loved faces evokes a distinct pattern of brain activity as demonstrated by research employing imaging and electrophysiological methods. The aim of the current investigation was to study the perception of loved faces combined with recalling past emotional experiences using whole-head magnetoencephalograpy (MEG). Twenty-eight participants (fourteen female) viewed photographs of their romantic partner as well as of two long-term friends while imagining a positive emotional encounter with the respective person. Face-stimuli evoked a slow and sustained shift of magnetic activity from 300ms post-stimulus onwards which differentiated loved from friends' faces in female participants and left-sided sensors only. This late-latency evoked magnetic field resembled (as its magnetic counterpart) ERP-modulations by affective content and memory, most notably the late positive potential (LPP). We discuss our findings in the light of studies suggesting greater responsiveness to affective cues in women as well as sex differences in autobiographical and emotional memory. PMID:25312880

  8. Sentinel-3 OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performance Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourg, L.; Blanot, L.; Lamquin, N.; Bruniquel, V.; Meskini, N.; Nieke, J.; Bouvet, M.; Fougnie, B.

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the activities to be undertaken by ACRI-ST under ESA/ESTEC coordination for the assessment of OLCI Radiometric and Spectral Performances during the SENTINEL-3 Commissioning Phase. As an introduction, it briefly describes the instrument concept and available on-board calibration hardware, the context and main objective of the work. Insisting on the fact that radiometric calibration of OLCI is based on in-flight measurements, as was for MERIS, it then describes the methodology and tools to be used during Commissioning. Finally, as in-flight based radiometry implies the need for independent validation, it describes the corresponding methods and tools.

  9. Frontal midline theta rhythm is correlated with cardiac autonomic activities during the performance of an attention demanding meditation procedure.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Y; Sato, W; Toichi, M; Murai, T; Okada, T; Hayashi, A; Sengoku, A

    2001-04-01

    Frontal midline theta rhythm (Fm theta), recognized as distinct theta activity on EEG in the frontal midline area, reflects mental concentration as well as meditative state or relief from anxiety. Attentional network in anterior frontal lobes including anterior cingulate cortex is suspected to be the generator of this activity, and the regulative function of the frontal neural network over autonomic nervous system (ANS) during cognitive process is suggested. However no studies have examined peripheral autonomic activities during Fm theta induction, and interaction of central and peripheral mechanism associated with Fm theta remains unclear. In the present study, a standard procedure of Zen meditation requiring sustained attention and breath control was employed as the task to provoke Fm theta, and simultaneous EEG and ECG recordings were performed. For the subjects in which Fm theta activities were provoked (six men, six women, 48% of the total subjects), peripheral autonomic activities were evaluated during the appearance of Fm theta as well as during control periods. Successive inter-beat intervals were measured from the ECG, and a recently developed method of analysis by Toichi et al. (J. Auton. Nerv. Syst. 62 (1997) 79-84) based on heart rate variability was used to assess cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic functions separately. Both sympathetic and parasympathetic indices were increased during the appearance of Fm theta compared with control periods. Theta band activities in the frontal area were correlated negatively with sympathetic activation. The results suggest a close relationship between cardiac autonomic function and activity of medial frontal neural circuitry.

  10. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2012-01-23

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford.

  11. The Veterans LIFE Study: A Randomized Trial of Primary Care Based Physical Activity Counseling For Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Miriam C.; Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F.; Sloane, Richard; Crowley, Gail M.; Cowper, Patricia A.; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Ekelund, Carola C.; Pearson, Megan P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Slow gait is predictive of adverse health outcomes and increased health service utilization. Physical activity counseling (PAC) may enhance mobility among elders. Primary care settings are appropriate for PAC because most older adults see their primary care physician annually. Innovative use of automated telephone messaging facilitates physician counseling. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of multi-component PAC promoting physical activity (PA) guidelines on gait speed and related measures of PA and function in older veterans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized controlled trial of 398 male veterans, ages 70 and over receiving primary care at the Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center of Durham, N.C. INTERVENTION Twelve months of usual care (UC) or multi-component PAC consisting of baseline in-person and biweekly then monthly telephone counseling by a lifestyle counselor, one-time clinical endorsement of PA and monthly automated telephone messaging by primary care provider, and quarterly tailored mailings of progress in PA. MEASUREMENTS Gait speed (usual and rapid), self-reported PA, function and disability at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS Although no between-group differences were noted for usual gait speed, rapid gait speed improved significantly more for the PAC group (1.56 (0.41) m/s to 1.68 (0.44) m/s) compared to UC (1.57 (0.40) m/sec to 1.59 (0.42) m/sec, p = 0.04). Minutes of moderate/vigorous PA increased significantly in the PAC group (from a mean (SD) 57.1 (99.3) min/wk to 126.6 (142.9) min/week) compared to the UC group (from 60.2 (116.1) to 69.6 (116.1) min/wk, p < 0.001). Changes in other functional/disability outcomes were small. CONCLUSIONS In this group of older male veterans, multi-component PA significantly improved rapid gait and PA. Translation from increased PA to overall functioning was not observed. Integration with primary care was successful. PMID:19467149

  12. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  13. Health improvement for men and hard-to-engage-men delivered in English Premier League football clubs.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Andy; Zwolinsky, Stephen; McKenna, James; Robertson, Steven; Daly-Smith, Andy; White, Alan

    2014-06-01

    Unhealthy behaviours represent modifiable causes of non-communicable disease. In men, concern focuses on those (i) demonstrating the poorest health, exacerbated by a lack of awareness of the risks that their lifestyles pose and (ii) who neither consult their doctor nor use health services. Classed as 'hard-to-engage', distinctive strategies are needed to reach these men. Impact and process evaluations assessed the effect of a programme of men's health-delivered in/by English Premier League football clubs. Men attended match-day events and/or weekly classes involving physical activity and health education. Validated self-report measures for demographics and lifestyle behaviours were completed pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed on pre-versus-post-intervention differences in lifestyle profiles, whereas interviews (n = 57) provided men's accounts of programme experience. Participants were predominantly white British (70.4%/n = 2669), 18-44 (80.2%/n = 3032) and employed (60.7%/n = 1907). One-third (n = 860) 'never' visited their doctor. Over 85% (n = 1428) presented with combinations of lifestyle risk factors. Intention-to-treat analysis showed improvements (P < 0.001) in lifestyle profiles. Interviews confirmed recruitment of men who were hard-to-engage and unhealthy. Men were attracted through football and/or the clubs, whereas specific design factors impacted on participation. Limitations include use of self-reports, narrow demographics, small effect sizes, lack of follow-up and the absence of non-completers in interviews.

  14. Cooling vest worn during active warm-up improves 5-km run performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Arngrïmsson, Sigurbjörn A; Petitt, Darby S; Stueck, Matthew G; Jorgensen, Dennis K; Cureton, Kirk J

    2004-05-01

    We investigated whether a cooling vest worn during an active warm-up enhances 5-km run time in the heat. Seventeen competitive runners (9 men, maximal oxygen uptake = 66.7 +/- 5.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); 8 women, maximal oxygen uptake = 58.0 +/- 3.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) completed two simulated 5-km runs on a treadmill after a 38-min active warm-up during which they wore either a T-shirt (C) or a vest filled with ice (V) in a hot, humid environment (32 degrees C, 50% relative humidity). Wearing the cooling vest during warm-up significantly (P < 0.05) blunted increases in body temperature, heart rate (HR), and perception of thermal discomfort during warm-up compared with control. At the start of the 5-km run, esophageal, rectal, mean skin, and mean body temperatures averaged 0.3, 0.2, 1.8, and 0.4 degrees C lower; HR averaged 11 beats/min lower; and perception of thermal discomfort (5-point scale) averaged 0.6 point lower in V than C. Most of these differences were eliminated during the first 3.2 km of the run, and these variables were not different at the end. The 5-km run time was significantly lower (P < 0.05) by 13 s in V than C, with a faster pace most evident during the last two-thirds of the run. We conclude that a cooling vest worn during active warm-up by track athletes enhances 5-km run performance in the heat. Reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain and perception of thermal discomfort in the early portion of the run appear to permit a faster pace later in the run.

  15. Performance Assessment Assistance Activities in the DOE Complex - 12325

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Letourneau, Martin J.

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford. DOE-EM established the PA CoP to help improve the consistency and quality of implementation of modelling activities around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP has sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from ongoing

  16. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  17. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  18. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  19. Magnetic activated cell sorting: an effective method for reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation in varicocele men prior to assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Degheidy, T; Abdelfattah, H; Seif, A; Albuz, F K; Gazi, S; Abbas, S

    2015-10-01

    Semen parameters of varicocele men have been usually suspected to exhibit higher levels of abnormalities including DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic markers. Negative correlation between increased level of DNA fragmentation and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcome has been studied by several authors. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the possible value of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACs) technology in reduction of DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART. Semen samples, collected from 36 varicocele patients, were prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Every sample was subsequently divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was kept untouched as pre-MACs control while the other aliquot was subjected to MACs technique, for depletion of apoptotic spermatozoa, and serves as post-MACs test. Sperm count, motility and DNA fragmentations were evaluated for both control and test samples. Post-MACs samples showed no deleterious reduction in total sperm motility (80.64 ± 6.97%) compared with control samples (80.97 ± 7.74%) while sperm DNA fragmentations were significantly reduced in post-MACs samples (9.61 ± 5.62%) compared with pre-MACs controls (12.43 ± 6.29%) (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that MACs technique is a simple, noninvasive, technique that can efficiently reduce DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART.

  20. Actuation performance of cellulose based electro-active papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Song, Chunseok; Bae, Seung-Hun

    2005-05-01

    Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) is attractive as an EAP actuator material due to its merits in terms of lightweight, dry condition, large displacement output, low actuation voltage and low power consumption. This paper presents the fabrication and performance test of EAPap actuators. EAPap material has been made from cellulose materials. Cellulose fiber is dissolved into a solution and made into a sheet by using a spin coater. Thin electrodes are deposited on the cellophane sheet to comprise an EAPap. Next the EAPap is made into plate or beam specimens cut along a specific orientation to enhance the actuator performance. The EAPap is clamped on electric power connector and placed in an environmental chamber and the tip displacement of EAPap is measured with laser sensor. Also the blocking force of EAPap sample is measured. The measured force is compared with a theoretical beam model. These measurements are performed under a variety of environmental and input factors including frequency, actuation voltage, temperature and humidity. Characteristics of EAPap in terms of fibrous nature, their crystallinity, and mechanical, physical and electrochemical characteristics are presented.

  1. A Comparative Performance Analysis of Total PSA, Percentage Free PSA, PSA Velocity, and PSA Density versus the Detection of Primary Circulating Prostate Cells in Predicting Initial Prostate Biopsy Findings in Chilean Men

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Nigel P.; Reyes, Eduardo; Orellana, Nelson; Fuentealba, Cynthia; Dueñas, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. PSA parameters have been used in an attempt to improve the diagnostic yield of prostate screening tests; the detection of primary malignant circulating prostate cells (CPCs) may improve the diagnostic yield of screening and therefore avoid unnecessary biopsies. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of all men undergoing initial prostate biopsy due to an elevated total serum PSA. Free percent PSA, PSA velocity, and PSA density were determined. Primary CPCs were detected using standard immunocytochemistry. A positive test for CPCs was defined as one cell PSA (+) P504S (+) in an 8 ml blood sample. Positive predictive and negative predictive values, specificity, and sensitivity were calculated for each test as well as the number of biopsies avoided and cancers missed. Results. 303 men participated in the study of whom 113/303 (37.3%) men had prostate cancer. Of the three PSA based parameters, free percent PSA was superior, sensitivity 70.8%, and specificity 67.4%. Primary CPCs detection had a sensitivity of 88.5% and a specificity of 88.4% avoiding 181 (59.7%) biopsies, detecting 93/95 (98%) of clinically significant cancers, and missing 13 (11.5%) low grade, small volume tumors. Conclusions. The use of primary CPCs as a sequential test could decrease the number of initial prostate biopsies missing those cancers which are treated by active observation. PMID:25101294

  2. The prevalence and correlates of syphilis and HIV among homosexual and bisexual men in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Jun; Hu, Ling-Ling; Li, Jie-Fang; Liu, Li-Hua; Wei, Ning

    2016-02-01

    Bisexual men (men who have sex with men and women) are potential epidemiological bridges responsible for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from men who have sex with men only to the heterosexual population. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV and the factors associated with syphilis infection among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only from Shijiazhuang, China. In 2011-2013, a cross-sectional cohort of 427 men who have sex with men was recruited by a snowball sampling method and tested for syphilis and HIV. Chi square and logistic regression were performed to identify syphilis risk factors. Among the 427 men who have sex with men, 71 (16.6%) cases were syphilis-positive and 16 cases (3.7%) were HIV-positive. The proportions of men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only in the total sample were 31.4% and 68.6%, respectively. Men who have sex with men and women exhibited double the syphilis prevalence of men who have sex with men only and were more likely to practice insertive anal sex. Higher education level, being married, having more male partners, and both receptive and insertive anal sex roles were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men and women. Residing in suburban areas, being married, being HIV positive, and an absence of desire to change sexual orientation were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men only. Therefore, men who have sex with men and women represent an important sub-group in the syphilis epidemic and further interventions should be developed to reduce risk among different sub-sets of men who have sex with men.

  3. Men can cook! Development, implementation, and evaluation of a senior men's cooking group.

    PubMed

    Keller, Heather H; Gibbs, Aime; Wong, Sharon; Vanderkooy, Patricia D; Hedley, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    This study reports on the process and outcome evaluation of a community-based nutrition and cooking education program for senior men. As part of Evergreen Action Nutrition, a community-organized, nutrition education program, a registered dietitian led a Men's Cooking Group in a seniors' recreation facility. Written questionnaires were completed by most of the men (n = 19) at the beginning and end of the evaluation year, and ten men participated in personal key informant interviews. The majority of participants gained cooking confidence, increased their cooking activities at home, developed healthy cooking skills, and improved cooking variety through the program. The men also identified social benefits to the program. Overall, this preliminary evaluation suggests that community-based nutrition and cooking education for older men is a beneficial nutrition education activity.

  4. Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing; Horvatin, Matthew; Liu, Yuewei; He, Xinjian; Rengasamy, Samy

    2015-10-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of these types of respirators against 10-400 nm particles using human subjects exposed to NaCl aerosols under simulated workplace activities. Simulated workplace protection factors (SWPFs) were measured for eight combinations of respirator models (2 N95 FFRs, 2 P100 FFRs, 2 N95 EHRs, and 2 P100 EHRs) worn by 25 healthy test subjects (13 females and 12 males) with varying face sizes. Before beginning a SWPF test for a given respirator model, each subject had to pass a quantitative fit test. Each SWPF test was performed using a protocol of six exercises for 3 min each: (i) normal breathing, (ii) deep breathing, (iii) moving head side to side, (iv) moving head up and down, (v) bending at the waist, and (vi) a simulated laboratory-vessel cleaning motion. Two scanning mobility particle sizers were used simultaneously to measure the upstream (outside the respirator) and downstream (inside the respirator) test aerosol; SWPF was then calculated as a ratio of the upstream and downstream particle concentrations. In general, geometric mean SWPF (GM-SWPF) was highest for the P100 EHRs, followed by P100 FFRs, N95 EHRs, and N95 FFRs. This trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). All respirators provided better or similar performance levels for 10-100 nm particles as compared to larger 100-400 nm particles. This study found that class P100 respirators provided higher SWPFs compared to class N95 respirators (P < 0.05) for both FFR and EHR types. All respirators provided expected performance (i.e. fifth percentile SWPF > 10) against all particle size ranges tested.

  5. Respirator Performance against Nanoparticles under Simulated Workplace Activities.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Ziqing; Horvatin, Matthew; Liu, Yuewei; He, Xinjian; Rengasamy, Samy

    2015-10-01

    Filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and elastomeric half-mask respirators (EHRs) are commonly used by workers for protection against potentially hazardous particles, including engineered nanoparticles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of these types of respirators against 10-400 nm particles using human subjects exposed to NaCl aerosols under simulated workplace activities. Simulated workplace protection factors (SWPFs) were measured for eight combinations of respirator models (2 N95 FFRs, 2 P100 FFRs, 2 N95 EHRs, and 2 P100 EHRs) worn by 25 healthy test subjects (13 females and 12 males) with varying face sizes. Before beginning a SWPF test for a given respirator model, each subject had to pass a quantitative fit test. Each SWPF test was performed using a protocol of six exercises for 3 min each: (i) normal breathing, (ii) deep breathing, (iii) moving head side to side, (iv) moving head up and down, (v) bending at the waist, and (vi) a simulated laboratory-vessel cleaning motion. Two scanning mobility particle sizers were used simultaneously to measure the upstream (outside the respirator) and downstream (inside the respirator) test aerosol; SWPF was then calculated as a ratio of the upstream and downstream particle concentrations. In general, geometric mean SWPF (GM-SWPF) was highest for the P100 EHRs, followed by P100 FFRs, N95 EHRs, and N95 FFRs. This trend holds true for nanoparticles (10-100 nm), larger size particles (100-400 nm), and the 'all size' range (10-400 nm). All respirators provided better or similar performance levels for 10-100 nm particles as compared to larger 100-400 nm particles. This study found that class P100 respirators provided higher SWPFs compared to class N95 respirators (P < 0.05) for both FFR and EHR types. All respirators provided expected performance (i.e. fifth percentile SWPF > 10) against all particle size ranges tested. PMID:26180261

  6. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  7. Genetic variants of the Wnt signaling pathway as predictors of aggressive disease and reclassification in men with early stage prostate cancer on active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; He, Yonggang; Davis, John W; Thompson, Timothy C; Logothetis, Christopher J; Kim, Jeri; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the genetic predictors of prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. The Wnt signaling pathway is important for prostate cancer development and progression. Identifying genetic variants associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification may have a potential role in the management of localized patients. In this study, we used a three-phase design. In phases I and II prostate cancer patient cohort, 578 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 45 genes of the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed in 1762 localized prostate cancer patients. Twelve SNPs from four regions were significantly associated with aggressive disease, among which, three linked SNPs in CSNK1A1 at 5q32 (represented by rs752822) may differentiate GS 4+3 from GS 3+4 patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-1.87, P = 4.76×10(-3)). In phase III active surveillance (AS) cohort, genotyping of rs752822 (candidate from phases I and II) and previously identified rs2735839 were determined in 494 GS ≤7 patients. We found a significant association between rs2735839 and prostate cancer reclassification in the AS cohort (AG + AA versus GG, HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.11-2.28, P = 0.012) and a suggestive association of rs752822. Jointly, rs752822 and rs2735839 showed good potentials in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predicting disease reclassification (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.62-4.51, P = 1×10(-4) in phase II; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.18, P = 0.016 in phase III). In summary, rs752822 and rs2735839 may assist in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predict prostate cancer reclassification. The significant associations were independent from GS, T stage and PSA levels at baseline. PMID:27515962

  8. Genetic variants of the Wnt signaling pathway as predictors of aggressive disease and reclassification in men with early stage prostate cancer on active surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiang; Ye, Yuanqing; Gu, Jian; He, Yonggang; Davis, John W; Thompson, Timothy C; Logothetis, Christopher J; Kim, Jeri; Wu, Xifeng

    2016-10-01

    Little is known about the genetic predictors of prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification in men with localized prostate cancer undergoing active surveillance. The Wnt signaling pathway is important for prostate cancer development and progression. Identifying genetic variants associated with prostate cancer aggressiveness and reclassification may have a potential role in the management of localized patients. In this study, we used a three-phase design. In phases I and II prostate cancer patient cohort, 578 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 45 genes of the Wnt signaling pathway were analyzed in 1762 localized prostate cancer patients. Twelve SNPs from four regions were significantly associated with aggressive disease, among which, three linked SNPs in CSNK1A1 at 5q32 (represented by rs752822) may differentiate GS 4+3 from GS 3+4 patients (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.12-1.87, P = 4.76×10(-3)). In phase III active surveillance (AS) cohort, genotyping of rs752822 (candidate from phases I and II) and previously identified rs2735839 were determined in 494 GS ≤7 patients. We found a significant association between rs2735839 and prostate cancer reclassification in the AS cohort (AG + AA versus GG, HR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.11-2.28, P = 0.012) and a suggestive association of rs752822. Jointly, rs752822 and rs2735839 showed good potentials in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predicting disease reclassification (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.62-4.51, P = 1×10(-4) in phase II; HR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.13-3.18, P = 0.016 in phase III). In summary, rs752822 and rs2735839 may assist in risk-stratifying GS 7 patients and predict prostate cancer reclassification. The significant associations were independent from GS, T stage and PSA levels at baseline.

  9. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities.

  10. Not all anxious individuals get lost: Trait anxiety and mental rotation ability interact to explain performance in map-based route learning in men.

    PubMed

    Thoresen, John C; Francelet, Rebecca; Coltekin, Arzu; Richter, Kai-Florian; Fabrikant, Sara I; Sandi, Carmen

    2016-07-01

    Navigation through an environment is a fundamental human activity. Although group differences in navigational ability are documented (e.g., gender), little is known about traits that predict these abilities. Apart from a well-established link between mental rotational abilities and navigational learning abilities, recent studies point to an influence of trait anxiety on the formation of internal cognitive spatial representations. However, it is unknown whether trait anxiety affects the processing of information obtained through externalized representations such as maps. Here, we addressed this question by taking into account emerging evidence indicating impaired performance in executive tasks by high trait anxiety specifically in individuals with lower executive capacities. For this purpose, we tested 104 male participants, previously characterised on trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, on a newly-designed map-based route learning task, where participants matched routes presented dynamically on a city map to one presented immediately before (same/different judgments). We predicted an interaction between trait anxiety and mental rotation ability, specifically that performance in the route learning task would be negatively affected by anxiety in participants with low mental rotation ability. Importantly, and as predicted, an interaction between anxiety and mental rotation ability was observed: trait anxiety negatively affected participants with low-but not high-mental rotation ability. Our study reveals a detrimental role of trait anxiety in map-based route learning and specifies a disadvantage in the processing of map representations for high-anxious individuals with low mental rotation abilities. PMID:27108599

  11. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  12. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  13. The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was no group × time interaction for HR, BP, blood glucose, lipids, NOx, hs-CRP, cortisol concentrations or body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean ± SD; MIPS: -1.2 ± 1.2%; Placebo: -0.9 ± 1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8 ± 2.1%; Placebo: -1.6 ± 2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3 ± 1.6%; Placebo: -1.0 ± 1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group × time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1

  14. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date.

  15. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date. PMID:21195446

  16. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  17. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Performance of coarse pore filtration activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Alavi Moghaddam, M R; Satoh, H; Mino, T

    2002-01-01

    A coarse pore filter can be applied inside the aeration tank to facilitate the separation of sludge from liquid instead of sedimentation. This filter has pores, which are irregular in shape, and the pore size is bigger than those of MF. The objectives of the study were to maintain as much as MLSS in the activated sludge process with coarse pore filter and to investigate the performance under high MLSS condition. Small-scale reactor results so far show good quality of effluent specially after starting the sludge bulking in the system in terms of SS, TOC, DOC and turbidity. The average carbon removal for 62 days operation of this system was about 94% (based on effluent DOC) and 87% (based on effluent TOC). The average sludge yield in this system is about 0.44 kg MLSS/kg TOC which is about 0.24 kg MLSS/kg BOD. This amount is less than those of conventional activated sludge and trickling filter.

  19. Prescribed active learning increases performance in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises.

  20. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  1. MEN1, MEN4, and Carney Complex: Pathology and Molecular Genetics.

    PubMed

    Schernthaner-Reiter, Marie Helene; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are a common feature of a subset of endocrine neoplasia syndromes, which have otherwise highly variable disease manifestations. We provide here a review of the clinical features and human molecular genetics of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 1 and 4 (MEN1 and MEN4, respectively) and Carney complex (CNC). MEN1, MEN4, and CNC are hereditary autosomal dominant syndromes that can present with pituitary adenomas. MEN1 is caused by inactivating mutations in the MEN1 gene, whose product menin is involved in multiple intracellular pathways contributing to transcriptional control and cell proliferation. MEN1 clinical features include primary hyperparathyroidism, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours and prolactinomas as well as other pituitary adenomas. A subset of patients with pituitary adenomas and other MEN1 features have mutations in the CDKN1B gene; their disease has been called MEN4. Inactivating mutations in the type 1α regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PKA; the PRKAR1A gene), that lead to dysregulation and activation of the PKA pathway, are the main genetic cause of CNC, which is clinically characterised by primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, spotty skin pigmentation (lentigines), cardiac and other myxomas and acromegaly due to somatotropinomas or somatotrope hyperplasia. PMID:25592387

  2. Syndemic production and sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality in highly sexually active gay and bisexual men: further evidence for a three group conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Among gay and bisexual men (GBM), a syndemic describes a situation in which negative conditions (e.g., childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, depression, polysubstance use) co-occur such to amplify HIV risk. Research has suggested that sexual compulsivity (SC) may also be a syndemic condition. Between 2011 and 2013, 368 highly sexually active (9+ male partners in 90 days) GBM completed a survey of syndemic factors as well as measures of sexual compulsivity (Sexual Compulsivity Scale [SCS]) and hypersexuality (hypersexual disorder screening inventory [HDSI]). Based on scores on the SCS and HDSI, participants were organized into three groups-negative on both ("Neither SC nor HD"); positive on the SCS only ("SC Only"), and positive on both the SCS and the HDSI ("Both SC and HD"). We found support for the utility of a three-group classification of sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as one of the syndemic factors that contribute to HIV risk. The average number of syndemic factors experienced was lowest among those who experienced Neither SC nor HD and highest among the group that experienced Both SC and HD, with those experiencing SC Only falling between the two other groups. This study provided further evidence that sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality is a contributing factor to the syndemics model of HIV risk for GBM and that considering three levels of severity (i.e., SC along with HD) led to stronger model predictions than considering SC alone. SC/HD severity provides another modifiable target for HIV prevention intervention development. PMID:26081246

  3. Syndemic Production and Sexual Compulsivity/Hypersexuality in Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men: Further Evidence for a Three Group Conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana; Grov, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Among gay and bisexual men (GBM), a syndemic describes a situation in which negative conditions (e.g., childhood sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, depression, polysubstance use) co-occur such to amplify HIV risk. Research has suggested that sexual compulsivity (SC) may also be a syndemic condition. Between 2011 and 2013, 368 highly sexually active (9+ male partners in 90 days) GBM completed a survey of syndemic factors as well as measures of sexual compulsivity (Sexual Compulsivity Scale [SCS]) and hypersexuality (hypersexual disorder screening inventory [HDSI]). Based on scores on the SCS and HDSI, participants were organized into three groups—negative on both (“Neither SC nor HD”); positive on the SCS only (“SC Only”), and positive on both the SCS and the HDSI (“Both SC and HD”). We found support for the utility of a three-group classification of sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality as one of the syndemic factors that contribute to HIV risk. The average number of syndemic factors experienced was lowest among those who experienced Neither SC nor HD and highest among the group that experienced Both SC and HD, with those experiencing SC Only falling between the two other groups. This study provided further evidence that sexual compulsivity/hypersexuality is a contributing factor to the syndemics model of HIV risk for GBM and that considering three levels of severity (i.e., SC along with HD) led to stronger model predictions than considering SC alone. SC/HD severity provides another modifiable target for HIV prevention intervention development. PMID:26081246

  4. A Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Active Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety of MenAfriVac in Healthy Malians

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Haidara, Fadima Cheick; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Enwere, Godwin C.; Paranjape, Gandhali; Hervé, Jacques; Bouma, Enricke; Parulekar, Varsha; Martellet, Lionel; Chaumont, Julie; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Tang, Yuxiao; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Hartmann, Katharina; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background. A safe, affordable, and highly immunogenic meningococcal A conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT, MenAfriVac) was developed to control epidemic group A meningitis in Africa. Documentation of the safety specifications of the PsA-TT vaccine was warranted, with sufficient exposure to detect potential rare vaccine-related adverse reactions. Methods. This phase 3, double-blind, randomized, active controlled clinical study was designed to evaluate the safety—primarily vaccine-related serious adverse events (SAEs)—up to 3 months after administration of a single dose of the PsA-TT vaccine to subjects aged 1–29 years in Mali. Safety outcomes were also compared to those following a single dose of a licensed meningococcal ACWY polysaccharide vaccine (PsACWY). Results. No vaccine-related SAEs occurred during the 3 months of follow-up of 4004 subjects vaccinated with a single dose of PsA-TT. When compared to PsACWY (1996 subjects), tenderness at the injection site appeared to be more frequent in the PsA-TT group. However, rates of local induration, systemic reactions, adverse events (AEs), and SAEs were similar in both groups, and unsolicited AEs and SAEs were all unrelated to the study vaccines. Conclusions. The study confirmed on a large scale the excellent safety profile of a single dose of PsA-TT when administered to its entire target population of 1–29 years of age. Clinical Trials Registration. PACTR ATMR201003000191317. PMID:26553682

  5. Experiencing release: sex environments and escapism for HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Vicioso, Kalil J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Nanin, Jose E; Purcell, David W; Woods, William J

    2005-02-01

    There are nonsexual reasons that may motivate people to seek out sexual activity with others. Some men who have sex with men may seek out sex environments to engage in sexual behavior. Among the nonsexual reasons that exist for men who have sex with men is a desire to escape from distressing thoughts and feelings. The amplified sexuality and other unique characteristics of sex environments allow men to have more intense emotional experiences around sex. Using the cognitive escape model as a theoretical foundation, this analysis focuses on the emotional vulnerability that some of the men who visit these venues may be avoiding and how their experiences at these venues might act as releasing mechanisms to alleviate dissonant thoughts and feelings. Implications for public health services and future research are discussed.

  6. Eating disorders in men.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Damon B; Williams, Jeffrey

    2016-09-22

    Eating disorders are traditionally thought of as a problem specific to women, but evidence suggests the disorders also occur in men. Identifying the problem and referring patients for treatment can be difficult. Understanding the nuances of these disorders and realizing the incidence in men is important, as it is often overlooked as a differential diagnosis. PMID:27552690

  7. What Do Men Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimmel, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    Definitions of the male role are changing as more men seek fulfillment in family life, redefine success, or attempt to balance family and career. Corporate structure no longer fits the lives of many men, but employers continue to resist change. (SK)

  8. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  9. 42 CFR 460.136 - Internal quality assessment and performance improvement activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... standards of practice for the delivery of care and periodically track performance to ensure that any... performance improvement activities. (1) A PACE organization must ensure that all interdisciplinary...

  10. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  11. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  12. The associations of high-density lipoprotein subclasses with insulin and glucose levels, physical activity, resting heart rate, and regional adiposity in men with coronary artery disease: the Stanford Coronary Risk Intervention Project baseline survey.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Haskell, W L; Vranizan, K M; Krauss, R M

    1995-01-01

    We used nondenaturing polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis to examine the associations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses with adiposity, physical activity, resting heart rate (an indicator of sympathetic drive), and plasma insulin and glucose levels in 97 men with angiographically documented coronary artery disease. These men neither smoked nor used medications known to affect lipoproteins. The absorbency of protein stain was used as an index of mass concentrations at intervals of 0.01 nm within five HDL subclasses: HDL3c (7.2 to 7.8 nm), HDL3b (7.8 to 8.2 nm), HDL3a (8.2 to 8.8 nm), HDL2a (8.8 to 9.7 nm), and HDL2b (9.7 to 12 nm). HDL peak diameter was determined from the predominant peak of the HDL particle distribution when plotted against particle diameter. Four men who were non-insulin-dependent diabetics as defined by a fasting glucose exceeding 140 mg/dL had significantly higher plasma HDL3b levels and significantly smaller HDL peak diameters than nondiabetic men, and were therefore excluded from further analyses. In the remaining 93 nondiabetic men, plasma HDL3b levels correlated positively with indices of truncal obesity (waist to hip ratio and subscapular skinfold), whereas plasma HDL2b levels correlated negatively with indices of total adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) and truncal obesity (subscapular and abdominal skinfold). Fasting plasma insulin levels correlated negatively with HDL3a, HDL2a, and HDL2b. Obesity significantly affected the relationships of resting heart rate with insulin and HDL subclasses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood.

  14. High serum Cu and Cu/Zn ratios correlate with impairments in bone density, physical performance and overall health in a population of elderly men with frailty characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, Eric D; Kleppinger, Alison; Ralle, Martina; Mains, Richard E; Kenny, Anne M; Eipper, Betty A

    2014-01-01

    Serum Cu levels rise with age and high Cu/Zn ratios are linked with multiple-cause mortality in the elderly. The relationships of these parameters to measures of musculoskeletal health and frailty have not yet been analyzed. We used inductively coupled mass spectrometry to assess serum levels of Cu and Zn and probed for relationships between serum Cu levels and the Cu/Zn ratio with specific measures of bone, physical and overall health in a cohort of 144 frail elderly men. Subjects were divided into quintiles based on serum metal levels and comparisons for functional measures were made between the reference (middle) group and the low and high groups. Subjects’ serum metal values were normally distributed. We found significant correlations between high Cu/Zn ratios and deficits in femoral bone mineral density, measures of speed and strength, muscle mass and hematocrit. High Cu/Zn ratios were also correlated with decreased triglycerides and increased reliance on ADL assistance. This study identifies specific deficits associated with high Cu/Zn ratios that span multiple organ systems and supports earlier studies indicating that serum Cu levels and the Cu/Zn ratio may serve as useful predictive biomarkers for poor health in the elderly. PMID:22484083

  15. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) I

    MedlinePlus

    Wermer syndrome; MEN I ... MEN I is caused by a defect in a gene that carries the code for a protein called menin. ... your provider if you notice symptoms of MEN I or have a family history of this condition.

  17. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... The cause of MEN II is a defect in a gene called RET. This defect causes many tumors to appear in the same ...

  18. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  19. Algorithms for Performance, Dependability, and Performability Evaluation using Stochastic Activity Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deavours, Daniel D.; Qureshi, M. Akber; Sanders, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Modeling tools and technologies are important for aerospace development. At the University of Illinois, we have worked on advancing the state of the art in modeling by Markov reward models in two important areas: reducing the memory necessary to numerically solve systems represented as stochastic activity networks and other stochastic Petri net extensions while still obtaining solutions in a reasonable amount of time, and finding numerically stable and memory-efficient methods to solve for the reward accumulated during a finite mission time. A long standing problem when modeling with high level formalisms such as stochastic activity networks is the so-called state space explosion, where the number of states increases exponentially with size of the high level model. Thus, the corresponding Markov model becomes prohibitively large and solution is constrained by the the size of primary memory. To reduce the memory necessary to numerically solve complex systems, we propose new methods that can tolerate such large state spaces that do not require any special structure in the model (as many other techniques do). First, we develop methods that generate row and columns of the state transition-rate-matrix on-the-fly, eliminating the need to explicitly store the matrix at all. Next, we introduce a new iterative solution method, called modified adaptive Gauss-Seidel, that exhibits locality in its use of data from the state transition-rate-matrix, permitting us to cache portions of the matrix and hence reduce the solution time. Finally, we develop a new memory and computationally efficient technique for Gauss-Seidel based solvers that avoids the need for generating rows of A in order to solve Ax = b. This is a significant performance improvement for on-the-fly methods as well as other recent solution techniques based on Kronecker operators. Taken together, these new results show that one can solve very large models without any special structure.

  20. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.

  1. 75 FR 34110 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Performance Evaluation Studies on... this action are NPDES permitted facilities. Title: Performance Evaluation Studies on Wastewater... necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the Agency, including whether the information...

  2. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities.

  3. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities. PMID:27594690

  4. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Angela MC; Hennis, Anselm J; Hambleton, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least one activity of daily living), 'disease' and 'co-morbidity' (presence of at least one, and at least two, of seven chronic diseases/conditions, respectively), and 'active community engagement' (using five levels of community participation, from less than weekly community contact to voluntary or paid work) in seven LAC cities. We estimated remaining life expectancy (LE) with and without disability, disease and co-morbidity, and investigated age, sex, and regional variations in disability-free LE. Finally, we modeled the association of disease, co-morbidity and disability with active community participation using an ordinal regression model, adjusted for depression. Results Overall, 77% of the LAC elderly had at least one chronic disease/condition, 44% had co-morbidity and 19% had a disability. The proportion of disability-free LE declined between the youngest (60–64 years) and the eldest (90 years and over) age-groups for both men (from 85% to 55%) and women (from 75% to 45%). Disease-free and co-morbidity-free LE, however, remained at approximately 30% and 62%, respectively, for men (20% and 48% for women), until 80–84 years of age, then increased. Only Bridgetown's participants had statistically significantly longer disability-free LE than the regional average (IRR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.05–1.10; p < 0.001). Only Santiago's participants had disability-free LE which was shorter than the regional average (IRR = 0.94; 95%CI 0.92–0.97; p < 0.001). There was 75% active community participation

  5. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... formation. Because it requires daily injections and is expensive, doctors usually prescribe it only for men with ... wine, or a single measure of spirits) • Quit smoking. If you already have osteoporosis, you should take ...

  6. [Men and family planning].

    PubMed

    Vieira, J G

    1993-01-01

    Family planning programs since their beginnings have focused exclusively on women. The importance of male participation in family planning has not been recognized. Today's society demands greater understanding and empathy between spouses, if they are to meet the new and difficult challenges of modern life. Incorporation of men into family planning programs is needed because of the deteriorating live conditions of a large segment of the population and the accelerating decomposition of social structures. Persuading men to participate in family planning should strengthen the couple and increase the probability that decisions about family size will be responsible. Strategies should be designed to interest men in family planning and increase their awareness of their role in fathering happy children who enter the world in more just and humane conditions. Such strategies must combat sex role socialization that begins in infancy. The assignment of responsibility for family planning to the woman excludes men from what should be a fundamental role.

  7. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  8. For Men Only

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkman, A. Victor, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Central Piedmont Community College has developed a course designed to help men take an objective look at themselves and their circumstances, develop an awareness of alternate points of view, and learn processes for goal setting and lifestyle planning. (DC)

  9. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  10. Gum Disease and Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... health is another way to reduce this risk. IMPOTENCE Men with periodontal disease, especially those younger than ... than 70, are at increased risk of developing impotence, according to research. Researchers believe that inflammation may ...

  11. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... talk to their doctor about having a bone mineral density (BMD) test. Men should also be tested ... tests. The doctor may also order a bone mineral density test. This test can identify osteoporosis, determine ...

  12. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods. PMID:12293534

  13. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  14. Programmes to reach men.

    PubMed

    Charnock, D; Gordon, G

    1990-01-01

    Sex education should be oriented toward men and their role in healthy sex practices. By promoting condom usage as a contraceptive method and a preventive method against sexually transmitted diseases, family planning programs could effectively involve men in practicing safe sex. Some misconceptions among men about this contraceptive barrier include decreased sexual sensations during intercourse, partners being offended, and disruption of sexual intercourse. To increase their usage, programs must focus on creating a positive image of the condom. Advantages include no side-effects, easy use, and protection against unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases. Proper condom use should be emphasized to increase its usage among men. Condoms could be made more accessible through vending machines or community-based distribution centers. Male sex and contraceptive knowledge may be further enhanced by employing males counselors to train man in contraceptive and preventive measures. 2 organizations which have effectively involved men in promoting safe sex are The Planned Parenthood Association of Ghana (PPAG) and The Family Planning Association of Nepal (FPAN). PPAG integrates sex and health education with recreation. FPAN promotes condom usage through health and social services, media, and condom dispensers. Through condom usage, men become more responsible sexual partners.

  15. Suicide in young men.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Alexandra; Krysinska, Karolina; Osborn, David; King, Michael

    2012-06-23

    Suicide is second to only accidental death as the leading cause of mortality in young men across the world. Although suicide rates for young men have fallen in some high-income and middle-income countries since the 1990s, wider mortality measures indicate that rates remain high in specific regions, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups within those nations where rates have fallen, and that young men account for a substantial proportion of the economic cost of suicide. High-lethality methods of suicide are preferred by young men: hanging and firearms in high-income countries, pesticide poisoning in the Indian subcontinent, and charcoal-burning in east Asia. Risk factors for young men include psychiatric illness, substance misuse, lower socioeconomic status, rural residence, and single marital status. Population-level factors include unemployment, social deprivation, and media reporting of suicide. Few interventions to reduce suicides in young men have been assessed. Efforts to change help-seeking behaviour and to restrict access to frequently used methods hold the most promise.

  16. Internet use, recreational travel, and HIV risk behaviors in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Martin, Aaron M; Espil, Flint M; Nettles, Christopher D; Seal, David W; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have documented higher rates of HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men traveling for leisure. Most of these studies collected data in high-risk tourist areas known for promoting alcohol and other substance use. The present study sampled a broader range of men by collecting data at a Gay Pride celebration, and asking participants about vacation experiences over the past 12 months. We also collected information about men's use of the Internet to find sexual partners before they traveled. Overall, two-thirds of participants reported recreational travel in the previous year. Of these men, 17% reported having sex with a new partner during their most recent vacation. Forty-three percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation. Sexually-active participants reported a mean of 2.01 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief vacation stay (M = 6.2 days). Close to half of the sexually-active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Alcohol and drug use were associated with unprotected sex. Men who used the Internet to set up dates prior to travel reported significantly more sexual partners and were significantly more likely to report having sex with a new partner. Many gay and bisexual men on vacation report behaviors that may place their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors in this population are needed. PMID:20924778

  17. Internet Use, Recreational Travel, and HIV Risk Behaviors in Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Aaron M.; Espil, Flint M.; Nettles, Christopher D.; Seal, David W.; Pinkerton, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have documented higher rates of HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men traveling for leisure. Most of these studies collected data in high-risk tourist areas known for promoting alcohol and other substance use. The present study sampled a broader range of men by collecting data at a Gay Pride celebration, and asking participants about vacation experiences over the past 12 months. We also collected information about men's use of the Internet to find sexual partners before they traveled. Overall, two-thirds of participants reported recreational travel in the previous year. Of these men, 17% reported having sex with a new partner during their most recent vacation. Forty-three percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation. Sexually-active participants reported a mean of 2.01 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief vacation stay (M = 6.2 days). Close to half of the sexually-active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Alcohol and drug use were associated with unprotected sex. Men who used the Internet to set up dates prior to travel reported significantly more sexual partners and were significantly more likely to report having sex with a new partner. Many gay and bisexual men on vacation report behaviors that may place their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors in this population are needed. PMID:20924778

  18. The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Martins, Ana; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Fuertes, Ricardo; Brito, João; Campos, Maria José; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled—The Lisbon Cohort of MSM—aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6 months. At each evaluation, a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire is conducted, and HIV and syphilis rapid tests are performed by trained peer counsellors. From April 2011 to February 2014, 3106 MSM were eligible to the cohort of whom 923 (29.7%) did not participate. The remaining 2183 (70.3%) MSM were enrolled and 804 had at least one follow-up evaluation, for a total of 893 person-years of observation. Future plans The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. The follow-up of this cohort of HIV-negative MSM will be a valuable tool for monitoring HIV incidence in a setting where limited prospective information existed. Moreover, it will allow for a deeper analytical approach to the study of population time trends and individual changes in risk factors that currently shape the HIV epidemic among MSM. PMID:25967995

  19. 29 CFR 784.155 - Activities performed in wholesale establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT APPLICABLE TO FISHING AND OPERATIONS ON AQUATIC PRODUCTS Exemptions... making up payrolls, are not exempt unless these activities can be shown to be functionally necessary, in... activities as selling, taking, and putting up orders, recording sales, and taking cash are, however,...

  20. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  1. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  2. Spontaneous Clearance of the Hepatitis C Virus Among Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Seaberg, Eric C.; Witt, Mallory D.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Detels, Roger; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Young, Stephen; Phair, John P.; Thio, Chloe L.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The probability of spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance ranges from 11% to 49%. Our previous cross-sectional study suggests that mode of acquisition explains some of this heterogeneity. We performed this prospective study to determine factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. A mixture-cure model was used to evaluate the probability of spontaneous HCV clearance among 101 MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study with acute HCV infection between 1984 and 2012. Results. Spontaneous HCV clearance occurred in 46% of MSM (49% in non-injection drug users [IDUs] and 23% in IDUs). In the multivariable analysis, age <30 years (clearance ratio [CR] = 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53–3.87) and being human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) uninfected (CR = 2.97; 95% CI, 1.98–4.46) were independently associated with spontaneous clearance. Among men aged ≥30 years, being HIV uninfected, not having unprotected anal intercourse, older age, and being on highly active antiretroviral therapy were independently associated with higher clearance. The interferon lambda rs12979860 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was not associated with spontaneous clearance among the 88 MSM who were not active IDUs (CR = 0.74; 95% CI, .46–1.21 for CC vs CT/TT genotype). Conclusions. The high probability of spontaneous HCV clearance together with the lack of an association between the rs12979860 SNP and spontaneous clearance among MSM who do not use injection drugs suggests that the immune mechanisms involved with a successful response to acute HCV differ by mode of virus acquisition. Understanding potential mechanistic differences could be important for HCV vaccine development. PMID:26175521

  3. Cognition and Health in African American Men

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Hill, LaBarron K.; Allaire, Jason C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite high rates of poor health outcomes, little attention has been focused on associations between prominent health factors and cognitive function in African American men, exclusively. The objective was to examine relationships between cardiovascular and pulmonary health, and cognitive function in African American men. Method Data from 257 men were pooled from two studies of African American aging. The mean age of participants was 58.15 and mean educational attainment was 11.78 years. Participants provided self-reported health and demographic information, completed cognitive measures, and had their blood pressure and peak expiratory flow assessed. Results After adjustment, significant relationships were found between average peak expiratory flow rate (APEFR) and cognitive performance measures. Discussion Results suggest that lung function is important to consider when examining cognitive function in African American men. Understanding the role of health in cognition and implications for quality of life in this population will be critical as life expectancies increase. PMID:25053802

  4. Final Report: Performance Modeling Activities in PERC2

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Snavely

    2007-02-25

    Progress in Performance Modeling for PERC2 resulted in: • Automated modeling tools that are robust, able to characterize large applications running at scale while simultaneously simulating the memory hierarchies of mul-tiple machines in parallel. • Porting of the requisite tracer tools to multiple platforms. • Improved performance models by using higher resolution memory models that ever before. • Adding control-flow and data dependency analysis to the tracers used in perform-ance tools. • Exploring and developing several new modeling methodologies. • Using modeling tools to develop performance models for strategic codes. • Application of modeling methodology to make a large number of “blind” per-formance predictions on certain mission partner applications, targeting most cur-rently available system architectures. • Error analysis to correct some systematic biases encountered as part of the large-scale blind prediction exercises. • Addition of instrumentation capabilities for communication libraries other than MPI. • Dissemination the tools and modeling methods to several mission partners, in-cluding DoD HPCMO and two DARPA HPCS vendors (Cray and IBM), as well as to the wider HPC community via a series of tutorials.

  5. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physi