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Sample records for active men performed

  1. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  2. Anthropometric Characteristics and Performance Capabilities of Highly Trained Motocross Athletes Compared With Physically Active Men.

    PubMed

    Bach, Christopher W; Brown, Ann F; Kinsey, Amber W; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Motocross (MX) is a physically demanding sport with little research concerning the physiological characteristics of these athletes. The purpose of this study was to assess the anthropometric characteristics and performance capabilities of highly trained MX athletes (n = 20; 19 ± 1.6 years) compared with age-matched physically active (PA) men (n = 22; 22 ± 2.9 years). Testing was performed on 2 occasions. The initial visit consisted of a personality assessment in addition to the following (in order): anthropometrics, body composition, anaerobic power/fatigue, isokinetic/isometric strength and fatigue, and flexibility. The second visit consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak), handgrip strength, maximum push-ups in 1 minute, extended arm hang time to exhaustion (TTE), and 90° weighted wall-sit tests. All anthropometric and performance data were analyzed using independent samples t-tests to compare group means. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Data are reported as mean ± SD. There were no significant differences between groups in anthropometric or body composition measurements except android fat (MX: 11.7 ± 1.9% vs. PA: 16.4 ± 8.4%, p = 0.04) and biceps circumference (MX: 30.1 ± 2.0 vs. PA: 33.1 ± 3.2 cm, p = 0.001). MX had significantly higher absolute and relative mean anaerobic power (747.3 ± 63.7 vs. 679.7 ± 93.5 W, p = 0.009 and 10.0 ± 0.6 vs. 9.2 ± 1.3 W·kg, p = 0.002, respectively), relative anaerobic peak power (12.7 ± 0.8 vs. 11.9 ± 1.4 W·kg, p = 0.029), TTE (550.1 ± 70.6 vs. 470.1 ± 93.2 seconds, p = 0.004), and extended arm hang duration (113.3 ± 44.9 vs. 73.4 ± 25.3 seconds, p = 0.001). These results suggest highly trained MX athletes possess certain physiological adaptations that likely result from sport-specific demands compared with PA.

  3. Influence of familiarization on the reliability of vertical jump and acceleration sprinting performance in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Moir, Gavin; Button, Chris; Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the number of familiarization sessions required to obtain an accurate measure of reliability associated with loaded vertical jump and 20-m sprint running performance. Ten physically active men attended 5 separate testing sessions over a 3-week period where they performed unloaded and loaded (10-kg extra load) countermovement (CMJ) and static (SJ) jumps, followed by straight-line 20-m sprints. Jump height was recorded for the vertical jumps using a jump mat, while the time for 10 m and 20 m was recorded during the sprints using photocells. The highest (jump conditions) and fastest (sprint) of 3 trials performed during each of the 5 testing sessions was used in the subsequent analysis. Familiarization was assessed using the scores obtained during the 5 separate testing sessions. Reliability was assessed by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient of variation (CV). No significant differences were obtained between the testing sessions for any of the measures. ICCs ranged from 0.89 to 0.95, while CVs ranged from 1.9 to 2.6%. These results indicate that high levels of reliability can be achieved without the need for familiarization sessions when using loaded and unloaded CMJ and SJ and 20-m sprint performance with physically active men.

  4. Comparable fMRI activity with differential behavioural performance on mental rotation and overt verbal fluency tasks in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Halari, Rozmin; Sharma, Tonmoy; Hines, Melissa; Andrew, Chris; Simmons, Andy; Kumari, Veena

    2006-02-01

    To explicate the neural correlates of sex differences in visuospatial and verbal fluency tasks, we examined behavioural performance and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) regional brain activity, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, during a three-dimensional (3D) mental rotation task and a compressed sequence overt verbal fluency task in a group of healthy men (n=9) and women (n=10; tested during the low-oestrogen phase of the menstrual cycle). Men outperformed women on the mental rotation task, and women outperformed men on the verbal fluency task. For the mental rotation task, men and women activated areas in the right superior parietal lobe and the bilateral middle occipital gyrus in association with the rotation condition. In addition, men activated the left middle temporal gyrus and the right angular gyrus. For verbal fluency, men activated areas in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right cingulate gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left medial frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, thalamus, left parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral lingual gyrus, and women activated areas in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and left caudate. Despite observing task related activation in the hypothesised areas in men and women, no areas significantly differentiated the two sexes. Our results demonstrate comparable brain activation in men and women in association with mental rotation and verbal fluency function with differential performance, and provide support for sex differences in brain-behaviour relationships.

  5. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: To determine whether objectively measured physical activity levels are associated with measures of physical function and mobility in older men. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Academic research center. Participants: Eighty-two community-dwelling men >/= 65 years of age with self-report...

  6. Comparison Between Pre-Exhaustion and Traditional Exercise Order on Muscle Activation and Performance in Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Enrico Gori; Brown, Lee E.; Gomes, Willy Andrade; Corrêa, Daniel Alves; Serpa, Érica Paes; da Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas; Junior, Guanis de Barros Vilela; Fioravanti, Gustavo zorzi; Aoki, Marcelo Saldanha; Lopes, Charles Ricardo; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the acute effects of pre-exhaustion vs. traditional exercise order on neuromuscular performance and sEMG in trained men. Fourteen young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25.5 ± 4.0 years, height: 174.9 ± 4.1 cm, and total body mass: 80.0 ± 11.1 kg) took part of this study. All tests were randomized and counterbalanced for all subjects and experimental conditions. Volunteers attended one session in the laboratory. First, they performed ten repetition maximum (10RM) tests for each exercise (bench press and triceps pushdown) separately. Secondly, they performed all three conditions at 10RM: pre-test (bench press and triceps pushdown, separately), pre-exhaustion (triceps pushdown+bench press, PE) and traditional (bench press+triceps pushdown, TR), and rested 30 minutes between conditions. Results showed that pre-test was significantly greater than PE (p = 0.031) but not different than TR, for total volume load lifted. There was a significant difference between the pre-test and the time-course of lactate measures (p = 0.07). For bench press muscle activity of the pectoralis major, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). Also, for muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.001, PE: p = 0.005, and TR: p = 0.006). For triceps pushdown, muscle activity of the triceps brachii, the last repetition was significantly greater than the first repetition (pre-test: p = 0.006, PE: p = 0.016, and TR: p = 0.005). For RPE, there were no significant differences between PE and TR (p = 0.15). Our results suggest that exercise order decreases repetitions performed, however, neuromuscular fatigue, lactate, and RPE are not impacted. The lack of difference in total volume load lifted between PE and TR might explain, at least in part, the similar metabolic and perceptual

  7. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2013-11-20

    This study evaluated how five weeks of inertial training using two different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The two training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training three times per week for five weeks using the new Inertial Training Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included three exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), while the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2% and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2% and 27%), CMJ (3.8% and 6.7%), SJ (2.2% and 6.1%), PVT (8% and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8% and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass.

  8. Short-term dietary energy restriction reduces lean body mass but not performance in physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Zachwieja, J J; Ezell, D M; Cline, A D; Ricketts, J C; Vicknair, P C; Schorle, S M; Ryan, D H

    2001-05-01

    We studied the effect of moderate, short-term energy restriction on physical performance in physically fit men (n = 13) and women (n = 11) in a controlled clinical research setting with a metabolic kitchen, exercise testing laboratory and training facility. The experiment consisted of a 10 d baseline period followed by either 2 wk of dietary energy restriction (750 kcal/d; n = 16) or energy balance (control; n = 8). During this 24 day study, exercise energy expenditure averaged 465 +/- 5.7 kcal/d in all subjects and was accomplished through treadmill running at a self-selected pace. Body weight was maintained in the control group (-0.36 +/- 0.24kg), but energy restriction resulted in weight loss of -1.29 +/- 0.16 kg (p < 0.001). There was a trend for lean body mass to decline more in the energy restriction group (p = 0.093), accounting for 61% of the weight loss, and urinary nitrogen excretion also tended to be higher in the energy restriction vs. control group (i.e., 13.2 +/- 1.1 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.0g/d; p = 0.089). Muscle strength (leg & shoulder press; 1 repetition maximum) was maintained or increased during the energy restriction period. Muscle endurance, assessed by leg squats to fatigue, and 5 mile run time improved following two weeks of energy restriction or balance. Anaerobic capacity (Wingate Test) increased slightly in the restriction (+ 368 +/- 219 joules) but declined in the control group 649 +/- 288 joules; p<0.05). We conclude that short-term (2 weeks) moderate energy restriction (approximately 750 kcal/d) results in weight loss but does not impair performance in physically fit young men and women.

  9. Habitual physical activity levels are associated with performance in measures of physical function and mobility in older men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity according to triaxial accelerometers; physical function and mobility according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, stair climb time, and a lift-and-lower task; aerobic capacity according to maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2) max); and leg press and chest pr...

  10. Aromatase Activity and Bone Loss in Men

    PubMed Central

    Merlotti, Daniela; Gennari, Luigi; Stolakis, Konstantinos; Nuti, Ranuccio

    2011-01-01

    Aromatase is a specific component of the cytochrome P450 enzyme system responsible for the transformation of androgen precursors into estrogens. This enzyme is encoded by the CYP19A1 gene located at chromosome 15q21.2, that is, expressed in ovary and testis, but also in many extraglandular sites such as the placenta, brain, adipose tissue, and bone. The activity of aromatase regulates the concentrations of estrogens with endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine effects on target issues including bone. Importantly, extraglandular aromatization of circulating androgen precursors is the major source of estrogen in men. Clinical and experimental evidences clearly indicate that aromatase activity and estrogen production are necessary for longitudinal bone growth, the attainment of peak bone mass, pubertal growth spurt, epiphyseal closure, and normal bone remodeling in young individuals. Moreover, with aging, individual differences in aromatase activity may significantly affect bone loss and fracture risk in men. PMID:21772971

  11. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of…

  12. Yugoslavia. "Migration" -- programme activities targeting men.

    PubMed

    Dzeletovic, A; Matovic-miljanovic, S

    1999-01-01

    In Yugoslavia, companies send their workers to different parts of the world, including countries with a high incidence of AIDS. It has been noted that it is characteristic for migrants to accommodate themselves to foreign conditions, which subsequently lead to health problems, especially with regards to reproductive and sexual health. Often, in the case of partner separation, men may seek sexual relations with an unknown partner and/or neglect to use proper protection. According to research carried out in Yugoslavia, there are critical gaps in workers' knowledge on sexual and reproductive health. Based on research results, an educational program for migrants, designed to train and strengthen individuals¿ capabilities and modify their risky behavior, was created. Program activities include production of brochures targeting those people travelling to countries with a high incidence of HIV/AIDS. In addition, a process for creating more cooperation between the state and other organizations at regional and local levels was initiated.

  13. Heterosexual sexual behaviour in a sample of homosexually active men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Hart, G; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Dawson, J

    1989-01-01

    Three hundred and fifty six homosexually active men were recruited in 1988 for a study by interview of sexual behaviour. Thirty two per cent had homosexual passive anal sex in the previous month and 60% in the year before interview. Anal sex and unprotected anal sex were more common with regular than non-regular partners. Heterosexual sex was reported by 4% of men in the last month and 10% for the last year. Sixteen per cent of heterosexually active men reported anal sex with a female partner. Fewer men described themselves as bisexual than would be expected from the sample's recent sexual histories. More attention is needed to the definition and measurement of "bisexuality" to understand its role in HIV transmission. PMID:2807286

  14. Enhanced Immune Activation Linked to Endotoxemia in HIV-1 Seronegative Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Christine D.; Tomassilli, Julia; Sirignano, Michael; Tejeda, Marisol Romero; Arnold, Kelly B.; Che, Denise; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jost, Stephanie; Allen, Todd; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study assessed cellular and soluble markers of immune activation in HIV-1-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM). MSM immune profiles were characterized by increased expression of CD57 on T cells and endotoxemia. Endotoxin presence was linked to recent high-risk exposure and associated with elevated cytokine levels and decreased CD4/CD8 T cell ratios. Taken together, these data show elevated levels of inflammation linked to periods of endotoxemia resulting in a significantly different immune phenotype in a subset of MSM at high risk of HIV-1 acquisition. PMID:25003719

  15. Patient Activation in Type 2 Diabetes: Does It Differ between Men and Women?

    PubMed Central

    van Hateren, Kornelis J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Aim was to investigate whether the degree of patient activation of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is different between men and women. Furthermore, we investigated which factors are associated with patient activation in men and women. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 1615 patients with T2D from general practices. Patient activation was measured with the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) questionnaire. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate the association between gender and patient activation. Stratified analyses according to gender were performed to investigate which factors are associated with patient activation. Results. No association between gender and PAM score was found after adjustment for all selected confounders (p = 0.094). In men, lower age (p = 0.001), a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.001), and a lower BMI (p = 0.013) were associated with a higher PAM score. In women, a higher WHO-5 score (p < 0.017) and the absence of macrovascular complications (p < 0.031) were associated with a higher PAM score. Conclusion. There is no difference in the degree of patient activation of men and women with T2D. Age, well-being, and BMI were found to be associated with patient activation in men, whereas well-being and macrovascular complications were found to be associated with patient activation in women. PMID:27656658

  16. Impact of supplementation with bicarbonate on lower-extremity muscle performance in older men and women

    PubMed Central

    Castaneda-Sceppa, C.; Harris, S. S.; Palermo, N. J.; Cloutier, G.; Ceglia, L.; Dallal, G. E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study describes the impact of bicarbonate treatment for 3 months on net acid excretion (NAE), nitrogen excretion, and muscle performance in older men and women. Bicarbonate reduced NAE, and the decrement was associated with a decrease in nitrogen excretion. Treatment also improved muscle power and endurance in the women. Introduction Bicarbonate enhances muscle performance during strenuous exercise, but its effect on performance during normal activity in older subjects is unknown. Methods In this trial, healthy subjects age 50 and older were randomized to 67.5 mmol of bicarbonate or to no bicarbonate daily for 3 months. Changes in lower-extremity muscle power, endurance, urinary nitrogen, and NAE were compared across treatment groups in the 162 participants included in the analyses. Results In the men and the women, bicarbonate was well tolerated, and as expected, it significantly decreased NAE. The change in NAE correlated with change in nitrogen excretion in women (r=0.32, P=0.002) with a similar trend in men (r=0.23, P=0.052). In the women, bicarbonate increased double leg press power at 70% one repetition maximum by 13% (P=0.003) compared with no bicarbonate and improved other performance measures. Treatment with bicarbonate had no significant effect on muscle performance in the men. Conclusions Ingestion of bicarbonate decreased nitrogen excretion and improved muscle performance in healthy postmenopausal women. The bicarbonate-induced decline in NAE was associated with reduced nitrogen excretion in both men and women. These findings suggest that bicarbonate merits further evaluation as a safe, low-cost intervention that may attenuate age-related loss of muscle performance and mass in the elderly. PMID:19727904

  17. Reliability of 1RM Split-Squat Performance and the Efficacy of Assessing Both Bilateral Squat and Split-Squat 1RM in a Single Session for Non-Resistance-Trained Recreationally Active Men.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Brian G; Moir, Gavin L; Graham, Scott M; Connaboy, Chris

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) split squat (SS) and establish the efficacy of collecting 1RM-SS and 1RM bilateral squat (BLS) data in the same session, for a non-resistance-trained recreationally active population. Fourteen males performed a submaximal familiarization session and 5 testing sessions. After familiarization, the 1RM-SS was tested in the following 3 sessions. In session 4, subjects were tested in both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS, with half performing SS then BLS and the remainder BLS then SS. In session 5, the testing order was reversed. Reliability statistics calculated included the following: changes in mean across sessions, coefficient of variation calculated from the typical error (TE) scores (%CV(TE)), and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) of 1RM-SS. Statistically significant differences between the mean 1RM-SS in sessions 1 and 2 (2.14 kg, p = 0.001), and sessions 1 and 3 (2.86 kg, p < 0.003) were found, indicating the requirement for an additional familiarization session before 1RM-SS data collection. The %CV(TE) was 2.53% and the ICC was 0.97 for the 1RM-SS protocol. Performing SS before BLS tended to increase the mean 1RM-BLS (+2.1%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.055). A reliable measure of 1RM-SS can be determined after 1 submaximal and 1 maximal familiarization session in non-resistance-trained recreationally active men. Analysis of the current data suggests that it is appropriate to perform both 1RM-SS and 1RM-BLS tests within the same testing session if 1RM-SS is performed before 1RM-BLS. However, further testing is warranted to firmly establish the effects of 1RM-SS on subsequent 1RM-BLS.

  18. Effect of competitiveness on forty-yard dash performance in college men and women.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ashley N; Decker, Aaron J; Baarts, Jennifer N; Dupont, Andrea M; Epema, John S; Reuther, Michael C; Houser, Jeremy J; Mayhew, Jerry L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine performance differences between individual and competitive trials of the 40-yard dash. Physically active college men (n = 25) and women (n = 29) performed an individual 40-yard dash, followed by completion of the Sports Competition Trait Inventory (SCTI) before performing a paired 40-yard dash against a time-matched competitor. All sprints were performed on an indoor rubberized track using photoelectric gates to start and stop a digital timer. In addition, 3 timers used hand-held stopwatches to record the individual sprint time. There was no significant difference (p = 0.10) between men (120.3 +/- 16.6) and women (111.7 +/- 20.3) on the SCTI. There was no significant difference between individual and competitive 40-yard dash times for either men (5.21 +/- 0.24 and 5.19 +/- 0.23 seconds, respectively) or women (6.12 +/- 0.31 and 6.11 +/- 0.32 seconds, respectively). The correlation between SCTI and both individual and competitive 40-yard dashes was significant (p < 0.05) for women (r = -0.45 and -0.44, respectively) but not for men (r = -0.10 and 0.10, respectively). Electronic times (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) were not significantly different from 1 hand-timer (5.71 +/- 0.56 seconds) but were significantly faster than the other 2 timers (5.80 +/- 0.58 and 5.82 +/- 0.57 seconds). Averaging the 3 hand times (5.78 +/- 0.56 seconds) for comparison with the electronic timing (5.70 +/- 0.54 seconds) produced a high correlation (r = 0.96) but a significantly slower time (p < 0.05). A competitive environment does not appear to improve short sprint times in either men or women. In addition, hand timing may not always produce faster times compared to electronic timing.

  19. Effect of compression stockings on running performance in men runners.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Köckritz, Christina; Mayhew, Jerry; Wassermann, Alfred; Zapf, Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of below-knee compression stockings on running performance in men runners. Using a within-group study design, 21 moderately trained athletes (39.3 +/- 10.9 years) without lower-leg abnormities were randomly assigned to perform a stepwise treadmill test up to a voluntary maximum with and without below-knee compressive stockings. The second treadmill test was completed within 10 days of recovery. Maximum running performance was determined by time under load (minutes), work (kJ), and aerobic capacity (ml.kg.min). Velocity (kmxh) and time under load were assessed at different metabolic thresholds using the Dickhuth et al. lactate threshold model. Time under load (36.44 vs. 35.03 minutes, effect size [ES]: 0.40) and total work (422 vs. 399 kJ, ES: 0.30) were significantly higher with compression stockings compared with running socks. However, only slight, nonsignificant differences were observed for VO2max (53.3 vs. 52.2 mlxkgxmin, ES: 0.18). Running performance at the anaerobic (minimum lactate + 1.5 mmolxL) threshold (14.11 vs. 13.90 kmxh, ES: 0.22) and aerobic (minimum lactate + 0.5 mmolxL) thresholds (13.02 vs. 12.74 kmxh, ES: 0.28) was significantly higher using compression stockings. Therefore, stockings with constant compression in the area of the calf muscle significantly improved running performance at different metabolic thresholds. However, the underlying mechanism was only partially explained by a slightly higher aerobic capacity.

  20. Do Men and Women Perform Academic Work Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González Ramos, Ana M.; Fernández Palacín, Fernando; Muñoz Márquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Why is the gender gap so large in researchers' career progression? Do men and women have different priorities in their academic careers? This study explores men's and women's academic work to shed light on the strategies of male and female researchers. The online survey collected data on Andalusian researchers to determine possible differences in…

  1. Relations between anthropometric parameters and sexual activity of Hungarian men.

    PubMed

    Rurik, I; Szigethy, E; Fekete, F; Langmár, Z

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades, there were visible achievements in the evaluation of sexuality-related problems and issues regarding sexual life. However, there are limited reliable and comparable data on the average values of sexual activity and its relation to anthropometric parameters in different populations and age cohorts. This study tries to examine the association between anthropometric parameters and male sexual activity. A clinical population of 1146 male patients between 25 and 45 years of age attending an outpatient clinic of andrology in Budapest (Hungary) was examined and questioned in a medical setting. Age, body height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and self-reported sexual activity were the main outcome measures. The patients were allotted into age groups (25-29, 30-39 and 40-45 years), the youngest group showing the highest coital activity. Although obesity and overweight were present in 61% of the study population, no connections between BMI and sexual activity were apparent. Comparing less active persons with those reporting at least two intercourses per week, significant difference was found between body height groups. Men below 170 cm reported higher activity than men over 180 cm. Despite the fact that the prevalence of obesity among younger generations is increasing, it has had no visible influence on the sexual activity of this age cohort as yet. Our data suggest that sexual activity was not clearly related to other anthropometric parameters, and depends mainly on the characteristics of the population examined. There is a great need for large-scale studies worldwide on larger representative samples, using similar methods, to acquire reliable data from other nations and different age groups.

  2. Sensorimotor Peripheral Nerve Function and Physical Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S.; Cauley, Jane A.; Newman, Anne B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Jakicic, John M.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Zivkovic, Sasa; Dam, Tien; Caserotti, Paolo; Cawthon, Peggy M.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Strotmeyer, Elsa S.

    2017-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n=328, age 78.8±4.7 years), conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction (latencies, amplitudes: CMAP and SNAP for motor and sensory amplitude, respectively), 1.4g/10g monofilament (dorsum of the great toe), and neuropathy symptoms. ANOVA and multivariate linear regression modeled PN associations with PA (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) and SenseWear Armband). After multivariable adjustment, better motor latency was associated with higher PASE scores (160.5±4.8 vs 135.6±6.7, p<0.01). Those without vs. with neuropathy symptoms had higher PASE scores (157.6±5.3 vs 132.9±7.1, p<0.01). Better vs. worse SNAP was associated with slightly more daily vigorous activity (9.5±0.8 vs. 7.3±0.7, p=0.05). Other PN measures were not associated with PA. Certain PN measures were associated with lower PA, suggesting a potential pathway for disability. PMID:26964668

  3. Geography, Race/Ethnicity, and Physical Activity Among Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Elizabeth Kelley; Porch, Tichelle; Hill, Sarah; Thorpe, Roland J

    2017-02-01

    Engaging in regular physical activity reduces one's risk of chronic disease, stroke, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer. These preventive benefits associated with physical activity are of particular importance for men, who have shorter life expectancy and experience higher rates of chronic diseases as compared to women. Studies at the community and national levels have found that social and environmental factors are important determinants of men's physical activity, but little is known about how regional influences affect physical activity behaviors among men. The objective of this study is to examine the association between geographic region and physical activity among men in the United States, and to determine if there are racial/ethnic differences in physical activity within these geographic regions. Cross-sectional data from men who participated the 2000 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey ( N = 327,556) was used. The primary outcome in this study was whether or not men had engaged in sufficient physical activity to receive health benefits, defined as meeting the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Race/ethnicity and geographic region were the primary independent variables. Within every region, Hispanic and Asian men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. Within the Northeast, South, and West, black men had lower odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity compared to white men. The key findings indicate that the odds of engaging in sufficient physical activity among men differ significantly between geographic regions and within regions by race/ethnicity.

  4. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  5. Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko; Häkkinen, Arja; Karavirta, Laura; Nyman, Kai; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Avela, Janne; Korhonen, Janne; Knuutila, Veli-Pekka; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.0 years) were divided into 3 training groups (ET n=9, ST n=11, SET n=11) and a control group (C, n=9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured before and after a 21-week training program using a graded TM and maximal incremental bicycle ergometer (BE) tests. Isometric forces, vertical jump, and electromyographic activity of leg extensor and/or forearm flexor (F) muscles were measured before and after training and the TM tests. Increases of 20-21% in strength and of 7-12% in cycling BE VO2peak occurred in the training groups, whereas the changes of C remained minor. VO2peak was associated, both before and after training, with TM exercise time in all groups (from r=0.65, p=0.030 to r=0.93, p<0.001). Only SET showed a significant training-induced increase (p=0.011) in exercise time of the TM walking with no significant increase in TM VO2peak. The present data suggest that in older men ET and SET induced specific increases in BE VO2peak and ST and SET in strength. However, only SET increased walking exercise time indicating improved load carrying walking performance because of large individual differences in the magnitude of the development of either strength or endurance capacities.

  6. Physical exercise and cardiac autonomic activity in healthy adult men.

    PubMed

    Panda, Kaninika; Krishna, Pushpa

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Regular exercise is known to improve health and maintain physical fitness. The heart rate response to exercise reflects autonomic control of heart and has shown to predict cardiovascular prognosis. Decreased heart rate variability (HRV) is known as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. The objective of this study was to study the effect of exercise on cardiac autonomic activity. Thirty two healthy adult men in the age group of 18-25 years with normal body mass index (BMI) were recruited from different physical fitness centers, who were undergoing regular exercise for past 3 months. Resting ECG was recorded for 5 minutes and analyzed for frequency analysis of HRV. HRV parameters of the subjects were compared with fifty age and BMI matched subjects who were not undergoing any exercise program. Physical activity level of all subjects was assessed by using Global Physical Activity Questionnaire. The exercising (E) subjects were found to have a lesser heart rate (73.27 ± 8.6 vs 74.41 ± 8.59) compared to non-exercising (NE) group, which was not significant. No significant difference was found in frequency domain parameters of HRV between exercising and non-exercising group with LF (47.12 ± 19.17 vs 43.55 ± 16.66), HF (41.03 ± 17.65 vs 46.03 ± 15.89) and LF/HF (1.61 ± 1.16 vs 1.22 ± 0.93) respectively. Physical activity level was significantly different between the two groups (4175 ± 1481.53 vs 1176.4?1103.83, p<0.001). This study showed 3 months of exercise did not have any effect on cardiac autonomic activity despite the difference in physical activity.

  7. Male gender role strain as a barrier to African American men's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-10-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors that influence their health behaviors. Thematic content analysis revealed three interrelated barriers to physical activity: (a) work, family, and community commitments and priorities limited time and motivation for engaging in physical activity; (b) physical activity was not a normative individual or social activity and contributed to men prioritizing work and family responsibilities over physical activity; and (c) the effort men exerted in seeking to fulfill the provider role limited their motivation and energy to engage in physical activity. These findings highlight the need for physical activity interventions that consider how health fits in the overall context of men's lives.

  8. [Transgender] Young Men: Gendered Subjectivities and the Physically Active Body

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caudwell, Jayne

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss [transgender] young men's social, physical and embodied experiences of sport. These discussions draw from interview research with two young people who prefer to self-identify as "male" and not as "trans men", although they do make use of this term. Finn and Ed volunteered to take part in the research…

  9. Does upper body strength and power influence upper body Wingate performance in men and women?

    PubMed

    Lovell, D; Mason, D; Delphinus, E; Eagles, A; Shewring, S; McLellan, C

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of muscular strength and power on upper body Wingate performance in men and women. Muscular strength (1 repetition maximum bench press), muscular power (bench throws) and upper body anaerobic performance (Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT)) was assessed in 24 men and 16 women. Men had significantly ( P<0.001) higher absolute and relative peak and mean power and blood lactate concentration during the WAnT compared to their female counterparts. Men also produced significantly ( P<0.001) higher strength and absolute and relative peak and mean power during the bench press and throw, respectively, compared to the female participants. For men body mass and mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 84% and 87% of the variance in Wingate peak ( P<0.001 and P=0.039, respectively) and mean ( P<0.001 and P=0.028, respectively) power. For women mean power produced during the bench throw explained approximately 72% and 52% of the variance in Wingate peak ( P=0.002) and mean ( P=0.017) power, respectively. For men body mass and to a lesser extent muscular power best predicts upper body Wingate performance while for women only muscular power predicts upper body Wingate performance.

  10. Can testosterone therapy be offered to men on active surveillance for prostate cancer? Preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Kacker, Ravi; Hult, Mariam; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Conners, William P; Rojas, Pablo A; Dewolf, William C; Morgentaler, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    This report presents our experience with T therapy in a cohort of T-deficient men on active surveillance (AS) for Gleason 3 + 3 and Gleason 3 + 4 prostate cancer (PCa). A retrospective chart review identified 28 men with T deficiency who underwent T therapy (T group) for at least 6 months while on AS for PCa. A comparison group of 96 men on AS for PCa with untreated T deficiency (no-T group) was identified at the same institution. The AS protocol followed a modified Epstein criteria and allowed inclusion of men with a single core of low-volume Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Mean age was 59.5 and 61.3 years, and mean follow-up was 38.9 and 42.4 months for the T and no-T groups, respectively. Of all 28 men in the T group, 3 (10.7%) men developed an increase in Gleason score while on AS. Of 22 men in the T group with Gleason 3 + 3 disease, 7 (31.8%) men developed biopsy progression including 3 men (13.6%) who developed Gleason 3 + 4 PCa. Of 6 men with Gleason 3 + 4 disease at baseline, 2 (33.3%) men developed an increase in tumor volume, and none developed upgrading beyond Gleason 3 + 4. All 96 men in the no-T group had Gleason 3 + 3 disease at baseline and, 43 (44.7%) developed biopsy progression, including 9 men (9.38%) with upgrading to Gleason 7 (3 + 4). Biopsy progression rates were similar for both groups and historical controls. Biopsy progression in men on AS appears unaffected by T therapy over 3 years. Prospective placebo-controlled trials of T therapy in T-deficient men on AS should be considered given the symptomatic benefits experienced by treated men. PMID:26306850

  11. Physiological Influences upon the Work Performance of Men and Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    Modificzzionni della soglia del dorore cutaneo durante il ciclo menstruale . Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 1968, 44, 235-236. Chambers, E.S., Johnson...SEX DIFFERENCES SLEEP LOSS MENSTRUAL CYCLE PERFORMANCE DECREMENTS WORK PERFORMANCE 20. A TRACT (Continue m reerse sai It neceewr and Idendiftr by...period (i.e., Menstrual vs Mid-Cycle) and whether or not the subjects were using contraceptive pills (i.e., Pill vs Normally Cycling). The performances

  12. Performance Evaluation Narratives of Navy Women and Men: An Examination for Bias in Promotion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    was found. Moreover, certain of the traits categorized as measuring motivation and personality are considered to be more representative of men than...indicating that positive performance in this dimension did not enhance r~oycon prospects. Men who were nPt elected had more positive statements on dimensions...and Personality Traits , and Class V, Dimensions of Concern to the Navy. In Class II, it was found that women who were not selected had more positive

  13. Effect of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women.

    PubMed

    Kin-Isler, Ayse; Kosar, Sukran Nazan

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 10 weeks of step aerobics training on anaerobic performance of men and women. College-age volunteers (64 women and 54 men) were divided into step aerobics (33 women, 27 men) and control (31 women, 27 men) groups. Before and after the 10-week period, the subjects' body composition, muscular strength, Wingate anaerobic performance, and vertical jump anaerobic performance were determined. The step aerobics group participated in step aerobics sessions of 50 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 10 weeks, at 60-80% of their heart rate reserve. Results of 2 x 2 analysis of covariance with repeated measures indicated significant sex differences in percentage body fat, lean body mass, muscular strength, and in all of the measured indices of the Wingate Anaerobic Test. The step aerobics group showed significant improvement only in mean power relative to body weight compared with the control group and women showed significant improvement only in anaerobic power of vertical jump when compared with men. It can be concluded that 10 weeks of step aerobics was not effective in improving all of the measured anaerobic indices in men and women.

  14. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  15. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-06-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proportional activation of neural structures constituting the human reward system for increasing levels of reward, independent of incentive type. However, in men activation in the prospect of monetary rewards encompassed a wide network of mesolimbic brain regions compared to only limited activation for social rewards. In contrast, in women, anticipation of either incentive type activated identical brain regions. Our findings represent an important step towards a better understanding of motivated behaviour by taking into account individual differences in reward valuation.

  16. Physically active men show better semen parameters and hormone values than sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, Diana; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo Edir; García-Manso, Juan Manuel; Barrera, Natalibeth; Vaamonde-Lemos, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    Physical exercise promotes many health benefits. The present study was undertaken to assess possible semen and hormone differences among physically active (PA) subjects and sedentary subjects (SE). The analyzed qualitative sperm parameters were: volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology; where needed, additional testing was performed. The measured hormones were: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), cortisol (C), and the ratio between T and C (T/C). Maximum oxygen consumption was also assessed to check for differences in fitness level. Statistically significant differences were found for several semen parameters such as total progressive motility (PA: 60.94 ± 5.03; SE: 56.07 ± 4.55) and morphology (PA: 15.54 ± 1.38, SE: 14.40 ± 1.15). The seminological values observed were supported by differences in hormones, with FSH, LH, and T being higher in PA than in SE (5.68 ± 2.51 vs. 3.14 ± 1.84; 5.95 ± 1.11 vs. 5.08 ± 0.98; 7.68 ± 0.77 vs. 6.49 ± 0.80, respectively). Likewise, the T/C ratio, index of anabolic versus catabolic status, was also higher in PA (0.46 ± 0.11 vs. 0.32 ± 0.07), which further supports the possibility of an improved hormonal environment. The present study shows that there are differences in semen and hormone values of physically active subjects and sedentary subjects. Physically active subjects seem to have a more anabolic hormonal environment and a healthier semen production.

  17. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  18. Community environments shaping transactional sex among sexually active men in Malawi, Nigeria, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Rob; Winter, Amy; Elfstrom, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Transactional sex, or the exchange of sex for material goods or money, is a risky sexual behavior that has been linked to HIV/AIDS and gender-based violence. Throughout sub-Saharan Africa, transactional sex remains a common practice, putting men and women at risk of HIV. However, little is known of how community environments shape men's participation in risky transactional sex. This analysis examines community-level influences on participation in risky transactional sex among sexually active men in three African countries (Malawi, Tanzania, and Nigeria). The analysis uses Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data to examine the association between men's report of risky transactional sex and community characteristics including economic, gender norms, HIV behavior and knowledge, and demographic factors. The results show that men residing in communities with more female education and later age of first birth are less likely to report risky transactional sex, while men who live in communities where men report higher number of sexual partners are more likely to report risky transactional sex. While programmatic interventions should continue to improve women's status individually and relative to men, such efforts should be extended to recognize that many community and cultural influences also affect men's sexual behavior. Programs that understand, discuss, and challenge community factors that influence men's sexual behavior may be able to provide a more effective intervention resulting in opportunities for communities to initiate behavioral change.

  19. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internationally, young men (aged 18-25 years) have a high prevalence of overweight and obesity and many fail to meet recommended levels of physical activity or dietary guidelines. There is a lack of engagement and understanding of young men's needs in health-related research. Therefore, this study a...

  20. Male Gender Role Strain as a Barrier to African American Men's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…

  1. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women.

  2. Confirmatory biopsy for the assessment of prostate cancer in men considering active surveillance: reference centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Bosco, Cecilia; Cozzi, Gabriele; Kinsella, Janette; Bianchi, Roberto; Acher, Peter; Challacombe, Benjamin; Popert, Rick; Brown, Christian; George, Gincy; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Cahill, Declan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate how accurate a 12-core transrectal biopsy derived low-risk prostate cancer diagnosis is for an active surveillance programme by comparing the histological outcome with that from confirmatory transperineal sector biopsy. Subjects and methods The cohort included 166 men diagnosed with low volume Gleason score 3+3 prostate cancer on initial transrectal biopsy who also underwent a confirmatory biopsy. Both biopsy techniques were performed according to standard protocols and samples were taken for histopathology analysis. Subgroup analysis was performed according to disease severity at baseline to determine possible disease parameters of upgrading at confirmatory biopsy. Results After confirmatory biopsy, 34% demonstrated Gleason score upgrade, out of which 25% were Gleason score 3+4 and 8.5% primary Gleason pattern 4. Results remained consistent for the subgroup analysis and a weak positive association, but not statistically significant, between prostate specific antigen (PSA), age, and percentage of positive cores, and PCa upgrading at confirmatory biopsy was found. Conclusion In our single centre study, we found that one-third of patients had higher Gleason score at confirmatory biopsy. Furthermore 8.5% of these upgraders had a primary Gleason pattern 4. Our results together with previously published evidence highlight the need for the revision of current guidelines in prostate cancer diagnosis for the selection of men for active surveillance. PMID:27170833

  3. The acute effects of back squats on vertical jump performance in men and women.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Chad A; Davis, Shala E; Moir, Gavin L

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute effects of performing back squats on subsequent performance during a series of vertical jumps in men and women. Twelve men and 12 women were tested on three separate occasions, the first of which was used to determine their 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) parallel back squat. Following this, subjects performed a potentiation and a control treatment in a counterbalanced order. The potentiation treatment culminated with subjects performing parallel back squats with a load equivalent to 70% 1- RM for three repetitions, following which they performed one countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) for maximal height every three minutes for a total of 10 jumps. During the control treatment, subjects performed only the CMJs. Jump height (JH) and vertical stiffness (VStiff) were calculated for each jump from the vertical force signal recorded from a force platform. There were no significant changes in JH or VStiff following the treatments and no significant differences in the responses between men and women (p > 0.05). Correlations between normalized 1-RM back squat load and the absolute change in JH and VStiff were small to moderate for both men and women, with most correlations being negative. Large variations in response to the back squats were noted in both men and women. The use of resistance exercises performed prior to a series of vertical jumps can result in improvements in performance in certain individuals, although the gains tend to be small and dependent upon the mechanical variable measured. There does not seem to be any differences between men and women in the response to dynamic potentiation protocols. Key pointsSubstantial individual responses were noted in both men and women in response to the PAP protocol used in the present study.The choice of dependent variable influences the ef-ficacy of the PAP protocol, with JH and VStiff demonstrating disparate responses in individual sub-jects.Such individual responses

  4. Life satisfaction and leisure activities during men's retirement: a Turkish sample.

    PubMed

    Sener, A; Terzioğlu, R G; Karabulut, E

    2007-01-01

    This study was planned and carried out as a pilot study to determine the life satisfaction of men from the Official Social Security Institutions in Turkey (n = 231). The Life Satisfaction Index was used as the measure. Among this group of retired men, the most popular leisure activities were audio-visual and reading. The strongest predictor of life satisfaction was the frequency of participation in leisure activities, followed by the level of satisfaction with health, income, and planning of leisure activities.

  5. Early reduction in toe flexor strength is associated with physical activity in elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Suwa, Masataka; Imoto, Takayuki; Kida, Akira; Yokochi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the toe flexor, hand grip and knee extensor strengths of young and elderly men, and to examine the association between toe flexor strength and physical activity or inactivity levels. [Subjects and Methods] Young (n=155, 18–23 years) and elderly (n=60, 65–88 years) men participated in this study. Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength were measured. Physical activity (time spent standing/walking per day) and inactivity (time spent sitting per day) were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. [Results] Toe flexor, hand grip, and knee extensor strength of the elderly men were significantly lower than those of the young men. Standing/walking and sitting times of the elderly men were lower than those of the young men. Toe flexor strength correlated with hand grip and knee extensor strength in both groups. In elderly men, toe flexor strength correlated with standing/walking time. In comparison to the young men’s mean values, toe flexor strength was significantly lower than knee extensor and hand grip strength in the elderly group. [Conclusion] The results suggest that age-related reduction in toe flexor strength is greater than those of hand grip and knee extensor strengths. An early loss of toe flexor strength is likely associated with reduced physical activity in elderly men. PMID:27313353

  6. Effects of Short-Term Isokinetic Training on Standing Long-Jump Performance in Untrained Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morriss, Calvin J.; Tolfrey, Keith; Coppack, Russell J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effects of a brief isokinetic training program on quadriceps and hamstring peak torque (PT) and standing long-jump performance. Tests on 12 untrained men indicated that the brief training program was at least as effective in improving quadriceps isokinetic (but not hamstring) PT. PT gains subsequent to isokinetic resistance training…

  7. Beyond Bad Behaving Brothers: Productive Performances of Masculinities among College Fraternity Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III; Harper, Shaun R.

    2014-01-01

    Research on fraternity men focuses almost exclusively on problematic behaviors such as homophobia and sexism, alcohol abuse, violence against women, sexual promiscuity, and the overrepresentation of members among campus judicial offenders. Consequently, little is known about those who perform masculinities in healthy and productive ways. Presented…

  8. Deconstructing Masculinity: A Qualitative Study of College Men's Masculine Conceptualizations and Gender Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank, III

    2008-01-01

    Informed by the constructionist epistemological perspective, the purpose of this study was to examine socially constructed conceptualizations of masculinity and gender performance among 12 culturally diverse undergraduate men. The participants espoused seemingly productive conceptualizations of masculinity, yet their gendered behaviors were…

  9. Are men more intuitive when it comes to eating and physical activity?

    PubMed

    Gast, Julie; Madanat, Hala; Nielson, Amy Campbell

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine where men fall on the motivation continuum based on intuitive eating status and if motivation for physical activity and intuitive eating are correlated. Results indicate that being an intuitive eater was associated with a lower body mass index. In terms of demographic variables, as age increased, intuitive eating status decreased and body mass index increased. Men scored high on the antidieting and self-care subscales of the Intuitive Eating Scale. Men who were classified as intuitive eaters scored higher on the external and introjected regulation of the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire but no significant differences were reported by eating status and the identified and intrinsic motivation subscales. Intuitive eating holds promise as a weight management and weight loss tool for men. Intuitive eating may also influence initial motivation for physical activity for men.

  10. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  11. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  12. The moderating impact of lifestyle factors on sex steroids, sexual activities and aging in Asian men

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Victor HH; Tong, Terry YY

    2011-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the relative associations of exercise, sleep and other lifestyle habits with aging, sex hormones, percent body fat (%BF) and sexual activities in men living in the community. A better understanding of this complex interrelationship is important in helping the formulation of modalities for a holistic approach to the management of aging men. The results showed that age is a major determinant for many physiological parameters, including sleep, hormonal and metabolic parameters, some lifestyle factors and sexual activities. Testosterone (T), bioavailable testosterone (BioT) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) concentrations decreased with age, while estradiol (E2), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and %BF increased with age. In addition, there exist intricate associations among hormonal and lifestyle factors, %BF and age. High-intensity exercise and longer duration of sleep were associated with higher concentrations of T and BioT. T was shown to be associated positively with men who were engaged in masturbation. DHEAS was associated with men wanting more sex and with good morning penile rigidity. Older Singaporean men tended to sleep for shorter duration, but exercised more intensely than younger men. Coital and masturbation frequencies decreased with age, and a significantly greater number of younger men were engaged in masturbation. Relationship between the partners is a key determinant of sexuality in men. It appears that T may have a limited, while dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) have a greater role than previously suggest, as a motivational signal for sexual function in men. Both biological and psychosocial factors interact with each other to influence sexual functions in men. Hence, a biopsychosocial approach may be more appropriate for a more lasting resolution to sexual dysfunctions in men. PMID:21532602

  13. Are bisexually active men a 'bridge' for HIV transmission to the 'general population' in Germany? Data from the European Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men Internet Survey (EMIS).

    PubMed

    Sekuler, Todd; Bochow, Michael; von Rüden, Ursula; Töppich, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    To assess the situation of bisexually active men in the German HIV epidemic, data from a 2010 internet survey about sexual health among men who have sex with men were used to assess HIV testing rates, condom use and risk contact among the following groups of respondents: bisexually active single men, bisexually active men with a regular female partner, bisexually active men with a regular male partner and exclusively homosexually active men. Of the 54,387 respondents from Germany, 12% reported having sex contacts with both men and women in the previous year. Descriptive statistics were used to explore the sample's socio-demographic characteristics and to identify relevant inter-group differences in sexual attraction, identity, awareness among contacts of attraction to men, number of sex partners, history of anal intercourse, recruitment of partners online, history of HIV testing and drug use. Multivariable regression analyses were used to assess potential associations between these variables and risk contacts, defined as having reported unprotected anal intercourse with male partners of unknown or discordant serostatus in the previous year. Bisexually active groups reported relatively few risk contacts, strengthening the argument that there is little support for the existence of a substantial 'bisexual bridge' in Germany.

  14. Effect of Age Group on Technical-Tactical Performance Profile of the Serve in Men's Volleyball.

    PubMed

    García-de-Alcaraz, Antonio; Ortega, Enrique; Palao, José M

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the technical-tactical performance profile of the serve for various age groups and categories of competition in men's volleyball. The sample comprised 13,262 serves performed by 986 players in 299 sets observed in various categories of competition (U-14, U-16, U-19, national senior, and international senior). An observational design was used. The variables studied were category of competition, type of execution, and serve performance. The results showed that for higher age groups (senior categories), there were significantly fewer jump serves and poorer serve performance, regardless of players' maturity and training development. The use of the jump serves increased the serve risk while attempting to hinder the organization of the opponent attack. This paper discusses the serve evolution and the implications on the training process at the different age groups in men's volleyball.

  15. The Role of Marital Status in Physical Activity Among African American and White Men.

    PubMed

    Porch, Tichelle C; Bell, Caryn N; Bowie, Janice V; Usher, Therri; Kelly, Elizabeth A; LaVeist, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-11-01

    Racial differences in physical activity among men are well documented; however, little is known about the impact of marital status on this relationship. Data from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 was used to determine whether the association of race and physical activity among men varied by marital status. Marital status was divided into two categories: married and unmarried. Physical activity was determined by the number of minutes per week a respondent engaged in household/yard work, moderate and vigorous activity, or transportation (bicycling and walking) over the past 30 days. The sample included 7,131 African American (29%) and White(71%) men aged 18 years and older. All models were estimated using logistic regression. Because the interaction term of race and marital status was statistically significant (p < .001), the relationship between race, physical activity, and marital status was examined using a variable that reflects the different levels of the interaction term. After adjusting for age, income, education, weight status, smoking status, and self-rated health, African American married men had lower odds (odds ratio = 0.53, 95% confidence interval = [0.46-0.61], p < .001) of meeting federal physical activity guidelines compared with White married men. Possible dissimilarities in financial and social responsibilities may contribute to the racial differences observed in physical activity among African American and White married men.

  16. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    PubMed

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  17. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel L T; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G; Greenfield, Jerry R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m(2)/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = -0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = -0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men.

  18. Muscle Sympathetic Nerve Activity Is Associated with Liver Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Non-Diabetic Men

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel L. T.; Brown, Rachael; Liess, Carsten; Poljak, Anne; Xu, Aimin; Zhang, Jialiang; Trenell, Michael; Jenkins, Arthur; Chisholm, Donald; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Greenfield, Jerry R.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) may play a role in insulin resistance in obesity. However, the direction and nature of the relationship between MSNA and insulin resistance in obesity remain unclear. We hypothesized that resting MSNA would correlate inversely with both muscle and liver insulin sensitivity and that it would be higher in insulin-resistant vs. insulin-sensitive subjects. Materials and methods: Forty-five non-diabetic obese subjects were studied. As no significant relationships were found in women, the data presented in on 22 men aged 48 ± 12 years. Two-step (15 and 80 mU/m2/min) hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed using deuterated glucose to determine liver and muscle insulin sensitivity. Clinical and metabolic parameters were assessed. MSNA was measured via a microelectrode inserted percutaneously into the common peroneal nerve. Results: MSNA burst frequency correlated inversely with liver insulin sensitivity (r = −0.53, P = 0.02) and positively with the hepatokines C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-19 (r = 0.57, P = 0.006, and r = −0.47, P = 0.03, respectively). MSNA burst frequency was lower in Liversen compared to Liverres (27 ± 5 vs. 38 ± 2 bursts per minute; P = 0.03). Muscle insulin sensitivity was unrelated to MSNA. Discussion: Sympathetic neural activation is related to liver insulin sensitivity and circulating hepatokines CRP and FGF-19 in non-diabetic obese men. These results suggest a potential hepato-endocrine-autonomic axis. Future studies are needed to clarify the influence of MSNA on liver insulin sensitivity in men. PMID:28293196

  19. Effects of noise frequency on performance and annoyance for women and men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, K. F.; Payne, M. C., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of noise frequencies on both performance on a complex psychomotor task and annoyance were investigated for men (n = 30) and women (n = 30). Each subject performed a complex psychomotor task for 50 min in the presence of low-frequency noise, high-frequency noise, or ambient noise. Women and men learned the task at different rates. Little effect of noise was shown. Annoyance ratings were subsequently obtained from each subject for noises of various frequencies by the method of magnitude estimation. High-frequency noises were more annoying than low-frequency noises regardless of sex and immediate prior exposure to noise. Sex differences in annoyance did not occur. No direct relationship between learning to perform a complex task while exposed to noise and annoyance by that noise was demonstrated.

  20. African American Men With Very Low–Risk Prostate Cancer Exhibit Adverse Oncologic Outcomes After Radical Prostatectomy: Should Active Surveillance Still Be an Option for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Sundi, Debasish; Ross, Ashley E.; Humphreys, Elizabeth B.; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Schaeffer, Edward M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Active surveillance (AS) is a treatment option for men with very low–risk prostate cancer (PCa); however, favorable outcomes achieved for men in AS are based on cohorts that under-represent African American (AA) men. To explore whether race-based health disparities exist among men with very low–risk PCa, we evaluated oncologic outcomes of AA men with very low–risk PCa who were candidates for AS but elected to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). Patients and Methods We studied 1,801 men (256 AA, 1,473 white men, and 72 others) who met National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria for very low–risk PCa and underwent RP. Presenting characteristics, pathologic data, and cancer recurrence were compared among the groups. Multivariable modeling was performed to assess the association of race with upgrading and adverse pathologic features. Results AA men with very low–risk PCa had more adverse pathologic features at RP and poorer oncologic outcomes. AA men were more likely to experience disease upgrading at prostatectomy (27.3% v 14.4%; P < .001), positive surgical margins (9.8% v 5.9%; P = .02), and higher Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment Post-Surgical scoring system (CAPRA-S) scores. On multivariable analysis, AA race was an independent predictor of adverse pathologic features (odds ratio, [OR], 3.23; P = .03) and pathologic upgrading (OR, 2.26; P = .03). Conclusion AA men with very low–risk PCa who meet criteria for AS but undergo immediate surgery experience significantly higher rates of upgrading and adverse pathology than do white men and men of other races. AA men with very low–risk PCa should be counseled about increased oncologic risk when deciding among their disease management options. PMID:23775960

  1. RET(MEN 2B) is active in the endoplasmic reticulum before reaching the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Runeberg-Roos, P; Virtanen, H; Saarma, M

    2007-12-13

    MEN 2B (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B) is an autosomal dominant cancer syndrome caused by an oncogenic form of the receptor tyrosine kinase REarranged during transfection (RET). The MEN 2B syndrome is associated with an abnormal autophosphorylation of the mutated receptor even without ligand-stimulation. Here, we characterize the activation of a RET(MEN 2B) variant carrying the point mutation Met918Thr, and show that the 150 kDa precursor of RET(MEN 2B) becomes phosphorylated already during synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). At least three different tyrosine residues (Tyr905, Tyr1062, Tyr1096) of the RET(MEN 2B) precursor are phosphorylated before the oncogenic receptor reaches the cell surface. We also demonstrate that the precursor of RET(MEN 2B) interacts with both growth factor receptor-bound protein and Src homology 2 domain-containing already in the ER, and that this interaction is dependent on the kinase activity of RET. With the aid of two RET mutants (RET(MEN 2B/S32L) and RET(MEN 2B/F393L)), which accumulate in the ER, we show that the oncogenic precursor of the receptor has the capacity to activate AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 from the ER. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the oncogenic precursor of RET(MEN 2B) is phosphorylated, interacts with adapter proteins and induces downstream signalling from the ER.

  2. Effects of exercise and conditioning on clotting and fibrinolytic activity in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Earl W.; Bernier, Lani L.; Banta, Guy R.; Yu-Yahiro, Janet; Schoomaker, Eric B.

    1987-01-01

    Blood clotting and fibrinolytic activity in three groups of nonsmoking, nonobese, healthy men ranging from 19 to 59 years are studied. The groups consisted of (1) marathoners (men running more than 50 miles/week); (2) joggers (men running 5-15 miles/week; and (3) sedentary subjects (men who did not exercise routinely). It is observed that the rate of blood clotting is accelerated by exercise; marathoners had greater increases in fibrinolytic activity than the other two groups; and fibrin degradation products increased with exercise. The data reveal that the changes in clotting assays with exercise do not correlate with changes in whole blood lactate, blood pyruvate, or rectal temperatures. It is noted that the level of acceleration for fibrinolytic activity is directly related to the maximum aerobic capacity and work load of the individual, and that conditioning enhances the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

  3. Heart rate and blood pressure response in adult men and women during exercise and sexual activity.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, Sebastian T; Kostis, John B; Casazza, Laurie; Sleeper, Lynn A; Lu, Minmin; Nezgoda, Joseph; Rosen, Raymond S

    2007-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) response of sexual activity compared with treadmill exercise in adult men and women. Nineteen men, 55 +/- 8 years, and 13 women, 51 +/- 7 years, underwent a maximal Bruce protocol treadmill stress test followed by home-monitored sexual activity using noninvasive HR and BP recording devices. The mean treadmill times were significantly shorter than the mean times of sexual activity for men and women (p <0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). For the men, average maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 72%, 80%, and 57% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. For the women, maximum HR, systolic BP, and HR-BP product during sexual activity were 64%, 75%, and 48% of respective measurements during treadmill exercise. Age correlated inversely with duration of treadmill exercise (a 9-second decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.036), and with the duration of sexual activity (a 1-minute decrease in duration per increasing year of age; p = 0.024). Treadmill exercise duration predicted sexual activity duration (a 2.3-minute increase in sexual activity duration per each minute treadmill duration; p = 0.026). In conclusion, sexual activity provides modest physical stress comparable with stage II of the standard multistage Bruce treadmill protocol for men and stage I for women.

  4. Perceived Reasons, Incentives, and Barriers to Physical Activity in Swedish Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Bonn, Stephanie E; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge about factors influencing physical activity behavior is needed in order to tailor physical activity interventions to the individual. Objective The aim of this study was to explore and describe the perceived reasons, barriers, and incentives to increased physical activity, as well as preferable activities, among elderly men in Sweden. Methods In total, 150 men aged 50-86 years responded to a Web-based questionnaire. Men who reported that they exercised sometimes or often received questions about reasons for physical activity (n=104), while men who reported that they never or seldom exercised received questions about barriers (n=46). Results The most frequent perceived reason for being physically active was health (82%), followed by enjoyment (45%), and a desire to lose/maintain weight (27%). Lack of interest/motivation was identified as the primary perceived barrier (17%). Incentives for increasing the level of activity included becoming more motivated and having a training partner. Walking was the most preferred activity. Conclusions Enjoyment and maintaining a good health were important reasons for engaging in physical activity among Swedish elderly men. PMID:25488655

  5. African American men's perspectives on promoting physical activity: "We're not that difficult to figure out!".

    PubMed

    Friedman, Daniela B; Hooker, Steven P; Wilcox, Sara; Burroughs, Ericka L; Rheaume, Carol E

    2012-01-01

    African American men report poorer health than do White men and have significantly greater odds for developing chronic diseases partly because of limited physical activity. Understanding how to encourage healthy behaviors among African American men will be critical in the development of effective physical activity messages and programs. Guided by principles of cultural sensitivity and social marketing, this research examined middle-aged and older African American men's recommended strategies for promoting physical activity to African American men of their age. The authors report results from 49 interviews conducted with middle-aged (45-64 years) and older (65-84 years) African American men in South Carolina. Four groups of African American men were recruited: middle-aged active men (n = 17), middle-aged inactive men (n = 12), older active men (n = 10), older inactive men (n = 10). Themes related to marketing and recruitment strategies, message content, and spokesperson characteristics emerged and differed by age and physical activity level. Recommended marketing strategies included word of mouth; use of mass media; partnering with churches, businesses, and fraternities; strategic placement of messages; culturally appropriate message framing; and careful attention to selection of program spokespersons. Findings will help in the marketing, design, implementation, and evaluation of culturally appropriate interventions to encourage physical activity among middle-aged and older African American men in the South.

  6. Neural activities associated with emotion recognition observed in men and women.

    PubMed

    Lee, T M C; Liu, H-L; Chan, C C H; Fang, S-Y; Gao, J-H

    2005-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that men and women process emotional stimuli differently. In this study, we examined if there would be any consistency in regions of activation in men and women when processing stimuli portraying happy or sad emotions presented in the form of facial expressions, scenes, and words. A blocked design BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm was employed to monitor the neural activities of male and female healthy volunteers while they were presented with the experimental stimuli. The imaging data revealed that the right insula and left thalamus were consistently activated for men, but not women, during emotion recognition of all forms of stimuli studied. To further understand the imaging data acquired, we conducted the protocol analysis method to identify the cognitive processes engaged while the men and women were viewing the emotional stimuli and deciding whether they were happy or sad. The findings suggest that men rely on the recall of past emotional experiences to evaluate current emotional experiences. This may explain why the insula, a structure important for self-induced or internally generated recalled emotions, was consistently activated in men while processing emotional stimuli. Our findings suggest possible gender-related neural responses to emotional stimuli.

  7. Muscle and Liver Carbohydrates: Response to Military Task Performance by Women and Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    task. These differences are the result of women having to work harder to perform the same task. Female menstrual cycle phase may have an effect upon...is directly related to its size. The female musculature is generally smaller than that of males, and as a result, the mean lifting strength in women ...the female population there is a trend toward increasingly harder work (Figure 2 & Figure 3). We conclude that both men and women distribute a prolonged

  8. Social activities of older men who require daily support and the purpose of such activities.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Michiyo; Saeki, Kazuko; Ueda, Izumi; Honda, Hikaru; Mizuno, Yoshiko

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to analyze the social activities of older men who require daily support, and to clarify the purpose of such activities, in order to develop effective living support and preventive long-term care service, suitable for this population.Methods Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 older men. Data were analyzed using inductive and qualitative methods.Results Four categories of social activities were identified, and four categories of purposes of these social activities were extracted. The following were the identified social activities: maintenance of "comfortable relationships with others," including family, relatives, friends, and neighbors; "participation and use of services and programs with clear objectives and relationships with others," such as long-term care insurance system services, clubs for the elderly, and hobby groups; maintenance of "relationships with former colleagues, depending on their experience of working with them," where some individuals actively participated in gatherings with former colleagues, while others did not keep in touch at all; and participation in "activities to enrich their feelings and quality of life within their living space," such as reading, watching TV, and doing household chores. The purposes of the observed social activities were to build "relationships with society through communication with other people" and to have a "sense of security by spending time with people of the same age and with those older than them." Hence, participants engaged in clubs for the elderly, as well as in hobby groups. In addition, participants made time for exercising regularly, which maintained their cognitive function and was intended for the "maintenance and activation of their physical functions by continuing to exercise," and "continuing to learn by thinking." Furthermore, participants engaged in the exercise or hobby groups that they were interested in, in order to

  9. Systemic endothelial function is preserved in men with both active and inactive variant angina pectoris.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Akita, H; Kanazawa, K; Yamada, S; Shiga, N; Terashima, M; Matsuda, Y; Takai, E; Iwai, C; Takaoka, H; Yokoyama, M

    1999-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that coronary spasm could be a coronary manifestation of systemic endothelial dysfunction and that the activity of coronary spasm could influence systemic endothelial function, we examined brachial flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation and nitroglycerin-induced endothelium-independent vasodilation with high-resolution ultrasound in 11 men with variant angina pectoris (6 active and 5 inactive) without established coronary atherosclerosis. Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in peripheral circulation was preserved in men with active and inactive variant angina pectoris, suggesting that systemic endothelial dysfunction is not involved in either the pathogenesis or the activity of coronary spasm.

  10. Relation between vertical facial morphology and jaw muscle activity in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Graziano; Sforza, Chiarella; Dellavia, Claudia; Antinori, Marco; Ferrario, Virgilio F

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to quantitatively analyze the relation between the activity of masticatory muscles and the inclination of the mandibular plane in a group of 73 healthy white men aged 20-36 years. The three-dimensional coordinates of soft-tissue landmarks gnathion and left and right gonion were digitized using an electromagnetic computerized instrument, the orientation of mandibular plane relative to the true vertical was computed and projected on the anatomical sagittal plane. The electromyographic (EMG) potentials of left and right masseter and temporalis anterior during maximum voluntary teeth clenching were recorded, and the mean EMG amplitude calculated. Two groups of men with opposite facial morphology were then selected: all men with a steep mandibular plane (higher than the mean plus one standard deviation) entered a first group (10 'long face' subjects), while all men with a relatively more horizontal mandibular plane (lower than the mean minus one standard deviation) entered a second group (13 'short face' subjects). Mean EMG potentials computed in the two groups were compared by using Student's t -test for independent samples. All the EMG potentials recorded during maximum voluntary clench in the 'long face' men were lower than that recorded in the 'short face' men, with statistically significant differences for all four analyzed muscles (p < 0.05). In conclusion, a non-invasive three-dimensional method confirmed that facial morphology and muscular function are significantly related, at least in men with a sound stomatognathic apparatus.

  11. Effects Of Moderate Sleep Deprivation and Low-Dose Alcohol On Driving Simulator Performance and Perception In Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, A.; Baulk, S.D.; Catcheside, P.G.; Anderson, R.; van den Heuvel, C.J.; Banks, S.; McEvoy, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the combined effects of sleep restriction and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance, EEG, and subjective levels of sleepiness and performance in the mid-afternoon. Design: Repeated measures with 4 experimental conditions. Normal sleep without alcohol, sleep restriction alone (4 hours) and sleep restriction in combination with 2 different low blood alcohol concentrations (0.025 g/dL and 0.035 g/dL). Setting: Sleep Laboratory, Adelaide Institute for Sleep Health. Participants: Twenty-one healthy young men, aged 18–30 years, mean (±SD) = 22.5(±3.7) years, BMI = 25(±6.7) kg/m2; all had normal sleep patterns and were free of sleep disorders. Measurements: Participants completed a 70-minute simulated driving session, commencing at 14:00. Driving parameters included steering deviation, braking reaction time, and number of collisions. Alpha and theta EEG activity and subjective driving performance and sleepiness were also measured throughout the driving task. Results: All measures were significantly affected by time. Steering deviation increased significantly when sleep restriction was combined with the higher dose alcohol. This combination also resulted in a significant increase in alpha/theta EEG activity throughout the drive, as well as greater subjective sleepiness and negative driving performance ratings compared to control or sleep restriction alone. Discussion: These data indicate that combining low-dose alcohol with moderate sleep restriction results in significant decrements to subjective alertness and performance as well as to some driving performance and EEG parameters. This highlights the potential risks of driving after consumption of low and legal doses of alcohol when also sleep restricted. Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Anderson R; van den Heuvel CJ; Banks S; McEvoy RD. Effects of moderate sleep deprivation and low-dose alcohol on driving simulator performance and perception in young men. SLEEP

  12. Participation rates and the difference in performance of women and men in chess.

    PubMed

    Bilalić, Merim; McLeod, Peter

    2007-09-01

    The superiority of men over women in chess has been cited as evidence that there are fundamental differences in male and female intelligence (Howard, 2005a, 2006; Irwing & Lynn, 2005). An alternative interpretation of the difference is that it is due to differential male and female participation rates in chess (Charness & Gerchak, 1996; Bilalić & McLeod, 2006; Chabris & Glickman, in press). This has been dismissed by Howard (2006) on the grounds that changes in the difference in skill level between top male and female players in recent years are not correlated with changing relative participation rates. Here it is shown that Howard's analysis is misleading. The data are consistent with differential participation rates as the explanation of the gap between the performance of women and men in chess.

  13. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S.; Hartzler, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care. PMID:28269902

  14. Acceptability of Fitbit for physical activity tracking within clinical care among men with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Dori; Kadokura, Elyse A; Bouldin, Erin D; Miyawaki, Christina E; Higano, Celestia S; Hartzler, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has not examined the acceptability of commercially available fitness tracking devices in men with prostate cancer, many of whom are at risk for conditions that physical activity could alleviate. We conducted an exploratory 3-week field study to examine acceptability of the Fitbit Zip and attitudes towards integrating fitness tracking into clinical care among men with prostate cancer. Twenty-six men used the Fitbit Zip for a one-week baseline phase followed by a 2-week optional use phase and then completed in-depth interviews. Interview data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants found the device comfortable and easy to wear. Barriers to use included health and technology difficulties. Participants expressed value in sharing Fitbit data with their health care team. Findings support the use of easy to use and simple fitness trackers among men with prostate cancer and there could be opportunities to integrate fitness tracker data into clinical care.

  15. HIV Serosorting, Status Disclosure, and Strategic Positioning Among Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Moody, Raymond L.; Ventuneac, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Researchers have identified harm reduction strategies that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) use to reduce HIV transmission—including serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning. We report on patterns of these behaviors among 376 highly sexually active (i.e., 9+partners, <90 days) GBMSM: mean age of 37, 49.5% men of color, 87.8% gay identified, 57.5% college educated. We found evidence that many men engaged in serosorting, status disclosure, and strategic positioning; however, rates varied based on the participant's HIV status. HIV-positive and HIV-negative men both engaged in sex with men of similar status more often than they engaged in sex with men known to be a different HIV status (i.e., serosorting). However, HIV-negative men disclosed their HIV-status with about half of their partners, whereas HIV-positive participants disclosed with only about one-third. With regard to strategic positioning, HIV-positive participants were the receptive partner about half the time with their HIV-negative partners and with their HIV-positive partners. In contrast, strategic positioning was very common among HIV-negative participants—they rarely bottomed with HIV-positive partners, bottomed about one-third of the time with status-unknown partners, and 42% of the time (on average) with HIV-negative partners. Highly sexually active GBMSM are a critical population in which to both investigate HIV prevention strategies as well as develop effective intervention programs. Providers and clinicians might be well served to include a wide range of behavioral harm reduction strategies in addition to condom use and biomedical approaches to reduce onward HIV transmission. PMID:26348322

  16. Variability in HOMA-IR, Lipoprotein Profile and Selected Hormones in Young Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18–23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake. PMID:24348155

  17. Physical Activity Levels among Adolescent and Young Adult Women and Men with and without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundahl, Lina; Zetterberg, Marie; Wester, Anita; Rehn, Börje; Blomqvist, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Background: As physical activity can prevent overweight and promote general health, the aim was to investigate the amount of physical activity among adolescent and young adult women and men with intellectual disability (ID), compared to age-matched control groups without intellectual disability. A further aim was to examine whether physical…

  18. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Lozano, María del Río; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María del Mar García

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category ‘man’ is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context. PMID:24044583

  19. Performing masculinity, influencing health: a qualitative mixed-methods study of young Spanish men.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Jorge Marcos; Avilés, Nuria Romo; Del Río Lozano, María; Cuadros, Juan Palomares; Calvente, María Del Mar García

    2013-01-01

    Background The literature shows how gender mandates contribute to differences in exposure and vulnerability to certain health risk factors. This paper presents the results of a study developed in the south of Spain, where research aimed at understanding men from a gender perspective is still limited. Objective The aim of this paper is to explore the lay perceptions and meanings ascribed to the idea of masculinity, identifying ways in which gender displays are related to health. Design The study is based on a mixed-methods data collection strategy typical of qualitative research. We performed a qualitative content analysis focused on manifest and latent content. Results Our analysis showed that the relationship between masculinity and health was mainly defined with regard to behavioural explanations with an evident performative meaning. With regard to issues such as driving, the use of recreational drugs, aggressive behaviour, sexuality, and body image, important connections were established between manhood acts and health outcomes. Different ways of understanding and performing the male identity also emerged from the results. The findings revealed the implications of these aspects in the processes of change in the identity codes of men and women. Conclusions The study provides insights into how the category 'man' is highly dependent on collective practices and performative acts. Consideration of how males perform manhood acts might be required in guidance on the development of programmes and policies aimed at addressing gender inequalities in health in a particular local context.

  20. Threat-related amygdala activity is associated with peripheral CRP concentrations in men but not women.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Johnna R; Prather, Aric A; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2017-04-01

    Increased levels of peripheral inflammatory markers, including C-Reactive Protein (CRP), are associated with increased risk for depression, anxiety, and suicidality. The brain mechanisms that may underlie the association between peripheral inflammation and internalizing problems remain to be determined. The present study examines associations between peripheral CRP concentrations and threat-related amygdala activity, a neural biomarker of depression and anxiety risk, in a sample of 172 young adult undergraduate students. Participants underwent functional MRI scanning while performing an emotional face matching task to obtain a measure of threat-related amygdala activity to angry and fearful faces; CRP concentrations were assayed from dried blood spots. Results indicated a significant interaction between CRP and sex: in men, but not women, higher CRP was associated with higher threat-related amygdala activity. These results add to the literature finding associations between systemic levels of inflammation and brain function and suggest that threat-related amygdala activity may serve as a potential pathway through which heightened chronic inflammation may increase risk for mood and anxiety problems.

  1. Scaling maximal oxygen uptake to predict performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Felleki, Majbritt; Hammarström, Daniel; Heil, Daniel; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to: 1) establish the optimal body-mass exponent for maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) to indicate performance in elite-standard men cross-country skiers; and 2) evaluate the influence of course inclination on the body-mass exponent. Twelve elite-standard men skiers completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine VO(2)max and performance data came from the 2008 Swedish National Championship 15-km classic-technique race. Log-transformation of power-function models was used to predict skiing speeds. The optimal models were found to be: Race speed = 7.86 · VO(2)max · m(-0.48) and Section speed = 5.96 · [VO(2)max · m(-(0.38 + 0.03 · α)) · e(-0.003 · Δ) (where m is body mass, α is the section's inclination and Δ is the altitude difference of the previous section), that explained 68% and 84% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. A body-mass exponent of 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.77) best described VO(2)max as an indicator of performance in elite-standard men skiers. The confidence interval did not support the use of either "1" (simple ratio-standard scaled) or "0" (absolute expression) as body-mass exponents for expressing VO(2)max as an indicator of performance. Moreover, results suggest that course inclination increases the body-mass exponent for VO(2)max.

  2. A pilot survey of physical activity in men with an intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-06-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and maintain recommended levels for optimal health. This article reports a pilot study undertaken to validate the use of a physical activity monitor (Sensewear Armband) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) as instruments for measuring and exploring physical activity of men with ID. The design was a one-group descriptive study and the data were collected over a 7-day period from 17 men. The Sensewear Armband enabled continuous and long-term measurement of 14 objective physical activity metrics. The IPAQ examined details of physical activity reported over 7 days. Equivalent results were obtained from both the instruments, indicating a positive correlation between the Sensewear Armband and the IPAQ. The results show 50% have low activity levels, and the national recommended physical activity levels have been achieved at a very low active intensity. No sustainable high physical activity intensity levels were recorded. The results confirmed the Sensewear Armband and the IPAQ as a practical means of measuring and understanding physical activity levels in men with ID.

  3. Effects of intermittent hypoxia training on exercise performance, hemodynamics, and ventilation in healthy senior men.

    PubMed

    Shatilo, Valeriy B; Korkushko, Oleg V; Ischuk, Vadim A; Downey, H Fred; Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V

    2008-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of intermittent hypoxia training (IHT) were investigated in healthy, 60- to 74-yr-old men. Fourteen men (Gr 1) who routinely exercised daily for 20 to 30 min were compared with 21 (Gr 2) who avoided exercise. Their submaximal work-load power values before the IHT training were 94 +/- 3.7 and 66 +/- 3.1, respectively. Before and after 10 days of IHT, the ventilatory response to sustained hypoxia (SH; 12% O(2) for 10 min), work capacity (bicycle ergometer), and forearm cutaneous perfusion (laser Doppler) were determined. During SH, no negative electrocardiogram (ECG) changes were observed in either group, and the ventilatory response to SH was unaltered by IHT. In Gr 1, IHT (normobaric rebreathing for 5 min, final Sa(O(2)) = 85% to 86%, followed by 5 min normoxia, 4/day) produced no changes in hemodynamic indixes and work capacity. In Gr 2, IHT decreased blood pressure (BP) by 7.9 +/- 3.1 mmHg (p < 0.05) and increased submaximal work by 11.3% (p < 0.05) and anaerobic threshold by 12.7% (p < 0.05). The increase in HR and BP caused by a 55 W-work load was reduced by 5% and 6.5%, respectively (p < 0.05). Cutaneous perfusion increased by 0.06 +/- 0.04 mL/min/100 g in Gr 1 and by 0.11 +/- 0.04 mL/min/100 g in Gr 2 (p < 0.05). Hyperemia recovery time increased significantly by 15.3 +/- 4.6 sec in Gr 1 and by 25.2 +/- 11.2 sec in Gr 2. Thus, healthy senior men well tolerate IHT as performed in this investigation. In untrained, healthy senior men, IHT had greater positive effects on hemodynamics, microvascular endothelial function, and work capacity.

  4. Blood flow-restricted training does not improve jump performance in untrained young men.

    PubMed

    Madarame, Haruhiko; Ochi, E; Tomioka, Y; Nakazato, K; Ishii, N

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of blood flow-restricted training (BFRT) on jump performance in relation to changes in muscle strength. Seventeen untrained young men were assigned into either BFRT or normal training (NORT) groups and performed low-intensity [30-40% of one-repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance exercise (horizontal squat, 3-4 sets × 15-30 repetitions) twice a week for 10 weeks. The BFRT performed the exercise with their proximal thighs compressed by air-pressure cuffs for the purpose of blood flow restriction. Squat 1RM, muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) of quadriceps femoris, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were measured before and after the 10-wk training period. Squat 1RM increased greater in BFRT than in NORT (19.3% vs. 9.7%, P < 0.01). Although the CSA increase was independent of groups, it tended to be larger in BFRT than in NORT (8.3% vs. 2.9%, P = 0.094). On the other hand, CMJ height did not change after the training (P = 0.51). In conclusion, the present study showed that BFRT induced muscle hypertrophy and strength increase, whereas it did not increase CMJ height in previously untrained young men. It is suggested that BFRT is ineffective in improving jump performance.

  5. Men and women show distinct brain activations during imagery of sexual and emotional infidelity.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Matsuura, Masato; Yahata, Noriaki; Koeda, Michihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2006-09-01

    Jealousy-related behaviors such as intimate partner violence and morbid jealousy are more common in males. Principal questionnaire studies suggest that men and women have different modules to process cues of sexual and emotional infidelity. We aimed to elucidate the neural response to sentences depicting sexual and emotional infidelity in men and women using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there was no sex difference in the self-rating score of jealousy for sexual and emotional infidelity, men and women showed different brain activation patterns in response to the two types of infidelity. During jealous conditions, men demonstrated greater activation than women in the brain regions involved in sexual/aggressive behaviors such as the amygdala and hypothalamus. In contrast, women demonstrated greater activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus. Our fMRI results are in favor of the notion that men and women have different neuropsychological modules to process sexual and emotional infidelity. Our findings might contribute to a better understanding of the neural basis of the jealousy-related behaviors predominantly observed in males.

  6. Shifting patterns of everyday activity in early dementia: experiences of men and their families.

    PubMed

    Phinney, Alison; Dahlke, Sherry; Purves, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    In this article we draw from a larger study to examine experiences of two men and their families as they negotiate changing patterns of everyday activity in the months after receiving a diagnosis of dementia. We conducted in-depth interpretive phenomenological analysis of interview and observational data that were gathered from the men and various members of their families (n = 7) over a period several months. Findings are presented as three themes: The best kind of man (highlighting participants' historical positioning); It's a little different now (recognizing challenges posed by the dementia); and You have to do something (showing how the men and their families responded to and accommodated these challenges). We discuss these findings in terms of how everyday activity is not only important for supporting personhood in dementia, but it also contributes to sustaining family identity, and does so in a way that is deeply influenced by gender and masculinity.

  7. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players.

    PubMed

    Scanlan, Aaron; Humphries, Brendan; Tucker, Patrick S; Dalbo, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the influence of physical and cognitive measures on reactive agility performance in basketball players. Twelve men basketball players performed multiple sprint, Change of Direction Speed Test, and Reactive Agility Test trials. Pearson's correlation analyses were used to determine relationships between the predictor variables (stature, mass, body composition, 5-m, 10-m and 20-m sprint times, peak speed, closed-skill agility time, response time and decision-making time) and reactive agility time (response variable). Simple and stepwise regression analyses determined the individual influence of each predictor variable and the best predictor model for reactive agility time. Morphological (r = -0.45 to 0.19), sprint (r = -0.40 to 0.41) and change-of-direction speed measures (r = 0.43) had small to moderate correlations with reactive agility time. Response time (r = 0.76, P = 0.004) and decision-making time (r = 0.58, P = 0.049) had large to very large relationships with reactive agility time. Response time was identified as the sole predictor variable for reactive agility time in the stepwise model (R(2) = 0.58, P = 0.004). In conclusion, cognitive measures had the greatest influence on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. These findings suggest reaction and decision-making drills should be incorporated in basketball training programmes.

  8. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2015-09-07

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  9. Effects of Physical Training and Fitness on Running Injuries in Physically Active Young Men.

    PubMed

    Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle; Anderson, Morgan K; Bushman, Timothy T; Jones, Bruce H

    2017-01-01

    Grier, TL, Canham-Chervak, M, Anderson, MK, Bushman, TT, and Jones, BH. Effects of physical training and fitness on running injuries in physically active young men. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 207-216, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of physical training (PT) and fitness on risks for running-related injuries (RRIs) in physically active young men. Personal characteristics, PT, Army Physical Fitness Test scores, and injury data were obtained by survey. Army Physical Fitness Test variables (push-ups, sit-ups, and 2-mile run) were converted into quartiles (Q), where Q1 = lowest performance and Q4 = highest performance. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. Over 4,000 (n = 4,236) soldiers were surveyed. Running injury incidence was 14%. A greater risk of an RRI was associated with older age (OR31+/<22 years = 1.62, 95% CI, 1.21-2.18), higher BMI ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), and total distance ran per week during unit PT (OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.15-2.41). A lower risk of an RRI was associated with total distance run per week during personal PT (OR5.1-10/1-5 miles = 0.70, 95% CI, 0.53-0.91, OR10.1-16 +/1-5 miles = 0.58, 95% CI, 0.35-0.97, OR16.1+/1-5 miles = 0.54, 95% CI, 0.30-0.98), higher aerobic endurance as measured by 2-mile run performance (ORQ4/Q1 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.35-0.72), and unit resistance training ≥3 times a week (OR≥3 times per week/none = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.29-0.73). Greater personal PT running mileage decreased injuries in this population suggesting that the increased protective effect of higher aerobic fitness outweighed the injurious effect of running more miles during personal PT. Countermeasures to prevent RRIs could entail enhancing aerobic endurance, providing opportunities for personal aerobic training, monitoring for excessive unit PT running mileage and encouraging unit resistance training ≥3 times per week.

  10. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  11. Rest/activity rhythms and mortality rates in older men: MrOS Sleep Study.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent C; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Blackwell, Terri; Stone, Katie L; Tranah, Greg; Redline, Susan; Cummings, Steven R; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2010-01-01

    An association between increased risk of mortality and disruptions in rest/activity circadian rhythms (RAR) has been shown among adults with dementia and with metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the association among a more general population of older adults has not been studied. Our study population consisted of 2964 men aged > or = 67 yrs of age enrolled in the Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men (MrOS Sleep) Study. Rest/activity patterns were measured with wrist actigraphy. RAR parameters were computed and expressed as quintiles, and included acrophase (time of peak activity level), amplitude (peak-to-nadir difference), mesor (middle of the peak), pseudo F-value (overall circadian rhythmicity), beta (steepness), and alpha (peak-to-trough width). After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, men in the lowest quintile of pseudo F-value had a 57% higher mortality rate (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.57, 95% CI, 1.03-2.39) than men in the highest quintile. This association was even stronger with increased risk of cardiovascular disease-related mortality (CVD) (HR = 2.32, 95% CI, 1.04-5.22). Additionally, men in the lowest quintile of acrophase had a 2.8-fold higher rate of CVD-related mortality (HR = 2.84, 95% CI, 1.29-6.24). There was no evidence of independent associations with amplitude, mesor, alpha, beta, and mortality risk. Older men with less robust RAR and earlier acrophase timing have modestly higher all-cause and CVD-related mortality rates. Further research should examine potential biological mechanisms underlying this association.

  12. Motivators and barriers to engaging in healthy eating and physical activity in young adult men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most recent Australian Health survey identified that young men (18-24yrs) have numerous health concerns including: 42% overweight/obese, 48% not meeting national physical activity recommendations and 97% failing to consume adequate intakes of fruit and vegetables. There is a lack of engagement a...

  13. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  14. Condom use and concurrent partnering among heterosexually active, African American men: a qualitative report.

    PubMed

    Frye, Victoria; Williams, Kim; Bond, Keosha T; Henny, Kirk; Cupid, Malik; Weiss, Linda; Lucy, Debbie; Koblin, Beryl A

    2013-10-01

    African Americans are overrepresented among heterosexual cases of HIV/AIDS in the USA. Inconsistent condom use and concurrent partnering are two sexual behaviors driving the heterosexual HIV epidemic in the African American community. To inform the development of an HIV prevention behavioral intervention to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use among African American heterosexual men, we conducted formative research, including 61 structured interviews, 5 focus groups with 25 men, and 30 in-depth qualitative interviews between July and December 2009. We used a grounded theoretical approach and categorizing strategies to code and analyze the qualitative data. Results around condom use confirmed earlier findings among heterosexual men in general: condoms diminish pleasure, interfere with erection, and symbolize infidelity. Although valued by some as a form of disease prevention and pregnancy prevention, condoms are often used only with specific types of female partners, such as new or casual partners, or due to visual risk assessment. Sex partner concurrency was described as normative and ascribed to men's "natural" desire to engage in a variety of sexual activities or their high sex drive, with little recognition of the role it plays in the heterosexual HIV epidemic. Fatherhood emerged among many men as a crucial life event and compelling motivation for reducing sexual risk behavior. Based on these results, we conclude that existing HIV prevention efforts to improve attitudes towards and motivate use of condoms either have not reached or have not been successful with African American heterosexual men. In designing behavioral interventions to decrease concurrent partnering and increase condom use, addressing negative attitudes towards condoms and partner risk assessment is critical, as is integrating novel motivational approaches related to identity as fathers and men in the African American community.

  15. Comparison of Powerlifting Performance in Trained Men Using Traditional and Flexible Daily Undulating Periodization.

    PubMed

    Colquhoun, Ryan J; Gai, Christopher M; Walters, Jeoffrey; Brannon, Andrew R; Kilpatrick, Marcus W; DʼAgostino, Dominic P; Campbell, William I

    2017-02-01

    Colquhoun, RJ, Gai, CM, Walters, J, Brannon, AR, Kilpatrick, MW, D'Agostino, DP, and Campbell, WI. Comparison of powerlifting performance in trained men using traditional and flexible daily undulating periodization. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 283-291, 2017-Daily undulating periodization (DUP) is a growing trend, both in practice and in the scientific literature. A new form of DUP, flexible daily undulating periodization (FDUP), allows for athletes to have some autonomy by choosing the order of their training. The purpose of this study was to compare an FDUP model to a traditional model of DUP on powerlifting performance in resistance-trained men. Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups: FDUP (N = 14) or DUP (N = 11). All participants possessed a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience and were required to squat, bench press, and deadlift 125, 100, and 150% of their body mass, respectively. Dependent variables assessed at baseline and after the 9-week training program included bench press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), squat 1RM, deadlift 1RM, powerlifting total, Wilks Coefficient, fat mass, and fat-free mass (FFM). Dependent variables assessed during each individual training session were motivation to train, Session Rating of Perceived Exertion (Session RPE), and satisfaction with training session. After the 9-week training program, no significant differences in intensity or volume were found between groups. Both groups significantly improved bench press 1RM (FDUP: +6.5 kg; DUP: +8.8 kg), squat 1RM (FDUP: +15.6 kg; DUP: +18.0 kg), deadlift 1RM (FDUP: +14.8 kg; DUP: +13.6 kg), powerlifting total (FDUP: +36.8 kg; DUP: +40.4 kg), and Wilks Coefficient (FDUP: +24.8; DUP: +26.0) over the course of study (p = <0.001 for each variable). There was also a significant increase in FFM (FDUP: +0.8 kg; DUP: +0.8 kg) for both groups (p = 0.003). There were no differences in motivation to train, session RPE, or satisfaction with

  16. Psychosocial Variables Related to Why Women are Less Active than Men and Related Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Elizabeth Skidmore; Sackett, Sarah Carson

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews psychosocial influences on women’s participation in physical activity as they differ from men and how associated activity differences impact women’s risk for a number of chronic diseases. This topic directly aligns with the mission of this special edition related to disparities in women’s health as the typically lower level of physical activity in females directly impacts their health. On average, females participate in physical activity at lower rates than their male counterparts. These lower rates of physical activity are directly related to both incidence of and outcomes from cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and gynecological cancers. The relationship between psychosocial factors that are understood to affect physical activity differs between men and women. Specifically, self-efficacy, social support, and motivation are empirically substantiated factors that found to impact physical activity participation among women differently than men. Understanding these relationships is integral to designing effective interventions to target physical activity participation in women so that the related health risks are adequately addressed. PMID:27398045

  17. Designing normative messages about active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Robert J.; Kinsman, Gianna T.; Le, Yen-Chi L.; Swank, Paul; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McFall, Stephanie L.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Cantor, Scott B.

    2016-01-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is increasingly recognized as a reasonable option for men with low-risk, localized prostate cancer, yet few men who might benefit from conservative management receive it. We examined the acceptability of normative messages about AS as a management option for patients with low-risk prostate cancer. Men with a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer who were recruited through prostate cancer support organizations completed a web-based survey (N=331). They rated messages about AS for believability, accuracy, and importance for men to hear when making treatment decisions. The message “you don’t have to panic…you have time to think about your options” was perceived as believable, accurate, and important by over 80% of the survivors. In contrast, messages about trust in the AS protocol and “knowing in plenty of time” if treatment is needed were rated as accurate by only about 36% of respondents. For AS to be viewed as a reasonable alternative, men will need reassurance that following an AS protocol is likely to allow time for curative treatment if the cancer progresses. PMID:26066011

  18. Enolase isoforms activities in spermatozoa from men with normospermia and abnormospermia.

    PubMed

    Force, Andre; Viallard, Jean-L; Grizard, Genevieve; Boucher, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Total enolase as well as enolase-alphaalpha. (ENO-alphaalpha, ubiquitous) and enolase-S (ENO-S, sperm-specific) activities were measured in total and Percoll-selected sperm from 30 normospermic fertile men and 20 abnormospermic infertile patients. The total enolase activity was significantly higher in total sperm from patients with abnormospermia compared with normospermic patients (11.1 +/- 1.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mlU/10(7) sperm P < .05). ENO-alphaalpha activity was significantly higher in total sperm from abnormospermic men than from normospermic men (P < .05). ENO-alphaalpha activity in Percoll-selected sperm was significantly lower compared with total sperm in both group of patients; however, for the same sperm fraction ENO-alphaalpha activity did not differ between normospermic and abnormospermic men. ENO-alphaalpha activity was related to the cell contamination ratio and to the percentage of spermatozoa with abnormal morphology. Furthermore, ENO-alphaalpha was positively correlated with the percentage of immature sperm showing an excess of residual cytoplasm. ENO-S activity was significantly higher in total sperm from normospermic patients than from abnormospermic patients (P < .05). ENO-S activity in Percoll-selected sperm was not significantly different compared with total sperm in both group of patients. However, this activity was significantly lower in Percoll-selected sperm from abnormospermic men compared with normospermic men (P < .05). ENO-S activity was not related to the cell contamination ratio but was significantly correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology. The 2 enolase isoforms seem to reflect 2 opposite aspects of sperm cells quality: ENO-alphaalpha is associated with abnormal spermatozoa, immature spermatozoa, or both; and ENO-S is associated with normal spermatozoa. As an additional index to distinguish normal from abnormal semen, the ENO-S:ENO-alphaalpha ratio was evaluated for total and Percoll-selected sperm in both

  19. Choking under the pressure of a positive stereotype: gender identification and self-consciousness moderate men's math test performance.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Choking under pressure occurs when an individual underperforms due to situational pressure. The present study examined whether being the target of a positive social stereotype regarding math ability causes choking among men. Gender identification and self-consciousness were hypothesized to moderate the effect of math-gender stereotypes on men's math test performance. Men high in self-consciousness but low in gender identification significantly underperformed when exposed to gender-relevant test instructions. No significant effects were found under a gender-irrelevant condition. These findings are discussed in the contexts of research on stereotype threat, stereotype lift, and choking under pressure.

  20. Men, muscles, and body image: comparisons of competitive bodybuilders, weight trainers, and athletically active controls

    PubMed Central

    Pickett, T; Lewis, R; Cash, T; Pope, H

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate body image and psychosocial adjustment among competitive bodybuilders, non-competitive weight trainers, and athletically active men. Methods: Participants were 40 men in each of the three groups who were assessed on body composition and multiple facets of body image evaluation, investment and anxiety, eating attitudes, and social self esteem. Results: Relative to the other two groups, competitive bodybuilders had greater body mass due to fat-free body mass. Although groups did not differ in their situational body image discomfort, competitive bodybuilders and weight trainers had a more positive global appearance evaluation and were more psychologically invested in their physical appearance. Compared with active controls, men in both weightlifting groups were more satisfied with their upper torso and muscle tone. Competitive bodybuilders reported more mid torso satisfaction than the other two groups. Competitive bodybuilders also wished to be significantly heavier than controls did and reported higher social self esteem but greater eating disturbance. Conclusions: The findings suggest that competitive bodybuilders as a group are not more "muscle dysmorphic" than either non-competitive weight trainers or physically active men who do not train with weights. PMID:15793091

  1. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls

    PubMed Central

    Millar, J. A.; Thompson, G. G.; Goldberg, A.; Barry, P. S. I.; Lowe, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Millar, J. A., Thompson, G. G., Goldberg, A., Barry, P. S. I., and Lowe, E. H. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 317-320. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydrase activity in the blood of men working with lead alkyls. The activity of erythrocyte ALA1-dehydrase is inhibited in vivo at blood lead (Pb2+) levels within the upper range of normal (20-40 μg/100 ml) and in vitro at lead concentrations greater than 10-7 M. In view of the high sensitivity of the enzyme to Pb2+, the levels of enzyme activity in the blood of men occupationally exposed to lead alkyls, particularly tetraethyllead, were measured. It was found that the enzyme activity in an exposed group of men was significantly less (P<0·001) than in a control group, the respective mean values being 220 and 677 units of enzyme activity. Tetraethyllead is metabolized in the body via triethyllead and diethyllead ions. As the latter compound possesses properties similar to Pb2+, it was synthesized in the laboratory and its effect on ALA-dehydrase was studied. Diethyllead ion was found to inhibit ALA-dehydrase activity at concentrations greater than 5 x 10-5 M, although the degree of inhibition was less than that obtained with Pb2+. These results suggest that exposure to tetraethyllead can cause a decrease in erythrocyte ALA-dehydrase activity. PMID:5044603

  2. Performance differences between adult heterosexual and homosexual men on the Digit-Symbol Substitution subtest of the WAIS-R.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-02-01

    Previous evidence suggests that sexual orientation influences performance on a number of cognitive functions known to be sexually dimorphic. This investigation examined the performance of 240 right-handed subjects (60 heterosexual men, 60 homosexual men, 60 heterosexual women and 60 homosexual women) on one of the most commonly used neuropsychological tests to show normative sex differences, the Digit-Symbol Substitution test of the WAIS-R. Analysis of scaled Digit-Symbol scores revealed that heterosexual women and homosexual men outperformed heterosexual men. The magnitude of these differences were modest by standard criteria. No differences were found between heterosexual and homosexual women. The findings implicate within-sex variation in one test that relies on intact executive function.

  3. "How to Be a Rural Man": Young Men's Performances and Negotiations of Rural Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bye, Linda Marie

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with young rural men and how they "do" identity politics living in a rural area of Norway. Focusing on how masculinity and rurality are constructed and interrelated in young men's narratives of living in a remote community, it is identified that young rural men reproduce, negotiate and transform local discourses…

  4. Androgen receptor gene polymorphisms lean mass and performance in young men.

    PubMed

    Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-González, F Germán; Dorado, Cecilia; Olmedillas, Hugo; Fuentes, Teresa; Pérez-Gómez, Jorge; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara, Ignacio; Guerra, Borja; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Calbet, José A L; Díaz-Chico, B Nicolás

    2011-02-01

    The exon-1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene contains two repeat length polymorphisms which modify either the amount of AR protein inside the cell (GGN(n), polyglycine) or its transcriptional activity (CAG(n), polyglutamine). Shorter CAG and/or GGN repeats provide stronger androgen signalling and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that CAG and GGN repeat AR polymorphisms affect muscle mass and various variables of muscular strength phenotype traits, the length of CAG and GGN repeats was determined by PCR and fragment analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing of selected samples in 282 men (28.6 ± 7.6 years). Individuals were grouped as CAG short (CAG(S)) if harbouring repeat lengths of ≤ 21 and CAG long (CAG(L)) if CAG >21. GGN was considered short (GGN(S)) or long (GGN(L)) if GGN ≤ 23 or >23, respectively. No significant differences in lean body mass or fitness were observed between the CAG(S) and CAG(L) groups, or between GGN(S) and GGN(L) groups, but a trend for a correlation was found for the GGN repeat and lean mass of the extremities (r=-0.11, p=0.06). In summary, the lengths of CAG and GGN repeat of the AR gene do not appear to influence lean mass or fitness in young men.

  5. Physical activity as a protective factor for development of non-alcoholic fatty liver in men

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Carla Giuliano de Sá; Marega, Marcio; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; Carmona, Felipe Gambetta; Lopes, Carlos Eduardo Felix; Ceschini, Fabio Luis; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Figueira, Aylton José

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the impact of physical activity on the prevalence of fatty liver, metabolic and cardiovascular disease in adult men. Methods This study evaluated 1,399 men (40.7±8.18 years) with body mass index of 26.7kg/m2 (±3.4) who participated in the Protocol of Preventive Health Check-up at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein from January to October 2011. We conducted tests of serum blood glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, triglycerides, reactive c-protein, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. The statistical analysis comprised in the comparison of mean and standard deviation. The analysis of variance was based in two paths of two way ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Mann Whitney U test, Wald test and χ2. We considered a significance level at p<0.05 and correlation of univariate Poison with 95% confidence interval. Results :Fatty liver was diagnosed in 37.0% of the sample. Triglyceride levels of active men with fatty liver were 148.2±77.6mg/dL while inactive men with fatty liver had 173.4±15.6mg/dL. The remaining serum levels were normal. Inactive individuals showed higher values than active. In addition, inactive individuals have 10.68 times higher risk of developing fatty liver compared with active. Conclusion Physical activity improves metabolic parameters such as triglycerides, weight control, HDL, which interfere in the development of fatty liver. Physically active individuals had lower fatty liver prevalence regardless of values of body composition and lipid profile, leading the conclusion that physical activity has a protective role against development of fatty liver. PMID:25993066

  6. 'Coz football is what we all have': masculinities, practice, performance and effervescence in a gender-sensitised weight-loss and healthy living programme for men.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Christopher; Wyke, Sally; Gray, Cindy M; Maclean, Alice; Hunt, Kate

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we use a social practice approach to explore men's experience of Football Fans in Training (FFIT), a group-based weight management programme for men that harnesses men's symbolic attachment to professional football clubs to engage them in lifestyle change. FFIT is delivered by community coaches in clubs' stadia and is gender-sensitised in relation to context, content and style of delivery. Using a 'toolkit' of concepts from the work of Bourdieu, Goffman and Durkheim we analysed data from 13 focus group discussions with participants, and fieldwork notes from programme observations to investigate the appeal and success of FFIT, and how it worked to support change. Our analysis builds on our work on the importance of shared symbolic commitment to the football club and being with 'men like me' to understand how the interaction context facilitated 'effervescent' experiences. These experiences encouraged men to make changes to their diet and physical activity, talk about them, practice performing them and implement them in their lives. Thus a social practice approach illuminated the social processes through which lifestyle change was achieved, and we argue that it can deepen and enrich both intervention design and evaluation.

  7. Increased Incidence of Pathologically Nonorgan Confined Prostate Cancer in African-American Men Eligible for Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yun-Sok; Salmasi, Amirali; Karellas, Michael; Singer, Eric A.; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Han, Misop; Partin, Alan W.; Kim, Wun-Jae; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Kim, Isaac Yi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the clinicopathologic findings of African-American (AA) and White-American (WA) men with prostate cancer (PCa) who were candidates for active surveillance (AS) and underwent radical prostatectomy (RP). METHODS Prospectively maintained database of men who underwent RP from 2 academic centers were analyzed retrospectively. Postoperative pathologic characteristics of patients who met the AS inclusion criteria of the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) were evaluated. After RP, the rate of pathological upstaging and Gleason upgrading were compared between AA and WA men. RESULTS In the AA cohort, 196 and 124 men met the UCSF and NCCN criteria for AS, respectively. With respect to WA patients, 191 and 148 fulfilled the AS criteria for UCSF and NCCN, respectively. AA men had a higher percentage of maximum biopsy core than WA men (15.3%–20.4% vs 11.5%–15.0%, P <.05, respectively) in both cohorts. In addition, a greater proportion of AA men had multiple positive biopsy cores compared to WA men (45.2% vs 33.1%, P = .046) under the NCCN criteria. A higher proportion of AA men were upstaged (≥pT3) compared to WA men (19.4% vs 10.1%, P = .037). A multivariate regression test revealed that age, preoperative PSA, and number of positive cores were independent predictors of more advanced disease (upstaging and/or upgrading) in AA men. CONCLUSION AA men who were candidates for AS criteria had worse clinicopathological features on final surgical pathology thanWA men. These results suggest that a more stringent AS criteria should be considered in AA men with prostate cancer. PMID:23465143

  8. Testosterone levels in healthy men are related to amygdala reactivity and memory performance.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Sandra; Spalek, Klara; Rasch, Björn; Gschwind, Leo; Coynel, David; Fastenrath, Matthias; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F

    2012-09-01

    Testosterone is a steroid hormone thought to influence both emotional and cognitive functions. It is unknown, however, if testosterone also affects the interaction between these two domains, such as the emotional arousal-induced enhancement of memory. Healthy subjects (N=234) encoded pictures taken from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and underwent a free recall test 10 min after memory encoding. We show that higher endogenous testosterone levels at encoding were associated with higher arousal ratings of neutral pictures in men. fMRI analysis revealed that higher testosterone levels were related to increased brain activation in the amygdala during encoding of neutral pictures. Moreover, endogenous testosterone levels were positively correlated with the number of freely recalled neutral pictures. No such relations were found in women. These findings point to a male-specific role for testosterone in enhancing memory by increasing the biological salience of incoming information.

  9. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Masters, N Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Heterosexual men's sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used latent class analysis with data collected online from 18- to 25-year-old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employed. Indicators were sexual risk-reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors--number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency--predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men's sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners.

  10. Maintenance of Iron Status in Healthy Men during an Extended Period of Stress and Physical Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    scribed elsewhere who engage in physical training with low re- and physical activity in healthy men. a serves and marginal dietary iron intakes (6. 12. 28...116 ± 84 to 202 ± 106 /g/L (P > 0.05). Ade- is unclear whether the changes in iron metabolism persist during quate dietary iron, initiation of...the entire 8-wk training course. Beaumont Army Medical Center, El Paso, TX (phase 4). Differ- The average daily energy and protein intakes , determined

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p < 0.05. Posttesting LA was lower on average for IT at the 5-minute mark but significantly so at the 15-minute mark. Twenty-seven minutes of cycling at 80% p VO2max applied with a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 and spread over 3 sessions per week for 6 weeks provided sufficient stimulus to significantly improve markers of anaerobic and aerobic performance in recreationally active college-aged men. Inclusion of such a protocol into a training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF SINGLE VERSUS REPEATED PLYOMETRICS ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS AND JUMPING PERFORMANCE IN MEN

    PubMed Central

    Czaplicki, A.; Sacewicz, T.; Sadowski, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the chronic effects of single and repeated jumps training on vertical landing force (VGRF) and jump height in untrained men. The VGRF and jump height were compared after a six-week plyometric training programme containing single and repeated jumps, together with two additional parameters: landing time (LT) and range of the knee flexion during landing (KF). Thirty-six untrained physical education students with a plyometric training background were randomly assigned to a single jump group (SJG, n =12), repeated jumps group (RJG, n =12), and control group (CON, n =12). The SJG performed only single jumps, the RJG executed repeated (consecutive) jumps, whereas the CON did not perform any exercises at all. A countermovement jump (CMJ), repeated countermovement jumps (RCMJ), and a drop jump (DJ) were tested before and after the training. Only the RJG showed a significantly reduced VGRF (p < 0.05) in all tests. Both plyometric groups significantly improved (p < 0.05) their jump height in all tests. The LT was significantly greater in the RJG, compared to the SJG, in all tests. The KF was also significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the RJG than in the SJG for CMJ and RCMJ. The results suggest that repeated jumps are beneficial for simultaneous landing force reduction and jumping performance enhancement. PMID:24917684

  13. HIV-Positive Men Sexually Active with Women: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Risks

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gunjeong; Howard, Joyce Moon; Caban, Maria; Abramson, David; Messeri, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study examines patterns of sexual behavior, sexual relating, and sexual risk among HIV-positive men sexually active with women. A total of 278 HIV-positive men were interviewed every 6–12 months between 1994 and 2002 and reported considerable variability in sexual behaviors over time. Many were not sexually active at all for months at a time; many continued to have multiple female and at times male partners. Over one-third of the cohort had one or more periods when they had engaged in unprotected sex with a female partner who was HIV-negative or status unknown (unsafe sex). Periods of unsafe sex alternated with periods of safer sex. Contextual factors such as partner relations, housing status, active drug use, and recently exchanging sex showed the strongest association with increased odds of unsafe sex. A number of predictors of unsafe sex among African American men were not significant among the Latino sub-population, suggesting race/ethnic differences in factors contributing to heterosexual transmission. Implications for prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:16770702

  14. Skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing and activity of men sledging in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Budd, G. M.

    1966-01-01

    1. Three men were studied while dog-sledging 320 km in 12 days in Antarctica. Conventional Antarctic clothing (`sweaters and windproofs') was worn. Four hundred observations were made of medial thigh skin temperature, thermal comfort, sweating, clothing, activity and environmental conditions. 2. Work occupied an average of 11·0 hr/day and sleep 7·5 hr. Estimated daily energy expenditure averaged 5100 kcal (range 2740-6660 kcal). 3. Skin temperature fell on exposure to cold despite the clothing worn, but was not changed by the level of activity. Sweating, and thermal comfort, were directly related to both skin temperature and activity. 4. Inside the tent, the modal value of skin temperature was 33° C (range 27-36° C) and the men were comfortable in 94% of observations. 5. During the 9·2 hr/day spent outdoors the modal value of skin temperature was 27° C (range 18-33° C) and the men felt too cold (but did not shiver) in 11% (range 7-20%) of observations, suggesting that cold stress was not negligible. However, they also felt too hot in 20% of observations and were sweating in 23%. PMID:5914254

  15. Physical activity and dark skin tone: protective factors against low bone mass in Mexican men.

    PubMed

    Vivanco-Muñoz, Nalleli; Jo, Talavera; Gerardo, Huitron-Bravo; Juan, Tamayo; Clark, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on 268 Mexican men between the ages of 13 and 80 yr to evaluate the association of clinical factors related with bone mass. Men from high schools, universities, and retirement homes were invited to participate. Body mass index (BMI) was measured, and bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for L1-L4 and total hip. Factors related to bone mass were assessed by questionnaire and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Demographic factors (age, education, and occupation), clinical data (BMI, skin tone, previous fracture, history of osteoporosis [OP], and history of fractures), and lifestyle variables (diet, physical activity, sun exposure, and smoking) were evaluated. Physical activity (≥ 60 min/5 times a week) reduced the risk for low BMD for age, osteopenia, and OP at the spine and total hip (odds ratio [OR]: 0.276; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.099-0.769; p=0.014; and OR: 0.184; 95% CI: 0.04-0.849; p=0.03, respectively). Dark skin tone was a protective factor, decreasing the risk by up to 70%. In this population of healthy Mexican men (aged 13-80 yr), dark skin and physical activity were protective factors against low bone mass.

  16. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions

    PubMed Central

    Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, TG

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games. PMID:27274114

  17. Performance profile of NCAA Division I men's basketball games and training sessions.

    PubMed

    Conte, D; Tessitore, A; Smiley, K; Thomas, C; Favero, T G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse live and stoppage time phases, their ratio, and action played on half and full court in college basketball games. Differences were assessed for the entire games and between halves. Moreover, differences of the live/stoppage time ratio were analysed between games and game-based conditioning drills. Ten games as well as fifteen defensive, fourteen offensive and six scrimmage-type drills of the same division I men's college team (13 players) were analysed using time-motion analysis technique. Live and stoppage time were classified in five classes of duration: 1-20, 21-40, 41-60, 61-80, >80 seconds. Half court actions started and finished in the same half court. Full court actions were classified as transfer (TR) phases when at least 3 teammates crossed the mid-court line. TR phases were then classified in 5 classes of frequency: 1TR, 2TR, 3TR, 4TR, and >4TR. The results revealed no statistically significant differences between games or between halves for the considered parameters. The only significant difference was observed for live/stoppage time ratio between halves (p<0.001). Furthermore, a significant difference of the live/stoppage ratio was found between games and game-based drills (p<0.01). Post-hoc analysis demonstrated significant differences of scrimmage-type drills in comparison to games, and defensive and offensive drills (p<0.05), whereas no differences emerged for the other pairwise comparisons. The absence of differences between games in the analysed parameters might be important to characterize the model of performance in division I men's college games. Furthermore, these results encourage coaches to use game-based conditioning drills to replicate the LT/ST ratio documented during games.

  18. Vigorous-intensity leisure-time physical activity and risk of major chronic disease in men

    PubMed Central

    Chomistek, Andrea K.; Cook, Nancy R.; Flint, Alan J.; Rimm, Eric B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Although studies have shown health benefits for moderate-intensity physical activity, there is limited evidence to support beneficial effects for high amounts of vigorous activity among middle-aged and older men. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between vigorous-intensity physical activity, compared to moderate-intensity activity, and risk of major chronic disease in men. Methods We prospectively examined the associations between vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity and risk of major chronic disease among 44,551 men aged 40–75 years in 1986. Leisure-time physical activity was assessed biennially by questionnaire. During 22 years of follow-up, we documented 14,162 incident cases of major chronic disease, including 4769 cardiovascular events, 6449 cancer events, and 2944 deaths from other causes. Results The hazard ratio (HR) of major chronic disease comparing ≥ 21 to 0 MET-hours/week of exercise was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.91) for vigorous-intensity activity and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.90) for moderate activity. For CVD, the corresponding HR were 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.86) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.72, 0.88), respectively. When examined separately, running, tennis, and brisk walking were inversely associated with CVD risk. Furthermore, more vigorous activity was associated with lower disease risk; the HR comparing >70 to 0 MET-hours/week of vigorous-intensity exercise was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.68, 0.92; P <0.0001 for trend) for major chronic disease and 0.73 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.96; P <0.0001 for trend) for CVD. Conclusions Vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity were associated with lower risk of major chronic disease and cardiovascular disease. Increasing amounts of vigorous activity remained inversely associated with disease risk, even among men in the highest categories of exercise. PMID:22543741

  19. The Effects of Layers of Cold Weather Clothing and Type of Liner on the Psychomotor Performance of Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    I TECHNICAL REPORT I NATICK/TR-77/018 THE EFFECTS OF LAYERS OF COLD WEATHER CLOTHING AND TYPE OF LINER ON THE PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE OF MEN...NAT I CKffR-77/018 •• TITLE (and Sublltle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED THE EFFECTS OF LAYERS OF COLD WEATHER CLOTHING AND TYPE OF LINER ON...THE EFFECT OF LAVERS OF COLD WEATHER CLOTHING AND TYPE OF LINER ON THE PSYCHOMOTOR PERFORMANCE OF MEN INTRODUCTION The principal purpose of the

  20. Men perform comparably to women in a perspective taking task after administration of intranasal oxytocin but not after placebo

    PubMed Central

    Theodoridou, Angeliki; Rowe, Angela C.; Mohr, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) is thought to play an important role in human interpersonal information processing and behavior. By inference, OT should facilitate empathic responding, i.e., the ability to feel for others and to take their perspective. In two independent double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subjects studies, we assessed the effect of intranasally administered OT on affective empathy and perspective taking, whilst also examining potential sex differences (e.g., women being more empathic than men). In study 1, we provided 96 participants (48 men) with an empathy scenario and recorded self-reports of empathic reactions to the scenario, while in study 2, a sample of 120 individuals (60 men) performed a computerized implicit perspective taking task. Whilst results from Study 1 showed no influence of OT on affective empathy, we found in Study 2 that OT exerted an effect on perspective taking ability in men. More specifically, men responded faster than women in the placebo group but they responded as slowly as women in the OT group. We conjecture that men in the OT group adopted a social perspective taking strategy, such as did women in both groups, but not men in the placebo group. On the basis of results across both studies, we suggest that self-report measures (such as used in Study 1) might be less sensitive to OT effects than more implicit measures of empathy such as that used in Study 2. If these assumptions are confirmed, one could infer that OT effects on empathic responses are more pronounced in men than women, and that any such effect is best studied using more implicit measures of empathy rather than explicit self-report measures. PMID:23754995

  1. Condom use and perceived risk of HIV transmission among sexually active HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Belcher, Lisa; Sternberg, Maya R; Wolitski, Richard J; Halkitis, Perry; Hoff, Colleen

    2005-02-01

    This study examined the association between HIV transmission risk perception and the sexual risk behaviors of HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Respondents rated the degree of risk of transmitting HIV through insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We examined (a) the perceived level of HIV transmission risk assigned to each sexual behavior and (b) the association between perceived risk for HIV transmission and condom use during insertive anal intercourse and insertive oral sex. We found for behaviors that have achieved less risk consensus that as transmission risk perception increases, so too does the likelihood of condom use. This study highlights the need for more research in understanding how perceived health risk to others influences protective behaviors.

  2. Physical Activity and Falls in Older Men: The Critical Role of Mobility Limitations

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERIS, BARBARA J.; MEROM, DAFNA; SARTINI, CLAUDIO; WANNAMETHEE, S. GOYA; ASH, SARAH; LENNON, LUCY T.; ILIFFE, STEVE; KENDRICK, DENISE; WHINCUP, PETER H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Physical activity (PA) has many health benefits but may increase falls risk among older adults. We study how objectively measured habitual daily PA is related to falls by exploring the modifying effect of mobility limitations and the mediating roles of fitness and lower-limb strength. Methods One thousand six hundred fifty-five (53%) of 3137 surviving participants (men age 71–91 yr) in an ongoing UK-population-based cohort study wore an ActiGraph GT3x accelerometer over the hip for 1 wk in 2010–2012 to measure PA (exposure) and reported demographic and health status, including mobility limitations. One year later, 825 men reported falls history (outcome). Results Seven hundred of 825 men had ≥600 min·d−1 of accelerometer wear for ≥3 d. Nineteen percent (n = 128) reported falls 1 yr later. Associations between PA and falls differed by presence of mobility limitations. Among 66% (n = 471) of men without mobility limitations, number of falls increased incrementally (for every 30 min of moderate to vigorous PA [MVPA]: incidence rate ratio [IRR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10–2.03, adjusted for falls risk factors). Step count was not related to number of falls below 9000 steps per day but was related to number of falls ≥9000 steps per day (for every additional 1000 steps per day: IRR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16–2.18). Among 33% (n = 229) of men with mobility limitations, falls risk declined with increasing activity (for every 1000 steps per day: IRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70–0.91; for every 30 min of MVPA: IRR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42–0.89; for every additional 30 min of sedentary behavior ≥600 min·d−1: IRR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.07–1.40). Conclusions Interventions to promote MVPA in older men should incorporate falls prevention strategies. Among adults with mobility limitations, trials should investigate whether increasing MVPA levels can reduce falls risk. PMID:25668406

  3. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging findings in men with low-risk prostate cancer followed using active surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, Jeffrey K.; Bonekamp, David; Landis, Patricia; Begum, Hosne; Partin, Alan W.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Macura, Katarzyna J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in identifying pathological-index (path-index) lesions, defined as cancer present in the same prostate sextant in two separate surveillance biopsies, in men followed within an active surveillance (AS) programme for low-risk prostate cancer (CaP) with extended follow-up. Materials and Methods A total of 50 men, representing >215 person-years of follow-up in an AS programme, who were referred for prostate MRI were randomly chosen to have their images reviewed by a radiologist with expertise in prostate MRI, who was blinded to biopsy results. Index lesions on MRI were defined as a single suspicious lesion ≥10 mm or >2 lesions in a given prostate sextant. Lesions on MRI were considered suspicious if ≥2 abnormal parameters co-registered anatomically. Path-index lesions were defined as cancer present in a given prostate sextant on two separate biopsy sessions. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to test the performance of MRI for identifying path-index lesions. Clinical and pathological features were compared between men with and without a MRI-index lesion. Results A total of 31 path-index and 13 MRI-index lesions were detected in 22 and 10 patients, respectively. Multiparametric MRI demonstrated excellent specificity and negative predictive value (0.974 and 0.897, respectively) for the detection of path-index lesions. Sensitivity (0.19) and positive predictive value (0.46) were considerably lower. Patients with an index lesion on MRI were younger and less likely to have met the ‘Epstein’ criteria for very low-risk CaP. Compared with men without an MRI lesion, a significant increase in biopsy reclassification was noted for men with a MRI lesion (40 vs 12.5%, P = 0.04). Conclusions A non-suspicious MRI was highly correlated with a lack of path-index lesions in an AS population. Multiparametric MRI may be useful in both the selection and monitoring of patients undergoing

  4. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men.

  5. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  6. Effect of wrist-worn activity monitor feedback on physical activity behavior: A randomized controlled trial in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Virtanen, Paula; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an activity monitor providing feedback has an effect on physical activity (PA) in young men. A population-based sample of 276 conscription-aged (mean = 17.9, SD = 0.7 years) men participated in a 3-month randomized controlled trial in Oulu in 2012. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (INT, N = 137) and a control group (CON, N = 139). INT received a wrist-worn monitor (Polar Active) showing daily activity, and CON received identical monitors without feedback. Main outcome was the change from baseline in objectively measured weekly time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SED), as assessed by generalized estimation equations (GEE). Other lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months. Weekly physical activity data (≥ 4 days with ≥ 8 h each) were obtained from 72 (53%) and 90 (65%) men in the INT and CON, respectively. Based on GEE, time spent in MVPA increased (p = 0.012) and SED decreased (p = 0.032) in the INT compared with the CON. During the first 7 weeks, the INT spent on average 1 h less sedentary than the CON (t-test, p < 0.05). During the first week, the INT showed 12 minutes more MVPA compared to the CON (t-test, p = 0.034). Based on questionnaire data, the proportion of the most sedentary men decreased in the INT (Wilcoxon test, 28% vs. 10%, p = 0.029), with no change in the CON (20% vs. 19%, p = 0.546). To conclude, a wrist-worn activity monitor providing feedback had a short-term positive effect on PA and SED in young men. Trial registration This is a pilot study for a larger randomized controlled trial registered to the clinical trials register NCT01376986. PMID:26844128

  7. Turnover of whole body proteins and myofibrillar proteins in middle-aged active men

    SciTech Connect

    Zackin, M.; Meredith, C.; Frontera, W.; Evans, W.

    1986-03-05

    Endurance-trained older men have a higher proportion of lean tissue and greater muscle cell oxidative capacity, reversing age-related trends and suggesting major changes in protein metabolism. In this study, protein turnover was determined in 6 middle-aged (52+/-1 yr) men who were well trained (VO/sub 2/ max 55.2+/-5.0 ml O/sub 2//kg.min) and lean (body fat 18.9+/-2.8%, muscle mass 36.6+/-0.6%). The maintained habitual exercise while consuming 0.6, 0.9 or 1.2 g protein/kg.day for 10-day periods. N flux was measured from /sup 15/N in urea after oral /sup 15/N-glycine administration. Myofibrillar protein breakdown was estimated from urinary 3-methyl-histidine. Dietary protein had no effect on turnover rates, even when N balance was negative. Whole body protein synthesis was 3.60+/-0.12 g/kg.day and breakdown was 3.40+/-0.14 g/kg.day for all N intakes. Whole body protein flux, synthesis and breakdown were similar to values reported for sedentary young (SY) or sedentary old (SO) men on comparable diets. 3-me-his (3.67+/-0.14 ..mu..mol/kg.day) was similar to values reported for SY but higher (p<0.01) than for SO. Myofibrillar protein breakdown per unit muscle mass (185+/-7 ..mu..mol 3-me-his/g creatinine) was higher (p<0.01) than for SY or SO. In active middle-aged men, myofibrillar proteins may account for a greater proportion of whole body protein turnover, despite an age-related reduction in muscle mass.

  8. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Carolina G.; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D. C. B.; Nunes, Maria A. A.; Barreto, Sandhi M.

    2015-01-01

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34–65 years (n = 13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender. PMID:26035664

  9. Body Image and Nutritional Status Are Associated with Physical Activity in Men and Women: The ELSA-Brasil Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carolina G; Giatti, Luana; Molina, Maria D C B; Nunes, Maria A A; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2015-05-29

    The association of body image dissatisfaction and obesity with physical activity is likely to differ according to gender. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study among the ELSA-Brasil cohort members aged 34-65 years (n=13,286). The body image dissatisfaction was present even among normal weight individuals of both sexes and was associated with lesser chances of practicing moderate physical activity in women and intense physical activity in men. Men and women with central obesity were less prone to practice physical activity of high or moderate intensity. Overweight and obese men were more likely to report vigorous physical activity while obese women were less likely to report this level of physical activity. Body images as well as nutritional status are related to physical activity in both sexes, but the association with physical activity differs by gender.

  10. Increasing proportions of Australian gay and homosexually active men engage in unprotected anal intercourse with regular and with casual partners.

    PubMed

    Van De Ven, P; Rawstorne, P; Crawford, J; Kippax, S

    2002-06-01

    We examined trends in sexual practice among gay and homosexually active men in Australia. Self-complete questionnaires were distributed with mail-order sex video catalogues in 2000 and returned anonymously through a reply-paid facility. The data were compared with those from men who responded to promotional material sent out with the same catalogues and who participated in national telephone surveys of men who have sex with men conducted in 1992 and 1996. A key independent variable was gay community attached (GCA) versus non-GCA (NGCA) derived from two items about number of gay friends and amount of free time spent with gay men. Responses came from 1,832 men ranging in age from 16 to 80 (median = 39) years. HIV status was 73% negative, 5% positive, 22% untested; 1,181 men were GCA and 651 men were NGCA. Overall, from 1992 to 2000 there was a significant upward trend in the proportion of men reporting any unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in the previous six months with regular partners: 21.5%, 24.7%, 46.4% of the total sample (p < 0.001). And similarly for UAI with casual partners: 12.4%, 16.2%, 25.5% (p < 0.001). The upward trends in UAI-regular and UAI-casual were similar and significant (p < 0.001) for both GCA and NGCA men. These nationwide Australian data provide evidence of continuing increases in unprotected anal intercourse with regular and with casual partners. Whereas the majority of men do not engage in any unprotected anal intercourse during a defined interval, ever increasing proportions of them do.

  11. Salt site performance assessment activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Meredith L; Roy, Carolyn; Grimbos, Teresa; Cantor, James M; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies consistently report that men's genital responses correspond to their sexual activity interests (consenting vs. coercive sex) whereas women's responses do not. For women, however, these results may be confounded by the sexual activities studied and lack of suitable controls. We examined the subjective and genital arousal responses of men and women with conventional (22 men and 15 women) or masochistic sexual interests (16 men and 17 women) to narratives describing conventional sex or masochistic sex. The aims of the studies were twofold: (1) to examine whether gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal previously observed for gender also exist for sexual activity interests; and (2) to examine whether men and women with masochistic sexual interests demonstrate specificity of sexual response for their preferred sexual activities. Surprisingly, the pattern of results was very similar for men and women. Both men and women with conventional sexual interests (WCI) reported more sexual arousal, and responded more genitally, to conventional than to masochistic sex, demonstrating specificity of sexual arousal for their preferred sexual activities. Despite showing specificity for conventional sexual activities, the genital responses of WCI were still gender nonspecific. In contrast, women and men with masochistic sexual interests demonstrated nonspecific subjective and genital responses to conventional and masochistic sex. Indices of genital and subjective sexual arousal to masochistic versus conventional stimuli were positively and significantly correlated with self-reported thoughts, fantasies, interests, and behaviors involving masochism. The results suggest that gender similarities in the specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activity exist despite consistent gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal for gender.

  13. Effects of intranasal oxytocin and vasopressin on cooperative behavior and associated brain activity in men

    PubMed Central

    Rilling, James K.; DeMarco, Ashley C.; Hackett, Patrick D.; Thompson, Richmond; Ditzen, Beate; Patel, Rajan; Pagnoni, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The neural mechanisms supporting social bonds between adult men remain uncertain. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigate the impact of intranasally administered oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) on behavior and brain activity among men in the context of an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game, which models a real-life social situation. fMRI results show that, relative to both AVP and placebo, OT increases the caudate nucleus response to reciprocated cooperation, which may augment the reward of reciprocated cooperation and/or facilitate learning that another person can be trusted. OT also enhances left amygdala activation in response to reciprocated cooperation. Behaviorally, OT was associated with increased rates of cooperation following unreciprocated cooperation in the previous round compared with AVP. AVP strongly increased cooperation in response to a cooperative gesture by the partner compared with both placebo and OT. In response to reciprocated cooperation, AVP increased activation in a region spanning known vasopressin circuitry implicated in affiliative behaviors in other species. Finally, both OT and AVP increase amygdala functional connectivity with the anterior insula relative to placebo, which may increase the amygdala’s ability to elicit visceral somatic markers that guide decision making. These findings extend our knowledge of the neural and behavioral effects of OT and AVP to the context of genuine social interactions. PMID:21840129

  14. Perceptions Towards Condom Use, Sexual Activity, and HIV Disclosure among HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men: Implications for Heterosexual Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Ramamurthi, Hema Codathi; Bingham, Trista A.

    2006-01-01

    Disproportionately high HIV/AIDS rates and frequent non-gay identification (NGI) among African American men who have sex with men or with both men and women (MSM/W) highlight the importance of understanding how HIV-positive African American MSM/W perceive safer sex, experience living with HIV, and decide to disclose their HIV status. Thirty predominately seropositive and non-gay identifying African American MSM/W in Los Angeles participated in three semi-structured focus group interviews, and a constant comparison method was used to analyze responses regarding condom use, sexual activity after an HIV diagnosis, and HIV serostatus disclosure. Condom use themes included its protective role against disease and pregnancy, acceptability concerns pertaining to aesthetic factors and effectiveness, and situational influences such as exchange sex, substance use, and suspicions from female partners. Themes regarding the impact of HIV on sexual activity included rejection, decreased partner seeking, and isolation. Serostatus disclosure themes included disclosure to selective partners and personal responsibility. Comprehensive HIV risk-reduction strategies that build social support networks, condom self-efficacy, communication skills, and a sense of collective responsibility among NGI African American MSM/W while addressing HIV stigma in the African American community as a whole are suggested. PMID:16736115

  15. Plasma lactic dehydrogenase activities in men during bed rest with exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L. T.; Young, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    Peak oxygen uptake and the activity of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH-T) and its five isoenzymes were measured by spectrophotometer in seven men before, during, and after bed rest and exercise training. Exercise training consisted of isometric leg exercises of 250 kcal/hr for a period of one hour per day. It is found that LDH-T was reduced by 0.05 percent in all three regimens by day 10 of bed rest, and that the decrease occurred at different rates. The earliest reduction in LDH-T activity in the no-exercise regimen was associated with a decrease in peak oxygen uptake of 12.3 percent. It is concluded that isometric (aerobic) muscular strength training appear to maintain skeletal muscle integrity better during bed rest than isotonic exercise training. Reduced hydrostatic pressure during bed rest, however, ultimately counteracts the effects of both moderate isometric and isotonic exercise training, and may result in decreased LDH-T activity.

  16. Factors in Daily Physical Activity Related to Calcaneal Mineral Density in Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, Teresa M.; Whalen, Robert T.; Cleek, Tammy M.; Vogel, John M.; Arnaud, Sara B.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the factors in daily physical activity that influence the mineral density of the calcaneus, we recorded walking steps and the type and duration of exercise in 43 healthy 26-to 51-yr-old men. Areal (g/sq cm) calcaneal bone mineral density (CBMD) was measured by single energy x-ray densitometry. Subjects walked a mean (+/- SD) of 7902(+/-2534) steps per day or approximately 3.9(+/-1.2) miles daily. Eight subjects reported no exercise activities. The remaining 35 subjects spent 143(2-772) (median and range) min/wk exercising. Twenty-eight men engaged in exercise activities that generate single leg peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRF(sub z)) of 2 or more body weights (high loaders, HL), and 15 reported exercise or daily activities that typically generate GRF(sub z) less than 1.5 body weights (low loaders, LL). CBMD was 12% higher in HL than LL (0.668 +/- 0.074 g/sq cm vs 0.597 +/- 0.062 g/sq cm, P less than 0.004). In the HL group, CBMD correlated to reported minutes of high load exercise (r = 0.41, P less than 0.03). CBMD was not related to the number of daily walking steps (N = 43, r = 0.03, NS). The results of this study support the concept that the dominant factor in daily physical activity relating to bone mineral density is the participation in site specific high loading activities, i.e., for the calcaneus, high calcaneal loads.

  17. Activity spaces of men who have sex with men: An initial exploration of geographic variation in locations of routine, potential sexual risk, and prevention behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Adam S; Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L F; Rosenberg, Eli S; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-02-01

    Theory and research on HIV and among men who have sex with men (MSM) have long suggested the importance of non-residential locations in defining structural exposures. Despite this, most studies within these fields define place as a residential context, neglecting the potential influence of non-residential locations on HIV-related outcomes. The concept of activity spaces, defined as a set of locations to which an individual is routinely exposed, represents one theoretical basis for addressing this potential imbalance. Using a one-time online survey to collect demographic, behavioral, and spatial data from MSM, this paper describes activity spaces and examines correlates of this spatial variation. We used latent class analysis to identify categories of activity spaces using spatial data on home, routine, potential sexual risk, and HIV prevention locations. We then assessed individual and area-level covariates for their associations with these categories. Classes were distinguished by the degree of spatial variation in routine and prevention behaviors (which were the same within each class) and in sexual risk behaviors (i.e., sex locations and locations of meeting sex partners). Partner type (e.g. casual or main) represented a key correlate of the activity space. In this early examination of activity spaces in an online sample of MSM, patterns of spatial behavior represent further evidence of significant spatial variation in locations of routine, potential HIV sexual risk, and HIV prevention behaviors among MSM. Although prevention behaviors tend to have similar geographic variation as routine behaviors, locations where men engage in potentially high-risk behaviors may be more spatially focused for some MSM than for others.

  18. Reduced muscle strength and functional performance in men with prostate cancer undergoing androgen suppression: a comprehensive cross-sectional investigation.

    PubMed

    Galvão, D A; Taaffe, D R; Spry, N; Joseph, D; Turner, D; Newton, R U

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of androgen suppression therapy (AST) on upper and lower body muscle strength and a range of direct measures of physical performance using a cross-sectional design with 118 men (48 men undertaking AST for prostate cancer and 70 healthy aged-matched controls) from a single tertiary center. Primary end points included muscle strength for the upper- and lower-body; functional performance--repeated chair rise, usual and fast 6-m walk, 6-m backwards walk and 400-m walk time; and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment--whole body, regional soft tissue composition and bone mineral density (BMD). Men on AST had significantly reduced muscle strength for the upper- and lower-body and impaired functional performance compared to controls (P<0.05). As expected, AST patients had significantly lower whole-body and hip BMD and higher percent of body fat than controls (P<0.05), and tended to have lower whole-body lean mass (-2.3 kg, P=0.077). Appendicular skeletal muscle was positively associated with upper-body (r=0.400-0.606, P<0.001) and lower-body (r=0.549-0.588, P<0.001) muscle strength, and strength was related to functional performance. Men undertaking AST were consistently impaired across a broad range of physical and functional musculoskeletal performance assessments compared with their age-matched normal controls. These findings are relevant for those patients considering AST for subclinical disease management, but whose physical reserve is marginal. Strategies to counter these adverse effects of AST need to be initiated so that independent living and quality of life can be maintained.

  19. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Quality of Life Between Physically Active and Underactive Older Men With Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boisen, Samara; Krägeloh, Chris; Shepherd, Daniel; Ryan, Clare; Masters, Jonathan; Osborne, Sue; MacLeod, Rod D; Gray, Marion; Keogh, Justin W

    2016-10-01

    Men with prostate cancer experience many side effects and symptoms that may be improved by a physically active lifestyle. It was hypothesized that older men with prostate cancer who were physically active would report significantly higher levels of quality of life (QOL) as assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-OLD. Of the 348 prostate cancer survivors who were invited to participate in the present postal survey, 137 men returned the questionnaires. Those who were physically active had significantly lower prostate specific antigen (PSA) scores and higher social participation than those insufficiently active. These findings offer some support for the benefits of physical activity (PA) within the prostate cancer population in managing the adverse side effects of their treatments on aspects of their QOL. Future research should more closely examine what types of PA best promote improvements in varying aspects of QOL and psychological well-being for prostate cancer survivors.

  20. HIV risk behavior and access to services: what predicts HIV testing among heterosexually active homeless men?

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Suzanne L; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-06-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV testing behavior of homeless men. This study examined the association between individual (HIV risk) and structural (service access) factors and past year HIV testing. Participants were a representative sample of 305 heterosexually active homeless men interviewed from meal programs in the Skid Row region of Los Angeles. Logistic regression examined the association between past year HIV testing and demographic characteristics, HIV risk behavior, and access to other services in the Skid Row area in the past 30 days. Despite high rates of past year HIV testing, study participants also reported high rates of HIV risk behavior, suggesting there is still significant unmet need for HIV prevention among homeless men. Having recently used medical/dental services in the Skid Row area (OR: 1.91; CI: 1.09, 3.35), and being a military veteran (OR: 2.10; CI: 1.01-4.37) were significantly associated with HIV testing service utilization. HIV testing was not associated with HIV risk behavior, but rather with access to services and veteran status, the latter of which prior research has linked to increased service access. We suggest that programs encouraging general medical service access may be important for disseminating HIV testing services to this high-risk, vulnerable population.

  1. Plasma glucose, insulin and catecholamine responses to a Wingate test in physically active women and men.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Sophie; Berthon, Phanélie; Zouhal, Hassane; Moussa, Elie; Catheline, Michel; Bentué-Ferrer, Danièle; Gratas-Delamarche, Arlette

    2004-01-01

    The influence of gender on the glucose response to exercise remains contradictory. Moreover, to our knowledge, the glucoregulatory responses to anaerobic sprint exercise have only been studied in male subjects. Hence, the aim of the present study was to compare glucoregulatory metabolic (glucose and lactate) and hormonal (insulin, catecholamines and estradiol only in women) responses to a 30-s Wingate test, in physically active students. Eight women [19.8 (0.7) years] and eight men [22.0 (0.6) years] participated in a 30-s Wingate test on a bicycle ergometer. Plasma glucose, insulin, and catecholamine concentrations were determined at rest, at the end of both the warm-up and the exercise period and during the recovery (5, 10, 20, and 30 min). Results showed that the plasma glucose increase in response to a 30-s Wingate test was significantly higher in women than in men [0.99 (0.15) versus 0.33 (0.20) mmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. Plasma insulin concentrations peaked at 10 min post-exercise and the increase between this time of recovery and the end of the warm-up was also significantly higher in women than in men [14.7 (2.9) versus 2.3 (1.9) pmol l(-1) respectively, P<0.05]. However, there was no gender difference concerning the catecholamine response. The study indicates a gender-related difference in post-exercise plasma glucose and insulin responses after a supramaximal exercise.

  2. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of The Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal/day(exp -1), 2 mmol*kg(exp -1)*day(exp -1)) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 minutes of progressive LBNP to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men (25 +/- 2 years, HiTol group), but eight men (26 +/- 3 years) reached pre-syncope after 11 +/- 1 minutes (P < 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by approx. 30%, P < 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng Ang1/(ml(exp -1)*h(exp -1)) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml(exp -1)) than LoTol (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng Ang1/(ml*h) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml(exp -1)). In contrast, pVP was higher (P < 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  3. Low LBNP Tolerance in Men is Associated With Attenuated Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N.-J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaeck, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Vasoactive hormone concentrations (epinephrine (pE), norepinephrine (pNE), angiotensin II (pATII), vasopressin (pVP), endothelin 1 (pET1)] and plasma renin activity (pRA) were measured during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the reninangiotensin system is related to LBNP tolerance. Healthy men (2,822 cal per day, 2 mmol per kilogram per day Na (+)) were exposed to 30 min of progressive LBNP to -50mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for 7 men (2512 yr, HiTol group), but 8 men (26 plus or minus 3 yr) reached pre-syncope after 11 plus or minus 1 min (P less than 0.001, LoTol group). Mean arterial pressure was unchanged. Central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased in both groups (5-6 mmHg by 30%, P less than 0.05). Control [hormone] were similar but, pRA differed between groups (LoTol 0.6 plus or minus 0.1, HiTol 1.2 plus or minus 0.1 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour, per hour, P less than 0.05). LBNP increased (P less than 0.05) pRA and pATII more in HiTol (9.9 plus or minus 2.2 ng Ang1 per milliliter per hour and 58 plus or minus 12 pg per milliliter) than LoTol (4.3 plus or minus 0.9 ng Angl per milliliter per hour and 28 plus or minus 6 pg per milliliter). In contrast, pVP was higher (P less than 0.05) in LoTol than in HiTol. The response of the renin-angiotensin system seems linked to the occurrence of pre-syncope, and measurement of resting pRA may be predictive.

  4. Men on the Move-Nashville: Feasibility and Acceptability of a Technology-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Middle and Older Age African American Men.

    PubMed

    Dean, Donnatesa A L; Griffith, Derek M; McKissic, Sydika A; Cornish, Emily K; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki

    2016-04-19

    Men on the Move-Nashvillewas a quasi-experimental, 10-week pilot physical activity intervention. A total of 40 overweight or obese African American men ages 30 to 70 (mean age = 47) enrolled in the intervention. Participants attended 8 weekly, 90-minute small group sessions with a certified personal trainer. Each session consisted of discussions aimed to educate and motivate men to be more physically active, and an exercise component aimed to increase endurance, strength, and flexibility. Throughout each week, men used wearable activity trackers to promote self-monitoring and received informational and motivational SMS text messages. Of the 40 enrolled men, 85% completed the intervention, and 80% attended four or more small group sessions. Additionally, 70% of participants successfully used the activity tracker, but only 30% of men utilized their gym memberships. Participants benefited from both the small group discussions and activities through increasing social connection and guidance from their trainer and group members. These African American men reported being motivated to engage in physical activity through each of these technologies. Men reported that the activity trackers provided an important extension to their social network of physically active people. The intervention resulted in significant increases in men's self-reported levels of light, moderate, vigorous, and sports-related physical activities, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and significant decreases in weight and body fat percentage with small, moderate and large effects shown. Including technology and didactic components in small group-based interventions holds promise in motivating African American men to increase their physical activity.

  5. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  6. Effects of rumenic acid rich conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on cognitive function and handgrip performance in older men and women.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Miramonti, Amelia A; McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Smith, Cory M; Hill, Ethan C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8weeks at 6g per day of RAR CLA versus placebo on cognitive function and handgrip performance in older men and women. Sixty-five (43 women, 22 men) participants (mean±SD; age=72.4±5.9yrs; BMI=26.6±4.2kg·m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a RAR CLA (n=30: 10 men, 20 women) or placebo (PLA; high oleic sunflower oil; n=35: 12 men, 23 women) group in double-blind fashion and consumed 6g·d(-1) of their allocated supplement for 8weeks. Before (Visit 1) and after supplementation (Visit 2), subjects completed the Serial Sevens Subtraction Test (S7), Trail Making Test Part A (TMA) and Part B (TMB), and Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to measure cognitive function. The RAVLT included 5, 15-item auditory word recalls (R1-5), an interference word recall (RB), a 6th word recall (R6), and a 15-item visual word recognition trial (RR). For handgrip performance, subjects completed maximal voluntary isometric handgrip strength (MVIC) testing before (MVICPRE) and after (MVICPOST) a handgrip fatigue test at 50% MVICPRE. Hand joint discomfort was measured during MVICPRE, MVICPOST, and the handgrip fatigue test. There were no treatment differences (p>0.05) for handgrip strength, handgrip fatigue, or cognitive function as measured by the Trail Making Test and Serial Seven's Subtraction Test in men or women. However, RAR CLA supplementation improved cognitive function as indicated by the RAVLT R5 in men. A qualitative examination of the mean change scores suggested that, compared to PLA, RAR CLA supplementation was associated with a small improvement in joint discomfort in both men and women. Longer-term studies are needed to more fully understand the potential impact of RAR CLA on cognitive function and hand joint discomfort in older adults, particularly in those with lower cognitive function.

  7. The effect of psychosocial syndemic production on 4-year HIV incidence and risk behavior in a large cohort of sexually active men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    MIMIAGA, Matthew J.; O’CLEIRIGH, Conall; BIELLO, Katie B.; ROBERTSON, Angela M.; SAFREN, Steven A.; COATES, Thomas J.; KOBLIN, Beryl A.; CHESNEY, Margaret A.; DONNELL, Deborah J.; STALL, Ron D.; MAYER, Kenneth H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies have suggested that co-occurring epidemics or “syndemics” of psychosocial health problems may accelerate HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We aimed to assess how five syndemic conditions (depressive symptoms, heavy alcohol use, stimulant use, polydrug use, and childhood sexual abuse) affected HIV incidence and sexual risk behavior over time. Methods Eligible men in a large, prospective cohort of sexually active, HIV-uninfected MSM completed HIV testing and behavioral surveys at baseline and every 6 months for 48 months. We examined interrelationships between psychosocial problems and whether these interactions increased the odds of HIV risk behaviors and risk of seroconversion over study follow-up. Results Among 4295 men, prevalence of psychosocial conditions was substantial at baseline and was positively associated with each other. We identified a statistically significant positive dose-response relationship between numbers of syndemic conditions and HIV seroconversion for all comparisons (with the greatest hazard among those with 4-5 conditions, aHR=8.69; 95% CI: 4.78-15.44). The number of syndemic conditions also predicted increased HIV related risk behaviors over time, which mediated the syndemic-HIV seroconversion association. Conclusions The accumulation of “syndemic” psychosocial problems predicted HIV-related sexual risk behaviors and seroconversion in a large sample of U.S. MSM. Given the high prevalence of syndemic conditions among MSM and the moderate effect sizes attained by traditional brief behavioral interventions to date, the HIV prevention agenda requires a shift toward improved assessment of psychosocial comorbidities and stronger integration with mental health and substance abuse treatment services. PMID:25501609

  8. Changes in markers of brain serotonin activity in response to chronic exercise in senior men.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Michel O; Lorrain, Dominique; Dionne, Isabelle J

    2014-11-01

    Aging is associated with noticeable impairments in brain serotonin transmission, which might contribute to increased vulnerability to developing depression in later life. Animal and human studies have shown that aerobic exercise can stimulate brain serotonin activity and trigger parallel elevations in tryptophan (TRP, the serotonin precursor) availability in blood plasma. However, the influence of chronic exercise on serotonergic activity in older adults is not yet known. Sixteen men aged 64 ± 3 years exercised for 1 h (67%-70% peak oxygen consumption) at baseline and following 16 weeks of aerobic training. The main outcome measures were cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), TRP, prolactin, lactate, and free fatty acids (FFA). Changes in plasma free-TRP/BCAA and prolactin served as surrogates for TRP availability and serotonin activity, respectively. Chronic exercise decreased body mass (P < 0.05) whilst it increased ventilatory threshold 2 (P < 0.01). Although training did not affect plasma TRP availability to the brain at rest, both pre- and post-training exercise challenges markedly increased TRP availability (P < 0.001). The free-TRP/BCAA values reached a ceiling during exercise that was lower following training (P < 0.05), whereas similar patterns were found for prolactin, lactate, and FFA. These data show that aerobic exercise elicits consistent transient elevations in plasma TRP availability to the brain in older men; the elevations were independent from physical training, although less pronounced following training. The data support the contention that repeated elevations in brain serotonin activity might be involved in the antidepressant effect of exercise training in older adults.

  9. Do Women Profit from the Fact That They Perform the Same Sort of Work as Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen-Toropainen, Kaisa

    The Finnish labor market is sharply segregated by sex. Previous research has shown the work of women to be inferior to that of men in that the work of women is less autonomous, allows less freedom for self-regulation and self-determination, is more restricted in space and time, and is more monotonous. This study sought to determine whether the…

  10. Empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of older couples: Fluid cognitive performance predicts pattern accuracy among men.

    PubMed

    Hülür, Gizem; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Rauers, Antje; Schade, Hannah; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Correctly identifying other's emotional states is a central cognitive component of empathy. We examined the role of fluid cognitive performance for empathic accuracy for happiness in the daily lives of 86 older couples (mean relationship length = 45 years; mean age = 75 years) on up to 42 occasions over 7 consecutive days. Men performing better on the Digit Symbol test were more accurate in identifying ups and downs of their partner's happiness. A similar association was not found for women. We discuss the potential role of fluid cognitive performance and other individual, partner, and situation characteristics for empathic accuracy. (PsycINFO Database Record

  11. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    PubMed

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  12. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, J; Kilduff, LP; Sanctuary, CE; Cook, CJ

    2016-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p < 0.05). No significant group differences in C concentrations, T/C ratio or IMTP PF were found. The individual changes in T levels were positively associated with training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures. PMID:27601775

  13. Condoms and Contexts: Profiles of Sexual Risk and Safety Among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Beadnell, Blair; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.; Wells, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Heterosexual men’s sexual safety behavior is important to controlling the U.S. epidemic of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. While sexual safety is often treated as a single behavior, such as condom use, it can also be conceptualized as resulting from multiple factors. Doing so can help us achieve more nuanced understandings of sexual risk and safety within partner-related contexts. We used Latent Class Analysis with data collected online from 18-25 year old heterosexually active U.S. men (n = 432) to empirically derive a typology of the patterns of sexual safety strategies they employ. Indicators were sexual risk reduction strategies used in the past year with the most recent female sex partner: Condom use, discussing sexual histories, STI testing, agreeing to be monogamous, and discussing birth control. We identified four subgroups: Risk Takers (12%), Condom Reliers (25%), Multistrategists (28%), and Relationship Reliers (35%). Partner-related context factors – number of past-year sex partners, relationship commitment, and sexual concurrency – predicted subgroup membership. Findings support tailoring STI prevention to men’s sexual risk-safety subgroups. Interventions should certainly continue to encourage condom use, but should also include information on how partner-related context factors and alternate sexual safety strategies can help men reduce risk for themselves and their partners. PMID:25256019

  14. Sexual scripts among young heterosexually active men and women: Continuity and change

    PubMed Central

    Masters, N. Tatiana; Casey, Erin; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.

    2012-01-01

    While gendered sexual scripts are hegemonic at the cultural level, research suggests they may be less so at dyadic and individual levels. Understanding “disjunctures” between sexual scripts at different levels holds promise for illuminating mechanisms through which sexual scripts can change. Through interviews with 44 heterosexually active men and women aged 18-25, we delineated ways young people grappled with culture-level scripts for sexuality and relationships. Findings suggest that although most participants’ culture-level gender scripts for behavior in sexual relationships were congruent with descriptions of traditional masculine and feminine sexuality, there was heterogeneity in how or whether these scripts were incorporated into individual relationships. Specifically, we found three styles of working with sexual scripts: Conforming, in which personal gender scripts for sexual behavior overlapped with traditional scripts; exception-finding, in which interviewees accepted culture-level gender scripts as a reality, but created exceptions to gender rules for themselves; and transforming, in which participants either attempted to remake culture-level gender scripts, or interpreted their own non-traditional styles as equally normative. Changing sexual scripts can potentially contribute to decreased gender inequity in the sexual realm and to increased opportunities for sexual satisfaction, safety, and wellbeing, particularly for women, but for men as well. PMID:22489683

  15. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Hannah R.; Schroder, Elizabeth A.; England, Jonathan; Black, W. Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E.; Esser, Karyn A.; Clasey, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈ 24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations. PMID:26101893

  16. Physical activity, and not fat mass is a primary predictor of circadian parameters in young men.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Hannah R; Schroder, Elizabeth A; England, Jonathan; Black, W Scott; Bush, Heather; Hughes, Michael E; Esser, Karyn A; Clasey, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are ≈24 h oscillations in physiology and behavior, and disruptions have been shown to have negative effects on health. Wrist skin temperature has been used by several groups as a valid method of assessing circadian rhythms in humans. We tested the hypothesis that circadian temperature amplitude (TempAmp) and stability (TempStab) would significantly differ among groups of healthy young men of varying adiposities, and that we could identify physiological and behavioral measures that were significantly associated with these temperature parameters. Wrist skin temperatures taken at 10 min intervals for 7 consecutive days were determined in 18 optimal (OGroup), 20 fair (FGroup) and 21 poor (PGroup) %Fat grouped young men and subsequently analyzed using available validated software. Body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, actigraphy, daily nutritional and sleep data, and fasting lipid, insulin and glucose concentration measures were also determined. Significant changes in TempAmp and TempStab parameters in subjects with a single metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factor compared to those with no MetS factors was observed. In addition, stepwise multivariate regression analyses showed that 50% of the variance in TempAmp was explained by actigraphy (mean steps taken per day; MSTPD), cardiorespiratory fitness, and late night eating per week (#LNE); and 57% in TempStab by MSTPD, time spent in moderate-to-vigorous activity per day, fat mass, and #LNE. Overwhelmingly, physical activity was the most important measure associated with the differences in circadian rhythm parameters. Further research is warranted to determine the effects of increasing the amount and timing of physical activity on the status of the circadian system in a variety of populations.

  17. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  18. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  19. Low LBNP tolerance in men is associated with attenuated activation of the renin-angiotensin system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Petersen, T. W.; Gabrielsen, A.; Pump, B.; Bie, P.; Christensen, N. J.; Warberg, J.; Videbaek, R.; Simonson, S. R.; Norsk, P.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma vasoactive hormone concentrations [epinephrine (p(Epi)), norepinephrine (p(NE)), ANG II (p(ANG II)), vasopressin (p(VP)), endothelin-1 (p(ET-1))] and plasma renin activity (p(RA)) were measured periodically and compared during lower body negative pressure (LBNP) to test the hypothesis that responsiveness of the renin-angiotensin system, the latter being one of the most powerful vasoconstrictors in the body, is of major importance for LBNP tolerance. Healthy men on a controlled diet (2,822 cal/day, 2 mmol. kg(-1). day(-1) Na(+)) were exposed to 30 min of LBNP from -15 to -50 mmHg. LBNP was uneventful for seven men [25 +/- 2 yr, high-tolerance (HiTol) group], but eight men (26 +/- 3 yr) reached presyncope after 11 +/- 1 min [P < 0.001, low-tolerance (LoTol) group]. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change measurably, but central venous pressure and left atrial diameter decreased similarly in both groups (5-6 mmHg, by approximately 30%, P < 0.05). Control (0 mmHg LBNP) hormone concentrations were similar between groups, however, p(RA) differed between them (LoTol 0.6 +/- 0.1, HiTol 1.2 +/- 0.1 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1), P < 0.05). LBNP increased (P < 0. 05) p(RA) and p(ANG II), respectively, more in the HiTol group (9.9 +/- 2.2 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 58 +/- 12 pg/ml) than in LoTol subjects (4.3 +/- 0.9 ng ANG I. ml(-1). h(-1) and 28 +/- 6 pg/ml). In contrast, the increase in p(VP) was higher (P < 0.05) in the LoTol than in the HiTol group. The increases (P < 0.05) for p(NE) were nonsignificant between groups, and p(ET-1) remained unchanged. Thus there may be a causal relationship between attenuated activation of p(RA) and p(ANG II) and presyncope, with p(VP) being a possible cofactor. Measurement of resting p(RA) may be of predictive value for those with lower hypotensive tolerance.

  20. An Exploratory Study of Job Satisfaction, Retention, and Performance of Navy Enlisted Men,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The paper examines the relationship of 2 aspects of job satisfaction : satisfaction with the work itself (job content) and satisfaction of the job...influence on reenlistment decision. The findings suggested that the Navy should concentrate on improving the aspects of naval life associated with the... satisfaction of more basic needs -- such as pay, image of the Navy, and ship-board living conditions -- to retain enlisted men, particularly those in the

  1. Physical activity, sleep, and C-reactive protein as markers of positive health in resilient older men.

    PubMed

    Fields, Alison J; Hoyt, Robert E; Linnville, Steven E; Moore, Jeffery L

    2016-09-01

    This study explored whether physical activity and sleep, combined with the biomarker C-reactive protein, indexed positive health in older men. Many were former prisoners of war, with most remaining psychologically resilient and free of any psychiatric diagnoses. Activity and sleep were recorded through actigraphy in 120 veterans (86 resilient and 34 nonresilient) for 7 days. Resilient men had higher physical activity, significantly lower C-reactive protein levels, and 53 percent had lower cardiac-disease risk compared to nonresilient men. Sleep was adequate and not associated with C-reactive protein. Results suggest continued study is needed in actigraphy and C-reactive protein as means to index positive health.

  2. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    PubMed

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  3. Weight training, aerobic physical activities, and long-term waist circumference change in men

    PubMed Central

    Mekary, Rania A.; Grøntved, Anders; Despres, Jean-Pierre; De Moura, Leandro Pereira; Asgarzadeh, Morteza; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW). Methods Physical activity, WC, and BW were reported in 1996 and 2008 in a cohort of 10,500 healthy U.S. men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We used multiple linear regression models (partition/substitution) to assess these associations. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, we observed a significant inverse dose-response relationship between weight training and WC change (P-trend<0.001). Less age-associated WC increase was seen with a 20 min/day activity increase; this benefit was significantly stronger for weight training (-0.67cm, 95%CI -0.93, -0.41) than for MVAA (-0.33cm, 95%CI -0.40, -0.27), other activities (-0.16cm, 95%CI -0.28, -0.03), or TV watching (0.08cm, 95%CI 0.05, 0.12). Substituting 20 min/day of weight training for any other discretionary activity had the strongest inverse association with WC change. MVAA had the strongest inverse association with BW change (-0.23kg, 95%CI -0.29, -0.17). Conclusions Among various activities, weight training had the strongest association with less WC increase. Studies on frequency /volume of weight training and WC change are warranted. PMID:25530447

  4. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for curl-ups.…

  5. The effects of fatigue of the plantar flexors on peak torque and voluntary activation in untrained and resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Michael J; Ryan, Eric D; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Michael G

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of fatigue of the plantar flexors on peak torque and voluntary activation in untrained (UT) and resistance-trained (RT) men. Six men with no previous resistance training experience and 8 men with similar histories of chronic resistance training (9.8 ± 5.9 years, 3.8 ± 0.7 days/week) volunteered for this study. Subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) before and immediately after unilateral dynamic isotonic contractions performed at 40% of MVC until volitional exhaustion. Voluntary activation of the plantar flexors was assessed using the interpolated twitch method (ITT) and central activation ratio (CAR). Surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) was measured during the MVC. There were significant reductions in MVC torque in both UT and RT groups after the fatiguing exercise (-10.7 ± 6.8%, p < 0.02; -9.1 ± 8.7%, p < 0.02, respectively), with no difference in the number of repetitions performed between groups. The UT and RT men experienced a significant decrease in ITT after the fatiguing exercise bout (-14.2 ± 11.8%, p = 0.03; -7.8 ± 9.3%, p = 0.045, respectively). The UT group experienced a significant decrease in CAR (99.5 ± 0.8% to 91.4 ± 6.4%, p = 0.025) with no change (p > 0.05) in the RT group. There was also a fatigue-induced decrease in normalized EMG amplitude for the soleus and MG muscles in both groups (p < 0.05). However, no differences were determined between groups for ITT, CAR, or EMG. Despite similar reductions in MVC torque postexercise, the UT men had a significant decrease in CAR and experienced nearly twice the decline in ITT than the RT men. These results indicate that the neural adaptations associated with chronic resistance training may lead to less susceptibility to central fatigue as measured by ITT and CAR.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Predictors of Sexual Dysfunction in Men on Active Surveillance for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Shane M; Wang, Chi-Hsiung E; Victorson, David E; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian R; Brendler, Charles B; Albaugh, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sexual dysfunction, repeat biopsies and other demographic and clinical factors in men on active surveillance (AS). Methods Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measures were administered at enrollment and every 6 months to assess quality of life (QOL), psychosocial and urological health outcomes. Using mixed-effects models, we examined the impact of repeat biopsies, total number of cores taken, anxiety, age, and comorbidity on sexual function over the first 24 months of enrolling in AS. Main Outcome Measures PROs included the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite-26 (EPIC-26) Sexual Function (SF) subscale, the American Urological Association-Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and the Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer (MAX-PC). Results At enrollment (n = 195), mean age was 66.5 ± 6.8 with a mean EPIC-26 SF score of 61.4 ± 30.4. EPIC-26 SF scores steadily decreased to 53.9 ± 30.7 at 24 months (P < 0.01). MAX-PC scores also progressively decreased over time (P = 0.03). Factors associated with lower EPIC-26 scores over time included age, unemployed status, diabetes, coronary artery disease, and hypertension (all P < 0.05). Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was associated with a more rapid decline in EPIC-26 SF over time (P = 0.03). In multivariable analysis, age, diabetes, and PSA × time interaction remained significant predictors of diminished sexual function. Anxiety, number of biopsies, and total cores taken did not predict sexual dysfunction or change over time in our cohort. Conclusions Men on AS experienced a gradual decline in sexual function during the first 24 months of enrollment. Older age, PSA × time, and diabetes were all independent predictors of diminished sexual function over time. Anxiety, AUA-SI, the number of cores and the number of biopsies were not predictors of reduced sexual function in men in AS. PMID:26468379

  7. Investigation of gender- and age-related preferences of men and women regarding lighting conditions for activation and relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, S.; Schinagl, C.; Djuras, G.; Frühwirth, M.; Hoschopf, H.; Wagner, F.; Schulz, B.; Nemitz, W.; Grote, V.; Reidl, S.; Pritz, P.; Moser, M.; Wenzl, F. P.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, LED lighting became an indispensable alternative to conventional lighting systems. Sophisticated solutions offer not only comfortable white light with a good color rendering. They also provide the possibility of changing illuminance and color temperature. Some systems even simulate daylight over the entire day, some including natural variations as due to clouds. Such systems are supposed to support the chronobiological needs of human and to have a positive effect on well-being, performance, sleep-quality and health. Lighting can also be used to support specific aims in a situation, like to improve productivity in activation or to support recreation in relaxation. Research regarding suitable light-settings for such situations and superordinate questions like their influence on well-being and health is still incomplete. We investigated the subjective preferences of men and women regarding light-settings for activation and relaxation. We supplied two rooms and four cubes with light sources that provide the possibility of tuning illuminance, color temperature and deviation from Plackian locus. More than 80 individuals - belonging to four groups differing in gender and age - were asked to imagine activating and recovering situations for which they should adjust suitable and pleasant lighting by tuning the above mentioned light properties. It was shown that there are clear differences in the lighting conditions preferred for these two situations. Also some combined gender- and age-specific differences became apparent.

  8. Effect of Testosterone Replacement Therapy on Cognitive Performance and Depression in Men with Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on cognitive function and depression in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome. Materials and Methods We carried out a prospective, placebo-controlled trial involving 106 men with total testosterone levels <3.3 ng/mL and symptoms of hypogonadism. Based on whether the patients received TRT (injection with 1,000 mg testosterone undecanoate) or a placebo (advice to modify lifestyle), the study population was divided into a TRT group (n=54) and a control group (n=52). Results The age among patients in the TRT and control groups was 56.7±12.6 years and 57.8±11.4 years, respectively (p> 0.05). At baseline, no significant differences between the TRT and control groups were noted regarding serum testosterone or prostate-specific antigen levels, or regarding the scores for aging symptoms (Aging Males' Symptoms scale), erectile function (5-item International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire), cognitive function (Korean Mini-Mental State Examination), and depression (Beck Depression Inventory). At 8 months after intervention total serum testosterone levels and erectile function scores had significantly increased (p<0.05), whereas the scores for aging symptoms and depression had significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the TRT group; no significant improvement in any parameters was noted for the control group. Notably, significant improvement in cognitive function was noted among patients with cognitive impairment at baseline (cognitive function score <25) who received TRT. Conclusions TRT may be considered in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome if low testosterone levels are associated with depression or cognitive impairment. PMID:28053949

  9. Frequency of sexual activity with most recent male partner among young, Internet-using men who have sex with men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wall, Kristin M; Stephenson, Robert; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2013-01-01

    Sex frequency, defined here as the number of oral or anal sex acts with the most recent partner in the past year, is a potential driver of risk for sexually transmitted infections. However, few data on sex frequency have been reported for men who have sex with men (MSM). Data from an Internet survey of MSM were used to describe sex frequency with most recent main and casual male partners and to estimate factors associated with higher sex frequency. Among 5,193 MSM, higher sex frequency was associated with younger age, shorter relationship duration, and reporting a main (vs. casual) partner; and lower sex frequency with male partners was associated with heterosexual or bisexual (vs. homosexual) identity or Black race (vs. non-Hispanic White). Secondary analyses of estimates of sex frequency from 2 publicly available nationally representative datasets comprised of primarily heterosexual survey respondents (the 2008 General Social Survey and the 1992 National Health and Social Life Survey) were performed. Sex frequency among MSM respondents was similar to that reported by heterosexuals.

  10. Muscle adaptations and performance enhancements of soccer training for untrained men.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Christensen, Jesper F; Randers, Morten B; Pedersen, Henrik; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Krustrup, Birgitte R; Nielsen, Jens J; Suetta, Charlotte; Nybo, Lars; Bangsbo, Jens

    2010-04-01

    We examined the physical demands of small-sided soccer games in untrained middle-age males and muscle adaptations and performance effects over 12 weeks of recreational soccer training in comparison with continuous running. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (20-43 years) were randomized into a soccer (SO), running (RU) and control (CO) group. Two-three weekly 1-h training sessions were performed. Muscle lactate (30.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 15.6 +/- 3.3 mmol/kg d.w.), blood lactate, blood glucose and time above 90% HR(max) (20 +/- 4% vs. 1 +/- 1%) were higher (p < 0.05) during training in SO than in RU. After 12 weeks of training, quadriceps muscle mass and mean muscle fibre area were 9 and 15% larger (p < 0.05) in SO, but unaltered in RU, and in SO, the fraction of FTx fibres was lowered (10.7 +/- 1.8 vs. 17.9 +/- 3.2%). In SO, citrate synthase activity was 10 and 14% higher (p < 0.05) after 4 and 12 weeks, but unaltered in RU. After 4 weeks VO(2max) and Yo-Yo IE2 performance were elevated (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in SO (7 and 37%) and RU (6 and 36%) but increased further (p < 0.05) from 4 to 12 weeks in SO (6 and 23%). In SO, 30-m sprint performance was improved (p < 0.05) by 0.11 +/- 0.02 s. Blood lactate during running at 11 km/h was lowered (p < 0.05) from 0 to 4 and 4 to 12 weeks (2.6 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.1 +/- 0.9 mM) and from 0 to 12 weeks in RU. No changes occurred for CO. In conclusion, recreational soccer organized as small-sided games stimulates both aerobic and anaerobic energy turnover and is an effective type of training leading to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations as well as performance enhancements throughout a 12-week training period.

  11. Could both vitamin D and geomagnetic activity impact serum levels of soluble cell adhesion molecules in young men?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleizgys, Andrius; Šapoka, Virginijus

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D might have a role in diminishing endothelial dysfunction (ED). The initial aim was to test the hypothesis of reciprocity between levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and levels of soluble endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that could serve as biomarkers of ED. Randomly selected men of age 20-39 were examined at February or March (cold season) and reexamined at August or September (warm season). Some lifestyle and anthropometrical data were recorded. Laboratory measurements, including those for serum levels of soluble CAMs—sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and sP-selectin—were also performed. As some of the results were rather unexpected, indices of geomagnetic activity (GMA), obtained from the online database, were included in further analysis as a confounder. In 2012-2013, 130 men were examined in cold season, and 125 of them were reexamined in warm season. 25(OH)D levels were found to be significantly negatively associated with sVCAM-1 levels ( β = -0.15, p = 0.043 in warm season; β = -0.19, p = 0.007 for changes). Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 from the same seasons were notably different between years and have changed in an opposite manner. Soluble P-selectin levels were higher at warm season in both years. GMA was positively associated with sVCAM-1 ( β = 0.17, p = 0.039 in cold season; β = 0.22, p = 0.002 for changes) and negatively with sICAM-1 ( β = -0.30. p < 0.001 in cold season) levels. Vitamin D might play a role in diminishing sVCAM-1 levels. Levels of sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 were associated with the GMA; this implies a need for further research.

  12. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  13. How 100-m event analyses improve our understanding of world-class men's and women's sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, J; Termoz, N; Rabita, G; Guilhem, G; Dorel, S; Morin, J-B; Samozino, P

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the force (F)-velocity (v)-power (P)-time (t) relationships of female and male world-class sprinters. A total of 100 distance-time curves (50 women and 50 men) were computed from international 100-m finals, to determine the acceleration and deceleration phases of each race: (a) mechanical variables describing the velocity, force, and power output; and (b) F-P-v relationships and associated maximal power output, theoretical force and velocity produced by each athlete (Pmax , F0 , and V0 ). The results showed that the maximal sprint velocity (Vmax ) and mean power output (W/kg) developed over the entire 100 m strongly influenced 100-m performance (r > -0.80; P ≤ 0.001). With the exception of mean force (N/kg) developed during the acceleration phase or during the entire 100 m, all of the mechanicals variables observed over the race were greater in men. Shorter acceleration and longer deceleration in women may explain both their lower Vmax and their greater decrease in velocity, and in turn their lower performance level, which can be explained by their higher V0 and its correlation with performance. This highlights the importance of the capability to keep applying horizontal force to the ground at high velocities.

  14. Kegel Exercises for Men: Understand the Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Kegel exercises for men can help improve bladder control and possibly improve sexual performance. ... 13, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/kegel-exercises-for-men/ ...

  15. Aging-Related Correlation between Serum Sirtuin 1 Activities and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Sirtuin (SIRT) is a main regulator of metabolism and lifespan, and its importance has been implicated in the prevention against aging-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to identify the pattern of serum SIRT1 activity according to age and sex, and to investigate how serum SIRT1 activity is correlated with other metabolic parameters in Korean adults. The Biobank of Jeju National University Hospital, a member of the Korea Biobank Network, provided serum samples from 250 healthy adults. Aging- and metabolism-related factors were analyzed in serum, and the data were compared by the stratification of age and sex. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) decreased with age and was significantly lower in men in their fifties and older and in women in their forties and older compared with twenties in men and women, respectively. SIRT1 activities were altered by age and sex. Especially, women in their thirties showed the highest SIRT1 activities. Correlation analysis displayed that SIRT1 activity is positively correlated with serum triglyceride (TG) in men, and with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and serum TG in women. And, SIRT1 activity was negatively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio in women (r = −0.183, p = 0.039). Positive correlation was observed between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women (r = 0.222, p = 0.027), but not in men. Taken together, these findings suggest the possibility that serum SIRT1 activities may be utilized as a biomarker of aging. In addition, positive correlation between SIRT1 activity and BMR in women suggests that serum SIRT1 activity may reflect energy expenditure well in human. PMID:28168178

  16. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale in Online Samples of Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Wilkerson, J. Michael; Smolensk, Derek J.; Brady, Sonya S.; Rosser, B. R. Simon

    2012-01-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar for homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the DUREL and the SWB (short form) in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM. PMID:22441843

  17. Performance of the Duke Religion Index and the spiritual well-being scale in online samples of men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, J Michael; Smolensk, Derek J; Brady, Sonya S; Rosser, B R Simon

    2013-06-01

    Religiosity is associated with behaviors that reduce the risk of HIV/STI infection among general-population and heterosexual-specific samples. Whether this association is similar to homosexual persons is unknown. Measures of religiosity have not been evaluated psychometrically among men who have sex with men (MSM), a population who, because of stigma, experience religiosity differently than heterosexual persons. We assessed the duke religion index and the spiritual well-being in two samples of MSM. Neither instrument produced adequate model fit. To study the association between religiosity and HIV/STI risk behaviors among MSM, scales are needed that measure the religious and spiritual experiences of MSM.

  18. Time-restricted feeding in young men performing resistance training: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Forsse, Jeffrey S; Butler, Natalie K; Paoli, Antonio; Bane, Annie A; La Bounty, Paul M; Morgan, Grant B; Grandjean, Peter W

    2017-03-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to examine eight weeks of resistance training (RT) with and without time-restricted feeding (TRF) in order to assess nutrient intake and changes in body composition and muscular strength in young recreationally active males. The TRF programme consisted of consuming all calories within a four-hour period of time for four days per week, but included no limitations on quantities or types of foods consumed. The RT programme was performed three days per week and consisted of alternating upper and lower body workouts. For each exercise, four sets leading to muscular failure between 8 and 12 repetitions were employed. Research visits were conducted at baseline, four, and eight weeks after study commencement. Measurements of total body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle cross-sectional area by ultrasound were obtained. Upper and lower body strength and endurance were assessed, and four-day dietary records were collected. TRF reduced energy intake by ∼650 kcal per day of TRF, but did not affect total body composition within the duration of the study. Cross-sectional area of the biceps brachii and rectus femoris increased in both groups. Effect size data indicate a gain in lean soft tissue in the group that performed RT without TRF (+2.3 kg, d = 0.25). Upper and lower body strength and lower body muscular endurance increased in both groups, but effect sizes demonstrate greater improvements in the TRF group. Overall, TRF reduced energy intake and did not adversely affect lean mass retention or muscular improvements with short-term RT in young males.

  19. "Semi-straight sort of sex": class and gay community attachment explored within a framework of older homosexually active men.

    PubMed

    Chapple, M J; Kippax, S; Smith, G

    1998-01-01

    Gay Community Attachment has proved a significant predictor of successful behavior change among gay-identifying men in response to HIV/AIDS. Related work at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia, indicated that attachment to gay community is not a simple issue; rather, complex issues of sexual identity formation, the constraints of social inequality and localized sexual cultures inhibit the process of attachment and, therefore, successful HIV prevention. This paper discusses some of the findings from close-focus (qualitative) research on older homosexually active men which explore in depth the dynamic whereby these men attached themselves to gay community in terms of an analysis of class, generation, and the interplay with self-construction and masculinity.

  20. Active targeted HIV testing and linkage to care among men who have sex with men attending a gay sauna in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Khawcharoenporn, Thana; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2017-03-01

    Existing data on the feasibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and counseling (HTC) and linkage to care among men who have sex with men (MSM) in hotspots are currently limited. A prospective study on active targeted HTC and linkage to care among MSM (≥18 years old) was conducted at a gay sauna in Thailand from November 2013 to October 2015. HIV risks and risk perception were evaluated through an anonymous survey. HIV testing with result notification and care appointment arrangement were provided on-site. Of the 358 participants; median age was 30 years; 206/358(58%) were at high risk for HIV acquisition; 148/358(41%) accepted HTC, all of whom either had prior negative HIV tests [98/148 (66%)] or had not known their HIV status [50/148 (34%)]. The three most common reasons for declining HTC were prior HIV testing within 6 months (48%), not ready (19%) and perceiving self as no risk (11%). Of the 262 moderate- and high-risk participants, 172 (66%) had false perception of low HIV risk which was significantly associated with declining HTC. Among the 148 participants undergoing HTC, 25 (17%) were HIV-infected. Having false perception of low risk (P = 0.004) and age <30 years (P = 0.02) were independently associated with HIV positivity. Only 14 of the 25 HIV-infected participants (56%) could be contacted after the result notification, of whom 12 (86%) had established HIV care and received immediate antiretroviral therapy. The active targeted HTC and facilitating care establishment was feasible among MSM attending the gay sauna but required strategies to improve accuracy of HIV-risk perception and linkage to care.

  1. Influence of recreational activity and muscle strength on ulnar bending stiffness in men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myburgh, K. H.; Charette, S.; Zhou, L.; Steele, C. R.; Arnaud, S.; Marcus, R.

    1993-01-01

    Bone bending stiffness (modulus of elasticity [E] x moment of inertia [I]), a measure of bone strength, is related to its mineral content (BMC) and geometry and may be influenced by exercise. We evaluated the relationship of habitual recreational exercise and muscle strength to ulnar EI, width, and BMC in 51 healthy men, 28-61 yr of age. BMC and width were measured by single photon absorptiometry and EI by mechanical resistance tissue analysis. Maximum biceps strength was determined dynamically (1-RM) and grip strength isometrically. Subjects were classified as sedentary (S) (N = 13), moderately (M) (N = 18), or highly active (H) (N = 20) and exercised 0.2 +/- 0.2; 2.2 +/- 1.3; and 6.8 +/- 2.3 h.wk-1 (P < 0.001). H had greater biceps (P < 0.0005) and grip strength (P < 0.05), ulnar BMC (P < 0.05), and ulnar EI (P = 0.01) than M or S, who were similar. Amount of activity correlated with grip and biceps strength (r = 0.47 and 0.49; P < 0.001), but not with bone measurements, whereas muscle strength correlated with both EI and BMC (r = 0.40-0.52, P < 0.005). EI also correlated significantly with both BMC and ulnar width (P < 0.0001). Ulnar width and biceps strength were the only independent predictors of EI (r2 = 0.67, P < 0.0001). We conclude that levels of physical activity sufficient to increase arm strength influence ulnar bending stiffness.

  2. Blood and semen paraoxonase-arylesterase activities in normozoospermic and azoospermic men.

    PubMed

    Gulum, M; Gumus, K; Yeni, E; Dogantekin, E; Ciftci, H; Akin, Y; Savas, M; Altunkol, A

    2016-12-21

    Paraoxonase and arylesterase enzymes are corner stones of antioxidant defence. We aimed to compare azoospermic infertile men and normozoospermic individuals with respect to total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), paraoxonase and arylesterase levels in the blood and seminal plasma. Two-hundred consecutive infertility patients and voluntarily participated were included. In the normozoospermic group, TAS, PON, arylesterase values were statistically significantly higher when compared with those in the azoospermic group, while lower TOS and OSI levels were observed in the blood and seminal plasma of azoospermic group. In the semen analyses of normozoospermic group, the correlation between semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm motility and morphology and TAS, TOS, OSI, PON and arylesterase values was examined. A negative correlation was determined between semen volume and OSI. Levels of serum oxidative parameters were higher in the azoospermic group relative to normozoospermic group, but antioxidant parameters were lower than those of the normozoospermic group. Oxidative stress performs an essential role in the aetiology of male infertility by negatively influencing sperm quality and function. Assessment of blood and seminal plasma oxidative profiles might be an important tool to better evaluation of sperm reproductive capacity and functional competence.

  3. Aromatase activity after a short-course of letrozole administration in adult men at sea level and at high altitude (with or without excessive erythrocytosis).

    PubMed

    Gonzales, G F; Tapia, V; Gasco, M; Gonzales-Castañeda, C

    2012-02-01

    Men living at high altitudes in Peru compared to sea level counterparts have erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 16-21 g/dl) or excessive erythrocytosis (hemoglobin>21 g/dl). High testosterone (T) levels in men at high altitude (HA) were associated with excessive erythrocytosis. High androgen levels could be due to a low aromatase activity or to an elevated rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone. The aim of this study was to evaluate aromatase activity and rate of conversion from precursors to testosterone before and after administration of the aromatase enzyme inhibitor letrozole (5 mg/day) for a 5-day period to men at HA and at sea level (SL). The response to short term aromatase inhibition was assessed in 30 adult men living at sea level, 31 native men at HA with erythrocytosis (Hb 16-21 g/dl), and 35 men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis (Hb>21 g/dl). Serum hormone levels, estradiol/testosterone, testosterone/androstenedione, and testosterone/dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) ratios were measured. Men with erythrocytosis had lower basal serum T/androstenedione ratios than men with excessive erythrocytosis at HA and men at sea level. Men at HA with excessive erythrocytosis had higher T/DHEAS ratios than men with erythrocytosis and than those at sea level before and after letrozole administration. After letrozole administration, both groups of men at high altitude (with erythrocytosis or with excessive erythrocytosis) showed lower aromatase activities than those at sea level. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels in men with excessive erythrocytosis were associated with an increased rate of conversion from DHEAS to testosterone rather than to a lower aromatase activity.

  4. Frequency-effect of playing screen golf on body composition and golf performance in middle-aged men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jung-Hoon; Jee, Yong-Seok; Oh, Hye-Won

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies showing that physical training improves body composition including bone mineral density (BMD) in almost all subjects. However, the frequency-dependent effect of playing golf on body composition is still not clearly comprehended. Moreover, the effect of screen golf in relations with exercise-frequency on body composition and golf performance has not been documented. Forty year old men participated and were classified into 4 groups: Control group (n= 10), BMD1 group (n= 10) played screen golf less than 1 day per a week, BMD2–3 group (n= 10) played screen golf 2–3 days per a week, and BMD5 group (n= 10) played screen golf 5 days per week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on 30 male recreational golfers and 10 sedentary individuals. The data gained through DXA were fat mass, lean mass, regional (head, rib, arm, leg, pelvis, spine and trunk) BMD level, and total BMD level summed by regional scores. The club speeds were measured using the Golfzon Vision machine and the handicap points were measured using a simple questionnaire. The present results suggest that the long-frequency of playing screen golf does not improve bone mineral density, lean mass, and handicap point yet improves fat mass and club speed in the middle-aged men. PMID:25426463

  5. Performance Based Education. Technology Activity Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Custer, Rodney L., Ed.

    These Technology Activity Modules are designed to serve as an implementation resource for technology education teachers as they integrate technology education with Missouri's Academic Performance Standards and provide a source of activities and activity ideas that can be used to integrate and reinforce learning across the curriculum. The modules…

  6. Implementation of EMG- and Force-Based Control Interfaces in Active Elbow Supports for Men With Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Lobo-Prat, Joan; Kooren, Peter N; Janssen, Mariska M H P; Keemink, Arvid Q L; Veltink, Peter H; Stienen, Arno H A; Koopman, Bart F J M

    2016-11-01

    While there is an extensive number of studies on the development and evaluation of electromyography (EMG)- and force-based control interfaces for assistive devices, no studies have focused on testing these control strategies for the specific case of adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). This paper presents a feasibility study on the use of EMG and force as control interfaces for the operation of active arm supports for men with DMD. We have built an experimental active elbow support, with a threefold objective: 1) to investigate whether adult men with DMD could use EMG- and force-based control interfaces; 2) to evaluate their performance during a discrete position-tracking task; and 3) to examine users' acceptance of the control methods. The system was tested in three adults with DMD (21-22 years). Although none of the three participants had performed any voluntary movements with their arms for the past 3-5 years, all of them were 100% successful in performing the series of tracking tasks using both control interfaces (mean task completion time EMG: [Formula: see text] , force: [Formula: see text] ). While movements with the force-based control were considerably smoother in Subject 3 and faster in Subject 1, EMG based-control was perceived as less fatiguing by all three subjects. Both EMG- and force-based interfaces are feasible solutions for the control of active elbow supports in adults with DMD and should be considered for further investigations on multi-DOF control.

  7. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for prostate health. Vitamin D3 is...synthesis in darker pigmented skin. Consequently, ~65% of AA men are vitamin D3 deficient compared to ~20% of EA men. The level of skin pigmentation is...PCa and death from PCa. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for

  8. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  9. A pilot trial of integrated behavioral activation and sexual risk reduction counseling for HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men abusing crystal methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=-4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-7.48, -2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=-5.07; 95% CI=-7.85, -2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ(2)=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ(2)=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ(2)=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness testing.

  10. A Pilot Trial of Integrated Behavioral Activation and Sexual Risk Reduction Counseling for HIV-Uninfected Men Who Have Sex with Men Abusing Crystal Methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Pantalone, David W.; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=−4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=−7.48, −2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=−5.07; 95% CI=−7.85, −2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ2=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ2=22.43; df=2,15; p<0.0001), and the number of days of crystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ2=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness

  11. Phylogenetic investigation of a statewide HIV-1 epidemic reveals ongoing and active transmission networks among men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Hogan, Joseph W.; Huang, Austin; DeLong, Allison; Salemi, Marco; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Kantor, Rami

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiologic evaluation of HIV-1 transmission networks can elucidate behavioral components of transmission that can be targets for intervention. Methods We combined phylogenetic and statistical approaches using pol sequences from patients diagnosed 2004-2011 at a large HIV center in Rhode Island, following 75% of the state’s HIV population. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood and putative transmission clusters were evaluated using latent class analyses (LCA) to determine association of cluster size with underlying demographic/behavioral characteristics. A logistic growth model was used to assess intra-cluster dynamics over time and predict “active” clusters that were more likely to harbor undiagnosed infections. Results Of 1,166 HIV-1 subtype B sequences, 31% were distributed among 114 statistically-supported, monophyletic clusters (range: 2-15 sequences/cluster). Sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) formed 52% of clusters. LCA demonstrated that sequences from recently diagnosed (2008-2011) MSM with primary HIV infection (PHI) and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were more likely to form larger clusters (Odds Ratio 1.62-11.25, p<0.01). MSM in clusters were more likely to have anonymous partners and meet partners at sex clubs and pornographic stores. Four large clusters with 38 sequences (100% male, 89% MSM) had a high-probability of harboring undiagnosed infections and included younger MSM with PHI and STIs. Conclusions In this first large-scale molecular epidemiologic investigation of HIV-1 transmission in New England, sexual networks among recently diagnosed MSM with PHI and concomitant STIs contributed to ongoing transmission. Characterization of transmission dynamics revealed actively growing clusters which may be targets for intervention. PMID:26258569

  12. Relationship between body composition, leg strength, anaerobic power, and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes.

    PubMed

    Potteiger, Jeffrey A; Smith, Dean L; Maier, Mark L; Foster, Timothy S

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between laboratory tests and on-ice skating performance in division I men's hockey athletes. Twenty-one men (age 20.7 +/- 1.6 years) were assessed for body composition, isokinetic force production in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and anaerobic muscle power via the Wingate 30-second cycle ergometer test. Air displacement plethysmography was used to determine % body fat (%FAT), fat-free mass (FFM), and fat mass. Peak torque and total work during 10 maximal effort repetitions at 120 degrees .s were measured during concentric muscle actions using an isokinetic dynamometer. Muscle power was measured using a Monark cycle ergometer with resistance set at 7.5% of body mass. On-ice skating performance was measured during 6 timed 89-m sprints with subjects wearing full hockey equipment. First length skate (FLS) was 54 m, and total length skate (TLS) was 89 m with fastest and average skating times used in the analysis. Correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between laboratory testing and on-ice performance. Subjects had a body mass of 88.8 +/- 7.8 kg and %FAT of 11.9 +/- 4.6. First length skate-Average and TLS-Average skating times were moderately correlated to %FAT ([r = 0.53; p = 0.013] and [r = 0.57; p = 0.007]) such that a greater %FAT was related to slower skating speeds. First length skate-Fastest was correlated to Wingate percent fatigue index (r = -0.48; p = 0.027) and FLS-Average was correlated to Wingate peak power per kilogram body mass (r = -0.43; p = 0.05). Laboratory testing of select variables can predict skating performance in ice hockey athletes. This information can be used to develop targeted and effective strength and conditioning programs that will improve on-ice skating speed.

  13. Hostility and social support explain physical activity beyond negative affect among young men, but not women, in college.

    PubMed

    Maier, Karl J; James, Ashley E

    2014-01-01

    We examined social support as a moderator of cynical hostility in relation to physical activity and body mass index among college students (n = 859; M = 18.71 years (SD = 1.22); 60% women, 84% White). After controlling for negative affect in hierarchical linear regression models, greater hostility was associated with lesser physical activity among those with low social support, as expected. Greater hostility was also associated with greater physical activity among those high in social support, ps < .05. Effects were observed for men only. Hostility and social support were unrelated to body mass index, ps > .05. Young men with a hostile disposition and low social support may be at risk for a sedentary lifestyle for reasons other than negative affect.

  14. Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Cochran, S D; Keenan, C; Schober, C; Mays, V M

    2000-12-01

    Concerns about dysfunctional alcohol use among lesbians and gay men are longstanding. The authors examined alcohol use patterns and treatment utilization among adults interviewed in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Sexually active respondents were classified into 2 groups: those with at least 1 same-gender sexual partner (n = 194) in the year prior to interview and those with only opposite-gender sexual partners (n = 9,714). The authors compared these 2 groups separately by gender. For men, normative alcohol use patterns or morbidity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. However, homosexually active women reported using alcohol more frequently and in greater amounts and experienced greater alcohol-related morbidity than exclusively heterosexually active women. Findings suggest higher risk for alcohol-related problems among lesbians as compared with other women, perhaps because of a more common pattern of moderate alcohol consumption.

  15. The influence of sex differences and individual task performance on brain activation during planning.

    PubMed

    Unterrainer, J M; Ruff, C C; Rahm, B; Kaller, C P; Spreer, J; Schwarzwald, R; Halsband, U

    2005-01-15

    Several studies have attempted to identify the neuronal basis of sex differences in cognition. However, group differences in cognitive ability rather than genuine neurocognitive differences between the sexes may account for their results. Here, we compare with functional magnetic resonance imaging the relation between gender, individual task performance, and planning-related brain activation. Men and women preselected to display identical performance scores showed a strong relation between individual task performance and activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal and right inferior parietal cortex activation during a visuospatial planning task. No gender-specific activations were found. However, a different pattern emerged when subjects had to execute the motor responses to the problems. Better performance was associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and right parahippocampal activations, and females exhibited a stronger right hippocampal activation than males. These findings underline that an individual's performance level rather than his or her sex largely determines the neuronal activation patterns during higher-level cognition.

  16. Cumulative lead exposure is associated with reduced olfactory recognition performance in elderly men: the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Grashow, Rachel; Sparrow, David; Hu, Howard; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Olfactory dysfunction has been identified as an early warning sign for Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, dementia and more. A few occupational and environmental exposures have also been associated with reduced olfactory function, although the effects of long term environmental exposure to lead on olfactory dysfunction have not been explored. Here we performed olfactory recognition testing in elderly men in a community-dwelling cohort and examined the association with cumulative lead exposure, as assessed by lead in tibial and patellar bone. Methods Olfactory recognition was measured in 165 men from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) who had previously taken part in bone lead measurements using K-X-Ray fluorescence (KXRF). Olfactory recognition was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). Associations between olfactory recognition, global cognition and cumulative lead exposure were estimated using linear regression, with additional adjustment for age, smoking, and functional polymorphism status for hemochromatosis (HFE), transferrin (TfC2), glutathione-s-transferase Pi1 (GSTP1) and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes. Sensitivity analyses explored olfactory recognition in men with high global cognitive function as measured using the Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE). Results The average age of the NAS participants at the time of olfactory recognition testing was 80.3 (standard deviation or SD = 5.7) years. Mean tibia lead was 16.3 (SD = 12.0) μg/g bone, mean patella lead was 22.4 (SD = 14.4) μg/g bone, and mean UPSIT score was 26.9 out of 40 (SD = 7.0). Consistent with previous findings, age at olfaction testing was negatively associated with UPSIT score. Tibia (but not patella) bone lead was negatively associated with olfaction recognition (per 15 μg/g tibia lead: β = −1.57; 95% CI: −2.93, −0.22; p = 0.02) in models adjusted for smoking and age. Additional adjustment for education did not

  17. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  18. Morphological evaluation of sperm from infertile men selected by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS).

    PubMed

    Curti, Gianni; Skowronek, Fernanda; Vernochi, Rita; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Ana Laura; Rodriguez-Buzzi, Juan Carlos; Casanova, Gabriela; Sapiro, Rossana

    2014-12-01

    Electron microscopy analysis performed in five infertile human subjects after sperm selection by swim-up followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrated a decrease in the number of spermatozoa with characteristics compatible with cell death. However, no significant differences were found when the swim-up/MACS semen fraction was compared with swim-up fraction alone.

  19. The Effects of Acute Alcohol on Psychomotor, Set-shifting, and Working Memory Performance in Older Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Lauren A.; Sklar, Alfredo L.; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-01-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55–70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study’s task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults. PMID:25920000

  20. Contribution of sympathetic activation to coronary vasodilatation during the cold pressor test in healthy men: effect of ageing.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kevin D; Feehan, Robert P; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Gao, Zhaohui

    2013-06-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is an important regulator of coronary blood flow. The cold pressor test (CPT) is a powerful sympathoexcitatory stressor. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) CPT-induced sympathetic activation elicits coronary vasodilatation in young adults that is impaired with advancing age and (2) combined α- and β-adrenergic blockade diminishes/abolishes these age-related differences. Vascular responses of the left anterior descending artery to the CPT were determined by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography before (pre-blockade) and during (post-blockade) systemic co-administration of α- and β-adrenergic antagonists in young (n = 9; 26 ± 1 years old, mean ± SEM) and older healthy men (n = 9; 66 ± 2 years old). Coronary vascular resistance (CVR; mean arterial pressure/coronary blood velocity) was used as an index of vascular tone. CPT decreased CVR (i.e. coronary vasodilatation occurred) in young ( -33 ± 6%), but not older men ( -3 ± 4%; P < 0.05 vs. young) pre-blockade. Adrenergic blockade abolished CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation in young men ( -33 ± 6% vs. 0 ± 6%, pre-blockade vs. post-blockade, respectively; P < 0.05) such that responses post-blockade mirrored those of older men ( -3 ± 4% vs. 8 ± 9%; both P > 0.05 compared to young pre-blockade). Impaired CPT-induced coronary vasodilatation could not be explained by a reduced stimulus for vasodilatation as group and condition effects persisted when CVR responses were expressed relative to myocardial oxygen demand (rate-pressure product). These data indicate that the normal coronary vascular response to sympathetic activation in young men is pronounced vasodilatation and this effect is lost with age as the result of an adrenergic mechanism. These findings may help explain how acute sympathoexcitation may precipitate angina and coronary ischaemic events, particularly in older adults.

  1. Persistent Organochlorine Pollutants with Endocrine Activity and Blood Steroid Hormone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giton, Frank; Giusti, Arnaud; Oliva, Alejandro; Fiet, Jean; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal; Multigner, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals) on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. Objective We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 153, and chlordecone. Methods We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. Results DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. Conclusions These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether this response pattern

  2. Adiposity and Age Explain Most of the Association between Physical Activity and Fitness in Physically Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Sánchez, José A.; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Olmedillas, Hugo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Arteaga-Ortiz, Rafael; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquín; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A. L.

    2010-01-01

    Background To determine if there is an association between physical activity assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness. Methodology/Principal Findings One hundred and eighty-two young males (age range: 20–55 years) completed the short form of the IPAQ to assess physical activity. Body composition (dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry), muscular fitness (static and dynamic muscle force and power, vertical jump height, running speed [30 m sprint], anaerobic capacity [300 m running test]) and cardiorespiratory fitness (estimated VO2max: 20 m shuttle run test) were also determined in all subjects. Activity-related energy expenditure of moderate and vigorous intensity (EEPAmoderate and EEPAvigorous, respectively) was inversely associated with indices of adiposity (r = −0.21 to −0.37, P<0.05). Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max) was positively associated with LogEEPAmoderate (r = 0.26, P<0.05) and LogEEPAvigorous (r = 0.27). However, no association between VO2max with LogEEPAmoderate, LogEPPAvigorous and LogEEPAtotal was observed after adjusting for the percentage of body fat. Multiple stepwise regression analysis to predict VO2max from LogEEPAwalking, LogEEPAmoderate, LogEEPAvigorous, LogEEPAtotal, age and percentage of body fat (%fat) showed that the %fat alone explained 62% of the variance in VO2max and that the age added another 10%, while the other variables did not add predictive value to the model [VO2max  = 129.6−(25.1× Log %fat) − (34.0× Log age); SEE: 4.3 ml.kg−1. min−1; R2 = 0.72 (P<0.05)]. No positive association between muscular fitness-related variables and physical activity was observed, even after adjusting for body fat or body fat and age. Conclusions/Significance Adiposity and age are the strongest predictors of VO2max in healthy men. The energy expended in moderate and vigorous physical activities is inversely associated with

  3. Aerobic exercise plus weight loss improves insulin sensitivity and increases skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity in older men.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Alice S; Katzel, Leslie I; Prior, Steven J; McLenithan, John C; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ortmeyer, Heidi K

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m(2)). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m(2)/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (-9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men.

  4. Aerobic Exercise Plus Weight Loss Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Increases Skeletal Muscle Glycogen Synthase Activity in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Katzel, Leslie I.; Prior, Steven J.; McLenithan, John C.; Goldberg, Andrew P.; Ortmeyer, Heidi K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m2). Muscle samples of the vastus lateralis were collected before and during a 3-hour 80 mU/m2/min hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. AEX + WL increased VO2max by 11% (p < .05) and decreased body weight (−9%, p < .001). AEX + WL increased basal citrate synthase activity by 46% (p < .01) and insulin activation of independent (2.9-fold) and fractional (2.3-fold) activities (both p < .001) of glycogen synthase. AEX + WL had no effect on phosphorylation of Akt or AS160. Glucose utilization (M) improved 25% (p < .01), and the change tended to be related to the increase in insulin activation of glycogen synthase fractional activity (r = .50, p = .08) following AEX + WL. In summary, AEX + WL has a robust effect on insulin activation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase activity that likely contributes to improved glucose utilization in older insulin-resistant men. PMID:24357038

  5. Peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor is related to cardiovascular risk factors in active and inactive elderly men

    PubMed Central

    Zembron-Lacny, A.; Dziubek, W.; Rynkiewicz, M.; Morawin, B.; Woźniewski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Regular exercise plays an important preventive and therapeutic role in heart and vascular diseases, and beneficially affects brain function. In blood, the effects of exercise appear to be very complex and could include protection of vascular endothelial cells via neurotrophic factors and decreased oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to identify the age-related changes in peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its relationship to oxidative damage and conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers, such as atherogenic index, C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and oxidized LDL (oxLDL), in active and inactive men. Seventeen elderly males (61-80 years) and 17 young males (20-24 years) participated in this study. According to the 6-min Åstrand-Rhyming bike test, the subjects were classified into active and inactive groups. The young and elderly active men had a significantly better lipoprotein profile and antioxidant status, as well as reduced oxidative damage and inflammatory state. The active young and elderly men had significantly higher plasma BDNF levels compared to their inactive peers. BDNF was correlated with VO2max (r=0.765, P<0.001). In addition, we observed a significant inverse correlation of BDNF with atherogenic index (TC/HDL), hsCRP and oxLDL. The findings demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness reflected in VO2max was associated with a higher level of circulating BDNF, which in turn was related to common CVD risk factors and oxidative damage markers in young and elderly men. PMID:27332774

  6. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men.

  7. High intensity interval training in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation in physically active men

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Silva, Ana Angélica; Moreira, Eduardo; de Melo-Marins, Denise; Schöler, Cinthia M.; de Bittencourt, Paulo Ivo Homem; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim. The purpose of this study was to determine the response of circulating markers of lipid and protein oxidation following an incremental test to exhaustion before and after 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat. Methods. To address this question, 16 physically active men (age = 23 ± 2 years; body mass = 73 ± 12 kg; height = 173 ± 6 cm; % body fat = 12.5 ± 6 %; body mass index = 24 ± 4 kg/m2) were allocated into 2 groups: control group (n = 8) performing high-intensity interval training at 22°C, 55% relative humidity and heat group (n = 8) training under 35°C, 55% relative humidity. Both groups performed high-intensity interval training 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, accumulating a total of 12 training sessions. Before and after the completion of 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training, participants performed an incremental cycling test until exhaustion under temperate environment (22°C, 55% relative humidity) where blood samples were collected after the test for determination of exercise-induced changes in oxidative damage biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive species and protein carbonyls). Results. When high-intensity interval training was performed under control conditions, there was an increase in protein carbonyls (p < 0.05) following the incremental test to exhaustion with no changes in thiobarbituric acid reactive species. Conversely, high-intensity interval training performed in high environmental temperature enhanced the incremental exercise-induced increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (p < 0.05) with no changes in protein carbonyls. Conclusion. In conclusion, 4 weeks of high-intensity interval training performed in the heat enhances exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but prevents protein oxidation following a maximal incremental exercise in healthy active men. PMID:27227083

  8. Effect of Sexual Arousal on Cortical Coupling During Performance of the Tower of Hanoi Task in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Amezcua-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Ruiz-Díaz, Marina; Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Ågmo, Anders; Sanz-Martin, Araceli

    2017-01-01

    Sexual arousal affects cognitive processing, which depends on the coordinated functioning among cortical areas. The aim of this research was to determine whether previous observation of videos with sexual content affects the degree of cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) coupling during performance of an executive task. Cortical EEG correlations were calculated in three groups of heterosexual men under three conditions: at rest; during observation of a video with neutral, aggressive, or erotic content; and while performing the Tower of Hanoi task (TOH). Based on self-reports, it was shown that the erotic video induced general and sexual arousal, while the aggressive video affected valence and general arousal. Task performance was similar in all three groups. During performance of TOH, only the erotic group showed a decreased correlation between prefrontal areas with an increased correlation between parietal and prefrontotemporal areas, specifically in the slow bands. It is likely that these changes in the degree of cortical coupling could be associated with the cognitive strategies or functional adaptations that participants require to adequately solve the task during a state of sexual arousal. These data could contribute to improving our understanding of the central nervous mechanisms that underlie the effect of sexual arousal on the cognitive processes involved in tasks like TOH.

  9. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the active vitamin D metabolite (1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D) and haemoglobin levels in older Australian men: the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project.

    PubMed

    Hirani, Vasant; Cumming, Robert G; Blyth, Fiona; Naganathan, Vasi; Le Couteur, David G; Waite, Louise M; Handelsman, David J; Seibel, Markus J

    2015-02-01

    Anaemia and low 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) levels are common in older people and may adversely affect morbidity and mortality. While there is some evidence for an association between low serum 25D levels and anaemia, there are limited studies among community-dwelling older people. In addition, the relationship between anaemia and the active vitamin D metabolite, 1,25D, has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between serum 25D and 1,25D with anaemia in community-living men aged ≥70 years. Population-based, cross-sectional analysis of the baseline phase and longitudinal analysis of the Concord Health and Ageing in Men Project (CHAMP), a large epidemiological study conducted in Sydney among men aged 70 years and older, were performed; 1666 men were seen at baseline (2005-2007), 1314 men at a 2-year follow-up (2007-2009) and 917 at a 5-year follow-up (2012-2013). The main outcome measurement was haemoglobin levels as a continuous measure. Covariates included 25D and 1,25D, estimated glomerular filtration rate, demographic information, lifestyle measures, health conditions and medication information. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb < 13.0 g/dL, WHO definition) was 14.6 %. In cross-sectional analysis, serum 25D concentrations were positively associated with haemoglobin levels in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.004; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.0009, 0.007; p = 0.01), but the associations were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment. The association between 1,25D levels and haemoglobin levels was significant in unadjusted analysis (β value 0.003; 95 % CI 0.002, 0.004; p < 0.0001) and remained significant in adjusted analysis (β value 0.001; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.003; p = 0.01). Serum 1,25D (but not 25D) levels at baseline were significantly associated with changes in haemoglobin over 2 and 5 years in unadjusted (β value 0.002; 95 % CI 0.0009, 0.003; p < 0

  10. Neural activation during anticipation of opposite-sex and same-sex faces in heterosexual men and women.

    PubMed

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Rademacher, Lena; Paulus, Frieder M; Gründer, Gerhard

    2013-02-01

    Psychobiological accounts of face processing predict that greater salience is attributed to faces matching a viewer's sexual preference than to faces that do not. However, behaviorally, this effect could only be demonstrated in tasks assessing reward 'wanting' (e.g. work-per-view-tasks) but not in tasks assessing 'liking' (e.g. facial attractiveness ratings), and has been found to be more pronounced in heterosexual men than women, especially with regard to very attractive faces. Here, we addressed the question if sex differences at the level of 'wanting' persist if participants are uninformed about the attractiveness of an anticipated male or female face. Seventeen heterosexual men and 13 heterosexual women (all single) participated in a social incentive delay task (SID). Participants were required to react on simple graphical cues in order to view a smiling face. Cues provided a priori information on the level of smile intensity (low/medium/high) as well as sex of the face (male/ female). A significant interaction of sex-of-face and sex-of-participant was observed in a priori defined regions of interest in the brain reward system (including ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex), reflecting enhanced activation to cues signaling opposite-sex faces relative to same-sex faces in both, men and women. Women additionally recruited the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during processing of opposite- vs. same-sex cues, suggesting stronger incorporation of social cognition processes in women than men. The findings speak against a general male bias for opposite-sex faces. Instead they provide preliminary evidence that men and women recruit different brain circuits during reward value assessment of facial stimuli.

  11. A Test of Social Cognitive Theory to Explain Men's Physical Activity During a Gender-Tailored Weight Loss Program.

    PubMed

    Young, Myles D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Callister, Robin; Morgan, Philip J

    2016-11-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading contributor to the burden of disease in men. Social-cognitive theories may improve physical activity (PA) interventions by identifying which variables to target to maximize intervention impact. This study tested the utility of Bandura's social cognitive theory (SCT) to explain men's PA during a 3-month weight loss program. Participants were 204 overweight/obese men (M [SD] age = 46.6 [11.3] years; body mass index = 33.1 [3.5] kg/m(2)). A longitudinal, latent variable structural equation model tested the associations between SCT constructs (i.e., self-efficacy, outcome expectations, intention, and social support) and self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and examined the total PA variance explained by SCT. After controlling for Time 1 cognitions and behavior, the model fit the data well (χ(2) = 73.9, degrees of freedom = 39, p < .001; normed χ(2) = 1.9; comparative fit index = 0.96; standardized root mean residual = 0.059) and explained 65% of the variance in MVPA at Time 2. At Time 2, self-efficacy demonstrated the largest direct and total effects on MVPA (βdirect = .45, p < .001; βtotal = .67, p = .002). A small-to-medium effect was observed from intention to MVPA, but not from outcome expectations or social support. This study provides some evidence supporting the tenets of SCT when examining PA behavior in overweight and obese men. Future PA and weight loss interventions for men may benefit by targeting self-efficacy and intention, but the utility of targeting social support and outcome expectations requires further examination.

  12. Restricted and Adaptive Masculine Gender Performance in White Gay College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Martinez, Richard; Vianden, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative exploration of the performance of masculine gender identities in six gay male students enrolled at a master's comprehensive public institution in the Midwest. This article builds on the work of Laker and Davis (2011) and Rankin (2005). The findings indicate participants adapted their gender…

  13. Men's Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviours on Kangaroo Island, South Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Murray; Elliott, Sam; Drummond, Claire; Lewis, Felicity

    2017-01-01

    Background: Men's health has been subjected to diverse approaches to research over the past two decades. Much of the literature has focused on specific medical and health issues. Other contributions have focused more broadly on masculinities and its relationship to health. It is arguable that there has not been a lot of attention paid to…

  14. Leucine-protein supplemented recovery feeding enhances subsequent cycling performance in well-trained men.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Jasmine S; Ali, Ajmol; Rowlands, David S

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a practical leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate postexercise feeding regimen could improve recovery, as measured by subsequent cycling performance and mechanistic markers, relative to control feeding. In a crossover, 10 male cyclists performed 2- to 2.5-h interval training bouts on 3 consecutive evenings, ingesting either leucine-protein, high-carbohydrate nutrition (0.1/0.4/1.2/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); leucine, protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) or isocaloric control (0.06/1.6/0.2 g·kg(-1)·h(-1); protein, carbohydrate, fat, respectively) nutrition for 1.5 h postexercise. Throughout the experimental period diet was controlled, energy and macronutrient intake balanced, and protein intake clamped at 1.6 g·kg(-1)·day(-1). The alternate supplement was provided the next morning, thereby isolating the postexercise nutrition effect. Following 39 h of recovery, cyclists performed a repeat-sprint performance test. Postexercise leucine-protein ingestion improved mean sprint power by 2.5% (99% confidence limit, ±2.6%; p = 0.013) and reduced perceived overall tiredness during the sprints by 13% (90% confidence limit, ±9.2%), but perceptions of leg tiredness and soreness were unaffected. Before exercise, creatine-kinase concentration was lowered by 19% (90% confidence limits, ±18%), but lactate dehydrogenase and pressure-pain threshold were unaltered. There was a small reduction in anger (25% ± 18%), but other moods were unchanged. Plasma leucine (3-fold) and essential amino acid (47%) concentrations were elevated postexercise. Net nitrogen balance trended mildly negative in both conditions (mean ± SD: leucine-protein, -20 ± 46 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h; control, -25 ± 36 mg·kg(-1) per 24 h). The ingestion of a leucine-protein supplement along with other high-carbohydrate food following intense training on consecutive days enhances subsequent high-intensity endurance performance and may attenuate

  15. Muscle and Liver Carbohydrates: Response to Military Task Performance by Women and Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    and Stein 1987; Jacobs et al. 1993; Moritani and Muro 1990; Nardone and Schieppati 1988; Nardone 1989: Sale 1982). EMG was recently used to demonstrate...known muscle activity pattern (Bilodeau et al. 1994; Capady and Stein 1987; Moritani and Muro 1987: Murray et al. 1976; Nardone and Schieppati 1988...Moritani and Muro 1987; Murray et al. 1976; Nardone and Schieppati 1988; Price and Gore 1998; Sloniger et al. 1998). The relative agreement between MRI and

  16. Effects of Wearing Compression Stockings on the Physical Performance of T2DM Men with MetS.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, C; Hermann, R; Rühl, E; Kerzel, H; Reinhardt, L; Grau, M; Latsch, J; Kohl-Bareis, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with macro- and microcirculatory complications that reduce physical performance. Wearing compression garments to potentially optimize hemodynamics has been discussed. This study investigates the effects of wearing compression stockings on physical performance-related variables in type 2 diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (n=9, 57±12 years, BMI: 36±4 kg/m(2)). Participants served as their own controls in a randomized 3*3 crossover study wearing below-knee stockings with either compression (24 or 30 mmHg ankle pressure) or no compression. Venous pooling and lower limb oxygenation profiles were determined with near-infrared spectroscopy and arterial oxygen saturation was determined using a pulse oxymeter. Measurements were performed in the supine lying position, during standing, following 10 tiptoe exercises and after submaximal intensity cycling. In addition, lactate and erythrocyte deformability were analyzed in capillary blood pre- and post-exercise. Erythrocyte deformability was analyzed using a laser-assisted optical rotational red cell analyzer. No significant differences in any variables when wearing different compression or regular stockings were evident at any point of measurement. This study did not reveal any beneficial effects of wearing compression stockings at rest and during acute bouts of moderately intense exercise in this particular patient group.

  17. Novel long-chain compounds with both immunomodulatory and MenA inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seoung-ryoung; Frandsen, Joel; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-01

    Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1–8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also inhibited the biofilm growth by MRSA at high concentration. Compounds 3a, 6b and 7c displayed a promising extracellular bactericidal activity against MRSA at concentrations equal to and four-fold less than their respective MICs. We also observed cytokines released from THP-1 macrophages treated with compounds 3a, 6b and 7c and found decreases in TNF-α and IL-6 release and increase in IL-1β. These data provide evidence that MenA inhibitors act as TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, raising the potential for development and application of these compounds as potential immunomodulatory agents. PMID:28071679

  18. Novel long-chain compounds with both immunomodulatory and MenA inhibitory activities against Staphylococcus aureus and its biofilm.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seoung-Ryoung; Frandsen, Joel; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran

    2017-01-10

    Menaquinone (MK) biosynthesis pathway is a potential target for evaluating antimicrobials in gram-positive bacteria. Here, 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate prenyltransferase (MenA) was targeted to reduce methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth. MenA inhibiting, long chain-based compounds were designed, synthesized and evaluated against MRSA and menaquinone utilizing bacteria in aerobic conditions. The results showed that these bacteria were susceptible to most of the compounds. Menaquinone (MK-4) supplementation rescued MRSA growth, suggesting these compounds inhibit MK biosynthesis. 3a and 7c exhibited promising inhibitory activities with MICs ranging 1-8 μg/mL against MRSA strains. The compounds did not facilitate small colony variant formation. These compounds also inhibited the biofilm growth by MRSA at high concentration. Compounds 3a, 6b and 7c displayed a promising extracellular bactericidal activity against MRSA at concentrations equal to and four-fold less than their respective MICs. We also observed cytokines released from THP-1 macrophages treated with compounds 3a, 6b and 7c and found decreases in TNF-α and IL-6 release and increase in IL-1β. These data provide evidence that MenA inhibitors act as TNF-α and IL-6 inhibitors, raising the potential for development and application of these compounds as potential immunomodulatory agents.

  19. Associations of disordered sleep with body fat distribution, physical activity and diet among overweight middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiao; Alén, Markku; Cheng, Shu Mei; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Lyytikäinen, Arja; Wiklund, Petri; Cong, Fengyu; Saarinen, Antti; Tarkka, Ina; Partinen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2015-08-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate whether body fat distribution, physical activity levels and dietary intakes are associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea among overweight middle-aged men. Participants were 211 Finnish men aged 30-65 years. Among the 163 overweight or obese participants, 40 had insomnia only, 23 had obstructive sleep apnea only, 24 had comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea and 76 were without sleep disorder. The remaining 48 participants had normal weight without sleep disorder. Fat mass, levels of physical activity and diet were assessed by dual-energy X-ray densitometry, physical activity questionnaire and 3-day food diary, respectively. Among the overweight participants, we found that: (i) groups with sleep disorders had higher fat mass in trunk and android regions than the group without sleep disorder (P = 0.048-0.004); (ii) the insomnia-only group showed a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (436.9 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.009) and higher intake of saturated fatty acids (14.8 versus 12.7 E%, P = 0.011) than the group without sleep disorder; and (iii) the comorbid group had a lower level of leisure-time physical activity (344.4 versus 986.5 MET min week(-1) , P = 0.007) and lower folate intake (118.9 versus 152.1 μg, P = 0.002) than the group without sleep disorder, which were independent of body mass index. The results suggest that central obesity is associated with insomnia and/or obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, low levels of leisure-time physical activity and poor dietary intakes are related to insomnia or comorbid insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea among overweight men.

  20. Neuropsychological Performance in Polyconsumer Men Under Treatment. Influence of Age of Onset of Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Capella, Maria del Mar; Benaiges, Irina; Adan, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Neurocognition is a key factor in the development and maintenance of Substance Use Disorders (SUD). However, there are still several aspects that need to be studied in this area. In this study, we elucidate the influence of age of onset of substance use (OSU) on the clinical course and neuropsychological performance of substance use disorder (SUD) patients, as well as to explore the influence of years of education, duration of drug use and premorbid intelligence quotient (IQ) on the cognitive results obtained. An exhaustive neuropsychological battery was used to assess different cognitive domains in 80 male polyconsumers, 41 with earlier OSU (16 years or before: OSU ≤ 16) and 39 with later OSU (17 years or later: OSU ≥ 17). The patients were under treatment with at least 4 months of abstinence confirmed by urinalysis. The OSU ≤ 16 group presented a worse clinical state, as well as a lower premorbid IQ and worse performance in processing speed, visual perception and planning skills. The duration of drug use may account for the differences in planning and processing speed. In this work we discuss the premorbid or acquired nature of the cognitive deficits found. PMID:26155725

  1. Estimating the individual benefit of immediate treatment or active surveillance for prostate cancer after screen-detection in older (65+) men.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Tiago M; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M; de Koning, Harry J

    2016-05-15

    A significant proportion of screen-detected men with prostate cancer is likely to be overtreated, especially in older age groups. We aim to find which groups of screen-detected older men (65+) benefit the most from Immediate Radical Treatment or Active Surveillance (AS) for prostate cancer, depending on age, screening history, health status and prostate cancer stage at detection. We used a microsimulation model (MISCAN) of the natural history of prostate cancer based on ERSPC data. Individual life histories are simulated with US comorbidity lifetables based on a random sample of MEDICARE data. Different screening histories are simulated and we count outcomes for men screen-detected from ages 66 to 72. For immediately treated men with low-risk disease (≤ T2a, Gleason 6) the probability of overtreatment ranges from 61% to 86% decreasing to between 37 and 46%, if they are assigned to AS. For intermediate risk men (≤ T2, Gleason 3 + 4) overtreatment ranges from 23 to 60%, which reduces to between 16 and 31% for AS. For high risk men (T3, or ≥ Gleason 4 + 3), overtreatment ranges from 11 to 51%. The disease stage at screen-detection is a critical risk factor for overtreatment. For low risk men, AS seems to significantly reduce overtreatment at a modest cost. For intermediate risk men, the decision between immediate treatment or AS depends on age and comorbidity status. Men screen-detected in a high risk disease stage may benefit from immediate treatment even beyond age 69.

  2. Disparate Vitamin D Activity in the Prostate of Men with African Ancestry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    aggressive PCa and death from PCa. Vitamin D3 deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status...radiation, which leads to reduced vitamin D3 synthesis in darker pigmented skin. Consequently, ~65% of AA men are vitamin D3 deficient compared to ~20% of... deficiency increases PCa mortality, highlighting the importance of maintaining adequate vitamin D3 status for prostate health. Vitamin D3 is

  3. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in serum prostate antigen (PSA) within 10 years. This rises to one in two...at 15 years. After such evidence of recurrence, the most common treatment is androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in...asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is favorably affected by an intensive, vegetable-based diet, plus physical

  4. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    stage prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in serum prostate antigen (PSA) within 10 years. This rises to one in...two at 15 years. After such evidence of recurrence, the most common treatment is androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in...asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is favorably affected by an intensive, vegetable-based diet, plus

  5. A Diet, Physical Activity, and Meditation Intervention in Men With Rising Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    14. ABSTRACT: Following surgery or radiation of primary early-stage prostate cancer ( PrCA ), one in three patients will experience an elevation in...androgen ablation. We hypothesize that the host- PrCA balance in asymptomatic men with biochemically recurrent PrCA , as reflected by the PSA rise, is...Registry letters Reminder Call Script 4 Introduction: Prostate cancer ( PrCA ) is the most commonly occurring cancer, excluding skin

  6. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Udani, Jay K.; George, Annie A.; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N.; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40–65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers. PMID:24550993

  7. Effects of a Proprietary Freeze-Dried Water Extract of Eurycoma longifolia (Physta) and Polygonum minus on Sexual Performance and Well-Being in Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Udani, Jay K; George, Annie A; Musthapa, Mufiza; Pakdaman, Michael N; Abas, Azreena

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physta is a proprietary product containing a freeze-dried water extract of Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali), which is traditionally used as an energy enhancer and aphrodisiac. We aim to evaluate a 300 mg combination of Physta and Polygonum minus, an antioxidant, with regard to sexual performance and well-being in men. Methods. Men that aged 40-65 years were screened for this 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Outcome measures included validated questionnaires that aimed to evaluate erectile function, satisfaction with intervention, sexual intercourse performance, erectile hardness, mood, and overall quality of life. Results. 12 subjects in the active group and 14 in the placebo group completed the study. Significant improvements were noted in scores for the Sexual Intercourse Attempt diary, Erection Hardness Scale, Sexual Health Inventory of Men, and Aging Male Symptom scale (P < 0.05 for all). Three adverse events were reported in the active group and four in the placebo group, none of which were attributed to study product. Laboratory evaluations, including liver and kidney function testing, showed no clinically significant abnormality. Conclusion. Supplementation for twelve weeks with Polygonum minus and the proprietary Eurycoma longifolia extract, Physta, was well tolerated and more effective than placebo in enhancing sexual performance in healthy volunteers.

  8. Off-side front foot drives in men's high performance cricket.

    PubMed

    Stuelcken, M C; Portus, M R; Mason, B R

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the techniques used by nine right-handed, international batsmen to perform front foot off-side drives in first class and international matches. All strokes were captured using two synchronised high-speed video cameras; nine were selected for kinematic analysis. These movement sequences were then manually digitised at a sampling frequency of 125 Hz using APAS motion analysis software. The results of this study indicated that the batsmen used movement patterns that enabled important aspects of stroke production, such as the front stride and the downswing of the bat, to be delayed so that additional information from ball flight could be assimilated. Front upper limb segments were constrained to work in a unitary fashion, with the peak horizontal end point speed of each segment occurring almost simultaneously just before impact. It has been suggested that these strategies serve to enhance stroke accuracy. Other aspects of their techniques included a distinctively looped bat path, a front foot placement that occurred only just before impact, and a front ankle that was positioned well inside the line of the ball at impact. Various technical parameters, such as the alignment of the trunk relative to ground and the continuous flow of the bat between the backswing and downswing, were similar to findings in previous batting research. Other characteristics of stroke production not previously addressed, including the path of the bat and the timing of the front stride, may challenge some long held beliefs evident in current coaching literature.

  9. Metabolic Profiling of Total Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Community-Dwelling Men

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Sei; Iida, Miho; Kurihara, Ayako; Takeuchi, Ayano; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Oguma, Yuko; Suzuki, Asako; Suzuki, Chizuru; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Physical activity is known to be preventive against various non-communicable diseases. We investigated the relationship between daily physical activity level and plasma metabolites using a targeted metabolomics approach in a population-based study. Methods A total of 1,193 participants (male, aged 35 to 74 years) with fasting blood samples were selected from the baseline survey of a cohort study. Information on daily total physical activity, classified into four levels by quartile of metabolic equivalent scores, and sedentary behavior, defined as hours of sitting per day, was collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Plasma metabolite concentrations were quantified by capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry method. We performed linear regression analysis models with multivariable adjustment and corrected p-values for multiple testing in the original population (n = 808). The robustness of the results was confirmed by replication analysis in a separate population (n = 385) created by random allocation. Results Higher levels of total physical activity were associated with various metabolite concentrations, including lower concentrations of amino acids and their derivatives, and higher concentrations of pipecolate (FDR p <0.05 in original population). The findings persisted after adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol intake, and energy intake. Isoleucine, leucine, valine, 4-methyl-2-oxoisopentanoate, 2-oxoisopentanoate, alanine, and proline concentrations were lower with a shorter sitting time. Conclusions Physical activity is related to various plasma metabolites, including known biomarkers for future insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes. These metabolites might potentially play a key role in the protective effects of higher physical activity and/or less sedentary behavior on non-communicable diseases. PMID:27741291

  10. Pathological Outcomes in Men with Low Risk and Very Low Risk Prostate Cancer: Implications on the Practice of Active Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Tosoian, Jeffrey J.; JohnBull, Eric; Trock, Bruce J.; Landis, Patricia; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Walsh, Patrick C.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We assessed oncologic outcomes at surgery in men with low risk and very low risk prostate cancer who were candidates for active surveillance. Materials and Methods In a prospectively collected institutional database, we identified 7,486 subjects eligible for active surveillance who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy. Candidates were designated as being at low risk (stage T1c/T2a, prostate specific antigen 10 ng/ml or less, and Gleason score 6 or less) or very low risk (stage T1c, prostate specific antigen density 0.15 or less, Gleason score 6 or less, 2 or fewer positive biopsy cores, 50% or less cancer involvement per core) based on preoperative data. Adverse findings were Gleason score upgrade (score 7 or greater) and nonorgan confined cancer on surgical pathology. The relative risk of adverse findings in men at low risk with very low risk disease was evaluated in a multivariate model using Poisson regression. Results A total of 7,333 subjects met the criteria for low risk disease and 153 had very low risk disease. The proportion of subjects at low risk found to have Gleason score upgrade or nonorgan confined cancer on final pathology was 21.8% and 23.1%, respectively. Corresponding values in those at very low risk were 13.1% and 8.5%, respectively. After adjusting for age, race, year of surgery, body mass index, and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis, the relative risk of Gleason score upgrade in men with low risk vs very low risk disease was 1.89 (95% CI 1.21–2.95). The relative risk of nonorgan confined cancer was 2.06 (95% CI 1.19–3.57). Conclusions Men with very low risk prostate cancer were at significantly lower risk for adverse findings at surgery compared to those with low risk disease. These data support the stratification of low risk cancer when selecting and counseling men who may be appropriate for active surveillance. PMID:23643603

  11. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  12. Physical Activity Advertisements That Feature Daily Well-Being Improve Autonomy and Body Image in Overweight Women but Not Men

    PubMed Central

    Segar, Michelle L.; Updegraff, John A.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40–60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife. PMID:22701782

  13. Physical activity advertisements that feature daily well-being improve autonomy and body image in overweight women but not men.

    PubMed

    Segar, Michelle L; Updegraff, John A; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Richardson, Caroline R

    2012-01-01

    The reasons for exercising that are featured in health communications brand exercise and socialize individuals about why they should be physically active. Discovering which reasons for exercising are associated with high-quality motivation and behavioral regulation is essential to promoting physical activity and weight control that can be sustained over time. This study investigates whether framing physical activity in advertisements featuring distinct types of goals differentially influences body image and behavioral regulations based on self-determination theory among overweight and obese individuals. Using a three-arm randomized trial, overweight and obese women and men (aged 40-60 yr, n = 1690) read one of three ads framing physical activity as a way to achieve (1) better health, (2) weight loss, or (3) daily well-being. Framing effects were estimated in an ANOVA model with pairwise comparisons using the Bonferroni correction. This study showed that there are immediate framing effects on physical activity behavioral regulations and body image from reading a one-page advertisement about physical activity and that gender and BMI moderate these effects. Framing physical activity as a way to enhance daily well-being positively influenced participants' perceptions about the experience of being physically active and enhanced body image among overweight women, but not men. The experiment had less impact among the obese study participants compared to those who were overweight. These findings support a growing body of research suggesting that, compared to weight loss, framing physical activity for daily well-being is a better gain-frame message for overweight women in midlife.

  14. Neighbourhood green space, physical function and participation in physical activities among elderly men: the Caerphilly Prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The built environment in which older people live plays an important role in promoting or inhibiting physical activity. Most work on this complex relationship between physical activity and the environment has excluded people with reduced physical function or ignored the difference between groups with different levels of physical function. This study aims to explore the role of neighbourhood green space in determining levels of participation in physical activity among elderly men with different levels of lower extremity physical function. Method Using data collected from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS) and green space data collected from high resolution Landmap true colour aerial photography, we first investigated the effect of the quantity of neighbourhood green space and the variation in neighbourhood vegetation on participation in physical activity for 1,010 men aged 66 and over in Caerphilly county borough, Wales, UK. Second, we explored whether neighbourhood green space affects groups with different levels of lower extremity physical function in different ways. Results Increasing percentage of green space within a 400 meters radius buffer around the home was significantly associated with more participation in physical activity after adjusting for lower extremity physical function, psychological distress, general health, car ownership, age group, marital status, social class, education level and other environmental factors (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.05, 1.41). A statistically significant interaction between the variation in neighbourhood vegetation and lower extremity physical function was observed (OR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.12, 3.28). Conclusion Elderly men living in neighbourhoods with more green space have higher levels of participation in regular physical activity. The association between variation in neighbourhood vegetation and regular physical activity varied according to lower extremity physical function. Subjects reporting poor lower extremity

  15. Active middle-aged men have lower fasting inflammatory markers but the postprandial inflammatory response is minimal and unaffected by physical activity status.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Natalie C; Hurst, Tina L; Talbot, Duncan C S; Tyrrell, Rex M; Thompson, Dylan

    2009-07-01

    Physical activity modifies some postprandial responses such as glycemic control, although it is unclear whether this translates into lower postprandial inflammation. Our objective in this study was to determine whether postprandial inflammatory markers are lower in active compared with sedentary middle-aged men. Thirteen active and twelve sedentary middle-aged men consumed a mixed meal on one occasion. Blood was taken via a cannula before and up to 8 h after the meal and with a single-use needle before and 8 h after the meal. Active men had lower fasted IL-6 (0.6 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.2 +/- 0.3 pg/ml; P = 0.004) and C-reactive protein (1.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.6 mg/l; P = 0.04) concentrations than sedentary men. Cannula blood IL-6 concentrations increased by 3.49 pg/ml in the 8 h following the meal (P < 0.001); however, this increase was minimal (0.36 pg/ml) in blood taken via a single-use needle from the contralateral arm (P = 0.013). The sedentary group had larger glucose (P = 0.034), insulin (P = 0.013), and triacylglycerol (P = 0.057) responses to the meal. These results provide further evidence that physical activity is associated with lower inflammatory marker concentrations in a fasted state and a lower postprandial metabolic response to a meal. However, this does not translate into lower postprandial inflammatory markers since the only evidence of postprandial inflammation (a large increase in serum IL-6) was actually due to the cannula used for blood sampling.

  16. Increases in cortisol are positively associated with gains in encoding and maintenance working memory performance in young men.

    PubMed

    Stauble, Melissa R; Thompson, Laura A; Morgan, Gin

    2013-07-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that increases in cortisol secretion are associated with either enhancements or impairments of long-term memory, depending on the subprocess involved. However, working memory is generally studied as a unified system within the cortisol literature. The present study sought to determine if cortisol increases are positively associated with increases in performance in the encoding subprocess of working memory, and whether increases are positively or negatively associated with performance changes in the maintenance subprocess. Thirty-three young men (M = 19.4 years, SD = 0.89) participated in a change-detection task, consisting of a condition requiring encoding only and a condition requiring both encoding and maintenance. To elicit a cortisol response, participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) between two administrations of the task. Cardiovascular measurements and saliva samples were obtained before the TSST (T1), and mid-way between blocks of the second administration of the change-detection task (T2), to measure autonomic and cortisol responses to the TSST evident during the second change-detection task. Cortisol increases between T1 and T2 were positively correlated with both encoding (r(32) = 0.503, p = 0.003) and maintenance (r(32) = 0.463, p = 0.007) performance. This is a novel finding as previous studies have shown an impairing effect of cortisol on working memory. The positive relation between cortisol and working memory has likely been obscured in previous tasks, which did not examine these specific subprocesses in isolation from each other. The beneficial role of cortisol in the stress response is discussed.

  17. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men.

  18. Associations between crystal methamphetamine use and potentially unsafe sexual activity among gay men in Australia.

    PubMed

    Rawstorne, Patrick; Digiusto, Erol; Worth, Heather; Zablotska, Iryna

    2007-10-01

    It has been suggested that crystal methamphetamine may have disinhibiting or aphrodisiac effects, which may lead to unsafe sexual behavior and increase the risk of HIV transmission. Using data from two Australian studies, the Sydney Gay Community Periodic Survey study and the Positive Health (PH) cohort study, we examined changes over time in use of crystal, other recreational drugs, and Viagra, and in a range of sex-related behaviors. Compared to non-users, crystal users reported having more sex partners, looking for sex in more types of venues, and being more likely to engage in unprotected anal intercourse with casual partners (UAIC) and in esoteric sex. Crystal users were also more likely to be using other recreational drugs and Viagra than non-users. Crystal use remained significantly associated with UAIC after adjustment for other relevant variables in a log-binomial regression analysis (adjusted prevalence rate ratio=1.26; 95% CI: 1.19-1.34). The other variables (HIV status, number of sex partners, number of types of venue where men looked for sex, Viagra use, other drug use) were independently associated with UAIC, and did not show confounding or mediating effects on the crystal-UAIC association. Nevertheless, these data did not allow reliable attribution of higher levels of these sex-related behaviors among crystal users specifically to the effects of crystal. The prevalence of crystal use among Australian men who have sex with men (MSM) increased between 2002 and 2005 (e.g., from 26% to 39% among HIV-+ MSM). However, the prevalence of UAIC remained stable or decreased over time in various study subgroups, as did the prevalence of other sex-related behaviors, suggesting that crystal use does not necessarily drive unsafe sexual behavior. Crystal use and unsafe sexual behavior can, and should, be considered and addressed separately in health promotion and community education campaigns.

  19. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  20. Daily Activity Patterns of 2,316 Men and Women from Five Countries Differing in Socioeconomic Development

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Mamane; Refinetti, Roberto; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, S. R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kafensztok, Ruth; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Luke, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Daily rhythmicity in the locomotor activity of laboratory animals has been studied in great detail for many decades, but the daily pattern of locomotor activity has not received as much attention in humans. We collected waist-worn accelerometer data from more than 2,000 individuals from five countries differing in socioeconomic development and conducted a detailed analysis of human locomotor activity. Body mass index was computed from height and weight. Individual activity records lasting 7 days were subjected to cosinor analysis to determine the parameters of the daily activity rhythm: mesor (mean level), amplitude (half the range of excursion), acrophase (time of the peak), and robustness (rhythm strength). The activity records of all individual participants exhibited statistically significant 24-hour rhythmicity, with activity increasing noticeably a few hours after sunrise and dropping off around the time of sunset, with a peak at 1:42 pm on average. The acrophase of the daily rhythm was comparable in men and women in each country but varied by as much as 3 h from country to country. Quantification of the socioeconomic stages of the five countries yielded suggestive evidence that more developed countries have more obese residents, who are less active, and who are active later in the day than residents from less developed countries. These results provide a detailed characterization of the daily activity pattern of individual human beings and reveal similarities and differences among people from five countries differing in socioeconomic development. PMID:26035482

  1. Influence of Rest Interval Length Between Sets on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability After a Strength Training Session Performed By Prehypertensive Men.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Tiago; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Miranda, Humberto; Bentes, Claudio M; Machado Reis, Victor; Freitas de Salles, Belmiro; Simão, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    Figueiredo, T, Willardson, JM, Miranda, H, Bentes, CM, Machado Reis, V, Freitas de Salles, B, and Simão, R. Influence of rest interval length between sets on blood pressure and heart rate variability after a strength training session performed by prehypertensive men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1813-1824, 2016-The purposes of this study were to compare the effects of 2 different rest interval lengths between sets and exercises during strength training (ST) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate variability (HRV) in prehypertensive trained men, and to verify how HRV influences BP. Eleven volunteer subjects (age: 26.1 ± 3.6 years; body mass: 74.1 ± 7.9 kg; height: 172.1 ± 4.1 cm; % body fat: 18.3 ± 6.3; ST experience: 1.7 ± 0.8 years) participated in this study. After assessing one repetition maximum (1RM) loads for the free weight bench press, lat pull-down, shoulder press, biceps curl, triceps extension, leg press, leg extension, and leg curl exercises; subjects performed 2 sessions with different rest intervals between sets and exercises in random order and 72 hours apart. Each ST session consisted of performing 3 sets of eight to 10 repetitions at 70% of a 1RM for each exercise, with either 1-minute (sequence 1 [SEQ1]) or 2-minute (sequence 2 [SEQ2]) rest intervals between sets and exercises, respectively. Before and after each session, BP and HRV (low frequency band, high frequency [HF] band, and square root of the mean squared difference of successive RR-interval index) were tracked for 60 minutes. The results demonstrated a postexercise hypotensive response (PEH) after both rest interval conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Additionally, increases in cardiac stress were noted after SEQ1, with a greater withdrawal in parasympathetic activity vs. baseline as noted in the HF band at 1-, 10-, and 20-minute postexercise (p ≤ 0.05). These results indicate that both sequences provided an effective stimulus for a PEH. Therefore, strength and conditioning professionals may

  2. Peak expiratory flow mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and timed up and go performance in elderly women, but not men

    PubMed Central

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Cucato, Gabriel Grizzo; de Mello Franco, Fábio Gazelato; Cendoroglo, Maysa Seabra; Nasri, Fábio; Monteiro-Costa, Maria Luiza; de Carvalho, José Antonio Maluf; de Matos, Luciana Diniz Nagem Janot

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to verify if there is sex difference in the associations among handgrip strength, peak expiratory flow (PEF) and timed up and go (TUG) test results. METHODS: The sample included 288 consecutive elderly men (n=93) and women (n=195). Functional capacity was measured using the TUG test, and muscle strength was measured based on handgrip. Moreover, as a measure of current health status, PEF was evaluated. Linear regression procedures were performed to analyze the relationships between handgrip and both PEF and TUG test results, with adjustment for confounders, and to identify the possible mediating role of PEF in the association between handgrip strength and TUG test results. RESULTS: In men, handgrip strength was associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). After adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance remained significant. In women, handgrip strength was also associated with both PEF and TUG performance (p<0.01). However, after adjustment for PEF, the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance was no longer significant. CONCLUSION: Mobility in the elderly is sex dependent. In particular, PEF mediates the relationship between handgrip strength and TUG performance in women, but not in men. PMID:27652833

  3. The combined relationship of occupational and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, accounting for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; Kittel, France; de Smet, Patrick; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined relationship of occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, while accounting for physical fitness. The prospective Belgian Physical Fitness Study included 1,456 male workers aged 40-55 years who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Baseline data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. To estimate physical fitness, a submaximal graded exercise test was performed on a bicycle ergometer. Total mortality was registered during a mean follow-up period of 16.9 years. Main results were obtained through Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 145 deaths were registered during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, a significantly increased mortality rate was observed in workers who had low levels of both physical activity types (hazard ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 4.19) but also in workers combining high occupational physical activity and low leisure-time physical activity (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 3.91); the latter finding was particularly pronounced among workers with a low physical fitness level. The present results confirm the existence of a complex interplay among different physical activity settings and fitness levels in predicting mortality.

  4. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma of infertile men correlates with increased sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation during the first hours after sperm donation.

    PubMed

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation varies between individuals and is more pronounced with increased patient age and time after sperm donation. The intensification of DNA fragmentation depends on the balance of the oxidoreductive system, which is regulated mainly by two enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, fertility and seminal SOD and catalase activity. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, and covered 218 men aged 25-35 (85 fertile and 133 patients treated for infertility). Percentage of fragmented DNA was measured in a modified chromatin dispersion test at four time points after sperm donation (t = 0, 3, 6, 12 h). SOD and catalase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. We confirmed that the activity of SOD in the seminal plasma of men with reproductive disorders was lower compared with fertile men. Conversely, no significant correlations were found between fertility and catalase activity. Sperm DNA of infertile males was initially more fragmented than fertile male sperm DNA. SOD and catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of DNA fragmentation in fertile men. In men with reproductive disorders, the rate of DNA fragmentation was slow within first 3 h after sperm donation and then increased between 6 and 12 h. In this group of infertile men, those with higher SOD activity had a lower DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 12 h, and a reduced rate of intensity of fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. Alternatively, higher catalase activity among men treated for infertility was accompanied by higher initial DFI and higher rate of DNA fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. These results highlight the importance of determining a proper time window between sperm donation and procedures of assisted reproductive technology.

  5. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  6. Intervention effects on physical activity and insulin levels in men of Pakistani origin living in Oslo: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Eivind; Høstmark, Arne T; Holme, Ingar; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is seen in some immigrant groups in Western countries, particularly in those from the Indian subcontinent. Our aims were to increase the physical activity (PA) level in a group of Pakistani immigrant men, and to see whether any increase was associated with reduced serum glucose and insulin concentrations. The intervention was developed in collaboration with the Pakistani community. It used a social cognitive theory framework and consisted of structured supervised group exercises, group lectures, individual counselling and telephone follow-up. One- hundred and fifty physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men living in Oslo, Norway, were randomised to either a control group or an intervention group. The 5-month intervention focused on increasing levels of PA, which were assessed by use of accelerometer (Actigraph MTI 7164) recordings. Risk of diabetes was assessed by serum glucose and insulin concentrations determined in a fasted state, and after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). ANCOVA was used to assess differences between groups. There was a mean difference in PA between the two groups of 49 counts per minute per day, representing a 15 % (95 % CI = 8.7-21.2; P = 0.01) higher increase in total PA level in the intervention group than in the control group. Insulin values taken 2 h after an OGTT were reduced in the intervention group by 27 % (95 % CI = 18.9-35.0; P = 0.02) more than those in the control group. There were no differences in fasting or postprandial glucose values between the groups at the follow-up test. This type of intervention can increase PA and reduce serum insulin in Pakistani immigrant men, thereby presumably reducing their risk of T2D.

  7. Physical performance and creative activities of centenarians.

    PubMed

    Antonini, F M; Magnolfi, S U; Petruzzi, E; Pinzani, P; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Masotti, G

    2008-01-01

    The human functional autonomy is reduced progressively with advancing age, although a considerable proportion of the centenarians maintain a good level of autosufficiency for the basic performance of the everyday life. Even if males have a lower probability to reach the centenarian age than females do, the male centenarians display generally better functional conditions than the females. Actually, there are no systemic studies on centenarian works or activities; nevertheless, the examples of several representative persons (artists, scientists, explorers, etc.) who remained active even after this age indicate that such a possibility is realistic, and that the maintenance of vital interest and passions, thus preserving competence and professional attitudes, is not in conflict with the reaching of extreme longevity.

  8. Effect of caffeine on RPE and perceptions of pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a cycling time trial in endurance trained and active men.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Cottrell, Trisha; Talhami Lozano, Andrea; Aburto-Pratt, Kylan; Duhon, Jessica

    2012-05-15

    Caffeine has been reported to alter perceptions of exertion, muscle pain, and mood, yet the majority of existing data were obtained in resting volunteers or during steady-state exercise. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceptions of leg pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a simulated cycling time trial. Endurance-trained (n=8, VO(2)max=57.5±3.9 mL/kg/min) and active (n=8, VO(2)max=46.5±6.3 mL/kg/min) men initially completed two familiarization trials separated by at least 48 h. Over the next three trials, they completed a 10 km time trial preceded by ingestion of drinks containing caffeine (5 mg/kg ingested on 2 separate days) or placebo. Treatments were ingested using a single-blind, crossover design, and participants were deceived as to the content of all drinks. During exercise, RPE (6-20 scale), leg pain (0-10 scale), arousal (Felt Arousal Scale), and pleasure/displeasure (Feeling Scale) were recorded using various categorical scales. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in all variables across time and treatments, with fitness level used as a between-subjects variable. Pleasure/displeasure was altered (p<0.05, partial eta-squared (η(2))=0.23) with caffeine compared to placebo, although leg pain, RPE, and arousal were similar (p>0.05) across treatments. Caffeine increased (p<0.05, η(2)=0.27) cycling performance by 0.3-2.0% versus placebo, with no effect (p>0.05) of fitness level. Only in trained men; however, was there a significant caffeine-mediated improvement in cycling performance, which was consequent with diminished mood in trained and improved mood in active individuals.

  9. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Golub, Sarit A; Thompson, Louisa I; Kowalczyk, William J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50 years, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision making, depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts.

  10. Affective differences in Iowa Gambling Task performance associated with sexual risk taking and substance use among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Sarit A.; Thompson, Louisa I.; Kowalczyk, William J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between emotional distress and decision-making in sexual risk and substance use behavior among 174 (ages 25 to 50, 53% black) men who have sex with men (MSM), a population at increased risk for HIV. The sample was stratified by HIV status. Measures of affective decision-making (Iowa Gambling Task, IGT, Bechara et al., 1994), depression, anxiety, sex acts, and substance use during the past 60 days were collected at our research center. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the relationship between age, HIV status, anxiety, depression, and IGT performance in the prediction of number of risky sex acts and substance use days. Among those without anxiety or depression, both number of risky sex acts and drug use days decreased with better performance during risky trials (i.e., last two blocks) of the IGT. For those with higher rates of anxiety, but not depression, IGT risk trial performance and risky sex acts increased concomitantly. Anxiety also interacted with IGT performance across all trials to predict substance use, such that anxiety was associated with greater substance use among those with better IGT performance. The opposite was true for those with depression, but only during risk trials. HIV-positive participants reported fewer substance use days than HIV-negative participants, but there was no difference in association between behavior and IGT performance by HIV status. Our findings suggest that anxiety may exacerbate risk-taking behavior when affective decision-making ability is intact. The relationship between affective decision-making and risk taking may be sensitive to different profiles of emotional distress, as well as behavioral context. Investigations of affective decision-making in sexual risk taking and substance use should examine different distress profiles separately, with implications for HIV prevention efforts. PMID:26745769

  11. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-01-01

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  12. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men.

    PubMed

    McKenna, M J; Heigenhauser, G J; McKelvie, R S; Obminski, G; MacDougall, J D; Jones, N L

    1997-06-15

    1. This study investigated the effects of 7 weeks of sprint training on gas exchange across the lungs and active skeletal muscle during and following maximal cycling exercise in eight healthy males. 2. Pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2) and carbon dioxide output (VCO2) were measured before and after training during incremental exercise (n = 8) and during and in recovery from a maximal 30 s sprint exercise bout by breath-by-breath analysis (n = 6). To determine gas exchange by the exercising leg muscles, brachial arterial and femoral venous blood O2 and CO2 contents and lactate concentration were measured at rest, during the final 10 s of exercise and during 10 min of recovery. 3. Training increased (P < 0.05) the maximal incremental exercise values of ventilation (VE, by 15.7 +/- 7.1%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 15.0 +/- 4.2%). Sprint exercise peak power (3.9 +/- 1.0% increase) and cumulative 30 s work (11.7 +/- 2.8% increase) were increased and fatigue index was reduced (by -9.2 +/- 1.5%) after training (P < 0.05). The highest VE, VCO2 and VO2 values attained during sprint exercise were not significantly changed after training, but a significant (P < 0.05) training effect indicated increased VE (by 19.2 +/- 7.9%), VCO2 (by 9.3 +/- 2.1%) and VO2 (by 12.7 +/- 6.5%), primarily reflecting elevated post-exercise values after training. 4. Arterial O2 and CO2 contents were lower after training, by respective mean differences of 3.4 and 21.9 ml l-1 (P < 0.05), whereas the arteriovenous O2 and CO2 content differences and the respiratory exchange ratio across the leg were unchanged by training. 5. Arterial whole blood lactate concentration and the net lactate release by exercising muscle were unchanged by training. 6. The greater peak pulmonary VO2 and VCO2 with sprint exercise, the increased maximal incremental values, unchanged arterial blood lactate concentration and greater sprint performance all point strongly towards enhanced gas exchange across the lungs and in

  13. Condom acquisition and preferences within a sample of sexually active gay and bisexual men in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Yee, Leland J; Wilkin, Aimee M; Clarke, Thomas L; Wooldredge, Rich; Brown, Monica; Davis, A Bernard

    2007-11-01

    Health departments, community-based organizations (CBOs), and AIDS service organizations (ASOs) in the United States and abroad distribute large quantities of free condoms to sexually active individuals; however, little is known about where individuals who use condoms actually acquire them. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) study was designed to identify factors associated with the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse among self-identifying gay and bisexual men who reported condom use. Data were collected using targeted intercept interviewing during North Carolina Pride Festival events in Fall 2006, using the North Carolina Condom Acquisition and Preferences Assessment (NC-CAPA). Of the 606 participants who completed the assessment, 285 met the inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 33 (+/-10.8) years. The sample was predominantly white (80%), 50% reported being single or not dating anyone special, and 38% reported the use of free condoms during most recent anal intercourse. In multivariable analysis, participants who reported using free condoms during most recent anal sex were more likely to report increased age; dating someone special or being partnered; and having multiple male sexual partners in the past 3 months. These participants were less likely to report ever having had a sexually transmitted disease. Despite being in the third decade of the HIV epidemic, little is known about condom acquisition among, and condom preferences of, gay and bisexual men who use condoms. Although more research is needed, our findings illustrate the importance of free condom distribution.

  14. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  15. A Pilot Survey of Physical Activity in Men with an Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeon, Michael; Slevin, Eamonn; Taggart, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) are reported as a sedentary population with increased risks of poor health due to an inactive and sedentary lifestyle. As the benefits of physical activity are acknowledged, measuring physical activity accurately is important to help identify reasons for low and high physical activity in order to assist and…

  16. Prevalence of Sexual Concerns and Sexual Dysfunction among Sexually Active and Inactive Men and Women with Screen‐Detected Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Morten; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Giraldi, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Type 2 diabetes negatively impacts sexual health. Only limited information is available regarding sexual health among sexually inactive patients with type 2 diabetes. Aim The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of sexual concerns among sexually active and sexually inactive men and women with type 2 diabetes and of sexual dysfunction (SD) among sexually active. Methods Data from the Anglo–Danish–Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen‐Detected Diabetes in Primary Care‐Denmark study was used. A total of 1,170 Danish patients with screen‐detected type 2 diabetes attended a health examination, including assessment of sexual concerns using self‐report questionnaires and of SD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI‐R) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF‐5) instruments. Main Outcome Measures The main outcome measures used regarding sexual concerns are the following: prevalence of failure to fill sexual needs, of experiencing sexual distress, finding it important to have a good sexual life, and additionally, prevalence of SD. Results Data regarding sexual activity status during the last 12 months were available among 583 men and 377 women. Seventeen percent of men and 47% of women reported to be sexually inactive, among whom 57% of men and 42% of women reported failure to fill sexual needs; 31% of men and 10% of women that it was important to have a good sexual life, and 32% of men and 11% of women that they were experiencing sexual distress. Around half of men and women were excluded from the SD analysis, mainly because of reporting lack of sexual intercourse during the last 4 weeks. Among those included, 54% of men and 12% of women were found to have SD. Conclusions Sexual inactivity is highly prevalent among middle‐aged and older men and women with early type 2 diabetes and these patients often have sexual concerns. The high exclusion rates when assessing SD using the FSFI

  17. Memoir and performance: social change and self life-writing among men who are gay pornography producers and actors.

    PubMed

    Cohler, Bertram J

    2004-01-01

    Identity may be understood both as a life-story, either told or written as memoir or autobiography, and also as a practice such as producing or acting in gay pornographic film, but always within the context of social and historical change. Study of the memoirs of gay men who have been actors and/or producers of gay pornographic films across three generation cohorts provides an opportunity for understanding the interplay of social change and life circumstances in making gay identity. This perspective on identity is illustrated through the study of the memoirs of three men from different cohorts who have produced and acted in gay pornographic films: Wakefield Poole, born in 1936; Scott O'Hara, born in 1961; and Aaron Lawrence, born in 1971. Differences in style and content of both memoir and practice in gay pornographic films reflect changing social expectations regarding men who have sex with men following the emergence of the gay rights movement and the AIDS epidemic.

  18. Effects of a low alcohol dose on static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance.

    PubMed

    Mangold, S; Läubli, T; Krueger, H

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a single low alcohol dose (men 0.54 g and women 0.44 g alcohol per kg body weight) were measured by static balance, fine motor activity, and mental performance. In 10 healthy volunteers balance was registered by a temporally and spatially high resolution platform measuring the center of foot pressure and a three-dimensional coordination measurement system. Fine motor activity and mental performance were tested with selected experiments from the NES2 (Neurobehavioral Evaluation System) neuropsychological test battery. Changes of bipedal and monopedal balance could be detected after the alcohol consumption. Neither the fine motor activity nor the mental performance test demonstrated significant effects. Thus, the static balance test proved to be a sensitive, fast, and atraumatic method to identify slight neurotoxic disturbances.

  19. Does quadriceps neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  20. Does neuromuscular activation capability explain mobility function among older men and women?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related impairment of neuromuscular activation has been shown to contribute to weakness in older adults. However, it is unclear to what extent impaired neuromuscular activation independently accounts for decline of mobility function. The hypothesis of this study is that capability to produce rap...

  1. Anthropometric obesity indices in relation to age, educational level, occupation and physical activity in Bulgarian men.

    PubMed

    Andreenko, Emiliya; Mladenova, Silviya; Akabaliev, Valentin

    2014-09-12

    Obesity indices. Anthropometry. Men. Factors. Objetivo: El objetivo del presente estudio fue estimar el nivel de obesidad y su relación con la edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física en los hombres adultos búlgaros de zona urbana. Material y métodos: La muestra incluyó hombres 1010, de 18-50 años de edad, de la ciudad de Plovdiv, Bulgaria. El estudio se realizó en el período 2004-2008. Se midieron la circunferencia del cuerpo altura, peso y cintura. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen según los puntos de corte internacional de índice de masa corporal (IMC). La obesidad abdominal fue evaluar las categorías de relación de la altura de la cintura (CT). La edad, nivel educativo, ocupación y actividad física de cada persona se investigaron a través de la consulta. Para el análisis estadístico el SPSS paquete fue utilizado. Resultados: Los resultados muestran que 42,1% de los hombres investigados eran sobrepeso y 19,4% de ellos eran obesos. Con CT irregular y obesidad central fueron 66,1% de los casos. El porcentaje de hombres con obesidad general y central aumenta con la edad. En el caso de la obesidad central y general, las diferencias entre los trabajadores físicos e intelectuales son significación, incluso después de controlar la edad.CT tiene un mayor potencial para diferenciar las personas con diversas ocupaciones que BMI. La edad y la ocupación fueron los factores más importantes que afectan la obesidad general y abdominal. El nivel educativo tiene un impacto significativo en la acumulación de grasa abdominal.La conexión entre el nivel de actividad física e IMC y CT fue menor. Conclusiónes: El estudio encuentra que los hombres trabajan y viven en ese particular área urbana tienen diferencias significativas en términos de sobrepeso y obesidad. El nivel educativo, ocupación y edad tienen un potencial grave influenciado su estado nutricional del cuerpo.

  2. The personnel's experiences with the implementation of an activity program for men in municipal health services.

    PubMed

    Grøndahl, Vigdis Abrahamsen; Skaug, Eli-Anne; Hornnes, Marit Skaflestad; Helgesen, Ann Karin

    2017-03-22

    The aim of this study was to explore the personnel's experiences with the implementation of an activity program for male residents in municipal care services. The design was inspired by a grounded theory approach. The data were collected by means of two focus group interviews with 11 participants in total. The findings showed that the personnel experienced that continuity was a prerequisite to being and remaining motivated when taking part in the activity program. Therefore, a lack of continuity was an obstacle. The categories 'to be prepared', 'to be responsible for a sense of fellowship', and 'to gain new perspectives' illuminate the personnel's experiences. Different conditions had an impact on how the personnel experienced the implementation of the activity program and whether they stayed motivated for being a part of the program in the future. More attention should be given to ward routines that, with only minor changes, may strengthen the activity leader role.

  3. Erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor use: associations with sexual activities, function and satisfaction in a population sample of older men.

    PubMed

    Lee, D M; Nazroo, J; Pendleton, N

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between sexual activities, problems and satisfaction, and ED and PDE5 inhibitor (PDE5i) use. A nationally representative sample of men (n=2612) aged 51-87 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing completed an in-depth Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire. Associations between ED and/or PDE5i use and sexual outcomes were explored using logistic regression models adjusted for age, health and lifestyle factors. PDE5i use in the preceding 3 months was reported by a total of 191 (7%) men, whereas 542 (21%) reported ED but no PDE5i use (untreated ED). Compared with men without ED, PDE5i users were more likely to be sexually active and report more frequent sexual intercourse. Men with untreated ED reported the lowest frequency of sexual activities. Compared with men without ED, both PDE5i users and those with untreated ED were more likely to report being concerned about their level of sexual desire, frequency of sexual activities, erectile function, waking erections and orgasmic experience. PDE5i users were also more concerned about and dissatisfied with their overall sex life than men without ED. This population-based study shows that while PDE5i use is associated with improved sexual functioning, this is not equally reflected in decreased levels of concern and dissatisfaction with their overall sexual health. Clinicians should be aware of this disparity between functional gains and continuing sexual concerns and dissatisfaction, and, where appropriate, offer psychosexual counselling as an adjunct to PDE5i medication.

  4. Activation of the arousal response and impairment of performance increase with anxiety and stressor intensity.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Barnholt, K R; Enoka, R M

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of trait anxiety and stressor intensity on arousal and motor performance during a pinch task. We examined the steadiness of a precision task in the presence and absence of an imposed stressor on subjects with moderate and low trait anxiety. Subjects with the 26 highest and 14 lowest anxiety scores were assigned to one of three groups: a control group (5 women, 5 men), a moderate-anxiety group (8 women, 8 men), or a low-anxiety group (7 women, 7 men). Subjects in the anxiety groups received electric shocks and experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects, especially subjects in the moderate-anxiety group. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and electrodermal activity were elevated during the stressor, whereas diastolic blood pressure was unchanged. Cognitive and physiological arousal tended to increase with stressor intensity and was accompanied by changes in steadiness. Although steadiness was markedly reduced with the highest intensity of shock, the average electromyogram activity was unaffected by the stressor. These findings indicate that the increase in arousal and the impairment of steadiness increased with trait anxiety and with the intensity of the noxious stimulus.

  5. Enhanced-performance active fiber composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentilman, Richard L.; McNeal, Kelley; Schmidt, Gerald E.; Pizzochero, Alessandro E.; Rossetti, George A., Jr.

    2003-08-01

    Active fiber composites (AFCs) find applications in a variety of industrial, commercial, and aerospace markets as both actuators and sensors. Among the key attributes of AFCs relative to conventional monolithic piezoceramic actuators are high strain energy density, unidirectional response, conformability, and robustness. Recently, performance enhancements in AFCs have been demonstrated through the use of a modified injection molding process to produce piezoceramic modules with multiple identical fibers of a uniform rectangular cross section. AFC actuators made from Type II PZT fiber modules exhibit free micro-strains of 1830 +/- 30 ppm at a peak-peak E-field drive of 26.1 kV/cm, and show exceptional part-to-part uniformity. In addition, AFCs made from injection molded PMN-PT fiber modules show a low-field d33 of 650 pm/V. The successful incorporation of PMN-PT materials into AFCs also demonstrates the viability of using highly textured ceramic PMN-PT piezofibers, for which even larger increases in strain response are expected.

  6. Contribution of alternatively activated macrophages to allergic lung inflammation: a tale of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Preeta; Keegan, Achsah D

    2012-01-01

    The concept that macrophages play an active role in inflammatory responses began its development in the late 1800s with the now iconic studies by Elie Metchnikoff using starfish larvae and Daphnia [reviewed in Kaufmann SHE: Nat Immunol 2008;9:705-712 and Cavaillon JM: J Leukoc Biol 2011;90:413-424]. Based on his observation of the phagocyte response to a foreign body (rose thorn) and yeast, he proposed that phagocytes acted in host defense and were active participants in the inflammatory process. Flash forward more than 100 years and we find that these basic tenets hold true. However, it is now appreciated that macrophages come in many different flavors and can adopt a variety of nuanced phenotypes depending on the tissue environment in which the macrophage is found. In this brief review, we discuss the role of one type of macrophage termed the alternatively activated macrophage (AAM), also known as the M2 type of macrophage, in regulating allergic lung inflammation and asthma. Recent studies using mouse models of allergic lung inflammation and samples from human asthma patients contribute to the emerging concept that AAMs are not just bystanders of the interleukin (IL)-4- and IL-13-rich environment found in allergic asthma but are also active players in orchestrating allergic lung disease.

  7. Emotional Outlook on Life Predicts Increases in Physical Activity among Initially Inactive Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Marcus, Bess H.; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between emotional outlook on life and change in physical activity among inactive adults in the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. A total of 2,132 sedentary adults completed a baseline medical examination and returned for a follow-up examination at least 6 months later. Participants self-reported physical…

  8. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  9. Ghrelin modulates sympathetic nervous system activity and stress response in lean and overweight men.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Elisabeth; Lambert, Gavin; Ika-Sari, Carolina; Dawood, Tye; Lee, Katie; Chopra, Reena; Straznicky, Nora; Eikelis, Nina; Drew, Sara; Tilbrook, Alan; Dixon, John; Esler, Murray; Schlaich, Markus P

    2011-07-01

    Ghrelin is a growth hormone-releasing peptide secreted by the stomach with potent effects on appetite. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that ghrelin also influences cardiovascular regulation and metabolic function and mediates behavioral responses to stress. We investigated the effects of ghrelin on blood pressure (BP), sympathetic nervous system activity, and mental stress responses in lean (n=13) and overweight or obese (n=13) individuals. Subjects received an intravenous infusion of human ghrelin (5 pmol/kg per minute for 1 hour) and saline in a randomized fashion. Ghrelin decreased systolic (-6 and -11 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (-8 mm Hg for both), increased muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (18±2 to 28±3 bursts per min, P<0.05 and from 21±2 to 32±3 bursts per min, P<0.001) in lean and overweight or obese subjects, respectively, without a significant change in heart rate, calf blood flow, or vascular resistance. Ghrelin induced a rise in plasma glucose concentration in lean individuals (P<0.05) and increased cortisol levels in both groups (P<0.05). Stress induced a significant change in mean BP (+22 and +27 mm Hg), heart rate (+36 and +29 bpm), and muscle sympathetic nervous system activity (+6.1±1.6 and +6.8±2.7 bursts per min) during saline infusion in lean and overweight or obese subjects, respectively. During ghrelin infusion, the changes in BP and muscle sympathetic nerve activity in response to stress were significantly reduced in both groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, ghrelin exerts unique effects in that it reduces BP and increases muscle sympathetic nervous system activity and blunts cardiovascular responses to mental stress. These responses may represent a combination of peripheral (baroreflex-mediated) and central effects of ghrelin.

  10. Oral selenium supplementation has no effect on prostate-specific antigen velocity in men undergoing active surveillance for localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stratton, M Suzanne; Algotar, Amit M; Ranger-Moore, James; Stratton, Steven P; Slate, Elizabeth H; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Thompson, Patricia A; Clark, Larry C; Ahmann, Frederick R

    2010-08-01

    The Nutritional Prevention of Cancer trial showed a 52% lower incidence of prostate cancer in men supplemented with selenium. As a result, our study was designed to assess whether selenium supplementation attenuates the progression of prostate cancer. A phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in men with localized nonmetastatic prostate cancer who had elected to forgo active treatment and be followed by active surveillance. A total of 140 men were randomized to placebo (n = 46), 200 microg/d (n = 47), or 800 microg/d (n = 47) selenium p.o. (as selenized yeast) and followed every 3 months for up to 5 years. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as a marker of prostate cancer progression and was estimated using mixed-effects regression. Adjusting for age, body mass index, baseline selenium, smoking, baseline PSA, race, PSA method, and Gleason score, PSA velocities for the 200 microg/d and 800 microg/d treatment groups were not statistically significantly different from placebo (P = 0.32 and P = 0.61, respectively). In the highest quartile of baseline selenium, men supplemented with 800 microg selenium showed statistically significantly higher PSA velocity as compared with placebo (P = 0.018). Selenium supplementation did not show a protective effect on PSA velocity in subjects with localized prostate cancer. On the contrary, supplementation with high-dose selenium was observed to be a risk factor for increased PSA velocity in men with high baseline plasma selenium concentrations.

  11. Impact of commonly prescribed exercise interventions on platelet activation in physically inactive and overweight men.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Andrew; Linden, Matthew D; Robey, Elisa; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, Hugh; Naylor, Louise H; Green, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The exercise paradox infers that, despite the well-established cardioprotective effects of repeated episodic exercise (training), the risk of acute atherothrombotic events may be transiently increased during and soon after an exercise bout. However, the acute impact of different exercise modalities on platelet function has not previously been addressed. We hypothesized that distinct modalities of exercise would have differing effects on in vivo platelet activation and reactivity to agonists which induce monocyte-platelet aggregate (MPA) formation. Eight middle-aged (53.5 ± 1.6 years) male participants took part in four 30 min experimental interventions (aerobic AE, resistance RE, combined aerobic/resistance exercise CARE, or no-exercise NE), in random order. Blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and 1 h after each intervention, and incubated with one of three agonists of physiologically/clinically relevant pathways of platelet activation (thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 TRAP, arachidonic acid AA, and cross-linked collagen-related peptide xCRP). In the presence of AA, TRAP, and xCRP, both RE and CARE evoked increases in MPAs immediately post-exercise (P < 0.01), whereas only AA significantly increased MPAs immediately after AE (P < 0.01). These increases in platelet activation post-exercise were transient, as responses approached pre-exercise levels by 1 h. These are the first data to suggest that exercise involving a resistance component in humans may transiently increase platelet-mediated thrombotic risk more than aerobic modalities.

  12. Sports-related injuries in elderly men still active in sports.

    PubMed Central

    Kallinen, M; Alén, M

    1994-01-01

    By means of a questionnaire with a complementary interview and physical examination, the site and nature of sports injuries were investigated over a 10-year period (1977-1987) in 97 elderly athletes (age range 70-81 years). The athletes were still active in training and competition with a mean competition background of 15 years. Of the subjects studied 30 were strength/power athletes and the remaining 67 endurance athletes. Altogether we found 273 sports-related injuries (169 acute and 104 overuse injuries). Of the injuries 75% had occurred in the lower extremities. The most commonly injured part of the body was the knee (20% of all cases). Sprains of the thigh and knee were the most frequent types of acute injury. In most cases the treatment prescribed was rest and physiotherapy. Surgery had been necessary in ten cases (3.7% of all injuries). Mean withdrawal from normal sporting activity had, in general, been 2-3 weeks. Of the injuries, one in five had, however, lasted over several years causing some disability during sporting activities. PMID:7913857

  13. Serum CETP and PLTP activity in middle-aged men living in urban or rural area of the Lower Silesia region. PURE Poland sub-study

    PubMed Central

    Wojakowska, Anna; Turczyn, Barbara; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Wołyniec, Maria; Szuba, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The dependence of lipid transfer proteins on significant pro-atherogenic factors is unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity in relation to lipid disturbances in men living in an urban or rural area. Material and methods A group of 427 men, volunteers for the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) sub-study – 263 urban inhabitants (aged 51.9 ±6.0) and 164 residents of villages (aged 51.1 ±5.9) – were examined. In the multivariable linear regression model, the following factors were included as potential confounders: age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, hs-C-reactive protein reaction (hs-CRP) and co-existence of chronic diseases. Results In multiple linear regression models, site of residence (urban or rural area) was the most important independent and consistent predictor of CETP and PLTP activity; β coefficients (95% CI) for CETP (0.18) and PLTP (–0.29) were significant at levels of p < 0.001. Three-way analysis of variance showed no effect of smoking or moderate alcohol consumption on lipid transfer proteins; however, CETP activity showed an interaction effect between these risk factors. In the group of all men, CETP activity was significantly and positively correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.24), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.18), and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = 0.21), whereas PLTP activity was correlated with BMI (r = 0.12). Body mass index in rural men was higher than in the urban male population. Conclusions Increased PLTP activity, recognized as a pro-atherogenic factor, and decreased CETP activity, known as a protective factor, both observed in men living in rural areas, are probably conditioned by nutritional and/or genetic factors. PMID:27478449

  14. ProPSA and Diagnostic Biopsy Tissue DNA Content Combination Improves Accuracy to Predict Need for Prostate Cancer Treatment Among Men Enrolled in an Active Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Isharwal, Sumit; Makarov, Danil V.; Sokoll, Lori J.; Landis, Patricia; Marlow, Cameron; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine; Veltri, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess a novel application of the Prostate Health Index (phi) and biopsy tissue DNA content in benign-adjacent and cancer areas to predict which patients would eventually require treatment of prostate cancer in the Proactive Surveillance cohort. METHODS We identified 71 men who had had serum and biopsy tissue from their diagnosis banked and available for the present study. Of the 71 patients, 39 had developed unfavorable biopsy findings and 32 had maintained favorable biopsy status during surveillance. The serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA), free PSA (fPSA) and [−2]proPSA were measured using the Beckman Coulter immunoassay. The DNA content measurements of Feulgen-stained biopsy sections were performed using the AutoCyte imaging system. RESULTS The ratio of phi was significantly greater (37.23 ± 15.76 vs 30.60 ± 12.28; P = .03) in men who ultimately had unfavorable biopsy findings. The serum phi ratio (P = .003), [−2]proPSA/%fPSA (P = .004), biopsy tissue DNA content (ie, benign-adjacent excess of optical density, P = .019; and cancer area standard deviation of optical density, P = .002) were significant predictors of unfavorable biopsy conversion on Cox regression analysis. However, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA showed a highly significant correlation (rho = 0.927, P < .0001) and no difference in accuracy (c-index, 0.6247 vs 0.6158; P = .704) for unfavorable biopsy conversion prediction. Furthermore, phi and [−2]proPSA/%fPSA remained significant (P = .047 and P = .036, respectively) in the multivariate models and, combined with the biopsy tissue DNA content, showed improvement in the predictive accuracy (c-index, 0.6908 and 0.6884, respectively) for unfavorable biopsy conversion. CONCLUSIONS The Prostate Health Index to proPSA/%fPSA, combined with biopsy tissue DNA content, improved the accuracy to about 70% to predict unfavorable biopsy conversion at the annual surveillance biopsy examination among men enrolled in an Active

  15. Assessment of intake and nutritional status of vitamin b1, b2, and b6 in men and women with different physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Malara, M; Hübner-Wozniak, E; Lewandowska, I

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6 in respect to dietary intake of these vitamins and activity coefficients of the erythrocyte enzymes transketolase, glutathione reductase, and aspartic aminotransferase in young men and women with different physical activity levels. The participants of this study were 20 women and 20 men with high physical activity (groups HAW and HAM, respectively), and 20 women and 20 men with low physical activity (groups LAW and LAM, respectively). The intake of vitamins B1, B2, B6, proteins, and calorie content of the diet was based on the average of the 4-day dietary recalls. To assess nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6, the activity coefficients (α) of erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), erythrocyte glutathione reductase (EGR), and erythrocyte aspartic aminotransferase (EAST) were estimated in blood hemolysates. The intake of the studied vitamins in the diet was statistically significantly lower in the female groups compared with the respective male groups. Deficiency of vitamin B6 in the diet was present more often in women than in men (in terms of the recommended dietary allowances [RDA]). Values of the activity coefficient αETK indicated that none of the groups in this study suffered the risk of vitamin B1 deficiency. The value of the activity coefficient αEGR indicated that the groups of women and men with low physical activity were more prone to vitamin B2 deficiency compared with the high physical activity groups. The risk of vitamin B6 deficiency (αEAST) in both male groups was higher than in both female groups. The obtained results do not allow for unequivocal determination of the impact of sex and the level of physical activity on intake and nutritional status of vitamin B1, B2, and B6. Independently of sex and the level of physical activity, the women and men consumed insufficient quantities of vitamins B1 and B6, although this was not always related to

  16. Antioxidant Expression Response to Free Radicals in Active Men and Women Fallowing to a Session Incremental Exercise; Numerical Relationship Between Antioxidants and Free Radicals

    PubMed Central

    Baghaiee, Behrouz; Aliparasti, Mohammad Reza; Almasi, Shohreh; Siahkuhian, Marefat; Baradaran, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background Energy production is a necessary process to continue physical activities, and exercise is associated with more oxygen consumption and increase of oxidative stress. what seems important is the numerical relationship between antioxidant and free radicals. Although the activity of some enzymes increases with physical activities, but it is possible that gene expression of this enzyme is not changed during exercise. Objectives The aim of the present study is to investigate the antioxidant enzymes gene expression and changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in men and women affected by a session of incremental exercise and to carefully and numerically assess the relationship between MDA changes and gene expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Materials and Methods 12 active men and 12 active women (21 - 24 years old) participated voluntarily in this study. Peripheral blood samples were taken from the subjects in three phases, before and after graduated exercise test (GXT) and 3 hours later (recovery). Results The gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) enzyme increased significantly in women in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). Catalase gene expression significantly increased in men in both phases (immediately & recovery) (P < 0.05). But the changes in active women were only significant immediately after the exercise. TAC levels increased significantly in men in the recovery phase and in active women immediately after the exercise (P < 0.05). MDA activity also increased significantly in men in both phases (P < 0.05). However, in women the increase was significant only in the recovery phase (P < 0.05). There was a reverse relationship between changes in MnSOD and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) levels and MDA in men (P < 0.05). In active women there was also a significant relationship between changes in MDA and gene expression of Cu/ZnSOD and TAC (P < 0.05). Conclusions The

  17. The influence of breaststroke swimming on the muscle activity of young men in thermographic imaging.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Jan; Rybarova, Silvie; Zacha, Dan; Bernacikova, Martina; Ramadan, Wael Awad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to describe and assess energetic-metabolic activity of selected muscles of upper extremities and body during breaststroke swimming through infrared thermography as electromyography cannot display such muscle activity. Thermograms were taken of 25 students from the University of Defence immediately and 15 minutes after swimming 1,000 m focused on 20 regions of interest, i.e., corresponding to selected agonists and synergists in upper extremities and body. We used FLUKE TiR infrared hand camera. It was found that there is a significant increase (normalized units) 15 minutes after swimming in triceps brachii (on the right prior to swimming 0.950 and after swimming 0.994; on the left prior to swimming 0.947 and after 0.990), and in side, rear and front parts of the deltoid muscles. On the contrary, there was a significant relative decrease in temperature in pectoralis, rhombic and lower trapezius, erector spinae lumbalis and latissimus dorsi. It can be concluded that swimming 1,000 m breaststroke affected significant increase in the temperature of regions of interest, i.e., corresponding to agonists and synergists of upper extremities for the swimmer's forward motion. A relative decrease in temperature occurred rather in body muscles. The problem of biased results due to water cooling was solved by using thermograms taken only in the 15th minute after getting out of water and calculating relative temperatures with normalized units.

  18. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. 12.18 Section 12.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  19. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. 12.18 Section 12.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  20. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. 12.18 Section 12.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  1. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. 12.18 Section 12.18 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS...

  2. 38 CFR 12.18 - Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposition of funds and effects left by officers and enlisted men on the active list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the... list of the Army, Navy or Marine Corps of the United States. (a) The manager will notify the...

  3. For men only.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 the Colombian Family Planning Association PROFAMILIA realized that men did not want to come to its family planning centers simply because they felt intimidated by the feminine atmosphere there. Nor did they dare disclose their problems and sexual questions even to a female professional. The solution was to establish a family planning center, La Clinica del Hombre (Men's Clinic), providing services exclusively for men and staffed with men to provide the necessary privacy. Latin American men's attitudes are changing. In 1985 in Bogota, the majority of men were convinced that a vasectomy was equivalent to castration. In 1993, 300 vasectomies were performed in the clinic each month. The Colombian Family Planning Association is not only providing contraception, but also information on sexual and reproductive education to avoid misunderstanding of the available methods. PROFAMILIA has incorporated a sexuality consultation into its services, so they can deal with husbands and wives separately, without spoiling the couple's relationship. PROFAMILIA now has 7 family planning clinics for men and 48 for women, thanks to the contribution of international donors. The Challenge Grant for Men's Programs, given by an anonymous donor from the United States, helped with the fund-raising to open 3 clinics in the Atlantic Coast Region where needs were vital. The Clinica del Hombre will incorporate a program to treat infertility, in addition to the department of urology, general medicine, ambulatory surgery, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In January, 1994, they will begin offering dental and plastic surgery services because, owing to the violence that exists in the country, there are many men whose faces are disfigured and who need to have corrective plastic surgery.

  4. Grains of paradise (Aframomum melegueta) extract activates brown adipose tissue and increases whole-body energy expenditure in men.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Jun; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Hatano, Takuya; Aita, Sayuri; Ikemoto, Takeshi; Uchiwa, Hideyo; Iwanaga, Toshihiko; Kameya, Toshimitsu; Kawai, Yuko; Saito, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis, and thereby contributes to the control of whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat content. BAT activity can be assessed by fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in human subjects. Grains of paradise (GP, Aframomum melegueta), a species of the ginger family, contain pungent, aromatic ketones such as 6-paradol, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol. An alcohol extract of GP seeds and 6-paradol are known to activate BAT thermogenesis in small rodents. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the GP extract on whole-body EE and to analyse its relation to BAT activity in men. A total of nineteen healthy male volunteers aged 20-32 years underwent FDG-PET after 2 h of exposure to cold at 19°C with light clothing. A total of twelve subjects showed marked FDG uptake into the adipose tissue of the supraclavicular and paraspinal regions (BAT positive). The remaining seven showed no detectable uptake (BAT negative). Within 4 weeks after the FDG-PET examination, whole-body EE was measured at 27°C before and after oral ingestion of GP extract (40 mg) in a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover design. The resting EE of the BAT-positive group did not differ from that of the BAT-negative group. After GP extract ingestion, the EE of the BAT-positive group increased within 2 h to a significantly greater (P<0·01) level than that of the BAT-negative group. Placebo ingestion produced no significant change in EE. These results suggest that oral ingestion of GP extract increases whole-body EE through the activation of BAT in human subjects.

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms of APOBEC3G with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease progression among men engaging in homosexual activity in northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuyan; Qiao, Yuandong; Zhang, Guangfa; He, Ning; Zhang, Xuelong; Jia, Xueyuan; Sun, Haiming; Wang, Chuntao; Xu, Lidan

    2017-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. The APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 3G) protein is a component of innate antiviral immunity that inhibits HIV-1 replication. In the present study, a total of 483 HIV-1 seropositive men and 493 HIV-1 seronegative men were selected to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the APOBEC3G gene and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression among MSM residing in northern China. Genotyping of four SNPs (rs5757465, rs3736685, rs8177832, and rs2899313) of the APOBEC3G was performed using the SNPscan™ Kit, while the rs2294367 polymorphism was genotyped using the SNaPshot multiplex system. Our results disclosed no association between the SNPs of APOBEC3G and susceptibility to HIV-1, or effects of these polymorphisms on the CD4(+) T cell count or clinical phase of disease. A meta-analysis of 1624 men with HIV-1 infection and 1523 controls suggested that the association between rs8177832 and susceptibility was not significant. However, we observed a trend towards association with HIV-1 infection for haplotype TTACA (p = 0.082). The potential role of variants of APOBEC3G in HIV-1/AIDS warrants further investigation.

  6. Effects of time-of-day on neuromuscular function in untrained men: Specific responses of high morning performers and high evening performers.

    PubMed

    Küüsmaa, Maria; Sedliak, Milan; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    It has been clearly established that maximal force varies during the day in human muscles but the exact mechanisms behind the diurnal rhythms are still not fully clarified. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the diurnal rhythms in maximal isometric force production in a large group of participants and also by separating the high morning performance types (n = 8) and the high evening performance types (n = 19) from the neutral types (n = 45) based on their actual maximal isometric force levels. Measurements were performed in the morning (7:26 h ± 63 min) and in the evening (17:57 h ± 74 min) for maximal bilateral isometric leg press force (MVCLP) together with myoelectric activity (EMGLP), maximal unilateral isometric knee extension force (MVCKE) and maximal voluntary activation level (VA%) during maximal unilateral isometric knee extension force (MVCVA) together with myoelectric activity (EMGVA). In addition, venous blood samples were drawn four times a day and serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations were analyzed. None of the participants belonged to the extreme morning or evening chronotype according to the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. In the total group of participants, MVCLP and MVCKE were 4.4 ± 12.9% (p < 0.01) and 4.3 ± 10.6% (p < 0.01) higher in the evening compared to the morning. MVCVA and VA% did not show significant diurnal variation. The high morning performance types showed lower force values in the evening compared to the morning for MVCLP (10.8 ± 9.1%; p < 0.05) and MVCKE (5.7 ± 4.9%; p < 0.05). No significant diurnal variation was observed for MVCVA and VA%. The high evening performance types showed higher force values in the evening for MVCLP (16.1 ± 15.9%; p < 0.001), MVCKE (13.5 ± 11.3%; p < 0.001) and MVCVA (6.2 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05) with a concomitant higher VA% in the evening (p < 0.05). The neutral types showed significantly higher evening force values for the MVCLP (2.1 ± 6.7%; p < 0.05). All the other

  7. Using the PRECEDE Planning Approach to Develop a Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Visit Barbershops: Results From the FITShop Study.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sula; Linnan, Laura; Jolly, David; Muqueeth, Sadiya; Hall, Marla B; Dixon, Carrissa; Robinson, Seronda

    2015-07-01

    African American (AA) men have a higher prevalence of many chronic disease risk behaviors compared to Caucasian men, including physical inactivity. Innovative ways to reach AA men with interventions to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease other key risk factors are needed to reduce health disparities in this population. The barbershop is a natural but underutilized setting for reaching AA men. In the Fitness in the Shop (FITShop) study, shop owners, barbers, and customers were recruited from four local barbershops to complete structured interviews and customer focus groups. We assessed knowledge, perceived barriers, and interests/concerns about PA, as well as explored how to best intervene in the barbershop. Barbers and customers endorsed the idea of receiving health and PA information in the barbershop. These formative research results generated information and strategies for developing a multilevel barbershop-based health intervention to promote PA in the barbershop. This article describes the formative research results and how PRECEDE was used to develop a culturally and contextually appropriate, multilevel barbershop-based intervention designed to promote PA and to reduce chronic disease disparities among AA men.

  8. Perceived social pressures and the internalization of the mesomorphic ideal: The role of drive for muscularity and autonomy in physically active men.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; Molnar, Gyozo; Markland, David

    2016-03-01

    We examined if there were both direct and indirect relationships (via the drive for muscularity) between the perceived pressure to be muscular and internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, and if autonomy moderates these relationships in physically active men. A sample of 330 men, who were undergraduate students studying sport, completed the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, the Mesomorphic Ideal Internalization subscale of the revised male version Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire, the Perceived Sociocultural Pressure Scale-Modified, and the Drive for Muscularity Scale Attitudes subscale. Perceived pressure predicted internalization directly, and indirectly through the drive for muscularity. The direct relationship between pressure and internalization was weaker under higher levels of autonomy. The indirect path, via drive for muscularity, was stronger under higher levels of autonomy. These results provide insights into why men vary in the degree to which they internalize pressure to develop a mesomorphic ideal, supporting further examination of autonomy.

  9. Diet and physical activity in relation to metabolic syndrome among urban Indian men and women.

    PubMed

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Singh, Pritpal

    2015-01-01

    The relationship of diet and physical activity with metabolic syndrome (MS) was studied among 60 male and female (40-60 y) urban Indian MS patients. Intake of green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, fruits and milk were significantly (p ≤ .01) associated with reduced fat mass and waist circumference and increased lean body mass. Energy, carbohydrates, and fat intakes were significantly (p ≤ .01) correlated with increased body fat and waist circumference and reduced lean body mass. Energy, total and saturated fat intake were positively and significantly (p ≤ .05; .01) correlated with total cholesterol. Total fat was also significantly (p ≤ .05; .01) correlated with increased systolic blood pressure (r = 0.33), serum triglycerides (r = 0.33), LDL-C (r = 0.29) and VLDL-C (r = 0.28). Increased TDEE was significantly (p ≤ .01) associated with decreased body fat and waist circumference (r = 0.53 and 0.60) and increased lean body mass (r = 0.68).

  10. Activation of the arousal response can impair performance on a simple motor task.

    PubMed

    Noteboom, J T; Fleshner, M; Enoka, R M

    2001-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of arousal in men and women on the moment-to-moment performance of a simple motor task. We examined the control of a precision task in the presence and absence of imposed stressors. Twenty-nine subjects (14 men, 15 women; 18--44 yr) were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of two stressor groups, Mental Math or Electric Shock. Subjects presented with Math and Shock stressors, which lasted 10 min, experienced significant increases in cognitive and physiological arousal compared with baseline and control subjects. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and electrodermal activity were elevated 5--80% with presentation of the stressors, whereas diastolic blood pressure and salivary cortisol were unchanged. The greater levels of cognitive and physiological arousal were associated with reductions in steadiness of a pinch grip for the Shock subjects (approximately 130% reduction from baseline) but not for the subjects in the Math group, who experienced heightened arousal but no change in steadiness (10% reduction from baseline). Although women exhibited more of a reduction in steadiness than men, the effect was largely unrelated to the magnitude of the change in arousal.

  11. Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Stalking, and Sexual Violence Among Active Duty Women and Wives of Active Duty Men - Comparisons with Women in the U.S. General Population, 2010

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Stalking, and Sexual Violence Among Active Duty Women and Wives of Active Duty Men—Comparisons with Women...Technical Report Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence, and Stalking among Active Duty Women and Wives of Active Duty Men— Comparisons...the General U.S. Population, Active Duty Women, and Wives of Active Duty Men by Type of Perpetrator — NISVS 2010 Table 3 Prevalence of Contact Sexual

  12. Expert consensus document: Semantics in active surveillance for men with localized prostate cancer - results of a modified Delphi consensus procedure.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Roobol, Monique J; Carroll, Peter R; Klotz, Laurence; Pickles, Tom; Moore, Caroline M; Gnanapragasam, Vincent J; Villers, Arnauld; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Frydenberg, Mark; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Filson, Christopher P; Bangma, Chris H

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is broadly described as a management option for men with low-risk prostate cancer, but semantic heterogeneity exists in both the literature and in guidelines. To address this issue, a panel of leading prostate cancer specialists in the field of AS participated in a consensus-forming project using a modified Delphi method to reach international consensus on definitions of terms related to this management option. An iterative three-round sequence of online questionnaires designed to address 61 individual items was completed by each panel member. Consensus was considered to be reached if ≥70% of the experts agreed on a definition. To facilitate a common understanding among all experts involved and resolve potential ambiguities, a face-to-face consensus meeting was held between Delphi survey rounds two and three. Convenience sampling was used to construct the panel of experts. In total, 12 experts from Australia, France, Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, Japan, the UK, Canada and the USA participated. By the end of the Delphi process, formal consensus was achieved for 100% (n = 61) of the terms and a glossary was then developed. Agreement between international experts has been reached on relevant terms and subsequent definitions regarding AS for patients with localized prostate cancer. This standard terminology could support multidisciplinary communication, reduce the extent of variations in clinical practice and optimize clinical decision making.

  13. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  14. Effects of dynamic and static stretching on vertical jump performance and electromyographic activity.

    PubMed

    Hough, Paul A; Ross, Emma Z; Howatson, Glyn

    2009-03-01

    The results of previous research have demonstrated that static stretching (SS) can reduce muscular performance and that dynamic stretching (DS) can enhance muscular performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of SS and DS on vertical jump (VJ) performance and electromyographic (EMG) activity of the m. vastus medialis. Eleven healthy men (age 21 +/- 2 years) took part in 3 conditions (no stretching [NS], SS, and DS), on separate occasions in a randomized, crossover design. During each condition, measurements of VJ height and EMG activity during the VJ were recorded. A repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc analysis indicated that VJ height was significantly less (4.19 +/- 4.47%) after SS than NS (p < 0.05) and significantly greater (9.44 +/- 4.25%) in DS than SS (p < 0.05). There was significantly greater EMG amplitude in the DS compared with the SS (p < 0.05). The results demonstrated that SS has a negative influence on VJ performance, whereas DS has a positive impact. Increased VJ performance after DS may be attributed to postactivation potentiation, whereas the reduction in VJ performance after SS may be attributable to neurological impairment and a possible alteration in the viscoelastic properties of the muscular tendon unit (MTU). This investigation provides some physiological basis for the inclusion of DS and exclusion of SS in preparation for activities requiring jumping performance.

  15. Docosahexaenoic acid ingestion inhibits natural killer cell activity and production of inflammatory mediators in young healthy men.

    PubMed

    Kelley, D S; Taylor, P C; Nelson, G J; Schmidt, P C; Ferretti, A; Erickson, K L; Yu, R; Chandra, R K; Mackey, B E

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of feeding docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as triacylglycerol on the fatty acid composition, eicosanoid production, and select activities of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). A 120-d study with 11 healthy men was conducted at the Metabolic Research Unit of Western Human Nutrition Reach Center. Four subjects (control group) were fed the stabilization diet throughout the study; the remaining seven subjects were fed the basal diet for the first 30 d, followed by 6 g DHA/d for the next 90 d. DHA replaced an equivalent amount of linoleic acid; the two diets were comparable in their total fat and all other nutrients. Both diets were supplemented with 20 mg D alpha-tocopherol acetate per day. PBMNC fatty acid composition and eicosanoid production were examined on day 30 and 113; immune cell functions were tested on day 22, 30, 78, 85, 106, and 113. DHA feeding increased its concentration from 2.3 to 7.4 wt% in the PBMNC total lipids, and decreased arachidonic acid concentration from 19.8 to 10.7 wt%. It also lowered prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, in response to lipopolysaccharide, by 60-75%. Natural killer cell activity and in vitro secretion of interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly reduced by DHA feeding. These parameters remained unchanged in the subjects fed the control diet. B-cell functions as reported here and T-cell functions that we reported previously were not altered by DHA feeding. Our results show that inhibitory effects of DHA on immune cell functions varied with the cell type, and that the inhibitory effects are not mediated through increased production of PGE2 and LTB4.

  16. Comparison of coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sport drinks are ubiquitous within the recreational and competitive fitness and sporting world. Most are manufactured and artificially flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. Recently, attention has been given to coconut water, a natural alternative to manufactured sport drinks, with initial evidence indicating efficacy with regard to maintaining hydration. We compared coconut water and a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink on measures of hydration and physical performance in exercise-trained men. Methods Following a 60-minute bout of dehydrating treadmill exercise, 12 exercise-trained men (26.6 ± 5.7 yrs) received bottled water (BW), pure coconut water (VitaCoco®: CW), coconut water from concentrate (CWC), or a carbohydrate-electrolyte sport drink (SD) [a fluid amount based on body mass loss during the dehydrating exercise] on four occasions (separated by at least 5 days) in a random order, single blind (subject and not investigators), cross-over design. Hydration status (body mass, fluid retention, plasma osmolality, urine specific gravity) and performance (treadmill time to exhaustion; assessed after rehydration) were determined during the recovery period. Subjective measures of thirst, bloatedness, refreshed, stomach upset, and tiredness were also determined using a 5-point visual analog scale. Results Subjects lost approximately 1.7 kg (~2% of body mass) during the dehydrating exercise and regained this amount in a relatively similar manner following consumption of all conditions. No differences were noted between coconut water (CW or CWC) and SD for any measures of fluid retention (p > 0.05). Regarding exercise performance, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted between BW (11.9 ± 5.9 min), CW (12.3 ± 5.8 min), CWC (11.9 ± 6.0 min), and SD (12.8 ± 4.9 min). In general, subjects reported feeling more bloated and experienced greater stomach upset with the CW and CWC conditions. Conclusion All tested beverages are capable of

  17. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Cian; Bishop, David J

    2016-12-01

    McGinley C, Bishop DJ. Influence of training intensity on adaptations in acid/base transport proteins, muscle buffer capacity, and repeated-sprint ability in active men. J Appl Physiol 121: 1290-1305, 2016. First published October 14, 2016; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00630.2016-This study measured the adaptive response to exercise training for each of the acid-base transport protein families, including providing isoform-specific evidence for the monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1/4 chaperone protein basigin and for the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe)1. We investigated whether 4 wk of work-matched, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), performed either just above the lactate threshold (HIITΔ20; n = 8), or close to peak aerobic power (HIITΔ90; n = 8), influenced adaptations in acid-base transport protein abundance, nonbicarbonate muscle buffer capacity (βmin vitro), and exercise capacity in active men. Training intensity did not discriminate between adaptations for most proteins measured, with abundance of MCT1, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) 1, NBCe1, carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, and CAXIV increasing after 4 wk, whereas there was little change in CAIII and CAIV abundance. βmin vitro also did not change. However, MCT4 protein content only increased for HIITΔ20 [effect size (ES): 1.06, 90% confidence limits × / ÷ 0.77], whereas basigin protein content only increased for HIITΔ90 (ES: 1.49, × / ÷ 1.42). Repeated-sprint ability (5 × 6-s sprints; 24 s passive rest) improved similarly for both groups. Power at the lactate threshold only improved for HIITΔ20 (ES: 0.49; 90% confidence limits ± 0.38), whereas peak O2 uptake did not change for either group. Detraining was characterized by the loss of adaptations for all of the proteins measured and for repeated-sprint ability 6 wk after removing the stimulus of HIIT. In conclusion, 4 wk of HIIT induced improvements in each of the acid-base transport protein families, but, remarkably, a 40

  18. The Effect of a Single Session of Whole-Body Vibration Training in Recreationally Active Men on the Excitability of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Daria; Piecha, Magdalena; Błaszczak, Edward; Król, Piotr; Smykla, Agnieszka; Juras, Grzegorz

    2014-01-01

    Vibration training has become a popular method used in professional sports and recreation. In this study, we examined the effect of whole-body vibration training on the central nervous system and muscle excitability in a group of 28 active men. Subjects were assigned randomly to one of two experimental groups with different variables of vibrations. The chronaximetry method was used to evaluate the effect of a single session of whole-body vibration training on the excitability of the rectus femoris and brachioradialis muscles. The examination of the fusing and flickering frequencies of the light stimulus was performed. An increase in the excitability of the quadriceps femoris muscle due to low intensity vibrations (20 Hz frequency, 2 mm amplitude) was noted, and a return to the initial values was observed 30 min after the application of vibration. High intensity vibrations (60 Hz frequency, 4 mm amplitude) caused elongations of the chronaxy time; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Neither a low intensity vibration amplitude of 2 mm (frequency of 20 Hz) nor a high intensity vibration amplitude of 4 mm (frequency of 60 Hz) caused a change in the excitability of the central nervous system, as revealed by the average frequency of the fusing and flickering of the light stimulus. A single session of high intensity whole-body vibration did not significantly decrease the excitability of the peripheral nervous system while the central nervous system did not seem to be affected. PMID:25114735

  19. Stereotype validation: the effects of activating negative stereotypes after intellectual performance.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jason K; Thiem, Kelsey C; Barden, Jamie; Stuart, Jillian O'Rourke; Evans, Abigail T

    2015-04-01

    With regard to intellectual performance, a large body of research has shown that stigmatized group members may perform more poorly when negative, self-relevant stereotypes become activated prior to a task. However, no research to date has identified the potential ramifications of stereotype activation that happens after-rather than before-a person has finished performing. Six studies examined how postperformance stereotype salience may increase the certainty individuals have in evaluations of their own performance. In the current research, the accessibility of gender or racial stereotypes was manipulated after participants completed either a difficult math test (Studies 1-5) or a test of child-care knowledge (Study 6). Consistent with predictions, stereotype activation was found to increase the certainty that women (Studies 1, 2, 4, and 5), African Americans (Study 3), and men (Study 6) had toward negative evaluations of their own test performance. These effects emerged when performance-related perceptions were stereotype consistent rather than inconsistent (Studies 1-6) and were found to be most pronounced among those who were highly identified with the stereotyped group (Study 5). Furthermore, greater certainty-triggered by negative stereotypes-predicted lowered domain-relevant beliefs (Studies 1, 2, 3, and 6) and differential exposure to domain-relevant stimuli (Studies 4 and 5).

  20. An Experimental Study of the Effects of Stereotype Threat and Stereotype Lift on Men and Women's Performance in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heather J.; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Saxon, Terrill F.; Johnson, Megan K.

    2012-01-01

    In this study the authors examined the differential effects of stereotype threat and lift between genders on math test performance. They asked 3 questions: (a) What is the effect of gender on math test performance?, (b) What is the effect of stereotyping condition (threat, lift, or neither) on math test performance?, and (c) What is the effect of…

  1. Psychometric Properties of a Short Measure for Psychosocial Factors and Associations With Phase of Physical Activity Change Among Finnish Working-Aged Men.

    PubMed

    Kaasalainen, Karoliina; Kasila, Kirsti; Komulainen, Jyrki; Malvela, Miia; Poskiparta, Marita

    2015-11-26

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) and poor physical fitness are risks for several noncommunicable diseases among working-aged men. PA programs have been launched to increase activity levels in the population but working-aged men have been underrepresented in these programs. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate validity of a short scale for psychosocial factors among Finnish working-aged men who participated in a PA campaign. The study examined also the associations between psychosocial factors and phase of PA change across fitness groups. Physical fitness was assessed with a body fitness index constructed on the basis of a handgrip test, the Polar OwnIndex Test, and body composition analysis (InBody 720). The men were classified into low (n = 162), moderate (n = 358), and high (n = 320) body fitness index groups. Psychosocial factors and self-reported phase of PA change were assessed with a questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the scale were assessed with confirmatory factor analysis and differences between phases of PA change were examined with one-way analysis of variance. The evaluated scale included factors for self-efficacy, goal setting, skills, and social support. Good physical fitness was related to better perceived self-efficacy and ability to manage one's PA environment. Goal setting was critical for PA change at all fitness levels. Better understanding of the interactions between psychosocial factors and PA change could help in targeting PA programs to low-fit men. Further study should examine the validity of the improved psychosocial measure.

  2. Skeletal muscle signaling associated with impaired glucose tolerance in spinal cord-injured men and the effects of contractile activity

    PubMed Central

    Yarar-Fisher, Ceren; Bickel, C. Scott; Windham, Samuel T.; McLain, Amie B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying poor glucose tolerance in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), along with its improvement after several weeks of neuromuscular electrical stimulation-induced resistance exercise (NMES-RE) training, remain unclear, but presumably involve the affected skeletal musculature. We, therefore, investigated skeletal muscle signaling pathways associated with glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) translocation at rest and shortly after a single bout of NMES-RE in SCI (n = 12) vs. able-bodied (AB, n = 12) men. Subjects completed an oral glucose tolerance test during visit 1 and ≈90 NMES-RE isometric contractions of the quadriceps during visit 2. Muscle biopsies were collected before, and 10 and 60 min after, NMES-RE. We assessed transcript levels of GLUT-4 by quantitative PCR and protein levels of GLUT-4 and phosphorylated- and total AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α, CaMKII, Akt, and AS160 by immunoblotting. Impaired glucose tolerance in SCI was confirmed by higher (P < 0.05) plasma glucose concentrations than AB at all time points after glucose ingestion, despite equivalent insulin responses to the glucose load. GLUT-4 protein content was lower (P < 0.05) in SCI vs. AB at baseline. Main group effects revealed higher phosphorylation in SCI of AMPK-α, CaMKII, and Akt (P < 0.05), and Akt phosphorylation increased robustly (P < 0.05) following NMES-RE in SCI only. In SCI, low skeletal muscle GLUT-4 protein concentration may, in part, explain poor glucose tolerance, whereas heightened phosphorylation of relevant signaling proteins (AMPK-α, CaMKII) suggests a compensatory effort. Finally, it is encouraging to find (based on Akt) that SCI muscle remains both sensitive and responsive to mechanical loading (NMES-RE) even ≈22 yr after injury. PMID:23766505

  3. Advanced Performance Modeling with Combined Passive and Active Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Dovrolis, Constantine; Sim, Alex

    2015-04-15

    To improve the efficiency of resource utilization and scheduling of scientific data transfers on high-speed networks, the "Advanced Performance Modeling with combined passive and active monitoring" (APM) project investigates and models a general-purpose, reusable and expandable network performance estimation framework. The predictive estimation model and the framework will be helpful in optimizing the performance and utilization of networks as well as sharing resources with predictable performance for scientific collaborations, especially in data intensive applications. Our prediction model utilizes historical network performance information from various network activity logs as well as live streaming measurements from network peering devices. Historical network performance information is used without putting extra load on the resources by active measurement collection. Performance measurements collected by active probing is used judiciously for improving the accuracy of predictions.

  4. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  5. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  6. Changes in Nutrient Intakes of Conditioned Men during a 5-Day Period of Increased Physical Activity and Other Stresses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP nutrition minerals energy balanQe vitamins 19...Introduction and urinary constituents of 16 Navy servicemen were obtained before and during a period of 113 It is an axiom that proper nutrition will...deprivation. Psychological stresses included verbal confrontations, perform- Key words: Nutrition >- Energy balance -- Vita- ance anxiety, and activities with

  7. Physical Activity Predicts Performance in an Unpracticed Bimanual Coordination Task

    PubMed Central

    Boisgontier, Matthieu P.; Serbruyns, Leen; Swinnen, Stephan P.

    2017-01-01

    Practice of a given physical activity is known to improve the motor skills related to this activity. However, whether unrelated skills are also improved is still unclear. To test the impact of physical activity on an unpracticed motor task, 26 young adults completed the international physical activity questionnaire and performed a bimanual coordination task they had never practiced before. Results showed that higher total physical activity predicted higher performance in the bimanual task, controlling for multiple factors such as age, physical inactivity, music practice, and computer games practice. Linear mixed models allowed this effect of physical activity to be generalized to a large population of bimanual coordination conditions. This finding runs counter to the notion that generalized motor abilities do not exist and supports the existence of a “learning to learn” skill that could be improved through physical activity and that impacts performance in tasks that are not necessarily related to the practiced activity. PMID:28265253

  8. Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, David S.; Hannon, James C.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70-85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students…

  9. Effects of resistance exercise intensity on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in men.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lem W; Wilborn, Colin D; Kreider, Richard B; Willoughby, Darryn S

    2012-03-01

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 signaling has been shown to be increased after heavy resistance exercise and suggested to play a role in the hypertrophic adaptations that are known to occur with training. However, the role that ERK1/2 may play in response to lower intensities of resistance exercise is unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance exercise intensity on ERK1/2 activity in human skeletal muscle. Twelve recreationally active men completed separate bouts of single-legged resistance exercise with 8-10 repetitions (reps) at 80-85% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) (85%) and 18-20 reps at 60-65% 1RM (65%) in a randomized crossover fashion. For both resistance exercise sessions, vastus lateralis biopsies and blood draws were taken immediately before exercise (PRE) and at 30 minutes (30MPST), 2 hours (2HRPST), and 6 hours (6HRPST) post exercise, with an additional blood draw occurring immediately after exercise (POST). The phosphorylated levels of pIGF-1R, pMEK1, pERK1/2, and activated Elk-1 were assessed by phosphoELISA, and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical analyses used a 2 × 4 (muscle responses) and 2 × 5 (serum responses) multivariate analysis of variance on delta values from baseline (p < 0.05). Both exercise intensities significantly increased the activity of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), mitogen-activated protein kinase 1, ERK1/2, and Elk-1, with peak activity occurring at 2HRPST (p < 0.001). However, 65% resulted in a preferential increase in IGF-1R and Elk-1 activation when compared with 85% (p < 0.05). No differences were observed for serum IGF-1 levels regardless of intensity and time. These findings demonstrate that resistance exercise upregulates ERK1/2 signaling in a manner that does not appear to be preferentially dependent on exercise intensity.

  10. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks.

    PubMed

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter "k," "f," verbs, "animals," "vehicles," "joy," and "fear." The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety.

  11. Gender-transformative interventions to reduce HIV risks and violence with heterosexually-active men: a review of the global evidence.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A

    2013-11-01

    Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention.

  12. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  13. Establishing nurse-led active surveillance for men with localised prostate cancer: development and formative evaluation of a model of care in the ProtecT trial

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Julia; Holding, Peter N; Bonnington, Susan; Rooshenas, Leila; Lane, J Athene; Salter, C Elizabeth; Tilling, Kate; Speakman, Mark J; Brewster, Simon F; Evans, Simon; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a nurse-led, urologist-supported model of care for men managed by active surveillance or active monitoring (AS/AM) for localised prostate cancer and provide a formative evaluation of its acceptability to patients, clinicians and nurses. Nurse-led care, comprising an explicit nurse-led protocol with support from urologists, was developed as part of the AM arm of the Prostate testing for cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) trial. Design Interviews and questionnaire surveys of clinicians, nurses and patients assessed acceptability. Setting Nurse-led clinics were established in 9 centres in the ProtecT trial and compared with 3 non-ProtecT urology centres elsewhere in UK. Participants Within ProtecT, 22 men receiving AM nurse-led care were interviewed about experiences of care; 11 urologists and 23 research nurses delivering ProtecT trial care completed a questionnaire about its acceptability; 20 men managed in urology clinics elsewhere in the UK were interviewed about models of AS/AM care; 12 urologists and three specialist nurses working in these clinics were also interviewed about management of AS/AM. Results Nurse-led care was commended by ProtecT trial participants, who valued the flexibility, accessibility and continuity of the service and felt confident about the quality of care. ProtecT consultant urologists and nurses also rated it highly, identifying continuity of care and resource savings as key attributes. Clinicians and patients outside the ProtecT trial believed that nurse-led care could relieve pressure on urology clinics without compromising patient care. Conclusions The ProtecT AM nurse-led model of care was acceptable to men with localised prostate cancer and clinical specialists in urology. The protocol is available for implementation; we aim to evaluate its impact on routine clinical practice. Trial registration numbers NCT02044172; ISRCTN20141297. PMID:26384727

  14. Protein-Pacing from Food or Supplementation Improves Physical Performance in Overweight Men and Women: The PRISE 2 Study

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan C.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Gentile, Christopher L.; Ketcham, Caitlin; Darin, Christopher; Renna, Mariale; Zheng, Qian; Zhang, Jun Zhu; Ormsbee, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently reported that protein-pacing (P; six meals/day @ 1.4 g/kg body weight (BW), three of which included whey protein (WP) supplementation) combined with a multi-mode fitness program consisting of resistance, interval sprint, stretching, and endurance exercise training (RISE) improves body composition in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings and determine whether protein-pacing with only food protein (FP) is comparable to WP supplementation during RISE training on physical performance outcomes in overweight/obese individuals. Thirty weight-matched volunteers were prescribed RISE training and a P diet derived from either whey protein supplementation (WP, n = 15) or food protein sources (FP, n = 15) for 16 weeks. Twenty-one participants completed the intervention (WP, n = 9; FP, n = 12). Measures of body composition and physical performance were significantly improved in both groups (p < 0.05), with no effect of protein source. Likewise, markers of cardiometabolic disease risk (e.g., LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, systolic blood pressure) were significantly improved (p < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. These results demonstrate that both whey protein and food protein sources combined with multimodal RISE training are equally effective at improving physical performance and cardiometabolic health in obese individuals. PMID:27187451

  15. Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention Increases Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta S.; Ngwane, Zolani; Zhang, Jingwen; Heeren, G. Anita; Icard, Larry D.; O’Leary, Ann; Mtose, Xoliswa; Teitelman, Anne; Carty, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a health-promotion intervention increases South African men’s adherence to physical-activity guidelines. Method We utilized a cluster-randomized controlled trial design. Eligible clusters, residential neighborhoods near East London, South Africa, were matched in pairs. Within randomly selected pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to theory-based, culturally congruent health-promotion intervention encouraging physical activity or attention-matched HIV/STI risk-reduction control intervention. Men residing in the neighborhoods and reporting coitus in the previous 3 months were eligible. Primary outcome was self-reported individual-level adherence to physical-activity guidelines averaged over 6-month and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Data collectors, but not facilitators or participants, were blind to group assignment. Results Primary outcome intention-to-treat analysis included 22 of 22 clusters and 537 of 572 men in the health-promotion intervention and 22 of 22 clusters and 569 of 609 men in the attention-control intervention. Model-estimated probability of meeting physical-activity guidelines was 51.0% in the health-promotion intervention and 44.7% in attention-matched control (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 1.09–1.63), adjusting for baseline prevalence and clustering from 44 neighborhoods. Conclusion A theory-based culturally congruent intervention increased South African men’s self-reported physical activity, a key contributor to deaths from non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01490359. PMID:24736094

  16. Mapping Unhealthy Behavior Among Economically Active Men Using GIS in Suburban and Rural Areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, J Padmaka

    2016-01-01

    The burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and certain behavioral risk factors related to NCDs (unhealthy behaviors) are becoming more common. This survey aims to map out such common unhealthy behaviors among all men 35 to 50 years old in a Medical Officer of Health area in the Western Province of Sri Lanka using a geographical information system (GIS) and an interviewer administered questionnaire by visiting all households in the study area. Data were analyzed with ARC GIS and SPSS software. Geographical areas where men with unhealthy behaviors cluster together (clusters) were identified and visually and statistically related to locations of schools, places of religious worship, and factories in the area. It was revealed that clusters of unhealthy behaviors are mostly seen in areas with less population density. Smoking and alcohol are clustering in estate areas occupied by Tamils. This way GIS mapping could be used to identify and reduce the burden of NCDs by visualizing clusters and how certain locations affect their spread.

  17. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  18. A randomized controlled trial of a culturally congruent intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among heterosexually active immigrant Latino men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Vissman, Aaron T.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Duck, Stacy; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Foley, Kristie Long; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an HIV prevention intervention to increase condom use and HIV testing among Spanish-speaking, heterosexually active immigrant Latino men. A community-based participatory research partnership developed the intervention and selected the study design. Following baseline data collection, 142 immigrant Latino men were randomized to the HIV prevention intervention or the cancer education intervention. Three-month follow-up data were collected from 139 participants, for a 98% retention rate. Mean age of participants was 31.6 years and 60% reported being from Mexico. Adjusting for baseline behaviors, relative to their peers in the cancer education comparison, participants in the HIV prevention intervention were more likely to report consistent condom use and receiving an HIV test. Community-based interventions for immigrant Latino men that are built on state of the art prevention science and developed in partnership with community members can greatly enhance preventive behaviors and may reduce HIV infection. PMID:21301948

  19. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  20. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusions There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  1. Physical activity helps to control music performance anxiety.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Sérgio F; Marocolo, Moacir; Corrêa, Elisangela N V; Morato, Gledys S G; da Mota, Gustavo R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated if regular physical activity could influence musical performance anxiety (MPA) in college music students. Levels of MPA, as measured with the Kenny MPA Inventory, and a survey about the physical activity habits were obtained from 87 students of music. The results showed that physically active musicians had lower MPA scores (p<0.05) than non-active ones, independent of gender. We conclude that there is an association between physical activity and minor MPA, and studies with a longitudinal design should be done to explore this important issue.

  2. Antioxidant enzyme activity is associated with blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness in black men and women: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    van Zyl, Caitlynd; Huisman, Hugo W; Mels, Catharina M C

    2016-05-01

    In the urbanized black population of South Africa, oxidative stress may play a crucial role in the development of hypertension. Since oxidative stress may result from impaired antioxidant capacity we aimed to investigate antioxidant enzyme activity as well as its associations with vascular function and structure in a bi-ethnic population. Participants included 409 subjects almost equally stratified by ethnicity and sex. Blood pressure and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) were measured and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities were determined. GR activity was significantly higher in black men (7.71 nmol/min/ml vs 2.23 nmol/min/ml) and women (6.46 nmol/min/ml vs 2.86 nmol/min/ml) (p < 0.001) when compared to their white counterparts. In black women, GPx activity was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when compared to white women (31.9 nmol/min/ml vs 37.1 nmol/min/ml). In black men, cIMT was positively and independently associated with GR activity (R(2) = 0.30; β = 0.18; p = 0.048). In black women, systolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.21; β = -0.24; p = 0.014), diastolic blood pressure (R(2) = 0.11; β = -0.20; p = 0.044) and mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.20; β = -0.31; p = 0.002) were inversely associated with GPx activity. No associations were found in the white groups. The positive association between GR activity and cIMT in black men may be the result of a compensatory response to prevent arterial remodelling. The inverse association between GPx activity and blood pressure in black women may indicate a role for decreased GPx activity in hypertension development in this population.

  3. Sildenafil does not improve steady state cardiovascular hemodynamics, peak power, or 15-km time trial cycling performance at simulated moderate or high altitudes in men and women.

    PubMed

    Kressler, Jochen; Stoutenberg, Mark; Roos, Bernard A; Friedlander, Anne L; Perry, Arlette C; Signorile, Joseph F; Jacobs, Kevin A

    2011-12-01

    Sildenafil improves oxygen delivery and maximal exercise capacity at very high altitudes (≥ 4,350 m), but it is unknown whether sildenafil improves these variables and longer-duration exercise performance at moderate and high altitudes where competitions are more common. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sildenafil on cardiovascular hemodynamics, arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)), peak exercise capacity (W (peak)), and 15-km time trial performance in endurance-trained subjects at simulated moderate (MA; ~2,100 m, 16.2% F(I)O(2)) and high (HA; ~3,900 m, 12.8% F(I)O(2)) altitudes. Eleven men and ten women completed two HA W (peak) trials after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. Subjects then completed four exercise trials (30 min at 55% of altitude-specific W (peak) + 15-km time trial) at MA and HA after ingesting placebo or 50 mg sildenafil. All trials were performed in randomized, counterbalanced, and double-blind fashion. Sildenafil had little influence on cardiovascular hemodynamics at MA or HA, but did result in higher SaO(2) values (+3%, p < 0.05) compared to placebo during steady state and time trial exercise at HA. W (peak) at HA was 19% lower than SL (p < 0.001) and was not significantly affected by sildenafil. Similarly, the significantly slower time trial performance at MA (28.1 ± 0.5 min, p = 0.016) and HA (30.3 ± 0.6 min, p < 0.001) compared to SL (27.5 ± 0.6 min) was unaffected by sildenafil. We conclude that sildenafil is unlikely to exert beneficial effects at altitudes <4,000 m for a majority of the population.

  4. Performance of the Gen-Probe AMPLIFIED Chlamydia Trachomatis Assay in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in endocervical and urine specimens from women and urethral and urine specimens from men attending sexually transmitted disease and family planning clinics.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, D V; Meyers, H N; Schultz, D E; Willis, S A

    1998-11-01

    The Gen-Probe AMPLIFIED Chlamydia Trachomatis Assay (AMP CT) uses transcription-mediated amplification and hybridization protection assay procedures to qualitatively detect Chlamydia trachomatis rRNA in urine, endocervical swab, and urethral specimens. The performance of the AMP CT was compared to that of cell culture for endocervical swab and urine specimens from women and urethral and urine specimens from men. Analysis of specimens with discrepant results was performed by a combination of reculture, direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) staining of specimen sediment, and amplification which targeted a different chlamydial rRNA. A total of 800 urine samples were tested by the AMP CT (607 from women and 193 from men), and 7. 1% were positive for C. trachomatis, with a sensitivity of 91.2% and a specificity of 99.6% upon discrepant analysis. A total of 926 swab specimens were tested by culture and AMP CT (717 endocervical swab specimens and 209 urethral swab specimens from men), and 7.7% were positive for C. trachomatis, with a sensitivity and specificity of 100% upon discrepant analysis. The AMP CT is a sensitive and specific nucleic acid hybridization assay for the detection of C. trachomatis in endocervical swab specimens from women, urethral swab specimens from men, and urine specimens from men and women.

  5. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running.

    PubMed

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0-2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention.

  6. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Healthy Untrained Men: Effects on VO2max, Jump Performance and Flexibility of Soccer and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Running

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Sporiš, Goran; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of recreational soccer (SOC) compared to moderate-intensity continuous running (RUN) on all health-related physical fitness components in healthy untrained men. Sixty-nine participants were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three groups, of which sixty-four completed the study: a soccer training group (SOC; n = 20, 34±4 (means±SD) years, 78.1±8.3 kg, 179±4 cm); a running group (RUN; n = 21, 32±4 years, 78.0±5.5 kg, 179±7 cm); or a passive control group (CON; n = 23, 30±3 years, 76.6±12.0 kg, 178±8 cm). The training intervention lasted 12 weeks and consisted of three 60-min sessions per week. All participants were tested for each of the following physical fitness components: maximal aerobic power, minute ventilation, maximal heart rate, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump with arm swing (CMJ), sit-and-reach flexibility, and body composition. Over the 12 weeks, VO2max relative to body weight increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (24.2%, ES = 1.20) and RUN (21.5%, ES = 1.17) than in CON (-5.0%, ES = -0.24), partly due to large changes in body mass (-5.9, -5.7 and +2.6 kg, p<0.05 for SOC, RUN and CON, respectively). Over the 12 weeks, SJ and CMJ performance increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (14.8 and 12.1%, ES = 1.08 and 0.81) than in RUN (3.3 and 3.0%, ES = 0.23 and 0.19) and CON (0.3 and 0.2%), while flexibility also increased more (p<0.05) in SOC (94%, ES = 0.97) than in RUN and CON (0–2%). In conclusion, untrained men displayed marked improvements in maximal aerobic power after 12 weeks of soccer training and moderate-intensity running, partly due to large decreases in body mass. Additionally soccer training induced pronounced positive effects on jump performance and flexibility, making soccer an effective broad-spectrum fitness training intervention. PMID:26305880

  7. Active damping performance of the KAGRA seismic attenuation system prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Sekiguchi, Takanori; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Aso, Yoichi; Barton, Mark; Erasmo Peña Arellano, Fabián; Shoda, Ayaka; Akutsu, Tomotada; Miyakawa, Osamu; Kamiizumi, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Hideharu; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Hirata, Naoatsu; Hayama, Kazuhiro; Okutomi, Koki; Miyamoto, Takahiro; Ishizuka, Hideki; DeSalvo, Riccardo; Flaminio, Raffaele

    2016-05-01

    The Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope (formerly LCGT now KAGRA) is presently under construction in Japan. This May we assembled a prototype of the seismic attenuation system (SAS) for the beam splitter and the signal recycling mirrors of KAGRA, which we call Type-B SAS, and evaluated its performance at NAOJ (Mitaka, Toyko). We investigated its frequency response, active damping performance, vibration isolation performance and long-term stability both in and out of vacuum. From the frequency response test and the active damping performance test, we confirmed that the SAS worked as we designed and that all mechanical resonances which could disturb lock acquisition and observation are damped within 1 minute, which is required for KAGRA, by the active controls.

  8. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration is positively associated with rate of disease reclassification on subsequent active surveillance prostate biopsy in men with low PSA density

    PubMed Central

    Umbehr, Martin H.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Bhavsar, Nrupen A.; Epstein, Jonathan I.; Landis, Patricia; Partin, Alan W.; Carter, H. Ballentine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration at active surveillance (AS) entry and disease reclassification on subsequent AS biopsy (‘biopsy reclassification’) in men with low PSA density (PSAD). To investigate whether a clinically meaningful PSA threshold for AS eligibility/ineligibility for men with low PSAD can be identified based on risk of subsequent biopsy reclassification. Patients and Methods We included men enrolled in the Johns Hopkins AS Study (JHAS) who had a PSAD of <0.15 ng/mL/g (640 men). We estimated the incidence rates (IRs; per 100 person years) and hazard ratios (HR) of biopsy reclassification (Gleason score ≥ 7, any Gleason pattern 4 or 5, ≥3 positive cores, or ≥50% cancer involvement/biopsy core) for categories of serum PSA concentration at the time of entry into AS. We generated predicted IRs using Poisson regression to adjust for age and prostate volume, mean percentage free PSA (ratio of free to total PSA) and maximum percentage biopsy core involvement with cancer. Results The unadjusted IRs (per 100 person years) of biopsy reclassification across serum PSA concentration at entry into JHAS showed, in general, an increase; however, the pattern was not linear with higher IRs in the group ≥ 4 to <6 ng/mL (14.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 11.8–17.2%) when compared with ≥ 6 to <8 ng/mL (8.4, 95% CI 5.7–12.3%) but almost similar IRs when compared with the group ≥ 8 to <10 ng/mL (14.8, 95% CI 8.4–26.1%). The adjusted predicted IRs of reclassification showed a similar non-linear increase in IRs, whereby the rates around 4 ng/mL were similar to the rates around 10 ng/mL. Conclusion Risk for biopsy reclassification increased non-linearly across PSA concentration in men with low PSAD, whereby no obvious clinically meaningful threshold could be identified. This information could be incorporated into decision-making for AS. However, longer follow-up times are needed to

  9. Performance in physiology evaluation: possible improvement by active learning strategies.

    PubMed

    Montrezor, Luís H

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation process is complex and extremely important in the teaching/learning process. Evaluations are constantly employed in the classroom to assist students in the learning process and to help teachers improve the teaching process. The use of active methodologies encourages students to participate in the learning process, encourages interaction with their peers, and stimulates thinking about physiological mechanisms. This study examined the performance of medical students on physiology over four semesters with and without active engagement methodologies. Four activities were used: a puzzle, a board game, a debate, and a video. The results show that engaging in activities with active methodologies before a physiology cognitive monitoring test significantly improved student performance compared with not performing the activities. We integrate the use of these methodologies with classic lectures, and this integration appears to improve the teaching/learning process in the discipline of physiology and improves the integration of physiology with cardiology and neurology. In addition, students enjoy the activities and perform better on their evaluations when they use them.

  10. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel J; Joyner, Keanan J; Bloomer, Richard J

    2015-11-19

    Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood.

  11. Cognitive Performance and Mood Following Ingestion of a Theacrine-Containing Dietary Supplement, Caffeine, or Placebo by Young Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Kuhman, Daniel J.; Joyner, Keanan J.; Bloomer, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Theacrine is a purine alkaloid found primarily in the leaves of the Camellia Kucha plant and is now included within dietary supplements. To compare the effects of a theacrine-containing dietary supplement with caffeine and placebo on energy and mood, as well as objective measures of cognitive performance, heart rate, and blood pressure, 10 healthy men (20.8 ± 0.7 years) and 10 healthy women (22.2 ± 1.1 years) ingested the dietary supplement TheaTrim (Purus Labs; containing a branded form of theacrine (Teacrine™) and caffeine (150 mg)), caffeine only (150 mg), or a placebo on three different days, separated by approximately one week. Before, and for up to 4 h following, ingestion of the assigned condition, subjects completed a subjective assessment of energy and mood, as well as tests of cognitive performance (trail making test (TMT), digit symbol substitution test (DSST)), and reaction time. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured. No condition or interaction effects were noted for TMT, DSST, or reaction time, despite a trend for improvement in selected variables with both TheaTrim and caffeine treatment. Condition effects or trends were noted for subjective feelings, with values for attentive, alert, focused, and energetic higher for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine, while values for lethargic and groggy were lower for TheaTrim than for placebo and caffeine. Heart rate and blood pressure were largely unaffected by treatment. These data indicate that TheaTrim treatment does not result in a statistically significant improvement in cognitive performance but may favorably impact multiple subjective feelings related to energy and mood. PMID:26610558

  12. Effects of different rest intervals between antagonist paired sets on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Maia, Marianna F; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Paz, Gabriel A; Miranda, Humberto

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that exercising the antagonist musculature acutely enhances subsequent performance for the agonist musculature. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of different rest intervals between sets for exercises that involve antagonistic muscle groups, a technique referred to as antagonist paired sets (APS). Fifteen recreationally trained men were tested for knee extension (KE) exercise performance, with or without previous knee flexion (KF) exercise for the antagonist musculature. The following protocols were performed in random order with 10 repetition maximum loads for the KF and KE exercises: (a) traditional protocol (TP)-1 set of KE only to repetition failure; (b) paired sets with minimal allowable rest (PMR)-1 set of KF followed immediately by a set of KE; (c) P30-30-second rest between paired sets of KF and KE; (d) P1-1-minute rest between paired sets; (e) P3-3-minute rest between paired sets; and (f) P5-5-minute rest between paired sets. The number of repetitions performed and electromyographic (EMG) activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) muscles were recorded during the KE set in each protocol. It was demonstrated that significantly greater KE repetitions were completed during the PMR, P30, and P1 protocols vs. the TP protocol. Significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the RF muscle during the KE exercise in the PMR and P30 vs. the TP, P3, and P5, respectively. In addition, significantly greater EMG activity was demonstrated for the VM muscle during the PMR vs. all other protocols. The results of this study indicate that no rest or relatively shorter rest intervals (30 seconds and 1 minute) between APS might be more effective to elicit greater agonist repetition enhancement and muscle activation.

  13. Static stretching does not impair performance in active middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Handrakis, John P; Southard, Veronica N; Abreu, Jairo M; Aloisa, Mariella; Doyen, Mellissa R; Echevarria, Licet M; Hwang, Hyun; Samuels, Christine; Venegas, Steven A; Douris, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Recent investigations with young, healthy adult subjects suggest that static stretching before activity decreases performance and should, therefore, be avoided. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an acute static stretching protocol on balance and jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Ten subjects (6 men and 4 women aged 40-60 yr) from a martial arts school volunteered to take part in this research study. This was a repeated measures design. Subjects who stretched for 10 minutes using a 30-second hold during 1 session sat quietly for 10 minutes during the alternate session. Sessions were randomly assigned. The following dependent variables were compared: Dynamic Stability Index (DSI) for single-leg dynamic balance (smaller DSI = improved balance); distances for broad jump, single hop, triple hop, and crossover hop; elapsed time for a 6-m timed hop. Group means for balance were significantly different between the stretch and no-stretch conditions (3.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 4.3 +/- 1.4 DSI, respectively; p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the group means of the stretch and no-stretch conditions for the dependent measures of broad jump, single hop, triple hop, crossover hop, and 6-m timed hop performance. Ten minutes of acute static stretching enhances dynamic balance and does not affect jump/hop performance in active middle-aged adults. Static stretching should be included before competition and before exercise in fitness programs of active middle-aged adults.

  14. Physical Fitness, Physical Training and Occupational Performance of Men and Women in the U.S. Army: A Review of Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    correlated with fat-free mass in both men and women. As women have more body fat and less fat- free mass, they are more likely to have slower run times and...of men as shown in Figure 1 (Knapik et al., 1980). The female -to-male ratio of isometric strength is greater for measures of lower body strength (.67...N 59 0 LOWER BODY UPPER BODY MALES FEMALES Figure 1. Upper and lower body isometric strength of men and women. While it is clear that the average man

  15. Effects of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel on resistance exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Alleman, Rick J; Cantrell, Greg S; Farney, Tyler M; Schilling, Brian K

    2012-06-01

    Nitric oxide dietary supplements are popular within the sport community. Our recent work involving the oral intake of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate demonstrated an approximately 6.7% increase in circulating nitrate/nitrite. However, no measures of exercise performance were obtained. The present study used a topical form of this molecule to determine the impact on exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite. Fourteen resistance trained men (24 ± 1 years old) reported to the laboratory on 2 occasions to undergo exercise testing, which consisted of arm curl isometric force and muscular endurance (3 sets to fatigue using 80, 65, and 50% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: total of 9 sets). The gel (2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate; mixed in tea tree oil) or placebo (tea tree oil) was applied topically by the subjects for 7 days before each test day, with 7-10 days separating the randomly ordered conditions. Blood samples, arm circumference, and perceived "muscle pump" were taken before and immediately after exercise on both test days. The heart rate and perceived exertion were measured after each set. No statistically significant differences were noted between conditions for performance variables (p > 0.05). However, when using a load of 50% of 1RM, 6.2% more repetitions were performed when using the gel as compared with when using the placebo; 19.9% more repetitions were performed by 8 subjects noted to be "responders" to gel treatment. Blood lactate and muscle pump significantly increased with exercise (p < 0.0001) but were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Minimal change was noted in nitrate/nitrite, and the heart rate and perceived exertion were nearly identical between conditions (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel has a modest (6.2%), nonstatistically significant effect on exercise performance, in particular when using a load of 50% 1RM-with greater benefit noted in selected

  16. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  17. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.

    PubMed

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S

    1999-10-15

    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  18. Performance of Straight Steel Fibres Reinforced Alkali Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faris, Meor Ahmad; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Nizar Ismail, Khairul; Muniandy, Ratnasamy; Putra Jaya, Ramadhansyah

    2016-06-01

    This paper focus on the performance of alkali activated concrete produced by using fly ash activated by sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide solutions. These alkali activated concrete were reinforced with straight steel fibres with different weight percentage starting from 0 % up to 5 %. Chemical composition of raw material in the production alkali activated concrete which is fly ash was first identified by using X-ray fluorescence. Results reveal there have an effect of straight steel fibres inclusion to the alkali activated concrete. Highest compressive strength of alkali activated concrete which is 67.72 MPa was obtained when 3 % of straight fibres were added. As well as flexural strength, highest flexural strength which is 6.78 MPa was obtained at 3 % of straight steel fibres inclusions.

  19. Surfactant-activated lipase hybrid nanoflowers with enhanced enzymatic performance

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jiandong; Zhao, Yamin; Liu, Ronglin; Zhong, Cheng; Jia, Shiru

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of materials have been extensively used as platforms for enzyme immobilization to improve catalytic performance. However, activity of the most of the enzymes was declined after immobilization. Here, we develop a surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic flowerlike hybrid nanomaterials with rational design based on interfacial activation and self-assembly. The resulting surfactant-activated lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (activated hNF-lipase) exhibited 460% and 200% higher activity than native lipase and conventional lipase-inorganic hybird nanoflower (hNF-lipase). Furthermore, the activated hNF-lipase displayed good reusability due to its monodispersity and mechanical properties, and had excellent long-time stability. The superior catalytic performances were attributed to both the conformational modulation of surfactants and hierarchical structure of nanoflowers, which not only anchored lipases in an active form, but also decreased the enzyme-support negative interaction and mass-transfer limitations. This new biocatalytic system is promising to find widespread use in applications related to biomedicine, biosensor, and biodiesel. PMID:27297609

  20. Bone mineral density in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected men with hypogonadism prior to highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Alterations of bone metabolism have been observed in numerous studies of HIV-infected patients. Sex steroids are known to profoundly influence bone mass and bone turnover. Hypogonadism is common in HIV-infection. Therefore, we performed a cross sectional study of 80 male HIV-infected patients without wasting syndrome, and 20 healthy male controls, in whom we analyzed urine and serum samples for both calciotropic hormones and markers of bone metabolism and of endocrine testicular function. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry both in the lumbar spine and Ward's triangle of the left hip. None of the patients received highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy (HAART). Compared to eugonadal HIV-infected patients, subjects with hypogonadism (n = 32; 40%) showed statistically significant decrease of serum osteocalcin (p < 0.05) and elevated urinary excretion of crosslinks (p < 0.05). However, we found 13 and 15, respectively, patients with osteopenia (t-score -1.0 to -2.5 SD below normal) of the lumbar spine. The dissociation between bone formation and resorption and the reduction of of BMD (p < 0.05) is stronger expressed in patients with hypogonadism. Habitual hypogonadism appears to be of additional relevance for bone metabolism of male HIV-positive patients prior to HAART. PMID:19258214

  1. Cold modalities with different thermodynamic properties have similar effects on muscular performance and activation.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Oliveira, A B; Costa, J R; Herrera, E; Salvini, T F

    2013-10-01

    Although tissue cooling is widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries there is still controversy about its effects on muscular performance. The combination of cooling and exercise justifies the study of this topic. The aim was to compare the effects of ice pack and cold-water immersion on the muscular performance parameters of plantar flexors and muscular activation of the triceps surae. 41 healthy men (mean age: 22.1 years, SD: 2.9) were randomly assigned to cooling with either ice pack (n=20) or cold-water immersion (n=21). Independent variables were cold modality (ice pack or cold-water immersion) and pre- and post-cooling measurement time. Dependent variables were muscular performance (measured during isometric and concentric contractions of plantar flexors) and electromyography parameters of the triceps surae (median frequency and root mean square amplitude). Dependent-samples t-tests were used to compare pre- and post-cooling data and independent-samples t-tests were used to compare the difference (pre- and post-cooling) between groups. Ice pack increased isometric peak torque (mean: 9.00 Nm, P=0.01) and both cold modalities reduced muscular activation in triceps surae (P<0.0001); Cold-water immersion and ice pack reduced peak torque and total work during dynamic isokinetic contraction at both velocities (mean: -11,00 Nm, P<0.05) and affected muscular activation in different ways. In conclusion, ice pack increases isometric torque, while both ice pack and cold-water immersion decrease concentric muscular performance. These results indicate that these cooling methods should be chosen with caution, considering the type of task required during training or rehabilitation. New studies investigating other muscle groups and joints are necessary.

  2. Trait Anxiety Modulates Brain Activity during Performance of Verbal Fluency Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Gawda, Barbara; Szepietowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Trait anxiety is thought to be associated with pathological anxiety, and a risk factor for psychiatric disorders. The present study examines the brain mechanisms associated with trait anxiety during the performing of verbal fluency tasks. The aim is to show how trait anxiety modulates executive functions as measured by verbal fluency, and to explore the link between verbal fluency and anxiety due to the putative negative biases in high-anxious individuals. Seven tasks of verbal fluency were used: letter “k,” “f,” verbs, “animals,” “vehicles,” “joy,” and “fear.” The results of 35 subjects (whole sample), and 17 subjects (nine men, eight women) selected from the whole sample for the low/high-anxious groups on the basis of Trait Anxiety scores were analyzed. The subjects were healthy, Polish speaking, right-handed and aged from 20 to 35 years old. fMRI (whole-brain analysis with FWE corrections) was used to show the neural signals under active participation in verbal fluency tasks. The results confirm that trait anxiety slightly modulates neural activation during the performance of verbal fluency tasks, especially in the more difficult tasks. Significant differences were found in brain activation during the performance of more complex tasks between individuals with low anxiety and those with high anxiety. Greater activation in the right hemisphere, frontal gyri, and cerebellum was found in people with low anxiety. The results reflect better integration of cognitive and affective capacities in individuals with low anxiety. PMID:26903827

  3. 76 FR 40736 - NIH State-of-the-Science Conference on the Role of Active Surveillance in the Management of Men...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer ACTION: Notice. Notice is hereby given of... Surveillance in the Management of Men With Localized Prostate Cancer,'' to be held December 5-7, 2011, in the... estimated that in 2010, approximately 32,000 American men died of prostate cancer and 218,000 were...

  4. Conjugal violence: a comparison of violence against men by women and women by men.

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Le Blanc-Louvry, I; Thureau, S; Gricourt, C; Proust, B

    2015-04-01

    Because few studies demonstrated the types of violence performed by women, the aim of our study was to access violence men against women as well as women against men. A retrospective study was performed based on all the medical certificates for victims who consulted our centre specialized in assault victims. Eleven percent of the victims were men (81 men, 626 women). Episodes of violence were most often repeated against women than men (p < 0.05). Injuring, in most cases mild, were more frequently found in men than women (p < 0.01). They were primarily cutaneous in 66% of cases (85% men, 64% women) and severe in 5% of cases i.e. fractures, with no difference in gender. Three cases of sexual assault and one case of chemical submission was observed in women. Insults were made more often by men than by women (p < 0.002). A psychological impact was more frequently found in women than in men (p < 0.01). The duration of the total incapacity (incapacité totale de travail = ITT) was less than 0-3 days in most cases, and this occurred more often in 91% men than in 65% women (p < 0.01). Consultations for domestic violence occur less frequently in men than in women. Men present more often with injuries that are less severe compared to those observed in women. In contrast, the psychological impact is less frequent in men. Also episodes of violence were most often repeated when the aggressor was a man.

  5. Extra-Curricular Activities and Academic Performance in Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriana, Juan Antonio; Alos, Francisco; Alcala, Rocio; Pino, Maria-Jose; Herruzo, Javier; Ruiz, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: In this paper we study the possible influence of extra-curricular activities (study-related and/or sports) on academic performance of first- and second-year pupils in "Educacion Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO)" [N.T. seventh- and eighth-graders]. Method: We randomly selected 12 schools in the city (9 public and 3 private), and…

  6. Prior-to-Exam: What Activities Enhance Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoads, C. J.; Healy, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Can instructors impact their student performance by recommending an activity just prior to taking an exam? In this study, college students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups (study, exercise, or meditation) or a control group. Each group was given two different types of tests; a traditional concept exam, and a non-traditional…

  7. DOE site performance assessment activities. Radioactive Waste Technical Support Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions.

  8. Age differences in cognitive performance in later life: relationships to self-reported health and activity life style.

    PubMed

    Hultsch, D F; Hammer, M; Small, B J

    1993-01-01

    The predictive relationships among individual differences in self-reported physical health and activity life style and performance on an array of information processing and intellectual ability measures were examined. A sample of 484 men and women aged 55 to 86 years completed a battery of cognitive tasks measuring verbal processing time, working memory, vocabulary, verbal fluency, world knowledge, word recall, and text recall. Hierarchical regression was used to predict performance on these tasks from measures of self-reported physical health, alcohol and tobacco use, and level of participation in everyday activities. The results indicated: (a) individual differences in self-reported health and activity predicted performance on multiple cognitive measures; (b) self-reported health was more predictive of processing resource variables than knowledge-based abilities; (c) interaction effects indicated that participation in cognitively demanding activities was more highly related to performance on some measures for older adults than for middle-aged adults; and (d) age-related differences in performance on multiple measures were attenuated by partialing individual differences in self-reported health and activity.

  9. Effects of acute and chronic interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill on upper limb vascular mechanics in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Reid, Steph M; Smith, Alan R; Zamir, Mair; Lemon, Peter W R; Laughlin, M Harold; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2016-07-01

    Interval sprint exercise performed on a manually propelled treadmill, where the hands grip the handle bars, engages lower and upper limb skeletal muscle, but little is known regarding the effects of this exercise modality on the upper limb vasculature. We tested the hypotheses that an acute bout of sprint exercise and 6 weeks of training induces brachial artery (BA) and forearm vascular remodeling, favoring a more compliant system. Before and following a single bout of exercise as well as 6 weeks of training three types of vascular properties/methodologies were examined in healthy men: (1) stiffness of the entire upper limb vascular system (pulse wave velocity (PWV); (2) local stiffness of the BA; and (3) properties of the entire forearm vascular bed (determined by a modified lumped parameter Windkessel model). Following sprint exercise, PWV declined (P < 0.01), indices of BA stiffness did not change (P ≥ 0.10), and forearm vascular bed compliance increased and inertance and viscoelasticity decreased (P ≤ 0.03). Following manually propelled treadmill training, PWV remained unchanged (P = 0.31), indices of BA stiffness increased (P ≤ 0.05) and forearm vascular bed viscoelasticity declined (P = 0.02), but resistance, compliance, and inertance remained unchanged (P ≥ 0.10) compared with pretraining values. Sprint exercise induced a more compliant forearm vascular bed, without altering indices of BA stiffness. These effects were transient, as following training the forearm vascular bed was not more compliant and indices of BA stiffness increased. On the basis of these data, we conclude that adaptations to acute and chronic sprint exercise on a manually propelled treadmill are not uniform along the arterial tree in upper limb.

  10. Percentage of Biopsy Cores Positive for Malignancy and Biochemical Failure Following Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy in 3,264 Men: Statistical Significance Without Predictive Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Scott G. Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Pickles, Tom; Kestin, Larry; Martinez, Alvaro; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Duchesne, Gillian M.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: To define and incorporate the impact of the percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPC) into a predictive model of prostate cancer radiotherapy biochemical outcome. Methods and Materials: The data of 3264 men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy at four institutions were retrospectively analyzed. Standard prognostic and treatment factors plus the number of biopsy cores collected and the number positive for malignancy by transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy were available. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure (bF, Phoenix definition). Multivariate proportional hazards analyses were performed and expressed as a nomogram and the model's predictive ability assessed using the concordance index (c-index). Results: The cohort consisted of 21% low-, 51% intermediate-, and 28% high-risk cancer patients, and 30% had androgen deprivation with radiotherapy. The median PPC was 50% (interquartile range [IQR] 29-67%), and median follow-up was 51 months (IQR 29-71 months). Percentage of positive biopsy cores displayed an independent association with the risk of bF (p = 0.01), as did age, prostate-specific antigen value, Gleason score, clinical stage, androgen deprivation duration, and radiotherapy dose (p < 0.001 for all). Including PPC increased the c-index from 0.72 to 0.73 in the overall model. The influence of PPC varied significantly with radiotherapy dose and clinical stage (p = 0.02 for both interactions), with doses <66 Gy and palpable tumors showing the strongest relationship between PPC and bF. Intermediate-risk patients were poorly discriminated regardless of PPC inclusion (c-index 0.65 for both models). Conclusions: Outcome models incorporating PPC show only minor additional ability to predict biochemical failure beyond those containing standard prognostic factors.

  11. Height indicates hematopoietic capacity in elderly Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yuji; Sato, Shimpei; Koyamatsu, Jun; Yamanashi, Hirotomo; Nagayoshi, Mako; Kadota, Koichiro; Maeda, Takahiro

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we reported that height is an indicator of the capacity of vascular repair in elderly men, especially hypertensive men. On the other hand, hemoglobin could act as a possible biochemical index of hypertension-induced vascular damage. However, no studies have clarified the correlation between height and hematopoietic activity. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 249 men aged 65-69 undergoing a general health check-up. Reticulocyte was used to evaluate hematopoietic activity. Because hemoglobin concentration should influence hematopoietic activity, analyses stratified by hemoglobin level were performed. Independent of known cardiovascular risk factors and other hematological parameters (white blood cell count), a significant positive correlation was seen between height and reticulocytes for total subjects and subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration (≥14.5 g/dL), but not in subjects with a low hemoglobin concentration (<14.5 g/dL). The standardized parameter estimates (β) were β=0.18, p=0.003 for total subjects, β=0.28, p=0.001 for subjects with a high hemoglobin concentration, and β=0.03, p=0.717 for subjects with low hemoglobin. Independently, height is significantly positively correlated with reticulocyte in elderly Japanese men, particularly in men with a high hemoglobin concentration. These results indicate that subjects with a short stature might have lower hematopoietic capacity than those with a high stature. PMID:27705902

  12. Hypersexual, Sexually Compulsive, or Just Highly Sexually Active? Investigating Three Distinct Groups of Gay and Bisexual Men and Their Profiles of HIV-Related Sexual Risk.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Moody, Raymond L; Grov, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Emerging research supports the notion that sexual compulsivity (SC) and hypersexual disorder (HD) among gay and bisexual men (GBM) might be conceptualized as comprising three groups-Neither SC nor HD; SC only, and Both SC and HD-that capture distinct levels of severity across the SC/HD continuum. We examined data from 370 highly sexually active GBM to assess how the three groups compare across a range of risk factors for HIV infection. Comparisons focused on psychosexual measures-temptation for condomless anal sex (CAS), self-efficacy for avoiding CAS, sexual excitation and inhibition-as well as reports of actual sexual behavior. Nearly half (48.9 %) of this highly sexually active sample was classified as Neither SC nor HD, 30 % as SC Only, and 21.1 % as Both SC and HD. While we found no significant differences between the three groups on reported number of male partners, anal sex acts, or anal sex acts with serodiscordant partners, the Both SC and HD group reported higher numbers of CAS acts and CAS acts with serodiscordant partners and also had a higher proportion of their anal sex acts without condoms compared to the SC Only group. Our findings support the validity of a three-group classification system of SC/HD severity in differentiating psychosexual and HIV-related sexual risk behavior outcomes in a sample of GBM who report similarly high levels of sexual activity. Notwithstanding the need for sex positive HIV prevention programs, interventions that attempt to help Both SC and HD men deal with distress and address their psychosexual needs specifically may derive HIV prevention benefits.

  13. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  14. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-06-10

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes--although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms.

  15. Active learning increases student performance in science, engineering, and mathematics

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Scott; Eddy, Sarah L.; McDonough, Miles; Smith, Michelle K.; Okoroafor, Nnadozie; Jordt, Hannah; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2014-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lecturing maximizes learning and course performance, we metaanalyzed 225 studies that reported data on examination scores or failure rates when comparing student performance in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses under traditional lecturing versus active learning. The effect sizes indicate that on average, student performance on examinations and concept inventories increased by 0.47 SDs under active learning (n = 158 studies), and that the odds ratio for failing was 1.95 under traditional lecturing (n = 67 studies). These results indicate that average examination scores improved by about 6% in active learning sections, and that students in classes with traditional lecturing were 1.5 times more likely to fail than were students in classes with active learning. Heterogeneity analyses indicated that both results hold across the STEM disciplines, that active learning increases scores on concept inventories more than on course examinations, and that active learning appears effective across all class sizes—although the greatest effects are in small (n ≤ 50) classes. Trim and fill analyses and fail-safe n calculations suggest that the results are not due to publication bias. The results also appear robust to variation in the methodological rigor of the included studies, based on the quality of controls over student quality and instructor identity. This is the largest and most comprehensive metaanalysis of undergraduate STEM education published to date. The results raise questions about the continued use of traditional lecturing as a control in research studies, and support active learning as the preferred, empirically validated teaching practice in regular classrooms. PMID:24821756

  16. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women.

  17. Quantifying the Performance of Individual Players in a Team Activity

    PubMed Central

    Duch, Jordi; Waitzman, Joshua S.; Amaral, Luís A. Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Background Teamwork is a fundamental aspect of many human activities, from business to art and from sports to science. Recent research suggest that team work is of crucial importance to cutting-edge scientific research, but little is known about how teamwork leads to greater creativity. Indeed, for many team activities, it is not even clear how to assign credit to individual team members. Remarkably, at least in the context of sports, there is usually a broad consensus on who are the top performers and on what qualifies as an outstanding performance. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to determine how individual features can be quantified, and as a test bed for other team-based human activities, we analyze the performance of players in the European Cup 2008 soccer tournament. We develop a network approach that provides a powerful quantification of the contributions of individual players and of overall team performance. Conclusions/Significance We hypothesize that generalizations of our approach could be useful in other contexts where quantification of the contributions of individual team members is important. PMID:20585387

  18. Exercise motives and positive body image in physically active college women and men: Exploring an expanded acceptance model of intuitive eating.

    PubMed

    Tylka, Tracy L; Homan, Kristin J

    2015-09-01

    The acceptance model of intuitive eating posits that body acceptance by others facilitates body appreciation and internal body orientation, which contribute to intuitive eating. Two domains of exercise motives (functional and appearance) may also be linked to these variables, and thus were integrated into the model. The model fit the data well for 406 physically active U.S. college students, although some pathways were stronger for women. Body acceptance by others directly contributed to higher functional exercise motives and indirectly contributed to lower appearance exercise motives through higher internal body orientation. Functional exercise motives positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to body appreciation. Whereas body appreciation positively, and appearance exercise motives inversely, contributed to intuitive eating for women, only the latter association was evident for men. To benefit positive body image and intuitive eating, efforts should encourage body acceptance by others and emphasize functional and de-emphasize appearance exercise motives.

  19. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo

    2016-01-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier. PMID:27593883

  20. Immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean Military Recruits: Influence of Tetanus-Diphtheria Toxoid Vaccination on the Vaccine Response to MenACWY-CRM.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han Wool; Park, In Ho; You, Sooseong; Yu, Hee Tae; Oh, In Soo; Sung, Pil Soo; Shin, Eui Cheol; Kim, Kyung Hyo

    2016-11-01

    The quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MenACWY-CRM) has been introduced for military recruits in Korea since 2012. This study was performed to evaluate the immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM in Korean military recruits. In addition, the influence of tetanus-diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccination on the vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was analyzed. A total of 75 military recruits were enrolled. Among them, 18 received a dose of MenACWY-CRM only (group 1), and 57 received Td three days before MenACWY-CRM immunization (group 2). The immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM was compared between the two groups. The serum bactericidal activity with baby rabbit complement was measured before and three weeks after immunization against serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y. The geometric mean titers (GMTs) against four serogroups were significantly increased in both groups after immunization. Compared to group 2, group 1 exhibited significantly higher vaccine responses in several aspects: post-immune GMTs against serogroup A and C, seroresponse rates against serogroup A, and a fold increases of titers against serogroup A, C, and Y. MenACWY-CRM was immunogenic against all vaccine-serogroups in Korean military recruits. Vaccine response to MenACWY-CRM was influenced by Td administered three days earlier.

  1. Swimming and other activities: applied aspects of fish swimming performance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro-Santos, Theodore R.; Farrell, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities such as hydropower development, water withdrawals, and commercial fisheries often put fish species at risk. Engineered solutions designed to protect species or their life stages are frequently based on assumptions about swimming performance and behaviors. In many cases, however, the appropriate data to support these designs are either unavailable or misapplied. This article provides an overview of the state of knowledge of fish swimming performance – where the data come from and how they are applied – identifying both gaps in knowledge and common errors in application, with guidance on how to avoid repeating mistakes, as well as suggestions for further study.

  2. APOLLO 9: Dave scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Dave Scott performs Extra Vehicular Activities around the Command Module 'Gumdrop'. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE-POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON-WET AIR REGENERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigation summarized in the report was undertaken to evaluate the performance of powdered activated carbon (PAC) technology used in conjunction with wet air regeneration (WAR) at municipal wastewater treatment plants. Excessive ash concentrations accumulated in the mixed ...

  4. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention.

  5. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  6. Does Increasing Active Warm-Up Duration Affect Afternoon Short-Term Maximal Performance during Ramadan?

    PubMed Central

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Methods Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Results Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. Conclusion The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. PMID:25646955

  7. Impact of Four Weeks of a Multi-Ingredient Performance Supplement on Muscular Strength, Body Composition, and Anabolic Hormones in Resistance-Trained Young Men.

    PubMed

    Kreipke, Vince C; Allman, Brittany R; Kinsey, Amber W; Moffatt, Robert J; Hickner, Robert C; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Although multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) have increased in popularity because of their array of ergogenic ingredients, their efficacy and safety remain in question. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of supplementation with T+ (SUP; Onnit Labs, Austin, TX, USA), an MIPS containing long jack root, beta-alanine, and branched-chain amino acids, and other proprietary blends, on strength, body composition, and hormones in young resistance-trained men. Subjects were randomized to consume either T+ (SUP; n = 14; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 18.3 ± 4.7%) or an isocaloric placebo (PL; n = 13; age, 21 ± 3 years; body fat, 21.5 ± 6.2%) for 4 weeks. Both groups underwent a progressive, 4-week high-intensity resistance training protocol. Before and after the training protocol, mood state, body composition, blood hormones (also collected at midpoint), and maximal strength were measured. SUP had significantly greater increases in bench press (SUP, 102 ± 16 kg to 108 ± 16 kg vs. PL, 96 ± 22 kg to 101 ± 22 kg; p < 0.001) and total weight lifted (SUP, 379 ± 59 kg to 413 ± 60 kg vs. PL, 376 ± 70 kg to 400 ± 75 kg; p < 0.001) compared with PL. Additionally, deadlift strength relative to total body mass (calculated as weight lifted/body mass; kg:kg) (2.08 ± 0.18 to 2.23 ± 0.16; p = 0.036) and lean mass (2.55 ± 0.19 to 2.72 ± 0.16; p = 0.021) increased significantly in SUP but not PL (2.02 ± 0.30 to 2.15 ± 0.36 and 2.56 ± 0.31 to 2.70 ± 0.36, respectively). No other significant differences were detected between groups for the remaining variables. Supplementing with SUP enhanced resistance training adaptations independent of hormonal status, and thus SUP use may warrant inclusion into peri-workout nutrition regimens. This study was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT01971723).

  8. Changes in Familiarity with and Willingness to Take Preexposure Prophylaxis in a Longitudinal Study of Highly Sexually Active Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Whitfield, Thomas H.F.; Ventuneac, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: For gay and bisexual men (GBM), research suggests that familiarity with preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been increasing since being approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 2012. However, it is less clear how willingness to start using PrEP has changed over time. Likewise, some have expressed concerns regarding the potential for risk compensation (i.e., reduced condom use) were one to start PrEP; however, again, it is unclear how risk compensation may have changed over time. Methods: We conducted baseline and 12-month assessments with 158 highly sexually active HIV-negative GBM in New York City who were assessed between 2011 and 2014. We examined change over time both between participants (based on when they entered the study), as well as within each participant (over the 12 months of his involvement). Results: Familiarity with PrEP increased over time (both between and within participants); however, willingness to take PrEP did not change (neither between nor within participants). Few men believed taking PrEP would cause their condomless anal sex (CAS) to increase and this did not change over time. However, a majority believed PrEP would increase temptation for CAS, and this did not change over time within participants. Sexual compulsivity symptomology was associated with higher willingness to take PrEP and perceiving that PrEP would increase one's temptations for CAS. Furthermore, recent CAS was associated with greater willingness to take PrEP, a perception that PrEP would increase one's likelihood to engage in CAS, and a perception that being on PrEP would increase one's temptation for CAS. Conclusions: Participants became more familiar with PrEP over time; however, willingness to start PrEP did not change, and this may serve as an opportunity for providers to discuss PrEP with their patients. Men who engaged in CAS were interested in PrEP and preexisting patterns of sexual behavior may be the primary determinant of CAS

  9. Background activities, induction, and behavioral allocation in operant performance.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M; Davison, Michael

    2014-09-01

    In experiments on operant behavior, other activities, called "background" activities, compete with the operant activities. Herrnstein's (1970) formulation of the matching law included background reinforcers in the form of a parameter rO, but remained vague about the activities (BO) that produce rO. To gain more understanding, we analyzed data from three studies of performance with pairs of variable-interval schedules that changed frequently in the relative rate at which they produced food: Baum and Davison (2014), Belke and Heyman (1994), and Soto, McDowell, and Dallery (2005). Results sometimes deviated from the matching law, suggesting variation in rO. When rO was calculated from the matching equation, two results emerged: (a) rO is directly proportional to BO, as in a ratio schedule; and (b) rO and BO depend on the food rate, which is to say that BO consists of activities induced by food, as a phylogenetically important event. Other activities unrelated to food (BN ) correspond to Herrnstein's original conception of rO and may be included in the matching equation. A model based on Baum's (Baum, 2012) concepts of allocation, induction, and contingency explained the deviations from the matching law. In the model, operant activity B, BO, and BN competed unequally in the time allocation: B and BO both replaced BN , BO replaced lever pressing (Soto et al.), and key pecking replaced BO (Baum & Davison). Although the dependence of rO and BO on food rate changes Herrnstein's (1970) formulation, the model preserved the generalized matching law for operant activities by incorporating power-function induction.

  10. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  11. Effects of a Clinician Referral and Exercise Program for Men Who Have Completed Active Treatment for Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial (ENGAGE)

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, Patricia M; Craike, Melinda J; Salmon, Jo; Courneya, Kerry S; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Fraser, Steve F; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Broadbent, Suzanne; Botti, Mari; Kent, Bridie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a clinician referral and exercise program in improving exercise levels and quality of life for men with prostate cancer. METHODS This was a multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial in Melbourne, Australia comprising 15 clinicians: 8 clinicians were randomized to refer eligible participants (n = 54) to a 12-week exercise program comprising 2 supervised gym sessions and 1 home-based session per week, and 7 clinicians were randomized to follow usual care (n = 93). The primary outcome was self-reported physical activity; the secondary outcomes were quality of life, anxiety, and symptoms of depression. RESULTS A significant intervention effect was observed for vigorous-intensity exercise (effect size: Cohen's d, 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.82; P = .010) but not for combined moderate and vigorous exercise levels (effect size: d, 0.08; 95% CI, −0.28 to 0.45; P = .48). Significant intervention effects were also observed for meeting exercise guidelines (≥150 min/wk; odds ratio, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.9-7.8; P = .002); positive intervention effects were observed in the intervention group for cognitive functioning (effect size: d, 0.34; 95% CI, −0.02 to 0.70; P = .06) and depression symptoms (effect size: d, −0.35; 95% CI, −0.71 to 0.02; P = .06). Eighty percent of participants reported that the clinician's referral influenced their decision to participate in the exercise program. CONCLUSIONS The clinician referral and 12-week exercise program significantly improved vigorous exercise levels and had a positive impact on mental health outcomes for men living with prostate cancer. Further research is needed to determine the sustainability of the exercise program and its generalizability to other cancer populations. Cancer 2015;121:2646–2654. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:25877784

  12. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms “IBD AND male infertility”, “Crohn’s disease AND male infertility”, “ulcerative colitis AND male infertility”. References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options. PMID:27602237

  13. Infertility in men with inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Shin, Takeshi; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-08-06

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predominantly affects young adults. Fertility-related issues are therefore important in the management of patients with IBD. However, relatively modest attention has been paid to reproductive issues faced by men with IBD. To investigate the effects of IBD and its treatment on male fertility, we reviewed the current literature using a systematic search for published studies. A PubMed search were performed using the main search terms "IBD AND male infertility", "Crohn's disease AND male infertility", "ulcerative colitis AND male infertility". References in review articles were used if relevant. We noted that active inflammation, poor nutrition, alcohol use, smoking, medications, and surgery may cause infertility in men with IBD. In surgery such as proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, rectal incision seems to be associated with sexual dysfunction. Of the medications used for IBD, sulfasalazine reversibly reduces male fertility. No other medications appear to affect male fertility significantly, although small studies suggested some adverse effects. There are limited data on the effects of drugs for IBD on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes; however, patients should be informed of the possible effects of paternal drug exposure. This review provides information on fertility-related issues in men with IBD and discusses treatment options.

  14. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  15. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...

  16. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...

  17. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  18. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Men Osteoporosis in Men Publication available in: PDF (71 KB) ... as life expectancy continues to rise. What Causes Osteoporosis? Bone is constantly changing—that is, old bone ...

  19. Effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on immediate and subsequent three-day food intake and energy expenditure in active and inactive men.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joel; Paxman, Jenny; Dalton, Caroline; Winter, Edward; Broom, David

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of an acute bout of low-intensity cycling on food intake and energy expenditure over four days. Thirty healthy, active (n=15) and inactive (n=15) men completed two conditions (exercise and control), in a randomised crossover fashion. The exercise experimental day involved cycling for one hour at an intensity equivalent to 50% of maximum oxygen uptake and two hours of rest. The control condition comprised three hours of rest. Participants arrived at the laboratory fasted overnight; breakfast was standardised and an ad libitum pasta lunch was consumed on each experimental day. Participants kept a food diary and wore an Actiheart to estimate energy intake and expenditure for the remainder of the experimental days and over the subsequent 3 days. Ad libitum lunch energy intake did not differ between conditions (p=0.32, d=0.18) or groups (p=0.43, d=0.27). Energy intake in the active group was greater on the exercise experimental day than on the control experimental day (mean difference=2070 kJ; 95% CI 397 to 3743 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.56) while in the inactive group it was increased on only the third day after exercise (mean difference=2225 kJ; 95% CI 414 to 4036 kJ, p=0.024, d=0.80). There was only a group effect (p=0.032, d=0.89) for free-living energy expenditure, indicating that active participants expended more energy than inactive over this period. Acute low-intensity exercise did not affect energy intake at the meal immediately after exercise, but induces an acute (within the experimental day) and delayed (third day after the experimental day) increase in energy intake in active and inactive participants, respectively with no compensatory changes to daily energy expenditure. These results suggest that active individuals compensate for an acute exercise-induced energy deficit quicker than inactive individuals.

  20. Nine weeks of supplementation with a multi-nutrient product augments gains in lean mass, strength, and muscular performance in resistance trained men

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of supplementation with Gaspari Nutrition's SOmaxP Maximum Performance™ (SOmaxP) versus a comparator product (CP) containing an equal amount of creatine (4 g), carbohydrate (39 g maltodextrin), and protein (7 g whey protein hydrolysate) on muscular strength, muscular endurance, and body composition during nine weeks of intense resistance training. Methods Using a prospective, randomized, double-blind design, 20 healthy men (mean ± SD age, height, weight, % body fat: 22.9 ± 2.6 y, 178.4 ± 5.7 cm, 80.5 ± 6.6 kg, 16.6 ± 4.0%) were matched for age, body weight, resistance training history, bench press strength, bench press endurance, and percent body fat and then randomly assigned via the ABBA procedure to ingest 1/2 scoop (dissolved in 15 oz water) of SOmaxP or CP prior to, and another 1/2 scoop (dissolved in 15 oz water) during resistance exercise. Body composition (DEXA), muscular performance (1-RM bench press and repetitions to failure [RTF: 3 sets × baseline body weight, 60-sec rest between sets]), and clinical blood chemistries were measured at baseline and after nine weeks of supplementation and training. Subjects were required to maintain their normal dietary habits and follow a specific, progressive overload resistance training program (4-days/wk, upper body/lower body split) during the study. An intent-to-treat approach was used and data were analyzed via ANCOVA using baseline values as the covariate. Statistical significance was set a priori at p ≤ 0.05. Results When adjusted for initial differences, significant between group post-test means were noted in: 1-RM bench press (SOmaxP: 133.3 ± 1.3 kg [19.8% increase] vs. CP: 128.5 ± 1.3 kg [15.3% increase]; p < 0.019); lean mass (SOmaxP: 64.1 ± 0.4 kg [2.4% increase] vs. 62.8 ± 0.4 kg [0.27% increase], p < 0.049); RTF (SOmaxP: 33.3 ± 1.1 reps [44.8% increase] vs. 27.8 ± 1.1 reps [20.9% increase], p < 0.004); and fat mass (SOmaxP: 12

  1. Cannabis abstinence during treatment and one-year follow-up: relationship to neural activity in men.

    PubMed

    Kober, Hedy; DeVito, Elise E; DeLeone, Cameron M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-09-01

    Cannabis is among the most frequently abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity before treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and 1-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task before a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions, including those strongly implicated in cognitive-control and addiction-related processes (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not differ significantly in response times (cannabis-dependent, N=12; healthy-comparison, N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during 1-year posttreatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic 'control' regions (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic 'salience/reward/learning' regions (eg, ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent individuals from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long-term follow

  2. Cannabis Abstinence During Treatment and One-Year Follow-Up: Relationship to Neural Activity in Men

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Hedy; DeVito, Elise E; DeLeone, Cameron M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is among the most frequently abused substances in the United States. Cognitive control is a contributory factor in the maintenance of substance-use disorders and may relate to treatment response. Therefore, we assessed whether cognitive-control-related neural activity before treatment differs between treatment-seeking cannabis-dependent and healthy individuals and relates to cannabis-abstinence measures during treatment and 1-year follow-up. Cannabis-dependent males (N=20) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) cognitive-control (Stroop) task before a 12-week randomized controlled trial of cognitive–behavioral therapy and/or contingency management. A healthy-comparison group (N=20) also completed the fMRI task. Cannabis use was assessed by urine toxicology and self-report during treatment, and by self-report across a 1-year follow-up period (N=18). The cannabis-dependent group displayed diminished Stroop-related neural activity relative to the healthy-comparison group in multiple regions, including those strongly implicated in cognitive-control and addiction-related processes (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum). The groups did not differ significantly in response times (cannabis-dependent, N=12; healthy-comparison, N=14). Within the cannabis-dependent group, greater Stroop-related activity in regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex was associated with less cannabis use during treatment. Greater activity in regions including the ventral striatum was associated with less cannabis use during 1-year posttreatment follow-up. These data suggest that lower cognitive-control-related neural activity in classic ‘control' regions (eg, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate) and classic ‘salience/reward/learning' regions (eg, ventral striatum) differentiates cannabis-dependent individuals from healthy individuals and relates to less abstinence within-treatment and during long

  3. Is there a difference between active and less active children and adolescents in jump performance?

    PubMed

    Keiner, Michael; Sander, Andre; Wirth, Klaus; Schmidtbleicher, Dietmar

    2013-06-01

    Training and activity level are important predictors of motor development. At present, many children and adolescents do not participate in any sport activity in their leisure time. In this investigation, we analyzed the level of performance of the stretch and shortening cycle (SSC) in childhood and youth. Data of 801 participants were recorded for 2 separate groups, those in elite soccer associations and those who were less active in their leisure time. All the participants completed the following performance tests: the squat jump, the countermovement jump and the drop jump from varying heights. All the participants answered a questionnaire to determine their level of activity. Comparisons of performance were made across the 2 groups. The data showed a significant (p < 0.05) advantage for soccer players in nearly every variable involved in the performance of the SSC. The analysis of the questionnaire highlights the fact that approximately a quarter of students are inactive in their leisure time, which means they do not participate in any sport activity except for school sports. The data show that many children and adolescents do not participate in sport activities in their leisure time. Furthermore, many of these children and adolescents have a body mass index >25. The results of this investigation support the fact that inactivity is correlated with a low training level in children and youth.

  4. Properties and Performance of Alkali-Activated Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Robert J.

    Alkali-activated concrete (AAC) made with industrial byproducts as the sole binder is rapidly emerging as a sustainable alternative to ordinary portland cement concrete (PCC). Despite its exemplary mechanical performance and durability, there remain several barriers to widespread commercialization of AAC. This dissertation addresses several of these barriers. Mathematical models are proposed which efficiently and accurately predict the compressive strength of AAC as a function of activator composition, binder type, and curing condition. The relationships between compressive strength and other mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) are discussed, as are stress-strain relationships. Several aspects related to the durability of AAC are also discussed, including dimensional stability under drying conditions, alkali-silica reactivity, and chloride permeability. The results of these experimental investigations are disseminated in the context of real-world applicability.

  5. Electrodermal activity during total sleep deprivation and its relationship with other activation and performance measures.

    PubMed

    Miró, E; Cano-Lozano, M C; Buela-Casal, G

    2002-06-01

    The present study analyses the variations of the skin resistance level (SRL) during 48 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD) and its relationship to body temperature, self-informed sleepiness in the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS), and reaction time (RT). All of the variables were evaluated every 2 h except for the SSS, which was evaluated every hour. A total of 30 healthy subjects (15 men and 15 women) from 18 to 24 years old participated in the experiment. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with TSD days and time-of-day as factors showed a substantial increase of SRL, SSS, and RT, and a decrease in body temperature marked by strong circadian oscillations. The interaction between day by time-of-day was only significant for RT. Furthermore, Pearson's correlations showed that the increase of SRL is associated to the decrease in temperature (mean r=-0.511), the increase of SSS (mean r=0.509), and the deterioration of RT (mean r=0.425). The results support previous TSD reports and demonstrate the sensitivity of SRL to TSD. The non-invasive character of SRL, its simplicity, and its relationships with other activation parameters, widely validated by previous literature, convert SRL into an interesting and useful measure in this field.

  6. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ASSISTANCE ACTIVITIES IN THE DOE COMPLEX

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, R.

    2012-01-23

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford.

  7. Domestic violence against men.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  8. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  9. Optimization of an Active Twist Rotor Blade Planform for Improved Active Response and Forward Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekula, Martin K; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the optimum blade tip planform for a model-scale active twist rotor. The analysis identified blade tip design traits which simultaneously reduce rotor power of an unactuated rotor while leveraging aeromechanical couplings to tailor the active response of the blade. Optimizing the blade tip planform for minimum rotor power in forward flight provided a 5 percent improvement in performance compared to a rectangular blade tip, but reduced the vibration control authority of active twist actuation by 75 percent. Optimizing for maximum blade twist response increased the vibration control authority by 50 percent compared to the rectangular blade tip, with little effect on performance. Combined response and power optimization resulted in a blade tip design which provided similar vibration control authority to the rectangular blade tip, but with a 3.4 percent improvement in rotor performance in forward flight.

  10. Accuracy of highly sexually active gay and bisexual men's predictions of their daily likelihood of anal sex and its relevance for intermittent event-driven HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Grov, Christian; Ventuneac, Ana; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to examine highly sexually active gay and bisexual men's accuracy in predicting their sexual behavior for the purposes of informing future research on intermittent, event-driven HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP). Design For 30 days, 92 HIV-negative men completed a daily survey about their sexual behavior (n = 1,688 days of data) and indicated their likelihood of having anal sex with a casual male partner the following day. Method We utilized multilevel modeling to analyze the association between self-reported likelihood of and subsequent engagement in anal sex. Results We found a linear association between men's reported likelihood of anal sex with casual partners and the actual probability of engaging in sex, though men overestimated the likelihood of sex. Overall, we found that men were better at predicting when they would not have sex than when they would, particularly if any likelihood value greater than 0% was treated as indicative that sex might occur. We found no evidence that men's accuracy of prediction was affected by whether it was a weekend or whether they were using substances, though both did increase the probability of sex. Discussion These results suggested that, were men taking event-driven intermittent PrEP, 14% of doses could have been safely skipped with a minimal rate of false negatives using guidelines of taking a dose unless there was no chance (i.e., 0% likelihood) of sex on the following day. This would result in a savings of over $1,300 per year in medication costs per participant. PMID:25559594

  11. Performance Assessment Assistance Activities in the DOE Complex - 12325

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Phifer, Mark A.; Letourneau, Martin J.

    2012-07-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) has established a Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) to foster the sharing of information among performance assessment (PA) and risk assessment practitioners, regulators and oversight personnel. The general intent is to contribute to continuous improvement in the consistency, technical adequacy and quality of implementation of PAs and risk assessments around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP activities have involved commercial disposal facilities and international participants to provide a global perspective. The PA CoP has also sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from on-going modelling activities. The PA CoP encourages activities to provide programmatic and technical assistance in the form of sharing experience and lessons learned with practitioners during the development of PAs and risk assessments. This assistance complements DOE-EM reviews through the Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) that are conducted after modelling efforts are completed. Such up-front assistance is providing additional value in terms of improving consistency and sharing of information. There has been a substantial increase in the amount of assistance being provided. The assistance has been well received by practitioners and regulators that have been involved. The paper highlights assistance and sharing of information that has been conducted in the last two years to support activities underway in support of proposed disposal facilities at Paducah, Portsmouth, and the Idaho National Laboratory and tank closure at Hanford. DOE-EM established the PA CoP to help improve the consistency and quality of implementation of modelling activities around the DOE Complex. The PA CoP has sponsored annual technical exchanges as a means to foster improved communication and to share lessons learned from ongoing

  12. Progressive hypoxia decouples activity and aerobic performance of skate embryos

    PubMed Central

    Di Santo, Valentina; Tran, Anna H.; Svendsen, Jon C.

    2016-01-01

    Although fish population size is strongly affected by survival during embryonic stages, our understanding of physiological responses to environmental stressors is based primarily on studies of post-hatch fishes. Embryonic responses to acute exposure to changes in abiotic conditions, including increase in hypoxia, could be particularly important in species exhibiting long developmental time, as embryos are unable to select a different environment behaviourally. Given that oxygen is key to metabolic processes in fishes and aquatic hypoxia is becoming more severe and frequent worldwide, organisms are expected to reduce their aerobic performance. Here, we examined the metabolic and behavioural responses of embryos of a benthic elasmobranch fish, the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea), to acute progressive hypoxia, by measuring oxygen consumption and movement (tail-beat) rates inside the egg case. Oxygen consumption rates were not significantly affected by ambient oxygen levels until reaching 45% air saturation (critical oxygen saturation, Scrit). Below Scrit, oxygen consumption rates declined rapidly, revealing an oxygen conformity response. Surprisingly, we observed a decoupling of aerobic performance and activity, as tail-beat rates increased, rather than matching the declining metabolic rates, at air saturation levels of 55% and below. These results suggest a significantly divergent response at the physiological and behavioural levels. While skate embryos depressed their metabolic rates in response to progressive hypoxia, they increased water circulation inside the egg case, presumably to restore normoxic conditions, until activity ceased abruptly around 9.8% air saturation. PMID:27293746

  13. Pallidal spiking activity reflects learning dynamics and predicts performance

    PubMed Central

    Noblejas, Maria Imelda; Mizrahi, Aviv D.; Dauber, Omer; Bergman, Hagai

    2016-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) network has been divided into interacting actor and critic components, modulating the probabilities of different state–action combinations through learning. Most models of learning and decision making in the BG focus on the roles of the striatum and its dopaminergic inputs, commonly overlooking the complexities and interactions of BG downstream nuclei. In this study, we aimed to reveal the learning-related activity of the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe), a downstream structure whose computational role has remained relatively unexplored. Recording from monkeys engaged in a deterministic three-choice reversal learning task, we found that changes in GPe discharge rates predicted subsequent behavioral shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. Furthermore, the activity following the shift encoded whether it resulted in reward or not. The frequent changes in stimulus–outcome contingencies (i.e., reversals) allowed us to examine the learning-related neural activity and show that GPe discharge rates closely matched across-trial learning dynamics. Additionally, firing rates exhibited a linear decrease in sequences of correct responses, possibly reflecting a gradual shift from goal-directed execution to automaticity. Thus, modulations in GPe spiking activity are highest for attention-demanding aspects of behavior (i.e., switching choices) and decrease as attentional demands decline (i.e., as performance becomes automatic). These findings are contrasted with results from striatal tonically active neurons, which show none of these task-related modulations. Our results demonstrate that GPe, commonly studied in motor contexts, takes part in cognitive functions, in which movement plays a marginal role. PMID:27671661

  14. [The daily life of men who lives with chronic venous ulcer: phenomenological study].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcelo Henrique; de Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa; de Oliveira, Deise Moura; Biscotto, Priscilla Ribeiro; Silva, Greyce Pollyne Santos

    2013-09-01

    The chronic venous leg ulcer is the major therapeutic problem of lower limb injuries, which can trigger changes in the daily life of the person affected by it. This study aimed to understand the daily life of men who lives with chronic venous ulcers. A phenomenological study was conducted with eight men, who were interviewed during June and July of 2001. The study asked questions related to: "Restrictions in social life" and "Recovering the skin integrity and restart the activities affected by the wound". The answers revealed that men with these ulcers have social implications in the areas of productivity and sexuality. This leads to restrictions in everyday life with loss in performance of socially established roles for men, leading to anxiety for his return at full performance of his social role. The findings suggest significant experiential aspects that may guide professionals in the planning and implementation of health actions aimed to treat these patients.

  15. Pituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vergès, Bruno; Boureille, Françoise; Goudet, Pierre; Murat, Arnaud; Beckers, Albert; Sassolas, Geneviève; Cougard, Patrick; Chambe, Béatrice; Montvernay, Corinne; Calender, Alain

    2002-02-01

    To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on pituitary disease were compared with those from 110 non-MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas, matched for age, year of diagnosis, and follow-up period. Genetic analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in 197 of the MEN1 patients. In our MEN1 series, pituitary disease occurred in 136 of 324 (42%), less frequently than hyperparathyroidism (95%, P < 0.001) and endocrine enteropancreatic tumors (54%, P < 0.01). Mean age of onset of pituitary tumors was 38.0+/-15.3 yr (range, 12-83 yr). Pituitary disease was associated with hyperparathyroidism in 90% of cases, with enteropancreatic tumors in 47%, with adrenal tumors in 16%, and with thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in 4%. Pituitary disease was the initial lesion of MEN1 in 17% of all MEN1 patients. MEN1 pituitary adenomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men (50% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Among the 136 pituitary adenomas, there were 85 prolactinomas and 12 GH-secreting, 6 ACTH-secreting, 13 cosecreting, and 20 nonsecreting tumors. Eighty-five percent of MEN1-related pituitary lesions were macroadenomas (vs. 42% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), including 32% of invasive cases. Among secreting adenomas, hormonal hypersecretion was normalized, after treatment, in only 42% (vs. 90% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), with a median follow-up of 11.4 yr. No correlation was found between the type of MEN1 germ-line mutation and the presence or absence of pituitary adenoma. Our study, based on a large group of MEN1 patients, shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 42% of the cases and are characterized by a larger size and a more aggressive presentation than without MEN1.

  16. The Veterans LIFE Study: A Randomized Trial of Primary Care Based Physical Activity Counseling For Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Miriam C.; Peterson, Matthew J; Pieper, Carl F.; Sloane, Richard; Crowley, Gail M.; Cowper, Patricia A.; McConnell, Eleanor S.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Ekelund, Carola C.; Pearson, Megan P.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Slow gait is predictive of adverse health outcomes and increased health service utilization. Physical activity counseling (PAC) may enhance mobility among elders. Primary care settings are appropriate for PAC because most older adults see their primary care physician annually. Innovative use of automated telephone messaging facilitates physician counseling. OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of multi-component PAC promoting physical activity (PA) guidelines on gait speed and related measures of PA and function in older veterans. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Randomized controlled trial of 398 male veterans, ages 70 and over receiving primary care at the Veterans’ Affairs Medical Center of Durham, N.C. INTERVENTION Twelve months of usual care (UC) or multi-component PAC consisting of baseline in-person and biweekly then monthly telephone counseling by a lifestyle counselor, one-time clinical endorsement of PA and monthly automated telephone messaging by primary care provider, and quarterly tailored mailings of progress in PA. MEASUREMENTS Gait speed (usual and rapid), self-reported PA, function and disability at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULTS Although no between-group differences were noted for usual gait speed, rapid gait speed improved significantly more for the PAC group (1.56 (0.41) m/s to 1.68 (0.44) m/s) compared to UC (1.57 (0.40) m/sec to 1.59 (0.42) m/sec, p = 0.04). Minutes of moderate/vigorous PA increased significantly in the PAC group (from a mean (SD) 57.1 (99.3) min/wk to 126.6 (142.9) min/week) compared to the UC group (from 60.2 (116.1) to 69.6 (116.1) min/wk, p < 0.001). Changes in other functional/disability outcomes were small. CONCLUSIONS In this group of older male veterans, multi-component PA significantly improved rapid gait and PA. Translation from increased PA to overall functioning was not observed. Integration with primary care was successful. PMID:19467149

  17. Athletic footwear affects balance in men.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, S; Waked, E; Gouw, G J; McClaran, J

    1994-01-01

    Stable equilibrium during locomotion is required for both superior performance of sports and prevention of injuries from falls. A recent report indicated that currently available athletic footwear impairs stability in older men. Since this discovery, if confirmed, seems important to both competitive athletes and the physically active general public, we performed an experiment using similar methods on a younger population. We tested the hypothesis that midsole thickness is negatively, and hardness positively related to dynamic equilibrium, in 17 healthy adult men (mean(s.d.) age 33(11.13) years) via a balance beam method. Subjects walked along a 9-m long beam at 0.5 m s-1 once barefoot and six times wearing identical pairs of experimental shoes which differed only in midsole hardness and thickness which spanned the respective ranges currently available in footwear. Falls from the beam (balance failures) were quantified. Balance failures varied significantly in relation to midsole hardness and thickness, and there was a strong trend toward interaction of these variables (P = 0.09). Midsole hardness was positively related to stability, and midsole thickness was negatively related, which confirms the previous report. Hence, shoes with thick-soft soles, similar to modern athletic footwear and 'walking shoes', destabilize men, and shoes with thin-hard soles provide superior stability. The pair with the poorest stability (A 15-thick; 12.34 balance failures per 100 m) produced 217% more balance failures than those associated with the best stability (A 50-thin; 3.89 balance failures per 100 m). Since most types of athletic footwear and many other shoes incorporate midsoles with hardness and thickness associated with poor stability, we conclude that both athletic performance and public safety could be enhanced through stability optimized footwear. PMID:7921911

  18. Students' Performance in Investigative Activity and Their Understanding of Activity Aims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Alessandro Damasio Trani; Borges, A. Tarciso; Justi, Rosaria

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the students' understanding of the aims of an investigative activity and their performance when conducting it. One hundred and eighty-one year nine students from a public middle school in Brazil took part in the study. Students working in pairs were asked to investigate two problems using a…

  19. Magnetic activated cell sorting: an effective method for reduction of sperm DNA fragmentation in varicocele men prior to assisted reproductive techniques.

    PubMed

    Degheidy, T; Abdelfattah, H; Seif, A; Albuz, F K; Gazi, S; Abbas, S

    2015-10-01

    Semen parameters of varicocele men have been usually suspected to exhibit higher levels of abnormalities including DNA fragmentation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptotic markers. Negative correlation between increased level of DNA fragmentation and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) outcome has been studied by several authors. In the current study, we aim to evaluate the possible value of magnetic activated cell sorting (MACs) technology in reduction of DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART. Semen samples, collected from 36 varicocele patients, were prepared by density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Every sample was subsequently divided into two aliquots. One aliquot was kept untouched as pre-MACs control while the other aliquot was subjected to MACs technique, for depletion of apoptotic spermatozoa, and serves as post-MACs test. Sperm count, motility and DNA fragmentations were evaluated for both control and test samples. Post-MACs samples showed no deleterious reduction in total sperm motility (80.64 ± 6.97%) compared with control samples (80.97 ± 7.74%) while sperm DNA fragmentations were significantly reduced in post-MACs samples (9.61 ± 5.62%) compared with pre-MACs controls (12.43 ± 6.29%) (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that MACs technique is a simple, noninvasive, technique that can efficiently reduce DNA fragmentation in infertile varicocele patients prior to ART.

  20. Performance and approval procedures for active personal dosemeters.

    PubMed

    Ginjaume, M

    2011-03-01

    Active personal dosemeters (APDs) are well accepted as useful and reliable instruments for individual dosimetry measurements. The increasing concern about studying the behaviour of APDs in pulsed fields is illustrated through revision of the results of the most representative studies on the performance of APDs in the last 5 y. The deficiencies of APDs in pulsed fields are discussed together with proposals to overcome them. Although there are no legal constraints or technical limitations for recognising APDs for legal dosimetry in facilities with continuous radiation fields, APDs continue to be mainly used as operational dosemeters. The approval procedures applicable to APDs, especially the approach undertaken by Germany, are presented. Finally, some trends in the developments and use of APDs are summarised.

  1. Active Tailoring of Lift Distribution to Enhance Cruise Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D. (Technical Monitor); Pfeiffer, Neal J.; Christians, Joel G.

    2005-01-01

    During Phase I of this project, Raytheon Aircraft Company (RAC) has analytically and experimentally evaluated key components of a system that could be implemented for active tailoring of wing lift distribution using low-drag, trailing-edge modifications. Simple systems such as those studied by RAC could be used to enhance the cruise performance of a business jet configuration over a range of typical flight conditions. The trailing-edge modifications focus on simple, deployable mechanisms comprised of extendable small flap panels over portions of the span that could be used to subtly but positively optimize the lift and drag characteristics. The report includes results from low speed wind tunnel testing of the trailing-edge devices, descriptions of potential mechanisms for automation, and an assessment of the technology.

  2. Perceptions of general practice among homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Dawson, J; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Hart, G; Brookes, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary care has an important role to play in the prevention and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that homosexual men experience a variety of problems in relation to primary care. AIM. As part of a larger study, it was decided to examine the extent to which a sample of homosexually active men experienced difficulties in general practice and whether they consulted their general practitioner for problems related to HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHOD. Homosexual men were recruited for interview in 1991-92 from a variety of sources including genitourinary clinics and homosexual organizations. RESULTS. Of 623 men registered with a general practitioner 44% had not informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation and 44% of the 77 men who were HIV antibody positive, as confirmed by the study, had not informed their general practitioner of this fact. Men who viewed their practice as unsympathetic towards homosexual men were less likely to have informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation or HIV status. The majority of men (87%) nevertheless viewed primary care as an appropriate source of HIV/AIDS advice. CONCLUSION. There is considerable scope for improvement in the acceptability of general practice to homosexual men. PMID:8179951

  3. Acute effects of antagonist static stretching in the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Humberto; Maia, Marianna de Freitas; Paz, Gabriel Andrade; Costa, Pablo B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of antagonist passive static stretching (AS) during the inter-set rest period on repetition performance and muscle activation. Ten trained men (22.4 ± 0.9 years) participated in this study. Two protocols were adopted: Passive recovery (PR)--three sets to repetition failure were performed for the seated row (SR) with two-minute rest interval between sets without pre-exercise stretching; AS--forty seconds of stretching was applied to pectoralis major prior to each set of SR. Significant increases in the number of repetitions were noted under AS compared with PR (p < 0.05). Significant increases on latissimus dorsi (p = 0.002) and biceps brachii (p = 0.001) muscle activity were noted inter-sets under the AS compared with the PR condition. Therefore, the AS adopted during the inter-set rest period may enhance repetition performance and activation of agonist muscles in an acute manner.

  4. The prevalence and correlates of syphilis and HIV among homosexual and bisexual men in Shijiazhuang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shao-Hui; Liu, Shu-Jun; Hu, Ling-Ling; Li, Jie-Fang; Liu, Li-Hua; Wei, Ning

    2016-02-01

    Bisexual men (men who have sex with men and women) are potential epidemiological bridges responsible for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from men who have sex with men only to the heterosexual population. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of syphilis and HIV and the factors associated with syphilis infection among men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only from Shijiazhuang, China. In 2011-2013, a cross-sectional cohort of 427 men who have sex with men was recruited by a snowball sampling method and tested for syphilis and HIV. Chi square and logistic regression were performed to identify syphilis risk factors. Among the 427 men who have sex with men, 71 (16.6%) cases were syphilis-positive and 16 cases (3.7%) were HIV-positive. The proportions of men who have sex with men and women and men who have sex with men only in the total sample were 31.4% and 68.6%, respectively. Men who have sex with men and women exhibited double the syphilis prevalence of men who have sex with men only and were more likely to practice insertive anal sex. Higher education level, being married, having more male partners, and both receptive and insertive anal sex roles were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men and women. Residing in suburban areas, being married, being HIV positive, and an absence of desire to change sexual orientation were associated with syphilis among men who have sex with men only. Therefore, men who have sex with men and women represent an important sub-group in the syphilis epidemic and further interventions should be developed to reduce risk among different sub-sets of men who have sex with men.

  5. Activity of gefitinib in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with very poor performance status.

    PubMed

    Chang, Gee-Chen; Chen, Kun-Chieh; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Yin, Ming-Chang; Lin, Ching-Pei; Kuo, Benjamin Ing-Tiau; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with poor performance status (PS) are less likely to respond to chemotherapy, or to have an improvement in survival, but more likely to experience toxicity. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of gefitinib in patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor PS in Taiwan. Patients with stage IIIB, IV NSCLC with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS of 3-4 received oral gefitinib 250 mg once daily. Totally, 52 patients were included (25 men, 27 women). Forty-three patients (82.7%) were in a PS of 3. Tumor response rate was 25.0% (13/52). Tumor response rate to gefitinib was highest in chemonaive patients 38.1% (8/21) vs. failed 1 chemotherapy regimen 13.3% (2/15) vs. failed 2 or more chemotherapy regimens 18.8% (3/16), p = 0.015. The median overall survival was 2.5 months (response group 9.1 months, stable disease 3.1 months, and progressive group 0.8 month, p < 0.001). Adverse events, mainly skin reactions and diarrhea, were generally mild (grade 1 or 2) except paronychia and acne. Thus, gefitinib has clinically antitumor activity and good tolerability in Taiwan patients with advanced NSCLC and very poor performance status, with a higher response rate than that seen Europe or in European heritage Americans. Chemonaive patients responded better than patients with prior chemotherapy. Formal clinical trials are warranted to evaluate the role of gefitinib in this situation.

  6. Performance and biofilm activity of nitrifying biofilters removing trihalomethanes.

    PubMed

    Wahman, David G; Katz, Lynn E; Speitel, Gerald E

    2011-02-01

    Nitrifying biofilters seeded with three different mixed-culture sources removed trichloromethane (TCM) and dibromochloromethane (DBCM) with removals reaching 18% for TCM and 75% for DBCM. In addition, resuspended biofilm removed TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM), DBCM, and tribromomethane (TBM) in backwash batch kinetic tests, demonstrating that the biofilters contained organisms capable of biotransforming the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs) commonly found in treated drinking water. Upon the initial and subsequent increased TCM addition, total ammonia nitrogen (TOTNH(3)) removal decreased and then reestablished, indicating an adjustment by the biofilm bacteria. In addition, changes in DBCM removal indicated a change in activity related to DBCM. The backwash batch kinetic tests provided a useful tool to evaluate the biofilm's bacteria. Based on these experiments, the biofilters contained bacteria with similar THM removal kinetics to those seen in previous batch kinetic experiments. Overall, performance or selection does not seem based specifically on nutrients, source water, or source cultures and most likely results from THM product toxicity, and the use of GAC media appeared to offer benefits over anthracite for biofilter stability and long-term performance, although the reasons for this advantage are not apparent based on research to date.

  7. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per {mu}Ci/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 {mu}s, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for {sup 18}F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Prescribed Active Learning Increases Performance in Introductory Biology

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Eileen; Parks, John W.; Cunningham, Matthew; Hurley, David; Haak, David; Dirks, Clarissa; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2007-01-01

    We tested five course designs that varied in the structure of daily and weekly active-learning exercises in an attempt to lower the traditionally high failure rate in a gateway course for biology majors. Students were given daily multiple-choice questions and answered with electronic response devices (clickers) or cards. Card responses were ungraded; clicker responses were graded for right/wrong answers or participation. Weekly practice exams were done as an individual or as part of a study group. Compared with previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, students in the new course designs performed better: There were significantly lower failure rates, higher total exam points, and higher scores on an identical midterm. Attendance was higher in the clicker versus cards section; attendance and course grade were positively correlated. Students did better on clicker questions if they were graded for right/wrong answers versus participation, although this improvement did not translate into increased scores on exams. In this course, achievement increases when students get regular practice via prescribed (graded) active-learning exercises. PMID:17548875

  9. Development of High Performance CFRP/Metal Active Laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asanuma, Hiroshi; Haga, Osamu; Imori, Masataka

    This paper describes development of high performance CFRP/metal active laminates mainly by investigating the kind and thickness of the metal. Various types of the laminates were made by hot-pressing of an aluminum, aluminum alloys, a stainless steel and a titanium for the metal layer as a high CTE material, a unidirectional CFRP prepreg as a low CTE/electric resistance heating material, a unidirectional KFRP prepreg as a low CTE/insulating material. The aluminum and its alloy type laminates have almost the same and the highest room temperature curvatures and they linearly change with increasing temperature up to their fabrication temperature. The curvature of the stainless steel type jumps from one to another around its fabrication temperature, whereas the titanium type causes a double curvature and its change becomes complicated. The output force of the stainless steel type attains the highest of the three under the same thickness. The aluminum type successfully increased its output force by increasing its thickness and using its alloys. The electric resistance of the CFRP layer can be used to monitor the temperature, that is, the curvature of the active laminate because the curvature is a function of temperature.

  10. Mosapride citrate, a 5-HT₄ receptor agonist, increased the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 levels in non-diabetic men.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Kazutaka; Kamiyama, Hiroshi; Masuda, Kiyomi; Togashi, Yu; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    Mosapride citrate, a selective agonist of the 5-hydroxytryptaine (5-HT)₄ receptor, is typically used to treat heartburn, nausea, and vomiting associated with chronic gastritis or to prepare for a barium enema X-ray examination. Mosapride citrate reportedly improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. As mosapride citrate activates the motility of the gastrointestinal tract, we hypothesized that mosapride citrate affects incretin secretion. We examined the effect of the administration of mosapride citrate on the plasma glucose, serum insulin, plasma glucagon, and plasma incretin levels before breakfast and at 60, 120, and 180 min after breakfast in men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) to exclude gastropathy. Mosapride citrate was administered according to two different intake schedules (C: control (no drug), M: mosapride citrate 20 mg) in each of the subject groups. The area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose levels was smaller in the M group than in the C group. The time profiles for the serum insulin levels at 60 and 120 min after treatment with mosapride citrate tended to be higher, although the difference was not statistically significant. The AUCs of the plasma active and total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels were significantly larger in the M group than in the C group. No significant difference in the AUC of the plasma glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) level was observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that mosapride citrate may have an antidiabetic effect by increasing GLP-1 secretion.

  11. The effects of pre- and post-exercise consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements on cardiovascular health and body fat in trained men after six weeks of resistance training: a stratified, randomized, double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The cardiovascular (CV) and metabolic health benefits or risks associated with consumption of multi-ingredient performance supplements (MIPS) in conjunction with periodized resistance training (RT) in resistance-trained men are unknown. This population is a major target audience for performance supplements, and therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effect of RT and commercially available pre- and post-exercise performance supplements on CV health and body fat in resistance-trained men. Methods Twenty-four resistance-trained men completed six weeks (three times/week) of periodized RT while either ingesting SHOT 15-min pre-exercise and SYN immediately post-exercise (multi-ingredient performance supplement group: MIPS) or an isocaloric maltodextrin placebo 15-min pre-exercise and immediately post-exercise (Placebo group). Before and after six weeks of RT and supplementation, resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), total body fat, android fat, gynoid fat, fat-free mass (FFM) and fasting blood measures of glucose, lipids, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), cortisol and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. Statistical analysis was conducted using a one-way ANOVA for baseline differences and a 2 × 2 (group × time) repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests where appropriate. Significance was set at p < 0.05. Results There was no group × time interaction for HR, BP, blood glucose, lipids, NOx, hs-CRP, cortisol concentrations or body fat. However, there was a time effect where significant decreases in body fat (mean ± SD; MIPS: -1.2 ± 1.2%; Placebo: -0.9 ± 1.1%), android fat (MIPS: -1.8 ± 2.1%; Placebo: -1.6 ± 2.0%), and gynoid fat (MIPS: -1.3 ± 1.6%; Placebo: -1.0 ± 1.4%) for both groups were observed. FFM increased in both groups, and a group × time interaction was observed with MIPS increasing significantly more than the Placebo group (4.2% vs. 1

  12. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  13. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  14. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  15. Reuse performance of granular-activated carbon and activated carbon fiber in catalyzed peroxymonosulfate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shiying; Li, Lei; Xiao, Tuo; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Xueting

    2017-03-01

    Recently, activated carbon was investigated as an efficient heterogeneous metal-free catalyst to directly activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for degradation of organic compounds. In this paper, the reuse performance and the possible deactivation reasons of granular-activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) in PMS activation were investigated. As results indicated, the reusability of GAC, especially in the presence of high PMS dosage, was relatively superior to ACF in catalyzed PMS oxidation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7), which is much more easily adsorbed by ACF than by GAC. Pre-oxidation experiments were studied and it was demonstrated that PMS oxidation on ACF would retard ACF's deactivation to a big extent. After pre-adsorption with AO7, the catalytic ability of both GAC and ACF evidently diminished. However, when methanol was employed to extract the AO7-spent ACF, the catalytic ability could recover quite a bit. GAC and ACF could also effectively catalyze PMS to degrade Reactive Black 5 (RB5), which is very difficult to be adsorbed even by ACF, but both GAC and ACF have poor reuse performance for RB5 degradation. The original organic compounds or intermediate products adsorbed by GAC or ACF would be possibly responsible for the deactivation.

  16. Effect of active and passive recovery on blood lactate and performance during simulated competition in high level gymnasts.

    PubMed

    Jemni, Monèm; Sands, William A; Friemel, Françoise; Delamarche, Paul

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two recovery strategies between men's gymnastics events on blood lactate removal (BL) and performance as rated by expert "blind" judges. Twelve male gymnasts (21.8 +/- 2.4 years) participated. The sessions were composed of routine performances in the six Olympic events, which were separated by 10 min of recovery. All gymnasts performed two recovery protocols between events on separate days: Rest protocol, 10 min rest in a sitting position; Combined protocol, 5 min rest and 5 min self-selected active recovery. Three blood samples were taken at 2, 5, and 10 min following each event. Gymnasts produced moderate values of BL following each of the six events (2.2 to 11.6 mmol.L-1). There was moderate variability in BL values between events that could not be accounted for by the athlete's event performance. Gymnasts showed higher BL concentration (p > .05) and significantly (p < .05) higher scoring performances (as rated by a panel of certified judges) when they used a combined recovery between gymnastics events rather than a passive recovery (delta BL = 40.51% vs. 28.76% of maximal BL, p < .05, and total score = 47.28 +/- 6.82 vs. 38.39 +/- 7.55, p < .05, respectively).

  17. Effects of a heart rate-based recovery period on hormonal, neuromuscular, and aerobic performance responses during 7 weeks of strength training in men.

    PubMed

    Piirainen, Jarmo M; Tanskanen, Minna; Nissilä, Juuso; Kaarela, Juha; Väärälä, Ari; Sippola, Niina; Linnamo, Vesa

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hormonal, neuromuscular, and aerobic performance changes between a constant 2-minute interset recovery time and an interset recovery time based on individual heart rate (HR) responses during a 7-week (3 sessions per week, 3 × 10 repetition maximum [RM]) hypertrophic strength training period. The HR-dependent recovery time was determined with a Polar FT80 HR monitor, whereas the control groups used constant 2-minute periods between sets. From 24 male subjects who were divided in 2 equal groups, 21 completed the study (FT80, n = 12; CONTROL, n = 9). Serum blood samples analyzed for testosterone (TES) and cortisol (COR) were taken before and after the 7-week training period at rest. Concentric knee extension 1RM was measured before, after 4 weeks, and at the end of the training period. Concentric knee extension and knee flexion 10RM, central activation ratio (CAR), and maxVO2 were measured before and after the training. Serum TES concentrations were significantly higher after the training period in FT80 (p < 0.001), whereas no significant changes were observed in the CONTROL. Serum COR and maxVO2 were unchanged in both groups. In FT80 (p < 0.001), the increase in 10RM was higher (p < 0.05) than in CONTROL (p < 0.001). Central activation ratio increased in both groups, with the significant increase observed in FT80 (p < 0.05). The higher TES responses, 10RM, and CAR development in FT80 suggest that an HR-based recovery period system of the FT80 may be more efficient in this type of hypertrophic strength training (3 × 10RM). The protocol in this study may be considered as a metabolic training cycle that coaches and trainers can use within a longer periodized training program.

  18. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  19. A psychometric investigation of the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men: An item response theory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Cook, Karon F.; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) was designed as an instrument for the screening of hypersexuality by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 taskforce. Aim Our study sought to conduct a psychometric analysis of the HDSI, including an investigation of its underlying structure and reliability utilizing Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling, and an examination of its polythetic scoring criteria in comparison to a standard dimensionally-based cutoff score. Methods We examined a diverse group of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men in New York City. We conducted psychometric analyses of the HDSI, including both confirmatory factor analysis of its structure and item response theory analysis of the item and scale reliabilities. Main Outcome Measures We utilized the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory. Results The HDSI adequately fit a single-factor solution, although there was evidence that two of the items may measure a second factor that taps into sex as a form of coping. The scale showed evidence of strong reliability across much of the continuum of hypersexuality and results suggested that, in addition to the proposed polythetic scoring criteria, a cutoff score of 20 on the severity index might be used for preliminary classification of HD. Conclusion The HDSI was found to be highly reliable and results suggested that a unidimensional, quantitative conception of hypersexuality with a clinically relevant cutoff score may be more appropriate than a qualitative syndrome comprised of multiple distinct clusters of problems. However, we also found preliminary evidence that three clusters of symptoms may constitute an HD syndrome as opposed to the two clusters initially proposed. Future research is needed to determine which of these issues are characteristic of the hypersexuality and HD constructs themselves and which are more likely to be methodological artifacts of the HDSI. PMID:23534845

  20. The influence of self-reported leisure time physical activity and the body mass index on recovery from persistent back pain among men and women: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about leisure time physical activity and the body mass index (BMI) as prognostic factors for recovery from persistent back pain. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of leisure time physical activity and BMI on recovery from persistent back pain among men and women in a general population. Methods The study population (n=1836) in this longitudinal cohort study consisted of participants reporting persistent back pain in the baseline questionnaire in 2002-2003. Data on leisure time physical activity, BMI and potential confounders were also collected at baseline. Information on recovery from persistent back pain (no back pain periods ≥ 7 days during the last 5 years) was obtained from the follow-up questionnaire in 2007. Log-binomial models were applied to calculate Risk Ratios with 95 percent Confidence Intervals (CI) comparing physically active and normal weight groups versus sedentary and overweight groups. Results Compared to a sedentary leisure time, all measured levels of leisure time physical activity were associated with a greater chance of recovery from persistent back pain among women. The adjusted Risk Ratios was 1.46 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.01) for low leisure time physical activity, 1.51 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.23) for moderate leisure time physical activity, and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.08, 2.58) for high leisure time physical activity. There were no indications that leisure time physical activity influenced recovery among men, or that BMI was associated with recovery from persistent back pain either among men or among women. Conclusions Regular leisure time physical activity seems to improve recovery from persistent back pain among women. PMID:23617707

  1. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  2. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ...

  3. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  4. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  5. Lithium Iron Phosphate Cell Performance Evaluations for Lunar Extravehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha

    2007-01-01

    Lithium-ion battery cells are being evaluated for their ability to provide primary power and energy storage for NASA s future Exploration missions. These missions include the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage, Extravehicular Activities (EVA, the advanced space suit), the Lunar Surface Ascent Module (LSAM), and the Lunar Precursor and Robotic Program (LPRP), among others. Each of these missions will have different battery requirements. Some missions may require high specific energy and high energy density, while others may require high specific power, wide operating temperature ranges, or a combination of several of these attributes. EVA is one type of mission that presents particular challenges for today s existing power sources. The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) for the advanced Lunar surface suit will be carried on an astronaut s back during eight hour long sorties, requiring a lightweight power source. Lunar sorties are also expected to occur during varying environmental conditions, requiring a power source that can operate over a wide range of temperatures. Concepts for Lunar EVAs include a primary power source for the PLSS that can recharge rapidly. A power source that can charge quickly could enable a lighter weight system that can be recharged while an astronaut is taking a short break. Preliminary results of Al23 Ml 26650 lithium iron phosphate cell performance evaluations for an advanced Lunar surface space suit application are discussed in this paper. These cells exhibit excellent recharge rate capability, however, their specific energy and energy density is lower than typical lithium-ion cell chemistries. The cells were evaluated for their ability to provide primary power in a lightweight battery system while operating at multiple temperatures.

  6. The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-05-01

    Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood.

  7. Algorithms for Performance, Dependability, and Performability Evaluation using Stochastic Activity Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deavours, Daniel D.; Qureshi, M. Akber; Sanders, William H.

    1997-01-01

    Modeling tools and technologies are important for aerospace development. At the University of Illinois, we have worked on advancing the state of the art in modeling by Markov reward models in two important areas: reducing the memory necessary to numerically solve systems represented as stochastic activity networks and other stochastic Petri net extensions while still obtaining solutions in a reasonable amount of time, and finding numerically stable and memory-efficient methods to solve for the reward accumulated during a finite mission time. A long standing problem when modeling with high level formalisms such as stochastic activity networks is the so-called state space explosion, where the number of states increases exponentially with size of the high level model. Thus, the corresponding Markov model becomes prohibitively large and solution is constrained by the the size of primary memory. To reduce the memory necessary to numerically solve complex systems, we propose new methods that can tolerate such large state spaces that do not require any special structure in the model (as many other techniques do). First, we develop methods that generate row and columns of the state transition-rate-matrix on-the-fly, eliminating the need to explicitly store the matrix at all. Next, we introduce a new iterative solution method, called modified adaptive Gauss-Seidel, that exhibits locality in its use of data from the state transition-rate-matrix, permitting us to cache portions of the matrix and hence reduce the solution time. Finally, we develop a new memory and computationally efficient technique for Gauss-Seidel based solvers that avoids the need for generating rows of A in order to solve Ax = b. This is a significant performance improvement for on-the-fly methods as well as other recent solution techniques based on Kronecker operators. Taken together, these new results show that one can solve very large models without any special structure.

  8. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  9. Non-Smoking Tobacco Affects Endothelial Function in Healthy Men in One of the Largest Health Studies Ever Performed; The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study in Norway; HUNT3

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Ellingsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral tobacco (snuff) is taking a large market share in Scandinavia, especially with young users. However, long-term health effects are unknown. Small studies show association between snuff and reduced endothelial function, representing an early stage of vascular injury that often precedes manifest cardiovascular disease by several years. We therefore determined the associations between snuff and endothelial function in a large sample of healthy Norwegian men. Methods and Design In the Fitness substudy of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3), endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Aerobic fitness was measured by peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak). A cross-sectional design including 1 592 self-reported healthy men compared these observations with records of present tobacco use, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and socioeconomic status, using general linear models. Results FMD was lower in snuff users (FMD: 4.12%, 3.63, 4.61) compared to non-users (FMD: 4.52%, 4.27, 4.78) after adjustment for age (difference: -0.57%, -1.12, -0.01). After further adjustment for potential confounders, FMD still tended to be lower in snuff users than in non-users (difference: -0.53%, -1.09, 0.02). This difference was even more pronounced in the inactive snuff users (-0.83%, -1.59, -0.06) and in the low fit snuff users (-0.74%, CI -0.55, 0.079). Conclusions Oral tobacco is associated with a tendency towards reduced endothelial function, indicating vascular changes that precede cardiovascular disease. The strongest associations were found in men with low physical activity or reduced aerobic fitness. PMID:27490361

  10. The effect of malathion on the activity, performance, and microbial ecology of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Rauglas, Erik; Martin, Seth; Bailey, Kandace; Magnuson, Matthew; Phillips, Rebecca; Harper, Willie F

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effect of a VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothioate) surrogate (malathion) on the activity, performance, and ecology of activated sludge bioreactors. In the presence of malathion, the maximum observed respiration rates varied between 43 and 53 μg/O2 min, generally similar to the 49 μg O2/min rates observed in controls. Malathion did not alter the respiration ratio of O2 consumed-to-CO2 produced nor did it impact the shape of the oxygen consumption curves during respirometry. Shorter term (12 h) batch tests showed that both chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia removal were not negatively impacted by the presence of 0.1-3 mg/L malathion. Longer term continuous addition (i.e. 40 days) of 0.1 mg/L of malathion also had no effect on COD and ammonia removal. In contrast to shorter term exposures, longer term continuous addition of 3 mg/L of malathion negatively impacted both COD and nitrogen removal and was associated with shifts in the abundance of species that are common to activated sludge. These results illustrate the impact that chemicals like malathion may have on COD removal, and nitrification, as well as the robustness of activated sludge microbial communities.

  11. Velocity dependence of eccentric strength in young and old men: the need for speed!

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2015-07-01

    Older adults better maintain eccentric strength relative to isometric strength, as indicated by a higher ratio of eccentric:isometric torque as compared with younger adults. The effect of increasing angular velocities (>200°/s) on the age-related maintenance of eccentric strength has not been tested and thus it is unknown whether the eccentric:isometric ratio is velocity dependent in old age. The purpose of this study was to investigate eccentric strength of the ankle dorsiflexors over a large range of lengthening angular velocities in young and older men. Isometric neuromuscular properties were assessed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer. Nine young (∼24 years) and 9 older (∼76 years) healthy men performed maximal voluntary eccentric contractions at angular velocities of 15-360°/s. Despite near full voluntary activation (>95%), the older men were ∼30% weaker than the young men for isometric strength (P < 0.05). Across all lengthening velocities, older men had a greater eccentric:isometric ratio than young men (P < 0.05). Additionally, there was a velocity dependence of strength in both young and older men: eccentric strength increased as velocity increased up to 120°/s (P < 0.05) and plateaued thereafter. In young and older men, eccentric strength at 15°/s was ∼20% and ∼40% greater than isometric strength (P < 0.05), while at 360°/s eccentric strength was ∼50% and ∼90% greater, respectively (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that with increasing angular velocity, both young and older men have considerable increases in the eccentric:isometric ratio of torque production.

  12. Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity – A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Alsharari, Zayed D.; Risérus, Ulf; Leander, Karin; Sjögren, Per; Carlsson, Axel C.; Vikström, Max; Laguzzi, Federica; Gigante, Bruna; Cederholm, Tommy; De Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA-desaturase and Δ6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19–1.76), 4.06 (3.27–5.05), and 3.07 (2.51–3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Δ5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32–0.48), 0.74 (0.61–0.89), 0.76 (0.62–0.93), and 0.40 (0.33–0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across

  13. Translational neurophysiological markers for activity of the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR2) modulator JNJ-40411813: Sleep EEG correlates in rodents and healthy men.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; de Boer, P; Lavreysen, H; Huysmans, H; Sinha, V; Raeymaekers, L; Van De Casteele, T; Cid, J M; Van Nueten, L; Macdonald, G J; Kemp, J A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in rapid eye movement sleep (REM) have been suggested as valid translational efficacy markers: activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) was shown to increase REM latency and to decrease REM duration. The present paper addresses the effects on vigilance states of the mGluR2 positive allosteric modulator (PAM) JNJ-40411813 at different circadian times in rats and after afternoon dosing in humans. Due to its dual mGluR2 PAM/serotonin 2A (5-HT2A) receptor antagonism in rodents, mGlu2R specificity of effects was studied in wild-type (WT) and mGluR2 (-/-) mice. 5-HT2A receptor occupancy was determined in humans using positron emission tomography (PET). Tolerance development was examined in rats after chronic dosing. EEG oscillations and network connectivity were assessed using multi-channel EEG. In rats, JNJ-40411813 increased deep sleep time and latency of REM onset but reduced REM time when administered 2 h after 'lights on' (CT2): this was sustained after chronic dosing. At CT5 similar effects were elicited, at CT10 only deep sleep was enhanced. Withdrawal resulted in baseline values, while re-administration reinstated drug effects. Parieto-occipital cortical slow theta and gamma oscillations were correlated with low locomotion. The specificity of functional response was confirmed in WT but not mGluR2 (-/-) mice. A double-blind, placebo-controlled polysomnographic study in healthy, elderly subjects showed that 500 mg of JNJ-40411813 consistently increased deep sleep time, but had no effect on REM parameters. This deep sleep effect was not explained by 5-HT2A receptor binding, as in the PET study even 700 mg only marginally displaced the tracer. JNJ-40411813 elicited comparable functional responses in rodents and men if circadian time of dosing was taken into account. These findings underscore the translational potential of sleep mechanisms in evaluating mGluR2 therapeutics when administered at the appropriate circadian time.

  14. The Impact of Employment and Physical Activity on Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreopoulos, Giuliana Campanelli; Antoniou, Eliana; Panayides, Alexandros; Vassiliou, Evros

    2008-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, many contributions appeared on the relationship between working during school and academic performance using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. The obvious assumption is that a full time working student will show a lower academic performance relatively to a part time working student or a full time…

  15. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Angela MC; Hennis, Anselm J; Hambleton, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least one activity of daily living), 'disease' and 'co-morbidity' (presence of at least one, and at least two, of seven chronic diseases/conditions, respectively), and 'active community engagement' (using five levels of community participation, from less than weekly community contact to voluntary or paid work) in seven LAC cities. We estimated remaining life expectancy (LE) with and without disability, disease and co-morbidity, and investigated age, sex, and regional variations in disability-free LE. Finally, we modeled the association of disease, co-morbidity and disability with active community participation using an ordinal regression model, adjusted for depression. Results Overall, 77% of the LAC elderly had at least one chronic disease/condition, 44% had co-morbidity and 19% had a disability. The proportion of disability-free LE declined between the youngest (60–64 years) and the eldest (90 years and over) age-groups for both men (from 85% to 55%) and women (from 75% to 45%). Disease-free and co-morbidity-free LE, however, remained at approximately 30% and 62%, respectively, for men (20% and 48% for women), until 80–84 years of age, then increased. Only Bridgetown's participants had statistically significantly longer disability-free LE than the regional average (IRR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.05–1.10; p < 0.001). Only Santiago's participants had disability-free LE which was shorter than the regional average (IRR = 0.94; 95%CI 0.92–0.97; p < 0.001). There was 75% active community participation

  16. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  17. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  18. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Mulligan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy. PMID:18225456

  20. Why Men Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A Review Essay WHY MEN FIGHT DR MARK R. SHULMAN FOR TOO LONG, military historians have attempted to adhere to Clausewitz’s description of war as...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why Men Fight

  1. Final Report: Performance Modeling Activities in PERC2

    SciTech Connect

    Allan Snavely

    2007-02-25

    Progress in Performance Modeling for PERC2 resulted in: • Automated modeling tools that are robust, able to characterize large applications running at scale while simultaneously simulating the memory hierarchies of mul-tiple machines in parallel. • Porting of the requisite tracer tools to multiple platforms. • Improved performance models by using higher resolution memory models that ever before. • Adding control-flow and data dependency analysis to the tracers used in perform-ance tools. • Exploring and developing several new modeling methodologies. • Using modeling tools to develop performance models for strategic codes. • Application of modeling methodology to make a large number of “blind” per-formance predictions on certain mission partner applications, targeting most cur-rently available system architectures. • Error analysis to correct some systematic biases encountered as part of the large-scale blind prediction exercises. • Addition of instrumentation capabilities for communication libraries other than MPI. • Dissemination the tools and modeling methods to several mission partners, in-cluding DoD HPCMO and two DARPA HPCS vendors (Cray and IBM), as well as to the wider HPC community via a series of tutorials.

  2. Internet use, recreational travel, and HIV risk behaviors in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Martin, Aaron M; Espil, Flint M; Nettles, Christopher D; Seal, David W; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have documented higher rates of HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men traveling for leisure. Most of these studies collected data in high-risk tourist areas known for promoting alcohol and other substance use. The present study sampled a broader range of men by collecting data at a Gay Pride celebration, and asking participants about vacation experiences over the past 12 months. We also collected information about men's use of the Internet to find sexual partners before they traveled. Overall, two-thirds of participants reported recreational travel in the previous year. Of these men, 17% reported having sex with a new partner during their most recent vacation. Forty-three percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation. Sexually-active participants reported a mean of 2.01 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief vacation stay (M = 6.2 days). Close to half of the sexually-active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Alcohol and drug use were associated with unprotected sex. Men who used the Internet to set up dates prior to travel reported significantly more sexual partners and were significantly more likely to report having sex with a new partner. Many gay and bisexual men on vacation report behaviors that may place their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors in this population are needed.

  3. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  4. The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Martins, Ana; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Fuertes, Ricardo; Brito, João; Campos, Maria José; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled—The Lisbon Cohort of MSM—aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6 months. At each evaluation, a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire is conducted, and HIV and syphilis rapid tests are performed by trained peer counsellors. From April 2011 to February 2014, 3106 MSM were eligible to the cohort of whom 923 (29.7%) did not participate. The remaining 2183 (70.3%) MSM were enrolled and 804 had at least one follow-up evaluation, for a total of 893 person-years of observation. Future plans The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. The follow-up of this cohort of HIV-negative MSM will be a valuable tool for monitoring HIV incidence in a setting where limited prospective information existed. Moreover, it will allow for a deeper analytical approach to the study of population time trends and individual changes in risk factors that currently shape the HIV epidemic among MSM. PMID:25967995

  5. Crossfit training changes brain-derived neurotrophic factor and irisin levels at rest, after wingate and progressive tests, and improves aerobic capacity and body composition of young physically active men and women.

    PubMed

    Murawska-Cialowicz, E; Wojna, J; Zuwala-Jagiello, J

    2015-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that stimulates processes of neurogenesis, the survival of neurons and microglia, stimulates neuroplasticity, and takes part in the differentiation of cells developed in the hippocampus. BDNF is also released from skeletal muscles during exercise and can facilitate cross-talk between the nervous and muscular system. Irisin, the exercise hormone, is also released from skeletal muscles and is involved in oxidation processes in the organism. It is a vital issue from the point of view of prophylaxis and treatment through exercise of age-related diseases (e.g. senile dementia), obesity, type-2 diabetes. The aim of the study was to assess the changes in BDNF and irisin levels in young people after a 3-month CrossFit training program. At baseline and after the training, levels of BDNF and irisin were assayed before and after Wingate and progressive tests. Physical performance, body mass and composition, and muscle circumferences were also measured. There were noted: an improvement in aerobic capacity, an increase in VO2max, a reduction in adipose tissue percentage in women and an increase in LBM in all subjects. After CrossFit training the resting BDNF level increased significantly in all subjects while the resting level of irisin decreased in women, without changes in men. The resting level of BDNF at baseline was higher in men than in women. At baseline we observed an increased level of BDNF in women after Wingate and progressive tests, but in men only after the progressive test. After 3 months of CrossFit training the level of BDNF increased in all subjects, and also was higher in men than in women. In women we did not observe significant differences after both tests in comparison to rest. After the training BDNF was lower in men after Wingate and progressive tests than at rest. At baseline irisin level decreased in women after the Wingate and progressive tests. Changes in men were not observed after both tests

  6. Risk Factors for Prevalent Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Active Duty Army Men Who Initially Report No Identified Risk: A Case-Control Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Washington, D.C.; Ms. Robin Pomerantz, SRA Technol- Pneumocystis pneumonia among homosexual men. New s AYork and California. MMWR 1981 ;30:305-8.ogies...and Dr. sarcoma and Pneumocystis pneumonia . MMWR 1981;30: Steven Piantadosi, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 409-10. Baltimore, MD for data...National case-control ment of Defense. Milit Med 1986;151:623-7. study of Kaposi’s sarcoma and Pneumocystis carinii pneu- 2. Alexander LL, Renzullo PO

  7. Association of serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) and incident fractures in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nancy E; Parimi, Neeta; Corr, Maripat; Yao, Wei; Cauley, Jane A; Nielson, Carrie M; Ix, Joseph H; Kado, Deborah; Orwoll, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Normal mineral metabolism is critical for skeletal integrity, and recently serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels were found to be directly related to overall fracture risk in elderly Swedish men. To confirm this association, we performed a prospective case-cohort study to understand the relation of FGF23 and fracture risk in older white men enrolled in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study. In the cohort of 5994 men attending the baseline MrOS examination, we evaluated a subgroup of 387 men with incident nonvertebral fracture including 73 hip fractures and a sample of 1385 men randomly selected from the cohort with baseline mineral and calcium hormone measurements. FGF23 was measured in baseline serum samples by ELISA (Millipore, Billerica, MA, USA). Modified Cox proportional hazards models that account for case-cohort study design were used to estimate the relative hazards (RH) of fracture in men across quartiles of FGF23. Subjects were also stratified by renal function, and RH per strata was estimated in men with the highest quartile of FGF23 compared with quartiles 3, 2, and 1. Overall, there was no difference in risk of nonspine or hip fracture by baseline FGF23. However, associations differed by strata of eGFRCrCy . Among men with eGFRCrCys <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (n = 73/313 nonspine fractures), the RH in the highest quartile of FGF23 compared with the rest was 2.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-3.79), but in men with eGFRCrCy , >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (304/1370 fractures) the RH was 0.91 (95% CI 0.66-1.25) after adjustment for age, clinic site, body mass index, race, total hip bone mineral density, vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, alcohol use, physical activity, fracture history, and serum phosphorus. Serum FGF23 levels are not associated with incident fractures in elderly men overall. However, higher levels of serum FGF23 are associated with fracture risk in those with poor renal function.

  8. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the 60- and 100-m dash after a dynamic warm-up.

    PubMed

    Kistler, Brandon M; Walsh, Mark S; Horn, Thelma S; Cox, Ronald H

    2010-09-01

    Previous research has shown that static stretching has an inhibitory effect on sprinting performances up to 50 m. The purpose of this study was to see what would happen to these effects at longer distances such as those seen in competition. This study used a within-subjects design to investigate the effects of passive static stretching vs. no stretching on the 60- and 100-m sprint performance of college track athletes after a dynamic warm-up. Eighteen male subjects completed both the static stretching and the no stretching conditions in counterbalanced order across 2 days of testing. On each day, all subjects first completed a generalized dynamic warm-up routine that included a self-paced 800-m run, followed by a series of dynamic movements, sprint, and hurdle drills. At the end of this generalized warm-up, athletes were assigned to either a static stretching or a no-stretching condition. They then immediately performed 2 100-m trials with timing gates set up at 20, 40, 60, and 100 m. Results revealed a significant slowing in performance with static stretching (p < 0.039) in the second 20 (20-40) m of the sprint trials. After the first 40 m, static stretching exhibited no additional inhibition of performance in a 100-m sprint. However, although there was no additional time loss, athletes never gained back the time that was originally lost in the first portion of the trials. Therefore, in strict terms of performance, it seems harmful to include static stretching in the warm-up protocol of collegiate male sprinters in distances up to 100 m.

  9. Activity composition relationships in silicate melts: Annual performance report

    SciTech Connect

    Glazner, A.F.

    1987-01-01

    Work performed during the first two years of this project includes construction of furnace laboratory and calibration of instruments, installation of an electron microprobe, and determination of phase equilibria along a basalt-rhyolite mixing line. This latter study comprises the bulk of work performed to date. We completed approximately 100 experiments on the one-atmosphere phase equilibria of balalt-rhyolite mixtures. Starting materials were an alkali basalt from Pisgah Crater, California, and a high-silica rhyolite from the Bishop Tuff, Owens Valley, California. These materials were chosen because the compositional trend of the mixtures mimics many continental calc-alkaline suites. 5 figs.

  10. Contextualizing Performances: Comparing Performances during TOEFL iBT™ and Real-Life Academic Speaking Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Lindsay; Swain, Merrill

    2014-01-01

    In this study we compare test takers' performance on the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT™and their performances during their real-life academic studies. Thirty international graduate students from mixed language backgrounds in two different disciplines (Sciences and Social Sciences) responded to two independent and four integrated speaking tasks…

  11. Reflexive Processes in the Musician Performer's Professional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nussipzhanova, Bibigul N.; Dzherdimalieva, Gulnar M.; Stamgaziev, Ramazan U.

    2016-01-01

    The article attempts to identify the gradual development of the category of reflection as one of the driving factors of self-actualization, to reveal meaningful face value and basic directions of its multi-dimensional interpretation. The profiling property of a performer's reflexive action acts as a basic psychological foundation in the…

  12. Activity-Based Costing Model for Assessing Economic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeHayes, Daniel W.; Lovrinic, Joseph G.

    1994-01-01

    An economic model for evaluating the cost performance of academic and administrative programs in higher education is described. Examples from its application at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis are used to illustrate how the model has been used to control costs and reengineer processes. (Author/MSE)

  13. Work Engagement, Performance, and Active Learning: The Role of Conscientiousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Arnold B.; Demerouti, Evangelia; ten Brummelhuis, Lieke L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines whether the relationship between work engagement and job performance is moderated by the extent to which individuals are inclined to work hard, careful, and goal-oriented. On the basis of the literature, it was hypothesized that conscientiousness strengthens the relationship between work engagement and supervisor ratings…

  14. Toward a mathematical formalism of performance, task difficulty, and activation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samaras, George M.

    1988-01-01

    The rudiments of a mathematical formalism for handling operational, physiological, and psychological concepts are developed for use by the man-machine system design engineer. The formalism provides a framework for developing a structured, systematic approach to the interface design problem, using existing mathematical tools, and simplifying the problem of telling a machine how to measure and use performance.

  15. Football Fans in Training: the development and optimization of an intervention delivered through professional sports clubs to help men lose weight, become more active and adopt healthier eating habits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity in men is rising, but they are less likely than women to engage in existing weight management programmes. The potential of professional sports club settings to engage men in health promotion activities is being increasingly recognised. This paper describes the development and optimization of the Football Fans in Training (FFIT) programme, which aims to help overweight men (many of them football supporters) lose weight through becoming more active and adopting healthier eating habits. Methods The MRC Framework for the design and evaluation of complex interventions was used to guide programme development in two phases. In Phase 1, a multidisciplinary working group developed the pilot programme (p-FFIT) and used a scoping review to summarize previous research and identify the target population. Phase 2 involved a process evaluation of p-FFIT in 11 Scottish Premier League (SPL) clubs. Participant and coach feedback, focus group discussions and interviews explored the utility/acceptability of programme components and suggestions for changes. Programme session observations identified examples of good practice and problems/issues with delivery. Together, these findings informed redevelopment of the optimized programme (FFIT), whose components were mapped onto specific behaviour change techniques using an evidence-based taxonomy. Results p-FFIT comprised 12, weekly, gender-sensitised, group-based weight management classroom and ‘pitch-side’ physical activity sessions. These in-stadia sessions were complemented by an incremental, pedometer-based walking programme. p-FFIT was targeted at men aged 35-65 years with body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2. Phase 2 demonstrated that participants in p-FFIT were enthusiastic about both the classroom and physical activity components, and valued the camaraderie and peer-support offered by the programme. Coaches appreciated the simplicity of the key healthy eating and physical activity messages

  16. Factor- and Item-Level Analyses of the 38-Item Activities Scale for Kids-Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagley, Anita M.; Gorton, George E.; Bjornson, Kristie; Bevans, Katherine; Stout, Jean L.; Narayanan, Unni; Tucker, Carole A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Children and adolescents highly value their ability to participate in relevant daily life and recreational activities. The Activities Scale for Kids-performance (ASKp) instrument measures the frequency of performance of 30 common childhood activities, and has been shown to be valid and reliable. A revised and expanded 38-item ASKp (ASKp38)…

  17. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  18. 29 CFR 784.155 - Activities performed in wholesale establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... employment in “marketing * * * storing, or distributing” the named aquatic products or byproducts, as applied to the wholesaling of fish and seafood, affords exemption to such activities as unloading the aquatic... & Company, Inc., N.D. Ga., 47 F. Supp. 650). Office and clerical employees of a wholesaler who...

  19. 29 CFR 784.155 - Activities performed in wholesale establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... employment in “marketing * * * storing, or distributing” the named aquatic products or byproducts, as applied to the wholesaling of fish and seafood, affords exemption to such activities as unloading the aquatic... & Company, Inc., N.D. Ga., 47 F. Supp. 650). Office and clerical employees of a wholesaler who...

  20. 29 CFR 784.155 - Activities performed in wholesale establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... employment in “marketing * * * storing, or distributing” the named aquatic products or byproducts, as applied to the wholesaling of fish and seafood, affords exemption to such activities as unloading the aquatic... & Company, Inc., N.D. Ga., 47 F. Supp. 650). Office and clerical employees of a wholesaler who...