Science.gov

Sample records for active microwave observations

  1. Solar Activity Studies using Microwave Imaging Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the status of solar cycle 24 based on polar prominence eruptions (PEs) and microwave brightness enhancement (MBE) information obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph. The north polar region of the Sun had near-zero field strength for more than three years (2012-2015) and ended only in September 2015 as indicated by the presence of polar PEs and the lack of MBE. The zero-polar-field condition in the south started only around 2013, but it ended by June 2014. Thus the asymmetry in the times of polarity reversal switched between cycle 23 and 24. The polar MBE is a good proxy for the polar magnetic field strength as indicated by the high degree of correlation between the two. The cross-correlation between the high- and low-latitude MBEs is significant for a lag of approximately 5.5 to 7.3 years, suggesting that the polar field of one cycle indicates the sunspot number of the next cycle in agreement with the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of solar cycles. The extended period of near-zero field in the north-polar region should result in a weak and delayed sunspot activity in the northern hemisphere in cycle 25.

  2. Active Microwave Remote Sensing Observations of Weddell Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991, the European Space Agency's ERS-1 and ERS-2 satellites have acquired radar data of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The Active Microwave Instrument on board ERS has two modes; SAR and Scatterometer. Two receiving stations enable direct downlink and recording of high bit-rate, high resolution SAR image data of this region. When not in an imaging mode, when direct SAR downlink is not possible, or when a receiving station is inoperable, the latter mode allows normalized radar cross-section data to be acquired. These low bit-rate ERS scatterometer data are tape recorded, downlinked and processed off-line. Recent advances in image generation from Scatterometer backscatter measurements enable complementary medium-scale resolution images to be made during periods when SAR images cannot be acquired. Together, these combined C-band microwave image data have for the first time enabled uninterrupted night and day coverage of the Weddell Sea region at both high (25 m) and medium-scale (-20 km) resolutions. C-band ERS-1 radar data are analyzed in conjunction with field data from two simultaneous field experiments in 1992. Satellite radar signature data are compared with shipborne radar data to extract a regional and seasonal signature database for recognition of ice types in the images. Performance of automated sea-ice tracking algorithms is tested on Antarctic data to evaluate their success. Examples demonstrate that both winter and summer ice can be effectively tracked. The kinematics of the main ice zones within the Weddell Sea are illustrated, together with the complementary time-dependencies in their radar signatures. Time-series of satellite images are used to illustrate the development of the Weddell Sea ice cover from its austral summer minimum (February) to its winter maximum (September). The combination of time-dependent microwave signatures and ice dynamics tracking enable various drift regimes to be defined which relate closely to the circulation of the

  3. Active microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, D.; Vidal-Madjar, D.

    1994-01-01

    Research on the use of active microwaves in remote sensing, presented during plenary and poster sessions, is summarized. The main highlights are: calibration techniques are well understood; innovative modeling approaches have been developed which increase active microwave applications (segmentation prior to model inversion, use of ERS-1 scatterometer, simulations); polarization angle and frequency diversity improves characterization of ice sheets, vegetation, and determination of soil moisture (X band sensor study); SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) interferometry potential is emerging; use of multiple sensors/extended spectral signatures is important (increase emphasis).

  4. Assimilation of active and passive microwave observations for improved estimates of soil moisture and crop growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An Ensemble Kalman Filter-based data assimilation framework that links a crop growth model with active and passive (AP) microwave models was developed to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation biomass over a growing season of soybean. Complementarities in AP observations were incorpo...

  5. Microwave Oven Observations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumrall, William J.; Richardson, Denise; Yan, Yuan

    1998-01-01

    Explains a series of laboratory activities which employ a microwave oven to help students understand word problems that relate to states of matter, collect data, and calculate and compare electrical costs to heat energy costs. (DDR)

  6. Estimating Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Using Combined Passive and Active L-Band Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2012-01-01

    Several L-band microwave radiometer and radar missions have been, or will be, operating in space for land and ocean observations. These include the NASA Aquarius mission and the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission, both of which use combined passive/ active L-band instruments. Aquarius s passive/active L-band microwave sensor has been designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. SMAP s primary objectives are for soil moisture and freeze/thaw detection, but it will operate continuously over the ocean, and hence will have significant potential for ocean surface research. In this innovation, an algorithm has been developed to retrieve simultaneously ocean surface salinity and wind from combined passive/active L-band microwave observations of sea surfaces. The algorithm takes advantage of the differing response of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter to salinity, wind speed, and direction, thus minimizing the least squares error (LSE) measure, which signifies the difference between measurements and model functions of brightness temperatures and radar backscatter. The algorithm uses the conjugate gradient method to search for the local minima of the LSE. Three LSE measures with different measurement combinations have been tested. The first LSE measure uses passive microwave data only with retrieval errors reaching 1 to 2 psu (practical salinity units) for salinity, and 1 to 2 m/s for wind speed. The second LSE measure uses both passive and active microwave data for vertical and horizontal polarizations. The addition of active microwave data significantly improves the retrieval accuracy by about a factor of five. To mitigate the impact of Faraday rotation on satellite observations, the third LSE measure uses measurement combinations invariant under the Faraday rotation. For Aquarius, the expected RMS SSS (sea surface salinity) error will be less than about 0.2 psu for low winds, and increases to 0.3 psu at 25 m/s wind speed

  7. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  8. Snowfall estimation from space-borne active and passive microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, M.

    2006-12-01

    In this study, an algorithm to estimate snowfall from passive and active microwave observations is formulated and analyzed using both simulated and real observations. A high resolution cloud resolving model (CRM) is used to simulate a snowfall event and space-borne radar and radiometer observations similar to those of the future Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) are synthesized from the CRM data. Then a combined radar- radiometer similar to that of Grecu et al. (2004) is applied to the synthetic data. It is found that in spite of dual-frequency radar and millimeter-wave radiometer observations, snow retrievals from GPM-like observations are subject to various uncertainties. Simple parameterizations are devised to minimize these uncertainties. The combined radar-radiometer, modified to account for differences between the instruments deployed in Wakasa Bay Experiment and the GPM instruments, is applied to real data from the Wakasa Bay Experiment. Results show the algorithm's feasibility.

  9. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the rain drop-size-distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop-size-distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation but affect the retrievals is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5 deg to deg N latitude and 166 deg to 172 deg E longitude from July to September 1999, and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, i.e. the rain rate, the precipitation water content, the drop-size-distribution intercept, and the mass weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are in general higher than the official TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates

  10. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency Active and Passive Microwave Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the raindrop size distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop size distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation, but affect the retrievals, is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5° to 12°N latitude and from 166° to 172°E longitude from July to September 1999 and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, that is, the rain rate, precipitation water content, drop size distribution intercept, and the mass- weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are, in general, higher than the official TRMM precipitation radar (PR)-only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates, derived

  11. Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave SoundingUnit-A (EOS/AMSU-A): Acquisition activities plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1994-01-01

    This is the acquisition activities plan for the software to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) system. This document is submitted in response to Contract NAS5-323 14 as CDRL 508. The procurement activities required to acquire software for the EOS/AMSU-A program are defined.

  12. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Olson, William S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated using both simulated and airborne data. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite multi-frequency active and passive observations. These observations are characterized by various spatial and sampling resolutions. This makes the retrieval problem mathematically more difficult and ill-determined because the quality of information decreases with decreasing resolution. A model that, given reflectivity profiles and a small set of parameters (including the cloud water content, the intercept drop size distribution, and a variable describing the frozen hydrometeor properties), simulates high-resolution brightness temperatures is used. The high-resolution simulated brightness temperatures are convolved at the real sensor resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is used to minimize the differences between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. The retrieval technique is investigated using cloud model synthetic and airborne data from the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment. Simulated high-resolution brightness temperatures and reflectivities and airborne observation strong are convolved at the resolution of the TRMM instruments and retrievals are performed and analyzed relative to the reference data used in observations synthesis. An illustration of the possible use of the technique in satellite rainfall estimation is presented through an application to TRMM data. The study suggests improvements in combined active and passive retrievals even when the instruments resolutions are significantly different. Future work needs to better quantify the retrievals performance, especially in connection with satellite applications, and the uncertainty of the models used in retrieval.

  13. Investigating Baseline, Alternative and Copula-based Algorithm for combining Airborne Active and Passive Microwave Observations in the SMAP Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, C.; Lorenz, C.; Jagdhuber, T.; Laux, P.; Hajnsek, I.; Kunstmann, H.; Entekhabi, D.; Vereecken, H.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and freeze/thaw states. SMAP integrates L-band radar and radiometer instruments as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. Airborne instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment, Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system F-SAR of DLR were flown simultaneously on the same platform on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites with in situ sensors. Here, we used the obtained data sets as a test-bed for the analysis of three active-passive fusion techniques: A) The SMAP baseline algorithm: Disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, B), the SMAP alternative algorithm: Estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter and C) Copula-based combination of active and passive microwave data. For method C empirical Copulas were generated and theoretical Copulas fitted both on the level of the raw products brightness temperature and backscatter as well as two soil moisture products. Results indicate that the regression parameters for method A and B are dependent on the radar vegetation index (RVI). Similarly, for method C the best performance was gained by generating separate Copulas for individual land use classes. For more in-depth analyses longer time series are necessary as can obtained by airborne campaigns, therefore, the methods will be applied to SMAP data.

  14. Summary of the active microwave users workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A coordinated microwave applications development program was initiated to improve the capability to: (1) identify, monitor, and assess the earth's resources; and (2) monitor the earth's environment and predict significant changes. The program consists of the scientific, technical, and programmatic activities required to develop microwave remote sensing into an operational tool for systematic earth observations.

  15. Microwave sensors for earth resource observations in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouse, J. W., Jr.; Harnage, M. J., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Future trends in microwave sensing are identified with reference to the workshops organized by the Active Microwave Remote Sensing Research Program. The workshops demonstrated that (1) microwave techniques have great potential for earth observations of renewable and nonrenewable resources and (2) existing research does not adequately assess microwave sensor measurement capabilities. The need for synoptic information includes such areas as cloud-free, surface-roughness and electrical-properties data. Attention is given to applications including all-weather imaging, sensitivity to vegetation and soil-moisture conditions. Research tasks to be accomplished during the next five years are discussed.

  16. Active Microwave Properties of Vegetation Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    Potential users of radar imagery need a better fundamental understanding of the capabilities of radar systems for vegetation studies than past studies provide. One approach is the use of theoretical models to predict observable active microwave properties of vegetation. This in turn requires accurate observations of backscattering coefficients and other active microwave properties in field research studies. The background document for the SRAEC program emphasizes the need to relate electromagnetic parameters to classical biophysical descriptors and to understand the role of polarization, especially cross-polarization. The broad goal of this study is to increase the understanding of the effects of canopy structure on the active microwave properties of vegetation canopies, with particular attention to polarization.

  17. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 1; Model Formulation and Comparison with Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    In this study, a 1-D steady-state microphysical model which describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable gridpoints of "parent" 3-D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65 to 85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (approx. 0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially-melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well-exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the Precipitation Radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase in proportion to the particle meltwater fraction, leading to a "bright-band" of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the "seeding" ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles

  18. The sun and nearby stars: microwave observations at high resolution.

    PubMed

    Kundu, M R; Lang, K R

    1985-04-01

    High-resolution microwave observations are providing new insights into the nature of active regions and eruptions on the sun and nearby stars. The strength, evolution, and structure of magnetic fields in coronal loops can be determined by multiple-wavelength observations with the Very Large Array. Flare models can be tested with Very Large Array snapshot maps, which have angular resolutions of better than 1 second of arc in time periods as short as 10 seconds. Magnetic changes that precede solar eruptions on time scales of tens of minutes involve primarily emerging coronal loops and the interactions of two or more loops. Magnetic reconnection at the interface of two closed loops may accelerate electrons and trigger the release of microwave energy in the coronal parts of the magnetic loops. Nearby main-sequence stars of late spectral type emit slowly varying microwave radiation and stellar microwave bursts that show striking similarities to those of the sun. PMID:17811548

  19. The sun and nearby stars - Microwave observations at high resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Lang, K. R.

    1985-04-01

    High-resolution microwave observations are providing new insights into the nature of active regions and eruptions on the sun and nearby stars. The strength, evolution, and structure of magnetic fields in coronal loops can be determined by multiple-wavelength observations with the Very Large Array. Flare models ccan be tested with Very Large Array snapshot maps, which have angular resolutions of better than 1 second of arc in time periods as short as 10 seconds. Magnetic changes that precede solar eruptions on time scales of tens of minutes involve primarily emerging coronal loops and the interactions of two or more loops. Magnetic reconnection at the interface of two closed loops may accelerate electrons and trigger the release of microwave energy in the coronal parts of the magnetic loops. Nearby main-sequence stars of late spectral type emit slowly varying microwave radiation and stellar microwave bursts that show striking similarities to those of the sun.

  20. The microwave background anisotropies: observations.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, D

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation-fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 microK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1 degrees and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe--the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century.

  1. Applications of active microwave imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, F. P.; Childs, L. F.; Gilbert, R.; Harlan, J. C.; Hoffer, R. M.; Miller, J. M.; Parsons, J.; Polcyn, F.; Schardt, B. B.; Smith, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics were discussed in reference to active microwave applications: (1) Use of imaging radar to improve the data collection/analysis process; (2) Data collection tasks for radar that other systems will not perform; (3) Data reduction concepts; and (4) System and vehicle parameters: aircraft and spacecraft.

  2. Passive Polarimetric Microwave Signatures Observed Over Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WindSat satellite-based fully polarimetric passive microwave observations, expressed in the form of the Stokes vector, were analyzed over the Antarctic ice sheet. The vertically and horizontally polarized brightness temperatures (first two Stokes components) from WindSat are shown to be consistent w...

  3. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Mendis, A.

    1977-01-01

    It is argued that the 'surface of last scattering' of the observed microwave background radiation corresponds to the distribution of dust in galaxies or protogalaxies with a temperature of about 110 K at the epoch corresponding to Z roughly equal to 40. This is in contrast with the plasma temperature of over 3,000 K at an earlier epoch (Z greater than about 1,000), as given by the canonical model of big bang cosmologies. In view of this, the claim that the microwave background radiation lends strong support to hot big bang cosmologies is without foundation.

  4. Estimating Soil Moisture from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; VandeGriend, A. A.; deJeu, R.; deVries, J.; Seyhan, E.

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative research in microwave remote sensing between the Hydrological Sciences Branch of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Earth Sciences Faculty of the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam began with the Botswana Water and Energy Balance Experiment and has continued through a series of highly successful International Research Programs. The collaboration between these two research institutions has resulted in significant scientific achievements, most notably in the area of satellite-based microwave remote sensing of soil moisture. The Botswana Program was the first joint research initiative between these two institutions, and provided a unique data base which included historical data sets of Scanning Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (SN4NM) data, climate information, and extensive soil moisture measurements over several large experimental sites in southeast Botswana. These data were the basis for the development of new approaches in physically-based inverse modelling of soil moisture from satellite microwave observations. Among the results from this study were quantitative estimates of vegetation transmission properties at microwave frequencies. A single polarization modelling approach which used horizontally polarized microwave observations combined with monthly composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was developed, and yielded good results. After more precise field experimentation with a ground-based radiometer system, a dual-polarization approach was subsequently developed. This new approach realized significant improvements in soil moisture estimation by satellite. Results from the Botswana study were subsequently applied to a desertification monitoring study for the country of Spain within the framework of the European Community science research programs EFEDA and RESMEDES. A dual frequency approach with only microwave data was used for this application. The Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) was calculated from 37 GHz data

  5. Assimilation of Synchronous and Asynchronous Active/Passive Microwave Observations at Different Spatial Scales for Improved Soil Moisture and Crop Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, J.; Liu, P. W.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Steele-Dunne, S. C.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Assimilation of active and passive (AP) microwave observations at L-band in the crop simulation models is able to improve estimates of soil moisture (SM) and crop growth in the models. These observations provide complementary information for dynamic heterogeneous landscapes. Active observations are more sensitive to soil surface roughness and vegetation structure, while passive observations are more sensitive to SM. These observations may be available at different spatial and temporal resolutions from different satellite platforms. For example, the present ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides passive observations at 1.41 GHz at 25 km every 2-3 days, while the NASA/CONAE Aquarius mission provides L-band AP observations at spatial resolution of 150 km with a repeat coverage of 7 days for global SM products. The planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission (SMAP) will provide AP observations at 1.26 and 1.41 GHz at the spatial resolutions of 3 and 30 km, respectively, with a repeat coverage of 2-3 days, starting early 2015. The goal of this study is to develop an Ensemble Kalman Filter-based methodology that assimilates synchronously and asynchronously available backscattering coefficients (σ0) and brightness temperatures (TB) at different spatial scales from SMOS and Aquarius. The Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) that contains a suite of crop simulation models will be linked to microwave emission and scattering models (DSSAT-A-P) for the assimilation. The methodology will be implemented in the rain fed agricultural region of the Brazilian La Plata Basin in South America, where soybean is the primary crop. The augmented state vector will include both model states and parameters related to soil and vegetation during the growing season. The methodology will be evaluated using a synthetic experiment and also using observations from SMOS and Aquarius. In preliminary results with synthetic experiment, using asynchronous

  6. Microwave and gamma radiation observations of soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Njoku, E. G.; Peck, E.; Ulaby, F. T.

    1979-01-01

    The unique dielectric properties of water at microwave wavelengths afford the possibility for remotely sensing the moisture content in the surface layer of the soil. The surface emissivity and reflectivity for the soils at these wavelengths are strong functions of its moisture content. The changes in emissivity can be observed by passive microwave techniques (radiometry) and the change in reflectivity can be observed by active microwave techniques (radar). The difference in the natural terrestrial gamma ray flux measured for wet and dry soil may be used to determine soil moisture. The presence of water moisture in the soil causes an effective increase in soil density, resulting in an increased attenuation of the gamma flux for wet soil and a corresponding lower flux above the ground surface.

  7. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  8. A Melting Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part 2; Simulation of TRMM Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Kummerow, Christian D.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2000-01-01

    The one-dimensional, steady-state melting layer model developed in Part I of this study is used to calculate both the microphysical and radiative properties of melting precipitation, based upon the computed concentrations of snow and graupel just above the freezing level at applicable horizontal gridpoints of 3-dimensional cloud resolving model simulations. The modified 3-dimensional distributions of precipitation properties serve as input to radiative transfer calculations of upwelling radiances and radar extinction/reflectivities at the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) frequencies, respectively. At the resolution of the cloud resolving model grids (approx. 1 km), upwelling radiances generally increase if mixed-phase precipitation is included in the model atmosphere. The magnitude of the increase depends upon the optical thickness of the cloud and precipitation, as well as the scattering characteristics of ice-phase precipitation aloft. Over the set of cloud resolving model simulations utilized in this study, maximum radiance increases of 43, 28, 18, and 10 K are simulated at 10.65, 19.35 GHz, 37.0, and 85.5 GHz, respectively. The impact of melting on TMI-measured radiances is determined not only by the physics of the melting particles but also by the horizontal extent of the melting precipitation, since the lower-frequency channels have footprints that extend over 10''s of kilometers. At TMI resolution, the maximum radiance increases are 16, 15, 12, and 9 K at the same frequencies. Simulated PR extinction and reflectivities in the melting layer can increase dramatically if mixed-phase precipitation is included, a result consistent with previous studies. Maximum increases of 0.46 (-2 dB) in extinction optical depth and 5 dBZ in reflectivity are simulated based upon the set of cloud resolving model simulations.

  9. Interpretation of observed cosmic microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollaine, S.

    1978-01-01

    The Alfven and Mendis (1977) conclusion that dust grains in galaxies render the universe opaque to cosmic microwave background at a red shift ratio equal to 40 is challenged by a calculation of the opacity of galactic dust grains to the microwave background radiation from the time of decoupling at emission red shift ratio equal to 1500 to the present in the standard big bang model. In the present calculation, evolutionary effects on grain opacity and abundance are estimated. At wavelengths used in studying the microwave background, the optical depth of the grains is found to be 0.18 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.03, and 0.05 when the deceleration parameter equals 0.5. The results indicate that microwave background can provide information on an early dense phase of the universe.

  10. Microwave Observations on Saturn's Main Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhimeng; Hayes, Alexander; Janssen, Michael A.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; de Pater, Imke; Dunn, David; Hedman, Matthew M.; Estrada, Paul R.

    2016-10-01

    Despite considerable study, Saturn's rings continue to challenge current theories for their provenance. Water ice comprises the bulk of Saturn's rings, yet it is the small fraction of non-icy material that is arguably more valuable in revealing clues about the system's origin and age. Herein, we present new measurements of the non-icy material fraction in Saturn's main rings, determined from microwave observations obtained by Cassini Radar and EVLA.Our Cassini Radar observations in the C Ring show an exceptionally high brightness at near-zero azimuthal angles, suggesting a high porosity of 70%-75% for the particles. Furthermore, most regions in the C ring contain about 1-2% silicates while with an enhanced abundance concentrated in the middle C ring reaching a maximum of 6%-11%. We proposed that the C ring has been continuously polluted by meteoroid bombardment for 15-90Myr, while the middle C ring was further contaminated by an incoming Centaur disrupted by Saturn tidal force. Owing to the B ring's high opacity, the particles there are likely to have 85% - 90% porosity, with corresponding non-icy material fractions of ~ 0.3% - 0.5% in the inner and outer B ring, and ~0.1% - 0.2% in the middle regions. For the A ring interior to the Encke gap, the derived non-icy material is ~0.2% - 0.3% everywhere for porosities ranging from 55% - 90%. Finally, our results for the Cassini Division indicate a non-icy material fraction of ~1% - 2% similar to most regions in the C ring, except that the Cassini Division particles are more likely to contain ~ 90% porosity due to the high opacity there. Our results here further support the idea that Saturn's rings may be less than 150 Myr old suggesting an origin scenario in which the rings are derived from the relatively recent breakup of an icy moon.Furthermore, we calibrated and analyzed multi-wavelengths EVLA observation at wavelengths ranging from 0.7cm to 13cm. As the array operates in a wavelength regime where the absorption

  11. A Melting-Layer Model for Passive/Active Microwave Remote Sensing Applications. Part I: Model Formulation and Comparison with Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, William S.; Bauer, Peter; Viltard, Nicolas F.; Johnson, Daniel E.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Meneghini, Robert; Liao, Liang

    2001-07-01

    In this study, a 1D steady-state microphysical model that describes the vertical distribution of melting precipitation particles is developed. The model is driven by the ice-phase precipitation distributions just above the freezing level at applicable grid points of `parent' 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations. It extends these simulations by providing the number density and meltwater fraction of each particle in finely separated size categories through the melting layer. The depth of the modeled melting layer is primarily determined by the initial material density of the ice-phase precipitation. The radiative properties of melting precipitation at microwave frequencies are calculated based upon different methods for describing the dielectric properties of mixed-phase particles. Particle absorption and scattering efficiencies at the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager frequencies (10.65-85.5 GHz) are enhanced greatly for relatively small (0.1) meltwater fractions. The relatively large number of partially melted particles just below the freezing level in stratiform regions leads to significant microwave absorption, well exceeding the absorption by rain at the base of the melting layer. Calculated precipitation backscatter efficiencies at the precipitation radar frequency (13.8 GHz) increase with particle meltwater fraction, leading to a `bright band' of enhanced radar reflectivities in agreement with previous studies. The radiative properties of the melting layer are determined by the choice of dielectric models and the initial water contents and material densities of the `seeding' ice-phase precipitation particles. Simulated melting-layer profiles based upon snow described by the Fabry-Szyrmer core-shell dielectric model and graupel described by the Maxwell-Garnett water matrix dielectric model lead to reasonable agreement with radar-derived melting-layer optical depth distributions. Moreover, control profiles that do not contain mixed

  12. Microwave-assisted regeneration of activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-09-01

    Microwave heating was used in the regeneration of methylene blue-loaded activated carbons produced from fibers (PFAC), empty fruit bunches (EFBAC) and shell (PSAC) of oil palm. The dye-loaded carbons were treated in a modified conventional microwave oven operated at 2450 MHz and irradiation time of 2, 3 and 5 min. The virgin properties of the origin and regenerated activated carbons were characterized by pore structural analysis and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement and determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue (MB). Microwave irradiation preserved the pore structure, original active sites and adsorption capacity of the regenerated activated carbons. The carbon yield and the monolayer adsorption capacities for MB were maintained at 68.35-82.84% and 154.65-195.22 mg/g, even after five adsorption-regeneration cycles. The findings revealed the potential of microwave heating for regeneration of spent activated carbons.

  13. Observation of biological samples using a scanning microwave microscope.

    PubMed

    Park, Jewook; Hyun, S; Kim, A; Kim, T; Char, K

    2005-01-01

    We present the application of a scanning microwave microscope technique to biological samples. Since dielectric properties of most biological samples originate mainly from the water they contain, we were able to obtain microscope images of biological samples by our scanning microwave microscope technique. As a model system, we have measured the electrical properties of water in the microwave region. The high dielectric constant and the large loss tangent of water were verified. Furthermore, we have measured the properties of water with differing amounts of sodium chloride concentration ranging from de-ionized water to the saturated solution. We have observed a significant change in the resonant frequency and Q value of the resonator as a function of sodium chloride concentration. The concentration dependence of the signals shows that our scanning microwave microscope technique can be useful for investigating the local electric behavior of biological samples with a simple model of ionic conduction.

  14. Killing activity of microwaves in milk.

    PubMed

    Kindle, G; Busse, A; Kampa, D; Meyer-König, U; Daschner, F D

    1996-08-01

    The killing activity of microwaves of 2450 MHz frequency and 600 W power on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter sakazakii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium terrae and poliomyelitis vaccine-virus suspended in five infant formula preparations was investigated. The samples were brought to the boil (85-100 s depending on milk type). They had reached average temperatures of 82-93 degrees C at this point. Most of the vegetative organisms were killed. In those samples where growth was still detectable after microwave treatment, a significant reduction in viable micro-organisms (at least 5000-fold) was noted. We conclude that microwave beating to the boil is a convenient and fast method to reduce microbial contamination of infant feeds. However, care should be taken to ensure that milk is adequately cooled to the required temperature before it is fed to an infant. PMID:8864939

  15. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  16. Satellite microwave observations of soil moisture variations. [by the microwave radiometer on the Nimbus 5 satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T. J.; Rango, A.; Neff, R.

    1975-01-01

    The electrically scanning microwave radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite was used to observe microwave emissions from vegetated and soil surfaces over an Illinois-Indiana study area, the Mississippi Valley, and the Great Salt Lake Desert in Utah. Analysis of microwave brightness temperatures (T sub B) and antecedent rainfall over these areas provided a way to monitor variations of near-surface soil moisture. Because vegetation absorbs microwave emission from the soil at the 1.55 cm wavelength of ESMR, relative soil moisture measurements can only be obtained over bare or sparsely vegetated soil. In general T sub B increased during rainfree periods as evaporation of water and drying of the surface soil occurs, and drops in T sub B are experienced after significant rainfall events wet the soil. Microwave observations from space are limited to coarse resolutions (10-25 km), but it may be possible in regions with sparse vegetation cover to estimate soil moisture conditions on a watershed or agricultural district basis, particularly since daily observations can be obtained.

  17. The microwave background anisotropies: Observations

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, David

    1998-01-01

    Most cosmologists now believe that we live in an evolving universe that has been expanding and cooling since its origin about 15 billion years ago. Strong evidence for this standard cosmological model comes from studies of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR), the remnant heat from the initial fireball. The CMBR spectrum is blackbody, as predicted from the hot Big Bang model before the discovery of the remnant radiation in 1964. In 1992 the cosmic background explorer (COBE) satellite finally detected the anisotropy of the radiation—fingerprints left by tiny temperature fluctuations in the initial bang. Careful design of the COBE satellite, and a bit of luck, allowed the 30 μK fluctuations in the CMBR temperature (2.73 K) to be pulled out of instrument noise and spurious foreground emissions. Further advances in detector technology and experiment design are allowing current CMBR experiments to search for predicted features in the anisotropy power spectrum at angular scales of 1° and smaller. If they exist, these features were formed at an important epoch in the evolution of the universe—the decoupling of matter and radiation at a temperature of about 4,000 K and a time about 300,000 years after the bang. CMBR anisotropy measurements probe directly some detailed physics of the early universe. Also, parameters of the cosmological model can be measured because the anisotropy power spectrum depends on constituent densities and the horizon scale at a known cosmological epoch. As sophisticated experiments on the ground and on balloons pursue these measurements, two CMBR anisotropy satellite missions are being prepared for launch early in the next century. PMID:9419320

  18. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

  19. Assimilation of Passive and Active Microwave Soil Moisture Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C. S.; Reichle, R. H.; DeLannoy, G. J. M.; Liu, Q.

    2012-01-01

    Root-zone soil moisture is an important control over the partition of land surface energy and moisture, and the assimilation of remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture has been shown to improve model profile soil moisture [1]. To date, efforts to assimilate remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture at large scales have focused on soil moisture derived from the passive microwave Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) and the active Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT; together with its predecessor on the European Remote Sensing satellites (ERS. The assimilation of passive and active microwave soil moisture observations has not yet been directly compared, and so this study compares the impact of assimilating ASCAT and AMSR-E soil moisture data, both separately and together. Since the soil moisture retrieval skill from active and passive microwave data is thought to differ according to surface characteristics [2], the impact of each assimilation on the model soil moisture skill is assessed according to land cover type, by comparison to in situ soil moisture observations.

  20. Cosmic microwave background observables of small field models of inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Dayan, Ido; Brustein, Ram E-mail: ramyb@bgu.ac.il

    2010-09-01

    We construct a class of single small field models of inflation that can predict, contrary to popular wisdom, an observable gravitational wave signal in the cosmic microwave background anisotropies. The spectral index, its running, the tensor to scalar ratio and the number of e-folds can cover all the parameter space currently allowed by cosmological observations. A unique feature of models in this class is their ability to predict a negative spectral index running in accordance with recent cosmic microwave background observations. We discuss the new class of models from an effective field theory perspective and show that if the dimensionless trilinear coupling is small, as required for consistency, then the observed spectral index running implies a high scale of inflation and hence an observable gravitational wave signal. All the models share a distinct prediction of higher power at smaller scales, making them easy targets for detection.

  1. Real Time Monitoring of Flooding from Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, John F.; Frey, Herb (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a new method for making high-resolution flood extent maps (e.g., at the 30-100 m scale of digital elevation models) in real-time from low-resolution (20-70 km) passive microwave observations. The method builds a "flood-potential" database from elevations and historic flood imagery and uses it to create a flood-extent map consistent with the observed open water fraction. Microwave radiometric measurements are useful for flood monitoring because they sense surface water in clear-or-cloudy conditions and can provide more timely data (e.g., compared to radars) from relatively wide swath widths and an increasing number of available platforms (DMSP, ADEOS-II, Terra, NPOESS, GPM). The chief disadvantages for flood mapping are the radiometers' low resolution and the need for local calibration of the relationship between radiances and open-water fraction. We present our method for transforming microwave sensor-scale open water fraction estimates into high-resolution flood extent maps and describe 30-day flood map sequences generated during a retrospective study of the 1993 Great Midwest Flood. We discuss the method's potential improvement through as yet unimplemented algorithm enhancements and expected advancements in microwave radiometry (e.g., improved resolution and atmospheric correction).

  2. Sensitivity of Spacebased Microwave Radiometer Observations to Ocean Surface Evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Timothy W.; Li, Li

    2000-01-01

    Ocean surface evaporation and the latent heat it carries are the major components of the hydrologic and thermal forcing on the global oceans. However, there is practically no direct in situ measurements. Evaporation estimated from bulk parameterization methods depends on the quality and distribution of volunteer-ship reports which are far less than satisfactory. The only way to monitor evaporation with sufficient temporal and spatial resolutions to study global environment changes is by spaceborne sensors. The estimation of seasonal-to-interannual variation of ocean evaporation, using spacebased measurements of wind speed, sea surface temperature (SST), and integrated water vapor, through bulk parameterization method,s was achieved with reasonable success over most of the global ocean, in the past decade. Because all the three geophysical parameters can be retrieved from the radiance at the frequencies measured by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus-7, the feasibility of retrieving evaporation directly from the measured radiance was suggested and demonstrated using coincident brightness temperatures observed by SMMR and latent heat flux computed from ship data, in the monthly time scale. However, the operational microwave radiometers that followed SMMR, the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), lack the low frequency channels which are sensitive to SST. This low frequency channels are again included in the microwave imager (TMI) of the recently launched Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM). The radiance at the frequencies observed by both TMI and SSM/I were simulated through an atmospheric radiative transfer model using ocean surface parameters and atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles produced by the reanalysis of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF). From the same ECMWF data set, coincident evaporation is computed using a surface layer turbulent transfer model. The sensitivity of the radiance to

  3. Land Surface Microwave Emissivity Dynamics: Observations, Analysis and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Yudong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Kumar, Sujay; Ringerud, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Land surface microwave emissivity affects remote sensing of both the atmosphere and the land surface. The dynamical behavior of microwave emissivity over a very diverse sample of land surface types is studied. With seven years of satellite measurements from AMSR-E, we identified various dynamical regimes of the land surface emission. In addition, we used two radiative transfer models (RTMs), the Community Radiative Transfer Model (CRTM) and the Community Microwave Emission Modeling Platform (CMEM), to simulate land surface emissivity dynamics. With both CRTM and CMEM coupled to NASA's Land Information System, global-scale land surface microwave emissivities were simulated for five years, and evaluated against AMSR-E observations. It is found that both models have successes and failures over various types of land surfaces. Among them, the desert shows the most consistent underestimates (by approx. 70-80%), due to limitations of the physical models used, and requires a revision in both systems. Other snow-free surface types exhibit various degrees of success and it is expected that parameter tuning can improve their performances.

  4. Assimilation of passive and active microwave soil moisture retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, C. S.; Reichle, R. H.; De Lannoy, G. J. M.; Liu, Q.

    2012-02-01

    Near-surface soil moisture observations from the active microwave ASCAT and the passive microwave AMSR-E satellite instruments are assimilated, both separately and together, into the NASA Catchment land surface model over 3.5 years using an ensemble Kalman filter. The impact of each assimilation is evaluated using in situ soil moisture observations from 85 sites in the US and Australia, in terms of the anomaly time series correlation-coefficient, R. The skill gained by assimilating either ASCAT or AMSR-E was very similar, even when separated by land cover type. Over all sites, the mean root-zone R was significantly increased from 0.45 for an open-loop, to 0.55, 0.54, and 0.56 by the assimilation of ASCAT, AMSR-E, and both, respectively. Each assimilation also had a positive impact over each land cover type sampled. For maximum accuracy and coverage it is recommended that active and passive microwave observations be assimilated together.

  5. Advances in Assimilation of Satellite-Based Passive Microwave Observations for Soil-Moisture Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Lannoy, Gabrielle J. M.; Pauwels, Valentijn; Reichle, Rolf H.; Draper, Clara; Koster, Randy; Liu, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Satellite-based microwave measurements have long shown potential to provide global information about soil moisture. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, [1]) mission as well as the future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP, [2]) mission measure passive microwave emission at L-band frequencies, at a relatively coarse (40 km) spatial resolution. In addition, SMAP will measure active microwave signals at a higher spatial resolution (3 km). These new L-band missions have a greater sensing depth (of -5cm) compared with past and present C- and X-band microwave sensors. ESA currently also disseminates retrievals of SMOS surface soil moisture that are derived from SMOS brightness temperature observations and ancillary data. In this research, we address two major challenges with the assimilation of recent/future satellite-based microwave measurements: (i) assimilation of soil moisture retrievals versus brightness temperatures for surface and root-zone soil moisture estimation and (ii) scale-mismatches between satellite observations, models and in situ validation data.

  6. Stratiform and Convective Rain Discrimination from Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Cadeddu, M.; Short, D. A.; Weinman, J. A.; Schols, J. L.; Haferman, J.

    1997-01-01

    A criterion based on the SSM/I observations is developed to discriminate rain into convective and stratiform types. This criterion depends on the microwave polarization properties of the flat melting snow particles that fall slowly in the stratiform clouds. Utilizing this criterion and some spatial and temporal characteristics of hydrometeors in TOGA-COARE area revealed by ship borne radars, we have developed an algorithm to retrieve convective and stratiform rain rate from SSM/I data.

  7. Observations of Gravity Waves with the UARS Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, D. L.; Waters, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    From Introduction: Observations (of gravity waves-GW) from radar, lidar, balloon and rocket yield good temporal and vertical resolutions usually at one geographical location while aircraft observations provide good horizontal resolution but for a short period of time. It is difficult in general for space-borne sensors to obtain the same resolutions, but observations of GWs at somewhat larger scales are feasible, for example using saturated radiances from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)[Wu and Waters, 1996].

  8. Utilization of active microwave roughness measurements to improve passive microwave soil moisture estimates over bare soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S. W.; Blanchard, B. J.; Blanchard, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    Multisensor aircraft data were used to establish the potential of the active microwave sensor response to be used to compensate for roughness in the passive microwave sensor's response to soil moisture. Only bare fields were used. It is found that the L-band radiometer's capability to estimate soil moisture significantly improves when surface roughness is accounted for with the scatterometers.

  9. Utilization of active microwave roughness measurements to improve passive microwave soil moisture estimates over bare soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S. W.; Blanchard, A. J.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    Multisensor aircraft data were used to establish the potential of the active microwave sensor response to be used to compensate for roughness in the passive microwave sensor's response to soil moisture. Only bare fields were used. It is found that the L-band radiometer's capability to estimate soil moisture significantly improves when surface roughness is accounted for with the scatterometers.

  10. Surface moisture and satellite microwave observations in semiarid southern Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Owe, M.; Chang, A.T.C. ); Van de Griend, A.A. )

    1992-03-01

    Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer 6.6-GHz passive microwave data were studied in relation to large-scale soil moisture estimates over a 3-year period in southeastern Bostwana. An extensive data base of weekly surface soil moisture measurements was used with meteorological data to estimate pixel average soil moisture on a daily basis. The influence of the vegetation canopy on the surface emissivity was studied by partitioning the data set into classes on the basis of the normalized difference vegetation index. After correcting for the vegetation optical depth, a correlation of r = 0.84 was established between the normalized brightness temperature observations and surface soil moisture for the 3-year period.

  11. Crystallization and activation of silicon by microwave rapid annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Ota, Kosuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayuta; Ushijima, Mitsuru; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2016-07-01

    A combination of the carbon-powder absorber with microwave irradiation is proposed as a rapid heat method. 2-μm-diameter carbon powders with a packing density of 0.08 effectively absorbed 2.45 GHz 1000-W-microwave and heated themselves to 1163 °C for 26 s. The present heat treatment recrystallized n-type crystalline silicon surfaces implanted with 1.0 × 10^{15}hbox {-cm}^{-2}-boron and phosphorus atoms with crystalline volume ratios of 0.99 and 0.93, respectively, by microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 20 s. Activation and carrier generation were simultaneously achieved with a sheet resistivity of 62 Ω / hbox {sq}. A high photo-induced-carrier effective lifetime of 1.0 × 10^{-4} s was also achieved. Typical electrical current-rectified characteristic and solar cell characteristic with an efficiency of 12.1 % under 100-mW/cm2-air-mass-1.5 illumination were obtained. Moreover, heat treatment with microwave irradiation at 1000 W for 22 s successfully crystallized silicon thin films with thicknesses ranging from 2.4 to 50 nm formed on quartz substrates. Nano-crystalline cluster structure with a high volume ratio of 50 % was formed in the 1.8-nm (initial 2.4-nm)-thick silicon films. Photoluminescence around 1.77 eV was observed for the 1.8-nm-thick silicon films annealed at 260 °C in 1.3 × 106-Pa-H2O-vapor for 3 h after the microwave heating.

  12. Observations of Land Surface Variability Using Passive Microwave Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the global variability of land surface wetness (soil moisture), skin temperature, and related surface fluxes of heat and moisture is key to assessing the importance of the land surface in influencing climate. The feasibility of producing model estimates of these quantities is being studied as part of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Global Soil Wetness Project (GSWP). In the GSWP approach, meteorological observations and analyses are used to drive global circulation models. Satellite measurements can provide independent estimates of key land surface parameters that are needed for initializing and validating the climate models and for monitoring long-term change. Satellite observations of the land surface can also be assimilated into soil models to estimate moisture in the root zone. In our research, passive microwave satellite data recorded during 1978-1987 from the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) are being used to examine spatial and temporal trends in surface soil moisture, vegetation, and temperature. These data include observations at C and X bands (6.6 and 10.7 GHz), which are not available on the current Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and are precursors to data that will become available from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) on Advanced Earth Observing Satellite (ADEOS-II) and Earth Observing System (EOS) PM1 in the year 2000. A chart shows a time-series of SMMR-derived surface temperature, T-e and surface soil moisture M, retrieved on a 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg grid and further averaged over a 4 deg x 10 deg study region in the African Sahel. Also shown are National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) model outputs of surface temperature, T-sfc, and soil wetness, Soil-w. The variables have been scaled to have similar dynamic ranges on the plots. The NCEP data from the NCEP Reanalysis Project are monthly averages on a 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg grid averaged over

  13. Joint Characterization of Vegetation by Satellite Observations from Visible to Microwave Wavelengths - A Sensitivity Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Aires, Filipe; Rossow, William; Matthews, Elaine

    2001-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation and comparison of visible, near-infrared, passive, and active microwave observations for vegetation characterization on a global basis for a year, with spatial resolution compatible with climatological studies. Visible and near-infrared observations along with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index come from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. An atlas of monthly mean microwave land surface emissivities from 19 to 85 GHz has been calculated from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager for a year, suppressing the atmospheric problems encountered with the use of simple channel combinations. The active microwave measurements are provided by the ERS-1 scatterometer at 5.25 GHz. The capacity to discriminate between vegetation types and to detect the vegetation phenology is assessed in the context of a vegetation classification obtained from in situ observations. A clustering technique derived from the Kohonen topological maps is used to merge the three data sets and interpret their relative variations. NDVI varies with vegetation density but is not very sensitive in semiarid environments and in forested areas. Spurious seasonal cycles and large spatial variability in several areas suggest that atmospheric contamination and/or solar zenith angle drift still affect the NDVI.

  14. Active microwave responses - An aid in improved crop classification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1984-01-01

    A study determined the feasibility of using visible, infrared, and active microwave data to classify agricultural crops such as corn, sorghum, alfalfa, wheat stubble, millet, shortgrass pasture and bare soil. Visible through microwave data were collected by instruments on board the NASA C-130 aircraft over 40 agricultural fields near Guymon, OK in 1978 and Dalhart, TX in 1980. Results from stepwise and discriminant analysis techniques indicated 4.75 GHz, 1.6 GHz, and 0.4 GHz cross-polarized microwave frequencies were the microwave frequencies most sensitive to crop type differences. Inclusion of microwave data in visible and infrared classification models improved classification accuracy from 73 percent to 92 percent. Despite the results, further studies are needed during different growth stages to validate the visible, infrared, and active microwave responses to vegetation.

  15. Passive Microwave Observation of Diurnal Surface Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Swift, Calvin T.

    1997-01-01

    Microwave radiometers operating at low frequencies are sensitive to surface soil moisture changes. Few studies have been conducted that have involved multifrequency observations at frequencies low enough to measure a significant soil depth and not be attenuated by the vegetation cover. Another unexplored aspect of microwave observations at low frequencies has been the impact of diurnal variations of the soil moisture and temperature on brightness temperature. In this investigation, observations were made using a dual frequency radiometer (1.4 and 2.65 GHz) over bare soil and corn for extended periods in 1994. Comparisons of emissivity and volumetric soil moisture at four depths for bare soils showed that there was a clear correspondence between the 1 cm soil moisture and the 2.65-GHz emissivity and between the 3-5 cm soil moisture and the 1.4-GHZ emissivity, which confirms previous studies. Observations during drying and rainfall demonstrate that new and unique information for hydrologic and energy balance studies can be extracted from these data.

  16. Aircraft microwave observations and simulations of deep convection from 18 to 183 GHz. I - Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert F.; Mack, Robert A.; Prasad, N.; Hakkarinen, Ida M.; Yeh, H.-Y. M.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft passive microwave observations of deep atmospheric convection at frequencies between 18 and 183 GHz are presented in conjunction with visible and infrared satellite and aircraft observations and ground-based radar observations. Deep convective cores are indicated in the microwave data by negative brightness temperature, T/(B) deviations from the land background (270 K) to extreme T(B) values below 100 K at 37, 92, and 183 GHz and below 200 K at 18 GHz. These T(B) minima, due to scattering by ice held aloft by the intense updrafts, are well correlated with areas of high radar reflectivity. For this land background case, T(B) is inversely correlated with rain rate at all frequencies due to T(B)-ice-rain correlations. Mean Delta-T between vertically polarized and horizontally polarized radiance in precipitation areas is approximately 6 K at both 18 GHz and 37 GHz, indicating nonspherical precipitation-size ice particles with a preferred horizontal orientation. Convective cores not observed in the visible and infrared data are clearly defined in the microwave observations, and borders of convective rain areas are well defined using the high-frequency (90 GHz and greater) microwave observations.

  17. Active microwave computed brain tomography: the response to a challenge.

    PubMed

    Almirall, H; Broquetas, A; Jofre, L

    1991-02-01

    The potential application of active microwave techniques to brain imaging is studied by numerical simulations and experimentally using a recently developed cylindrical microwave scanner. The potential advantages and limitations of this method in static and dynamic brain imaging are presented and compared with other imaging techniques. PMID:2062119

  18. Microwave remote sensing: Active and passive. Volume 1 - Microwave remote sensing fundamentals and radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Moore, R. K.; Fung, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The three components of microwave remote sensing (sensor-scene interaction, sensor design, and measurement techniques), and the applications to geoscience are examined. The history of active and passive microwave sensing is reviewed, along with fundamental principles of electromagnetic wave propagation, antennas, and microwave interaction with atmospheric constituents. Radiometric concepts are reviewed, particularly for measurement problems for atmospheric and terrestrial sources of natural radiation. Particular attention is given to the emission by atmospheric gases, clouds, and rain as described by the radiative transfer function. Finally, the operation and performance characteristics of radiometer receivers are discussed, particularly for measurement precision, calibration techniques, and imaging considerations.

  19. NASA-SETI microwave observing project: Targeted Search Element (TSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L. D.

    1991-01-01

    The Targeted Search Element (TSE) performs one of two complimentary search strategies of the NASA-SETI Microwave Observing Project (MOP): the targeted search. The principle objective of the targeted search strategy is to scan the microwave window between the frequencies of one and three gigahertz for narrowband microwave emissions eminating from the direction of 773 specifically targeted stars. The scanning process is accomplished at a minimum resolution of one or two Hertz at very high sensitivity. Detectable signals will be of a continuous wave or pulsed form and may also drift in frequency. The TSE will possess extensive radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation and verification capability as the majority of signals detected by the TSE will be of local origin. Any signal passing through RFI classification and classifiable as an extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) candidate will be further validated at non-MOP observatories using established protocol. The targeted search will be conducted using the capability provided by the TSE. The TSE provides six Targeted Search Systems (TSS) which independently or cooperatively perform automated collection, analysis, storage, and archive of signal data. Data is collected in 10 megahertz chunks and signal processing is performed at a rate of 160 megabits per second. Signal data is obtained utilizing the largest radio telescopes available for the Targeted Search such as those at Arecibo and Nancay or at the dedicated NASA-SETI facility. This latter facility will allow continuous collection of data. The TSE also provides for TSS utilization planning, logistics, remote operation, and for off-line data analysis and permanent archive of both the Targeted Search and Sky Survey data.

  20. Polar sea ice observations by means of microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, P.; Chang, T. C.; Wilheit, T. T.; Campbell, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Principles pertinent to the utilization of 1.55 cm wavelength radiation emanating from the surface of the earth for studying the changing characteristics of polar sea ice are briefly reviewed. Recent data obtained at that wavelength with an imaging radiometer on-board the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to illustrate how the seasonal changes in extent of sea ice in both polar regions may be monitored free of atmospheric interference. Within a season, changes in the compactness of the sea ice are also observed from the satellite. Some substantial areas of the Arctic sea ice canopy identified as first-year ice in the past winter were observed not to melt this summer, a graphic illustration of the eventual formation of multiyear ice in the Arctic. Finally, the microwave emissivity of some of the multiyear ice areas near the North Pole was found to increase significantly in the summer, probably due to liquid water content in the firm layer.

  1. Satellite microwave observations of a storm complex: A comparative analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, D. W.

    1985-01-01

    The hypothesis that cold events correspond to a particular stage in a class of thunderstorms was tested. That class is a storms class which updrafts are: (1) strong, broad and moist, and (2) extend well above the freezing level. Condition (1) implies strong mesoscale forcing. Condition (2) implies a tall updraft or a relatively low freezing level. Such storms should have big, intense radar echoes and cold, fast-growing anvils. The thunderstorm events were analyzed by radar, rain gauge and GOES infrared observations. Radar was the starting point for detection and definition of the hypothesized thunderstorms. The radar signature is compared to the signature of the storm in rain gauge observations, satellite infrared images and satellite microwave images.

  2. Simulations of the microwave sky and of its ``observations''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, F. R.; Gispert, R.; Aghanim, N.; Bond, J. R.; de Luca, A.; Hivon, E.; Maffei, B.

    1995-10-01

    Here follows a preliminary report on the construction of fake millimeter and sub-millimeter skies, as observed by virtual instruments,e.g. the COBRA/SAMBA mission, using theoretical modeling and data extrapolations. Our goal is to create maps as realistic as possible of the relavant physical contributions which may contribute to the detected signals. This astrophysical modeling is followed by simulations of the measurement process itself by a given instrumental configuration. This will enable a precise determination of what can and cannot be achieved with a particular experimental configuration, and provide a feedback on how to improve the overall design. It is a key step on the way to define procedures for the separation of the different physical processes in the future observed maps. Note that this tool will also prove useful in preparing and analyzing current (e.g. balloon borne) Microwave Background experiments.

  3. BEHAVIOR OF SOLAR CYCLES 23 AND 24 REVEALED BY MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Maekelae, P.; Michalek, G.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2012-05-10

    Using magnetic and microwave butterfly diagrams, we compare the behavior of solar polar regions to show that (1) the polar magnetic field and the microwave brightness temperature during solar minimum substantially diminished during the cycle 23/24 minimum compared to the 22/23 minimum. (2) The polar microwave brightness temperature (Tb) seems to be a good proxy for the underlying magnetic field strength (B). The analysis indicates a relationship, B = 0.0067Tb - 70, where B is in G and Tb in K. (3) Both the brightness temperature and the magnetic field strength show north-south asymmetry most of the time except for a short period during the maximum phase. (4) The rush-to-the-pole phenomenon observed in the prominence eruption (PE) activity seems to be complete in the northern hemisphere as of 2012 March. (5) The decline of the microwave brightness temperature in the north polar region to the quiet-Sun levels and the sustained PE activity poleward of 60{sup o}N suggest that solar maximum conditions have arrived at the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere continues to exhibit conditions corresponding to the rise phase of solar cycle 24.

  4. Behavior of Solar Cycles 23 and 24 Revealed by Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Yashiro, S.; Maekelae, P.; Michalek, G.; Shibasaki, K.; Hathaway, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Using magnetic and microwave butterfly diagrams, we compare the behavior of solar polar regions to show that (1) the polar magnetic field and the microwave brightness temperature during solar minimum substantially diminished during the cycle 23/24 minimum compared to the 22/23 minimum. (2) The polar microwave brightness temperature (Tb) seems to be a good proxy for the underlying magnetic field strength (B). The analysis indicates a relationship, B = 0.0067Tb - 70, where B is in G and Tb in K. (3) Both the brightness temperature and the magnetic field strength show north-south asymmetry most of the time except for a short period during the maximum phase. (4) The rush-to-the-pole phenomenon observed in the prominence eruption (PE) activity seems to be complete in the northern hemisphere as of 2012 March. (5) The decline of the microwave brightness temperature in the north polar region to the quiet-Sun levels and the sustained PE activity poleward of 60degN suggest that solar maximum conditions have arrived at the northern hemisphere. The southern hemisphere continues to exhibit conditions corresponding to the rise phase of solar cycle 24. Key words: Sun: chromosphere Sun: coronal mass ejections (CMEs) Sun: filaments, prominences Sun: photosphere Sun: radio radiation Sun: surface magnetism

  5. Passive microwave in situ observations of Winter Weddell Sea Ica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Grenfell, T. C.; Bell, D. L.; Lange, M. A.; Ackley, S. F.

    1989-08-01

    The microwave radiative characteristics of Antarctic sea ice during a winter period were investigated continuously from R/V Polarstern during the 1986 Winter Weddell Sea Project while the ship went through about 3000 km of ice from the marginal ice zone to the coastal region and back. Radiometer measurements at 6, 10, 18, 37, and 90 GHz in vertical and horizontal polarizations were complemented by visual and video observations and measurements at 60 stations of ice thickness, salinity, temperature, snow cover, density, and other physical characteristics. Two distinct types of ice cover were observed in the marginal ice zone: small pancakes evenly distributed during the southbound leg, and ice bands with wet pancakes during the northbound leg. Other ice types observed were first-year ice covered by varying thicknesses and states of snow cover, and new and young ice found mainly in leads and polynyas. Analysis of the data shows a large variability in the multispectral microwave emissivities of these ice types, especially at 90 GHz. Over newly refrozen lead or polynya regions, several forms of new ice appear radiometrically distinct, while over thick consolidated ice with snow cover, the brightness temperatures observed at 90 GHz varied by as much as 100 K. Overall, however, at 18 GHz and lower frequencies, the emissivities of thick and cold first-year ice are relatively stable with standard deviations of about ±0.02. At the marginal ice zone, the emissivity of the ice cover is a lot less predictable and could cause large uncertainties in ice concentration estimates. The use of the 90-GHz channel in combination with a lower-frequency channel shows strong potential for more detailed characterization of the ice cover including the identification of various forms of new ice and the quantification of varying snow cover and roughness.

  6. The cosmic microwave background: observing directly the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia

    2012-09-01

    The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is a relict of the early universe. Its perfect 2.725K blackbody spectrum demonstrates that the universe underwent a hot, ionized early phase; its anisotropy (about 80 µK rms) provides strong evidence for the presence of photon-matter oscillations in the primeval plasma, shaping the initial phase of the formation of structures; its polarization state (about 3 µK rms), and in particular its rotational component (less than 0.1 µK rms) might allow to study the inflation process in the very early universe, and the physics of extremely high energies, impossible to reach with accelerators. The CMB is observed by means of microwave and mm-wave telescopes, and its measurements drove the development of ultra-sensitive bolometric detectors, sophisticated modulators, and advanced cryogenic and space technologies. Here we focus on the new frontiers of CMB research: the precision measurements of its linear polarization state, at large and intermediate angular scales, and the measurement of the inverse-Compton effect of CMB photons crossing clusters of Galaxies. In this framework, we will describe the formidable experimental challenges faced by ground-based, near-space and space experiments, using large arrays of detectors. We will show that sensitivity and mapping speed improvement obtained with these arrays must be accompanied by a corresponding reduction of systematic effects (especially for CMB polarimeters), and by improved knowledge of foreground emission, to fully exploit the huge scientific potential of these missions.

  7. Effective Radius Retrieval Using Microwave and Near-Infrared Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, R.; Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Miller, H. L.; Portmann, R. W.; Turner, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    The role that aerosols play in changing the radiative properties of clouds is uncertain, with even the sign of the forcing undetermined. The need for remotely sensing clouds is becoming more apparent with the desire to achieve a global estimate of the radiative forcing due to changes in clouds. A new technique of combining microwave and near-infrared spectroscopic measurements of liquid water path (LWP) and path integrated liquid water path (PLWP) respectively, to obtain effective radius information is outlined. Microwave measurements of brightness temperature are made routinely as part of the Aerosol and Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Near-infrared measurements are conducted using spectroscopic measurements made in the wavelength region between 900 and 1700 nm. The effective radius of clouds is retrieved using an optimal estimation retrieval scheme that takes into account the measurements, their uncertainties, prior knowledge of the effective radius and its uncertainty. The technique is applied to ground-based observations of clouds made during September at Barrow, Alaska, 2004.

  8. Observations and Theory of the Anomalous Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Matthew; Readhead, A. C.; Pearson, T. J.; Cleary, K.; Tibbs, C.; Villadsen, J.; Hirata, C. M.; Paladini, R.; Muchovej, S.; Grainge, K.; Perrott, Y.; Rumsey, C.; Scaife, A.; C-BASS Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The recently discovered Anomalous Microwave Emission (AME) presents a potential new probe of interstellar dust. Peaking at around 30GHz, having a width of several tens of GHz, and appearing to be highly dust-correlated, this continuum emission is commonly assumed to be due very small, rapidly spinning dust grains. Directed study of the AME may therefore provide a new handle on these grains and their environments. I will present three projects aimed at advancing our understanding of this emission. The first is a new, analytical derivation of radiation from spinning dust grains, bridging the gap between the precise models and realistic observations. The second is a joint CARMA/AMI survey of Planck Early Cold Clumps, searching for predicted spinning dust emission. The third is a correlation analysis of diffuse microwave emission from the North Celestial Pole, combining a new 5GHz map from the C-Band All-Sky Survey (C-BASS) with existing radio, WMAP, IRAS, and Hα maps. This work was supported in part by the NSF (AST-1212217).

  9. Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwally, H. J.; Comiso, J. C.; Parkinson, C. L.; Campbell, W. J.; Carsey, F. D.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.

  10. Direct observation of negative-index microwave surface waves.

    PubMed

    Dockrey, J A; Horsley, S A R; Hooper, I R; Sambles, J R; Hibbins, A P

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating in a negative-index material have wave-front propagation (wavevector, k) opposite in direction to that of energy flow (Poynting vector, S). Here we present an experimental realisation at microwave frequencies of an analogous surface wave phenomenon whereby a metasurface supports a surface mode that has two possible wavevector eigenstates within a narrow band of frequencies: one that supports surface waves with positive mode index, and another that supports surface waves with negative mode index. Phase sensitive measurements of the near-field of surface waves across the metasurface show the contrasting spatial evolution of the two eigenstates, providing a unique opportunity to directly observe the negative-index phenomenon. PMID:26903284

  11. Direct observation of negative-index microwave surface waves

    PubMed Central

    Dockrey, J. A.; Horsley, S. A. R.; Hooper, I. R.; Sambles, J. R.; Hibbins, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Waves propagating in a negative-index material have wave-front propagation (wavevector, k) opposite in direction to that of energy flow (Poynting vector, S). Here we present an experimental realisation at microwave frequencies of an analogous surface wave phenomenon whereby a metasurface supports a surface mode that has two possible wavevector eigenstates within a narrow band of frequencies: one that supports surface waves with positive mode index, and another that supports surface waves with negative mode index. Phase sensitive measurements of the near-field of surface waves across the metasurface show the contrasting spatial evolution of the two eigenstates, providing a unique opportunity to directly observe the negative-index phenomenon. PMID:26903284

  12. Active microwave sensing of the atmosphere, chapter 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of active microwave systems to study atmospheric phenomena is studied. Atmospheric pollution, weather prediction, climate and weather modification, weather danger and disaster warning, and atmospheric processes and interactions are covered.

  13. Turbulence in the convective boundary layer observed by microwave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.

    1997-12-01

    A 9-antenna, 400 meter microwave interferometer was utilized in SALSA MEX on the San Pedro River area in July and August, 1997, to measure the turbulence in the Convective Boundary Layer. Water vapor has an appreciable index of refraction at radio frequencies around 10 GHz, and acts as a passive tracer of the magnitude and motion of turbulence. The relative phase changes of a signal from a satellite were tracked by an array of 9 antennas, and the phase differences between antennas were then used to derive the turbulence properties of the boundary layer. Preliminary analysis shows clearly different characteristics for the convection activity of the boundary layer between day and night. From the structure function analysis they can see that the turbulence structure starts to decorrelate at scale sizes of 200 meters for a temporal passband around 100 seconds. Derivation of average wind fields is currently in process.

  14. Microwave-induced thermogenetic activation of single cells

    SciTech Connect

    Safronov, N. A.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ermakova, Yu. G.; Matlashov, M. E.; Belousov, V. V.; Sidorov-Biryukov, D. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2015-04-20

    Exposure to a microwave field is shown to enable thermogenetic activation of individual cells in a culture of cell expressing thermosensitive ion channels. Integration of a microwave transmission line with an optical fiber and a diamond quantum thermometer has been shown to allow thermogenetic single-cell activation to be combined with accurate local online temperature measurements based on an optical detection of electron spin resonance in nitrogen–vacancy centers in diamond.

  15. The Estimation of Hydrometeor Profiles from Wideband Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skofronick-Jackson, Gail M.; Wang, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Profiles of the microphysical properties of clouds and raincells are essential in many areas of atmospheric research and operational meteorology. In order to enhance the understanding of the nonlinear and underconstrained relationships between cloud and hydrometeor microphysical profiles and passive microwave brightness temperatures, estimations of cloud profiles for an anvil, a convective, and an updraft region of an oceanic squall were performed. The estimations relied on comparisons between radiative transfer calculations of incrementally estimated microphysical profiles and concurrent dual-altitude wideband brightness temperatures from the 22 February 1993 flight during TOGA-COARE. The wideband observations (10--220 GHz) are necessary for estimating cloud profiles reaching up to 20 km. The low frequencies enhance the rain and cloud water profiles, while the high frequencies are required to detail the higher altitude ice microphysics. A microphysical profile was estimated for each of the three regions of the storm. Each of the three estimated profiles produced calculated brightness temperatures within approximately 10 K of the observations. A majority, of the total iterative adjustment were to the estimated profile's frozen hydrometeor characteristics and were necessary to match the high frequency calculations with the observations. This indicates a need to validate cloud resolving models using high frequencies. Some difficulties matching the 37 GHz observation channels on the DC-8 and ER-2 aircrafts with the calculations simulated at the two aircraft heights (approximately 11 km and 20 km, respectively) were noted and potential causes presented.

  16. ASPECTS OF ARCTIC SEA ICE OBSERVABLE BY SEQUENTIAL PASSIVE MICROWAVE OBSERVATIONS FROM THE NIMBUS-5 SATELLITE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, William J.; Gloersen, Per; Zwally, H. Jay; ,

    1984-01-01

    Observations made from 1972 to 1976 with the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer on board the Nimbus-5 satellite provide sequential synoptic information of the Arctic sea ice cover. This four-year data set was used to construct a fairly continuous series of three-day average 19-GHz passive microwave images which has become a valuable source of polar information, yielding many anticipated and unanticipated discoveries of the sea ice canopy observed in its entirety through the clouds and during the polar night. Short-term, seasonal, and annual variations of key sea ice parameters, such as ice edge position, ice types, mixtures of ice types, ice concentrations, and snow melt on the ice, are presented for various parts of the Arctic.

  17. Large scale evaluation of soil moisture retrievals from passive microwave observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture from the Earth’s surface. Several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E) and WindSat have been used for this purpose using multi-channel observations. Large sc...

  18. Active and passive microwave measurements of soil moisture in FIFE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.R. ); Gogineni, S.P.; Ampe, J. )

    1992-11-30

    This work is part of the First International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) Field Experiment (FIFE), an international land-surface-atmosphere experiment aimed at improving the way climate models represent energy, water, heat, and carbon exchanges, and improving the utilization of satellite based remote sensing to monitor such parameters. This paper reports on the application of active and passive microwave measurement systems to the simultaneous determination of soil moisture. These systems have been tested on common targets very few times. Here C and X band scatterometer data from a helicopter base is compared with L band push broom microwave radiometer (PBMR) data taken from the NASA C-130 aircraft. The regions sampled over FIFE encompass areas with different surface treatments. The scatterometers proved to be sensitive to soil moisture over most of the areas studied, while the radiometer lost sensitivity in regions which had been unburned for years, and which thus had substantial dead organic accumulation. The correlation of soil moisture and backscattered signal was observed to increase with off normal angles.

  19. Arctic Sea ice studies with passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (1) to improve sea ice concentration determinations from passive microwave space observations; (2) to study the role of Arctic polynyas in the production of sea ice and the associated salinization of Arctic shelf water; and (3) to study large scale sea ice variability in the polar oceans. The strategy is to analyze existing data sets and data acquired from both the DMSP SSM/I and recently completed aircraft underflights. Special attention will be given the high resolution 85.5 GHz SSM/I channels for application to thin ice algorithms and processes studies. Analysis of aircraft and satellite data sets is expected to provide a basis for determining the potential of the SSM/I high frequency channels for improving sea ice algorithms and for investigating oceanic processes. Improved sea ice algorithms will aid the study of Arctic coastal polynyas which in turn will provide a better understanding of the role of these polynyas in maintaining the Arctic watermass structure. Analysis of satellite and archived meteorological data sets will provide improved estimates of annual, seasonal and shorter-term sea ice variability.

  20. Status of the NASA SETI Sky Survey microwave observing project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Wilck, H. C.; Olsen, E. T.; Garyantes, M. F.; Burns, D. J.; Asmar, P. R.; Brady, R. B.; Deich, W. T. S.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1992-01-01

    The Sky Survey observing program is one of two complementary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the Sky Survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range 1000-10,000 MHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial, intelligent origin. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of 10 million channels and data rates in excess of 10 gigabits per second are required to complete the survey in less than 7 years. To lay the foundation for the operational SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system has been built to test and refine real time signal detection algorithms, to test scan strategies and observatory control functions, and to test algorithms designed to reject radio frequency interference. This paper presents a high level description of the prototype hardware and reports on the preparations to deploy the system to the 34-m antenna at the research and development station of NASA's Deep Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California.

  1. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Foreground Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Hill, R. S.; Hinshaw, G.; Nolta, M. R.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Weiland, J. L.; Wright, E. L.; Halpern, M.

    2003-01-01

    The WMAP mission has mapped the full sky to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the universe. Full sky maps are made in five microwave frequency bands to separate the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from foreground emission, including diffuse Galactic emission and Galactic and extragalactic point sources. We define masks that excise regions of high foreground emission, so CMB analyses can became out with minimal foreground contamination. We also present maps and spectra of the individual emission components, leading to an improved understanding of Galactic astrophysical processes. The effectiveness of template fits to remove foreground emission from the WMAP data is also examined. These efforts result in a CMB map with minimal contamination and a demonstration that the WMAP CMB power spectrum is insensitive to residual foreground emission. We use a Maximum Entropy Method to construct a model of the Galactic emission components. The observed total Galactic emission matches the model to less than 1% and the individual model components are accurate to a few percent. We find that the Milky Way resembles other normal spiral galaxies between 408 MHz and 23 GHz, with a synchrotron spectral index that is flattest (beta(sub s) approx. -2.5) near star-forming regions, especially in the plane, and steepest (beta(sub s) approx. -3) in the halo. This is consistent with a picture of relativistic cosmic ray electron generation in star-forming regions and diffusion and convection within the plane. The significant synchrotron index steepening out of the plane suggests a diffusion process in which the halo electrons are trapped in the Galactic potential long enough to suffer synchrotron and inverse Compton energy losses and hence a spectral steepening. The synchrotron index is steeper in the WMAP bands than in lower frequency radio surveys, with a spectral break near 20 GHz to beta(sub s) less than -3. The modeled thermal dust spectral

  2. Microwave, soft and hard X-ray imaging observations of two solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Erskine, F. T.; Schmahl, E. J.; Machado, M. E.; Rovira, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    A set of microwave and hard X-ray observations of two flares observed simultaneously with the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Solar Maximum Mission Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (SMM-HXIS) are presented. The LVA was used at 6 cm to map the slowly varying and burst components in three neighboring solar active regions (Boulder Nos. 2522, 2530, and 2519) from approximately 14:00 UT until 01:00 UT on June 24-25, 1980. Six microwave bursts less than 30 sfu were observed, and for the strongest of these, two-dimensional 'snapshot' (10 s) maps with spatial resolution of 5 in. were synthesized. HXIS data show clear interconnections between regions 2522 and 2530. The X-ray observations present a global picture of flaring activity, while the VLA data show the complexity of the small magnetic structures associated with the impulsive phase phenomena. It is seen that energy release did not occur in a single isolated magnetic structure, but over a large area of intermingled loop structures.

  3. Spatial observation and quantification of microwave heating in materials.

    PubMed

    Crane, C A; Pantoya, M L; Weeks, B L

    2013-08-01

    An electromagnetic exposure chamber was designed to safely deliver electromagnetic power in the range of microwaves between 0.8 and 4.2 GHz to a thin cylindrical materials. This instrumentation is unique because the diagnostics not only measure sample heating with a response time of 1.3 ms, but also energy transmitted and reflected. Energy absorption at different frequencies was quantified via electromagnetic heating using an infrared camera. This in situ IR imaging of the spatial distribution of temperature during microwave exposure coupled with sensors for determining transmitted and reflected energy enables novel new microwave energy experiments. Samples were exposed to a portion of both the electric and magnetic fields inside a waveguide and based on sample dimensions, the field strengths were assumed uniform across the sample. Three materials were examined: two were borosilicate, first coated with graphite paint and a second without the coating; and, the third was a compressed sample of flake graphite pressed to 69% of its bulk density. Results are in agreement with the theories of microwave heating and verify the functionality of this experimental design. This diagnostic will be important in future tests where a variety of different materials can be exposed to weak electromagnetic waves and their efficiency in coupling to the microwaves can be examined.

  4. Spatial observation and quantification of microwave heating in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, C. A.; Pantoya, M. L.; Weeks, B. L.

    2013-08-01

    An electromagnetic exposure chamber was designed to safely deliver electromagnetic power in the range of microwaves between 0.8 and 4.2 GHz to a thin cylindrical materials. This instrumentation is unique because the diagnostics not only measure sample heating with a response time of 1.3 ms, but also energy transmitted and reflected. Energy absorption at different frequencies was quantified via electromagnetic heating using an infrared camera. This in situ IR imaging of the spatial distribution of temperature during microwave exposure coupled with sensors for determining transmitted and reflected energy enables novel new microwave energy experiments. Samples were exposed to a portion of both the electric and magnetic fields inside a waveguide and based on sample dimensions, the field strengths were assumed uniform across the sample. Three materials were examined: two were borosilicate, first coated with graphite paint and a second without the coating; and, the third was a compressed sample of flake graphite pressed to 69% of its bulk density. Results are in agreement with the theories of microwave heating and verify the functionality of this experimental design. This diagnostic will be important in future tests where a variety of different materials can be exposed to weak electromagnetic waves and their efficiency in coupling to the microwaves can be examined.

  5. Spatial observation and quantification of microwave heating in materials.

    PubMed

    Crane, C A; Pantoya, M L; Weeks, B L

    2013-08-01

    An electromagnetic exposure chamber was designed to safely deliver electromagnetic power in the range of microwaves between 0.8 and 4.2 GHz to a thin cylindrical materials. This instrumentation is unique because the diagnostics not only measure sample heating with a response time of 1.3 ms, but also energy transmitted and reflected. Energy absorption at different frequencies was quantified via electromagnetic heating using an infrared camera. This in situ IR imaging of the spatial distribution of temperature during microwave exposure coupled with sensors for determining transmitted and reflected energy enables novel new microwave energy experiments. Samples were exposed to a portion of both the electric and magnetic fields inside a waveguide and based on sample dimensions, the field strengths were assumed uniform across the sample. Three materials were examined: two were borosilicate, first coated with graphite paint and a second without the coating; and, the third was a compressed sample of flake graphite pressed to 69% of its bulk density. Results are in agreement with the theories of microwave heating and verify the functionality of this experimental design. This diagnostic will be important in future tests where a variety of different materials can be exposed to weak electromagnetic waves and their efficiency in coupling to the microwaves can be examined. PMID:24007086

  6. Ice Water Path Retrieval Using Microwave and Submillimetre Wave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brath, Manfred; Grützun, Verena; Mendrok, Jana; Fox, Stuart; Eriksson, Patrick; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    There is an ongoing need for data on ice clouds. The ice water path as an essential climate variable is a fundamental parameter to describe ice clouds. Combined passive microwave and submillimetre wave measurements are capable to sample the size distribution of the ice particles and are sensitive to relevant particle sizes. This makes combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements useful for estimates of ice water path. Furthermore, instead of being sensitive for the upper ice column as for example for passive visible and passive infrared measurements, combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements can sample the full ice column. We developed a retrieval algorithm for ice water path based on a neural network approach using combined microwave and submillimetre wave measurements, from about 20 channels in the range between 89 GHz and 664 GHz of the electromagnetic sprectra. We trained a neural network by using 1D radiative transfer simulations which were conducted using the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS). The radiative transfer simulations were fed by atmospheric profiles from a numerical weather prediction model. We will present an analysis of the retrieval. Additionally, we will present results of retrieved IWP from combined ISMAR (International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer) and MARSS (Microwave Airborne Radiometer Scanning System) measurements on board of the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) aircraft during March 2015 over the North Atlantic.

  7. NASA SETI microwave observing project: Sky Survey element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    The SETI Sky Survey Observing Program is one of two complimentary strategies that NASA plans to use in its microwave Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI). The primary objective of the sky survey is to search the entire sky over the frequency range of 1.0 to 10.0 GHz for evidence of narrow band signals of extraterrestrial intelligent origin. Frequency resolutions of 30 Hz or narrower will be used across the entire band. Spectrum analyzers with upwards of ten million channels are required to keep the survey time approximately 6 years. Data rates in excess of 10 megabits per second will be generated in the data taking process. Sophisticated data processing techniques will be required to determine the ever changing receiver baselines, and to detect and archive potential SETI signals. Existing radio telescopes, including several of NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34 meter antennas located at Goldstone, CA and Tidbinbilla, Australia will be used for the observations. The JPL has the primary responsibility to develop and carry out the sky survey. In order to lay the foundation for the full scale SETI Sky Survey, a prototype system is being developed at the JPL. The system will be installed at the new 34-m high efficiency antenna at the Deep Space Station (DSS) 13 research and development station, Goldstone, CA, where it will be used to initiate the observational phase of the NASA SETI Sky Survey. It is anticipated that the early observations will be useful to test signal detection algorithms, scan strategies, and radio frequency interference rejection schemes. The SETI specific elements of the prototype system are: (1) the Wide Band Spectrum Analyzer (WBSA); a 2-million channel fast Fourier transformation (FFT) spectrum analyzer which covers an instantaneous bandpass of 40 MHz; (2) the signal detection processor; and (3) the SETI Sky Survey Manager, a network-based C-language environment that provides observatory control, performs data acquisition and analysis

  8. Is the Wilkins Ice Shelf a Firn Aquifer? Spaceborne Observation of Subsurface Winter Season Liquid Meltwater Storage on the Antarctic Peninsula using Multi-Frequency Active and Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Scambos, T.; Forster, R. R.; Long, D. G.; Ligtenberg, S.; van den Broeke, M.; Vaughan, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Near-surface liquid meltwater on ice shelves has been inferred to influence ice shelf stability if it induces hydrofracture and is linked to disintegration events on the Larsen B and the Wilkins ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula during the summer months. While the initial Wilkins disintegration event occurred in March of 2009, two smaller disintegration events followed in May and in July of that year. It has long been assumed meltwater refreezes soon after surface melt processes cease. Given this assumption, an earlier hypothesis for the two winter season disintegration events was hydrofracture via a brine infiltration layer. Two lines of evidence supported this hypothesis 1) early airborne radar surveys did not record a reflection from the bottom of the ice shelf, and 2) a shallow core drilled in 1972 on the Wilkins encountered liquid water at a depth of ~7 m. The salinity of the water and the temperature at the base of the core, however, were not described. The recent discovery of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Greenland ice sheet has changed perceptions on meltwater longevity at depth in firn. Evidence of Greenland's firn aquifer includes liquid meltwater encountered in shallow firn cores at 5 m depth and a lack of reflections from the base of the ice sheet in airborne surveys. Thus, previous lines of evidence suggesting brine infiltration may alternatively suggest the presence of a perennial firn aquifer. We recently demonstrated the capability for observation of Greenland's firn aquifer from space using multi-frequency active and passive microwave remote sensing. This research exploits the retrieval technique developed for Greenland to provide the first spaceborne mappings of winter season liquid meltwater storage on the Wilkins. We combine L-band brightness temperature and backscatter data from the MIRAS instrument (1.4 GHz) aboard ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission and the radar (1.3 GHZ) and radiometer(1.4 GHz) aboard NASA

  9. Mountain Waves in the Middle Atmosphere: Microwave Limb Sounder Observations and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Jonathan H.; Wu, Dong L.; Eckermann, Stephen D.; Ma, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Observations and analyses of mesoscale gravity waves in the stratosphere from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are summarized, with focus on global distribution of topography related wave activities. We found most of the orographical wave activities occur during the winter seasons over high latitude mountain ridges. In the northern hemisphere, the strongest waves are those over Scandinavia, Central Eurasia, and southern Greenland, whereas in the southern hemisphere, wave activities are outstanding over the Andes, New Zealand, and Antarctic rim;, MLS observations suggest that these orographic waves are located mostly on the down stream side of the mountain ridge with downward phase progression and have horizontal phase velocities opposite to the stratospheric jet-stream. Future studies using MLS data and numerical modeling will lead to better understanding of gravity wave effects on dynamics and chemistry in the middle atmosphere.

  10. Microwave noise field: active radiometry principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polivka, Jiri

    2012-06-01

    Principles of Active Radiometry are presented. Noise radiators are used to generate the low-coherence microwave noise field, and radiometers to evaluate its intensity, polarization and coherence. Several types of noise radiators are described as well as radiometers and antennas. The following applications are introduced: Material evaluation where insertion loss and reflectivity of grainy, irregular and moving objects are preferable. Microwave Coherence Tomography allowing the depth irregularity to be detected in low-loss objects. Near-Field antenna testing, field coherence evaluation, and spatial combining of noise radiators.

  11. Recommended Rest Frequencies for Observed Interstellar Molecular Microwave Transitions - 2002 Revision

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 116 NIST Recommended Rest Frequencies for Observed Interstellar Molecular Microwave Transitions - 2002 Revision (Web, free access)   Critically evaluated transition frequencies for the molecular transitions detected in interstellar and circumstellar clouds are presented.

  12. Active microwave remote sensing of oceans, chapter 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A rationale is developed for the use of active microwave sensing in future aerospace applications programs for the remote sensing of the world's oceans, lakes, and polar regions. Summaries pertaining to applications, local phenomena, and large-scale phenomena are given along with a discussion of orbital errors.

  13. The significance of microwave observations for the planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    1991-01-01

    explained by the multipole character of Jupiter's field and a dusk-dawn electric field over the magnetosphere. From a comparison between the time variability in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation and that seen in solar wind parameters, it appears that the solar wind does influence the supply and/or loss of electrons to Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Terrestrial planets. Microwave observations of the terrestrial planets pertain to depths of approximately ten wavelengths. Spectra and resolved images of the planets contain information on the composition and compaction of the surface layers. Typically, the planets' crusts are overlain with a few centimeters dust. The polar regions on Mars arc much colder than the surrounding areas. The highlands on Venus have a lower emissivity and hence higher dielectric constant than the disk-averaged value; this implies the presence of substantial amounts of minerals and sulfides close to the surface. Mercury exhibits "hot spots" in its sub-surface layers, due to the 3/2 orbital resonance and large orbital eccentricity. Observations at millimeter wavelengths, in particular in rotational transitions of the CO line, are used to derive the temperature gradient in Venus and Mars' atmospheres, and the CO abundance as a function of altitude. The CO abundance on Mars is much lower than expected from recombination of CO and 0. Apparently, some catalyst is present to speed up the recombination process. On Venus we find most of the CO on the nightside, while it is formed on the dayside hemisphere. Large thermal winds may carry the CO from the day to the nightside.

  14. Technology advances in active and passive microwave sensing through 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of a growing awareness by the remote sensing community of the unique capabilities of passive and active microwave sensors, these instruments are expected to grow in the next decade in numbers, versatility and complexity. The Nimbus-G and Seasat-A Scanning Multichannel Microwave Spectrometer (SMMR), the Seasat-A radar altimeter, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar represent the first systematic attempt at exploring a wide variety of applications utilizing microwave sensing techniques and are indicators of the directions in which the pertinent technology is likely to evolve. The trend is toward high resolution multi-frequency imagers spanning wide frequency ranges and wide swaths requiring sophisticated receivers, real-time data processors and most importantly, complex antennas.

  15. Observation of microwave Cerenkov radiation as a diffraction pattern

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, X.K.; Neighbours, J.R.; Buskirk, F.R.; Snyder, D.D.; Vujaklija, M.; Bruce, R.G.

    1986-07-15

    Measurement of microwave Cerenkov radiation in air exhibits the diffraction pattern predicted in earlier work. The radiation appears only at harmonics of the frequency of periodic electron bunches. Angular distribution power measurements are presented for frequencies of 2.86, 5.71, 8.57, and 11.42 GHz corresponding to the fundamental and the first three harmonics of an S-band rf linac.

  16. Observation of microwave Cerenkov radiation as diffraction pattern. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Maruyama, X.R.; Neighbours, J.R.; Buskirk, F.R.; Snyder, D.D.; Vujaklija, M.

    1985-08-01

    Measurement of microwave Cerenkov radiation in air exhibits the diffraction pattern predicted in earlier work. The radiation appears only at harmonics of the frequency of periodic electron bunches; angular distribution power measurements are presented for frequencies of 2.86, 5.71, 8.57 and 11 and 12 GHz, corresponding to the fundamental and the first three harmonics of an S band RF linac.

  17. Imaging of Active Microwave Devices at Cryogenic Temperatures using Scanning Near-Field Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanawalla, Ashfaq S.; Dutta, S. K.; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, D. E.; Feenstra, B. J.; Anlage, Steven M.; Wellstood, F. C.

    1998-03-01

    The ability to image electric fields in operating microwave devices is interesting both from the fundamental point of view and for diagnostic purposes. To that end we have constructed a scanning near-field microwave microscope which uses an open-ended coaxial probe and operates at cryogenic temperatures.(For related publications see: C. P. Vlahacos, R. C. Black, S. M. Anlage, A. Amar and F. C. Wellstood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69), 3274 (1996) and S. M. Anlage, C. P. Vlahacos, Sudeep Dutta and F. C. Wellstood, IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 7, 3686 (1997). Using this system we have imaged electric fields generated by both normal metal and superconducting microstrip resonators at temperatures ranging from 77 K to 300 K. We will present images and discuss our results including observations of clear standing wave patterns at the fundamental resonant frequency and an increased quality factor of the resonators at low temperatures.

  18. Properties of solar flare electrons, deduced from hard X-ray and spatially resolved microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, K. A.; Hurford, G. J.; Zirin, H.; Dulk, G. A.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    An important question concerning an understanding of impulsive solar flares is related to the energetic electrons responsible for the microwave and the hard X-ray emission. A description is presented of an investigation in which spatially resolved microwave observations of an impulsive flare and hard X-ray data from the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) are used to test the hypothesis that the two types of emission come from the same basic electron population. The considered observations are found to imply that the microwaves and hard X-rays were not produced by a common population of electrons with either a Maxwellian or single power-law energy distribution. It is suggested that the calculations should be repeated when observations of stronger events become available, for which a better determination of the X-ray spectrum is possible. The possibility is considered that microwaves and moderately hard X-rays come from spatially different regions.

  19. Influence of Polarity and Activation Energy in Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis (MAOS).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Antonio M; Prieto, Pilar; de la Hoz, Antonio; Díaz-Ortiz, Ángel; Martín, D Raúl; García, José I

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the parameters that have decisive roles in microwave-assisted reactions and to develop a model, using computational chemistry, to predict a priori the type of reactions that can be improved under microwaves. For this purpose, a computational study was carried out on a variety of reactions, which have been reported to be improved under microwave irradiation. This comprises six types of reactions. The outcomes obtained in this study indicate that the most influential parameters are activation energy, enthalpy, and the polarity of all the species that participate. In addition to this, in most cases, slower reacting systems observe a much greater improvement under microwave irradiation. Furthermore, for these reactions, the presence of a polar component in the reaction (solvent, reagent, susceptor, etc.) is necessary for strong coupling with the electromagnetic radiation. We also quantified that an activation energy of 20-30 kcal mol(-1) and a polarity (μ) between 7-20 D of the species involved in the process is required to obtain significant improvements under microwave irradiation.

  20. Advanced systems requirements for ocean observations via microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blume, H.-J. C.; Swift, C. T.; Kendall, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    A future microwave spectroradiometer operating in several frequency bands will have the capability to step or sweep frequencies on an adaptable or programmable basis. The on-board adaptable frequency shifting can make the systems immune from radio interference. Programmable frequency sweeping with on-board data inversion by high speed computers would provide for instantaneous synoptic measurements or sea surface temperature and salinity, water surface and volume pollution, ice thickness, ocean surface winds, snow depth, and soil moisture. Large structure satellites will allow an order of magnitude improvement in the present radiometric measurement spacial resolution.

  1. Inhibitory effect of microwaved thinned nectarine extracts on polyphenol oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Diego; Venturini, María E; Oria, Rosa; Arias, Esther

    2016-04-15

    By-products from agricultural practices or from the fruit processing industry are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used in the food industry. Such by-products include thinned fruits, which are expected to contain high quantities of interesting compounds. One possible application of this fruits is the prevention of the enzymatic browning suffered by fruits and vegetables after minimal processing. The aim of this study is to determine the in vitro and in vivo activity of microwaved extracts obtained from thinned nectarines. It has been observed that in vitro the extracts obtained after the application of high microwave power levels (500, 1000 and 1500 W) are mixed type inhibitors of polyphenoloxidase enzyme, showing an irreversible inactivation. This inhibition could be attributed to the Maillard reaction products formed during the microwave treatment. In vivo, a solution of 2% of the extract obtained at 1500 W inhibited the enzymatic browning in minimally processed peaches for 8 days of storage.

  2. Inhibitory effect of microwaved thinned nectarine extracts on polyphenol oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Diego; Venturini, María E; Oria, Rosa; Arias, Esther

    2016-04-15

    By-products from agricultural practices or from the fruit processing industry are a source of bioactive compounds that could be used in the food industry. Such by-products include thinned fruits, which are expected to contain high quantities of interesting compounds. One possible application of this fruits is the prevention of the enzymatic browning suffered by fruits and vegetables after minimal processing. The aim of this study is to determine the in vitro and in vivo activity of microwaved extracts obtained from thinned nectarines. It has been observed that in vitro the extracts obtained after the application of high microwave power levels (500, 1000 and 1500 W) are mixed type inhibitors of polyphenoloxidase enzyme, showing an irreversible inactivation. This inhibition could be attributed to the Maillard reaction products formed during the microwave treatment. In vivo, a solution of 2% of the extract obtained at 1500 W inhibited the enzymatic browning in minimally processed peaches for 8 days of storage. PMID:26616994

  3. Arctic and Antarctic Sea Ice, 1978-1987: Satellite Passive-Microwave Observations and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloersen, Per; Campbell, William J.; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Parkinson, Claire L.; Zwally, H. Jay

    1992-01-01

    This book contains a description and analysis of the spatial and temporal variations in the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice covers from October 26, 1978 through August 20, 1987. It is based on data collected by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) onboard the NASA Nimbus 7 satellite. The 8.8-year period, together with the 4 years of the Nimbus 5 Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) observations presented in two earlier volumes, comprises a sea ice record spanning almost 15 years.

  4. Longevity of microwave-treated (2. 45 GHz continuous wave) honey bees in observation hives

    SciTech Connect

    Gary, N.E.; Westerdahl, B.B.

    1981-12-15

    Adult honey bees were exposed for 30 min to 2.45 GHz of continuous wave microwave radiation at power densities ranging from 3 to 50 mW/cm/sup 2/. After exposure, bees were returned to glass-walled observation hives, and their longevity was compared with that of control bees. No significant differences were found between microwave- and sham-treated bees at any of the power densities tested.

  5. Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) for remote observation of precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galliano, J. A.; Platt, R. H.

    1990-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) operating in the 10 to 85 GHz range specifically for precipitation retrieval and mesoscale storm system studies from a high altitude aircraft platform (i.e., ER-2) are described. The primary goals of AMPR are the exploitation of the scattering signal of precipitation at frequencies near 10, 19, 37, and 85 GHz together to unambiguously retrieve precipitation and storm structure and intensity information in support of proposed and planned space sensors in geostationary and low earth orbit, as well as storm-related field experiments. The development of AMPR will have an important impact on the interpretation of microwave radiances for rain retrievals over both land and ocean for the following reasons: (1) A scanning instrument, such as AMPR, will allow the unambiguous detection and analysis of features in two dimensional space, allowing an improved interpretation of signals in terms of cloud features, and microphysical and radiative processes; (2) AMPR will offer more accurate comparisons with ground-based radar data by feature matching since the navigation of the ER-2 platform can be expected to drift 3 to 4 km per hour of flight time; and (3) AMPR will allow underflights of the SSM/I satellite instrument with enough spatial coverage at the same frequencies to make meaningful comparisons of the data for precipitation studies.

  6. Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature from Airborne Microwave Radiometer Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Schreier, Franz; Kenntner, Mareike; Fix, Andreas; Trautmann, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Atmospheric temperature is a key geophysical parameter associated with fields such as meteorology, climatology, or photochemistry. There exist several techniques to measure temperature profiles. In the case of microwave remote sensing, the vertical temperature profile can be estimated from thermal emission lines of molecular oxygen. The MTP (Microwave Temperature Profiler) instrument is an airborne radiometer developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), United States. The instrument passively measures natural thermal emission from oxygen lines at 3 frequencies and at a selection of 10 viewing angles (from near zenith to near nadir). MTP has participated in hundreds of flights, including on DLR’s Falcon and HALO aircrafts. These flights have provided data of the vertical temperature distribution from the troposphere to the lower stratosphere with a good temporal and spatial resolution. In this work, we present temperature retrievals based on the Tikhonov-type regularized nonlinear least squares fitting method. In particular, Jacobians (i.e. temperature derivatives) are evaluated by means of automatic differentiation. The retrieval performance from the MTP measurements is analyzed by using synthetic data. Besides, the vertical sensitivity of the temperature retrieval is studied by weighting functions characterizing the sensitivity of the transmission at different frequencies with respect to changes of altitude levels.

  7. A Comparison between Lightning Activity and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kevin, Driscoll T.; Hugh, Christian J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A recent examination of data from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) suggests that storm with the highest frequency of lightning also possess the most pronounced microwave scattering signatures at 37 and 85 GHz. This study demonstrates a clear dependence between lightning and the passive microwave measurements, and accentuates how direct the relationship really is between cloud ice and lightning activity. In addition, the relationship between the quantity of ice content and the frequency of lightning (not just the presence of lightning) , is consistent throughout the seasons in a variety of regimes. Scatter plots will be presented which show the storm-averaged brightness temperatures as a function of the lightning density of the storms (L/Area) . In the 85 GHz and 37 GHz scatter plots, the brightness temperature is presented in the form Tb = k1 x log10(L/Area) + k2, where the slope of the regression, k1, is 58 for the 85 GHz relationship and 30.7 for the 37 GHz relationship. The regression for both these fits showed a correlation of 0.76 (r2 = 0.58), which is quite promising considering the simple procedure used to make the comparisons, which have not yet even been corrected for the view angle differences between the instruments, or the polarization corrections in the microwave imager.

  8. Sea Ice and Ice Temperature Variability as Observed by Microwave and Infrared Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports of a retreating and thinning sea ice cover in the Arctic have pointed to a strong suggestion of significant warming in the polar regions. It is especially important to understand what these reports mean in light of the observed global warning and because the polar regions are expected to be most sensitive to changes in climate. To gain insight into this phenomenon, co-registered ice concentrations and surface temperatures derived from two decades of satellite microwave and infrared data have been processed and analyzed. While observations from meteorological stations indicate consistent surface warming in both regions during the last fifty years, the last 20 years of the same data set show warming in the Arctic but a slight cooling in the Antarctic. These results are consistent with the retreat in the Arctic ice cover and the advance in the Antarctic ice cover as revealed by historical satellite passive microwave data. Surface temperatures derived from satellite infrared data are shown to be consistent within 3 K with surface temperature data from the limited number of stations. While not as accurate, the former provides spatially detailed changes over the twenty year period. In the Arctic, for example, much of the warming occurred in the Beaufort Sea and the North American region in 1998 while slight cooling actually happened in parts of the Laptev Sea and Northern Siberia during the same time period. Big warming anomalies are also observed during the last five years but a periodic cycle of about ten years is apparent suggesting a possible influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. In the Antarctic, large interannual and seasonal changes are also observed in the circumpolar ice cover with regional changes showing good coherence with surface temperature anomalies. However, a mode 3 is observed to be more dominant than the mode 2 wave reported in the literature. Some of these spatial and temporal changes appear to be influenced by the Antarctic

  9. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Claire; Bennartz, Ralf; Kulie, Mark S.; Merrelli, Aronne J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.

    2016-04-01

    Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 g m-2 or less, the cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. This measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.

  10. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications. PMID:25816598

  11. [The activity of prooxidant-antioxidant system in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation].

    PubMed

    Iaremchuk, M M; Dyka, M V; Sanahurs'kyĭ, D I

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) affects biological organisms, primarily on the cellular level. However, the effects of EMR at low-intensity exposure on animals and state of metabolic systems are not fully defined yet. Thus, research of microwave radiation influence on the processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection system is important for understanding the mechanisms of EMR action on the cell, in particular, and organism development on the whole. The content of lipid peroxidation products--lipid hydroperoxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and the activity of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase in loach embryos under the action of microwave radiation (GSM-900 MHz, SAR = 1.1 Vt/kg) lasting 1; 5; 10 and 20 min during early embryogenesis were studied. It has been found that content of lipid peroxidation products in germ cells undergoes significant changes under the action of low-intensity EMR. The effect of microwave radiation (1, 5, 10 min) leads to the increase of superoxide dismutase activity, nevertheless, 20 min exposure decreased this index to the level of control values as it is shown. It has been established that EMR at frequencies used for mobile communications reduce the activity of antioxidant protection system components, especially catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The growth of catalase activity at the 10-cell stage of blastomere division (P < 0.05) is an exception. The results of two-way analysis of variance attest that microwave radiation factor causes the large part of all observable modifications.

  12. Effects of microwave exposure on the hamster immune system. I. Natural killer cell activity

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, H.K.; Cain, C.A.; Lockwood, J.; Tompkins, W.A.

    1983-01-01

    Hamsters were exposed to repeated or single doses of microwave energy and monitored for changes in core body temperature, circulating leukocyte profiles, serum corticosteroid levels, and natural killer (NK) cell activity in various tissues. NK cytotoxicity was measured in a /sup 51/Cr-release assay employing baby hamster kidney (BHK) targets or BHK infected with herpes simplex virus. Repeated exposure of hamsters at 15 mW/cm2 for 60 min/day had no significant effect on natural levels of spleen-cell NK activity against BHK targets. Similarly, repeated exposure at 15 mW/cm2 over a 5-day period had no demonstrable effect on the induction of spleen NK activity by vaccinia virus immunization, that is, comparable levels of NK were induced in untreated and microwave-treated animals. In contrast, treatment of hamsters with a single 60-min microwave exposure at 25 mW/cm2 caused a significant suppression in induced spleen NK activity. A similar but less marked decrease in spleen NK activity was observed in sham-exposed animals. Moreover, the sham effects on NK activity were not predictable and appeared to represent large individual animal variations in the response to stress factors. Depressed spleen NK activity was evident as early as 4 h postmicrowave treatment and returned to normal levels by 8 h. Hamsters exposed at 25 mW/cm2 showed an elevated temperature of 3.0-3.5 degrees C that returned to normal within 60 min after termination of microwave exposure. These animals also showed a marked lymphopenia and neutrophilia by 1 h posttreatment that returned to normal by 8-10 h. Serum glucocorticosteroids were elevated between 1 aNd 8 h after microwave treatment. Sham-exposed animals did not demonstrate significant changes in core body temperature, peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) profile, or glucocorticosteroid levels as compared to minimum-handling controls.

  13. Effect of vegetation on soil moisture sensing observed from orbiting microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The microwave radiometric measurements made by the Skylab 1.4 GHz radiometer and by the 6.6 GHz and 10.7 GHz channels of the Nimbus-7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer were analyzed to study the large-area soil moisture variations of land surfaces. Two regions in Texas, one with sparse and the other with dense vegetation covers, were selected for the study. The results gave a confirmation of the vegetation effect observed by ground-level microwave radiometers. Based on the statistics of the satellite data, it was possible to estimate surface soil moisture in about five different levels from dry to wet conditions with a 1.4 GHz radiometer, provided that the biomass of the vegetation cover could be independently measured. At frequencies greater than about 6.6 GHz, the radiometric measurements showed little sensitivity to moisture variation for vegetation-covered soils. The effects of polarization in microwave emission were studied also.

  14. Observed effects of soil organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P. E.; Jackson, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils when estimating soil moisture, field experiments were conducted in which 1.4 GHz microwave emissivity data were collected over test plots of sandy loam soil with different organic matter levels (1.8, 4.0, and 6.1 percent) for a range of soil moisture values. Analyses of the observed data show only minor variation in microwave emissivity due to a change in organic matter content at a given moisture level for soils with similar texture and structure. Predictions of microwave emissivity made using a dielectric model for aggregated soils exhibit the same trends and type of response as the measured data when appropriate values for the input parameters were utilized.

  15. Observed effects of soil organic matter content on the microwave intensity of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1988-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils when estimating soil moisture, field experiments were conducted in which 1.4 GHz microwave emissivity data were collected over test plots of sandy loam soil with different organic matter levels (1.8, 4.0, and 6.1 percent) for a range of soil moisture values. Analyses of the observed data show only minor variation in microwave emissivity due to a change in organic matter content at a given moisture level for soils with similar texture and structure. Predictions of microwave emissivity made using a dielectric model for aggregated soils exhibit the same trends and type of response as the measured data when appropriate values for the input parameters were utilized.

  16. Frequency requirements for active earth observation sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The foundation and rationale for the selection of microwave frequencies for active remote sensing usage and for subsequent use in determination of sharing criteria and allocation strategies for the WARC-79 are presented.

  17. Investigating the value of passive microwave observations for monitoring volcanic eruption source parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Marzano, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject both gas and solid particles into the Atmosphere. Solid particles are made by mineral fragments of different sizes (from few microns to meters), generally referred as tephra. Tephra from volcanic eruptions has enormous impacts on social and economical activities through the effects on the environment, climate, public health, and air traffic. The size, density and shape of a particle determine its fall velocity and thus residence time in the Atmosphere. Larger particles tend to fall quickly in the proximity of the volcano, while smaller particles may remain suspended for several days and thus may be transported by winds for thousands of km. Thus, the impact of such hazards involves local as well as large scales effects. Local effects involve mostly the large sized particles, while large scale effects are caused by the transport of the finest ejected tephra (ash) through the atmosphere. Forecasts of ash paths in the atmosphere are routinely run after eruptions using dispersion models. These models make use of meteorological and volcanic source parameters. The former are usually available as output of numerical weather prediction models or large scale reanalysis. Source parameters characterize the volcanic eruption near the vent; these are mainly the ash mass concentration along the vertical column and the top altitude of the volcanic plume, which is strictly related to the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source. These parameters should be known accurately and continuously; otherwise, strong hypothesis are usually needed, leading to large uncertainty in the dispersion forecasts. However, direct observations during an eruption are typically dangerous and impractical. Thus, satellite remote sensing is often exploited to monitor volcanic emissions, using visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) channels available on both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. VIS and IR satellite imagery are very useful to monitor

  18. AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Slob, Evert; Turk, Ahmet Serdar; Crocco, Lorenzo; Catapano, Ilaria; Di Matteo, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    The FP7-IRSES project AMISS - Active and passive MIcrowaves for Security and Subsurface imaging is based on a well-combined network among research institutions of EU, Associate and Third Countries (National Research Council of Italy - Italy, Technische Universiteit Delft - The Netherlands, Yildiz Technical University - Turkey, Bauman Moscow State Technical University - Russia, Usikov Institute for Radio-physics and Electronics and State Research Centre of Superconductive Radioelectronics "Iceberg" - Ukraine and University of Sao Paulo - Brazil) with the aims of achieving scientific advances in the framework of microwave and millimeter imaging systems and techniques for security and safety social issues. In particular, the involved partners are leaders in the scientific areas of passive and active imaging and are sharing their complementary knowledge to address two main research lines. The first one regards the design, characterization and performance evaluation of new passive and active microwave devices, sensors and measurement set-ups able to mitigate clutter and increase information content. The second line faces the requirements to make State-of-the-Art processing tools compliant with the instrumentations developed in the first line, suitable to work in electromagnetically complex scenarios and able to exploit the unexplored possibilities offered by new instrumentations. The main goals of the project are: 1) Development/improvement and characterization of new sensors and systems for active and passive microwave imaging; 2) Set up, analysis and validation of state of art/novel data processing approach for GPR in critical infrastructure and subsurface imaging; 3) Integration of state of art and novel imaging hardware and characterization approaches to tackle realistic situations in security, safety and subsurface prospecting applications; 4) Development and feasibility study of bio-radar technology (system and data processing) for vital signs detection and

  19. Effective dopant activation via low temperature microwave annealing of ion implanted silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; David Theodore, N.; Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Das, Sayantan; Lu, Wei; Lau, S. S.; Alford, T. L.

    2013-11-01

    Susceptor-assisted microwave annealing enables effective dopant activation, at low temperatures, in ion-implanted Si. Given similar thermal budgets for microwave annealing and rapid thermal annealing (RTA), sheet resistances of microwave annealed Si, with either B+ or P+ implants, are lower than the values obtained using RTA. The fraction of dopants activated is as high as 18% for B+ implants and 64% for P+ implants. Dopant diffusion is imperceptible after microwave annealing, but significant after RTA, for P+ implanted Si samples with the same dopant activation. Microwave annealing achieves such properties using shorter anneal times and lower peak temperatures compared to RTA.

  20. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2016-09-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  1. Observation of bubble formation in water during microwave irradiation by dynamic light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asakuma, Yusuke; Munenaga, Takuya; Nakata, Ryosuke

    2015-10-01

    A microwave reactor was designed for in situ observation of nano- and micro-bubbles, and size profiles during and after irradiation were measured with respect to irradiation power and time. Bubble formation in water during irradiation was observed even at temperatures below the boiling point of water. The maximum size strongly depended on radiation power and time, even at a given temperature. Nano-particles in the dispersion medium were found to play an important role in achieving more stable nucleation of bubbles around particles, and stable size distributions were obtained from clear autocorrelation by a dynamic light scattering system. Moreover, a combination of microwave induction heating and the addition of nano-particles to the dispersion medium can prevent heterogeneous nucleation of bubbles on the cell wall. Quantitative nano-bubble size profiles obtained by in situ observation provide useful information regarding microwave-based industrial processes for nano-particle production.

  2. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  3. Microwave observations of a large-scale coronal wave with the Nobeyama radioheliograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warmuth, A.; Shibasaki, K.; Iwai, K.; Mann, G.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Large-scale globally propagating waves in the solar corona have been studied extensively, mainly using extreme ultraviolet (EUV) observations. In a few events, corresponding wave signatures have been detected in microwave radioheliograms provided by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH). Several aspects of these observations seem to contradict the conclusions drawn from EUV observations. Aims: We investigate whether the microwave observations of global waves are consistent with previous findings. Methods: We revisited the wave of 1997 Sep. 24, which is still the best-defined event in microwaves. We obtained radioheliograms at 17 and 34 GHz from NoRH and studied the morphology, kinematics, perturbation profile evolution, and emission mechanism of the propagating microwave signatures. Results: We find that the NoRH wave signatures are morphologically consistent with both the associated coronal wave as observed by SOHO/EIT and the Moreton wave seen in Hα. The NoRH wave is clearly decelerating, which is typically found for large-amplitude coronal waves associated with Moreton waves, and its kinematical curve is consistent with the EIT wavefronts. The perturbation profile shows a pronounced decrease in amplitude. Based on the derivation of the spectral index of the excess microwave emission, we conclude that the NoRH wave is due to optically thick free-free bremsstrahlung from the chromosphere. Conclusions: The wavefronts seen in microwave radioheliograms are chromospheric signatures of coronal waves, and their characteristics support the interpretation of coronal waves as large-amplitude fast-mode MHD waves or shocks.

  4. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) First Year Observations: TE Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Spergel, D. N.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) has mapped the full sky in Stokes I, Q, and U parameters at frequencies 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz. We detect correlations between the temperature and polarization maps significant at more than 10 standard deviations. The correlations are inconsistent with instrument noise and are significantly larger than the upper limits established for potential systematic errors. The correlations are present in all WAMP frequency bands with similar amplitude from 23 to 94 GHz, and are consistent with a superposition of a CMB signal with a weak foreground. The fitted CMB component is robust against different data combinations and fitting techniques. On small angular scales (theta less than 5 deg), the WMAP data show the temperature-polarization correlation expected from adiabatic perturbations in the temperature power spectrum. The data for l greater than 20 agree well with the signal predicted solely from the temperature power spectra, with no additional free parameters. We detect excess power on large angular scales (theta greater than 10 deg) compared to predictions based on the temperature power spectra alone. The excess power is well described by reionization at redshift 11 is less than z(sub r) is less than 30 at 95% confidence, depending on the ionization history. A model-independent fit to reionization optical depth yields results consistent with the best-fit ACDM model, with best fit value t = 0.17 +/- 0.04 at 68% confidence, including systematic and foreground uncertainties. This value is larger than expected given the detection of a Gunn-Peterson trough in the absorption spectra of distant quasars, and implies that the universe has a complex ionization history: WMAP has detected the signal from an early epoch of reionization.

  5. High-spatial-resolution microwave and related observations as diagnostics of coronal loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1986-01-01

    High spatial resolution microwave observations of coronal loops, together with theoretical models for the loop emission, can provide detailed information about the temperature, density, and magnetic field within the loop, as well as the environment around the loop. The capability for studying magnetic fields is particularly important, since there is no comparable method for obtaining direct information about coronal magnetic fields. Knowledge of the magnetic field strength and structure in coronal loops is important for understanding both coronal heating and flares. With arc-second-resolution microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA), supplemental high-spectral-resolution microwave data from a facility such as the Owens Valley frequency-agile interferometer, and the ability to obtain second-of-arc resolution EUV aor soft X ray images, the capability already exists for obtaining much more detailed information about coronal plasma and magnetic structures than is presently available. This capability is discussed.

  6. Observations of active chromosphere stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Africano, J. L.; Klimke, A.; Stencel, R. E.; Noah, P. V.; Bopp, B. W.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that spectroscopic signatures of stellar chromospheric activity are readily observable. The present study is concerned with new photometric and spectroscopic observations of active-chromosphere RS CVn, BY Dra, and FK Com stars. Attention is given to the first results of a synoptic monitoring program of many active chromosphere stars. During the time from 1980 to 1982, photometric and spectroscopic observations of 10 known or suspected active-chromosphere objects were made. The results regarding the individual stars are discussed. Seven stars observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) are all spectroscopic binaries.

  7. Applications of Land Surface Temperature from Microwave Observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key input for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes. Yet, it remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observation...

  8. Slow potentials and spike unit activity of the cerebral cortex of rabbits exposed to microwaves

    SciTech Connect

    Chizhenkova, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Unanesthetized rabbits exposed to 12.5-cm microwaves at a field intensity of 40 mW/cm/sup 2/ in the region of the head showed an increase in the number of slow waves and spindle-shaped firings in the EEG and a change in the discharge frequency of neurons in the visual cortex in 41-52% of the cases. An enhancement of the evoked response of visual cortex neurons to light was observed in 61% of the cases and a facilitation of the driving response in 80% of all cases. It is concluded that the evoked response is a more sensitive indicator of the microwave effect than background activity. The effects of the fields were most distinctly observed with the driving response.

  9. Active microwave remote sensing of earth/land, chapter 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Geoscience applications of active microwave remote sensing systems are examined. Major application areas for the system include: (1) exploration of petroleum, mineral, and ground water resources, (2) mapping surface and structural features, (3) terrain analysis, both morphometric and genetic, (4) application in civil works, and (5) application in the areas of earthquake prediction and crustal movements. Although the success of radar surveys has not been widely publicized, they have been used as a prime reconnaissance data base for mineral exploration and land-use evaluation in areas where photography cannot be obtained.

  10. Earth Observing System(EOS). Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A: Firmware Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, R.

    1998-01-01

    This document is the Firmware Test Report for the firmware to be used in the Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instrument. It describes the firmware results of the Formal Qualification Test (FQT)/Demonstrations conducted on Mar. 21, 1997, Apr. 8, 1998, and July 14, 1998, for the EOS/AMSU-A instrument.

  11. An Orbital "Virtual Radar" from TRMM Passive Microwave and Lightning Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boccippio, Dennis J.

    2004-01-01

    The retrieval of vertical structure from joint passive microwave and lightning observations is demonstrated. Three years of data from the TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) are used as a training dataset for regression and classification neural networks; the TMI (TRMM Microwave Imager) and LIS (Lightning Imaging Sensor) provide the inputs, the PR (Precipitation Radar) provides the training targets. Both vertical reflectivity profile categorization (into 9 convective, 7 stratiform, 2 mixed and 6 anvil types) and geophysical parameters (surface rainfall, vertically integrated liquid (VIL), ice water content (IWC) and echo tops) are retrieved. Retrievals are successful over both land and ocean surfaces. The benefit of using lightning observations as inputs to these retrievals is quantitatively demonstrated; lightning essentially provides an additional convective/stratiform discriminator, and is most important for isolation of midlevel (tops in the mixed phase region) convective profile types (this is because high frequency passive microwave observations already provide good convective/stratiform discrimination for deep convective profiles). This is highly relevant as midlevel convective profiles account for an extremely large fraction of tropical rainfall, and yet are most difficult to discriminate from comparable-depth stratiform profile types using passive microwave observations alone.

  12. Heavy thunderstorms observed over land by the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R. W.; Olson, W. S.; Martin, D. W.; Weinman, J. A.; Santek, D. A.; Wu, R.

    1983-01-01

    Brightness temperatures obtained through examination of microwave data from the Nimbus 7 satellite are noted to be much lower than those expected on the strength of radiation emanating from rain-producing clouds. Very cold brightness temperature cases all coincided with heavy thunderstorm rainfall, with the cold temperatures being attributable to scattering by a layer of ice hydrometeors in the upper parts of the storms. It is accordingly suggested that brightness temperatures observed by satellite microwave radiometers can sometimes distinguish heavy rain over land.

  13. Observations of precipitable water vapor fluctuations in convective boundary layer via microwave interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.M.; Carlos, R.C.; Kirkland, M.W.; Kao, C.J.; Jacobson, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    At microwave frequencies, each centimeter of precipitable water vapor (PWV) causes about 6.45 cm of extra electrical path length relative to the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} air. The fluctuations of the water vapor dominate the changes of the effective path length through the atmosphere in a relatively short time period of a few hours. In this paper we describe a microwave interferometer developed for water vapor investigations and present the observation results. The interferometer consists of 10 antennas along two orthogonal 400-m arms that form many baselines (antenna pairs) ranging from 100 to 400 m. All the antennas receive a common CW signal (11.7 GHz) from a geostationary television satellite, and phase differences between pairs of antennas are measured. The phase differences reflect the column-integrated water vapor differences from the top of the atmosphere to the spatially separated antennas at the ground. The interferometric, baseline-differential measurements allow us to study the statistical properties of the PWV fluctuations, as well as the turbulent activity of the convective boundary layer (CBL). Structure function analysis of the interferometer measurements shows good agreement with results obtained from the Very Large Array (VLA) and with a theoretical model developed for radio astronomical very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), reported previously by other investigators. The diurnally varying structure constant correlates remarkably well with the combination of the latent and sensible heat fluxes measured simultaneously from a 10-m meteorological tower. The average drift velocity of the PWV over the interferometer was also derived from the measurements. The derived velocity agrees well during the morning hours with the wind measured by an anemometer at the center of the interferometer. {copyright} 1999 American Geophysical Union

  14. Low temperature regeneration of activated carbons using microwaves: revising conventional wisdom.

    PubMed

    Calışkan, E; Bermúdez, J M; Parra, J B; Menéndez, J A; Mahramanlıoğlu, M; Ania, C O

    2012-07-15

    The purpose of this work was to explore the application of microwaves for the low temperature regeneration of activated carbons saturated with a pharmaceutical compound (promethazine). Contrary to expectations, microwave-assisted regeneration did not lead to better results than those obtained under conventional electric heating. At low temperatures the regeneration was incomplete either under microwave and conventional heating, being this attributed to the insufficient input energy. At mild temperatures, a fall in the adsorption capacity upon cycling was obtained in both devices, although this was much more pronounced for the microwave. These results contrast with previous studies on the benefits of microwaves for the regeneration of carbon materials. The fall in the adsorption capacity after regeneration was due to the thermal cracking of the adsorbed molecules inside the carbon porous network, although this effect applies to both devices. When microwaves are used, along with the thermal heating of the carbon bed, a fraction of the microwave energy seemed to be directly used in the decomposition of promethazine through the excitation of the molecular bonds by microwaves (microwave-lysis). These results point out that the nature of the adsorbate and its ability to interact with microwave are key factors that control the application of microwaves for regeneration of exhausted activated carbons.

  15. Statistical Analysis of the Correlation between Microwave Emission Anomalies and Seismic Activity Based on AMSR-E Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; De Santis, Angelo; Zhang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Pre-seismic thermal IR anomalies and ionosphere disturbances have been widely reported by using the Earth observation system (EOS). To investigate the possible physical mechanisms, a series of detecting experiments on rock loaded to fracturing were conducted. Some experiments studies have demonstrated that microwave radiation energy will increase under the loaded rock in specific frequency and the feature of radiation property can reflect the deformation process of rock fracture. This experimental result indicates the possibility that microwaves are emitted before earthquakes. Such microwaves signals are recently found to be detectable before some earthquake cases from the brightness temperature data obtained by the microwave-radiometer Advanced Microwave-Scanning Radiometer for the EOS (AMSR-E) aboard the satellite Aqua. This suggested that AMSR-E with vertical- and horizontal-polarization capability for six frequency bands (6.925, 10.65, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89.0 GHz) would be feasible to detect an earthquake which is associated with rock crash or plate slip. However, the statistical analysis of the correlation between satellite-observed microwave emission anomalies and seismic activity are firstly required. Here, we focus on the Kamchatka peninsula to carry out a statistical study, considering its high seismicity activity and the dense orbits covering of AMSR-E in high latitudes. 8-years (2003-2010) AMSR-E microwave brightness temperature data were used to reveal the spatio-temporal association between microwave emission anomalies and 17 earthquake events (M>5). Firstly, obvious spatial difference of microwave brightness temperatures between the seismic zone at the eastern side and the non-seismic zone the western side within the Kamchatka peninsula are found. Secondly, using both vertical- and horizontal-polarization to extract the temporal association, it is found that abnormal changes of microwave brightness temperatures appear generally 2 months before the

  16. Online vegetation parameter estimation using passive microwave remote sensing observations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In adaptive system identification the Kalman filter can be used to identify the coefficient of the observation operator of a linear system. Here the ensemble Kalman filter is tested for adaptive online estimation of the vegetation opacity parameter of a radiative transfer model. A state augmentatio...

  17. Summary of the Active Microwave Workshop, chapter 1. [utilization in applications and aerospace programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is given of the utility, feasibility, and advantages of active microwave sensors for a broad range of applications, including aerospace. In many instances, the material provides an in-depth examination of the applicability and/or the technology of microwave remote sensing, and considerable documentation is presented in support of these techniques. An assessment of the relative strengths and weaknesses of active microwave sensor data indicates that satisfactory data are obtainable for several significant applications.

  18. Temporal observations of surface soil moisture using a passive microwave sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P.

    1987-01-01

    A series of 10 aircraft flights was conducted over agricultural fields to evaluate relationships between observed surface soil moisture and soil moisture predicted using passive microwave sensor observations. An a priori approach was used to predict values of surface soil moisture for three types of fields: tilled corn, no-till corn with soybean stubble, and idle fields with corn stubble. Acceptable predictions were obtained for the tilled corn fields, while poor results were obtained for the others. The source of error is suspected to be the density and orientation of the surface stubble layer; however, further research is needed to verify this explanation. Temporal comparisons between observed, microwave predicted, and soil water-simulated moisture values showed similar patterns for tilled well-drained fields. Divergences between the observed and simulated measurements were apparent on poorly drained fields. This result may be of value in locating and mapping hydrologic contributing areas.

  19. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Barnes, A.; Glass, M.; Kakar, R.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1993-01-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. Direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations.

  20. Aircraft observations of the vertical structure of stratiform precipitation relevant to microwave radiative transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.T.C. ); Barnes, A.; Glass, M. ); Kakar, R. ); Wilheit, T.T. )

    1993-06-01

    The retrieval of rainfall intensity over the oceans from passive microwave observations is based on a radiative transfer model. direct rainfall observations of oceanic rainfall are virtually nonexistent making validation of the retrievals extremely difficult. Observations of the model assumptions provide an alternative approach for improving and developing confidence in the rainfall retrievals. In the winter of 1983, the NASA CV-990 aircraft was equipped with a payload suitable for examining several of the model assumptions. The payload included microwave and infrared radiometers, mirror hygrometers, temperature probes, and PMS probes. On two occasions the aircraft ascended on a spiral track through stratiform precipitation providing an opportunity to study the atmospheric parameters. The assumptions concerning liquid hydrometeors, water vapor, lapse rate, and nonprecipitating clouds were studied. Model assumptions seem to be supported by these observations. 23 refs., 7 figs.

  1. Activation of VEGF/Flk-1-ERK Pathway Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Injury After Microwave Exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Feng; Li, Xiang; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, Shui-Ming; Zhao, Li; Dong, Ji; Yao, Bin-Wei; Xu, Xin-Ping; Chang, Gong-Min; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Hu, Xiang-Jun; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2015-08-01

    Microwaves have been suggested to induce neuronal injury and increase permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the mechanism remains unknown. The role of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/Flk-1-Raf/MAPK kinase (MEK)/extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway in structural and functional injury of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) following microwave exposure was examined. An in vitro BBB model composed of the ECV304 cell line and primary rat cerebral astrocytes was exposed to microwave radiation (50 mW/cm(2), 5 min). The structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the permeability was assessed by measuring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transmission. Activity and expression of VEGF/Flk-1-ERK pathway components and occludin also were examined. Our results showed that microwave radiation caused intercellular tight junctions to broaden and fracture with decreased TEER values and increased HRP permeability. After microwave exposure, activation of the VEGF/Flk-1-ERK pathway and Tyr phosphorylation of occludin were observed, along with down-regulated expression and interaction of occludin with zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1). After Flk-1 (SU5416) and MEK1/2 (U0126) inhibitors were used, the structure and function of the BBB were recovered. The increase in expression of ERK signal transduction molecules was muted, while the expression and the activity of occludin were accelerated, as well as the interactions of occludin with p-ERK and ZO-1 following microwave radiation. Thus, microwave radiation may induce BBB damage by activating the VEGF/Flk-1-ERK pathway, enhancing Tyr phosphorylation of occludin, while partially inhibiting expression and interaction of occludin with ZO-1.

  2. SETI prototype system for NASA's Sky Survey microwave observing project - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.; Wilck, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    Two complementary search strategies, a Targeted Search and a Sky Survey, are part of NASA's SETI microwave observing project scheduled to begin in October of 1992. The current progress in the development of hardware and software elements of the JPL Sky Survey data processing system are presented. While the Targeted Search stresses sensitivity allowing the detection of either continuous or pulsed signals over the 1-3 GHz frequency range, the Sky Survey gives up sensitivity to survey the 99 percent of the sky that is not covered by the Targeted Search. The Sky Survey spans a larger frequency range from 1-10 GHz. The two searches will deploy special-purpose digital signal processing equipment designed and built to automate the observing and data processing activities. A two-million channel digital wideband spectrum analyzer and a signal processor system will serve as a prototype for the SETI Sky Survey processor. The design will permit future expansion to meet the SETI requirement that the processor concurrently search for left and right circularly polarized signals.

  3. HMMR (High-Resolution Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer) Earth observing system, volume 2e. Instrument panel report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Recommendations and background are provided for a passive microwave remote sensing system of the future designed to meet the observational needs of Earth scientist in the next decade. This system, called the High Resolution Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (HMMR), is to be part of a complement of instruments in polar orbit. Working together, these instruments will form an Earth Observing System (EOS) to provide the information needed to better understand the fundamental, global scale processes which govern the Earth's environment. Measurements are identified in detail which passive observations in the microwave portion of the spectrum could contribute to an Earth Observing System in polar orbit. Requirements are established, e.g., spatial and temporal resolution, for these measurements so that, when combined with the other instruments in the Earth Observing System, they would yield a data set suitable for understanding the fundamental processes governing the Earth's environment. Existing and/or planned sensor systems are assessed in the light of these requirements, and additional sensor hardware needed to meet these observational requirements are defined.

  4. Atmospheric River Observations with the HAMSR Aircraft Microwave Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. T.; Schreier, M. M.; Dang, H. V. T.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2001 to serve as an aircraft based hurricane observatory. It initially flew on the high altitude ER-2 and later on the DC-8. More recently it was modified to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. It uses the most advanced technology and is among the most sensitive instruments of its kind. In addition to a number of NASA hurricane field campaigns - mostly in the North Atlantic, HAMSR has participated in two atmospheric river campaigns off the California coast, one in 2011 (WISPAR) and one in 2015 (CalWater2). We will discuss observations from the 2015 campaign, with particular focus on a flight over an atmsospheric river making landfall in central California in early February, as well as compare with highlights from the 2011 flights. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Microwave photonic bandgap devices with active plasma elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Benjamin; Colon Quinones, Roberto; Biggs, David; Underwood, Thomas; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Cappelli, Mark; Stanford Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    A 3-D alumina rod based microwave photonic crystal device with integrated gaseous plasma elements is designed and characterized. Modulation of the plasma density of the active plasma elements is shown to allow for high fidelity modulation of the output signal of the photonic crystal device. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations of the device are presented, and the functional effects of the plasma electron density, plasma collision frequency, and plasma dimensions are studied. Experimental characterization of the transmission of the device shows active tunability through adjustments of plasma parameters, including discharge current and plasma size. Additional photonic crystal structures with integrated plasma elements are explored. Sponsored by the AFSOR MURI and DOD NDSEG.

  6. Iapetus' near surface thermal emission modeled and constrained using Cassini RADAR Radiometer microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Keihm, S.; Wye, L. C.; West, R.; Lorenz, R. D.; Tosi, F.

    2014-10-01

    Since its arrival at Saturn, the Cassini spacecraft has had only a few opportunities to observe Iapetus, Saturn's most distant regular satellite. These observations were all made from long ranges (>100,000 km) except on September 10, 2007, during Cassini orbit 49, when the spacecraft encountered the two-toned moon during its closest flyby so far. In this pass it collected spatially resolved data on the object's leading side, mainly over the equatorial dark terrains of Cassini Regio (CR). In this paper, we examine the radiometry data acquired by the Cassini RADAR during both this close-targeted flyby (referred to as IA49-3) and the distant Iapetus observations. In the RADAR's passive mode, the receiver functions as a radiometer to record the thermal emission from planetary surfaces at a wavelength of 2.2-cm. On the cold icy surfaces of Saturn's moons, the measured brightness temperatures depend both on the microwave emissivity and the physical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth that is likely to be tens of centimeters or even a few meters. Combined with the concurrent active data, passive measurements can shed light on the composition, structure and thermal properties of planetary regoliths and thus on the processes from which they have formed and evolved. The model we propose for Iapetus' microwave thermal emission is fitted to the IA49-3 observations and reveals that the thermal inertias sensed by the Cassini Radiometer over both CR and the bright mid-to-high latitude terrains, namely Ronceveaux Terra (RT) in the North and Saragossa Terra (ST) in the South, significantly exceed those measured by Cassini's CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer), which is sensitive to much smaller depths, generally the first few millimeters of the surface. This implies that the subsurface of Iapetus sensed at 2.2-cm wavelength is more consolidated than the uppermost layers of the surface. In the case of CR, a thermal inertia of at least 50 J m-2 K-1 s-1/2, and

  7. Assimilation of Precipitation Measurement Missions Microwave Radiance Observations With GEOS-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Jianjun; Kim, Min-Jeong; McCarty, Will; Akella, Santha; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Core Observatory satellite was launched in February, 2014. The GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) is a conically scanning radiometer measuring 13 channels ranging from 10 to 183 GHz and sampling between 65 S 65 N. This instrument is a successor to the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI), which has observed 9 channels at frequencies ranging 10 to 85 GHz between 40 S 40 N since 1997. This presentation outlines the base procedures developed to assimilate GMI and TMI radiances in clear-sky conditions, including quality control methods, thinning decisions, and the estimation of, observation errors. This presentation also shows the impact of these observations when they are incorporated into the GEOS-5 atmospheric data assimilation system.

  8. Microwave pyrolysis of oily sludge with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Rong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of crude oil storage tank sludge for fuels using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a catalyst. The effect of GAC loading on the yield of pyrolysis products was also investigated. Heating rate of oily sludge and yield of microwave pyrolysis products such as oil and fuel gas was found to depend on the ratio of GAC to oily sludge. The optimal GAC loading was found to be 10%, while much smaller and larger feed sizes adversely influenced production. During oily sludge pyrolysis, a maximum oil yield of 77.5% was achieved. Pyrolytic oils with high concentrations of diesel oil and gasoline (about 70 wt% in the pyrolytic oil) were obtained. The leaching of heavy metals, such as Cr, As and Pb, was also suppressed in the solid residue after pyrolysis. This technique provides advantages such as harmless treatment of oily sludge and substantial reduction in the consumption of energy, time and cost.

  9. Modeling approaches to assimilating L band passive microwave observations over land surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Chanzy, André; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Olioso, Albert; Kerr, Yann

    2002-07-01

    L band passive microwave remotely sensed data have great potential for providing estimates of soil moisture with high temporal sampling and on a regional scale. Several studies have shown the possibility of assessing the hydrological conditions deep down in soil (in the top 1 or 2 m) from these repetitive estimates of surface soil moisture. Water availability for plants, which is related to soil moisture in the root zone, is a key variable for estimating the evapotranspiration fluxes over land surfaces. This estimation is an important issue for meteorological and hydrological modeling, since it is a basic term of land surface forcing in mesoscale atmospheric circulations. However, at the present time the assimilation approach of remotely sensed brightness temperature data for operational use in the fields of meteorology and hydrology is poorly defined and important issues remain to be addressed in order to develop an operational assimilation approach. Two important issues are to identify (1) how vegetation variables describing vegetation development can be accounted for and (2) how the attenuation effects of L band microwave radiation within the canopy layer can be computed on large spatial scales. On the basis of an exhaustive data set including multiangular and dual-polarization passive microwave measurements acquired over a wheat crop during a 3-month period in 1993, two main modeling approaches are tested in this study. The principle of both approaches was based on the use of dual-polarization and multiangular observations to discriminate between the effects of soil and vegetation on the crop microwave signature. For the two approaches, both the initial soil water reservoir R2 (at the beginning of the crop development) and parameterizations of the crop development could be retrieved simultaneously from the assimilation of the passive microwave measurements. From these results, promising assimilation strategies can be expected from the multiangular Soil Moisture

  10. Observation of low field microwave absorption in co-doped ZnO system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahule, Tebogo S.; Srinivasu, Vijaya V.; Das, Jayashree

    2016-10-01

    Room temperature low field microwave absorption (LFMA) in magnetic materials find application in microwave absorbers and low field sensors. However not all the magnetic materials show LFMA and the phenomenon is not fully understood. We report on the observation of low field microwave absorption (LFMA) or the non-resonant microwave absorption (NRMA) in the transition metal (TM) co-doped ZnO samples of the composition Zn1-x(TM:TM)xO synthesized by solid state reaction technique. LFMA peaks and hysteresis matches very well with that of the magnetization hysteresis loop and the anisotropy fields at room temperature similar to the reports in the literature for other magnetic systems. However we show through our careful experiments that such a correlation between LFMA and the magnetization does not survive at low temperatures and particularly at 10 K the LFMA hysteresis collapses in our TM co-doped ZnO system; whereas the magnetization hysteresis loop becomes very big and anisotropy field becomes bigger in the range of kOe. We interpret the LFMA as field dependent surface impedance or eddy current losses, in terms of a possible role of anomalous hall resistivity that follows magnetization and the ordinary hall resistivity that only follows the applied field. We then argue that LFMA accordingly follows magnetization or applied field when AHE or OHE dominates respectively. Also we confirm the absence of LFMA signals in the rare earth co-doped ZnO system.

  11. Improved detectability in medical microwave radio-thermometers as obtained by active antennas.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Svein; Klemetsen, Øystein

    2008-12-01

    Microwave radiometry is a spectral measurement technique for resolving blackbody radiation of heated matter above absolute zero. The emission levels vary with frequency and are at body temperatures maximized in the infrared spectral band. Medical radio-thermometers are mostly noninvasive short-range instruments that can provide temperature distributions in subcutaneous biological tissues when operated in the microwave region. However, a crucial limitation of the microwave radiometric observation principle is the extremely weak signal level of the thermal noise emitted by the lossy material (-174 dBm/Hz at normal body temperature). To improve the radiometer SNR, we propose to integrate a tiny, moderate gain, low-noise preamplifier (LNA) close to the antenna terminals as to obtain increased detectability of deep seated thermal gradients within the volume under investigation. The concept is verified experimentally in a lossy phantom medium by scanning an active antenna across a thermostatically controlled water phantom with a hot object embedded at 38 mm depth. Three different setups were investigated with decreasing temperature contrasts between the target and ambient medium. As a direct consequence of less ripple on the raw radiometric signal, statistical analysis shows a marked increase in signal-to-clutter ratio of the brightness temperature spatial scan profiles, when comparing active antenna operation with conventional passive setups.

  12. Science Data Processing for the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer: Earth Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Regner, Kathryn; Conover, Helen; Ashcroft, Peter; Wentz, Frank; Conway, Dawn; Lobl, Elena; Beaumont, Bruce; Hawkins, Lamar; Jones, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established the framework for the Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS) to enable the Earth science data products to be produced by personnel directly associated with the instrument science team and knowledgeable of the science algorithms. One of the first instantiations implemented for NASA was the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) SIPS. The AMSR-E SIPS is a decentralized, geographically distributed ground data processing system composed of two primary components located in California and Alabama. Initial science data processing is conducted at Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) in Santa Rosa, California. RSS ingests antenna temperature orbit data sets from JAXA and converts them to calibrated, resampled, geolocated brightness temperatures. The brightness temperatures are sent to the Global Hydrology and Climate Center in Huntsville, Alabama, which generates the geophysical science data products (e.g., water vapor, sea surface temperature, sea ice extent, etc.) suitable for climate research and applications usage. These science products are subsequently sent to the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado for archival and dissemination to the at-large science community. This paper describes the organization, coordination, and production techniques employed by the AMSR-E SIPS in implementing, automating and operating the distributed data processing system.

  13. Microwave radiometer observations of interannual water vapor variability and vertical structure over a tropical station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, R.; Suresh Raju, C.; Mathew, Nizy; Antony, Tinu; Krishna Moorthy, K.

    2015-05-01

    The intraseasonal and interannual characteristics and the vertical distribution of atmospheric water vapor from the tropical coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (TVM) located in the southwestern region of the Indian Peninsula are examined from continuous multiyear, multifrequency microwave radiometer profiler (MRP) measurements. The accuracy of MRP for precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimation, particularly during a prolonged monsoon period, has been demonstrated by comparing with the PWV derived from collocated GPS measurements based on regression model between PWV and GPS wet delay component which has been developed for TVM station. Large diurnal and intraseasonal variations of PWV are observed during winter and premonsoon seasons. There is large interannual PWV variability during premonsoon, owing to frequent local convection and summer thunderstorms. During monsoon period, low interannual PWV variability is attributed to the persistent wind from the ocean which brings moisture to this coastal station. However, significant interannual humidity variability is seen at 2 to 6 km altitude, which is linked to the monsoon strength over the station. Prior to monsoon onset over the station, the specific humidity increases up to 5-10 g/kg in the altitude region above 5 km and remains consistently so throughout the active spells.

  14. Estimating Long Term Surface Soil Moisture in the GCIP Area From Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, Manfred; deJeu, Vrije; VandeGriend, Adriaan A.

    2000-01-01

    Soil moisture is an important component of the water and energy balances of the Earth's surface. Furthermore, it has been identified as a parameter of significant potential for improving the accuracy of large-scale land surface-atmosphere interaction models. However, accurate estimates of surface soil moisture are often difficult to make, especially at large spatial scales. Soil moisture is a highly variable land surface parameter, and while point measurements are usually accurate, they are representative only of the immediate site which was sampled. Simple averaging of point values to obtain spatial means often leads to substantial errors. Since remotely sensed observations are already a spatially averaged or areally integrated value, they are ideally suited for measuring land surface parameters, and as such, are a logical input to regional or larger scale land process models. A nine-year database of surface soil moisture is being developed for the Central United States from satellite microwave observations. This region forms much of the GCIP study area, and contains most of the Mississippi, Rio Grande, and Red River drainages. Daytime and nighttime microwave brightness temperatures were observed at a frequency of 6.6 GHz, by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), onboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. The life of the SMMR instrument spanned from Nov. 1978 to Aug. 1987. At 6.6 GHz, the instrument provided a spatial resolution of approximately 150 km, and an orbital frequency over any pixel-sized area of about 2 daytime and 2 nighttime passes per week. Ground measurements of surface soil moisture from various locations throughout the study area are used to calibrate the microwave observations. Because ground measurements are usually only single point values, and since the time of satellite coverage does not always coincide with the ground measurements, the soil moisture data were used to calibrate a regional water balance for the top 1, 5, and 10 cm

  15. Satellite observations of snow and ice with an imaging passive microwave spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, A. D.; Ledsham, B. L.; Rosenkranz, P. W.; Staelin, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The scanning microwave spectrometer (SCAMS) on the Nimbus-6 satellite continuously maps the terrestrial surface with a resolution of about 150 km at 22.235 and 31.400 GHz. SCAMS observes at six angles besides nadir, yielding brightness temperatures which are a function of the distribution and character of various types of snow and ice, including microstructure and subsurface profiles in refractive index, loss (moisture or salinity), and temperature. Spectral signatures exhibiting interesting topographical structure have been observed. To aid in the interpretation of these data, a model was developed to describe the propagation of microwave intensity in a scattering medium characterized by three-dimensional random fluctuations of refractive index in addition to nonrandom variations in permittivity, temperature, and loss. The model combines Maxwell's equations in the Born approximation with radiative-transfer theory; this approach yields the variation of intensity with polarization, direction, and position.

  16. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit devices for active array antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.

    1984-01-01

    Two different aspects of active antenna array design were investigated. The transition between monolithic microwave integrated circuits and rectangular waveguides was studied along with crosstalk in multiconductor transmission lines. The boundary value problem associated with a discontinuity in a microstrip line is formulated. This entailed, as a first step, the derivation of the propagating as well as evanescent modes of a microstrip line. The solution is derived to a simple discontinuity problem: change in width of the center strip. As for the multiconductor transmission line problem. A computer algorithm was developed for computing the crosstalk noise from the signal to the sense lines. The computation is based on the assumption that these lines are terminated in passive loads.

  17. Hot-electron flux observation in large-area microwave sustained plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudela, Jozef; Terebessy, Tibor; Kando, Masashi

    2000-03-01

    Flux of hot electrons directed away from the waveguiding plasma-dielectric interface was experimentally observed in large-area microwave discharges. The energy of these electrons attains values of some 60 eV, and they are believed to be originating from the resonantly-enhanced electric field region localized near the dielectric. The phenomenon appears to play a significant role in discharge heating mechanism, which is demonstrated by plasma parameter profiles.

  18. Observation of slow-light in a metamaterials waveguide at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savo, Salvatore; Casse, B. D. F.; Lu, Wentao; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2011-04-01

    We report an experimental observation of slow-light in the GHz microwave regime utilizing the mechanism of the degeneracy of forward and backward waves in a planar waveguide consisting of a dielectric core cladded by single-negative metamaterial. The metamaterial cladding consists of periodic arrays of metallic split-ring resonators, exhibiting an effective negative permeability. Group delay dispersions obtained from pulsed measurements are in complete agreement with theoretical predictions.

  19. Arctic Sea ice, 1973-1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Comiso, Josefino C.; Zwally, H. Jay; Cavalieri, Donald J.; Gloersen, Per; Campbell, William J.

    1987-01-01

    The Arctic region plays a key role in the climate of the earth. The sea ice cover affects the radiative balance of the earth and radically changes the fluxes of heat between the atmosphere and the ocean. The observations of the Arctic made by the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on board the Nimbus 5 research satellite are summarized for the period 1973 through 1976.

  20. Multifrequency passive microwave observation of saline ice grown in a tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Bell, D. L.; Lohanick, A. W.; Swift, C. T.; St.germain, K.

    1988-01-01

    Microwave radiometers observed artificial sea ice formation. During initial ice growth, interference fringe effects can occur both from changing ice thickness and snow or frost which may prove useful in interpreting layer thicknesses. A simulation of multiyear ice was attempted by allowing the ice to desalinate, but the resulting emissivity spectrum was more characteristic of lake ice. A multiyearlike spectrum was obtained when rubble was deposited on the ice surface.

  1. New Technique for Retrieving Liquid Water Path over Land using Satellite Microwave Observations

    SciTech Connect

    Deeter, M.N.; Vivekanandan, J.

    2005-03-18

    We present a new methodology for retrieving liquid water path over land using satellite microwave observations. As input, the technique exploits the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for earth observing plan (EOS) (AMSR-E) polarization-difference signals at 37 and 89 GHz. Regression analysis performed on model simulations indicates that over variable atmospheric and surface conditions the polarization-difference signals can be simply parameterized in terms of the surface emissivity polarization difference ({Delta}{var_epsilon}), surface temperature, liquid water path (LWP), and precipitable water vapor (PWV). The resulting polarization-difference parameterization (PDP) enables fast and direct (noniterative) retrievals of LWP with minimal requirements for ancillary data. Single- and dual-channel retrieval methods are described and demonstrated. Data gridding is used to reduce the effects of instrumental noise. The methodology is demonstrated using AMSR-E observations over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site during a six day period in November and December, 2003. Single- and dual-channel retrieval results mostly agree with ground-based microwave retrievals of LWP to within approximately 0.04 mm.

  2. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabelström, N.; Hayashi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2014-10-01

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100 °C could be observed.

  3. Observation of localized heating phenomena during microwave heating of mixed powders using in situ x-ray diffraction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Sabelström, N. Hayashi, M.; Watanabe, T.; Nagata, K.

    2014-10-28

    In materials processing research using microwave heating, there have been several observations of various phenomena occurring known as microwave effects. One significant example of such a phenomenon is increased reaction kinetics. It is believed that there is a possibility that this might be caused by localized heating, were some reactants would attain a higher than apparent temperature. To examine whether such thermal gradients are indeed possible, mixed powders of two microwave non-absorbers, alumina and magnesia, were mixed with graphite, a known absorber, and heated in a microwave furnace. During microwave irradiation, the local temperatures of the respective sample constituents were measured using an in situ x-ray diffraction technique. In the case of the alumina and graphite sample, a temperature difference of around 100 °C could be observed.

  4. Simultaneous observations of hard X-ray and microwave burst sources in a limb flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takakura, T.; Kundu, M. R.; Mcconnell, D.; Ohki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of a flare which occurred just behind the west solar limb on 1981 August 3 are reported. A hard X-ray source (20-30 keV) and a microwave source at 5 GHz were observed simultaneously using the Very Large Array and the hard X-ray telescope aboard the Hinotori spacecraft. Both sources were located in the corona, apparently near the tops of two independent coronal arcades or loops. The source may be composed of many thin filaments unresolved by the VLA observations.

  5. New potentially active pyrazinamide derivatives synthesized under microwave conditions.

    PubMed

    Jandourek, Ondrej; Dolezal, Martin; Kunes, Jiri; Kubicek, Vladimir; Paterova, Pavla; Pesko, Matus; Buchta, Vladimir; Kralova, Katarina; Zitko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A series of 18 N-alkyl substituted 3-aminopyrazine-2-carboxamides was prepared in this work according to previously experimentally set and proven conditions using microwave assisted synthesis methodology. This approach for the aminodehalogenation reaction was chosen due to higher yields and shorter reaction times compared to organic reactions with conventional heating. Antimycobacterial, antibacterial, antifungal and photosynthetic electron transport (PET) inhibiting in vitro activities of these compounds were investigated. Experiments for the determination of lipophilicity were also performed. Only a small number of substances with alicyclic side chain showed activity against fungi which was the same or higher than standards and the biological efficacy of the compounds increased with rising lipophilicity. Nine pyrazinamide derivatives also inhibited PET in spinach chloroplasts and the IC50 values of these compounds varied in the range from 14.3 to 1590.0 μmol/L. The inhibitory activity was connected not only with the lipophilicity, but also with the presence of secondary amine fragment bounded to the pyrazine ring. Structure-activity relationships are discussed as well. PMID:24995919

  6. Multifrequency passive microwave observations of soil moisture in an arid rangeland environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Schmugge, T. J.; Parry, R.; Kustas, W. P.; Ritchie, J. C.; Shutko, A. M.; Khaldin, A.; Reutov, E.; Novichikhin, E.; Liberman, B.

    1992-01-01

    A cooperative experiment was conducted by teams from the U.S. and U.S.S.R. to evaluate passive microwave instruments and algorithms used to estimate surface soil moisture. Experiments were conducted as part of an interdisciplinary experiment in an arid rangeland watershed located in the southwest United States. Soviet microwave radiometers operating at wavelengths of 2.25, 21 and 27 cm were flown on a U.S. aircraft. Radio frequency interference limited usable data to the 2.25 and 21 cm systems. Data have been calibrated and compared to ground observations of soil moisture. These analyses showed that the 21 cm system could produce reliable and useful soil moisture information and that the 2.25 cm system was of no value for soil moisture estimation in this experiment.

  7. Earth Observing System (EOS)/ Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Special Test Equipment. Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwantje, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This document defines the functional, performance, and interface requirements for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A) Special Test Equipment (STE) software used in the test and integration of the instruments.

  8. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic activity: a dose-response study

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    Rats were irradiated with circularly polarized, 2,450-MHz pulsed microwaves (2-microseconds pulses, 500 pulses per second (pps)) for 45 min in the cylindrical waveguide system of Guy et al. Immediately after exposure, sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake, an indicator of cholinergic activity in neural tissue, was measured in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. The power density was set to give average whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.3, 0.45, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, or 1.2 W/kg to study the dose-response relationship between the rate of microwave energy absorption and cholinergic activity in the different areas of the brain. Decrease in choline uptake was observed in the striatum at a SAR of 0.75 W/kg and above, whereas for the frontal cortex and hippocampus, decreases in choline uptake were observed at a SAR of 0.45 W/kg and above. No significant effect was observed in the hypothalamus at the irradiation power densities studied. The probit analysis was used to determine the SAR50 in each brain area, i.e., the SAR at which 50% of maximum response was elicited. SAR50 values for the striatum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus were 0.65, 0.38, and 0.44 W/kg, respectively.

  9. Acute low-level microwave exposure and central cholinergic activity: studies on irradiation parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake was measured in the striatum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus of rats after acute exposure (45 min) to pulsed (2 microseconds, 500 pps) or continuous-wave 2,450-MHz microwaves in cylindrical waveguides or miniature anechoic chambers. In all exposure conditions, the average whole-body specific absorption rate was at 0.6 W/kg. Decrease in choline uptake was observed in the frontal cortex after microwave exposure in all of the above irradiation conditions. Regardless of the exposure system used, hippocampal choline uptake was decreased after exposure to pulsed but not continuous-wave microwaves. Striatal choline uptake was decreased after exposure to either pulsed or continuous-wave microwaves in the miniature anechoic chamber. No significant change in hypothalamic choline uptake was observed under any of the exposure conditions studied. We conclude that depending on the parameters of the radiation, microwaves can elicit specific and generalized biological effects.

  10. Diurnal change in trees as observed by optical and microwave sensors - The EOS Synergism Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Way, Jobea; Mcdonald, Kyle; Paris, Jack; Dobson, Myron C.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.; Weber, James A.; Ustin, Susan L.; Vanderbilt, Vern C.; Kasischke, Eric S.

    1991-01-01

    The EOS (Earth Observing System) Synergism Study examined the temporal variability of the optical and microwave backscatter due to diurnal change in canopy properties of interest to ecosystem modelers. The experiment was designed to address diurnal changes in canopy water status that relate to transpiration. Multispectral optical and multifrequency, multipolarization microwave measurements were acquired using boom-truck-based systems over a two-week period. Sensor and canopy properties were collected around the clock. The canopy studied was a walnut orchard in the San Joaquin Valley of California. The results demonstrate a large diurnal variation in the dielectric properties of the tree that in turn produces significant diurnal changes in the microwave backscatter. The results suggest that permanently orbiting spaceborne sensors such as those on EOS should be placed in orbits that are optimized for the individual sensor and need not be tied together by a tight simultaneity requirement on the order of minutes to hours for the purpose of monitoring ecosystem properties.

  11. Thin Sea-Ice Thickness as Inferred from Passive Microwave and In Situ Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naoki, Kazuhiro; Ukita, Jinro; Nishio, Fumihiko; Nakayama, Masashige; Comiso, Josefino C.; Gasiewski, Al

    2007-01-01

    Since microwave radiometric signals from sea-ice strongly reflect physical conditions of a layer near the ice surface, a relationship of brightness temperature with thickness is possible especially during the early stages of ice growth. Sea ice is most saline during formation stage and as the salinity decreases with time while at the same time the thickness of the sea ice increases, a corresponding change in the dielectric properties and hence the brightness temperature may occur. This study examines the extent to which the relationships of thickness with brightness temperature (and with emissivity) hold for thin sea-ice, approximately less than 0.2 -0.3 m, using near concurrent measurements of sea-ice thickness in the Sea of Okhotsk from a ship and passive microwave brightness temperature data from an over-flying aircraft. The results show that the brightness temperature and emissivity increase with ice thickness for the frequency range of 10-37 GHz. The relationship is more pronounced at lower frequencies and at the horizontal polarization. We also established an empirical relationship between ice thickness and salinity in the layer near the ice surface from a field experiment, which qualitatively support the idea that changes in the near-surface brine characteristics contribute to the observed thickness-brightness temperature/emissivity relationship. Our results suggest that for thin ice, passive microwave radiometric signals contain, ice thickness information which can be utilized in polar process studies.

  12. Spin Transition of Composite Fermion Solids in Wide Quantum Wells Observed with Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatke, Anthony; Engel, Lloyd; Liu, Yang; Shayegan, Mansour; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Baldwin, Kirk

    Within a narrow range of Landau filling (ν) near 1, a resonance in the microwave spectrum in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems is known to occur. The resonance is understood as due to a pinning mode of a Wigner solid of quasicarriers and is present in the ν-region of vanishing diagonal resistance. In microwave spectroscopy an abrupt jump in the resonance frequency, fpk, upon decreasing ν from 1 was observed in wide quantum wells. This jump was interpreted as a transition between two solid states: S1, which occurred closer to ν = 1 , and S2 (with enhanced-fpk), which occurred farther from ν = 1 . In this talk we discuss microwave measurements using variable carrier density and in plane magnetic field. Typical for a spin-related transition, tilting the sample at fixed n results in effects similar to those found on increasing n without tilt. Taken together, the dependencies of the resonance on n and the tilt angle are consistent with a ground state spin transition between different solids. We discuss our results in terms of interacting two-flux composite fermions

  13. Satellite and aircraft passive microwave observations during the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloersen, Per; Campbell, William J.

    1988-06-01

    During the Marginal Ice Zone Experiment in the Fram Strait in June-July 1984, a number of aircraft with microwave sensors and the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on board the Nimbus 7 satellite were used to acquire large-scale and mesoscale ice-ocean observations in conjunction with local surface measurements made by experimenters based on helicopter-equipped ice-strengthened vessels. An analysis of the data acquired during six flights of one such aircraft, the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory, is discussed in this paper. Included in the instrument complement of the CV-990 were two passive microwave imagers operating at wavelengths of 0.33 and 1.55 cm and the airborne multichannel microwave radiometer (AMMR) operating at wavelengths of 0.81, 1.4, and 1.7 cm for both horizontal and vertical polarizations. Total and multiyear sea ice concentrations calculated from the AMMR data were found to agree with similar calculations using SMMR data. This is the first check of the performance of the SMMR Team ice algorithm for near-melting point conditions. The temperature dependence of the multiyear sea ice concentration determination near the melting point was found to be the same for both airborne and spacecraft instrument data and to be correlated with presence or absence of clouds. Finally, it was found that a spectral gradient ratio using the data from both the 0.33- and 1.55-cm radiometers provides more reliable distinctions between low total ice concentrations and open water storm effects near the ice edge than does either singly.

  14. A search in the infrared to microwave for astroengineering activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slysh, V. I.

    Huge space power plants (Dyson Spheres) utilizing most of a star's energy should be detectable as infrared or microwave sources. A recent far infrared all-sky survey has revealed many sources with a spectrum peaking on this region which is characteristic of the thermal emission of the hypothetical Dyson spheres. The possibility of confusing them with thick circumstellar dust shells around evolved red giant stars is discussed. Microwave detection of cool extended Dyson Spheres by all-sky surveys searching for microwave background fluctuations is also considered.

  15. Soil Moisture Estimation by Assimilating L-Band Microwave Brightness Temperature with Geostatistics and Observation Localization

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Rigon, Riccardo; Jin, Rui; Endrizzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL); the other is observation localization (OL). Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects. PMID:25635771

  16. Soil moisture estimation by assimilating L-band microwave brightness temperature with geostatistics and observation localization.

    PubMed

    Han, Xujun; Li, Xin; Rigon, Riccardo; Jin, Rui; Endrizzi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The observation could be used to reduce the model uncertainties with data assimilation. If the observation cannot cover the whole model area due to spatial availability or instrument ability, how to do data assimilation at locations not covered by observation? Two commonly used strategies were firstly described: One is covariance localization (CL); the other is observation localization (OL). Compared with CL, OL is easy to parallelize and more efficient for large-scale analysis. This paper evaluated OL in soil moisture profile characterizations, in which the geostatistical semivariogram was used to fit the spatial correlated characteristics of synthetic L-Band microwave brightness temperature measurement. The fitted semivariogram model and the local ensemble transform Kalman filter algorithm are combined together to weight and assimilate the observations within a local region surrounding the grid cell of land surface model to be analyzed. Six scenarios were compared: 1_Obs with one nearest observation assimilated, 5_Obs with no more than five nearest local observations assimilated, and 9_Obs with no more than nine nearest local observations assimilated. The scenarios with no more than 16, 25, and 36 local observations were also compared. From the results we can conclude that more local observations involved in assimilation will improve estimations with an upper bound of 9 observations in this case. This study demonstrates the potentials of geostatistical correlation representation in OL to improve data assimilation of catchment scale soil moisture using synthetic L-band microwave brightness temperature, which cannot cover the study area fully in space due to vegetation effects.

  17. Cassini microwave radiometry observations of Enceladus' South Pole: Detection of a warm subsurface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, A. A.; Leyrat, C.; Janssen, M. A.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wye, L. C.; West, R. D.; Lorenz, R. D.; Mitchell, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    At the beginning of the Cassini mission, the ISS (Imaging Science Subsystem) and CIRS (Composite Infra-Red Spectrometer) instruments discovered a geologically active region at the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus (e.g. Porco et al., 2005). Plumes venting material emanate from this region. Six years later, on November 6, 2011, the first-ever Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image of Enceladus was acquired during the E16 flyby of the moon at the wavelength of 2-cm (Mitchell et al., AGU 2011). The SAR swath is located within the seemingly young South Pole Terrains, not far from the active sulci also known as the "tiger stripes" identified as the sources of the plumes. Concurrently to the SAR image, radiometry data were collected in the passive mode of the instrument with a ground footprint of 25-40 km across the track and ~5 km along. The Cassini radiometer records the thermal emission from the surface in the microwave domain, at 2-cm. More specifically, it measures the brightness temperature of the surface that varies both with the emissivity and the vertical temperature profile below the surface down to a depth, which depends on the electrical properties of the subsurface. Typically, radio instruments sense 10 to 100 wavelengths into an icy crust and can thus provide unique insight into the compositional, thermal and physical (porosity, roughness) state of planetary regoliths at depths much greater than the ones sampled by thermal IR spectrometers. In particular, microwave radiometer can be used to detect possible endogenic activity beneath the surface. The measured calibrated brightness temperatures during E16 cover a range from 33 to 60 K. In order to analyze these dataset, we have modeled the expected thermal emission from Enceladus' surface. In absence of endogenic emission, the temperature structure of any airless satellite results from a balance between solar insolation, heat transport within the subsurface and reradiation outward. The developed thermal

  18. Observing the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation: A Unique Window on the Early Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, Gary; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cosmic microwave background radiation is the remnant heat from the Big Bang. It provides us with a unique probe of conditions in the early universe, long before any organized structures had yet formed. The anisotropy in the radiation's brightness yields important clues about primordial structure and additionally provides a wealth of information about the physics,of the early universe. Within the framework of inflationary dark matter models observations of the anisotropy on sub-degree angular scales will reveal the signatures of acoustic oscillations of the photon-baryon fluid at a redshift of approx. 1100. The validity of inflationary models will be tested and, if agreement is found, accurate values for most of the key cosmological parameters will result. If disagreement is found, we will need to rethink our basic ideas about the physics of the early universe. I will present an overview of the physical processes at work in forming the anisotropy and discuss what we have already learned from current observations. I will conclude with a brief overview of the recently launched Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission which will observe the anisotropy over the full sky with 0.21 degree angular resolution. At the time of this meeting, MAP will have just arrived at the L2 Lagrange point, marking the start of its observing campaign. The MAP hardware is being produced by Goddard in partnership with Princeton University.

  19. Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy: Observations, Data Analysis, and Results for Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty; Ho, Paul T. P.; Huang, Chih-Wei Locutus; Koch, Patrick M.; Liao, Yu-Wei; Lin, Kai-Yang; Liu, Guo-Chin; Molnar, Sandor M.; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Altamirano, Pablo; Birkinshaw, Mark; Chang, Chia-Hao; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Su-Wei; Chen, Ming-Tang; Chiueh, Tzihong; Han, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Yau-De; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Jiang, Homin; Kesteven, Michael; Kubo, Derek Y.; Lancaster, Katy; Li, Chao-Te; Martin-Cocher, Pierre; Oshiro, Peter; Raffin, Philippe; Wei, Tashun; Wilson, Warwick

    2009-04-01

    We present observations, analysis, and results for the first-year operation of Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA), an interferometric experiment designed to study cosmology via the measurement of cosmic microwave background (CMB). AMiBA is the first CMB interferometer operating at 3 mm to have reported successful results, currently with seven close-packed antennas of 60 cm diameter giving a synthesized resolution of around 6'. During 2007, AMiBA detected the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects (SZEs) of six galaxy clusters at redshift 0.091 <= z <= 0.322. An observing strategy with on-off-source switching is used to minimize the effects from electronic offset and ground pickup. Planets were used to test the observational capability of AMiBA and to calibrate the conversion from correlator time-lag data to visibilities. The detailed formalism for data analysis is given. We summarize our early tests including observations of planets and quasars, and present images, visibility profiles, the estimated central coordinates, sizes, and SZE amplitudes of the galaxy clusters. Scientific implications are summarized. We also discuss possible systematic effects in the results.

  20. Effects of dust storms on microwave radiation based on satellite observation and model simulation over the Taklamakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Huang, J.; Weng, F.; Sun, W.

    2008-04-01

    Effects of dust particles on microwave radiation over the Taklamakan desert are studied with use of measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the EOS Aqua satellite and a microwave radiation transfer model. Eight observed cases show that the signal from atmospheric dust can be separated from the surface radiation by the fact that the dust particles produce stronger scattering at high frequencies and depolarize the background desert signature. This result of satellite data is consistent with the model simulation.

  1. Effects of dust storms on microwave radiation based on satellite observation and model simulation over the Taklamakan desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Huang, J.; Weng, F.; Sun, W.

    2008-08-01

    Effects of dust particles on microwave radiation over the Taklamakan desert are studied with use of measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) on the EOS Aqua satellite and a microwave radiation transfer model. Eight observed cases show that the signal from atmospheric dust can be separated from the surface radiation by the fact that the dust particles produce stronger scattering at high frequencies and depolarize the background desert signature. This result of satellite data is consistent with the model simulation.

  2. NASA's Potential Contributions to Avalanche Forecasting Using Active and Passive Microwave Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2007-01-01

    This Candidate Solution is based on using active and passive microwave measurements acquired from NASA satellites to improve USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture) Forest Service forecasting of avalanche danger. Regional Avalanche Centers prepare avalanche forecasts using ground measurements of snowpack and mountain weather conditions. In this Solution, range of the in situ observations is extended by adding remote sensing measurements of snow depth, snow water equivalent, and snowfall rate acquired by satellite missions that include Aqua, CloudSat, future GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), and the proposed SCLP (Snow and Cold Land Processes). Measurements of snowpack conditions and time evolution are improved by combining the in situ and satellite observations with a snow model. Recurring snow observations from NASA satellites increase accuracy of avalanche forecasting, which helps the public and the managers of public facilities make better avalanche safety decisions.

  3. Microwave Edge Diffraction by Features in Saturn's Rings: Observations with Voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Marouf, E A; Tyler, G L

    1982-07-16

    Classical edge diffraction patterns are formed at centimeter wavelengths by several features of Saturn's rings. These patterns were discovered in 3.6-and 13-centimeter radio signals from Voyager 1 during occultation by the rings. The observed shapes are in agreement with theoretical patterns computed for screens of perfectly abrupt edges having large but finite opacity. Comparison with models in which the opacity at the edge tapers to zero from a finite value sets a new bound of less than about 200 meters on the microwave edge thickness. Certain features of the data suggest a smaller upper bound of about 130 meters on the edge thickness.

  4. Direct observation of photonic jets and corresponding backscattering enhancement at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Ong, C. K.

    2009-06-01

    We report the direct observation of photonic nanojets that emerged from the shadow side of a dielectric cylinder illuminated by plane waves in the microwave frequencies (8-13 GHz). Using our recently developed two-dimensional spatial field mapping system, we carried out a point-by-point measurement of both the phase and intensity of spatial electric field distribution inside and around scattering dielectric cylinders. The direct electric field maps confirm the subwavelength waist of the photonic jet. In addition, we also confirmed the superbackscattering enhancement induced by the presence of a particle much smaller than the initial focusing cylinder within the photonic jet.

  5. Electron Kinetics Inferred from Observations of Microwave Bursts During Edge Localized Modes in the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freethy, S. J.; McClements, K. G.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Lai, W. N.; Pamela, S. J. P.; Shevchenko, V. F.; Vann, R. G. L.

    2015-03-01

    Recent measurements of microwave and x-ray emission during edge localized mode (ELM) activity in tokamak plasmas provide a fresh perspective on ELM physics. It is evident that electron kinetics, which are not incorporated in standard (fluid) models for the instability that drives ELMs, play a key role in the new observations. These effects should be included in future models for ELMs and the ELM cycle. The observed radiative effects paradoxically imply acceleration of electrons parallel to the magnetic field combined with rapid acquisition of perpendicular momentum. It is shown that this paradox can be resolved by the action of the anomalous Doppler instability which enables fast collective radiative relaxation, in the perpendicular direction, of electrons accelerated in the parallel direction by inductive electric fields generated by the initial ELM instability.

  6. Electron kinetics inferred from observations of microwave bursts during edge localized modes in the mega-amp spherical tokamak.

    PubMed

    Freethy, S J; McClements, K G; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Lai, W N; Pamela, S J P; Shevchenko, V F; Vann, R G L

    2015-03-27

    Recent measurements of microwave and x-ray emission during edge localized mode (ELM) activity in tokamak plasmas provide a fresh perspective on ELM physics. It is evident that electron kinetics, which are not incorporated in standard (fluid) models for the instability that drives ELMs, play a key role in the new observations. These effects should be included in future models for ELMs and the ELM cycle. The observed radiative effects paradoxically imply acceleration of electrons parallel to the magnetic field combined with rapid acquisition of perpendicular momentum. It is shown that this paradox can be resolved by the action of the anomalous Doppler instability which enables fast collective radiative relaxation, in the perpendicular direction, of electrons accelerated in the parallel direction by inductive electric fields generated by the initial ELM instability.

  7. Microwave Observation of the Van Der Waals Complex O_2-CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Frank E.; Persinger, Thomas D.; Gillcrist, David Joseph; Moon, Nicole; Ndengue, Steve Alexandre; Dawes, Richard; Grubbs, G. S., II

    2016-06-01

    FTMW spectroscopy has long been known to be a powerful tool in characterizing van der Waals complexes. Along with this, advances in microwave technology and computing have made complicated spin-interaction systems much easier to observe and characterize. One such system, O_2-CO has been observed for the first time on a CP-FTMW spectrometer operational in the 6-18 GHz region. Preliminary observations and calculations indicate a slipped-parallel structure. High level calculations are ongoing, including the construction of a 4D potential energy surface. Rotational assignments, along with any observed fine structure due to the ^3Σ ground state of O_2 will be discussed. Stewart Novick, Bibliography of Rotational Spectra of Weakly Bound Complexes

  8. Microwave and Beam Activation of Nanostructured Catalysts for Environmentally Friendly, Energy Efficient Heavy Crude Oil Processing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-01

    This factsheet describes a study whose goal is initial evaluation and development of energy efficient processes which take advantage of the benefits offered by nanostructured catalysts which can be activated by microwave, RF, or radiation beams.

  9. Combining Satellite Microwave Radiometer and Radar Observations to Estimate Atmospheric Latent Heating Profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Shie, Chung-Lin; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2009-01-01

    In this study, satellite passive microwave sensor observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) are utilized to make estimates of latent + eddy sensible heating rates (Q1-QR) in regions of precipitation. The TMI heating algorithm (TRAIN) is calibrated, or "trained" using relatively accurate estimates of heating based upon spaceborne Precipitation Radar (PR) observations collocated with the TMI observations over a one-month period. The heating estimation technique is based upon a previously described Bayesian methodology, but with improvements in supporting cloud-resolving model simulations, an adjustment of precipitation echo tops to compensate for model biases, and a separate scaling of convective and stratiform heating components that leads to an approximate balance between estimated vertically-integrated condensation and surface precipitation. Estimates of Q1-QR from TMI compare favorably with the PR training estimates and show only modest sensitivity to the cloud-resolving model simulations of heating used to construct the training data. Moreover, the net condensation in the corresponding annual mean satellite latent heating profile is within a few percent of the annual mean surface precipitation rate over the tropical and subtropical oceans where the algorithm is applied. Comparisons of Q1 produced by combining TMI Q1-QR with independently derived estimates of QR show reasonable agreement with rawinsonde-based analyses of Q1 from two field campaigns, although the satellite estimates exhibit heating profile structure with sharper and more intense heating peaks than the rawinsonde estimates. 2

  10. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT.

  11. Effects of microwave heating on porous structure of regenerated powdered activated carbon used in xylose.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Xinying; Peng, Jinhui

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of spent powdered activated carbons used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating was investigated. Effects of microwave power and microwave heating time on the adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbons were evaluated. The optimum conditions obtained are as follows: microwave power 800W; microwave heating time 30min. Regenerated activated carbon in this work has high adsorption capacities for the amount of methylene blue of 16 cm3/0.1 g and the iodine number of 1000.06mg/g. The specific surface areas of fresh commercial activated carbon, spent carbon and regenerated activated carbon were calculated according to the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller method, and the pore-size distributions of these carbons were characterized by non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results show that the specific surface area and the total pore volume of regenerated activated carbon are 1064 m2/g and 1.181 mL/g, respectively, indicating the feasibility of regeneration of spent powdered activated carbon used in xylose decolourization by microwave heating. The results of surface fractal dimensions also confirm the results of isotherms and NLDFT. PMID:24645431

  12. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Calibration management plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the Calibration Management Plan for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). The plan defines calibration requirements, calibration equipment, and calibration methods for the AMSU-A, a 15 channel passive microwave radiometer that will be used for measuring global atmospheric temperature profiles from the EOS polar orbiting observatory. The AMSU-A system will also provide data to verify and augment that of the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder.

  13. Short term prediction of dynamic hydra precipitation activity using a microwave radiometer over Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    First ever study of the feasibility of ground based radiometric study to predict a very short term based rain precipitation study has been conducted in eastern Himalaya, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl). Short term prediction or nowcasting relates to forecasting convective precipitation for time periods less than a few hours to avoid its effect on agriculture, aviation and lifestyle. Theoretical models involving radiometric predictions are not well understood and lack in temporal and spatial resolution. In this study specific utilization of a microwave Radiometer (Radiometrics Corporation, USA) for online monitoring of precipitable rainfall activity has been observed repeatability of data has been established. Previous few studies have shown the increase of water vapour and corresponding Brightness Temperature, but in mountain climatic conditions over Darjeeling, due to presence of fog 90 % of the year, water vapour monitoring related predictions can lead to false alarms. The measurement of blackbody emission noise in the bands of 23.8 GHz and 31.4 GHz, using a quadratic regression retrieval algorithm is converted to atmospheric parameters like integrated water vapour and liquid water content. It has been found in our study that the liquid water shows significant activity prior to precipitation events even for mild and stratiform rainfall. The alarm can be generated well 20 mins before the commencement of actual rain events even in the upper atmosphere of 6 Kms, measured by a rain radar also operating in 24 Ghz microwave band. Although few rain events were found and reported which do not respond in the microwave liquid water channel. Efforts to identify such rain events and their possible explanation is going on and shall be reported in near future. Such studies are important to predict flash flooding in the Himalayas. Darjeeling owing to its geographical conditions experiences mild to very heavy rain. Such studies help improve aspects of Himalayas as

  14. Effect of Microwave Heating Conditions on the Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Waste Bamboo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Hongying Xia; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Yi; Peng, Jinhui; Wang, Shixing; Zheng, Zhaoqiang; Zhang, Shengzhou

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports the effect of microwave power and microwave heating time on activated carbon adsorption ability. The waste bamboo was used to preparing high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. The bamboo was carbonized for 2 h at 600°C to be used as the raw material. According to the results, microwave power and microwave heating time had a significant impact on the activating effect. The optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified when microwave power and microwave heating time were 700 W and 15 min, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, surface area was estimated to be 3441 m2/g with pore volume of 2.093 ml/g and the significant proportion of activated carbon was microporous (62.3%). The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were illustrated that activated carbon surface had abundant functional groups. Additionally the pore structure is characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM).

  15. 1800MHz Microwave Induces p53 and p53-Mediated Caspase-3 Activation Leading to Cell Apoptosis In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Fuqiang; Zhan, Qiuqiang; He, Yiduo; Cui, Jiesheng; He, Sailing; Wang, Guanyu

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported that exposure of mammalian cells to microwave radiation may have adverse effects such as induction of cell apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying microwave induced mammalian cell apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we report a novel mechanism: exposure to 1800MHz microwave radiation induces p53-dependent cell apoptosis through cytochrome c-mediated caspase-3 activation pathway. We first measured intensity of microwave radiation from several electronic devices with an irradiation detector. Mouse NIH/3T3 and human U-87 MG cells were then used as receivers of 1800MHz electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at a power density of 1209 mW/m2. Following EMR exposure, cells were analyzed for viability, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA damage, p53 expression, and caspase-3 activity. Our analysis revealed that EMR exposure significantly decreased viability of NIH/3T3 and U-87 MG cells, and increased caspase-3 activity. ROS burst was observed at 6 h and 48 h in NIH/3T3 cells, while at 3 h in U-87 MG cells. Hoechst 33258 staining and in situ TUNEL assay detected that EMR exposure increased DNA damage, which was significantly restrained in the presence of N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, an antioxidant). Moreover, EMR exposure increased the levels of p53 protein and p53 target gene expression, promoted cytochrome c release from mitochondrion, and increased caspase-3 activity. These events were inhibited by pretreatment with NAC, pifithrin-α (a p53 inhibitor) and caspase inhibitor. Collectively, our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that 1800MHz EMR induces apoptosis-related events such as ROS burst and more oxidative DNA damage, which in turn promote p53-dependent caspase-3 activation through release of cytochrome c from mitochondrion. These findings thus provide new insights into physiological mechanisms underlying microwave-induced cell apoptosis. PMID:27689798

  16. Upregulation of HIF-1α via activation of ERK and PI3K pathway mediated protective response to microwave-induced mitochondrial injury in neuron-like cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Yang, Yue-Feng; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, Shui-Ming; Wang, Li-Feng; Zuo, Hong-Yan; Dong, Ji; Xu, Xin-Ping; Su, Zhen-Tao; Zhou, Hong-Mei; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-12-01

    Microwave-induced learning and memory deficits in animal models have been gaining attention in recent years, largely because of increasing public concerns on growing environmental influences. The data from our group and others have showed that the injury of mitochondria, the major source of cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in primary neurons, could be detected in the neuron cells of microwave-exposed rats. In this study, we provided some insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms behind mitochondrial injury in PC12 cell-derived neuron-like cells. PC12 cell-derived neuron-like cells were exposed to 30 mW/cm(2) microwave for 5 min, and damages of mitochondrial ultrastructure could be observed by using transmission electron microscopy. Impairments of mitochondrial function, indicated by decrease of ATP content, reduction of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activities, decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, could be detected. We also found that hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α), a key regulator responsible for hypoxic response of the mammalian cells, was upregulated in microwave-exposed neuron-like cells. Furthermore, HIF-1α overexpression protected mitochondria from injury by increasing the ATP contents and MMP, while HIF-1α silence promoted microwave-induced mitochondrial damage. Finally, we demonstrated that both ERK and PI3K signaling activation are required in microwave-induced HIF-1α activation and protective response. In conclusion, we elucidated a regulatory connection between impairments of mitochondrial function and HIF-1α activation in microwave-exposed neuron-like cells. By modulating mitochondrial function and protecting neuron-like cells against microwave-induced mitochondrial injury, HIF-1α represents a promising therapeutic target for microwave radiation injury.

  17. Microwave Polarized Signatures Generated within Cloud Systems: SSM/I Observations Interpreted with Radiative Transfer Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigent, Catherine; Pardo, Juan R.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Rossow, Willaim B.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Special Sensor Microwave /Imager (SSM/I) observations in cloud systems are studied over the tropics. Over optically thick cloud systems, presence of polarized signatures at 37 and 85 GHz is evidenced and analyzed with the help of cloud top temperature and optical thickness extracted from visible and IR satellite observations. Scattering signatures at 85 GHz (TbV(85) less than or = 250 K) are associated with polarization differences greater than or = 6 K, approx. 50%, of the time over ocean and approx. 40% over land. In addition. over thick clouds the polarization difference at 37 GHz is rarely negligible. The polarization differences at 37 and 85 GHz do not stem from the surface but are generated in regions of relatively homogeneous clouds having high liquid water content. To interpret the observations, a radiative transfer model that includes the scattering by non-spherical particles is developed. based on the T-matrix approach and using the doubling and adding method. In addition to handling randomly and perfectly oriented particles, this model can also simulate the effect of partial orientation of the hydrometeors. Microwave brightness temperatures are simulated at SSM/I frequencies and are compared with the observations. Polarization differences of approx. 2 K can be simulated at 37 GHz over a rain layer, even using spherical drops. The polarization difference is larger for oriented non-spherical particles. The 85 GHz simulations are very sensitive to the ice phase of the cloud. Simulations with spherical particles or with randomly oriented non-spherical ice particles cannot replicate the observed polarization differences. However, with partially oriented non-spherical particles, the observed polarized signatures at 85 GHz are explained, and the sensitivity of the scattering characteristics to the particle size, asphericity, and orientation is analyzed. Implications on rain and ice retrievals are discussed.

  18. Impact of Uncertainty in the Drop Size Distribution on Oceanic Rainfall Retrievals From Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, Thomas T.; Chandrasekar, V.; Li, Wanyu

    2007-01-01

    The variability of the drop size distribution (DSD) is one of the factors that must be considered in understanding the uncertainties in the retrieval of oceanic precipitation from passive microwave observations. Here, we have used observations from the Precipitation Radar on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission spacecraft to infer the relationship between the DSD and the rain rate and the variability in this relationship. The impact on passive microwave rain rate retrievals varies with the frequency and rain rate. The total uncertainty for a given pixel can be slightly larger than 10% at the low end (ca. 10 GHz) of frequencies commonly used for this purpose and smaller at higher frequencies (up to 37 GHz). Since the error is not totally random, averaging many pixels, as in a monthly rainfall total, should roughly halve this uncertainty. The uncertainty may be lower at rain rates less than about 30 mm/h, but the lack of sensitivity of the surface reference technique to low rain rates makes it impossible to tell from the present data set.

  19. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system for temperature and humidity profile retrieval from microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, K.; Kesarkar, A. P.; Bhate, J.; Venkat Ratnam, M.; Jayaraman, A.

    2015-01-01

    The retrieval of accurate profiles of temperature and water vapour is important for the study of atmospheric convection. Recent development in computational techniques motivated us to use adaptive techniques in the retrieval algorithms. In this work, we have used an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to retrieve profiles of temperature and humidity up to 10 km over the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E), India. ANFIS is trained by using observations of temperature and humidity measurements by co-located Meisei GPS radiosonde (henceforth referred to as radiosonde) and microwave brightness temperatures observed by radiometrics multichannel microwave radiometer MP3000 (MWR). ANFIS is trained by considering these observations during rainy and non-rainy days (ANFIS(RD + NRD)) and during non-rainy days only (ANFIS(NRD)). The comparison of ANFIS(RD + NRD) and ANFIS(NRD) profiles with independent radiosonde observations and profiles retrieved using multivariate linear regression (MVLR: RD + NRD and NRD) and artificial neural network (ANN) indicated that the errors in the ANFIS(RD + NRD) are less compared to other retrieval methods. The Pearson product movement correlation coefficient (r) between retrieved and observed profiles is more than 92% for temperature profiles for all techniques and more than 99% for the ANFIS(RD + NRD) technique Therefore this new techniques is relatively better for the retrieval of temperature profiles. The comparison of bias, mean absolute error (MAE), RMSE and symmetric mean absolute percentage error (SMAPE) of retrieved temperature and relative humidity (RH) profiles using ANN and ANFIS also indicated that profiles retrieved using ANFIS(RD + NRD) are significantly better compared to the ANN technique. The analysis of profiles concludes that retrieved profiles using ANFIS techniques have improved the temperature retrievals substantially; however, the retrieval of RH by all techniques considered in this paper (ANN, MVLR and

  1. Volcanic eruption source parameters from active and passive microwave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, Mario; Marzano, Frank S.; Cimini, Domenico; Mereu, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    It is well known, in the volcanology community, that precise information of the source parameters characterising an eruption are of predominant interest for the initialization of the Volcanic Transport and Dispersion Models (VTDM). Source parameters of main interest would be the top altitude of the volcanic plume, the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source, which is strictly related to the cloud top altitude, the distribution of volcanic mass concentration along the vertical column as well as the duration of the eruption and the erupted volume. Usually, the combination of a-posteriori field and numerical studies allow constraining the eruption source parameters for a given volcanic event thus making possible the forecast of ash dispersion and deposition from future volcanic eruptions. So far, remote sensors working at visible and infrared channels (cameras and radiometers) have been mainly used to detect, track and provide estimates of the concentration content and the prevailing size of the particles propagating within the ash clouds up to several thousand of kilometres far from the source as well as track back, a-posteriori, the accuracy of the VATDM outputs thus testing the initial choice made for the source parameters. Acoustic wave (infrasound) and microwave fixed scan radar (voldorad) were also used to infer source parameters. In this work we want to put our attention on the role of sensors operating at microwave wavelengths as complementary tools for the real time estimations of source parameters. Microwaves can benefit of the operability during night and day and a relatively negligible sensitivity to the presence of clouds (non precipitating weather clouds) at the cost of a limited coverage and larger spatial resolution when compared with infrared sensors. Thanks to the aforementioned advantages, the products from microwaves sensors are expected to be sensible mostly to the whole path traversed along the tephra cloud making microwaves particularly

  2. Investigation of Solar Flares Using Spectrally, Spatially, and Temporally Resolved Observations in Gamma Rays, Hard X Rays, and Microwaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crannell, Carol Jo; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The high-energy components of solar flares radiate at a wide range of wavelengths. We are using spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved hard X-ray, gamma-ray, and microwave observations of solar flares to investigate flare models and to understand the flare acceleration process. The hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations are obtained with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) spacecraft that was launched on February 5, 2002. The microwave observations are obtained with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO), which has been dedicated to daily observations of solar flares in microwaves with a five-element interferometer since June 1992. These studies are expected to yield exciting new insights into the fundamental physics of the flare acceleration processes.

  3. Thickness of Saturn's Rings Inferred from Voyager 1 Observations of Microwave Scatter.

    PubMed

    Zebker, H A; Tyler, G L

    1984-01-27

    Earth-based telescopic observations indicate that Saturn's rings are about 1 kilometer thick, while spacecraft measurements and theoretical considerations give an upper bound of about 100 meters. Analysis of a shielding effect present in radio occultation provides a sensitive new measure of the ring thickness. On the basis of this effect, Voyager 1 microwave measurements of near-forward scatter imply a thickness ranging from less than 10 meters in ring C to about 20 and 50 meters in the Cassini division and ring A, respectively. Monolayer models do not fit the observations in the latter two regions. The discrepancy between the Earth-based and spacecraft measurements may be due to warps in the ring plane or effects of tenuous material outside the primary ring system.

  4. An Evaluation of Soil Moisture Retrievals Using Aircraft and Satellite Passive Microwave Observations during SMEX02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolten, John D.; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Experiments conducted in Iowa in the summer of 2002 (SMEX02) had many remote sensing instruments that were used to study the spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture. The sensors used in this paper (a subset of the suite of sensors) are the AQUA satellite-based AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer- Earth Observing System) and the aircraft-based PSR (Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer). The SMEX02 design focused on the collection of near simultaneous brightness temperature observations from each of these instruments and in situ soil moisture measurements at field- and domain- scale. This methodology provided a basis for a quantitative analysis of the soil moisture remote sensing potential of each instrument using in situ comparisons and retrieved soil moisture estimates through the application of a radiative transfer model. To this end, the two sensors are compared with respect to their estimation of soil moisture.

  5. Observing atmospheric water in storms with the Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, K. B.; Lewis, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Employing data on integrated atmospheric water vapor, total cloud liquid water and rain rate obtainable from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), we study the frontal structure of several mid-latitude cyclones over the North Pacific Ocean as they approach the West Coast of North America in the winter of 1979. The fronts, analyzed with all available independent data, are consistently located at the leading edge of the strongest gradient in integrated water vapor. The cloud liquid water content, which unfortunately has received very little in situ verification, has patterns which are consistent with the structure seen in visible and infrared imagery. The rain distribution is also a good indicator of frontal location and rain amounts are generally within a factor of two of what is observed with rain gauges on the coast. Furthermore, the onset of rain on the coast can often be accurately forecast by simple advection of the SMMR observed rain areas.

  6. EOS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of the Antarctic Polar Vortex Breakup in 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Livesey, N. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Pawson, S.

    2005-01-01

    Observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's new Aura satellite give an unprecedentedly detailed picture of the spring Antarctic polar vortex breakup throughout the stratosphere. HCl is a particularly valuable tracer in the lower stratosphere after chlorine deactivation. MLS HCl, N2O, H2O broke up in the upper stratosphere by early October, in the midstratosphere by early November, and in the lower stratosphere by late December. The subvortex broke up just a few days later than the lower stratospheric vortex. Vortex remnants persisted in the midstratosphere through December, but only through early January 2005 in the lower stratosphere. MLS N2O observations show diabatic descent continuing throughout November, with evidence of weak ascent after late October in the lower stratospheric vortex core.

  7. Microwave observations of jupiter's synchrotron emission during the galileo flyby of amalthea in 2002.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M. J.; Bolton, S. J.; Bastian, T. S.; Blanc, M.; Levin, S. M.; McLeod, R. J.; MacLaren, D.; Roller, J. P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.

    2003-04-01

    In November, 2002, the Galileo spacecraft trajectory provided a close flyby of Amalthea, one of Jupiter's inner most moons (˜2.4 RJ). During this pass, Galileo entered into a region rarely explored by spacecraft, the inner radiation belts of Jupiter. We present preliminary results from a campaign of microwave observations of Jovian synchrotron emission over a six month interval centered around the flyby. The observations were made with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas at Goldstone, California, and the NRAO Very Large Array. We report preliminary measurements of the flux density of the synchrotron emission and the rotational beaming curves and a compare them with the long term history of Jupiter's microwave emission which varies significantly on timescales of months to years. The new data are also being examined to search for evidence of short-term variations and to compare single aperture beaming curves with the spatially resolved images obtained with the VLA. These radio astronomy data will be combined with in-situ measurements from Galileo (see companion paper by Bolton et al) to improve models of the synchrotron emission from Jupiter's radiation belts. A large percentage of the Goldstone observations were conducted by middle- and high school students from classrooms across the nation. The students and their teachers are participants in the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) science education project, which is a partnership involving NASA, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Lewis Center for Educational Research (LCER) in Apple Valley, CA. Working with the Lewis Center over the Internet, GAVRT students conduct remotely controlled radio astronomy observations using 34-m antennas at Goldstone. The JPL contribution to this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2756 Planetary magnetospheres (5443, 5737, 6030) 6218 Jovian

  8. Direct observation of mesoscopic phase separation in KxFeySe2 by scanning microwave microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Atsutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Imai, Yoshinori

    2015-03-01

    KxFeySe2 is isostructural to 122-FeAs compounds. However, its electronic structure is unique among Fe-based superconductors in the sense that hole Fermi pocket is absent at the center of the Brillouin zone. Therefore, it is important to study this compounds in terms of the mechanism of superconductivity since some pairing (for example, s +/- -wave) needs the interaction between hole and electron Fermi pockets. However, the phase separation in this material makes studies using conventional macroscopic measurement techniques very difficult. Scanning near-field microwave microscope (SMM), which can measure local electric property of inhomogeneous conducting samples, should be a powerful tool. Recently we developed the combined instrument of STM and SMM with high sensitivity, and investigated the local electric property of KxFeySe2 (x = 0.8, y = 1.6 ~2, Tc = 31 K) using this scanning tunneling/microwave microscope. The characteristic pattern of mesoscopic phase separation of the metallic and the semiconducting phase was observed. From the comparison with previously reported SEM/EDS result we identified the metallic phase and the semiconducting phase as the minor Fe-rich phase and the major K2Fe4Se5 phase, respectively.

  9. Potential Application of Airborne Passive Microwave Observations for Monitoring Inland Flooding Caused by Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Robbie E.; Radley, C.D.; LaFontaine, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    Inland flooding from tropical cyclones can be a significant factor in storm-related deaths in the United States and other countries. Information collected during NASA tropical cyclone field studies suggest surface water and flooding induced by tropical cyclone precipitation can be detected and therefore monitored using passive microwave airborne radiometers. In particular, the 10.7 GHz frequency of the NASA Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) flown on the NASA ER-2 has demonstrated high resolution detection of anomalous surface water and flooding in numerous situations. This presentation will highlight the analysis of three cases utilizing primarily satellite and airborne radiometer data. Radiometer data from the 1998 Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) are utilized to detect surface water during landfalling Hurricane Georges in both the Dominican Republic and Louisiana. A third case is landfalling Tropical Storm Gert in Eastern Mexico during the Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) experiment in 2005. AMPR data are compared to topographic data and vegetation indices to evaluate the significance of the surface water signature visible in the 10.7 GHz information. The results of this study suggest the benefit of an aircraft 10 GHz radiometer to provide real-time observations of surface water conditions as part of a multi-sensor flood monitoring network.

  10. A multifrequency evaluation of active and passive microwave sensors for oil spill detection and assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenner, R. G.; Reid, S. C.; Solie, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation is given of how active and passive microwave sensors can best be used in oil spill detection and assessment. Radar backscatter curves taken over oil spills are presented and their effect on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery are discussed. Plots of microwave radiometric brightness variations over oil spills are presented and discussed. Recommendations as to how to select the best combination of frequency, viewing angle, and sensor type for evaluation of various aspects of oil spills are also discussed.

  11. High-Q active ring microwave resonators based on ferrite-ferroelectric layered structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.; Kalinikos, Boris A.

    2008-05-01

    An electric and magnetic field tunable (dual-tunable) microwave active ring resonator is designed and characterized. The device structure is implemented with a microwave amplifier and a ferrite-ferroelectric delay line in the feedback loop. At 8GHz, an effective Q factor of 50 000 and tuning by 5MHz with an electric field are achieved. The performance characteristics of the resonator are presented and discussed.

  12. [Microwave thermal remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil enhanced by granular activated carbon].

    PubMed

    Li, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yao-Bin; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Ya-Zhi

    2009-02-15

    The advantage of rapid, selective and simultaneous heating of microwave heating technology was taken to remediate the crude oil-contaminated soil rapidly and to recover the oil contaminant efficiently. The contaminated soil was processed in the microwave field with addition of granular activated carbon (GAC), which was used as strong microwave absorber to enhance microwave heating of the soil mixture to remove the oil contaminant and recover it by a condensation system. The influences of some process parameters on the removal of the oil contaminant and the oil recovery in the remediation process were investigated. The results revealed that, under the condition of 10.0% GAC, 800 W microwave power, 0.08 MPa absolute pressure and 150 mL x min(-1) carrier gas (N2) flow-rate, more than 99% oil removal could be obtained within 15 min using this microwave thermal remediation enhanced by GAC; at the same time, about 91% of the oil contaminant could be recovered without significant changes in chemical composition. In addition, the experiment results showed that GAC can be reused in enhancing microwave heating of soil without changing its enhancement efficiency obviously.

  13. Bayesian Estimation of Precipitation from Satellite Passive Microwave Observations Using Combined Radar-Radiometer Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.

    2006-01-01

    Precipitation estimation from satellite passive microwave radiometer observations is a problem that does not have a unique solution that is insensitive to errors in the input data. Traditionally, to make this problem well posed, a priori information derived from physical models or independent, high-quality observations is incorporated into the solution. In the present study, a database of precipitation profiles and associated brightness temperatures is constructed to serve as a priori information in a passive microwave radiometer algorithm. The precipitation profiles are derived from a Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) combined radar radiometer algorithm, and the brightness temperatures are TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) observed. Because the observed brightness temperatures are consistent with those derived from a radiative transfer model embedded in the combined algorithm, the precipitation brightness temperature database is considered to be physically consistent. The database examined here is derived from the analysis of a month-long record of TRMM data that yields more than a million profiles of precipitation and associated brightness temperatures. These profiles are clustered into a tractable number of classes based on the local sea surface temperature, a radiometer-based estimate of the echo-top height (the height beyond which the reflectivity drops below 17 dBZ), and brightness temperature principal components. For each class, the mean precipitation profile, brightness temperature principal components, and probability of occurrence are determined. The precipitation brightness temperature database supports a radiometer-only algorithm that incorporates a Bayesian estimation methodology. In the Bayesian framework, precipitation estimates are weighted averages of the mean precipitation values corresponding to the classes in the database, with the weights being determined according to the similarity between the observed brightness temperature principal

  14. Spatial and Temporal Variations of Surface Characteristics on the Greenland Ice Sheet as Derived from Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark; Rowe, Clinton; Kuivinen, Karl; Mote, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The primary goals of this research were to identify and begin to comprehend the spatial and temporal variations in surface characteristics of the Greenland ice sheet using passive microwave observations, physically-based models of the snowpack and field observations of snowpack and firn properties.

  15. Passive microwave observations of the Wedell Sea during austral winter and early spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenfell, T. C.; Comiso, J. C.; Lange, M. A.; Eicken, H.; Wensnahan, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    The results of multispectral passive microwave observations (6.7 to 90-GHz) are presented from the cruises of the FS Polarstern in the Weddell Sea from July to December 1986. This paper includes primarily the analysis of radiometric observations taken at ice station sites. Averaged emissivity spectra for first-year (FY) ice were relatively constant throughout the experiment and were not statistically different from FY ice signatures in the Arctic. Detailed ice characterization was carried out at each site to compare the microwave signatures of the ice with the physical properties. Absorption optical depths of FY ice were found to be sufficiently high that only the structure in the upper portions of the ice contributed significantly to interstation emissivity variations. The emissivities at 90-GHz, e(90), had the greatest variance. Both e(90) at vertical polarization and GR(sub e)(90, 18.7)(defined as (e(sub V)(90)-e(sub V)(18.7))/e(sub V)(90 + e(sub V)(18.7)) depended on the scattering optical depth which is a function of the snow grain diameter and layer thickness. The variance showed a latitude dependence and is probably due to an increase in the strength of snow metamorphism nearer the northern edge of the ice pack. The contribution of variations of near-surface brine volume to the emissivity was not significant over the range of values encountered at the station sites. Emissivity spectra are presented for a range of thin ice types. Unsupervised principal component analysis produced three significant eigenvectors and showed a separation among four different surface types: open water, thin ice, FY ice, and FY ice with a thick snow cover. A comparison with SMMR satellite data showed that average ice concentrations derived from the ship's ice watch log were consistent with the satellite concentrations. The surface based emissivities for FY ice were also compared with emissivities calculated from scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) satellite radiances

  16. Observation of the exhaust plume from the space shuttle main engine using the Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumphrey, H. C.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.

    2010-08-01

    A space shuttle launch deposits 700 t of water in the atmosphere. Some of this water is released into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere where it may be directly detected by a limb sounding satellite instrument. We report measurements of water vapour plumes from shuttle launches made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite. Approximately 50% of shuttle launches are detected by MLS. The signal appears at a similar level across the upper 10 km of the MLS limb scan, suggesting that the bulk of the observed water is above the top of the scan. Only a small fraction at best of smaller launches (Ariane, Proton) are detected. We conclude that the sensitivity of MLS is only just great enough to detect a shuttle sized launch, but that a suitably designed instrument of the same general type could detect the exhausts from a large proportion of heavy-lift launches.

  17. Observation of the exhaust plume from the space shuttle main engines using the microwave limb sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumphrey, H. C.; Lambert, A.; Livesey, N. J.

    2011-01-01

    A space shuttle launch deposits 700 tonnes of water in the atmosphere. Some of this water is released into the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere where it may be directly detected by a limb sounding satellite instrument. We report measurements of water vapour plumes from shuttle launches made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite. Approximately 50%-65% of shuttle launches are detected by MLS. The signal appears at a similar level across the upper 10 km of the MLS limb scan, suggesting that the bulk of the observed water is above the top of the scan. Only a small fraction at best of smaller launches (Ariane 5, Proton) are detected. We conclude that the sensitivity of MLS is only just great enough to detect a shuttle sized launch, but that a suitably designed instrument of the same general type could detect the exhausts from a large proportion of heavy-lift launches.

  18. A precise measurement of the cosmic microwave background temperature from optical observations of interstellar CN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, D. M.; Jura, M.

    1985-01-01

    Very precise observations (with S/N greater than 2000) of the 3874-angstrom band of interstellar CN toward zeta Per and omicron Per are presented. In the zeta Oph, zeta Per, and omicron Per lines of sight, the saturation-corrected CN line strengths yield respective excitation temperatures of 2.72 plus or minus 0.05 K, 2.76 plus or minus 0.05 K, and 2.78 plus or minus 0.07 K for the J = 0-1 rotational transition at 2.64 mm. By confirming the blackbody character of the cosmic microwave background spectrum at wavelengths near the peak of its flux, the simplest explanation of the background as primeval fireball radiation from a hot bang is reinforced.

  19. SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN POLARIZING FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETERS FOR COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler, Peter C.; Tucker, Gregory S.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan

    2015-11-15

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  20. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullooly, William

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirty-first monthly report for the Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit- A (AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 July 1995 through 31 July 1995. This period is the nineteenth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. Included in this report is the Master Program Schedule (Section 2), a report from the Product Team Leaders on the status of all major program elements (Section 3), Drawing status (Section 4), Weight and Power Budgets (CDRL) 503 (Section 5), Performance Assurance (CDRL 204) (Section 6), Configuration Management Status Report (CDRL 203) (Section 7), Documentation/Data Management Status Report (Section 8), and Contract Status (Section 9).

  1. Observation of sea ice properties with the Nimbus-7 SMMR. [Scanning Multispectral Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Gloersen, P.; Campbell, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Techniques for treating Nimbus-7 scanning multispectral microwave radiometer (SMMR) data to retrieve information on sea ice parameters are discussed. The SMMR produces information on ice concentration, temperature, multiyear ice fraction, thin ice fraction, difference between thin and thick ice temperatures, and atmospheric opacity. Sea ice emissivities as determined from ground truth and Nimbus-7 SMMR observations are provided, noting the necessity to further characterize the values with a larger data base. It was found that longest wavelengths displayed the largest contrast between open water and sea. Ice emissivity polarization differences are no more than 0.15 at any wavelength, while water polarizations are never less than 0.52. Ice emissivity increases directly with wavelength, and water emissivity increases inversely. Algorithmic representations of SMMR data to retrieve sea ice parameters are described.

  2. Systematic Effects in Polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometers for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Peter C.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Kogut, Alan; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2015-11-01

    The detection of the primordial B-mode polarization signal of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) would provide evidence for inflation. Yet as has become increasingly clear, the detection of a such a faint signal requires an instrument with both wide frequency coverage to reject foregrounds and excellent control over instrumental systematic effects. Using a polarizing Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) for CMB observations meets both of these requirements. In this work, we present an analysis of instrumental systematic effects in polarizing FTSs, using the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) as a worked example. We analytically solve for the most important systematic effects inherent to the FTS—emissive optical components, misaligned optical components, sampling and phase errors, and spin synchronous effects—and demonstrate that residual systematic error terms after corrections will all be at the sub-nK level, well below the predicted 100 nK B-mode signal.

  3. Observations and theoretical studies of microwave emission from thin saline ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wensnahan, Mark R.; Grenfell, Thomas C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Maycut, Gary A.

    1993-01-01

    Time-dependent changes in microwave emissions from thin artificial and natural saline ices are reported. There is a sharp rise in surface temperature when ice is between 1 and 2 cm thick, apparently unrelated to any environmental changes. The brightness temperature Tb decreases at 37 GHz during or just after the surface temperature rise, and there is an initial increase in Tb with increasing ice thickness followed by substantial decreases at the higher studied frequencies. The maximum Tb values were higher than those previously reported for young ice. Tb was also found to be much more sensitive to variations in ice properties at horizontal polarization than at vertical polarization. The most likely explanation for the observed rise in surface temperature and decrease in Tb was the formation of a salinity-enhanced ice of brine surface layer caused by the upwards transport of brine as the ice grows.

  4. Temperature-dependent daily variability of precipitable water in special sensor microwave/imager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutowski, William J.; Lindemulder, Elizabeth A.; Jovaag, Kari

    1995-01-01

    We use retrievals of atmospheric precipitable water from satellite microwave observations and analyses of near-surface temperature to examine the relationship between these two fields on daily and longer time scales. The retrieval technique producing the data used here is most effective over the open ocean, so the analysis focuses on the southern hemisphere's extratropics, which have an extensive ocean surface. For both the total and the eddy precipitable water fields, there is a close correspondence between local variations in the precipitable water and near-surface temperature. The correspondence appears particularly strong for synoptic and planetary scale transient eddies. More specifically, the results support a typical modeling assumption that transient eddy moisture fields are proportional to transient eddy temperature fields under the assumption f constant relative humidity.

  5. Observing the Moon at Microwave Frequencies Using a Large-Diameter Deep Space Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morabito, David D.; Imbriale, William; Keihm, Stephen

    2008-03-01

    The Moon radiates energy at infrared and microwave wavelengths, in addition to reflecting sunlight at optical wavelengths. As a result, an antenna pointed at or near the Moon will result in an increase in system operating noise temperature, which needs to be accounted for in RF telecommunications, radio science or radiometric link calculations. The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) may use its large-diameter antennas in future lunar robotic or human missions, and thus it is important to understand the nature of this temperature incre ase as a function of observing frequency, lunar phase, and angular position of the antenna beam on the lunar disk. This paper reports on a comprehensive lunar noise temperature measurement campaign and associated theoretical treatment for a 34-m diameter Deep Space Network antenna observing an extended source such as the Moon. A set of measurements over a wide range of lunar phase angles was acquired at DSS-13, a 34-m diameter beam waveguide antenna (BWG) located at Goldstone, California at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 8.4 GHz (X-band) and 32 GHz (Ka-band). For validation purposes, independent predictions of noise temperature increase were derived using a physical optics characterization of the 34-m diameter antenna gain patterns and Apollo model-based brightness temperature maps of the Moon as input. The model-based predictions of noise temperature increase were compared with the measurements at all three frequencies. In addition, a methodology is presented that relates noise temperature increase due to the Moon to disk-centered or disk-averaged brightness temperature of the Moon at the microwave frequencies of interest. Comparisons were made between the measurements and models in the domain of lunar disk-centered and disk-averaged brightness temperatures. It is anticipated that the measurements and associated theoretical development will be useful in developing telecommunications strategies for future high-rate Ka-band communications where large

  6. Behavioral observations and operant procedures using microwaves as a heat source for young chicks

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, W.D.; McMillan, I.; Bate, L.A.; Otten, L.; Pei, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    Four trials, using operant conditioning procedures, were conducted to study the response of chicks, housed at 16 C, to microwave or infrared heat. Microwave power density was 26 mW/cm2 in Trial 1, 13 mW/cm2 in Trial 2, and 10 mW/cm2 in Trials 3 and 4. Chicks voluntarily demanded between 28 and 63% as much heat (min heat/hr) from microwave source as from infrared source at all power densities. There was no correlation, however, between the ratio of heat demanded and the power density used. There were no significant differences in growth between infrared- or microwave-heated chicks. It is evident from these studies that 8-day-old broiler chicks are capable of associating the performance of a task with a thermal reward provided by the microwaves. They are also able to utilize these microwaves through operant conditioning without any visible detrimental effect to their health or behavior.

  7. Preparation of activated carbon by microwave heating of langsat (Lansium domesticum) empty fruit bunch waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-07-01

    The feasibility of langsat empty fruit bunch waste for preparation of activated carbon (EFBLAC) by microwave-induced activation was explored. Activation with NaOH at the IR ratio of 1.25, microwave power of 600 W for 6 min produced EFBLAC with a carbon yield of 81.31% and adsorption uptake for MB of 302.48 mg/g. Pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy demonstrated the physical and chemical characteristics of EFBLAC. Equilibrium data were best described by the Langmuir isotherm, with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 402.06 mg/g, and the adsorption kinetics was well fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high quality activated carbon from langsat empty fruit bunch waste by microwave irradiation.

  8. Technology advances in active and passive microwave sensing through 1985. [microwave technology for the Seasat-A and Nimbus-G satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barath, F. T.

    1977-01-01

    The capabilities of passive and active microwave sensors are discussed. The Nimbus-G and Seasat-A scanning multichannel microwave spectrometer, the Seasat-A radar altimeter, scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar represent the first systematic attempt at exploring a wide variety of applications utilizing microwave sensing techniques and are indicators of the directions in which the pertinent technology is likely to evolve. The trend is toward high resolution multi-frequency imagers spanning wide frequency ranges and wide swaths requiring sophisticated receivers, real-time data processors and most importantly, complex antennas.

  9. Use of Passive Microwave Observations in a Radar Rainfall-Profiling Algorithm.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2002-07-01

    A physically based methodology to incorporate passive microwave observations in a `rain-profiling algorithm' is developed for space- or airborne radars at frequencies exhibiting attenuation. The rain-profiling algorithm deploys a formulation for reflectivity attenuation correction that is mathematically equivalent to that of Hitschfeld and Bordan. In this formulation, the reflectivity-hydrometeor content (or rainfall rate) and reflectivity-attenuation relationships are expressed as a function of one variable in the drop size distribution parameterization, namely, the multiplicative factor in a normalized gamma distribution. The multiplicative factor parameter, mean cloud water content, and one parameter describing the precipitation phase are estimated in a Bayesian framework. This involves the minimization of differences between the 10-, 19-, 37-, and 85-GHz brightness temperature values predicted by a plane-parallel multilayer radiative transfer model and those observed by space- or airborne radiometers. A variational approach is devised to perform the minimization. The methodology is first tested using data simulated using a cloud model and is subsequently applied to coincident airborne brightness temperature and radar profile observations originating in the Kwajalein Experiment of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Results suggest improvements in rain estimation induced by the inclusion of the brightness temperature information in the retrieval framework if consistent modeling and quantification of errors are performed. Recommendations regarding the application of the method to TRMM satellite observations are formulated based on the findings of the study.

  10. Sea Ice Variability in the Sea of Okhotsk from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Zukor, Dorothy (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Sea of Okhotsk, located between 50 and 60 N, is bounded by the Kamchatka Peninsula, Siberia, Sakhalin Island, and the Kuril Island chain and is the largest midlatitude seasonal sea ice zone in the Northern Hemisphere. The winter sea ice cover begins to form in November and expands to cover most of the sea by March. Over the following three months, the ice retreats with only small ice-covered areas remaining by the beginning of June. The sea is ice free or nearly ice free on average for six months of the year, from June through November. The recent compilation of a consistent, long-term record of Northern Hemisphere sea ice extents based on passive microwave satellite observations from the Nimbus 7 Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer and from four Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Special Sensor Microwave Imagers provides the basis for assessing long-term sea ice extent variability in the Sea of Okhotsk. Analysis of this 20-year data record (1979-1998) shows that based on yearly averages the overall extent of the Sea of Okhotsk ice cover is decreasing at the rate of -8.1+/-2.1x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-17.2%/decade), in contrast to the rate of decrease of -33.3+/-0.7x10(exp 3) sq km/yr (-2.7%/decade) for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole. There is large regional sea ice extent variability of the Arctic ice cover. Two of the nine Arctic regions analyzed, the Bering Sea and the Gulf of St. Lawrence, show increases of 0.8+/-1.4xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (2.7%/decade) and 1.2+/-0.5xl0(exp 3) sq km/yr (17.1%/decade), respectively. Interestingly, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Gulf of St. Lawrence show about equal percentage changes, but of opposite sign. The Sea of Okhotsk exhibits its greatest percent decrease (-24.3%/decade) during spring (April-June). The year of maximum winter sea ice extent for the Sea of Okhotsk was 1979, whereas the minimum winter sea ice extent occurred in 1984.

  11. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP) Observations: Data Processing Methods and Systematic Errors Limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Greason, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the calibration and data processing methods used to generate full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from the first year of Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. Detailed limits on residual systematic errors are assigned based largely on analyses of the flight data supplemented, where necessary, with results from ground tests. The data are calibrated in flight using the dipole modulation of the CMB due to the observatory's motion around the Sun. This constitutes a full-beam calibration source. An iterative algorithm simultaneously fits the time-ordered data to obtain calibration parameters and pixelized sky map temperatures. The noise properties are determined by analyzing the time-ordered data with this sky signal estimate subtracted. Based on this, we apply a pre-whitening filter to the time-ordered data to remove a low level of l/f noise. We infer and correct for a small (approx. 1 %) transmission imbalance between the two sky inputs to each differential radiometer, and we subtract a small sidelobe correction from the 23 GHz (K band) map prior to further analysis. No other systematic error corrections are applied to the data. Calibration and baseline artifacts, including the response to environmental perturbations, are negligible. Systematic uncertainties are comparable to statistical uncertainties in the characterization of the beam response. Both are accounted for in the covariance matrix of the window function and are propagated to uncertainties in the final power spectrum. We characterize the combined upper limits to residual systematic uncertainties through the pixel covariance matrix.

  12. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  13. Hinode Observes an Active Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    The X-ray Telescope on the Japanese/NASA mission Hinode has been observing the full sun, nearly continuously, for an extended period. In this movie significant small-scale dynamic events can be obs...

  14. ON THE EFFECT OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND IN HIGH-REDSHIFT (SUB-)MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Cunha, Elisabete; Groves, Brent; Walter, Fabian; Decarli, Roberto; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weiss, Axel; Bertoldi, Frank; Carilli, Chris; Daddi, Emanuele; Sargent, Mark; Maiolino, Roberto; Riechers, Dominik; Smail, Ian

    2013-03-20

    Modern (sub-)millimeter interferometers enable the measurement of the cool gas and dust emission of high-redshift galaxies (z > 5). However, at these redshifts the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature is higher, approaching, and even exceeding, the temperature of cold dust and molecular gas observed in the local universe. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the warmer CMB on (sub-)millimeter observations of high-redshift galaxies. The CMB affects the observed (sub-)millimeter dust continuum and the line emission (e.g., carbon monoxide, CO) in two ways: (1) it provides an additional source of (both dust and gas) heating and (2) it is a non-negligible background against which the line and continuum emission are measured. We show that these two competing processes affect the way we interpret the dust and gas properties of high-redshift galaxies using spectral energy distribution models. We quantify these effects and provide correction factors to compute what fraction of the intrinsic dust (and line) emission can be detected against the CMB as a function of frequency, redshift, and temperature. We discuss implications on the derived properties of high-redshift galaxies from (sub-)millimeter data. Specifically, the inferred dust and molecular gas masses can be severely underestimated for cold systems if the impact of the CMB is not properly taken into account.

  15. Microwave and hard X-ray observations of a solar flare with a time resolution better than 100 ms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, P.; Costa, J. E. R.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.; Kiplinger, A.; Strauss, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous microwave and X-ray observations are presented for a solar flare detected on 1980 May 8 starting at 1937 UT. The X-ray observations were made with the Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission and covered the energy range from 28-490 keV with a time resolution of 10 ms. The microwave observations were made with the 5 and 45 foot antennas at the Itapetinga Radio Obervatory at frequencies of 7 and 22 GHz, with time resolutions of 100 ms and 1 ms respectively. Detailed correlation analysis of the different time profiles of the event show that the major impulsive in the X-ray flux preceded the corresponding microwave peaks at 22 GHz by about 240 ms. For this particular burst the 22 GHz peaks preceded the 7 GHz by about 1.5s. Observed delays of the microwave peaks are too large for a simple electron beam model but they can be reconciled with the speeds of shock waves in a thermal model. Previously announced in STAR as N82-30215

  16. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A): Instrument logic diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains all of the block diagrams and internal logic diagrams for the Earth Observation System Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A). These diagrams show the signal inputs, outputs, and internal signal flow for the AMSU-A.

  17. Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit: A (EOS/AMSU-A) Firmware Version Description Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cisneros, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final submittal of the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A Firmware Version Description Document. Its purpose is to provide a precise description of the particular version of the firmware being released. This description also defines the version of the requirements and design applicable to this version.

  18. Snowmelt and Surface Freeze/Thaw Timings over Alaska derived from Passive Microwave Observations using a Wavelet Classifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, N.; McDonald, K. C.; Dinardo, S. J.; Miller, C. E.

    2015-12-01

    Arctic permafrost soils contain a vast amount of organic carbon that will be released into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide or methane when thawed. Surface to air greenhouse gas fluxes are largely dependent on such surface controls as the frozen/thawed state of the snow and soil. Satellite remote sensing is an important means to create continuous mapping of surface properties. Advances in the ability to determine soil and snow freeze/thaw timings from microwave frequency observations improves upon our ability to predict the response of carbon gas emission to warming through synthesis with in-situ observation, such as the 2012-2015 Carbon in Arctic Reservoir Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE). Surface freeze/thaw or snowmelt timings are often derived using a constant or spatially/temporally variable threshold applied to time-series observations. Alternately, time-series singularity classifiers aim to detect discontinuous changes, or "edges", in time-series data similar to those that occur from the large contrast in dielectric constant during the freezing or thaw of soil or snow. We use multi-scale analysis of continuous wavelet transform spectral gradient brightness temperatures from various channel combinations of passive microwave radiometers, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E, AMSR2) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I F17) gridded at a 10 km posting with resolution proportional to the observational footprint. Channel combinations presented here aim to illustrate and differentiate timings of "edges" from transitions in surface water related to various landscape components (e.g. snow-melt, soil-thaw). To support an understanding of the physical basis of observed "edges" we compare satellite measurements with simple radiative transfer microwave-emission modeling of the snow, soil and vegetation using in-situ observations from the SNOw TELemetry (SNOTEL) automated weather stations. Results of freeze/thaw and snow-melt timings and trends are

  19. Simulation of snow microwave radiance observations using a coupled land surface- radiative transfer models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toure, A. M.; Rodell, M.; Hoar, T. J.; Kwon, Y.; Yang, Z.; Zhang, Y.; Beaudoing, H.

    2013-12-01

    Radiance assimilation (RA) has been used in operational numerical weather forecasting for generating realistic initial and boundary conditions for the last two decades. Previous studies have shown that the same approach can be used to characterize seasonal snow. Since the penetration depth of microwaves depends essentially on snow physical properties, studies have also shown that for RA to be successful, it is crucial that the land surface model (LSM) represents with great fidelity snow physical properties such as the effective grain size, the temperature, the stratigraphy, the densification and the melt/refreeze processes. The Community Land Model version 4 (CLM4), the land model component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), describes the physical, chemical, biological, and hydrological processes by which terrestrial ecosystems interact with climate across a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Sub-grid heterogeneity of the CLM4 is represented by fractional coverage of glacier, lake, wetland, urban, and vegetation land cover types. The vegetation portion is further divided into mosaic of plant functional types (pfts) each with its own leaf and stem area index and canopy height. Processes such as snow accumulation, depletion, densification, metamorphism, percolation, and refreezing of water are represented by a state-of-the-art multi-layer (up to five layers) snow model. Each snow layer is characterized by its thickness, ice mass, liquid water content, temperature, and effective grain radius. The model is considered to be one of the most sophisticated snow models ever within a general circulation model. One of the main challenges in simulating the radiance observed by a radiometer on-board a satellite is the spatial heterogeneity of the land within the footprint of the radiometer. Since CLM4 has the capability to represent the sub-grid heterogeneity, it is perfect candidate for a model operator for simulating the observed brightness temperature (Tb). The

  20. Microwave backscatter and emission observed from Shuttle Imaging Radar B and an airborne 1.4 GHz radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Schiue, J. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Engman, E. T.; Mo, T.; Lawrence, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    A soil moisture experiment conducted with the Shuttle Imaging Radar B (SIR-B) is reported. SIR-B operated at 1.28 GHz provided the active microwave measurements, while a 4-beam pushbroom 1.4 GHz radiometer gave the complementary passive microwave measurements. The aircraft measurements were made at an altitude of 330 m, resulting in a ground resolution cell of about 100 m diameter. SIR-B ground resolution from 225 km was about 35 m. More than 150 agricultural fields in the San Joaquin Valley of California were examined in the experiment. The effect of surface roughness height on radar backscatter and radiometric measurements was studied.

  1. Toward the characterization of upper tropospheric clouds using Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Microwave Limb Sounder observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahn, Brian H.; Eldering, Annmarie; Braverman, Amy J.; Fetzer, Eric J.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Fishbein, Evan; Wu, Dong L.

    2007-03-01

    We estimate the accuracy of cloud top altitude (Z) retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU) observing suite (ZA) on board the Earth Observing System Aqua platform. We compare ZA with coincident measurements of Z derived from the micropulse lidar and millimeter wave cloud radar at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program sites of Nauru and Manus islands (ZARM) and the inferred Z from vertically resolved Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) ice water content (IWC) retrievals. The mean difference in ZA minus ZARM plus or minus one standard deviation ranges from -2.2 to 1.6 km ± 1.0 to 4.2 km for all cases of AIRS effective cloud fraction (fA) > 0.15 at Manus Island using the cloud radar only. The range of mean values results from using different approaches to determine ZARM, day/night differences, and the magnitude of fA; the variation about the mean decreases for increasing values of fA. Analysis of ZARM from the micropulse lidar at Nauru Island for cases restricted to 0.05 ≤ fA ≤ 0.15 indicates a statistically significant improvement in ZA - ZARM over the cloud radar-derived values at Manus Island. In these cases the ZA - ZARM difference is -1.1 to 2.1 km ± 3.0 to 4.5 km. These results imply that the operational ZA is quantitatively useful for constraining cirrus altitude despite the nominal 45 km horizontal resolution. Mean differences of cloud top pressure (PCLD) inferred from coincident AIRS and MLS ice water content (IWC) retrievals depend upon the method of defining AIRS PCLD (as with the ARM comparisons) over the MLS spatial scale, the peak altitude and maximum value of MLS IWC, and fA. AIRS and MLS yield similar vertical frequency distributions when comparisons are limited to fA > 0.1 and IWC > 1.0 mg m-3. Therefore the agreement depends upon the opacity of the cloud, with decreased agreement for optically tenuous clouds. Further, the mean difference and standard deviation of AIRS and MLS

  2. Structure and polarization of active region microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Alissandrakis, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Active region radio emission observations made at 6.16 cm wavelength during May 20-27, 1980, are the bases of maps of total intensity and circular polarization presented for the three regions whose Hale numbers are 16850, 16863, and 16864. A detailed comparison is made between these maps and on- and off-band H-alpha pictures and magnetograms. The neutral lines with which the strongest sources were associated have their two opposite polarities close to each other, implying a high magnetic field gradient, and are also associated with arch filament systems. A detailed analysis is undertaken of observations of the circular polarization sense inversion in region 16863. The large scale structure of the magnetic field can be approximated by a dipole with its axis inclined by 11 deg with respect to the photosphere, and with a dipole moment of about 2 x 10 to the 31 power cgs units.

  3. The Anisotropy of the Microwave Background to l=3500: Mosaic Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, T. J.; Mason, B. S.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.; Sievers, J. L.; Udomprasert, P. S.; Cartwright, J. K.; Farmer, A. J.; Padin, S.; Myers, S. T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Using the Cosmic Background Imager, a 13-element interferometer array operating in the 26-36 GHz frequency band, we have observed 40 deg (sup 2) of sky in three pairs of fields, each approximately 145 feet x 165 feet, using overlapping pointings: (mosaicing). We present images and power spectra of the cosmic microwave background radiation in these mosaic fields. We remove ground radiation and other low-level contaminating signals by differencing matched observations of the fields in each pair. The primary foreground contamination is due to point sources (radio galaxies and quasars). We have subtracted the strongest sources from the data using higher-resolution measurements, and we have projected out the response to other sources of known position in the power-spectrum analysis. The images show features on scales approximately 6 feet-15 feet, corresponding to masses approximately 5-80 x 10(exp 14) solar mass at the surface of last scattering, which are likely to be the seeds of clusters of galaxies. The power spectrum estimates have a resolution delta l approximately 200 and are consistent with earlier results in the multipole range l approximately less than 1000. The power spectrum is detected with high signal-to-noise ratio in the range 300 approximately less than l approximately less than 1700. For 1700 approximately less than l approximately less than 3000 the observations are consistent with the results from more sensitive CBI deep-field observations. The results agree with the extrapolation of cosmological models fitted to observations at lower l, and show the predicted drop at high l (the "damping tail").

  4. A Method to Retrieve Rainfall Rate Over Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Over tropical land regions, rain rate maxima in mesoscale convective systems revealed by the Precipitation Radar (PR) flown on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite are found to correspond to thunderstorms, i.e., Cbs. These Cbs are reflected as minima in the 85 GHz brightness temperature, T85, observed by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer. Because the magnitude of TMI observations do not discriminate satisfactorily convective and stratiform rain, we developed here a different TMI discrimination method. In this method, two types of Cbs, strong and weak, are inferred from the Laplacian of T85 at minima. Then, to retrieve rain rate, where T85 is less than 270 K, a weak (background) rain rate is deduced using T85 observations. Furthermore, over a circular area of 10 km radius centered at the location of each T85 minimum, an additional Cb component of rain rate is added to the background rain rate. This Cb component of rain rate is estimated with the help of (T19-T37) and T85 observations. Initially, our algorithm is calibrated with the PR rain rate measurements from 20 MCS rain events. After calibration, this method is applied to TMI data taken from several tropical land regions. With the help of the PR observations, we show that the spatial distribution and intensity of rain rate over land estimated from our algorithm are better than those given by the current TMI-Version-5 Algorithm. For this reason, our algorithm may be used to improve the current state of rain retrievals on land.

  5. Large-Amplitude Oscillation of an Erupting Filament as Seen in EUV, Hα, and Microwave Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, H.; Tripathi, D.; Asai, A.; Jain, R.

    2007-11-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of a large-amplitude oscillation of a polar-crown filament on 15 October 2002, which has been reported by Isobe and Tripathi ( Astron. Astrophys. 449, L17, 2006). The oscillation occurred during the slow rise (≈1 km s-1) of the filament. It completed three cycles before sudden acceleration and eruption. The oscillation and following eruption were clearly seen in observations recorded by the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). The oscillation was seen only in a part of the filament, and it appears to be a standing oscillation rather than a propagating wave. The amplitudes of velocity and spatial displacement of the oscillation in the plane of the sky were about 5 km s-1 and 15 000 km, respectively. The period of oscillation was about two hours and did not change significantly during the oscillation. The oscillation was also observed in Hα by the Flare Monitoring Telescope at the Hida Observatory. We determine the three-dimensional motion of the oscillation from the Hα wing images. The maximum line-of-sight velocity was estimated to be a few tens of kilometers per second, although the uncertainty is large owing to the lack of line-profile information. Furthermore, we also identified the spatial displacement of the oscillation in 17-GHz microwave images from Nobeyama Radio Heliograph (NoRH). The filament oscillation seems to be triggered by magnetic reconnection between a filament barb and nearby emerging magnetic flux as was evident from the MDI magnetogram observations. No flare was observed to be associated with the onset of the oscillation. We also discuss possible implications of the oscillation as a diagnostic tool for the eruption mechanisms. We suggest that in the early phase of eruption a part of the filament lost its equilibrium first, while the remaining part was still in an equilibrium and oscillated.

  6. Using Microwave Observations to Estimate Land Surface Temperature during Cloudy Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, T. R.; Crow, W. T.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and passive microwave observations (MW). TIR is the most commonly used approach and the method of choice to provide standard LST products for various satellite missions. MW-based LST retrievals on the other hand are not as widely adopted for land applications; currently their principle use is in soil moisture retrieval algorithms. MW and TIR technologies present two highly complementary and independent means of measuring LST. MW observations have a high tolerance to clouds but a low spatial resolution, and TIR has a high spatial resolution with temporal sampling restricted to clear skies. The nature of the temperature at the very surface layer of the land makes it difficult to combine temperature estimates between different methods. The skin temperature is characterized by a strong diurnal cycle that is dependant in timing and amplitude on the exact sensing depth and thermal properties of the vegetation. This paper builds on recent progress in characterizing the main structural components of the DTC that explain differences in TIR and MW estimates of LST. Spatial patterns in DTC timing (phase lag with solar noon) and DTC amplitude have been calculated for TIR, MW and compared to weather prediction estimates. Based on these comparisons MW LST can be matched to the TIR record. This paper will compare in situ measurements of LST with satellite estimates from (downscaled) TIR and (reconciled) MW products. By contrasting the validation results of clear sky days with those of cloudy days the expected tolerance to clouds of the MW observations will be tested. The goal of this study is to determine the weather conditions in which MW can supplement the TIR LST record.

  7. Estimating effective roughness parameters of the L-MEB model for soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave observations from SMAPVEX12

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although there have been efforts to improve existing soil moisture retrieval algorithms, the ability to estimate soil moisture from passive microwave observations is still hampered by problems in accurately modeling the observed microwave signal. This paper focuses on the estimation of effective sur...

  8. The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) on the Aura Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Joe W.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Harwood, Robert S.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Read, William G.; Siegel, Peter H.; Cofield, Richard E.; Filipiak, Mark J.; Flower, Dennis A.; Holden, James R.; Lau, Gary K.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Manney, Gloria L; Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Santee, Michelle L.; Wu, Dong L.; Cuddy, David T.; Lay, Richard R.; Loo, Mario S.; Perun, Vincent S.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Stek, Paul C.; Thurstans, Robert P.; Boyles, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder measures several atmospheric chemical species (OH, HO2, H2O, O3, HCl, ClO, HOCl, BrO, HNO3, N2O, CO, HCN, CH3CN, volcanic SO2), cloud ice, temperature, and geopotential height to improve our understanding of stratospheric ozone chemistry, the interaction of composition and climate, and pollution in the upper troposphere. All measurements are made simultaneously and continuously, during both day and night. The instrument uses heterodyne radiometers that observe thermal emission from the atmospheric limb in broad spectral regions centered near 118, 190, 240, and 640 GHz, and 2.5 THz. It was launched July 15, 2004 on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Aura satellite and started full-up science operations on August 13, 2004. An atmospheric limb scan and radiometric calibration for all bands are performed routinely every 25 s. Vertical profiles are retrieved every 165 km along the suborbital track, covering 82 S to 82 N latitudes on each orbit. Instrument performance to date has been excellent; data have been made publicly available; and initial science results have been obtained.

  9. Bayesian Retrieval of Complete Posterior PDFs of Oceanic Rain Rate From Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, J. Christine; Petty, Grant W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new Bayesian algorithm for retrieving surface rain rate from Tropical Rainfall Measurements Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) over the ocean, along with validations against estimates from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR). The Bayesian approach offers a rigorous basis for optimally combining multichannel observations with prior knowledge. While other rain rate algorithms have been published that are based at least partly on Bayesian reasoning, this is believed to be the first self-contained algorithm that fully exploits Bayes Theorem to yield not just a single rain rate, but rather a continuous posterior probability distribution of rain rate. To advance our understanding of theoretical benefits of the Bayesian approach, we have conducted sensitivity analyses based on two synthetic datasets for which the true conditional and prior distribution are known. Results demonstrate that even when the prior and conditional likelihoods are specified perfectly, biased retrievals may occur at high rain rates. This bias is not the result of a defect of the Bayesian formalism but rather represents the expected outcome when the physical constraint imposed by the radiometric observations is weak, due to saturation effects. It is also suggested that the choice of the estimators and the prior information are both crucial to the retrieval. In addition, the performance of our Bayesian algorithm is found to be comparable to that of other benchmark algorithms in real-world applications, while having the additional advantage of providing a complete continuous posterior probability distribution of surface rain rate.

  10. ATOVS microwave sounding observation cycling assimilation on a tropical cyclone case in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shuang; Dong, Peng-ming; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Gang; Qin, Dan-yu

    2014-11-01

    This study introduces the construction of the satellite observation cycling assimilation system in national satellite meteorological center (NSMC). A typhoon case (1209 Saola ) is chosen to be performed as a testing experiment to check the operation of the cycling assimilation, with a low resolution . Three experiments are designed: control, ATOVS microwave observation assimilation and forecasting with cold starting, assimilation and forecasting with warm starting. Compared with the cold start forecasting, cycling forecasting showed advance in describing more information of the Tropical Cyclones in detail. As for track and intensity prediction, both the two assimilation experiments were prior to control experiment. Especially, the cycling experiment is better than cold experiment in the first one day and third day and the day before landing, but not act well in its peak period, which may suggest that the model couldn't not match the description of the typhoon Saola at the full developing period or upgrading develop period, with the low resolution in the testing experiments, but also can demonstrate well when it develop slowly or in a relatively steady period.

  11. Recent meteor observing activities in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2005-02-01

    The meteor train observation (METRO) campaign is described as an example of recent meteor observing activity in Japan. Other topics of meteor observing activities in Japan, including Ham-band radio meteor observation, the ``Japan Fireball Network'', the automatic video-capture software ``UFOCapture'', and the Astro-classroom programme are also briefly introduced.

  12. Influence of microwave irradiation on boron concentrate activation with an emphasis on surface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiaoyi; Liu, Yajing; Xue, Xiangxin; Duan, Peining

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we employed microwave irradiation for activating boron concentrate, an abundant but low-grade boron mineral resource in China. The boron concentrate was pretreated by microwave irradiation based on TG-DTG-DSC analysis, and the influence of each parameter on processing efficiency was characterized using chemical analysis, XRD, SEM, FTIR and particle distribution analysis. Subsequently, the surface properties of boron concentrate and the mechanism of microwave irradiation was analyzed. Our results indicate that microwave irradiation decreased the processing temperature and shortened the roasting time by accelerating dehydroxylation and oxidation reactions in the boron concentrate, reducing the particle diameter and damaging the microstructure of the minerals, and it increased the B2O3 activity of boron from 64.68% to 86.73%, greater than the optimal conventional treatment. Compared with the simple thermal field, microwave roasting obviously increased ability of the boron concentrate to absorb OH- in the leachant and promoted boron leaching by expanding the contact area of the mineral exposed to leachant, boosting the amount of Mg2+ and Fe3+ on mineral surfaces, and increasing the hydrophilicity of the boron concentrate respectively. It enhanced the γSVLW and γSV- of boron concentrate from 29.15 mJ/m2 and 5.07 mJ/m2 to 37.07 mJ/m2 and 12.41 mJ/m2.

  13. Inter- annual variability of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station using Microwave Radiometer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renju, Ramachandran Pillai; Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Mathew, Nizy; Raju C, Suresh

    The south-western region of the Indian peninsula is the gateway of Indian summer monsoon. This region experiences continuous monsoon rain for a longer period of about six months from June to November. The amount of water vapor variability is one of the important parameters to study the onset, active and break phases of the monsoon. Keeping this in view, a multi-frequency Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) has been made operational for continuous measurements of water vapor over an equatorial coastal station Thiruvananthapuram (8.5(°) N, 76.9(°) E) since April 2010. The MRP estimated precipitable water vapor (PWV) for different seasons including monsoon periods have been evaluated by comparing with the collocated GPS derived water vapor and radiosonde measurements. The diurnal, seasonal and inter annual variation of water vapor has been studied for the last four years (2010-2013) over this station. The significant diurnal variability of water vapor is found only during the winter and pre-monsoon periods (Dec -April). The vertical distribution of water vapour is studied in order to understand its variability especially during the onset of monsoon. During the building up of south-west monsoon, the specific humidity increases to ˜ 10g/kg in the altitude range of 4-6 km and consistently maintained it throughout the active spells and reduces to below 2g/kg during break spells of monsoon. The instrument details and the results will be presented.

  14. Observational Strategies of Cosmic Microwave Background Temperature and Polarization Interferometry Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-Gyung; Ng, Kin-Wang; Park, Changbom; Liu, Guo-Chin; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2003-05-01

    We have simulated the interferometric observation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fluctuations. We have constructed data pipelines from the time-ordered raw visibility samples to the CMB power spectra that utilize the methods of data compression, maximum likelihood analysis, and optimal subspace filtering. They are customized for three observational strategies: the single pointing, the mosaicking, and the drift-scanning. For each strategy, derived are the optimal strategy parameters that yield band power estimates with minimum uncertainty. The results are general and can be applied to any close-packed array on a single platform such as the CBI and the forthcoming AMiBA experiments. We have also studied the effect of rotation of the array platform on the band power correlation by simulating the CBI single-pointing observation. It is found that the band power anticorrelations can be reduced by rotating the platform and thus densely sampling the visibility plane. This enables us to increase the resolution of the power spectrum in the l-space down to the limit of the sampling theorem (Δl=226~π/θ), which is narrower by a factor of about sqrt(2) than the resolution limit (Δl~300) used in the recent CBI single-pointing observation. The validity of this idea is demonstrated for a two-element interferometer that samples visibilities uniformly in the uv-annulus. From the fact that the visibilities are the Fourier modes of the CMB field convolved with the beam, a fast unbiased estimator (FUE) of the CMB power spectra is developed and tested. It is shown that the FUE gives results very close to those from the quadratic estimator method without requiring large computer resources even though uncertainties in the results increase.

  15. Timing and regional patterns of snowmelt on Antarctic sea ice from passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefanie; Willmes, Sascha; Dierking, Wolfgang; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-04-01

    The better understanding of temporal variability and regional distribution of surface melt on Antarctic sea ice is crucial for the understanding of atmosphere-ocean interactions and the determination of mass and energy budgets of sea ice. Since large regions of Antarctic sea ice are covered with snow during most of the year, observed inter-annual and regional variations of surface melt mainly represents melt processes in the snow. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms that drive snowmelt, both at different times of the year and in different regions around Antarctica. In this study we combine two approaches for observing both surface and volume snowmelt by means of passive microwave satellite data. The former is achieved by measuring diurnal differences of the brightness temperature TB at 37 GHz, the latter by analyzing the ratio TB(19GHz)/TB(37GHz). Moreover, we use both melt onset proxies to divide the Antarctic sea ice cover into characteristic surface melt patterns from 1988/89 to 2014/15. Our results indicate four characteristic melt types. On average, 43% of the ice-covered ocean shows diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the surface snow layer, resulting in temporary melt (Type A), less than 1% shows continuous snowmelt throughout the snowpack, resulting in strong melt over a period of several days (Type B), 19% shows Type A and B taking place consecutively (Type C), and for 37% no melt is observed at all (Type D). Continuous melt is primarily observed in the outflow of the Weddell Gyre and in the northern Ross Sea, usually 20 days after the onset of temporary melt. Considering the entire data set, snowmelt processes and onset do not show significant temporal trends. Instead, areas of increasing (decreasing) sea-ice extent have longer (shorter) periods of continuous snowmelt.

  16. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements.

  17. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Sangeeta; Mahnot, Nikhil Kumar; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2016-06-01

    A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the phytochemical and antioxidant activities of juices from carambola (Averrhoa carambola L.), black jamun (Syzygium cumuni L.Skeels.), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var lanatus), pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr) and litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) was carried out. Depending on the type of fruit sample and treatment, increase or decrease in phytochemical values was observed. Overall, sonication had a positive effect on the total flavonoid content in all the juice samples followed by microwave treatment with exceptions in some cases. High-performance liquid chromatography study showed the presence of different phenolic acids depending on the sample type. The phenolic acids in some processed carambola juice samples showed decrease or complete destruction, while in some cases, an increase or appearance of newer phenolic acid originally not detected in the fresh juice was observed as seen in conventional thermal pasteurisation, microwaved at 600 W and sonicated juices. Both microwaved and sonicated samples were found to have positive effect on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity with exceptions in some cases. Therefore, microwave and sonication treatment could be used in place of thermal pasteurisation depending on the sample requirements. PMID:26190045

  18. Ground-based microwave radar and optical lidar signatures of volcanic ash plumes: models, observations and retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, Luigi; Marzano, Frank; Mori, Saverio; Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Martucci, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    The detection and quantitative retrieval of volcanic ash clouds is of significant interest due to its environmental, climatic and socio-economic effects. Real-time monitoring of such phenomena is crucial, also for the initialization of dispersion models. Satellite visible-infrared radiometric observations from geostationary platforms are usually exploited for long-range trajectory tracking and for measuring low level eruptions. Their imagery is available every 15-30 minutes and suffers from a relatively poor spatial resolution. Moreover, the field-of-view of geostationary radiometric measurements may be blocked by water and ice clouds at higher levels and their overall utility is reduced at night. Ground-based microwave radars may represent an important tool to detect and, to a certain extent, mitigate the hazard from the ash clouds. Ground-based weather radar systems can provide data for determining the ash volume, total mass and height of eruption clouds. Methodological studies have recently investigated the possibility of using ground-based single-polarization and dual-polarization radar system for the remote sensing of volcanic ash cloud. A microphysical characterization of volcanic ash was carried out in terms of dielectric properties, size distribution and terminal fall speed, assuming spherically-shaped particles. A prototype of volcanic ash radar retrieval (VARR) algorithm for single-polarization systems was proposed and applied to S-band and C-band weather radar data. The sensitivity of the ground-based radar measurements decreases as the ash cloud is farther so that for distances greater than about 50 kilometers fine ash might be not detected anymore by microwave radars. In this respect, radar observations can be complementary to satellite, lidar and aircraft observations. Active remote sensing retrieval from ground, in terms of detection, estimation and sensitivity, of volcanic ash plumes is not only dependent on the sensor specifications, but also on

  19. Synergistic use of active and passive microwave in soil moisture estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, P.; Chauhan, N.; Jackson, T.; Saatchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    Data gathered during the MACHYDRO experiment in central Pennsylvania in July 1990 have been utilized to study the synergistic use of active and passive microwave systems for estimating soil moisture. These data sets were obtained during an eleven-day period with NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) and Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) over an instrumented watershed which included agricultural fields with a number of different crop covers. Simultaneous ground truth measurements were also made in order to characterize the state of vegetation and soil moisture under a variety of meteorological conditions. A combination algorithm is presented as applied to a representative corn field in the MACHYDRO watershed.

  20. Cosmic Microwave Background Observations with a Compact Heterogeneous 150 GHz Interferometer in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, J. W.; Doriese, W. B.; Marriage, T. A.; Tran, H. T.; Aboobaker, A. M.; Dumont, C.; Halpern, M.; Kermish, Z. D.; Loh, Y.-S.; Page, L. A.; Staggs, S. T.; Wesley, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the design, first observing season, and analysis of data from a new prototype millimeter-wave interferometer, MINT. MINT consists of four 145 GHz SIS mixers operating in double-sideband mode in a compact heterogeneous configuration. The signal band is subdivided by a monolithic channelizer, after which the correlations between antennas are performed digitally. The typical receiver sensitivity in a 2 GHz band is 1.4 mK s1/2. The primary beams are 0.45d and 0.30d FWHM, with fringe spacing as small as 0.1d. MINT observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) from Cerro Toco, in the Chilean Altiplano. The site quality at 145 GHz is good, with median nighttime atmospheric temperature of 9 K at zenith (exclusive of the CMB). Repeated observations of Mars, Jupiter, and a telescope-mounted calibration source establish the phase and magnitude stability of the system. MINT is the first interferometer dedicated to CMB studies to operate above 50 GHz. The same type of system can be used to probe the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in galaxy clusters near the SZ null at 217 GHz. We give the essential features of MINT and present an analysis of sideband-separated, digitally sampled data recorded by the array. Based on 215 hours of data taken in late 2001, we set an upper limit on the CMB anisotropy in a band of width Δl=700 around l=1540 of δT<105 μK (95% confidence). Increased sensitivity can be achieved with more integration time, greater bandwidth, and more elements.

  1. SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S.; Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter; Sutter, P. M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Bunn, Emory F.

    2013-07-15

    The detection of the primordial B-mode spectrum of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) signal may provide a probe of inflation. However, observation of such a faint signal requires excellent control of systematic errors. Interferometry proves to be a promising approach for overcoming such a challenge. In this paper we present a complete simulation pipeline of interferometric observations of CMB polarization, including systematic errors. We employ two different methods for obtaining the power spectra from mock data produced by simulated observations: the maximum likelihood method and the method of Gibbs sampling. We show that the results from both methods are consistent with each other as well as, within a factor of six, with analytical estimates. Several categories of systematic errors are considered: instrumental errors, consisting of antenna gain and antenna coupling errors; and beam errors, consisting of antenna pointing errors, beam cross-polarization, and beam shape (and size) errors. In order to recover the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, within a 10% tolerance level, which ensures the experiment is sensitive enough to detect the B-signal at r = 0.01 in the multipole range 28 < l < 384, we find that, for a QUBIC-like experiment, Gaussian-distributed systematic errors must be controlled with precisions of |g{sub rms}| = 0.1 for antenna gain, |{epsilon}{sub rms}| = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for antenna coupling, {delta}{sub rms} Almost-Equal-To 0. Degree-Sign 7 for pointing, {zeta}{sub rms} Almost-Equal-To 0. Degree-Sign 7 for beam shape, and {mu}{sub rms} = 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for beam cross-polarization. Although the combined systematic effects produce a tolerance level on r twice as large for an experiment with linear polarizers, the resulting bias in r for a circular experiment is 15% which is still on the level of desirable sensitivity.

  2. Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer C and X Band Microwave Observations During SMEX03

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Bindlish, Rajat; Gasiewski, Albin J.; Stankov, Boba; Klein, Marian; Njoku, Eni G.; Bosch, David; Coleman, Thomas; Laymon, Charles; Starks, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Soil Moisture Experiments 2003 (SMEX03) was the second in a series of field campaigns using the NOAA Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer (PSR/CX) designed to validate brightness temperature data and soil moisture retrieval algorithms for the Advanced during SMEX03 were: calibration and validation of AMSR-E brightness temperature observations over different climate/vegetation regions of the US. (Alabama, Georgia, Oklahoma), identification of possible sources of Radio Frequency Interference (RFI), comparison of X-band observations from TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI), AMSR-E and PSR/CX, and exploring the potential of soil moisture retrieval algorithms using C and X band imagery in diverse landscapes. In the current investigation, more than one hundred flightlines of PSR/CX data were extensively processed to produce gridded brightness temperature products for the four study regions. Variations associated with soil moisture were not as large as hoped for due to the lack of significant rainfall in Oklahoma. Observations obtained over Alabama include a wide range of soil moisture and vegetation conditions for C and X band frequencies. These results clearly showed a lack of sensitivity to rainfall/soil moisture under forest canopy cover. Quantitative comparisons made between the PSR/CX, AMSR-E for validated that both the PSR/CX and AMSR-E data were well calibrated. X band comparisons of the PSR/CX high resolution and AMSR-E and TMI low-resolution data indicated a linear scaling for the range of conditions studied in SMEX03. These results will form the basis for further soil moisture investigations.

  3. MAXIMUM LIKELIHOOD ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS IN INTERFEROMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Le; Timbie, Peter; Karakci, Ata; Korotkov, Andrei; Tucker, Gregory S.; Sutter, Paul M.; Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Bunn, Emory F.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the impact of instrumental systematic errors in interferometric measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization power spectra. We simulate interferometric CMB observations to generate mock visibilities and estimate power spectra using the statistically optimal maximum likelihood technique. We define a quadratic error measure to determine allowable levels of systematic error that does not induce power spectrum errors beyond a given tolerance. As an example, in this study we focus on differential pointing errors. The effects of other systematics can be simulated by this pipeline in a straightforward manner. We find that, in order to accurately recover the underlying B-modes for r = 0.01 at 28 < l < 384, Gaussian-distributed pointing errors must be controlled to 0. Degree-Sign 7 root mean square for an interferometer with an antenna configuration similar to QUBIC, in agreement with analytical estimates. Only the statistical uncertainty for 28 < l < 88 would be changed at {approx}10% level. With the same instrumental configuration, we find that the pointing errors would slightly bias the 2{sigma} upper limit of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r by {approx}10%. We also show that the impact of pointing errors on the TB and EB measurements is negligibly small.

  4. A 10-Year Climatology of Amazonian Rainfall Derived from Passive Microwave Satellite Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negri, Andrew J.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Adler, Robert F.

    1998-01-01

    In this study we present and describe a satellite-derived precipitation climatology over northern South America using a passive microwave technique, the Goddard Profiling Algorithm. A period of data slightly longer than 10 years is examined. The climatologies take the form of the mean estimated (adjusted) rainfall for a 10-year (+) period, with sub-divisions by month and meteorological season. For the six-year period 1992-1997, when two satellites were in operation, diurnal variability (to the extent it is discerned by four unequally spaced observations) is presented. We find an alternating pattern of morning and maxima stretching from the northeast (Atlantic coast) clear across the continent to the Pacific. The effects of topography, coastlines and geography (river valleys) on the rainfall patterns are clear. Interannual variability is examined by computing the deviations of yearly and warm season (DJF) rainfall from their respective long-term means. Interannual variability of the diurnal nature of the rainfall is presented, and the strong El Nino event of 1997-1998 is discussed.

  5. Developments of frequency comb microwave reflectometer for the interchange mode observations in LHD plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, R.; Tokuzawa, T.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Tanaka, K.; Yamada, I.; Inagaki, S.; Kasuya, N.

    2016-02-01

    We have upgraded the multi-channel microwave reflectometer system which uses a frequency comb as a source and measure the distribution of the density fluctuation caused by magneto-hydro dynamics instability. The previous multi-channel system was composed of the Ka-band, and the U-band system has been developed. Currently, the U-band system has eight frequency channels, which are 43.0, 45.0, 47.0, 49.0, 51.0, 53.0, 55.0, and 57.0 GHz, in U-band. Before the installation to the Large Helical Device (LHD), several tests for understanding the system characteristics, which are the phase responsibility, the linearity of output signal, and others, have been carried out. The in situ calibration in LHD has been done for the cross reference. In the neutral beam injected plasma experiments, we can observe the density fluctuation of the interchange mode and obtain the radial distribution of fluctuation amplitude.

  6. The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The "4-day wave" is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height, and ozone data from the late southern winters of 1992 and 1993. Space-time spectral analyses reveal a double-peaked temperature structure consisting of one peak near the stratopause and another in the lower mesosphere, with an out-of-phase relationship between the two peaks. This double- peaked structure is reminiscent of recent three-dimensional barotropic/baroclinic instability model predictions and is observed here for the first time. The height variation of the 4-day ozone signal is shown to compare well with a linear advective-photochemical tracer model. Negative regions of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradient and positive Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown to occur, consistent with instability dynamics playing a role in wave forcing. Spectral analyses of PV derived from MLS geopotential height fields reveal a 4-day signal peaking near the polar stratopause. The three-dimensional structure of the 4-day wave resembles the potential vorticity "charge" concept, wherein a PV anomaly in the atmosphere (analogous to an electrical charge in a dielectric material) induces a geopotential field, a vertically oriented temperature dipole, and circulation about the vertical axis.

  7. The 4-Day Wave as Observed from the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite Microwave Limb Sounder.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. R.; Stanford, J. L.; Elson, L. S.; Fishbein, E. F.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.

    1997-02-01

    The `4-day wave' is an eastward moving quasi-nondispersive feature with period near 4 days occurring near the winter polar stratopause. This paper presents evidence of the 4-day feature in Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) temperature, geopotential height, and ozone data from the late southern winters of 1992 and 1993. Space-time spectral analyses reveal a double-peaked temperature structure consisting of one peak near the stratopause and another in the lower mesosphere, with an out-of-phase relationship between the two peaks. This double-peaked structure is reminiscent of recent three-dimensional barotropic/baroclinic instability model predictions and is observed here for the first time. The height variation of the 4-day ozone signal is shown to compare well with a linear advective-photochemical tracer model. Negative regions of quasigeostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradient and positive Eliassen-Palm flux divergence are shown to occur, consistent with instability dynamics playing a role in wave forcing. Spectral analyses of PV derived from MLS geopotential height fields reveal a 4-day signal peaking near the polar stratopause. The three-dimensional structure of the 4-day wave resembles the potential vorticity `charge' concept, wherein a PV anomaly in the atmosphere (analogous to an electrical charge in a dielectric material) induces a geopotential field, a vertically oriented temperature dipole, and circulation about the vertical axis.

  8. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is the twentieth monthly report for the Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (EOS/AMSU-A), Contract NAS5-32314, and covers the period from 1 August 1994 through 31 August 1994. This period is the eighth month of the Implementation Phase which provides for the design, fabrication, assembly, and test of the first EOS/AMSU-A, the Protoflight Model. During this period the number one priority for the program continued to be the issuance of Requests for Quotations (RFQ) to suppliers and the procurement of the long-lead receiver components. Significant effort was also dedicated to preparation and conduct of internal design reviews and preparation for the PDR scheduled in September. An overview of the program status, including key events, action items, and documentation submittals, is provided in Section 2 of this report. The Program Manager's 'Priority Issues' are defined in Section 3. Section 4 through 7 provide detailed progress reports for the system engineering effort, each subsystem, performance assurance, and configuration/data management. Contractual matters are discussed in Section 8.

  9. Low Barrier Methyl Rotation in 3-PENTYN-1-OL as Observed by Microwave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibl, Konrad; Kannengießer, Raphaela; Stahl, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    It is known that the barrier to internal rotation of the methyl groups in ethane (1) is about 1000 wn. If a C-C-triple bond is inserted between the methyl groups as a spacer (2), the torsional barrier is assumed to be dramatically lower, which is a common feature of ethinyl groups in general. To study this effect of almost free internal rotation, we measured the rotational spectrum of 3-pentyn-1-ol (3) by pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy in the frequency range from 2 to 26.5 GHz. Quantum chemical calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory yielded five stable conformers on the potential energy surface. The most stable conformer, which possesses C1 symmetry, was assigned and fitted using two theoretical approaches treating internal rotations, the rho axis method (BELGI-C1) and the combined axis method (XIAM). The molecular parameters as well as the internal rotation parameters were determined. A very low barrier to internal rotation of the methyl group of only 9.4545(95) wn was observed. R. M. Pitzer, Acc. Chem. Res., 1983, 16, 207-210

  10. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Final Maps and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Larson, D.; Weiland, J. L.; Jaorsik, N.; Hinshaw, G.; Odegard, N.; Smith, K. M.; Hill, R. S.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Dunkley, J.; Kogut, A.; Limon,, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present the final nine-year maps and basic results from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission. The full nine-year analysis of the time-ordered data provides updated characterizations and calibrations of the experiment. We also provide new nine-year full sky temperature maps that were processed to reduce the asymmetry of the effective beams. Temperature and polarization sky maps are examined to separate cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy from foreground emission, and both types of signals are analyzed in detail.We provide new point source catalogs as well as new diffuse and point source foreground masks. An updated template-removal process is used for cosmological analysis; new foreground fits are performed, and new foreground reduced are presented.We nowimplement an optimal C(exp -1)1 weighting to compute the temperature angular power spectrum. The WMAP mission has resulted in a highly constrained Lambda-CDM cosmological model with precise and accurate parameters in agreement with a host of other cosmological measurements. When WMAP data are combined with finer scale CMB, baryon acoustic oscillation, and Hubble constant measurements, we find that big bang nucleosynthesis is well supported and there is no compelling evidence for a non-standard number of neutrino species (N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0.40). The model fit also implies that the age of the universe is (sub 0) = 13.772 +/- 0.059 Gyr, and the fit Hubble constant is H(sub 0) = 69.32 +/- 0.80 km/s/ Mpc. Inflation is also supported: the fluctuations are adiabatic, with Gaussian random phases; the detection of a deviation of the scalar spectral index from unity, reported earlier by the WMAP team, now has high statistical significance (n(sub s) = 0.9608+/-0.0080); and the universe is close to flat/Euclidean (Omega = -0.0027+0.0039/-0.0038). Overall, the WMAP mission has resulted in a reduction of the cosmological parameter volume by a factor of 68,000 for the standard six

  11. Recent microwave sounder observations from aircraft during the HS3 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave sounder similar to but more capable and accurate than current satellite microwave sounders. Since 2010 it has operated on NASA's Global Hawk UAVs and has been participating in the multiyear Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) hurricane campaign. We present recent results from HS3, including analysis of the thermodynamic and precipitation structure in and around tropical storm systems sampled during HS3. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  12. Soil moisture estimation by airborne active and passive microwave remote sensing: A test-bed for SMAP fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, Carsten; Bogena, Heye; Jagdhuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Horn, Ralf; Reigber, Andreas; Hasan, Sayeh; Rüdiger, Christoph; Jaeger, Marc; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the NASA Soil Moisture Active & Passive (SMAP) mission is to provide global measurements of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state. The SMAP launch is currently planned for 2014-2015. The SMAP measurement approach is to integrate L-band radar and L-band radiometer as a single observation system combining the respective strengths of active and passive remote sensing for enhanced soil moisture mapping. The radar and radiometer measurements can be effectively combined to derive soil moisture maps that approach the accuracy of radiometer-only retrievals, but with a higher resolution (being able to approach the radar resolution under some conditions). Aircraft and tower-based instruments will be a key part of the SMAP validation program. Here, we present an airborne campaign in the Rur catchment in Germany, in which the passive L-band system Polarimetric L-band Multi-beam Radiometer (PLMR2) and the active L-band system DLR F-SAR were flown on six dates in 2013. The flights covered the full heterogeneity of the area under investigation, i.e. all types of land cover and experimental monitoring sites. These data are used as a test-bed for the analysis of existing and development of new active-passive fusion techniques. A synergistic use of the two signals can help to decouple soil moisture effects from the effects of vegetation (or roughness) in a better way than in the case of a single instrument. In this study, we present and evaluate three approaches for the fusion of active and passive microwave records for an enhanced representation of the soil moisture status: i) estimation of soil moisture by passive sensor data and subsequent disaggregation by active sensor backscatter data, ii) disaggregation of passive microwave brightness temperature by active microwave backscatter and subsequent inversion to soil moisture, and iii) fusion of two single-source soil moisture products from radar and radiometer.

  13. Error Characterisation and Merging of Active and Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Gruber, Alexander; de Jeu, Richard; Parinussa, Robert; Chung, Daniel; Dorigo, Wouter; Reimer, Christoph; Kidd, Richard

    2015-04-01

    the products is available, the estimate of the respective product is used, while on days where both active and passive sensors provide an estimate, their observations are averaged. REFERENCES Dorigo, W.A., A. Gruber, R. de Jeu, W. Wagner, T. Stacke, A. Löw, C. Albergel, L. Brocca, D. Chung, R. Parinussa, R. Kidd (2015) Evaluation of the ESA CCI soil moisture product using ground-based observations, Remote Sensing of Environment, in press. Wagner, W., W. Dorigo, R. de Jeu, D. Fernandez, J. Benveniste, E. Haas, M. Ertl (2012) Fusion of active and passive microwave observations to create an Essential Climate Variable data record on soil moisture, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences (ISPRS Annals), Volume I-7, XXII ISPRS Congress, Melbourne, Australia, 25 August-1 September 2012, 315-321. Zwieback, S., K. Scipal, W. Dorigo, W. Wagner (2012) Structural and statistical properties of the collocation technique for error characterization, Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 19, 69-80.

  14. Spectral signatures of soil, snow and sea ice as observed by passive microwave and thermal infrared techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmugge, T.

    1984-01-01

    There have been many passive microwave observations of soil, snow, and sea ice surfaces made during the past several years. These measurements have been from tower, aircraft, and spacecraft platforms covering the wavelength range from 0.8 cm to 50 cm. Based on these data it can be concluded that the longer wavelengths (greater than 5 cm) are more effective for soil moisture observations because of a greater capability to penetrate vegetation, while the shorter wavelengths (1 to 3 cm) are best for snow and sea ice observations since the dominant process is volume scattering by the ice grains in the snow and the brine cells in sea ice. Because it is the intensity of a thermal emission process that is being measured, thermal infrared measurements are necessary to separate the emissivity and temperature effects in the microwave emission.

  15. High dopant activation of phosphorus in Ge crystal with high-temperature implantation and two-step microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Tzu-Lang; Su, Yin-Hsien; Lee, Wen-Hsi

    2016-09-01

    In this letter, high-temperature ion implantation and low-temperature microwave annealing were employed to achieve high n-type active concentrations, approaching the solid solubility limit, in germanium. To use the characteristics of microwave annealing more effectively, a two-step microwave annealing process was employed. In the first annealing step, a high-power (1200 W; 425 °C) microwave was used to achieve solid-state epitaxial regrowth and to enhance microwave absorption. In the second annealing step, contrary to the usual process of thermal annealing with higher temperature, a lower-power (900 W; 375 °C) microwave process was used to achieve a low sheet resistance, 78Ω/◻, and a high carrier concentration, 1.025 × 1020 P/cm3, which is close to the solid solubility limit of 2 × 1020 P/cm3.

  16. Comparisons of line-of-sight water vapor observations using the global positioning system and a pointing microwave radiometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, J.; Rocken, C.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; Univ. Corporation for Atmospheric Research

    2003-05-01

    Line-of-sight measurements of integrated water vapor from a global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a microwave radiometer are compared. These two instruments were collocated at the central facility of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program's Southern Great Plains region, near Lamont, Oklahoma. The comparison was made using 47 days of observations in May and June of 2000. Weather conditions during this time period were variable with total integrated water vapor ranging from less than 10 to more than 50 mm. To minimize errors in the microwave radiometer observations, observations were compared during conditions when the liquid water measured by the radiometer was less than 0.1 mm. The linear correlation of the observations between the two instruments is 0.99 with a root-mean-square difference of the GPS water vapor to a linear fit of the microwave radiometer of 1.3 mm. The results from these comparisons are used to evaluate the ability of networks of GPS receivers to measure instantaneous line-of-sight integrals of water vapor. A discussion and analysis is provided regarding the additional information of the water vapor field contained in these observations compared to time- and space-averaged zenith and gradient measurements.

  17. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Likelihoods and Parameters from the WMAP Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunkey, J.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M.R.; Spergel, D.N.; Larson, D.; Hinshaw, G.; Page, L.; Bennett, C.L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Weiland, J.L.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R.S.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), launched in 2001, has mapped out the Cosmic Microwave Background with unprecedented accuracy over the whole sky. Its observations have led to the establishment of a simple concordance cosmological model for the contents and evolution of the universe, consistent with virtually all other astronomical measurements. The WMAP first-year and three-year data have allowed us to place strong constraints on the parameters describing the ACDM model. a flat universe filled with baryons, cold dark matter, neutrinos. and a cosmological constant. with initial fluctuations described by nearly scale-invariant power law fluctuations, as well as placing limits on extensions to this simple model (Spergel et al. 2003. 2007). With all-sky measurements of the polarization anisotropy (Kogut et al. 2003; Page et al. 2007), two orders of magnitude smaller than the intensity fluctuations. WMAP has not only given us an additional picture of the universe as it transitioned from ionized to neutral at redshift z approx.1100. but also an observation of the later reionization of the universe by the first stars. In this paper we present cosmological constraints from WMAP alone. for both the ACDM model and a set of possible extensions. We also consider tlle consistency of WMAP constraints with other recent astronomical observations. This is one of seven five-year WMAP papers. Hinshaw et al. (2008) describe the data processing and basic results. Hill et al. (2008) present new beam models arid window functions, Gold et al. (2008) describe the emission from Galactic foregrounds, and Wright et al. (2008) the emission from extra-Galactic point sources. The angular power spectra are described in Nolta et al. (2008), and Komatsu et al. (2008) present and interpret cosmological constraints based on combining WMAP with other data. WMAP observations are used to produce full-sky maps of the CMB in five frequency bands centered at 23, 33, 41, 61, and 94 GHz

  18. A Model for Estimation of Rain Rate on Tropical Land from TRMM Microwave Imager Radiometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2004-01-01

    Over the tropical land regions observations of the 85 GHz brightness temperature (T(sub 85v)) made by the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer when analyzed with the help of rain rate (R(sub pR)) deduced from the TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) indicate that there are two maxima in rain rate. One strong maximum occurs when T(sub 85) has a value of about 220 K and the other weaker one when T(sub 85v) is much colder approx. 150 K. Together with the help of earlier studies based on airborne Doppler Radar observations and radiative transfer theoretical simulations, we infer the maximum near 220 K is a result of relatively weak scattering due to super cooled rain drops and water coated ice hydrometeors associated with a developing thunderstorm (Cb) that has a strong updraft. The other maximum is associated with strong scattering due to ice particles that are formed when the updraft collapses and the rain from the Cb is transit2oning from convective type to stratiform type. Incorporating these ideas and with a view to improve the estimation of rain rate from existing operational method applicable to the tropical land areas, we have developed a rain retrieval model. This model utilizes two parameters, that have a horizontal scale of approx. 20km, deduced from the TMI measurements at 19, 21 and 37 GHz (T(sub 19v), T(sub 21v), T(sub 37v). The third parameter in the model, namely the horizontal gradient of brightness temperature within the 20 km scale, is deduced from TMI measurements at 85 GHz. Utilizing these parameters our retrieval model is formulated to yield instantaneous rain rate on a scale of 20 km and seasonal average on a mesoscale that agree well with that of the PR.

  19. A decadal microwave record of tropical air temperature from AMSU-A/aqua observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yuan; Li, King-Fai; Yung, Yuk L.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Shi, Zuoqiang; Hou, Thomas Y.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric temperature is one of the most important climate variables. This observational study presents detailed descriptions of the temperature variability imprinted in the 9-year brightness temperature data acquired by the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-Instrument A (AMSU-A) aboard Aqua since September 2002 over tropical oceans. A non-linear, adaptive method called the Ensemble Joint Multiple Extraction has been employed to extract the principal modes of variability in the AMSU-A/Aqua data. The semi-annual, annual, quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) modes and QBO-annual beat in the troposphere and the stratosphere have been successfully recovered. The modulation by the El Niño/Southern oscillation (ENSO) in the troposphere was found and correlates well with the Multivariate ENSO Index. The long-term variations during 2002-2011 reveal a cooling trend (-0.5 K/decade at 10 hPa) in the tropical stratosphere; the trend below the tropical tropopause is not statistically significant due to the length of our data. A new tropospheric near-annual mode (period ~1.6 years) was also revealed in the troposphere, whose existence was confirmed using National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis air temperature data. The near-annual mode in the troposphere is found to prevail in the eastern Pacific region and is coherent with a near-annual mode in the observed sea surface temperature over the Warm Pool region that has previously been reported. It remains a challenge for climate models to simulate the trends and principal modes of natural variability reported in this work.

  20. Passive and Active Microwave Remote Sensing of Precipitation and Latent Heating Distributions in the Tropics from TRMM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Yang, Song; Haddad, Ziad S.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wang, Yansen; Lang, Stephen E.; Braun, Scott A.; Chiu, Christine; Wang, Jian-Jian

    2002-01-01

    Passive and active microwave remote sensing data are analyzed to identify signatures of precipitation and vertical motion in tropical convection. A database of cloud/radiative model simulations is used to quantify surface rain rates and latent heating profiles that are consistent with these signatures. At satellite footprint-scale (approximately 10 km), rain rate and latent heating estimates are subject to significant random errors, but by averaging the estimates in space and time, random errors are substantially reduced, Bias errors have been minimized by improving the microphysics in the supporting cloud/radiative model simulations, and by imposing a consistent definition of remotely-sensed and model-simulated convective/stratiform rain coverage. Remotely-sensed precipitation and latent heating distributions in the tropics are derived from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/ I) sensor data. The prototype Version 6 TRMM passive microwave algorithm typically yields average heating profiles with maxima between 6 and 7 km altitude for organized mesoscale convective systems. Retrieved heating profiles for individual convective systems are compared to coincident estimates based upon a combination of dual-Doppler radar and rawinsonde data. Also, large-scale latent heating distributions are compared to estimates derived from a simpler technique that utilizes observations of surface rain rate and stratiform rain proportion to infer vertical heating structure. Results of these tests will be presented at the conference.

  1. Improving Global Analysis and Short-Range Forecast Using Rainfall and Moisture Observations Derived from TRMM and SSM/I Passive Microwave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; daSilva, Arlindo M.; Olson, William S.; Kummerow, Christian D.; Simpson, Joanne

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission, a satellite project under consideration as a follow-on to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) by the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA) in the United States, the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) in Japan, and other international partners, comprises an improved TRMM-like satellite and a constellation of 8 satellites carrying passive microwave radiometers to provide global rainfall measurements at 3-hour intervals. The success of this concept relies on the merits of rainfall estimates derived from passive microwave radiometers. This article offers a proof-of-concept demonstration of the benefits of using, rainfall and total precipitable water (TPW) information derived from such instruments in global data assimilation with observations from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and 2 Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments. Global analyses that optimally combine observations from diverse sources with physical models of atmospheric and land processes can provide a comprehensive description of the climate systems. Currently, such data analyses contain significant errors in primary hydrological fields such as precipitation and evaporation, especially in the tropics. We show that assimilating the 6-h averaged TMI and SSM/I surface rainrate and TPW retrievals improves not only the hydrological cycle but also key climate parameters such as clouds, radiation, and the upper tropospheric moisture in the analysis produced by the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Data Assimilation System, as verified against radiation measurements by the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument and brightness temperature observations by the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) instruments. Typically, rainfall assimilation improves clouds and radiation in areas of active convection, as well as the latent heating and large-scale motions in the tropics, while TPW assimilation leads to reduced

  2. Shape effect on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via a microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuesen; Wen, Junjie; Xiong, Xuhua; Hu, Yongyou

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used as sustained-release bactericidal agents for water treatment. Among the physicochemical characteristics of AgNPs, shape is an important parameter relevant to the antibacterial activity. Three typically shaped AgNPs, nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires, were prepared via a microwave-assisted method and characterized by TEM, UV-vis, and XRD. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was determined by OD growth curves tests, MIC tests, and cell viability assay against Escherichia coli. The interaction between AgNPs and bacterial cells was observed by TEM. The results showed that the three differently shaped AgNPs were nanoscale, 55 ± 10 nm in edge length for nanocubes, 60 ± 15 nm in diameter for nanospheres, 60 ± 10 nm in diameter and 2-4 μm in length for nanowires. At the bacterial concentration of 10(4) CFU/mL, the MIC of nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires were 37.5, 75, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Due to the worst contact with bacteria, silver nanowires exhibited the weakest antibacterial activity compared with silver nanocubes and silver nanospheres. Besides, silver nanocubes mainly covered by {100} facets showed stronger antibacterial activity than silver nanospheres covered by {111} facets. It suggests that the shape effect on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is attributed to the specific surface areas and facets reactivity; AgNPs with larger effective contact areas and higher reactive facets exhibit stronger antibacterial activity.

  3. Microwave radiometric observations near 19.35, 92 and 183 GHz of precipitation in tropical storm Cora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilheit, T. T.; Chang, A. T.; King, J. L.; Rodgers, E. B.; Nieman, R. A.; Krupp, B. M.; Milman, A. S.; Stratigos, J. S.; Siddalingaih, H.

    1982-01-01

    Observations of rain cells in the remains of a decaying tropical storm were made by Airborne Microwave Radiometers at 19.35,92 and three frequencies near 183 GHz. Extremely low brightness temperatures, as low as 140 K were noted in the 92 and 183 GHz observations. These can be accounted for by the ice often associated with raindrop formation. Further, 183 GHz observations can be interpreted in terms of the height of the ice. The brightness temperatures observed suggest the presence of precipitation sized ice as high as 9 km or more.

  4. Experimental observations of thermal spikes in microwave processing of ceramic oxide fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, G.J.; Unruh, W.P.; Thomas, J.R. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    Microwave heating of alumina/silica fiber tows in a single-mode microwave cavity at 2.45 GHz have produced a surprising thermal spike behavior on the fiber bundles. During a thermal spike, a ``hot spot`` on the tow brightens rapidly, persists for a few seconds, and rapidly extinguishs. A hot spot can encompass the entire tow in the cavity or just a localized portion of the tow. Some local hot spots propagate along the fiber. Thermal spikes are triggered by relatively small (<15%) increases in power, thus having obvious implications for the development of practical microwave fiber processing systems. A tow can be heated through several successive thermal spikes, after which the tow is left substantially cooler than it was originally, although the applied microwave electric field is much larger. X-ray diffraction studies show that after each temperature spike there is a partial phase transformation of the tow material into mullite. After several excursions the tow has been largely transformed to the new, less lossy phase and is more difficult to heat. Heating experiments with Nextel 550 tows are examined for a pausible explanation of this microwave heating behavior.

  5. SEVEN-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP ) OBSERVATIONS: PLANETS AND CELESTIAL CALIBRATION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Greason, M. R.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Kogut, A.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Halpern, M.; Komatsu, E.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1{sigma} of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% {+-} 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 {mu}m, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within {approx}2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at {approx}30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a

  6. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Planets and Celestial Calibration Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiland, J. L.; Odegard, N.; Hill, R. S.; Wollack, E.; Hinshaw, G.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Komatsu, E.; Larson, D.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Nolta, M. R.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    We present WMAP seven-year observations of bright sources which are often used as calibrators at microwave frequencies. Ten objects are studied in five frequency bands (23-94 GHz): the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and five fixed celestial sources (Cas A, Tau A, Cyg A, 3C274, and 3C58). The seven-year analysis of Jupiter provides temperatures which are within 1σ of the previously published WMAP five-year values, with slightly tighter constraints on variability with orbital phase (0.2% ± 0.4%), and limits (but no detections) on linear polarization. Observed temperatures for both Mars and Saturn vary significantly with viewing geometry. Scaling factors are provided which, when multiplied by the Wright Mars thermal model predictions at 350 μm, reproduce WMAP seasonally averaged observations of Mars within ~2%. An empirical model is described which fits brightness variations of Saturn due to geometrical effects and can be used to predict the WMAP observations to within 3%. Seven-year mean temperatures for Uranus and Neptune are also tabulated. Uncertainties in Uranus temperatures are 3%-4% in the 41, 61, and 94 GHz bands; the smallest uncertainty for Neptune is 8% for the 94 GHz band. Intriguingly, the spectrum of Uranus appears to show a dip at ~30 GHz of unidentified origin, although the feature is not of high statistical significance. Flux densities for the five selected fixed celestial sources are derived from the seven-year WMAP sky maps and are tabulated for Stokes I, Q, and U, along with polarization fraction and position angle. Fractional uncertainties for the Stokes I fluxes are typically 1% to 3%. Source variability over the seven-year baseline is also estimated. Significant secular decrease is seen for Cas A and Tau A: our results are consistent with a frequency-independent decrease of about 0.53% per year for Cas A and 0.22% per year for Tau A. We present WMAP polarization data with uncertainties of a few percent for Tau A

  7. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiland, J.L.; Hill, R.S.; Odegard, 3.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C.L.; Dunkley, J.; Jarosik, N.; Page, L.; Spergel, D.N.; Halpern, M.; Meyer, S.S.; Tucker, G.S.; Wright, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) satellite aimed at elucidating cosmology through full-sky observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The WMAP full-sky maps of the temperature and polarization anisotropy in five frequency bands provide our most accurate view to date of conditions in the early universe. The multi-frequency data facilitate the separation of the CMB signal from foreground emission arising both from our Galaxy and from extragalactic sources. The CMB angular power spectrum derived from these maps exhibits a highly coherent acoustic peak structure which makes it possible to extract a wealth of information about the composition and history of the universe. as well as the processes that seeded the fluctuations. WMAP data have played a key role in establishing ACDM as the new standard model of cosmology (Bennett et al. 2003: Spergel et al. 2003; Hinshaw et al. 2007: Spergel et al. 2007): a flat universe dominated by dark energy, supplemented by dark matter and atoms with density fluctuations seeded by a Gaussian, adiabatic, nearly scale invariant process. The basic properties of this universe are determined by five numbers: the density of matter, the density of atoms. the age of the universe (or equivalently, the Hubble constant today), the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, and their scale dependence. By accurately measuring the first few peaks in the angular power spectrum, WMAP data have enabled the following accomplishments: Showing the dark matter must be non-baryonic and interact only weakly with atoms and radiation. The WMAP measurement of the dark matter density puts important constraints on supersymmetric dark matter models and on the properties of other dark matter candidates. With five years of data and a better determination of our beam response, this measurement has been significantly improved. Precise determination of the density of atoms in the universe. The agreement between

  8. Cosmic temperature fluctuations from two years of COBE differential microwave radiometers observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.; Wright, E. L.; Gorski, K. M.; Wilkinson, D. T.; Weiss, R.; Smoot, G. F.; Meyer, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    The first two years of Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy are analyzed and compared with our previously published first year results. The results are consistent, but the addition of the second year of data increases the precision and accuracy detected CMB temperature fluctuations. The 2 yr 53 GHz data are characterized by rms temperature fluctuations of (delta-T)(sub rms) (7 deg) = 44 +/- 7 micro-K and (delta-T)(sub rms) (10 deg) = 30.5 +/- 2.7 micro-K at 7 deg and 10 deg angular resolution, respectively. The 53 x 90 GHz cross-correlation amplitude at zero lag is C(0)(sup 1/2) = 36 +/- 5 micro-K (68% CL) for the unsmoothed (7 deg resolution) DMR data. We perform a likelihood analysis of the cross-correlation function, with Monte Carlo simulations to infer biases of the method, for a power-law model of initial density fluctuations, P(k) proportional to R(exp n). The Monte Carlo simulations indicate that derived estimates of n are biased by +0.11 +/- 0.01, while the subset of simulations with a low quadrupole (as observed) indicate a bias of +0.31+/- 0.04. Derived values for 68% confidence intervals are given corrected (and not corrected) for our estimated biases. Including the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Q(sub rms-PS) = 14.3(sup + 5.2 sub -3.3) micro-K (12.8(sup + 5.2 sub -3.3) micro-K0 with a spectral index n = 1.42(sup + 0.49 sub -0.55)(n = 1.53(sup + 0.49 sub -0.55). With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely amplitude is 18.2 +/- 11.5 micro-K (17.4 +/- 1.5 micro-K). The marginal likelihood of n is 1.42 +/- 0.37 (1.53 +/- 0.37). Excluding the quadrupole anisotropy, the most likely quadrupole-normalized amplitude is Q(sub rms-PS) = 17.4(sup + 7.5 sub -5.2) micro-K (15.8(sup + 7.5 sub -5.2) micro-K) with a spectral index n = 1.11(sup + 0.60 sub -0.55) (n = 1.22(sup + 0.60 sub -0.55). With n fixed to 1.0 the most likely

  9. Timing and regional patterns of snowmelt on Antarctic sea ice from passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaus, M.; Arndt, S.; Willmes, S.; Dierking, W.

    2015-12-01

    The timing and regional distribution of surface properties of Antarctic sea ice is crucial for the atmosphere-ocean interaction and characterizes the mass and energy budgets of sea ice. Therefore, it is important to map and analyze changes and trends of the related processes and parameters. Since Antarctic sea ice is covered with snow during most of the year, inter-annual and regional variations in summer surface melt can be described through the timing of snowmelt onset. So far, the melt onset was described through the amplitude of diurnal freeze-thaw cycles detected by microwave brightness temperatures using a fixed threshold. However, other studies reveal that the strength of the diurnal variations is differing between the perennial snowpack characterized by strong snow metamorphism and the thinner and less complex seasonal snow cover. Therefore, we present two complementary approaches to improve the existing melt onset algorithms: (1) We consider regional differences of the diurnal variations in the brightness temperature. (2) We combine brightness temperature measured at different polarizations and frequencies in order to describe also subsurface melt processes. Our analysis includes a comparison with autonomous measurements from snow buoys and previous studies on snow melt onset detection of Antarctic sea ice. In doing so, we derive a distinct latitudinal dependence of the surface and subsurface snow melt onset. The major part of the East-Antarctic sea ice is dominated by lateral and bottom melt with negligible diurnal surface variations. Although a positive trend in sea-ice extent and concentration of Antarctic sea ice is observed, our melt onset time series do not indicate a significant trend from 1988/89 to 2014/15. Instead its inter-annual variability is not changing over time. From the assumed dynamically induced sea-ice growth in the Southern Ocean we expect an increasing importance of surface freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. Gas dynamics of a pulsed supersonic nozzle molecular source as observed with a Fabry--Perot cavity microwave spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.J.; Buxton, L.W.; Balle, T.J.; Keenan, M.R.; Flygare, W.H.

    1981-01-15

    The gas dynamics of a pulsed supersonic nozzle molecular source are investigated by using a pulsed Fabry--Perot cavity microwave spectrometer to obtain free induction decay signals from rotational two-level systems in the gas expansion. An equation is derived giving the time domain emission signal line shape as an integral over the active molecular distribution in the beam. The Doppler splitting phenomenon is discussed in detail. Experimental line shapes are deconvoluted to give molecular velocities, dephasing times, and density distributions. We find that the density distribution of active molecules from the the pulsed nozzle varies rapidly in time, starting with a depletion on the nozzle axis at short times after the nozzle is opened, and changing to on-axis concentration at longer times. Results obtained with the gas nozzle axis oriented at angles ranging from 0 /sup 0/ to 90 /sup 0/ with respect to the direction of propagation of the microwaves are reported.

  11. SECOND SEASON QUIET OBSERVATIONS: MEASUREMENTS OF THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND POLARIZATION POWER SPECTRUM AT 95 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo, D.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Newburgh, L. B.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Kusaka, A.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Reeves, R.; Naess, S. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Wehus, I. K.; Bronfman, L.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Gaier, T.; Collaboration: QUIET Collaboration; and others

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 {mu}K{radical}s. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of {approx}1000 deg{sup 2} with an effective angular resolution of 12.'8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C {sub l} (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with {Lambda}CDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2{sup +0.9} {sub -0.8} (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  12. Second Season QUIET Observations: Measurements of the Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization Power Spectrum at 95 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    QUIET Collaboration; Araujo, D.; Bischoff, C.; Brizius, A.; Buder, I.; Chinone, Y.; Cleary, K.; Dumoulin, R. N.; Kusaka, A.; Monsalve, R.; Næss, S. K.; Newburgh, L. B.; Reeves, R.; Wehus, I. K.; Zwart, J. T. L.; Bronfman, L.; Bustos, R.; Church, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Eriksen, H. K.; Gaier, T.; Gundersen, J. O.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Ishidoshiro, K.; Jones, M. E.; Kangaslahti, P.; Kapner, D. J.; Kubik, D.; Lawrence, C. R.; Limon, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Miller, A. D.; Nagai, M.; Nguyen, H.; Nixon, G.; Pearson, T. J.; Piccirillo, L.; Radford, S. J. E.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Samtleben, D.; Seiffert, M.; Shepherd, M. C.; Smith, K. M.; Staggs, S. T.; Tajima, O.; Thompson, K. L.; Vanderlinde, K.; Williamson, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Q/U Imaging ExperimenT (QUIET) has observed the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at 43 and 95 GHz. The 43 GHz results have been published in a previous paper, and here we report the measurement of CMB polarization power spectra using the 95 GHz data. This data set comprises 5337 hr of observations recorded by an array of 84 polarized coherent receivers with a total array sensitivity of 87 μK\\sqrt{s}. Four low-foreground fields were observed, covering a total of ~1000 deg2 with an effective angular resolution of 12farcm8, allowing for constraints on primordial gravitational waves and high signal-to-noise measurements of the E-modes across three acoustic peaks. The data reduction was performed using two independent analysis pipelines, one based on a pseudo-C l (PCL) cross-correlation approach, and the other on a maximum-likelihood (ML) approach. All data selection criteria and filters were modified until a predefined set of null tests had been satisfied before inspecting any non-null power spectrum. The results derived by the two pipelines are in good agreement. We characterize the EE, EB, and BB power spectra between l = 25 and 975 and find that the EE spectrum is consistent with ΛCDM, while the BB power spectrum is consistent with zero. Based on these measurements, we constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio to r = 1.1+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.8 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the ML pipeline, and r = 1.2+0.9 - 0.8 (r < 2.7 at 95% C.L.) as derived by the PCL pipeline. In one of the fields, we find a correlation with the dust component of the Planck Sky Model, though the corresponding excess power is small compared to statistical errors. Finally, we derive limits on all known systematic errors, and demonstrate that these correspond to a tensor-to-scalar ratio smaller than r = 0.01, the lowest level yet reported in the literature.

  13. Visual observation and quantitative measurement of the microwave absorbing effect at X band.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L; Chen, X; Ong, C K

    2008-12-01

    We have set up a two-dimensional spatial field mapping system to measure graphically the quasi-free-space electromagnetic wave in a parallel plate waveguide. Our apparatus illustrates a potential application in characterizing the microwave absorbing materials. From the measured mappings of the microwave field, the visualization of spatial physical process and quantitative characterization of reflectivity coefficients can be achieved. This simple apparatus has a remarkable advantage over with conventional testing methods which usually involve huge, expensive anechoic chambers and demand samples of large size. PMID:19123583

  14. Observation of linear-polarization-sensitivity in the microwave-radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Mani, R. G.; Ramanayaka, A. N.; Wegscheider, W.

    2013-12-04

    We examine the linear polarization sensitivity of the radiation- induced magneto-resistance oscillations by investigating the effect of rotating in-situ the electric field of linearly polarized microwaves relative to the current, in the GaAs/AlGaAs system. We find that the frequency and the phase of the photo-excited magneto-resistance oscillations are insensitive to the polarization. On the other hand, the amplitude of the resistance oscillations are strongly sensitive to the relative orientation between the microwave antenna and the current-axis in the specimen.

  15. CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE): Continuous In Situ Observations of Snow Physical Properties and Microwave Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz, J.; Lakhankar, T.; Romanov, P.; Powell, A. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The CREST-Snow Analysis and Field Experiment (CREST-SAFE) is being carried out for two winter seasons (2011 and 2012) at the research site of the National Weather Service office, Caribou ME, USA. In this ground experiment, dual polarized microwave (37 and 89 GHz) observations are conducted continuously from the time of snow onset to snow melt off along with detailed synchronous observations of snowpack physical properties. The objective of this long term field experiment is to improve our understanding of the effect of changing snow characteristics (grain size, density, temperature) under various meteorological conditions on the microwave emission of snow and hence to improve retrievals of snow cover properties from satellite observations in the microwave spectral range. In this presentation, we give an overview of the field experiment and of available datasets. We also present the analysis of microwave observations collected during the two years of experiment along with observations of the snowpack properties. The simulations of seasonal changes of the snow pack physical properties were simulated with the SNTHERM model whereas to simulate the snowpack emission in the microwave we have used from SNTHERM and the HUT (Helsinki University of Technology) snow emission model. For different snow conditions simulated microwave brightness temperatures were compared with brightness temperatures observed in situ and with satellite based brightness temperature. The analysis of microwave observations has revealed a large difference in the microwave brightness temperature over fresh and aged snow pack even under the same snow depth. This suggests a substantial impact of other physical parameters on the microwave emission of snow as snow grain size, ice layer formation and density.

  16. Comparative kinetic study and microwaves non-thermal effects on the formation of poly(amic acid) 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(p-phenyleneoxy)dianiline (BAPHF). Reaction activated by microwave, ultrasound and conventional heating.

    PubMed

    Tellez, Hugo Mendoza; Alquisira, Joaquín Palacios; Alonso, Carlos Rius; Cortés, José Guadalupe López; Toledano, Cecilio Alvarez

    2011-01-01

    Green chemistry is the design of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate negative environmental impacts. The use and production of chemicals involve the reduction of waste products, non-toxic components, and improved efficiency. Green chemistry applies innovative scientific solutions in the use of new reagents, catalysts and non-classical modes of activation such as ultrasounds or microwaves. Kinetic behavior and non-thermal effect of poly(amic acid) synthesized from (6FDA) dianhydride and (BAPHF) diamine in a low microwave absorbing p-dioxane solvent at low temperature of 30, 50, 70 °C were studied, under conventional heating (CH), microwave (MW) and ultrasound irradiation (US). Results show that the polycondensation rate decreases (MW > US > CH) and that the increased rates observed with US and MW are due to decreased activation energies of the Arrhenius equation. Rate constant for a chemical process activated by conventional heating declines proportionally as the induction time increases, however, this behavior is not observed under microwave and ultrasound activation. We can say that in addition to the thermal microwave effect, a non-thermal microwave effect is present in the system.

  17. The SIR-B observations of microwave backscatter dependence on soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation covers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Engman, E. T.; Rusek, M.; Steinmeier, C.

    1986-01-01

    An experiment was conducted from an L-band SAR aboard Space Shuttle Challenger in October 1984 to study the microwave backscatter dependence on soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation cover. The results based on the analyses of an image obtained at 21-deg incidence angle show a positive correlatlion between scattering coefficient and soil moisture content, with a sensitivity comparable to that derived from the ground radar measurements reported by Ulaby et al. (1978). The surface roughness strongly affects the microwave backscatter. A factor of two change in the standard deviation of surface roughness height gives a corresponding change of about 8 dB in the scattering coefficient. The microwave backscatter also depends on the vegetation types. Under the dry soil conditions, the scattering coefficient is observed to change from about -24 dB for an alfalfa or lettuce field to about -17 dB for a mature corn field. These results suggest that observations with a SAR system of multiple frequencies and polarizations are required to unravel the effects of soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation cover.

  18. Evaluating Snow Melt Onset Date in the United States using Satellite Observation of Passive Microwave Temperature Brightness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, D.; Hunsaker, A. G.; Jacobs, J. M.; Vuyovich, C.

    2015-12-01

    The timing and magnitude of Spring snowmelt events impact riverine flooding and inform reservoir operations. While the melt water volume is a primary concern, the timing of the snowmelt is also important. Melt timing determination is challenging because snowpack ripening observations are seldom available. Diurnal Amplitude Variation (DAV) is a method that uses remotely sensed passive microwave observations to determine snowpack ripening and snowmelt onset. Previous studies have successfully used the DAV method in northern latitudes. This study evaluates the ability of the DAV approach to be used to determine melt onset dates in mid-latitudes. The analysis is conducted for 675 Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN) and Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) stations in the United States. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) products are used to calculate the DAV signal at each location. Methods for determining the melt onset date at each station are presented and applied to all pixels in the United States. Preliminary results will also be presented which characterize the DAV derived melt onset timing for the United States using the long-term SSM/I record.

  19. An Algorithm to Generate Deep-Layer Temperatures from Microwave Satellite Observations for the Purpose of Monitoring Climate Change. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Mitchell D.; Fleming, Henry E.

    1994-01-01

    An algorithm for generating deep-layer mean temperatures from satellite-observed microwave observations is presented. Unlike traditional temperature retrieval methods, this algorithm does not require a first guess temperature of the ambient atmosphere. By eliminating the first guess a potentially systematic source of error has been removed. The algorithm is expected to yield long-term records that are suitable for detecting small changes in climate. The atmospheric contribution to the deep-layer mean temperature is given by the averaging kernel. The algorithm computes the coefficients that will best approximate a desired averaging kernel from a linear combination of the satellite radiometer's weighting functions. The coefficients are then applied to the measurements to yield the deep-layer mean temperature. Three constraints were used in deriving the algorithm: (1) the sum of the coefficients must be one, (2) the noise of the product is minimized, and (3) the shape of the approximated averaging kernel is well-behaved. Note that a trade-off between constraints 2 and 3 is unavoidable. The algorithm can also be used to combine measurements from a future sensor (i.e., the 20-channel Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU)) to yield the same averaging kernel as that based on an earlier sensor (i.e., the 4-channel Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU)). This will allow a time series of deep-layer mean temperatures based on MSU measurements to be continued with AMSU measurements. The AMSU is expected to replace the MSU in 1996.

  20. Potential of jackfruit peel as precursor for activated carbon prepared by microwave induced NaOH activation.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-05-01

    The feasibility of preparing activated carbon (JPAC) from jackfruit peel, an industrial residue abundantly available from food manufacturing plants via microwave-assisted NaOH activation was explored. The influences of chemical impregnation ratio, microwave power and radiation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. JPAC was examined by pore structural analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption isotherm, elemental analysis, surface acidity/basicity and zeta potential measurements. The adsorptive behavior of JPAC was quantified using methylene blue as model dye compound. The best conditions resulted in JPAC with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 400.06 mg/g and carbon yield of 80.82%. The adsorption data was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order equation, while the adsorption mechanism was well described by the intraparticle diffusion model. The findings revealed the versatility of jackfruit peels as good precursor for preparation of high quality activated carbon.

  1. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed. PMID:23765005

  2. Renewable phenols production by catalytic microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets with activated carbon catalysts.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Liu, Yupeng; Liang, Jing; Tang, Juming

    2013-08-01

    The effects of different activated carbon (AC) catalysts based on various carbon sources on products yield and chemical compositions of upgraded pyrolysis oils were investigated using microwave pyrolysis of Douglas fir sawdust pellets. Results showed that high amounts of phenols were obtained (74.61% and 74.77% in the upgraded bio-oils by DARCO MRX (wood based) and DARCO 830 (lignite coal based) activated carbons, respectively). The catalysts recycling test of the selected catalysts indicated that the carbon catalysts can be reused for at least 3-4 times and produced high concentrations of phenol and phenolic compounds. The chemical reaction mechanism for phenolics production during microwave pyrolysis of biomass was analyzed.

  3. Microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yao-Jen; Cho, T.-C.; Chuang, S.-S.; Hsueh, F.-K.; Lu, Y.-L.; Sung, P.-J.; Chen, S.-J.; Lo, C.-H.; Lai, C.-H.; Current, Michael I.; Tseng, T.-Y.; Chao, T.-S.; Yang, F.-L.

    2012-11-01

    Microwave annealing of dopants in Si has been reported to produce highly activated junctions at temperatures far below those needed for comparable results using conventional thermal processes. However the details of the kinetics and mechanisms for microwave annealing are far from well understood. Comparisons between MWA and RTA of dopants in implanted Si has been investigated to produce highly activated junctions. First, As, 31P, and BF 2 implants in Si substrate were annealed by MWA at temperatures below 550 °C.

  4. Observations of frozen skin of southern ocean from multifrequency scanning microwave radiometer (MSMR) onboard oceansat - 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyas, N.; Bhandari, S.; Dash, M.; Pandey, P.; Khare, N.

    Encircling the Antarctic, Southern Ocean connects all the three oceans of the world with fastest current system found anywhere in the world. The region is thermally very stable and is covered with ice, which has a strong seasonal variability. The sea ice pulsates annually with seasonal migration varying from 4 million square kilometer to 20 million square kilometer during summer and winter respectively. This has strong influence on energy balance of the ocean-ice-atmosphere system, and hence on atmospheric general circulation affecting weather and climate. Sea ice also works as an insulator thus inhibiting the energy flux between ocean and atmosphere. It also influences the ecosystem of the southern ocean, which has rich fish resources with global economic values such as krill and tooth fish. During winter Krill survives on algae found at the under side of the sea ice. The southern ocean is known to have high nutrition but low concentration of chlorophyll-a, which is a proxy of the phytoplankton. It is now understood that iron is the limiting factor as has been shown by various iron fertilization experiments. Passive microwave radiometry from space has been extensively used for the study of sea ice types and concentration in the Arctic and the Antarctic regions. Since late 1970s, data from SMMR and SSM/I have been used to study trends in sea ice extent and area. We have further extended the above studies by using data from OCEANSAT - 1 MSMR. The data, acquired at 18 GHz (H) with 50 kilometer resolution and having a swath of 1360 kilometer and a repeat cycle of 2 days, was processed to generate the brightness temperature maps over the Antarctica for a period of 2 years and the results were analyzed in conjunction with those obtained earlier (since 1978) through the study of SMMR and SSM/I data. Besides strong seasonal variability, our analysis shows an increasing trend in the sea ice extent during the recent years and the rate appears to be accelerating contrary to

  5. Mobile Microwave Radiometer Observations: Spatial Characteristics of Supercooled Cloud Water and Cloud Seeding Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, Arlen W.

    1995-02-01

    Previous studies of the spatial distribution of supercooled liquid water in winter storms over mountainous terrain were performed primarily with instrumented aircraft and to a lesser extent with scans from a stationary microwave radiometer. The present work describes a new technique of mobile radiometer operation that was successfully used during numerous winter storms that occurred over the Wasatch Plateau of central Utah to determine the integrated depth of cloud liquid water relative to horizontal position on the mountain barrier. The technique had the advantage of being able to measure total liquid from the terrain upward, without the usual terrain avoidance problems that research aircraft face in cloudy conditions. The radiometer also collected data during several storms in which a research aircraft could not be operated because of severe turbulence and icing conditions.Repeated radiometer transects of specific regions of the plateau showed significant variability in liquid water depth over 30 60-min time periods, but also revealed that the profile of orographically generated cloud liquid was consistent, regardless of the absolute quantities. Radiometer liquid depth generally increased across the windward slope of the plateau to a peak near the western edge of the plateau top and then decreased across the relatively flat top of the plateau. These observations were consistent with regions where maximum and minimum vertical velocities were expected, and with depiction of cloud liquid by accretional ice particle growth across the mountain barrier. A comparison of data from the mobile radiometer and a stationary radiometer verified the general decrease in liquid depth from the windward slope to the top of the plateau and also showed that many liquid water regions were transient mesoscale features that moved across the plateau.Implications of the results, relative to the seeding of orographic clouds, were that seeding aerosols released from valley-based generators

  6. Active microwave investigation of snowpacks: Experimental documentation, Colorado 1979-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stiles, W. H.; Ulaby, F. T.; Aslam, A.; Abdelrazik, M.

    1981-01-01

    During the winter of 1979-1980, the University of Kansas Microwave Active Spectrometer systems measured the backscattering properties of snowpacks under varying conditions at four test sites in Colorado. In addition to the radar data over 1-35 GHz, ground-truth measurements of the atmospheric, snow, and soil characteristics were obtained for each radar data set. The test sites, data acquisition procedures, and data that were acquired in this experiment are presented and described.

  7. Microwave-assisted preparation of azachalcones and their N-alkyl derivatives with antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Usta, Asu; Öztürk, Elif; Beriş, Fatih Ş

    2014-01-01

    Two new azachalcones were prepared by both Claisen-Schmidt condensation and a simple environmentally trendy microwave-assisted method. Ten new N-alkyl (C6,8,10,12,14)-substituted azachalconium bromides (3a-e, 4a-e) were prepared from compounds 1 and 2 with corresponding alkyl halides. The antimicrobial activities of all the compounds were tested against Enterococcus faecalis, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus micro-organisms. PMID:24571646

  8. Microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Yupingfeng powder and their antioxidant activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Zhang, Bi-Bo; Qu, Xiao-Xia; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Min-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microwave-assisted reflux extraction of polysaccharides YPF-P from the famous Chinese traditional drug, Yupingfeng powder, optimization of extracting conditions and evaluation of their antioxidant activity were conducted in this study. Results: Single factor effect trends were achieved through yields and contends of YPF-P obtained from different extracting conditions. Then through a three-level, four-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions were determined as follows: Material/solvent ratio 1:23.37, microwave power 560 W, Extraction temperature 64°C, and extraction time 9.62 min. Under the optimal conditions, the YPF-P extraction yield was 3.23%, and its content was detected as 38.52%. In antioxidant assays, the YPF-P was tested to possess 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities with an IC50 value of 0.262 mg/ml. In addition, YPF-P was also proved to have relatively low ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), compared to Vc, through FRAP assay. Conclusion: In the microwave assisted reflux extraction research, good YPF-P yield was achieved from materials with relatively low YPF-P content. And for the first time, both DPPH and FRAP assays were conducted on YPF-P, which proved that the antioxidant activity of YPF-P contributed to the functions of this medicine. PMID:26246730

  9. Estimates of Long Term Surface Soil Moisture in the Midwestern U.S. Derived from Satellite Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owe, M.; deJeu, R.; VandeGriend, A. A.; Ag, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key component of the water and energy balances of the Earth's surface, and has been identified as a parameter of significant potential for improving the accuracy of large-scale land surface-atmosphere interaction models. However, soil moisture is often somewhat difficult to measure accurately in both space and time, especially at large spatial scales. Soil moisture is highly variable, and while point measurements are typically quite accurate, subsequent areal averaging of these measurements often leads to large errors. Since remotely sensed land surface observations are already a spatially averaged or areally integrated value, they are a logical input parameter to regional or larger scale land process models. A database of long-term soil moisture was compared to satellite microwave observations over test sites in the Midwestern United States. Ground measurements of average volumetric surface soil moisture in the top ten cm were made bimonthly at 19 locations throughout the state of Illinois. Nighttime microwave brightness temperatures were observed at a frequency of 6.6 GHz, by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), onboard the Nimbus 7 satellite. The life of the SMMR instrument spanned from Nov. 1978 to Aug. 1987. At 6.6 GHz, the instrument provided a spatial resolution of approximately 150 km, and a temporal frequency over the test area of about 3 nighttime orbits per week. Vegetation radiative transfer characteristics, such as the canopy transmissivity, were estimated from vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the 37 GHz Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI). Because the time of satellite coverage does not always coincide with the ground measurements of soil moisture, the existing ground data were used to calibrate a water balance for the top IO cm surface layer in order to interpolate daily surface moisture values. Such a climate-based approach is often more appropriate for

  10. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue via microwave assisted K2CO3 activation.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2011-10-01

    Sunflower seed oil residue, a by-product of sunflower seed oil refining, was utilized as a feedstock for preparation of activated carbon (SSHAC) via microwave induced K(2)CO(3) chemical activation. SSHAC was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and elemental analysis. Surface acidity/basicity was examined with acid-base titration, while the adsorptive properties of SSHAC were quantified using methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 15 (AB). The monolayer adsorption capacities of MB and AB were 473.44 and 430.37 mg/g, while the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, Langmuir surface area and total pore volume were 1411.55 m(2)/g, 2137.72 m(2)/g and 0.836 cm(3)/g, respectively. The findings revealed the potential to prepare high surface area activated carbon from sunflower seed oil residue by microwave irradiation.

  11. 3D Online Submicron Scale Observation of Mixed Metal Powder's Microstructure Evolution in High Temperature and Microwave Compound Fields

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Feng; Hu, Xiao-fang; Xiao, Yu; Xiao, Ti-qiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the influence on the mechanical properties caused by microstructure evolution of metal powder in extreme environment, 3D real-time observation of the microstructure evolution of Al-Ti mixed powder in high temperature and microwave compound fields was realized by using synchrotron radiation computerized topography (SR-CT) technique; the spatial resolution was enhanced to 0.37 μm/pixel through the designed equipment and the introduction of excellent reconstruction method for the first time. The process of microstructure evolution during sintering was clearly distinguished from 2D and 3D reconstructed images. Typical sintering parameters such as sintering neck size, porosity, and particle size of the sample were presented for quantitative analysis of the influence on the mechanical properties and the sintering kinetics during microwave sintering. The neck size-time curve was obtained and the neck growth exponent was 7.3, which indicated that surface diffusion was the main diffusion mechanism; the reason was the eddy current loss induced by the external microwave fields providing an additional driving force for mass diffusion on the particle surface. From the reconstructed images and the curve of porosity and average particle size versus temperature, it was believed that the presence of liquid phase aluminum accelerated the densification and particle growth. PMID:24737986

  12. Observation of ultrahigh-energy electrons by resonance absorption of high-power microwaves in a pulsed plasma.

    PubMed

    Rajyaguru, C; Fuji, T; Ito, H; Yugami, N; Nishida, Y

    2001-07-01

    The interaction of high power microwave with collisionless unmagnetized plasma is studied. Investigation on the generation of superthermal electrons near the critical layer, by the resonance absorption phenomenon, is extended to very high microwave power levels (eta=E(2)(0)/4 pi n(e)kT(e) approximately 0.3). Here E0, n(e), and T(e) are the vacuum electric field, electron density, and electron temperature, respectively. Successive generation of electron bunches having maximum energy of about 2 keV, due to nonlinear wave breaking, is observed. The electron energy epsilon scales as a function of the incident microwave power P, according to epsilon proportional to P0.5 up to 250 kW. The two-dimensional spatial distribution of high energy electrons reveals that they are generated near the critical layer. However, the lower energy component is again produced in the subcritical density region indicating the possibility of other electron heating mechanisms. PMID:11461406

  13. The natural oscillations in stratospheric ozone observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at the NDACC station Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, Lorena; Hocke, Klemens; Navas-Guzmán, Francisco; Eckert, Ellen; von Clarmann, Thomas; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2016-08-01

    A multilinear parametric regression analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and interannual variations of stratospheric ozone profiles from the GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) microwave radiometer at Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E; 577 m). GROMOS takes part in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The study covers the stratosphere from 50 to 0.5 hPa (from 21 to 53 km) and extends over the period from January 1997 to January 2015. The natural variability was fitted during the regression analysis through the annual and semi-annual oscillations (AO, SAO), the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the solar activity cycle. Seasonal ozone variations mainly appear as an annual cycle in the middle and upper stratosphere and a semi-annual cycle in the upper stratosphere. Regarding the interannual variations, they are primarily present in the lower and middle stratosphere. In the lower and middle stratosphere, ozone variations are controlled predominantly by transport processes, due to the long lifetime of ozone, whereas in the upper stratosphere its lifetime is relatively short and ozone is controlled mainly by photochemistry. The present study shows agreement in the observed naturally induced ozone signatures with other studies. Further, we present an overview of the possible causes of the effects observed in stratospheric ozone due to natural oscillations at a northern midlatitude station. For instance regarding the SAO, we find that polar winter stratopause warmings contribute to the strength of this oscillation since these temperature enhancements lead to a reduction in upper stratospheric ozone. We have detected a strong peak amplitude of about 5 % for the solar cycle in lower stratospheric ozone for our 1.5 cycles of solar activity. Though the 11-year ozone oscillation above Bern is in phase with the solar cycle, we suppose that the strong amplitude is

  14. Experimental observation of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the two plasmon decay instability and resonance absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction of intense microwaves with an inhomogeneous plasma is studied in two experimental devices. In the first device an investigation was made of microwave absorption and electron heating due to the parametric decay of microwaves into electron plasma waves (Two Plasmon Decay instability, TPDI), modeling a process which can occur near the quarter critical surface in laser driven pellets. P-polarized microwave (f = 1.2 GHz, P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 12 kW) are applied to an essentially collisionless, inhomogeneous plasma, in an oversized waveguide, in the U.C. Davis Prometheus III device. The initial density scale length near the quarter critical surface is quite long (L/lambda/sub De/ approx. = 3000 or k/sub 0/L approx. = 15). The observed threshold power for the TPDI is quite low (P/sub T/approx. = 0.1 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ approx. = 0.1). Near the threshold the decay waves only occur near the quarter critical surface. As the incident power is increased above threshold, the decay waves spread to lower densities, and for P/sub 0/ greater than or equal to lkW, (v/sub os//v/sub e/ greater than or equal to 0.3) suprathermal electron heating is strong for high powers (T/sub H/ less than or equal to 12 T/sub e/ for P/sub 0/ less than or equal to 8 kW or v/sub os//v/sub e/ less than or equal to 0.9).

  15. Initial feasibility study of a microwave-powered sailplane as a high-altitude observation platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyson, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that a microwave-powered sailplane can be a reasonable substitute for a satellite in some missions requiring only limited coverage of the surface of the earth. A mode of operation in which the aircraft cyclically climbs to high altitude in the beam, and then glides for several hundred kilometers, is feasible and takes advantage of the inherent forward speed of the sailplane at high altitude.

  16. Passive/active microwave soil moisture retrieval disaggregation using SMAPVEX12 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Bin; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2014-11-01

    SMAPVEX12 is a pre-launch field campaign for evaluating and testing the soil moisture retrievals retrieved from the SMAP project. During this experiment, airborne microwave observations from PALS radiometer and radar: brightness temperature and radar backscatter, as well as ground measurements were acquired. In this study, the remote sensing soil moisture was retrieved from SMAPVEX12 PALS radiometer L-band (6GHz) brightness temperature at high altitude flight. The PALS soil moisture was then aggregated and compared with PALS radar backscatter coefficient to generate high spatial resolution microwave soil moisture in change. The R2 values of PALS soil moisture retrieval validation range from 0.407-0.881, indicating good accuracy of soil moisture retrieval. The R2 values of comparison between aggregated PALS Δ and PALS Δ range from 0.492-0.805, while the downscaled Δ validation range from 0.128- 0.383.

  17. Assessment of Urban Planetary Boundary Layer Dynamics using Lidar, Microwave Radiometer and Ceilometer Observations over New York City Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C.; Wu, Y.; Gross, B.; Moshary, F.

    2010-12-01

    Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) dynamics is crucial in providing accurate air quality forecasts and is very useful in assessing air-transport models. In particular, incorrect determination of PBL dynamics can lead to imprecise surface particulate matter (PM) monitoring since aerosols are usually well mixed within the PBL during the convective heating period. However, PBL dynamics is strongly driven by surface flux measurements which are strongly influenced on the complexities of the urban surface including surface albedo and roughness parameters. Therefore direct assessment of the PBL height dynamics using active sensors is desired to assess the different urban parameterizations. This paper presents long term statistical data comparing the convective PBL growth obtained from lidar based measurements with different Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) parameterizations as well as an urbanized high resolution (uWRF) method based on 3 level urban structure parameterizations. We find that the operational bulk parameterizations used by WRF generally overestimate both the initiation and magnitude of the mixing layer height. This can be explained as an underestimate of the urban surface roughness that tends to reduce the surface buoyant flux. However, we find that comparisons with uWRF tend to overcorrect the convective growth. In support of these efforts, we develop an improved method to separate the convective layer from residual layer and clouds within the lidar signal. Further model assessments include water vapor and temperature from a passive Microwave radiometer. In particular, we find that the differential temperature between air and surface temperature is generally overestimated in the standard WRF models which is consistent with PBL height observations. Estimate PBL (black dash line) and Lidar Measurements on July 2, 2010

  18. Microwave activation of electrochemical processes: enhanced electrodehalogenation in organic solvent media.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Coles, Barry A; Compton, Richard G; Marken, Frank

    2002-08-21

    The effect of high-intensity microwave radiation focused into a "hot spot" region in the vicinity of an electrode on electrochemical processes with and without coupled chemical reaction steps has been investigated in organic solvent media. First, the electrochemically reversible oxidation of ferrocene in acetonitrile and DMF is shown to be affected by microwave-induced thermal activation, resulting in increased currents and voltammetric wave shape effects. A FIDAP simulation investigation allows quantitative insight into the temperature distribution and concentration gradients at the electrode / solution interface. Next, the effect of intense microwave radiation on electroorganic reactions is considered for the case of ECE processes. Experimental data for the reduction of p-bromonitrobenzene, o-bromonitrobenzene, and m-iodonitrobenzene in DMF and acetonitrile are analyzed in terms of an electron transfer (E), followed by a chemical dehalogenation step (C), and finally followed by another electron-transfer step (E). The presence of the "hot spot" in the solution phase favors processes with high activation barriers.

  19. Comparison of active and passive microwave signatures of Arctic sea ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Crawford, J. P.; Cavalieri, D. J.; Holt, B.; Carsey, F. D.

    1990-01-01

    In March 1988, overlapping active and passive microwave instrument data were acquired over Arctic sea ice using the NASA DC-8 aircraft equipped with multifrequency, variable polarization SAR and radiometer. Flights were conducted as a series of coordinated underflights of the DMSP SSM/I satellite radiometer in order to validate ice products derived from the SSM/I radiances. Subsequent flights by an NRL P-3 aircraft enabled overlapping high-resolution, single frequency image data to be acquired over the same regions using a Ka-band scanning microwave radiometer. In this paper, techniques are discussed for the accurate coregistration of the three aircraft datasets. Precise coregistration to an accuracy of 100 m plus or minus 25 m has, for the first time, enabled the detailed comparison of temporally and spatially coincident active and passive airborne microwave datasets. Preliminary results from the intercomparisons indicate that the SAR has highly frequency- and polarization-dependent signatures, which at 5.3 GHz (C-band) show an extremely high correlation with the 37 GHz radiometric temperatures.

  20. Influence of microwave parameters and water activity on radical generation in rice starch.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daming; Liu, Yixiao; Hu, Bo; Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Wang, Liyun; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Radical generation in rice starch under microwave treatment as well as the related chemical bond changes were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Raman spectroscopy. Samples with water activity of 0.4 and 0.7 have been treated and analyzed. It was found that microwave power level and water content could influence the amount of radicals along with the radical components and their contribution. Raman spectra showed corresponding changes in vibrational features of chemical bonds. During storage the signal intensity started to drop after a short period of increase. Rice starch radicals were relatively stable and could exist a long time in room temperature. Through signal simulation, 3 main components were separated from the original spectra and the evolving process was investigated. The main component was the radical located on C1 position in the glucose ring. PMID:26593462

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Microwave-Assisted Solanum melongena Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Modica, Maria N.; Pittalà, Valeria; Siracusa, Maria A.; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant fruit is a very rich source of polyphenol compounds endowed with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to extract polyphenols from eggplant entire fruit, pulp, or skin, both fresh and dry, and compare results between conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The effects of time exposure (15, 30, 60, and 90 min) and solvent (water 100% or ethanol/water 50%) were also evaluated. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in the extract obtained from dry peeled skin treated with 50% aqueous ethanol, irradiated with microwave; this extract contained also high quantity of flavonoids and showed good antioxidant activity expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation. PMID:24683354

  2. NASA Activities as they Relate to Microwave Technology for Aerospace Communications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation discusses current NASA activities and plans as they relate to microwave technology for aerospace communications. The presentations discusses some examples of the aforementioned technology within the context of the existing and future communications architectures and technology development roadmaps. Examples of the evolution of key technology from idea to deployment are provided as well as the challenges that lay ahead regarding advancing microwave technology to ensure that future NASA missions are not constrained by lack of communication or navigation capabilities. The presentation closes with some examples of emerging ongoing opportunities for establishing collaborative efforts between NASA, Industry, and Academia to encourage the development, demonstration and insertion of communications technology in pertinent aerospace systems.

  3. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of microwave-assisted Solanum melongena extracts.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Loredana; Modica, Maria N; Pittalà, Valeria; Romeo, Giuseppe; Siracusa, Maria A; Di Giacomo, Claudia; Sorrenti, Valeria; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant fruit is a very rich source of polyphenol compounds endowed with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to extract polyphenols from eggplant entire fruit, pulp, or skin, both fresh and dry, and compare results between conventional extraction and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The effects of time exposure (15, 30, 60, and 90 min) and solvent (water 100% or ethanol/water 50%) were also evaluated. The highest amount of polyphenols was found in the extract obtained from dry peeled skin treated with 50% aqueous ethanol, irradiated with microwave; this extract contained also high quantity of flavonoids and showed good antioxidant activity expressed by its capacity to scavenge superoxide anion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  4. Influence of microwave parameters and water activity on radical generation in rice starch.

    PubMed

    Fan, Daming; Liu, Yixiao; Hu, Bo; Lin, Lufen; Huang, Luelue; Wang, Liyun; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Radical generation in rice starch under microwave treatment as well as the related chemical bond changes were investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and Raman spectroscopy. Samples with water activity of 0.4 and 0.7 have been treated and analyzed. It was found that microwave power level and water content could influence the amount of radicals along with the radical components and their contribution. Raman spectra showed corresponding changes in vibrational features of chemical bonds. During storage the signal intensity started to drop after a short period of increase. Rice starch radicals were relatively stable and could exist a long time in room temperature. Through signal simulation, 3 main components were separated from the original spectra and the evolving process was investigated. The main component was the radical located on C1 position in the glucose ring.

  5. Interaction of microwaves and germinating seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, F.L.

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary investigation measured the internal metabolic process by ATP production. Leakage of ions and organic material from germinating seeds indicated that membranes are a target of microwaves and heat. Electron photo-micrographs showed an increase in damage to membranes as heat and microwave treatments were increased. The second phase of this investigation was concerned with determining some of the biological activity at the initiation of germination of wheat seed, Triticum aestivum L., using a resonating microwave cavity oscillating at 9.3 GHz as a probe. Direct current conductivity measurements were also made on the seeds as a means of confirming the observations made with the microwave cavity.

  6. Active microwave remote sensing of an anisotropic random medium layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A two-layer anisotropic random medium model has been developed to study the active remote sensing of the earth. The dyadic Green's function for a two-layer anisotropic medium is developed and used in conjunction with the first-order Born approximation to calculate the backscattering coefficients. It is shown that strong cross-polarization occurs in the single scattering process and is indispensable in the interpretation of radar measurements of sea ice at different frequencies, polarizations, and viewing angles. The effects of anisotropy on the angular responses of backscattering coefficients are also illustrated.

  7. Interpretation of observed microwave signatures from ground dual polarization radar and space multi frequency radiometer for the 2011 Grímsvötn volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montopoli, M.; Vulpiani, G.; Cimini, D.; Picciotti, E.; Marzano, F. S.

    2013-07-01

    The important role played by ground-based microwave weather radars for the monitoring of volcanic ash clouds has been recently demonstrated. The potential of microwaves from satellite passive and ground-based active sensors to estimate near-source volcanic ash cloud parameters has been also proposed, though with little investigation of their synergy and the role of the radar polarimetry. The goal of this work is to show the potentiality and drawbacks of the X-band Dual Polarization radar measurements (DPX) through the data acquired during the latest Grímsvötn volcanic eruptions that took place on May 2011 in Iceland. The analysis is enriched by the comparison between DPX data and the observations from the satellite Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS) and a C-band Single Polarization (SPC) radar. SPC, DPX, and SSMIS instruments cover a large range of the microwaves spectrum, operating respectively at 5.4, 3.2, and 0.16-1.6 cm wavelengths. The multi-source comparison is made in terms of Total Columnar Concentration (TCC). The latter is estimated from radar observables using the "Volcanic Ash Radar Retrieval for dual-Polarization X band systems" (VARR-PX) algorithm and from SSMIS brightness temperature (BT) using a linear BT-TCC relationship. The BT-TCC relationship has been compared with the analogous relation derived from SSMIS and SPC radar data for the same case study. Differences between these two linear regression curves are mainly attributed to an incomplete observation of the vertical extension of the ash cloud, a coarser spatial resolution and a more pronounced non-uniform beam filling effect of SPC measurements (260 km far from the volcanic vent) with respect to the DPX (70 km from the volcanic vent). Results show that high-spatial-resolution DPX radar data identify an evident volcanic plume signature, even though the interpretation of the polarimetric variables and the related retrievals is not always straightforward, likely due to the

  8. Monitoring Inland Ice Cover under All-weather Conditions with the Combined Use of Microwave and GOES-R Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Key, J. R.; Wang, X.

    2010-12-01

    The cryosphere exists at all latitudes and in about one hundred countries. Not only does the cryosphere play a significant role in climate, but also it has profound socio-economic value, especially over inland water, including lakes and rivers, due to its role in water resources and its impact on transportation, fisheries, hunting, herding, and agriculture. A number of ice characterization algorithms have been improved and/or developed for the next generation Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-R) Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI), including ice identification, ice concentration, ice thickness and age, and ice motion. These products will play an important role in monitoring ice cover over inland water considering its high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. However, the effectiveness of such products is constrained by cloud cover. Lake ice products from microwave observations are less affected by clouds, but their quality is hindered by coarse spatial and temporal resolution as well as contamination by the land surface. Optimization of all-weather ice products from microwave observations, and ice products with higher spatial and temporal resolutions from GOES-R enables us to monitor the ice characteristics over the inland water surfaces, e.g., the Great Lakes, effectively in real time under all-weather conditions, and improves the products that are being developed for ABI. The combined used of both products provides accurate, timely information on ice characteristics over inland water surfaces to meet the needs of transportation and winter weather forecasting. An overview of the ice cover, concentration, and motion products for both GOES-R and microwave observation will be given, and case studies of combining both products for monitoring ice characteristics over inland water will be presented.

  9. Seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Power Spectra and WMAP-derived Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, D.; Dunkley, J.; Hinshaw, G.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Bennett, C. L.; Gold, B.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.; Weiland, J. L.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-02-01

    The WMAP mission has produced sky maps from seven years of observations at L2. We present the angular power spectra derived from the seven-year maps and discuss the cosmological conclusions that can be inferred from WMAP data alone. With the seven-year data, the temperature (TT) spectrum measurement has a signal-to-noise ratio per multipole that exceeds unity for l < 919; and in band powers of width Δl = 10, the signal-to-noise ratio exceeds unity up to l = 1060. The third acoustic peak in the TT spectrum is now well measured by WMAP. In the context of a flat ΛCDM model, this improvement allows us to place tighter constraints on the matter density from WMAP data alone, Ω m h 2 = 0.1334+0.0056 -0.0055, and on the epoch of matter-radiation equality, z eq = 3196+134 -133. The temperature-polarization (TE) spectrum is detected in the seven-year data with a significance of 20σ, compared to 13σ with the five-year data. We now detect the second dip in the TE spectrum near l ~ 450 with high confidence. The TB and EB spectra remain consistent with zero, thus demonstrating low systematic errors and foreground residuals in the data. The low-l EE spectrum, a measure of the optical depth due to reionization, is detected at 5.5σ significance when averaged over l = 2-7: l(l + 1)C EE l /(2π) = 0.074+0.034 -0.025 μK2 (68% CL). We now detect the high-l, 24 <= l <= 800, EE spectrum at over 8σ. The BB spectrum, an important probe of gravitational waves from inflation, remains consistent with zero; when averaged over l = 2-7, l(l + 1)C BB l /(2π) < 0.055 μK2 (95% CL). The upper limit on tensor modes from polarization data alone is a factor of two lower with the seven-year data than it was using the five-year data. The data remain consistent with the simple ΛCDM model: the best-fit TT spectrum has an effective χ2 of 1227 for 1170 degrees of freedom, with a probability to exceed of 9.6%. The allowable volume in the six-dimensional space of ΛCDM parameters has been reduced

  10. Joint Variability of Airborne Passive Microwave and Ground-based Radar Observations Obtained in the TRMM Kwajalein Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX) held July-September 1999 in the west Pacific was designed to obtain an empirical physical characterization of precipitating convective clouds over the tropical ocean. The majority of the precipitation was from mixed-phase clouds. Coordinated data sets were obtained from aircraft and ground-based sensors including passive microwave measurements by the Advanced Microwave Precipitation Radiometer (AMPR) instrument on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and S-band volumetric radar data by the KPOL radar. The AMPR and KPOL data sets were processed to yield a set of 25,049 matching observations at ~ 2 km x 2 km horizontal spatial resolution and within 6 min. The TRMM satellite Microwave Imager (TMI) has a similar set of channels to AMPR but coarser spatial resolution (19 GHz: 35 km, 85 GHz: 7.7 km). During KWAJEX, the 0 deg C level height was nearly constant at ~ 4800 m. Hence, two potential sources of uncertainty in relating passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tbs) to surface precipitation, inhomogeneous beam filling and variations in depth of the rain layer are much smaller sources of error in the KWAJEX data set than for TMI. TRMM was originally designed to yield monthly rainfall estimates over 5 deg x 5 deg grid boxes. The use of these data to yield instantaneous rainrate products at smaller spatial scales is more sensitive to the detailed characteristics of the joint distributions of passive microwave Tbs versus rain rate. KWAJEX data sets reveal poor correlations, very wide scatter, and weak modes in these distributions. The spread of emission Tb values for a given rain-layer reflectivity (e.g., 75 K at 30 dBZ for 19 GHz) is similar or larger within convective compared to stratiform precipitation regions. This result implies that the enhancement in emission Tbs associated with partially melted ice particles can occur whether the particles are concentrated within a thin layer in stratiform

  11. Water vapour variability during Indian monsoon over Trivandrum observed using Microwave Radiometer and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Suresh C.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Ramachandran Pillai, Renju; Uma, K. N.; Saha, Korak

    2012-07-01

    The Indian summer monsoon is a highly regular synoptic event, providing most of the annual rainfall received over the sub-continent. Trivandrum, at the southwestern tip of Indian peninsula, is considered as the gate way of Indian monsoon, with its climatological onset on June 01. During this season, the region, experiences large seasonal variation in water vapor, rain fall and wind (speed and direction) in the troposphere. The variability in water vapor and wind information are the vital parameters in forecasting the onset of monsoon. This study focuses on water vapor measurements over the tropical coastal station Trivandrum (8.5oN & 76.9oE) using microwave techniques and the analyses with an effort to link the seasonal variability of water vapor with the onset of monsoon. At Trivandrum a hyper-spectral microwave radiometer profiler (MRP) and a Triple-frequency global positioning system receiver (GPS) have been in regular operation since April 2010. A station-dependent simple empirical relation suitable for the equatorial atmospheric condition is formulated to map the nonhydrostatic component of GPS tropospheric delay to the PWV, based on the columnar water vapor estimated from the multi-year daily radiosonde ascends from Trivandrum. A trained artificial neural network (ANN) with climatological atmospheric data of Trivandrum, is employed to derive the water vapor from the MRP brightness temperature measurements. The accuracy, reliability and consistency of PWV measurements over the tropical coastal station from these two independent instruments are assessed by comparing PWV derived from MRP and GPS measurements which resulted an rms deviation of <1.2mm (with correlation coefficient of ~0.98). This confirms the PWV derived over Trivandrum from microwave measurements are accurate even during the monsoon period in the presence of clouds and rain. PWV from microwave radiometer measurements for more than two years are used to study the water vapour variability during

  12. Experimental observation of short-pulse upshifted frequency microwaves from a laser-created overdense plasma.

    PubMed

    Yugami, Noboru; Niiyama, Toshihiko; Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Gao, Hong; Sasaki, Shigeo; Ito, Hiroaki; Nishida, Yasushi

    2002-03-01

    A short and frequency upshifted from a source microwave pulse is experimentally generated by the overdense plasma that is rapidly created by a laser. The source wave, whose frequency is 9 GHz, is propagating in the waveguide filled with tetrakis-dimethyl-amino-ethylene gas, which is to be converted to the overdense plasma by the laser. The detected frequency of the pulse is over 31.4 GHz and its duration is 10 ns. This technique has the potential for the generation of a tunable frequency source.

  13. The Anisotropy of the Microwave Background to l = 3500: Deep Field Observations with the Cosmic Background Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, B. S.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Shepherd, M. C.; Sievers, J.; Udomprasert, P. S.; Cartwright, J. K.; Farmer, A. J.; Padin, S.; Myers, S. T.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We report measurements of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation over the multipole range l approximately 200 (right arrow) 3500 with the Cosmic Background Imager based on deep observations of three fields. These results confirm the drop in power with increasing l first reported in earlier measurements with this instrument, and extend the observations of this decline in power out to l approximately 2000. The decline in power is consistent with the predicted damping of primary anisotropies. At larger multipoles, l = 2000-3500, the power is 3.1 sigma greater than standard models for intrinsic microwave background anisotropy in this multipole range, and 3.5 sigma greater than zero. This excess power is not consistent with expected levels of residual radio source contamination but, for sigma 8 is approximately greater than 1, is consistent with predicted levels due to a secondary Sunyaev-Zeldovich anisotropy. Further observations are necessary to confirm the level of this excess and, if confirmed, determine its origin.

  14. Observation of microwave conductivity in copper iodide films and relay effect in the dye molecules attached to CuI photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Sirimanne, Prasad M. . E-mail: psirimanne@ifs.ac.lk; Soga, Tetsuo; Kunst, Marinus

    2005-10-15

    Microwave conductivity and two channels of recombination process were observed in the CuI films. Spin orbital splitting resulted in split in the valence band of CuI. The dye molecules attached to the CuI film act as an electron mediator in addition to the sensitization process under back wall-mode illumination. - Graphical abstract: Transient microwave-photoconductivity of CuI film.

  15. The Built Environment Predicts Observed Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Cheryl; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Schootman, Mario; Clennin, Morgan; Baker, Elizabeth A.; Miller, Douglas K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In order to improve our understanding of the relationship between the built environment and physical activity, it is important to identify associations between specific geographic characteristics and physical activity behaviors. Purpose: Examine relationships between observed physical activity behavior and measures of the built environment collected on 291 street segments in Indianapolis and St. Louis. Methods: Street segments were selected using a stratified geographic sampling design to ensure representation of neighborhoods with different land use and socioeconomic characteristics. Characteristics of the built environment on-street segments were audited using two methods: in-person field audits and audits based on interpretation of Google Street View imagery with each method blinded to results from the other. Segments were dichotomized as having a particular characteristic (e.g., sidewalk present or not) based on the two auditing methods separately. Counts of individuals engaged in different forms of physical activity on each segment were assessed using direct observation. Non-parametric statistics were used to compare counts of physically active individuals on each segment with built environment characteristic. Results: Counts of individuals engaged in physical activity were significantly higher on segments with mixed land use or all non-residential land use, and on segments with pedestrian infrastructure (e.g., crosswalks and sidewalks) and public transit. Conclusion: Several micro-level built environment characteristics were associated with physical activity. These data provide support for theories that suggest changing the built environment and related policies may encourage more physical activity. PMID:24904916

  16. Microwave-assisted preparation and adsorption performance of activated carbon from biodiesel industry solid reside: influence of operational parameters.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2012-01-01

    Preparation of activated carbon has been attempted using KOH as activating agent by microwave heating from biodiesel industry solid residue, oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFBAC). The significance of chemical impregnation ratio (IR), microwave power and activation time on the properties of activated carbon were investigated. The optimum condition has been identified at the IR of 1.0, microwave power of 600 W and activation time of 7 min. EFBAC was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The surface chemistry was examined by zeta potential measurement, determination of surface acidity/basicity, while the adsorptive property was quantified using methylene blue as dye model compound. The optimum conditions resulted in activated carbon with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 395.30 mg/g and carbon yield of 73.78%, while the BET surface area and total pore volume were corresponding to 1372 m2/g and 0.76 cm3/g, respectively.

  17. Some observations on hyperuniform disordered photonic bandgap materials, from microwave scale study to infrared scale study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsitrin, Sam; Nahal, Geev; Florescu, Marian; Man, Weining; San Francisco State University Team; University of Surrey Team

    2015-03-01

    A novel class of disordered photonic materials, hyperuniform disordered solids (HUDS), attracted more attention. Recently they have been experimentally proven to provide complete photonic band gap (PBG) when made with Alumina or Si; as well as single-polarization PBG when made with plastic with refract index of 1.6. These PBGs were shown to be real energy gaps with zero density of photonic states, instead of mobility gaps of low transmission due to scattering, etc. Using cm-scale samples and microwave experiments, we reveal the nature of photonic modes existing in these disordered materials by analyzing phase delay and mapping field distribution profile inside them. We also show how to extend the proof-of-concept microwave studies of these materials to proof-of-scale studies for real applications, by designing and fabricating these disordered photonic materials at submicron-scale with functional devices for 1.55 micron wavelength. The intrinsic isotropy of the disordered structure is an inherent advantage associated with the absence of limitations of orientational order, which is shown to provide valuable freedom in defect architecture design impossible in periodical structures. NSF Award DMR-1308084, the University of Surrey's FRSF and Santander awards.

  18. Microwave hydrothermal synthesis of AgInS{sub 2} with visible light photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Wenjuan; Li, Danzhen; Chen, Zhixin; Sun, Meng; Li, Wenjuan; Lin, Qiang; Fu, Xianzhi

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} AgInS{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal method. {yields} This method involves no organic solvents, catalysts, or surfactants. {yields} AgInS{sub 2} showed higher activity for photocatalytic degradation MO than TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}. {yields} Holes, O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} played an important role in the photocatalytic process. -- Abstract: AgInS{sub 2} nanoparticles with superior visible light photocatalytic activity were successfully synthesized by a microwave hydrothermal method. This method is a highly efficient and rapid route that involves no organic solvents, catalysts, or surfactants. The photocatalytic activity of AgInS{sub 2} nanoparticles was investigated through the degradation of dyes under visible light irradiation. Compared with TiO{sub 2-x}N{sub x}, AgInS{sub 2} has exhibited a superior activity for photocatalytic degradation MO under the same condition. The experiment results showed that superoxide radicals (O{sub 2}{center_dot}{sup -}), hydrogen peroxides (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and holes (h{sup +}) were the mainly active species for the degradation of organic pollutants over AgInS{sub 2}. Through the determination of flat band potential, the energy band structure of the sample was obtained. A possible mechanism for the degradation of organic pollutant over AgInS{sub 2} was proposed.

  19. Impacts of Different Assimilation Methodologies on Crop Yield Estimates Using Active and Passive Microwave Dataset at L-Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Bongiovanni, T. E.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Bindlish, R.; Judge, J.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate estimates of crop yield are important for managing agricultural production and food security. Although the crop growth models, such as the Decision Support System Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT), have been used to simulate crop growth and development, the crop yield estimates still diverge from the reality due to different sources of errors in the models and computation. Auxiliary observations may be incorporated into such dynamic models to improve predictions using data assimilation. Active and passive (AP) microwave observations at L-band (1-2 GHz) are sensitive to dielectric and geometric properties of soil and vegetation, including soil moisture (SM), vegetation water content (VWC), surface roughness, and vegetation structure. Because SM and VWC are one of the governing factors in estimating crop yield, microwave observations may be used to improve crop yield estimates. Current studies have shown that active observations are more sensitive to the surface roughness of soil and vegetation structure during the growing season, while the passive observations are more sensitive to the SM. Backscatter and emission models linked with the DSSAT model (DSSAT-A-P) allow assimilation of microwave observations of backscattering coefficient (σ0) and brightness temperature (TB) may provide biophysically realistic estimates of model states and parameters. The present ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission provides passive observations at 1.41 GHz at 25 km every 2-3 days, and the NASA/CNDAE Aquarius mission provides L-band AP observations at spatial resolution of 150 km with a repeat coverage of 7 days for global SM products. In 2014, the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive mission will provide AP observations at 1.26 and 1.41 GHz at the spatial resolutions of 3 and 30 km, respectively, with a repeat coverage of 2-3 days. The goal of this study is to understand the impacts of assimilation of asynchronous and synchronous AP observations on crop yield

  20. Earth observation archive activities at DRA Farnborough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, M. D.; Williams, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Space Sector, Defence Research Agency (DRA), Farnborough have been actively involved in the acquisition and processing of Earth Observation data for over 15 years. During that time an archive of over 20,000 items has been built up. This paper describes the major archive activities, including: operation and maintenance of the main DRA Archive, the development of a prototype Optical Disc Archive System (ODAS), the catalog systems in use at DRA, the UK Processing and Archive Facility for ERS-1 data, and future plans for archiving activities.

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis, antifungal activity, and DFT study of some novel triazolinone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sun, Na-Bo; Jin, Jian-Zhong; He, Fang-Yue

    2015-01-01

    A series of some novel 1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one derivatives were designed and synthesized under microwave irradiation via multistep reaction. The structures of 1,2,4-triazoles were confirmed by (1)H NMR, MS, FTIR, and elemental analysis. The antifungal activities of 1,2,4-triazoles were determined. The antifungal activity results indicated that the compounds 5c, 5f, and 5h exhibited good activity against Pythium ultimum, and the compounds 5b and 5c displayed good activity against Corynespora cassiicola. Theoretical calculation of the compound 5c was carried out with B3LYP/6-31G (d). The full geometry optimization was carried out using 6-31G(d) basis set, and the frontier orbital energy and electrostatic potential were discussed, and the structure-activity relationship was also studied. PMID:25861651

  2. TRACE Observations of Active Region Births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Shine, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    TRACE has recorded the births of a few bona-fide active regions, as well as many ephemeral regions and so-called X-ray bright points. The observations have usually been made serendipitously while studying a nearby, well formed active region. However, a couple of events have been recorded when deliberately looking for emerging flux in quiet portions of an active region belt. This poster will discuss some of the best observations to date, where the quality ranking of the observation is closely coupled to the observing mode TRACE was in and the availability of high resolution (temporal and/or spatial) MDI magnetograms. Included will be the birth of NOAA AR#8699 on 11 September 1999 at about 14 UT (N22E34), AR#8637 on 17 July 1999 at about 4 UT (N11W1), and AR#8885 on 21 February 2000 at about 6 UT (N11W7); these specifics being provided to encourage coordination with other observations. The temporal relationships between the first appearances of magnetic bipoles, EUV loops, chromospheric plage, pores, and sunspots will be discussed as will the growth rate and spatial relationships of these different features and any associated photospheric flows.

  3. SAR and passive microwave observations of the Odden during Mizex '87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, Laura L.; Shuchman, Robert A.; Gloersen, Per; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Johannessen, Ola M.

    1989-01-01

    The Odden, a protuberance of sea ice in the Greenland Sea Basin, was studied using the NIMBUS-7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) satellite and an X-band (3 cm) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) aircraft. The sea ice, meteorological, and oceanographic conditions within the northern portion of the Odden were also studied in March and April 1987. The SMMR data, which were first validated with in situ ship measurements and the SAR data, showed rapid 2-4 day oscillations of the Odden ice edge. The oscillations at 74-75 deg N were several hundred kilometers in extent. The rapid oscillation of the Odden does not appear to be a result of wind-induced ice drift, but rather results from the rapid formation of thin ice off the main ice edge.

  4. Microwave spectroscopic observation of distinct electron solid phases in wide quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Hatke, A T; Liu, Yang; Magill, B A; Moon, B H; Engel, L W; Shayegan, M; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Baldwin, K W

    2014-06-20

    In high magnetic fields, two-dimensional electron systems can form a number of phases in which interelectron repulsion plays the central role, since the kinetic energy is frozen out by Landau quantization. These phases include the well-known liquids of the fractional quantum Hall effect, as well as solid phases with broken spatial symmetry and crystalline order. Solids can occur at the low Landau-filling termination of the fractional quantum Hall effect series but also within integer quantum Hall effects. Here we present microwave spectroscopy studies of wide quantum wells that clearly reveal two distinct solid phases, hidden within what in d.c. transport would be the zero diagonal conductivity of an integer quantum-Hall-effect state. Explanation of these solids is not possible with the simple picture of a Wigner solid of ordinary (quasi) electrons or holes.

  5. Microwave spectroscopic observation of distinct electron solid phases in wide quantum wells

    PubMed Central

    Hatke, A. T.; Liu, Yang; Magill, B. A.; Moon, B. H.; Engel, L. W.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Baldwin, K. W.

    2014-01-01

    In high magnetic fields, two-dimensional electron systems can form a number of phases in which interelectron repulsion plays the central role, since the kinetic energy is frozen out by Landau quantization. These phases include the well-known liquids of the fractional quantum Hall effect, as well as solid phases with broken spatial symmetry and crystalline order. Solids can occur at the low Landau-filling termination of the fractional quantum Hall effect series but also within integer quantum Hall effects. Here we present microwave spectroscopy studies of wide quantum wells that clearly reveal two distinct solid phases, hidden within what in d.c. transport would be the zero diagonal conductivity of an integer quantum-Hall-effect state. Explanation of these solids is not possible with the simple picture of a Wigner solid of ordinary (quasi) electrons or holes. PMID:24948190

  6. Observations of oceanic surface-wind fields from the Nimbus-7 microwave radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. R.; Geyser, J. E.; Chang, A. T. C.; Wilheit, T. T., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Brightness temperatures from the five-frequency dual-polarized scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on Nimbus 7 have been used to obtain surface wind fields over the ocean. The satellite-derived wind field for 1200Z, Feb. 19, 1979, in the eastern North Pacific has been compared with an operationally generated surface-wind analysis field. Previous point comparisons at selected locations have indicated that satellite winds are accurate to 3 m/sec. The results, although of a preliminary nature, indicate that SMMR-derived winds may be used to determine large-scale wind fields over the ocean, particularly in areas of strong wind gradients such as found in cyclonic systems.

  7. Seasat microwave wind and rain observations in severe tropical and midlatitude marine storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, P. G.; Hawkins, J. D.; Gentry, R. C.; Cardone, V. J.

    1985-01-01

    Initial results of studies concerning Seasat measurements in and around tropical and severe midlatitude cyclones over the open ocean are presented, together with an assessment of their accuracy and usefulness. Complementary measurements of surface wind speed and direction, rainfall rate, and the sea surface temperature obtained with the Seasat-A Satellite Scatterometer (SASS), the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), and the Seasat SAR are analyzed. The Seasat data for the Hurrricanes Fico, Ella, and Greta and the QE II storm are compared with data obtained from aircraft, buoys, and ships. It is shown that the SASS-derived wind speeds are accurate to within 10 percent, and the directions are accurate to within 20 percent. In general, the SASS estimates tend to measure light winds too high and intense winds too low. The errors of the SMMR-derived measurements of the winds in hurricanes tend to be higher than those of the SASS-derived measurements.

  8. Evidence for nanoparticles in microwave-generated fireballs observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J B A; LeGarrec, J L; Sztucki, M; Narayanan, T; Dikhtyar, V; Jerby, E

    2008-02-15

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 045002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.045002]. The fireball's particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of approximately 50 nm with average number densities on the order of approximately 10(9). Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525]. PMID:18352481

  9. Evidence for nanoparticles in microwave-generated fireballs observed by synchrotron x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J B A; LeGarrec, J L; Sztucki, M; Narayanan, T; Dikhtyar, V; Jerby, E

    2008-02-15

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 045002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.045002]. The fireball's particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of approximately 50 nm with average number densities on the order of approximately 10(9). Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525].

  10. Evidence for Nanoparticles in Microwave-Generated Fireballs Observed by Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Legarrec, J. L.; Sztucki, M.; Narayanan, T.; Dikhtyar, V.; Jerby, E.

    2008-02-01

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 96 045002 (2006)10.1103/PhysRevLett.96.045002]. The fireball’s particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of ˜50nm with average number densities on the order of ˜109. Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 403, 519 (2000)10.1038/35000525].

  11. Evidence for Nanoparticles in Microwave-Generated Fireballs Observed by Synchrotron X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, J. B. A.; Le Garrec, J. L.; Sztucki, M.; Narayanan, T.; Dikhtyar, V.; Jerby, E.

    2008-02-15

    The small-angle x-ray scattering method has been applied to study fireballs ejected into the air from molten hot spots in borosilicate glass by localized microwaves [V. Dikhtyar and E. Jerby, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 045002 (2006)]. The fireball's particle size distribution, density, and decay rate in atmospheric pressure were measured. The results show that the fireballs contain particles with a mean size of {approx}50 nm with average number densities on the order of {approx}10{sup 9}. Hence, fireballs can be considered as a dusty plasma which consists of an ensemble of charged nanoparticles in the plasma volume. This finding is likened to the ball-lightning phenomenon explained by the formation of an oxidizing particle network liberated by lightning striking the ground [J. Abrahamson and J. Dinniss, Nature (London) 403, 519 (2000)].

  12. Observations of water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometers and Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Yong; Snider, J. B.; Westwater, E. R.; Melfi, S. H.; Ferrare, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment First ISCCP Regional Experiment Phase 2 (FIRE 2). Includede in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent, research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night and the focus of this portion of the experiment concentrated on clear conditions. The lidar data, together with frequent radiosondes and measurements of temperature profiles (every 15 min) by RASS allowed profiles of temperature and absolute humidity to be estimated every minute. We compared 20 min measurements of brightness temperature (T(sub b) with calculations of T(sub b) that were based on the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) microwave propagation models, as well as the Waters (1976) model. The comparisons showed the best agreement at 20.6 GHz with the Waters model, with the Liebe et al. (1993) model being best at 31.65 GHz. The results at 90 GHz gave about equal success with the Liebe and Layton (1987) and Liebe et al. (1993) models. Comparisons of precipitable water vapor derived independently from the two instruments also showed excellent agreement, even for averages as short as 2 min. The rms difference between Raman and radiometric determinations of precipitable water vapor was 0.03 cm which is roughly 2%. The experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of simultaneous operation of radiometers and Raman lidars for fundamental physical studies of water vapor.

  13. Microwave Signatures of Melting/Refreezing Snow: Observations and Modeling Using Dense Medium Radiative Transfer Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedesco, Marco; Kim, Edward J.; England, Anthony; deRoo, Roger; Hardy, Janet

    2005-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperatures of snow covered terrains can be modeled by means of the Dense Radiative Transfer Medium Theory (DMRT). In a dense medium, such as snow, the assumption of independent scattering is no longer valid and the scattering of correlated scatterers must be considered. In the DMRT, this is done considering a pair distribution function of the particles position. In the electromagnetic model, the snowpack is simulated as a homogeneous layer having effective permittivity and albedo calculated through the DMRT. In order to account for clustering of snow crystals, a model of cohesive particles can be applied, where the cohesion between the particles is described by means of a dimensionless parameters called stickiness (z), representing a measure of the inversion of the attraction of the particles. The lower the z the higher the stickiness. In this study, microwave signatures of melting and refreezing cycles of seasonal snowpacks at high altitudes are studied by means of both experimental and modeling tools. Radiometric data were collected 24 hours per day by the University of Michigan Tower Mounted Radiometer System (TMRS). The brightness temperatures collected by means of the TMRS are simulated by means of a multi-layer electromagnetic model based on the dense medium theory with the inputs to the model derived from the data collected at the snow pits and from the meteorological station. The paper is structured as follows: in the first Section the temperature profiles recorded by the meteorological station and the snow pit data are presented and analyzed; in the second Section, the characteristics of the radiometric system used to collect the brightness temperatures are reported together with the temporal behavior of the recorded brightness temperatures; in the successive Section the multi-layer DMRT-based electromagnetic model is described; in the fourth Section the comparison between modeled and measured brightness temperatures is discussed. We

  14. Observations of water vapor by ground-based microwave radiometers and Raman lidar

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Y.; Snider, J.B.; Westwater, E.R.; Melfi, S.H.; Ferrare, R.A.

    1994-09-20

    In November to December 1991, a substantial number of remote sensors and in situ instruments were operated together in Coffeyville, Kansas, during the climate experiment FIRE II. Included in the suite of instruments were (1) the NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) three-channel microwave radiometer, (2) the NASA GSFC Raman lidar, (3) ETL radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), and (4) frequent, research-quality radiosondes. The Raman lidar operated only at night and the focus of this portion of the experiment concentrated on clear conditions. The lidar data, together with frequent radiosondes and measurements of temperature profiles (every 15 min) by RASS allowed profiles of temperature and absolute humidity to be estimated every minute. The authors compared 2-min measurements of brightness temperature (T{sub b}) with calculations of T{sub b} that were based on the Liebe and Layton, and Liebe et al. microwave propagation models, as well as the Waters model. The comparisons showed the best agreement at 20.6 GHz with the Waters model, with the Liebe et al. model being best at 31.65 GHz. The results at 90 GHz gave about equal success with the Liebe and Layton, and Liebe et al. models. Comparisons of precipitable water vapor derived independently from the two instruments also showed excellent agreement, even for averages as short as 2 min. The rms difference between Raman and radiometric determinations of precipitable water vapor was 0.03 cm which is roughly 2%. The experiments clearly demonstrate the potentisdal of simultaneous operation of radiometers and Raman lidars for fundamental physical studies of water vapor. 31 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Foundations of observing dark energy dynamics with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

    SciTech Connect

    Corasaniti, P.S.; Kunz, M.; Parkinson, D.; Copeland, E.J.; Bassett, B.A.

    2004-10-15

    Detecting dark energy dynamics is the main quest of current dark energy research. Addressing the issue demands a fully consistent analysis of cosmic microwave background, large-scale structure and SN-Ia data with multiparameter freedom valid for all redshifts. Here we undertake a ten parameter analysis of general dark energy confronted with the first year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, 2dF galaxy survey and latest SN-Ia data. Despite the huge freedom in dark energy dynamics there are no new degeneracies with standard cosmic parameters apart from a mild degeneracy between reionization and the redshift of acceleration, both of which effectively suppress small scale power. Breaking this degeneracy will help significantly in detecting dynamics, if it exists. Our best-fit model to the data has significant late-time evolution at z<1.5. Phantom models are also considered and we find that the best-fit crosses w=-1 which, if confirmed, would be a clear signal for radically new physics. Treatment of such rapidly varying models requires careful integration of the dark energy density usually not implemented in standard codes, leading to crucial errors of up to 5%. Nevertheless cosmic variance means that standard {lambda} cold dark matter models are still a very good fit to the data and evidence for dynamics is currently very weak. Independent tests of reionization or the epoch of acceleration (e.g., integrated Sachs-Wolfe-large scale structure correlations) or reduction of cosmic variance at large scales (e.g., cluster polarization at high redshift) may prove key in the hunt for dynamics.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Droughts on Tropical Forests Using Spaceborne Microwave and Optical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The past decade 2000 to 2009 has been recorded to be the warmest since instrumental measurements started. We used a time series (2000-2009) of SeaWinds scatterometers aboard QuikSCAT (Ku-band), TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission), MODIS fire and burned area product, and land cover land use map in order to investigate a drying trend and drought induced fire in pantropical forests with a specific focus on 2005 drought in Southwestern Amazonia. The global monthly and seasonal anomalies and trends of QSCAT radar backscatter, TRMM water deficit and hot-pixel counts were generated in order to investigate the drying trend and its impact on tropical forests. During the drought season due to the extensive aerosol spread resulted from forest fire induce by drought; optical sensors are no more capable of showing the response of the forest to the drought. Microwave backscatter signal at mm wavelengths is sensitive to a combination of leaf water content and canopy roughness. Therefore QSCAT radar scatterometer with its advantage of cloud and aerosol penetration and sun independence can provide a more powerful tool than optical sensors to study the impact of droughts on forest canopy in tropical regions. During the year 2005 a sever drought occurred in Amazonian basin associated with the positive Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). For the year 2005 we found strong negative monthly and seasonal anomalies in QSCAT backscatter, TRMM water deficit and MODIS fire pixel counts over southwestern Amazonia. Strongest anomalies appeared at the end of the dry season (August-September) and diminished after October. QSCAT backscatter and TRMM water deficit with one-month lag showed strong spatial correlations. These results suggest a significant forest water stress during 2005 drought. The proposed study enhances the advantage of microwave backscatter as a useful tool in investigation and monitoring of global drought impacts in pantropical forests.

  17. Passive/Active Microwave Soil Moisture Disaggregation Using SMAPVEX12 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.

    2015-12-01

    The SMAPVEX12 experiment was conducted during June-July 2012 in Manitoba, Canada with the goal of collecting remote sensing data and ground measurements for the development and testing of soil moisture retrieval algorithms under different vegetation and soil conditions for the SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) satellite launched in January 2015. The aircraft based soil moisture data provided by the passive/active microwave sensor PALS (Passive and Active L and S band System) has a nominal spatial resolution of 1500 m. In this study, a change detection algorithm is used for disaggregation of coarse passive microwave soil moisture retrievals with radar backscatter coefficients obtained with the higher spatial resolution UAVSAR (Unmanned Air Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar). The accuracy of the disaggregated change in soil moisture was evaluated using ground based soil moisture measurements. Results show that the disaggregation products are well correlated to in situ measurements. Based on the R2, the highest resolution disaggregated product at 5 m exhibits soil moisture heterogeneity that reflects the distribution of the crops. The difference of spatial standard deviation between the disaggregated and in situ soil moisture ranges from <0.001-0.131 m3/m3 also proves the spatial capability of the change detection algorithm at 5 m scale.

  18. RTTOV-gb - Adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) is the single most important under-sampled part of the atmosphere. According to the WMO Statement Of Guidance For Global Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), temperature and humidity profiles (in cloudy areas) are among the four critical atmospheric variables not adequately measured in the PBL. Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) provide temperature and humidity profiles in both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions with high temporal resolution and low-to-moderate vertical resolution, with information mostly residing in the PBL. Ground-based MWR offer to bridge this observational gap by providing continuous temperature and humidity information in the PBL. The MWR data assimilation into NWP models may be particularly important in nowcasting and severe weather initiation. The assimilation of thermodynamic profiles retrieved from MWR data has been recently experimented, but a way to possibly increase the impact is to directly assimilate measured radiances instead of retrieved profiles. The assimilation of observed radiances in a variational scheme requires the following tools: (i) a fast radiative transfer (RT) model to compute the simulated radiances at MWR channels from the NWP model fields (ii) the partial derivatives (Jacobians) of the fast radiative transfer model with respect to control variables to optimize the distances of the atmospheric state from both the first guess and the observations. Such a RT model is available from the EUMETSAT NWPSAF (Numerical Weather Prediction Satellite Application Facility) and well accepted in the NWP community: RTTOV. This model was developed for nadir-viewing passive visible, infrared, and microwave satellite radiometers, spectrometers and interferometers. It has been modified to handle ground-based microwave radiometer observations. This version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, provides the tools needed to exploit ground-based upward looking MWR brightness temperatures into NWP variational data

  19. Migration testing of plastics and microwave-active materials for high-temperature food-use applications.

    PubMed

    Castle, L; Jickells, S M; Gilbert, J; Harrison, N

    1990-01-01

    Temperatures have been measured using a fluoro-optic probe at the food/container or food/packaging interfaces as appropriate, for a range of foods heated in either a microwave or a conventional oven. Reheating ready-prepared foods packaged in plastics pouches, trays or dishes in the microwave oven, according to the manufacturers' instructions, resulted in temperatures in the range 61-121 degrees C. Microwave-active materials (susceptors) in contact with ready-prepared foods frequently reached local spot temperatures above 200 degrees C. For foods cooked in a microwave oven according to published recipes, temperatures from 91 degrees C to 200 degrees C were recorded, whilst similar temperatures (92-194 degrees C) were attained in a conventional oven, but over longer periods of time. These measurements form the basis for examining compliance with specific and overall migration limits for plastics materials. The testing conditions proposed depend on the intended use of the plastic - for microwave oven use for aqueous foods, for all lidding materials, and for reheating of foods, testing would only be required with aqueous simulants for 1 h at 100 degrees C; for unspecified microwave oven use, testing with olive oil would be required for 30 min at 150 degrees C; and for unspecified use in a conventional oven testing with olive oil would be required for 2 h at 175 degrees C. For microwave-active materials, it is proposed that testing is carried out in the microwave oven using a novel semi-solid simulant comprising olive oil and water absorbed onto an inert support of diatomaceous earth. The testing in this instance is carried out with the simulant instead of food in a package and heating in the microwave oven at 600 W for 4 min for every 100 g of simulant employed. There is an option in every case to test for migration using real foods rather than simulants if it can be demonstrated that results using simulants are unrepresentative of those for foods. The proposed

  20. Evidence for massive neutrinos from cosmic microwave background and lensing observations.

    PubMed

    Battye, Richard A; Moss, Adam

    2014-02-01

    We discuss whether massive neutrinos (either active or sterile) can reconcile some of the tensions within cosmological data that have been brought into focus by the recently released Planck data. We point out that a discrepancy is present when comparing the primary CMB and lensing measurements both from the CMB and galaxy lensing data using CFHTLenS, similar to that which arises when comparing CMB measurements and SZ cluster counts. A consistent picture emerges and including a prior for the cluster constraints and BAOs we find that for an active neutrino model with three degenerate neutrinos, ∑m(ν)=(0.320±0.081)  eV, whereas for a sterile neutrino, in addition to 3 neutrinos with a standard hierarchy and ∑m(ν)=0.06  eV, m(ν,sterile)(eff)=(0.450±0.124)  eV and ΔN(eff)=0.45±0.23. In both cases there is a significant detection of modification to the neutrino sector from the standard model and in the case of the sterile neutrino it is possible to reconcile the BAO and local H0 measurements. However, a caveat to our result is some internal tension between the CMB and lensing and cluster observations, and the masses are in excess of those estimated from the shape of the matter power spectrum from galaxy surveys. PMID:24580586

  1. Evidence for massive neutrinos from cosmic microwave background and lensing observations.

    PubMed

    Battye, Richard A; Moss, Adam

    2014-02-01

    We discuss whether massive neutrinos (either active or sterile) can reconcile some of the tensions within cosmological data that have been brought into focus by the recently released Planck data. We point out that a discrepancy is present when comparing the primary CMB and lensing measurements both from the CMB and galaxy lensing data using CFHTLenS, similar to that which arises when comparing CMB measurements and SZ cluster counts. A consistent picture emerges and including a prior for the cluster constraints and BAOs we find that for an active neutrino model with three degenerate neutrinos, ∑m(ν)=(0.320±0.081)  eV, whereas for a sterile neutrino, in addition to 3 neutrinos with a standard hierarchy and ∑m(ν)=0.06  eV, m(ν,sterile)(eff)=(0.450±0.124)  eV and ΔN(eff)=0.45±0.23. In both cases there is a significant detection of modification to the neutrino sector from the standard model and in the case of the sterile neutrino it is possible to reconcile the BAO and local H0 measurements. However, a caveat to our result is some internal tension between the CMB and lensing and cluster observations, and the masses are in excess of those estimated from the shape of the matter power spectrum from galaxy surveys.

  2. Potential of microwave observations for the evaluation of rainfall and convection in a regional climate model in the frame of HyMeX and MED-CORDEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rysman, Jean-François; Berthou, Ségolène; Claud, Chantal; Drobinski, Philippe; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Delanoë, Julien

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the potential of spaceborne passive microwave observations for assessing decadal simulations of precipitation from a regional climate model through a model-to-satellite approach. A simulation from the Weather and Research Forecasting model is evaluated against 2002-2012 observations from the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit and the Microwave Humidity Sounder over the Mediterranean region using the radiative transfer code Radiative Transfer for Tiros Operational Vertical Sounder. It is first shown that simulated and observed brightness temperatures are consistently correlated for both water vapour and window channels. Yet, although the average simulated and observed brightness temperatures are similar, the range of brightness temperatures is larger in the observations. The difference is presumably due to the too low content of frozen particles in the simulation. To assess this hypothesis, density and altitude of simulated frozen hydrometeors are compared with observations from an airborne cloud radar. Results show that simulated frozen hydrometeors are found at lower median altitude than observed frozen hydrometeors, with an average content at least 5 times inferior. Spatial distributions of observed and simulated precipitation match reasonably well. However, when using simulated brightness temperatures to diagnose rainfall, the simulation performs very poorly. These results highlight the need of providing more realistic frozen hydrometeors content, which will increase the interest of using passive microwave observations for the long-term evaluation of regional models. In particular, significant improvements are expected from the archiving of convective fluxes of precipitating hydrometeors in future regional model simulation programs.

  3. Nine-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Parameter Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Larson, D.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Halpern, M.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Smith, K. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Gold, B.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wollack, E.; Wright, E. L.

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter Lambda-CDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities Omega(sub b)h(exp 2), Omega(sub c)h(exp 2)and Omega(sub Lambda), are each determined to a precision of approx. 1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5 sigma level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional Lambda-CDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their Lambda-CDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Omega(sub kappa) = (0.0027 (sub +0.0039) (sup -0.0038;) the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Sigma M(sub nu) < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N(sub eff) = 3.84 +/- 0+/-40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N(sub eff) and the primordial helium abundance, Y(sub He), agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental

  4. NINE-YEAR WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE (WMAP) OBSERVATIONS: COSMOLOGICAL PARAMETER RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hinshaw, G.; Halpern, M.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Weiland, J. L.; Komatsu, E.; Spergel, D. N.; Dunkley, J.; Nolta, M. R.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Page, L.; Jarosik, N.; Smith, K. M.; Gold, B.; Kogut, A.; Wollack, E.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; and others

    2013-10-01

    We present cosmological parameter constraints based on the final nine-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data, in conjunction with a number of additional cosmological data sets. The WMAP data alone, and in combination, continue to be remarkably well fit by a six-parameter ΛCDM model. When WMAP data are combined with measurements of the high-l cosmic microwave background anisotropy, the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, and the Hubble constant, the matter and energy densities, Ω {sub b} h {sup 2}, Ω {sub c} h {sup 2}, and Ω{sub Λ}, are each determined to a precision of ∼1.5%. The amplitude of the primordial spectrum is measured to within 3%, and there is now evidence for a tilt in the primordial spectrum at the 5σ level, confirming the first detection of tilt based on the five-year WMAP data. At the end of the WMAP mission, the nine-year data decrease the allowable volume of the six-dimensional ΛCDM parameter space by a factor of 68,000 relative to pre-WMAP measurements. We investigate a number of data combinations and show that their ΛCDM parameter fits are consistent. New limits on deviations from the six-parameter model are presented, for example: the fractional contribution of tensor modes is limited to r < 0.13 (95% CL); the spatial curvature parameter is limited to Ω{sub k} = -0.0027{sup +0.0039}{sub -0.0038}; the summed mass of neutrinos is limited to Σm {sub ν} < 0.44 eV (95% CL); and the number of relativistic species is found to lie within N {sub eff} = 3.84 ± 0.40, when the full data are analyzed. The joint constraint on N {sub eff} and the primordial helium abundance, Y {sub He}, agrees with the prediction of standard big bang nucleosynthesis. We compare recent Planck measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect with our seven-year measurements, and show their mutual agreement. Our analysis of the polarization pattern around temperature extrema is updated. This confirms a fundamental prediction of the standard cosmological

  5. Spanish activities (research and industrial applications) in the field of microwave material treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Catala Civera, J.M.; Reyes Davo, E.R. de los

    1996-12-31

    The GCM (Microwave Heating Group) within the Communications Department at the Technical University of Valencia is dedicated to the study of microwaves and their use in the current industrial processes in the Valencian Community and in Spain. To this end, a microwave heating laboratory has been developed and the benefits of incorporating microwave technologies into current industrial processes have been demonstrated. In this paper some of the industrial applications which are being investigated are presented.

  6. Evaluation of non-thermal effects by microwave irradiation in hydrolysis of waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Byun, I G; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Lim, J S; Park, T J

    2014-01-01

    The activation energy (Ea) for waste-activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis was compared between microwave irradiation (MW) and conventional heating (CH) methods to evaluate the non-thermal effect of MW. The microwave-assisted hydrolysis of WAS was assumed to follow the first-order kinetics on the basis of volatile suspended solids (VSS) conversion to soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) for different initial VSS concentrations. By comparing the VSS decrement and the SCOD increment between MW and CH at different absolute temperatures of 323, 348 and 373 K, the average ratio of VSS conversion to SCOD was determined to range from 1.42 to 1.64 g SCOD/g VSS. These results corresponded to the theoretical value of 1.69 g SCOD/g VSS based on the assumption that the molecular formula of sludge was C10H19O3N. Consequently, the Ea of the MW-assisted WAS hydrolysis was much lower than that of CH for the same temperature conditions. The non-thermal effect of MW in the hydrolysis of WAS could be identified with the lower Ea than that of CH. PMID:25116507

  7. Efficient Catalytic Activity BiFeO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Gong, Wanyun; Ma, Jinai; Li, Lu; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwave-assisted sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of the single-phase perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO NPs) with the mean diameter ca. 73.7 nm. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. The weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was affirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DSR), the band gap energy of BFO NPs was determined to be 2.18 eV. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by BFO NPs-chitosan-glassy carbon electrode (BFO-CS-GCE) sensor for detection of p-nitrophenol contaminants. The material showed an efficient oxidation catalytic activity by degrading methylene blue (MB). It was found that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg L-1 MB at pH 6.0 was above 90.9% after ultrasound- and microwave-combined-assisted (US-MW) irradiation for 15 min with BFO NPs as catalyst and H202 as oxidant. A possible reaction mechanism of degradation of MB was also proposed.

  8. Evaluation of non-thermal effects by microwave irradiation in hydrolysis of waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Byun, I G; Lee, J H; Lee, J M; Lim, J S; Park, T J

    2014-01-01

    The activation energy (Ea) for waste-activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis was compared between microwave irradiation (MW) and conventional heating (CH) methods to evaluate the non-thermal effect of MW. The microwave-assisted hydrolysis of WAS was assumed to follow the first-order kinetics on the basis of volatile suspended solids (VSS) conversion to soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) for different initial VSS concentrations. By comparing the VSS decrement and the SCOD increment between MW and CH at different absolute temperatures of 323, 348 and 373 K, the average ratio of VSS conversion to SCOD was determined to range from 1.42 to 1.64 g SCOD/g VSS. These results corresponded to the theoretical value of 1.69 g SCOD/g VSS based on the assumption that the molecular formula of sludge was C10H19O3N. Consequently, the Ea of the MW-assisted WAS hydrolysis was much lower than that of CH for the same temperature conditions. The non-thermal effect of MW in the hydrolysis of WAS could be identified with the lower Ea than that of CH.

  9. Efficient Catalytic Activity BiFeO3 Nanoparticles Prepared by Novel Microwave-Assisted Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jing; Gong, Wanyun; Ma, Jinai; Li, Lu; Jiang, Jizhou

    2015-02-01

    A novel microwave-assisted sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of the single-phase perovskite bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (BFO NPs) with the mean diameter ca. 73.7 nm. The morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the rhombohedral phase with R3c space group. The weak ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature was affirmed by the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). According to the UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UV-DSR), the band gap energy of BFO NPs was determined to be 2.18 eV. The electrochemical activity was evaluated by BFO NPs-chitosan-glassy carbon electrode (BFO-CS-GCE) sensor for detection of p-nitrophenol contaminants. The material showed an efficient oxidation catalytic activity by degrading methylene blue (MB). It was found that the degradation efficiency of 10 mg L-1 MB at pH 6.0 was above 90.9% after ultrasound- and microwave-combined-assisted (US-MW) irradiation for 15 min with BFO NPs as catalyst and H202 as oxidant. A possible reaction mechanism of degradation of MB was also proposed. PMID:26353647

  10. Total Lightning Activity as Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total ligh&g activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  11. Total Lightning Activity as Observed from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, Hugh J.

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Our knowledge of the global distribution of lightning has improved dramatically since the 1995 launch of the Optical Transient Detector (OTD), followed in 1997 by the launch of the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). Together, these instruments have generated a continuous seven-year record of global lightning activity. These lightning observations have provided a new global perspective on total lightning activity. For the first time, total lightning activity (CG and IC) has been observed over large regions with high detection efficiencies and accurate geographic location. This has produced new insights into lightning distributions, times of occurrence and variability. It has produced a revised global flash rate estimate (44 flashes per second) and has lead to a new realization of the significance of total ligh&g activity in severe weather. Accurate flash rate estimates are now available for areas of the earth (+/- 72 deg. latitude). Ocean-land contrasts as a function of season are clearly reveled, as are orographic effects and seasonal and interannual variability. The data set indicates that air mass thunderstorms, not large storm system dominate global activity. The ability of LIS and OTD to detect total lightning has lead to improved insight into the correlation between lightning and storm development. The relationship between updraft development and lightning activity is now well established and presents an opportunity for providing a new mechanism for remotely monitoring storm development. In this concept, lightning would serve as a surrogate for updraft velocity. It is anticipated that this capability could lead to significantly improved severe weather warning times and reduced false warning rates.

  12. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE): a nulling polarimeter for cosmic microwave background observations

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Fixsen, D.J.; Chuss, D.T.; Dwek, E.; Moseley, S.H.; Wollack, E.J. E-mail: Dale.J.Fixsen@nasa.gov E-mail: Eliahu.Dwek-1@nasa.gov; and others

    2011-07-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a concept for an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The instrument consists of a polarizing Michelson interferometer configured as a nulling polarimeter to measure the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. Rhe proposed instrument can map the absolute intensity and linear polarization (Stokes I, Q, and U parameters) over the full sky in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 μm wavelength). Multi-moded optics provide background-limited sensitivity using only 4 detectors, while the highly symmetric design and multiple signal modulations provide robust rejection of potential systematic errors. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10{sup −3} at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set can also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy.

  13. Stratospheric and mesospheric HO2 observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, L.; Wang, S.; Livesey, N.; Kinnison, D.; Sagawa, H.; Kasai, Y.

    2015-03-01

    This study introduces stratospheric and mesospheric hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) using an offline retrieval (i.e. run separately from the standard MLS algorithm). This new data set provides two daily zonal averages, one during daytime from 10 to 0.0032 hPa (using day-minus-night differences between 10 and 1 hPa to ameliorate systematic biases) and one during nighttime from 1 to 0.0032 hPa. The vertical resolution of this new data set varies from about 4 km at 10 hPa to around 14 km at 0.0032 hPa. A description of the methodology and an error analysis are presented. Comparisons against the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and the Far Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS-2) measurements, as well as photochemical simulations, demonstrate the robustness of the retrieval and indicate that the retrieval is sensitive enough to detect mesospheric HO2 layers during both day and night. This new data set is the first long-term HO2 stratospheric and mesospheric satellite record and it provides needed constraints to help resolve the O3 deficit problem and the "HOx dilemma".

  14. Stratospheric and mesospheric HO2 observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, L.; Wang, S.; Livesey, N.; Kinnison, D.; Sagawa, H.; Kasai, Y.

    2014-09-01

    This study introduces stratospheric and mesospheric hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) estimates from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) using an offline retrieval (i.e. run separately from the standard MLS algorithm). This new dataset provides two daily zonal averages, one during daytime and one during nighttime, with a varying vertical resolution from about 4 km at 10 hPa to around 14 km at 0.0032 hPa. A description of the methodology and an error analysis are presented. Comparisons against the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES) and the Far Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS-2) measurements, as well as, photochemical simulations demonstrate the robustness of the retrieval and indicate that the retrieval is sensitive enough to detect mesospheric HO2 layers during both day and night. This new dataset is the first long-term HO2 stratospheric and mesospheric satellite record and it provides needed constraints to help resolve the O3 deficit problem and the "HOx dilemma".

  15. Long-Duration, Balloon-Borne Observations of Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Funds from this grant were used to support the continuing development of BOOMERANG, a 1.3 m, balloon-borne, attitude-stabilized telescope designed to measure the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) on angular scales of 12 min to 10 degrees. By the end of the funding period covered by this grant, the fabrication of most of the BOOMERANG sub-systems was completed, and integration and test of the payload at Caltech had begun. The project was continued under a new grant from NASA and continuing funding from the NSF. Payload integration and test was completed in April, 1997. A campaign to Palestine, Texas, resulted in two test flights during 1997. A flight on August 12, 1997 was terminated on ascent due to a leaky balloon. The payload was successfully recovered, refurbished, and flown again on August 29, 1997. The second flight was completely successful, and qualified the payload for an LDB flight from McMurdo Stn., Antarctica, in December 1998.

  16. The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE): A Nulling Polarimeter for Cosmic Microwave Background Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, Alan J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J.; Dwek, E.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G. F.; Meyer, S. M.; Moseley, S. H.; Seiffert, M. D.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE) is a concept for an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The instrument consists of a polarizing Michelson interferometer configured as a nulling polarimeter to measure the difference spectrum between orthogonal linear polarizations from two co-aligned beams. Either input can view the sky or a temperature-controlled absolute reference blackbody calibrator. Rhe proposed instrument can map the absolute intensity and linear polarization (Stokes I, Q, and U parameters) over the full sky in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). Multi-moded optics provide background-limited sensitivity using only 4 detectors, while the highly symmetric design and multiple signal modulations provide robust rejection of potential systematic errors. The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10..3 at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set can also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy.

  17. RTTOV-gb - adapting the fast radiative transfer model RTTOV for the assimilation of ground-based microwave radiometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Angelis, Francesco; Cimini, Domenico; Hocking, James; Martinet, Pauline; Kneifel, Stefan

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWRs) offer a new capability to provide continuous observations of the atmospheric thermodynamic state in the planetary boundary layer. Thus, they are potential candidates to supplement radiosonde network and satellite data to improve numerical weather prediction (NWP) models through a variational assimilation of their data. However in order to assimilate MWR observations, a fast radiative transfer model is required and such a model is not currently available. This is necessary for going from the model state vector space to the observation space at every observation point. The fast radiative transfer model RTTOV is well accepted in the NWP community, though it was developed to simulate satellite observations only. In this work, the RTTOV code has been modified to allow for simulations of ground-based upward-looking microwave sensors. In addition, the tangent linear, adjoint, and K-modules of RTTOV have been adapted to provide Jacobians (i.e., the sensitivity of observations to the atmospheric thermodynamical state) for ground-based geometry. These modules are necessary for the fast minimization of the cost function in a variational assimilation scheme. The proposed ground-based version of RTTOV, called RTTOV-gb, has been validated against accurate and less time-efficient line-by-line radiative transfer models. In the frequency range commonly used for temperature and humidity profiling (22-60 GHz), root-mean-square brightness temperature differences are smaller than typical MWR uncertainties (˜ 0.5 K) at all channels used in this analysis. Brightness temperatures (TBs) computed with RTTOV-gb from radiosonde profiles have been compared with nearly simultaneous and co-located ground-based MWR observations. Differences between simulated and measured TBs are below 0.5 K for all channels except for the water vapor band, where most of the uncertainty comes from instrumental errors. The Jacobians calculated with the K-module of RTTOV

  18. Assimilation of humidity and temperature observations retrieved from ground-based microwave radiometers into a convective-scale NWP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caumont, Olivier; Vincendon, Béatrice; Cimini, Domenico; Löhnert, Ulrich; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Bleisch, René; Buffa, Franco; Enrico Ferrario, Massimo; Haefele, Alexander; Huet, Thierry; Madonna, Fabio; Pace, Giandomenico

    2016-04-01

    Temperature and humidity retrievals from an international network of ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) have been collected to assess the potential of their assimilation into a convective-scale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. Thirteen stations over a domain encompassing the western Mediterranean basin were considered for a time period of forty-one days in autumn, when heavy-precipitation events most often plague this area. Prior to their assimilation, MWR data were compared to very-short-term forecasts. Observation-minus-background statistics revealed some biases, but standard deviations were comparable to that obtained with radiosondes. The MWR data were then assimilated in a three-dimensional variational (3DVar) data assimilation system through the use of a rapid update cycle. A set of sensitivity experiments allowed assessing extensively the impact of the assimilation of temperature and humidity profiles, both separately and jointly. The respective benefit of MWR data and radiosonde data on analyses and forecasts was also investigated.

  19. Detection of the earth with the SETI microwave observing system assumed to be operating out in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John; Tarter, Jill

    1989-01-01

    The maximum range is calculated at which radar signals from the earth could be detected by a search system similar to the NASA SETI Microwave Observing Project (SETI MOP) assumed to be operating out in the Galaxy. Figures are calculated for the Targeted Search and for the Sky Survey parts of the MOP, both planned to be operating in the 1990s. The probability of detection is calculated for the two most powerful transmitters, the planetary radar at Arecibo (Puerto Rico) and the ballistic missile early warning systems (BMEWSs), assuming that the terrestrial radars are only in the eavesdropping mode. It was found that, for the case of a single transmitter within the maximum range, the highest probability is for the sky survey detecting BMEWSs; this is directly proportional to BMEWS sky coverage and is therefore 0.25.

  20. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  1. Simulation of polar atmospheric microwave and sub-millimetre spectra for characterizing potential new ground-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newnham, David; Turner, Emma; Ford, George; Pumphrey, Hugh; Withington, Stafford

    2016-04-01

    Advanced detector technologies from the fields of astronomy and telecommunications are offering the potential to address key atmospheric science challenges with new instrumental methods. Adoption of these technologies in ground-based passive microwave and sub-millimetre radiometry could allow new measurements of chemical species and winds in the polar middle atmosphere for verifying meteorological data-sets and atmospheric models. A site study to assess the feasibility of new polar observations is performed by simulating the downwelling clear-sky submillimetre spectrum over 10-2000 GHz (30 mm to 150 microns) at two Arctic and two Antarctic locations under different seasonal and diurnal conditions. Vertical profiles for temperature, pressure and 28 atmospheric gases are constructed by combining radiosonde, meteorological reanalysis, and atmospheric chemistry model data. The sensitivity of the simulated spectra to the choice of water vapour continuum model and spectroscopic line database is explored. For the atmospheric trace species hypobromous acid (HOBr), hydrogen bromide (HBr), perhydroxyl radical (HO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) the emission lines producing the largest change in brightness temperature are identified and minimum integration times and maximum receiver noise temperatures estimated. The optimal lines for all species are shown to vary significantly between location and scenario, strengthening the case for future hyperspectral instruments that measure over a broad frequency range. We also demonstrate the feasibility of measuring horizontal wind profiles above Halley station, Antarctica with time resolution as high as 0.5hr using simulated spectroradiometric observations of Doppler-shifted ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) lines in the 230-250 GHz region. The techniques presented provide a framework that can be applied to the retrieval of additional atmospheric parameters and be taken forward to simulate and guide the design of future microwave and sub

  2. On Orbit Commissioning of the Earth Observing System Microwave Limb Sounder (EOS MLS) On the Aura Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Richard R.; Lee, Karen A.; Holden, James R.; Oswald, John E.; Jarnot, Robert F.; Pickett, Herbert M.; Stek, Paul C.; Cofield, Richard E., III; Flower, Dennis A.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Shoemaker, Candace M.

    2005-01-01

    The Microwave Limb Sounder instrument was launched aboard NASA's EOS AURA satellite in July, 2004. The overall scientific objectives for MLS are to measure temperature, pressure, and several important chemical species in the upper troposphere and stratosphere relevant to ozone processes and climate change. MLS consists of a suite of radiometers designed to operate from 11 8 GHz to 2.5 THz, with two antennas (one for 2.5 THz, the other for the lower frequencies) that scan vertically through the atmospheric limb, and spectrometers with spectral resolution of 6 MHz at spectral line centers. This paper describes the on-orbit commissioning the MLS instrument which includes activation and engineering functional verifications and calibrations.

  3. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP)Observations: Preliminary Maps and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Hinshaw, G.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Tucker, G. S.

    2003-01-01

    We present full sky microwave maps in five frequency bands (23 to 94 GHz) from the WMAP first year sky survey. Calibration errors are less than 0.5% and the low systematic error level is well specified. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is separated from the foregrounds using multifrequency data. The sky maps are consistent with the 7 in. full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) maps. We report more precise, but consistent, dipole and quadrupole values. The CMB anisotropy obeys Gaussian statistics with -58 less than f(sub NL) less than 134 (95% CL). The 2 less than or = l less than or = 900 anisotropy power spectrum is cosmic variance limited for l less than 354 with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 1 per mode to l = 658. The temperature-polarization cross-power spectrum reveals both acoustic features and a large angle correlation from reionization. The optical depth of reionization is tau = 0.17 +/- 0.04, which implies a reionization epoch of t(sub r) = 180(sup +220, sub -80) Myr (95% CL) after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub r) = 20(sup +10, sub -9) (95% CL) for a range of ionization scenarios. This early reionization is incompatible with the presence of a significant warm dark matter density. A best-fit cosmological model to the CMB and other measures of large scale structure works remarkably well with only a few parameters. The age of the best-fit universe is t(sub 0) = 13.7 +/- 0.2 Gyr old. Decoupling was t(sub dec) = 379(sup +8, sub -7)kyr after the Big Bang at a redshift of z(sub dec) = 1089 +/- 1. The thickness of the decoupling surface was Delta(sub z(sub dec)) = 195 +/- 2. The matter density of the universe is Omega(sub m)h(sup 2) = 0.135(sup +0.008, sub -0.009) the baryon density is Omega(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.0224 +/- 0.0009, and the total mass-energy of the universe is Omega(sub tot) = 1.02 +/- 0.02. There is progressively less fluctuation power on smaller scales, from WMAP to fine scale CMB measurements to galaxies

  4. First Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe(WMAP)Observations: The Angular Power Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Spergel, D. N.; Verde, L.; Hill, R. S.; Meyer, S. S.; Barnes, C.; Bennett, C. L.; Halpern, M.; Jarosik, N.; Kogut, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the angular power spectrum derived from the first-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky maps. We study a variety of power spectrum estimation methods and data combinations and demonstrate that the results are robust. The data are modestly contaminated by diffuse Galactic foreground emission, but we show that a simple Galactic template model is sufficient to remove the signal. Point sources produce a modest contamination in the low frequency data. After masking approximately 700 known bright sources from the maps, we estimate residual sources contribute approximately 3500 mu sq Kappa at 41 GHz, and approximately 130 mu sq Kappa at 94 GHz, to the power spectrum [iota(iota + 1)C(sub iota)/2pi] at iota = 1000. Systematic errors are negligible compared to the (modest) level of foreground emission. Our best estimate of the power spectrum is derived from 28 cross-power spectra of statistically independent channels. The final spectrum is essentially independent of the noise properties of an individual radiometer. The resulting spectrum provides a definitive measurement of the CMB power spectrum, with uncertainties limited by cosmic variance, up to iota approximately 350. The spectrum clearly exhibits a first acoustic peak at iota = 220 and a second acoustic peak at iota approximately 540, and it provides strong support for adiabatic initial conditions. Researchers have analyzed the CT(sup Epsilon) power spectrum, and present evidence for a relatively high optical depth, and an early period of cosmic reionization. Among other things, this implies that the temperature power spectrum has been suppressed by approximately 30% on degree angular scales, due to secondary scattering.

  5. Active and Passive Microwave Determination of the Circulation and Characteristics of Weddell and Ross Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.; Liu, Xiang

    2000-01-01

    A combination of satellite microwave data sets are used in conjunction with ECMWF (Medium Range Weather Forecasts) and NCEP (National Center for Environment Prediction) meteorological analysis fields to investigate seasonal variability in the circulation and sea-ice dynamics of the Weddell and Ross Seas. Results of sea-ice tracking using SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager), Scatterometer and SAR images are combined with in-situ data derived from Argos buoys and GPS drifters to validate observed drift patterns. Seasonal 3-month climatologies of ice motion and drift speed variance illustrate the response of the sea-ice system to seasonal forcing. A melt-detection algorithm is used to track the onset of seasonal melt, and to determine the extent and duration of atmospherically-led surface melting during austral summer. Results show that wind-driven drift regulates the seasonal distribution and characteristics of sea-ice and the intensity of the cyclonic Gyre circulation in these two regions.

  6. Microwave resonant activation in hybrid single-gap/two-gap Josephson tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabello, Steven; Lambert, Joseph G.; Mlack, Jerome; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto C.

    2016-09-01

    Microwave resonant activation is a powerful, straightforward technique to study classical and quantum systems, experimentally realized in Josephson junction devices cooled to very low temperatures. These devices typically consist of two single-gap superconductors separated by a weak link. We report the results of the first resonant activation experiments on hybrid thin film Josephson junctions consisting of a multi-gap superconductor (MgB2) and a single-gap superconductor (Pb or Sn). We can interpret the plasma frequency in terms of theories both for conventional and hybrid junctions. Using these models, we determine the junction parameters including critical current, resistance, and capacitance and find moderately high quality factors of Q0˜ 100 for these junctions.

  7. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  8. Observations of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.; Xu, A. A.

    An active region filament was well observed on September 4, 2002 with THEMIS at the Teide observatory and SOHO/MDI. The full Stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα and FeI 6302 Å lines. Using the data, we have studied the fine structure of the filament and obtained the parameters at the barb endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Our results indicate: (a) the Doppler velocities are quiet different at barb endpoints; (b) the longitudinal magnetic fields at the barb endpoints are very weak; (c) there is a strong magnetic field structure under the filament spine.

  9. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  10. Fe-, Co-, and Ni-Loaded Porous Activated Carbon Balls as Lightweight Microwave Absorbents.

    PubMed

    Li, Guomin; Wang, Liancheng; Li, Wanxi; Xu, Yao

    2015-11-16

    Porous activated carbon ball (PACB) composites impregnated with iron, cobalt, nickel and/or their oxides were synthesized through a wet chemistry method involving PACBs as the carrier to load Fe(3+), Co(2+), and Ni(2+) ions and a subsequent carbothermal reduction at different annealing temperatures. The results show that the pyrolysis products of nitrates and/or the products from the carbothermal reduction are embedded in the pores of the PACBs, with different distributions, resulting in different crystalline phases. The as-prepared PACB composites possessed high specific surface areas of 791.2-901.5 m(2)  g(-1) and low densities of 1.1-1.3 g cm(-3). Minimum reflection loss (RL) values of -50.1, -20.6, and -20.4 dB were achieved for Fe-PACB (annealed at 500 °C), Co-PACB (annealed at 800 °C), and Ni-PACB (annealed at 800 °C) composites, respectively. Moreover, the influence of the amount of the magnetic components in the PACB composites on the microwave-absorbing performances was investigated, further confirming that the dielectric loss was the primary contributor to microwave absorption. PMID:26373310

  11. Cellulose/CaCO3 nanocomposites: microwave ionic liquid synthesis, characterization, and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Guo; Dong, Yan-Yan; Fu, Lian-Hua; Li, Shu-Ming; Sun, Run-Cang

    2013-02-15

    The purposes of this article are to synthesize the biomass-based hybrid nanocomposites using green method in green solvent and evaluate its biological activity. In this paper, microwave-assisted ionic liquid method is applied to the preparation of cellulose/CaCO(3) hybrid nanocomposites in the alkali extraction cellulose using CaCl(2) and Na(2)CO(3) as starting reactants. The ionic liquid acts as the excellent solvent for absorbing microwave and the dissolution of cellulose, and the synthesis of cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites. The influences of reaction parameters such as the cellulose concentration and the types of solvent on the products were investigated. The increasing cellulose concentration favored the growth of CaCO(3). The morphologies of CaCO(3) changed from polyhedral to cube to particle with increasing cellulose concentration. Moreover, the solvents had an effect on the shape and dispersion of CaCO(3). Cytotoxicity experiments demonstrated that the cellulose/CaCO(3) nanocomposites had good biocompatibility and could be a candidate for the biomedical applications. PMID:23399205

  12. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities

    PubMed Central

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications. PMID:27304672

  13. Biopolymers Regulate Silver Nanoparticle under Microwave Irradiation for Effective Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Palaniyandi; Su, Chia-Hung; Venkat Kumar, Govindarajan; Adhikary, Shritama; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Gopinath, Subash C B; Chen, Yeng; Anbu, Periasamy

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, facile synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and sodium alginate capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was examined using microwave radiation and aniline as a reducing agent. The biopolymer matrix embedded nanoparticles were synthesized under various experimental conditions using different concentrations of biopolymer (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), volumes of reducing agent (50, 100, 150 μL), and duration of heat treatment (30 s to 240 s). The synthesized nanoparticles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of AgNPs synthesis, crystal nature, shape, size, and type of capping action. In addition, the significant antibacterial efficacy and antibiofilm activity of biopolymer capped AgNPs were demonstrated against different bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 740 and Escherichia coli MTCC 9492. These results confirmed the potential for production of biopolymer capped AgNPs grown under microwave irradiation, which can be used for industrial and biomedical applications.

  14. Validation of Aura Microwave Limb Sounder O3 and CO Observations in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Filipiak, M. J.; Froidevaux, L.; Read, W. G.; Lambert, A.; Santee, J. L.; Jiang, J. H.; Pumphrey, H. C.; Waters, J. W.; Cofield, R. E.; Cuddy, D. T.; Daffer, W. H.; Drouin, B. J.; Fuller, R. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Jiang, Y. B.; Knosp, B. W.; Li, Q. B.; Perun, V. S.; Schwartz, M. J.; Snyder, W. V.; Stek, P. C.; Thurstans, R. P.; Wagner, P. A.; Avery, M.

    2008-01-01

    Global satellite observations of ozone and carbon monoxide from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the EOS Aura spacecraft are discussed with emphasis on those observations in the 2 15 - 100 hPa region (the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere). The precision, resolution and accuracy of the data produced by the MLS "version 2.2" processing algorithms are discussed and quantified. O3 accuracy is estimated at approx.40 ppbv +5% (approx.20 ppbv +20% at 215 hPa) while the CO accuracy is estimated at approx.30 ppbv +30% for pressures of 147 hPa and less. Comparisons with expectations and other observations show good agreements for the O3 product, generally consistent with the systematic errors quoted above. In the case of COY a persistent factor of approx.2 high bias is seen at 215 hPa. However, the morphology is shown to be realistic, consistent with raw MLS radiance data, and useful for scientific study. The MLS CO data at higher altitudes are shown to be consistent with other observations.

  15. First extended validation of satellite microwave liquid water path with ship-based observations of marine low clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painemal, David; Greenwald, Thomas; Cadeddu, Maria; Minnis, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    We present the first extended validation of satellite microwave (MW) liquid water path (LWP) for low nonprecipitating clouds, from four operational sensors, against ship-borne observations from a three-channel MW radiometer collected along ship transects over the northeast Pacific during May-August 2013. Satellite MW retrievals have an overall correlation of 0.84 with ship observations and a bias of 9.3 g/m2. The bias for broken cloud scenes increases linearly with water vapor path and remains below 17.7 g/m2. In contrast, satellite MW LWP is unbiased in overcast scenes with correlations up to 0.91, demonstrating that the retrievals are accurate and reliable under these conditions. Satellite MW retrievals produce a diurnal cycle amplitude consistent with ship-based observations (33 g/m2). Observations taken aboard extended ship cruises to evaluate not only satellite MW LWP but also LWP derived from visible/infrared sensors offer a new way to validate this important property over vast oceanic regions.

  16. Precursors of the solar X flare on march 29, 2014, in the active region NOAA 12017 based on microwave radiation and magnetographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov-Maximov, V. E.; Borovik, V. N.; Opeikina, L. V.; Tlatov, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    Precursors of the strong solar flare X1.0 (according to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) classification) recorded on March 29, 2014, in the active region (AR) 12017 are investigated. The precursors manifested themselves in the AR microwave radiation and its magnetographic characteristics. This work was carried out as part of the development of an observational database of precursors of large flares (those more powerful than class M5 according to the GOES classification) in different ARs based on an analysis of the microwave radiation and magnetographic characteristics of ARs. Further generalization and systematization of the identified precursors of strong solar flares makes it possible to move on to the development of methods for their forecasting. According to data from Solar Dynamics Observatory Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI), two days before the X flare a new magnetic flux emerged in the analyzed AR 12017 near the main spot of the group with a magnetic field sign opposite that of main spot field (formation of the δ configuration). The study of the evolution of the magnetic field gradient in the AR showed a sharp increase before the X flare, which reached its peak 8 h before the flare with a subsequent decrease before the flare. Analysis of the AR microwave radiation, which was carried out based on the results of multiwavelength multiazimuth (31 daily observations for 4 h with 8-minute intervals) spectral polarization observations of the Sun by the RATAN-600 in the range 1.65-6.0 cm for a few days before the flare, revealed the emergence and development of a microwave source over the region with the δ configuration two days before the X flare. The parameters of the radio-frequency radiation of this source make it possible to classify it as a "peculiar" microwave source that was discovered earlier by the RATAN-600 in a number of eruptive events 1-2 days before large X flares. It was found for the first time that the time

  17. Observations of seismic activity in Southern Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirova, T.; Hofstetter, R.

    2013-04-01

    Recent seismic activity in southern Lebanon is of particular interest since the tectonic framework of this region is poorly understood. In addition, seismicity in this region is very infrequent compared with the Roum fault to the east, which is seismically active. Between early 2008 and the end of 2010, intense seismic activity occurred in the area. This was manifested by several swarm-like sequences and continuous trickling seismicity over many days, amounting in total to more than 900 earthquakes in the magnitude range of 0.5 ≤ M d ≤ 5.2. The region of activity extended in a 40-km long zone mainly in a N-S direction and was located about 10 km west of the Roum fault. The largest earthquake, with a duration magnitude of M d = 5.2, occurred on February 15, 2008, and was located at 33.327° N, 35.406° E at a depth of 3 km. The mean-horizontal peak ground acceleration observed at two nearby accelerometers exceeded 0.05 g, where the strongest peak horizontal acceleration was 55 cm/s2 at about 20 km SE of the epicenter. Application of the HypoDD algorithm yielded a pronounced N-S zone, parallel to the Roum fault, which was not known to be seismically active. Focal mechanism, based on full waveform inversion and the directivity effect of the strongest earthquake, suggests left-lateral strike-slip NNW-SSE faulting that crosses the NE-SW traverse faults in southern Lebanon.

  18. A MEASUREMENT OF SECONDARY COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND ANISOTROPIES WITH TWO YEARS OF SOUTH POLE TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Reichardt, C. L.; George, E. M.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Shaw, L.; Zahn, O.; Aird, K. A.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Hoover, S.; Cho, H. M.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J.; Holder, G. P.; Halverson, N. W.; Hou, Z.; and others

    2012-08-10

    We present the first three-frequency South Pole Telescope (SPT) cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra. The band powers presented here cover angular scales 2000 < l < 9400 in frequency bands centered at 95, 150, and 220 GHz. At these frequencies and angular scales, a combination of the primary CMB anisotropy, thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effects, radio galaxies, and cosmic infrared background (CIB) contributes to the signal. We combine Planck/HFI and SPT data at 220 GHz to constrain the amplitude and shape of the CIB power spectrum and find strong evidence for nonlinear clustering. We explore the SZ results using a variety of cosmological models for the CMB and CIB anisotropies and find them to be robust with one exception: allowing for spatial correlations between the thermal SZ effect and CIB significantly degrades the SZ constraints. Neglecting this potential correlation, we find the thermal SZ power at 150 GHz and l = 3000 to be 3.65 {+-} 0.69 {mu}K{sup 2}, and set an upper limit on the kinetic SZ power to be less than 2.8 {mu}K{sup 2} at 95% confidence. When a correlation between the thermal SZ and CIB is allowed, we constrain a linear combination of thermal and kinetic SZ power: D{sup tSZ}{sub 3000} + 0.5D{sub 3000}{sup kSZ} = 4.60 {+-} 0.63 {mu}K{sup 2}, consistent with earlier measurements. We use the measured thermal SZ power and an analytic, thermal SZ model calibrated with simulations to determine {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.807 {+-} 0.016. Modeling uncertainties involving the astrophysics of the intracluster medium rather than the statistical uncertainty in the measured band powers are the dominant source of uncertainty on {sigma}{sub 8}. We also place an upper limit on the kinetic SZ power produced by patchy reionization; a companion paper uses these limits to constrain the reionization history of the universe.

  19. Effects of low power microwave radiation on biological activity of Collagenase enzyme and growth rate of S. Cerevisiae yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsuhaim, Hamad S.; Vojisavljevic, Vuk; Pirogova, E.

    2013-12-01

    Recently, microwave radiation, a type/subset of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) has been widely used in industry, medicine, as well as food technology and mobile communication. Use of mobile phones is rapidly growing. Four years from now, 5.1 billion people will be mobile phone users around the globe - almost 1 billion more mobile users than the 4.3 billion people worldwide using them now. Consequently, exposure to weak radiofrequency/microwave radiation generated by these devices is markedly increasing. Accordingly, public concern about potential hazards on human health is mounting [1]. Thermal effects of radiofrequency/microwave radiation are very well-known and extensively studied. Of particular interest are non-thermal effects of microwave exposures on biological systems. Nonthermal effects are described as changes in cellular metabolism caused by both resonance absorption and induced EMR and are often accompanied by a specific biological response. Non-thermal biological effects are measurable changes in biological systems that may or may not be associated with adverse health effects. In this study we studied non-thermal effects of low power microwave exposures on kinetics of L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme and growth rate of yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae strains type II. The selected model systems were continuously exposed to microwave radiation at the frequency of 968MHz and power of 10dBm using the designed and constructed (custom made) Transverse Electro-Magnetic (TEM) cell [2]. The findings reveal that microwave radiation at 968MHz and power of 10dBm inhibits L-lactate dehydrogenase enzyme activity by 26% and increases significantly (15%) the proliferation rate of yeast cells.

  20. Using microwave observations to estimate land surface temperature during cloudy conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (LST), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and...

  1. TRMM Precipitation Radar and Microwave Imager Observations of Convective and Stratiform Rain Over Land and Their Theoretical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Weinman, J. A.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Observations of brightness temperature, Tb made over land regions by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI) radiometer have been analyzed along with the nearly simultaneous measurements of the vertical profiles of reflectivity factor, Z, made by the Precipitation Radar (PR) onboard the TRMM satellite. This analysis is performed to explore the interrelationship between the TMI and PR data in areas that are covered predominantly by convective or stratiform rain. In particular, we have compared on a scale of 20 km, average vertical profiles of Z with the averages of Tbs in the 19, 37 and 85 GHz channels. Generally, we find from these data that as Z increases, Tbs in the three channels decrease due to extinction. In order to explain physically the relationship between the Tb and Z observations, we have performed radiative transfer simulations utilizing vertical profiles of hydrometeors applicable to convective and stratiform rain regions. These profiles are constructed taking guidance from the Z observations of PR and recent LDR and ZDR measurements made by land-based polarimetric radars.

  2. Electronic properties of superconductors studied using photo induced activation of microwave absorption (PIAMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, B.J.; Schooveld, W.A.; Bos, C.

    1995-12-31

    Electronic properties of superconductors are contemporarily being studied using many different experimental techniques, among which infrared spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and microwave cavity techniques play an important role. The data analysis, however, is complicated by the fact that in these materials the phonon-frequency range overlaps with the one in which the energy gap is expected. This problem can be circumvented by making use of two different sources, one to induce the excitations (the Free Electron Laser in Nieuwegein, The Netherlands, FELIX), and one to study the behavior of these excitations (i.e. quasiparticles). In our case the latter source is monochromatic microwave radiation, transmitted through a thin superconducting film. We measured both a conventional superconductor (NbN, T{sub c} = 17 K) and a high T{sub c} superconductor (SmBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, T{sub c} = 92 K). For NbN we observed a positive change in transmission, followed by a relaxation to a transmission smaller than the original value, after which the starting situation was restored within {approximately} 100 {mu}s. In case of SmBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}, the changes persisted above T{sub c}. At very low temperatures we observed slow oscillations ({approximately} 4kHz) in the induced signal, which were absent in NbN. The long time scales can possibly be explained by the so-called bottleneck, i.e. quasiparticles excited with a lot of excess energy lose part of their energy by exciting other quasiparticles. In this case the quasiparticle lifetime is enhanced considerably. The oscillations point towards an intrinsic difference of the low energy excitations, i.e. the symmetry of the pairing.

  3. Fusion of satellite active and passive microwave data for sea ice type concentration estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Beaven, S.G.; Gogineni, S.; Carsey, F.D.

    1996-09-01

    Young first-year sea ice is nearly as important as open water in modulating heat flux between the ocean and atmosphere in the Arctic. Just after the onset of freeze-up, first-year ice is in the early stages of growth and will consist of young first-year and thin ice. The distribution of sea ice in this thickness range impacts heat transfer in the Arctic. Therefore, improving the estimates of ice concentrations in this thickness range is significant. NASA Team Algorithm (NTA) for passive microwave data inaccurately classifies sea ice during the melt and freeze-up seasons because it misclassifies multiyear ice as first-year ice. The authors developed a hybrid fusion technique for incorporating multiyear ice information derived form synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images into a passive microwave algorithm to improve ice type concentration estimates. First, they classified SAR images using a dynamic thresholding technique and estimated the multiyear ice concentration. Then they used the SAR-derived multiyear ice concentration constrain the NTA and obtained an improved first-year ice concentration estimate. They computed multiyear and first-year ice concentration estimates over a region in the eastern-central Arctic in which field observations of ice and in situ radar backscatter measurements were performed. With the NTA alone, the first-year ice concentration in the study area varied between 0.11 and 0.40, while the multiyear ice concentration varied form 0.63 to 0.39. With the hybrid fusion technique, the first-year ice concentration varied between 0.08 and 0.23 and the multiyear ice concentration was between 0.62 and 0.66. The fused estimates of first-year and multiyear ice concentration appear to be more accurate than NTA, based on ice observations that were logged aboard the US Coast Guard icebreaker Polar Star in the study area during 1991.

  4. Bio-based phenols and fuel production from catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin by activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Bu, Quan; Lei, Hanwu; Wang, Lu; Wei, Yi; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Xuesong; Liu, Yupeng; Yadavalli, Gayatri; Tang, Juming

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore catalytic microwave pyrolysis of lignin for renewable phenols and fuels using activated carbon (AC) as a catalyst. A central composite experimental design (CCD) was used to optimize the reaction condition. The effects of reaction temperature and weight hourly space velocity (WHSV, h(-1)) on product yields were investigated. GC/MS analysis showed that the main chemical compounds of bio-oils were phenols, guaiacols, hydrocarbons and esters, most of which were ranged from 71% to 87% of the bio-oils depending on different reaction conditions. Bio-oils with high concentrations of phenol (45% in the bio-oil) were obtained. The calorific value analysis revealed that the high heating values (HHV) of the lignin-derived biochars were from 20.4 to 24.5 MJ/kg in comparison with raw lignin (19 MJ/kg). The reaction mechanism of this process was analyzed. PMID:24747393

  5. Fast and efficient benign oxidation of native wheat starch by acidic bromate under microwave activation.

    PubMed

    Komulainen, Sanna; Diaz, Estibaliz; Pursiainen, Jouni; Lajunen, Marja

    2013-02-15

    A simple oxidation of starch in water by bromate was substantially improved by microwave activation. In the oxidation of native wheat starch its advantages were the highly reduced need of oxidant from 1.05 to 0.1-0.25 equiv, shortened reaction time from 2 to 5.5h to 10 min, and moderate or high yields of oxidation content (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.55) of water-soluble products. Acidic treatment before the oxidation reaction promoted the carbonyl formation yielding higher contents of oxidized products (degree of oxidation 0.43-0.55) than without it (degree of oxidation 0.22-0.28). The pretreatment did not have similar effect on the amount of carboxyl groups. The oxidation route of acidic bromate oxidation of starch is discussed.

  6. Microwave acid digestion and preconcentration neutron activation analysis of biological and diet samples for iodine.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Chatt, A

    1991-07-01

    A simple preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the determination of low levels of iodine in biological and nutritional materials. The method involves dissolution of the samples by microwave digestion in the presence of acids in closed Teflon bombs and preconcentration of total iodine, after reduction to iodide with hydrazine sulfate, by coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide. The effects of different factors such as acidity, time for complete precipitation, and concentrations of bismuth, sulfide, and diverse ions on the quantitative recovery of iodide have been studied. The absolute detection limit of the PNAA method is 5 ng of iodine. Precision of measurement, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, is about 5% at 100 ppb and 10% at 20 ppb levels of iodine. The PNAA method has been applied to several biological reference materials and total diet samples. PMID:1897721

  7. Microwave assisted extraction of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from Ascophyllum nodosum and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan

    2015-09-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum were extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Different conditions of temperature (90-150°C), extraction time (5-30 min) were evaluated and optimal fucoidan yield was 16.08%, obtained from 120°C for 15 min's extraction. Compositional analysis, GPC, HPAEC and IR analysis were employed for characterization of extracted sulfated polysaccharides. Fucose was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 90°C while glucuronic acid was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 150°C. Both the molecular weight and sulfate content of extracted fucoidan increased with decreasing extraction temperature. All fucoidans exhibited antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging and reducing power, among which fucoidan extracted at 90°C was highest. This study shows that MAE is an efficient technology to extract sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed and Ascophyllum nodosum could potentially be a resource for natural antioxidants. PMID:26050894

  8. Microwave assisted extraction of sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from Ascophyllum nodosum and its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Macquarrie, Duncan

    2015-09-20

    Sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidan) from brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum were extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) technology. Different conditions of temperature (90-150°C), extraction time (5-30 min) were evaluated and optimal fucoidan yield was 16.08%, obtained from 120°C for 15 min's extraction. Compositional analysis, GPC, HPAEC and IR analysis were employed for characterization of extracted sulfated polysaccharides. Fucose was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 90°C while glucuronic acid was the main monosaccharide of fucoidan extracted at 150°C. Both the molecular weight and sulfate content of extracted fucoidan increased with decreasing extraction temperature. All fucoidans exhibited antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH scavenging and reducing power, among which fucoidan extracted at 90°C was highest. This study shows that MAE is an efficient technology to extract sulfated polysaccharides from seaweed and Ascophyllum nodosum could potentially be a resource for natural antioxidants.

  9. Microwave acid digestion and preconcentration neutron activation analysis of biological and diet samples for iodine.

    PubMed

    Rao, R R; Chatt, A

    1991-07-01

    A simple preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) method has been developed for the determination of low levels of iodine in biological and nutritional materials. The method involves dissolution of the samples by microwave digestion in the presence of acids in closed Teflon bombs and preconcentration of total iodine, after reduction to iodide with hydrazine sulfate, by coprecipitation with bismuth sulfide. The effects of different factors such as acidity, time for complete precipitation, and concentrations of bismuth, sulfide, and diverse ions on the quantitative recovery of iodide have been studied. The absolute detection limit of the PNAA method is 5 ng of iodine. Precision of measurement, expressed in terms of relative standard deviation, is about 5% at 100 ppb and 10% at 20 ppb levels of iodine. The PNAA method has been applied to several biological reference materials and total diet samples.

  10. Enhancements in lower stratospheric CH3CN observed by the upper atmosphere research Sattellite Microwave Limb Sounder following boreal forest fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livesey, N. J.; Fromm, M. D.; Waters, J. W.; Manney, G. L.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.

    2004-01-01

    On 25 August 1992, the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite observed a significant enhancement in the abundance of lower stratospheric methyl cyanide (CH3CN) at 100??hPa (16??km altitude) in a small region off the east coast of Florida.

  11. Role of the conducting layer substrate on TiO2 nucleation when using microwave activated chemical bath deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumeta, I.; Espinosa, R.; Ayllón, J. A.; Vigil, E.

    2002-12-01

    Nanostructured TiO2 is used in novel dye sensitized solar cells. Because of their interaction with light, thin TiO2 films are also used as coatings for self-cleaning glasses and tiles. Microwave activated chemical bath deposition represents a simple and cost-effective way to obtain nanostructured TiO2 films. It is important to study, in this technique, the role of the conducting layer used as the substrate. The influence of microwave-substrate interactions on TiO2 deposition is analysed using different substrate positions, employing substrates with different conductivities, and also using different microwave radiation powers for film deposition. We prove that a common domestic microwave oven with a large cavity and inhomogeneous radiation field can be used with equally satisfactory results. The transmittance spectra of the obtained films were studied and used to analyse film thickness and to obtain gap energy values. The results, regarding different indium-tin oxide resistivities and different substrate positions in the oven cavity, show that the interaction of the microwave field with the conducting layer is determinant in layer deposition. It has also been found that film thickness increases with the power of the applied radiation while the gap energies of the TiO2 films decrease approaching the 3.2 eV value reported for bulk anatase. This indicates that these films are not crystalline and it agrees with x-ray spectra that do not reveal any peak.

  12. Microwave sintering of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    Successful adaptation of microwave heating to the densification of ceramic materials require a marriage of microwave and materials technologies. Using an interdisciplinary team of microwave and materials engineers, we have successfully demonstrated the ability to density ceramic materials over a wide range of temperatures. Microstructural evolution during microwave sintering has been found to be significantly different from that observed in conventional sintering. Our results and those of others indicate that microwave sintering has the potential to fabricate components to near net shape with mechanical properties equivalent to hot pressed or hot isostatically pressed material. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Whole Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) With or Without Microwave Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of extracting phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity from buckwheat with water, 50% aqueous ethanol, or 100% ethanol using microwave irradiation or a water bath for 15 min at various temperatures (23 – 150 °C). The phenolic content of...

  14. Rotational spectrum of the CCS radical studied by laboratory microwave spectroscopy and radio-astronomical observations

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Saito, Shuji; Kawaguchi, Kentarou; Chikada, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Hiroko Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki Nobeyama Radio Observatory, Minamimaki )

    1990-09-01

    The rotational spectral lines of the CCS radical and its isotopic species, CC(S-34), (C-13)CS, and C(C-13)S, have been observed in the laboratory, and the J(N) = 4(3)-3(2), J(N) = 2(1)-1(0), and J(N) = 3(4)-2(3) transitions for CCS and that of J(N) = 4(3)-3(2) for CC(S-34) have been observed toward a cold dark cloud, L1498. The molecular constants of CCS, CC(S-34), (C-13)CS, and C(C-13)S have been determined from the observed transition frequencies, and the rest frequencies of CCS and CC(S-34) below 300 GHz are listed with their line strengths. The frequencies of the low-N transitions of (C-13)CS and C(C-13)S are calculated for future astronomical observations. 19 refs.

  15. UARS Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Upper Atmosphere Ozone and Chlorine Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flower, D.; Froidevaux, L.; Jarnot, R.; Read, W.; Waters, J.

    1994-01-01

    UARS MLS observations of stratospheric ozone and chlorine monoxide are described. Enhanced concentrations of ClO, the predominant form of reactive chlorine responsible for ozone depletion, are seen within both the northern and southern winter polar vortices. In the southern hemisphere, this leads directly to the development of the annual Antarctic ozone hole. While ozone depletion is also observed in the north, it is less severe and there is considerable interannual variability.

  16. Synthetic aperture microwave imaging with active probing for fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Vladimir F.; Freethy, Simon J.; Huang, Billy K.

    2014-08-21

    A Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system has been designed and built to obtain 2-D images at several frequencies from fusion plasmas. SAMI uses a phased array of linearly polarised antennas. The array configuration has been optimised to achieve maximum synthetic aperture beam efficiency. The signals received by antennas are down-converted to the intermediate frequency range and then recorded in a full vector form. Full vector signals allow beam focusing and image reconstruction in both real time and a post-processing mode. SAMI can scan over 16 pre-programmed frequencies in the range of 10-35GHz with a switching time of 300ns. The system operates in 2 different modes simultaneously: both a 'passive' imaging of plasma emission and also an 'active' imaging of the back-scattered signal of the radiation launched by one of the antennas from the same array. This second mode is similar to so-called Doppler backscattering (DBS) reflectometry with 2-D resolution of the propagation velocity of turbulent structures. Both modes of operation show good performance in fusion plasma experiments on Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST). We have obtained the first ever 2-D images of BXO mode conversion windows. With active probing, first ever turbulence velocity maps have been obtained. We present an overview of the diagnostic and discuss recent results. In contrast to quasi-optical microwave imaging systems SAMI requires neither big aperture viewing ports nor large 2-D detector arrays to achieve the desired imaging resolution. The number of effective 'pixels' of the synthesized image is proportional to the number of receiving antennas squared. Thus only a small number of optimised antennas is sufficient for the majority of applications. Possible implementation of SAMI on ITERand DEMO is discussed.

  17. Microwave observations and modeling of O2(1Δg) and O3 diurnal variation in the mesosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Brad J.; Clancy, R. Todd; Rusch, David W.; Randall, Cora E.; Eckman, Richard S.; Siskind, David S.; Muhleman, Duane O.

    1997-04-01

    The first microwave measurements of an electronically excited molecular species in the Earth's atmosphere are presented. Local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) rotational line emission from mesospheric O2(1Δg) was observed at a frequency of 255.01794 GHz (λ˜1.2 mm), employing the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) millimeter facility at Kitt Peak, Arizona (32°N, 111°W). The pressure-broadened line shapes of the O2(1Δg) spectra, which were obtained in January and April 1992 and in January and November 1993, are inverted to retrieve O2(1Δg) mixing profiles over the 50-70 km altitude region. The observed daytime abundances exceed ozone abundances in the lower mesosphere, which are separately retrieved with coincident O3 spectral line (249.7886 GHz) observations. The January and November 1993 observations are binned into 20-60 min time intervals to study O2(1Δg) diurnal behavior. Derived abundances of O2(1Δg) between 50 and 70 km for the four observation dates are 9%, 31%, 3%, and 26%, respectively, each ±10% higher than predicted, based on the simple photochemistry of lower mesospheric O2(1Δg). Modeled variation of [O2(1Δg)] with time of day agrees with observed variation in that the observed difference between model and data abundances is constant throughout the daylight hours of each observation date. Model underprediction of [O2(1Δg)] is consistent with similar model underprediction of mesospheric [O3]. A perturbation to the photochemical model that forces decreased ozone chemical loss brings brings both model [O3] and [O2(1Δg)] into agreement with the observations. O2(1Δg) abundances derived from these 1.2 mm observations agree with [O2(1Δg)] values derived from comparable SME observations of the 1.27 μm emission, with assumption of a 3880 s O2(1Δg) radiative lifetime [Badger et al., 1965]. The 6800 s O2(1Δg) radiative lifetime proposed by Mlynczak and Nesbitt [1995] is ruled out by the similar comparison.

  18. HYDRODECHLORINATION OF CHLORINATED BENZENES IN A CONTINUOUS MICROWAVE REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    An expeditious hydrodechlorination of chlorobenzenes is observed over 0.5% Pd/Al2O3 catalyst by conducting the reaction under microwave irradiation conditions. Even though the loss of active metal surface area is substantial and identical in both microwave ...

  19. Assessing the Impact of Pre-gpm Microwave Precipitation Observations in the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambon, Philippe; Zhang, Sara Q.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Zupanski, Milija; Cheung, Samson

    2013-01-01

    The forthcoming Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission will provide next generation precipitation observations from a constellation of satellites. Since precipitation by nature has large variability and low predictability at cloud-resolving scales, the impact of precipitation data on the skills of mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) is largely affected by the characterization of background and observation errors and the representation of nonlinear cloud/precipitation physics in an NWP data assimilation system. We present a data impact study on the assimilation of precipitation-affected microwave (MW) radiances from a pre-GPM satellite constellation using the Goddard WRF Ensemble Data Assimilation System (Goddard WRF-EDAS). A series of assimilation experiments are carried out in a Weather Research Forecast (WRF) model domain of 9 km resolution in western Europe. Sensitivities to observation error specifications, background error covariance estimated from ensemble forecasts with different ensemble sizes, and MW channel selections are examined through single-observation assimilation experiments. An empirical bias correction for precipitation-affected MW radiances is developed based on the statistics of radiance innovations in rainy areas. The data impact is assessed by full data assimilation cycling experiments for a storm event that occurred in France in September 2010. Results show that the assimilation of MW precipitation observations from a satellite constellation mimicking GPM has a positive impact on the accumulated rain forecasts verified with surface radar rain estimates. The case-study on a convective storm also reveals that the accuracy of ensemble-based background error covariance is limited by sampling errors and model errors such as precipitation displacement and unresolved convective scale instability.

  20. X-ray and microwave emissions from the July 19, 2012 solar flare: Highly accurate observations and kinetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsyk, P. A.; Somov, B. V.

    2016-08-01

    The M7.7 solar flare of July 19, 2012, at 05:58 UT was observed with high spatial, temporal, and spectral resolutions in the hard X-ray and optical ranges. The flare occurred at the solar limb, which allowed us to see the relative positions of the coronal and chromospheric X-ray sources and to determine their spectra. To explain the observations of the coronal source and the chromospheric one unocculted by the solar limb, we apply an accurate analytical model for the kinetic behavior of accelerated electrons in a flare. We interpret the chromospheric hard X-ray source in the thick-target approximation with a reverse current and the coronal one in the thin-target approximation. Our estimates of the slopes of the hard X-ray spectra for both sources are consistent with the observations. However, the calculated intensity of the coronal source is lower than the observed one by several times. Allowance for the acceleration of fast electrons in a collapsing magnetic trap has enabled us to remove this contradiction. As a result of our modeling, we have estimated the flux density of the energy transferred by electrons with energies above 15 keV to be ˜5 × 1010 erg cm-2 s-1, which exceeds the values typical of the thick-target model without a reverse current by a factor of ˜5. To independently test the model, we have calculated the microwave spectrum in the range 1-50 GHz that corresponds to the available radio observations.

  1. Bright microwave pulses from PSR B0531+21 observed with a prototype transient survey receiver

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dea, J. Andrew; Cheng, Tsan-Huei; Buu, Chau M.; Asmar, Sami W.; Armstrong, J. W.; Jenet, F. A.; Beroiz, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent discoveries of transient radio events have renewed interest in time-variable astrophysical phenomena. Many radio transient events are rare, requiring long observing times for reliable statistical study. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration/Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Deep Space Network (DSN) tracks spacecraft nearly continuously with 13 large-aperture, low system temperature radio antennas. During normal spacecraft operations, the DSN processes only a small fraction of the pre-detection bandwidth available from these antennas; any information in the remaining bandwidth, e.g., from an astronomical source in the same antenna beam as the spacecraft, is currently ignored. As a firmware modification to the standard DSN tracking receiver, we built a prototype receiver that could be used for astronomical transient surveys. Here, we demonstrate the receiver's utility through observations of bright pulses from the Crab pulsar and describe attributes of potential transient survey observations piggybacking on operational DSN tracks.

  2. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder Observations of Dynamics and Transport During the Record-Breaking 2009 Arctic Stratospheric Major Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Krueger, Kirstin; Santee, Michelle L.; Pawson, Steven; Lee, Jae N.; Daffer, William H.; Fuller, Ryan A.; Livesey, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    A major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) in January 2009 was the strongest and most prolonged on record. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) observations are used to provide an overview of dynamics and transport during the 2009 SSW, and to compare with the intense, long-lasting SSW in January 2006. The Arctic polar vortex split during the 2009 SSW, whereas the 2006 SSW was a vortex displacement event. Winds reversed to easterly more rapidly and reverted to westerly more slowly in 2009 than in 2006. More mixing of trace gases out of the vortex during the decay of the vortex fragments, and less before the fulfillment of major SSW criteria, was seen in 2009 than in 2006; persistent well-defined fragments of vortex and anticyclone air were more prevalent in 2009. The 2009 SSW had a more profound impact on the lower stratosphere than any previously observed SSW, with no significant recovery of the vortex in that region. The stratopause breakdown and subsequent reformation at very high altitude, accompanied by enhanced descent into a rapidly strengthening upper stratospheric vortex, were similar in 2009 and 2006. Many differences between 2006 and 2009 appear to be related to the different character of the SSWs in the two years.

  3. Observations of free-free and anomalous microwave emission from LDN 1622 with the 100 m Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, S. E.; Dickinson, C.; Cleary, K.

    2015-11-01

    LDN 1622 has previously been identified as a possible strong source of dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Previous observations were limited by resolution meaning that the radio emission could not be compared with current generation high-resolution infrared data from Herschel, Spitzer or Wide-field Infrared Sky Explorer. This paper presents arcminute resolution mapping observations of LDN 1622 at 4.85 and 13.7 GHz using the 100 m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. The 4.85 GHz map reveals a corona of free-free emission enclosing LDN 1622 that traces the photodissociation region of the cloud. The brightest peaks of the 4.85 GHz map are found to be within ≈10 per cent agreement with the expected free-free predicted by Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas H α data of LDN 1622. At 13.7 GHz, the AME flux density was found to be 7.0 ± 1.4 mJy and evidence is presented for a rising spectrum between 13.7 and 31 GHz. The spinning dust model of AME is found to naturally account for the flux seen at 13.7 GHz. Correlations between the diffuse 13.7 GHz emission and the diffuse mid-infrared emission are used to further demonstrate that the emission originating from LDN 1622 at 13.7 GHz is described by the spinning dust model.

  4. Evolution of Mesoscale Convective System over the South Western Peninsular India: Observations from Microwave Radiometer and Simulations using WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, K. N.; Krishna Moorthy, K.; Sijikumar, S.; Renju, R.; Tinu, K. A.; Raju, Suresh C.

    2012-07-01

    Meso-scale Convective Systems (MCS) are important in view of their large cumulous build-up, vertical extent, short horizontal extent and associated thundershowers. The Microwave Radiometer Profiler (MRP) over the equatorial coastal station Thiruvanathapuram (Trivandrum, 8.55oN, 76.9oE), has been utilized to understand the genesis of Mesoscale convective system (MCS), that occur frequently during the pre-monsoon season. Examination of the measurement of relative humidity, temperature and cloud liquid water measurements, over the zenith and two scanning elevation angles (15o) viewing both over the land and the sea respectively revealed that the MCS generally originate over the land during early afternoon hours, propagate seawards over the observational site and finally dissipate over the sea, with accompanying rainfall and latent heat release. The simulations obtained using Advanced Research-Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model effectively reproduces the thermodynamical and microphysical properties of the MCS. The time duration and quantity of rainfall obtained by the simulations also well compared with the observations. Analysis also suggests that wind shear in the upper troposphere is responsible for the growth and the shape of the convective cloud.

  5. The beam filling error in the Nimbus 5 electronically scanning microwave radiometer observations of Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Short, David A.; North, Gerald R.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of rain rates retrieved from the Nimbus 5 electronically scanning microwave radiometer brightness temperatures and observed from shipboard radars during the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) phase I shows that the beam filling error is the major source of discrepancy between the two. When averaged over a large scene (the GATE radar array, 400 km in diameter), the beam filling error is quite stable, being 50 percent of the observed rain rate. This suggests the simple procedure of multiplying retrieved rain rates by 2 (correction factor). A statistical model of the beam filling error is developed by envisioning an idealized instrument field-of-view that encompasses an entire gamma distribution of rain rates. A modeled correction factor near 2 is found for rain rate and temperature characteristics consistent with GATE conditions. The statistical model also suggests that the correction factor varies from 1.5 to 2.5 for suppressed to enhanced tropical convective regimes, and decreases to 1.5 as the freezing level and average depth of the rain column decreases to 2.5 km.

  6. Five-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe Observations: Data Processing, Sky Maps, and Basic Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinshaw, G.; Weiland, J. L.; Hill, R. S.; Odegard, N.; Larson, D.; Bennett, C. L.; Dunkley, J.; Gold, B.; Greason, M. R.; Jarosik, N.; Komatsu, E.; Nolta, M. R.; Page, L.; Spergel, D. N.; Wollack, E.; Halpern, M.; Kogut, A.; Limon, M.; Meyer, S. S.; Tucker, G. S.; Wright, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    We present new full-sky temperature and polarization maps in five frequency bands from 23 to 94 GHz, based on data from the first five years of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) sky survey. The new maps are consistent with previous maps and are more sensitive. The five-year maps incorporate several improvements in data processing made possible by the additional years of data and by a more complete analysis of the instrument calibration and in-flight beam response. We present several new tests for systematic errors in the polarization data and conclude that W-band polarization data is not yet suitable for cosmological studies, but we suggest directions for further study. We do find that Ka-band data is suitable for use; in conjunction with the additional years of data, the addition of Ka band to the previously used Q- and V-band channels significantly reduces the uncertainty in the optical depth parameter, tau. Further scientific results from the five-year data analysis are presented in six companion papers and are summarized in Section 7 of this paper. With the five-year WMAP data, we detect no convincing deviations from the minimal six-parameter ACDM model: a flat universe dominated by a cosmological constant, with adiabatic and nearly scale-invariant Gaussian fluctuations. Using WMAP data combined with measurements of Type Ia supernovae and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the galaxy distribution, we find (68% CL uncertainties): OMEGA(sub b)h(sup 2) = 0.02267(sup +0.00058)(sub -0.00059), OMEGA(sub c)h(sup 2) = 0.1131 plus or minus 0.0034, OMEGA(sub logical and) = 0.726 plus or minus 0.015, ns = .960 plus or minus 0.013, tau = 0.84 plus or minus 0.016, and DELTA(sup 2)(sub R) = (22.445 plus or minus 0.096) x 10(exp -9) at k = 0.002 Mpc(exp -1). From these we derive sigma(sub 8) = 0.812 plus or minus 0.026, H(sub 0) = 70.5 plus or minus 1.3 kilometers per second Mpc(exp -1), OMEGA(sub b) = 0.0456 plus or minus 0.0015, OMEGA(sub c) = .228 plus or minus

  7. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  8. Using microwave heating to improve the desorption efficiency of high molecular weight VOC from beaded activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Fayaz, Mohammadreza; Shariaty, Pooya; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Incomplete regeneration of activated carbon loaded with organic compounds results in heel build-up that reduces the useful life of the adsorbent. In this study, microwave heating was tested as a regeneration method for beaded activated carbon (BAC) loaded with n-dodecane, a high molecular weight volatile organic compound. Energy consumption and desorption efficiency for microwave-heating regeneration were compared with conductive-heating regeneration. The minimum energy needed to completely regenerate the adsorbent (100% desorption efficiency) using microwave regeneration was 6% of that needed with conductive heating regeneration, owing to more rapid heating rates and lower heat loss. Analyses of adsorbent pore size distribution and surface chemistry confirmed that neither heating method altered the physical/chemical properties of the BAC. Additionally, gas chromatography (with flame ionization detector) confirmed that neither regeneration method detectably altered the adsorbate composition during desorption. By demonstrating improvements in energy consumption and desorption efficiency and showing stable adsorbate and adsorbent properties, this paper suggests that microwave heating is an attractive method for activated carbon regeneration particularly when high-affinity VOC adsorbates are present.

  9. Preparation of activated carbon from coconut shell chars in pilot-scale microwave heating equipment at 60 kW

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wei; Peng Jinhui Zhang Libo; Yang Kunbin; Xia Hongying; Zhang Shimin; Guo Shenghui

    2009-02-15

    Experiments to prepare activated carbon by microwave heating indicated that microwave energy can decrease reaction temperature, save the energy and shorten processing time remarkably compared to conventional heating, owing to its internal and volumetric heating effects. The above results were based on the laboratory-scale experiments. It is desirable to develop a pilot-scale microwave heating equipment and investigate the parameters with the aim of technological industrialization. In the present study, the components and features of the self-invented equipment were introduced. The temperature rise curves of the chars were obtained. Iodine numbers of the activated carbons all exceed the state standard of China under the following conditions: 25 kg/h charging rate, 0.42 rev/min turning rate of ceramic tube, flow rate of steam at pressure of 0.01 MPa and 40 kW microwave heating power after 60 kW pre-activation for 30 min. Pore structure of the sample obtained at a time point of 46 h, which contained BET surface area, and pore size distributions of micropores and total pores, was tested by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K.

  10. Models Constraints from Observations of Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riffel, R.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Dametto, N. Z.; Ruschel-Dutra, D.; Riffel, R. A.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. P.; Mason, R.; Ho, L. C.; Palomar XD Team

    2015-08-01

    Studying the unresolved stellar content of galaxies generally involves disentangling the various components contributing to the spectral energy distribution (SED), and fitting a combination of simple stellar populations (SSPs) to derive information about age, metallicity, and star formation history. In the near-infrared (NIR, 0.85-2.5 μm), the thermally pulsing asymptotic giant branch (TP-AGB) phase - the last stage of the evolution of intermediate-mass (M ≲ 6 M⊙) stars - is a particularly important component of the SSP models. These stars can dominate the emission of stellar populations with ages ˜ 0.2-2 Gyr, being responsible for roughly half of the luminosity in the K band. In addition, when trying to describe the continuum observed in active galactic nuclei, the signatures of the central engine and from the dusty torus cannot be ignored. Over the past several years we have developed a method to disentangle these three components. Our synthesis shows significant differences between Seyfert 1 (Sy 1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy 2) galaxies. The central few hundred parsecs of our galaxy sample contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-age populations with a mean metallicity near solar. Two-dimensional mapping of the near-infrared stellar population of the nuclear region of active galaxies suggests that there is a spatial correlation between the intermediate-age stellar population and a partial ring of low stellar velocity dispersion (σ*). Such an age is consistent with a scenario in which the origin of the low-σ* rings is a past event which triggered an inflow of gas and formed stars which still keep the colder kinematics of the gas from which they have formed. We also discuss the fingerprints of features attributed to TP-AGB stars in the spectra of the nuclear regions of nearby galaxies.

  11. Changes in phytochemicals, anti-nutrients and antioxidant activity in leafy vegetables by microwave boiling with normal and 5% NaCl solution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shrawan; Swain, S; Singh, D R; Salim, K M; Nayak, Dipak; Roy, S Dam

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated the changes in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in 25 leafy vegetables with two common boiling practices viz., with 5% NaCl solution (BSW) and normal water (BNW) in a domestic microwave oven. Fresh samples (100g) were rich in polyphenols (58.8-296.9mg), tannin (402.0-519.4mg), flavonoids (148.9-614.4mg), carotenoids (69.0-786.3mg), anthocyanin (11.7-493.7mg) and ascorbic acid (245.0-314.2mg). Microwave boiling significantly (p<0.05) decreased/increased phytochemicals but none of the compounds followed same trend in all vegetables. Boiling process reduced anti-nutrients from fresh samples (FS) as observed for nitrate (4.5-73.6% by BSW and 22.5-98.8% by BNW); phytate (6.2-69.7% by BSW and 10.6-57.3% by BNW) and oxalate (14.7-88.9% by BSW and 14.5-87.3% by BNW) but saponin increased in 18 vegetables by BNW while 8 vegetables by BSW. The study revealed differential pattern of change in phytochemical matrix and anti-nutrients in vegetables by microwave boiling which will help in devising efficient cooking practices and contribute in health and nutritional security.

  12. Antifungal, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities of three varieties of labisia pumila benth: from microwave obtained extracts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Labisia pumila, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, is a forest-floor plant that has tremendous potential in the herbal industry. It is one of the five herbal plants identified by the government as one of the national key economic areas to be developed for commercial purposes. There are three varieties of L. pumila namely, L. pumila var. pumila, L. pumila var. alata and L. pumila var. lanceolata and each has its own use. Methods The leaves and roots of the three varieties of L. pumila Benth. were extracted using microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Antifungal activity of all plant extracts were characterized against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor using the agar diffusion disc. Anti-inflammatory assays were performed using NO production by macrophage RAW 264.7 cell lines induced by LPS/IFN-g and cytotoxic activity was determined using several cancer cell lines and one normal cell line. Results The overall result demonstrated that leaf and root extracts of all three varieties of L. pumila exhibited moderate to appreciable antifungal activity against Fusarium sp., Candida sp. and Mucor compared to streptomycin used as positive control. Leaf and root extracts of all varieties significantly decreased NO release. However, the root extracts showed higher activity compared to the leaf extracts. Cytotoxic activity against MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and Chang cell lines were observed with all extracts. Conclusions These findings suggest the potential use of L. pumila Benth. as a natural medicine and indicated the possible application of this medicinal plant such anti inflammatory activity and cytotoxic agents. PMID:23347830

  13. Atmospheric water parameters in mid-latitude cyclones observed by microwave radiometry and compared to model calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Hammarstrand, Ulla; Petty, Grant W.

    1990-01-01

    Existing and experimental algorithms for various parameters of atmospheric water content such as integrated water vapor, cloud water, precipitation, are used to examine the distribution of these quantities in mid latitude cyclones. The data was obtained from signals given by the special sensor microwave/imager (SSM/I) and compared with data from the nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) for North Atlantic cyclones. The potential of microwave remote sensing for enhancing knowledge of the horizontal structure of these storms and to aid the development and testing of the cloud and precipitation aspects of limited area numerical models of cyclonic storms is investigated.

  14. Microwave assisted synthesis, cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activities and molecular docking studies of new pyridopyrimidine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Basiri, Alireza; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Osman, Hasnah; Kumar, Raju Suresh; Kia, Yalda; Ali, Mohamed Ashraf

    2013-06-01

    A series of hitherto unreported pyrido-pyrimidine-2-ones/pyrimidine-2-thiones were synthesized under microwave assisted solvent free reaction conditions in excellent yields and evaluated in vitro for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes inhibitory activity. Among the pyridopyrimidine derivatives, 7e and 7l displayed 2.5- and 1.5-fold higher enzyme inhibitory activities against AChE as compared to standard drug, galanthamine, with IC50 of 0.80 and 1.37 μM, respectively. Interestingly, all the compounds except 6k, 7j and 7k displayed higher inhibitory potential against BChE enzyme in comparison to standard with IC50 ranging from 1.18 to 18.90 μM. Molecular modeling simulations of 7e and 7l was performed using three-dimensional structure of Torpedo californica AChE (TcAChE) and human butyrylcholinesterase (hBChE) enzymes to disclose binding interaction and orientation of these molecule into the active site gorge of respective receptors.

  15. Comparison of precipitable water observations in the near tropics by GPS, microwave radiometer and radiosondes.

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, Y. A.; Teng, Y. T.; VanHove, T.; Liljegren, J. C.; Environmental Research; National Central Univ.; UCAR

    2001-01-01

    The sensing of precipitable water (PW) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in the near Tropics is investigated. GPS data acquired from the Central Weather Bureau's Taipei weather station in Banchao (Taipei), Taiwan, and each of nine International GPS Service (IGS) stations were utilized to determine independently the PW at the Taipei site from 18 to 24 March 1998. Baselines between Taipei and the other nine stations range from 676 to 3009 km. The PW determined from GPS observations for the nine baseline cases are compared with measurements by a dual-channel water vapor radiometer (WVR) and radiosondes at the Taipei site. Although previous results from other locations show that the variability in the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-observed PW ranges from 1 to 2 mm, a variability of 2.2 mm is found. The increase is consistent with scaling of the variability with the total water vapor burden (PW). In addition, accurate absolute PW estimates from GPS data for baseline lengths between 1500 and 3000 km were obtained. Previously, 500 and 2000 km have been recommended in the literature as the minimum baseline length needed for accurate absolute PW estimation. An exception occurs when GPS data acquired in Guam, one of the nine IGS stations, were utilized. This result is a possible further indication that the rms difference between GPS- and WVR-measured PW is dependent on the total water vapor burden, because both Taipei and Guam are located in more humid regions than the other stations.

  16. Software management and implementation plan for the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) carried on a NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. Y.; Girard, M. A.; Perun, V. S.; Sherif, J. S.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a Software Management and Implementation Plan (SIMP) for managing and controlling the development of the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instrument software, and the Instrument Ground Support Equipment (IGSE) software.

  17. Associations between Small-scale Structure in Local Galactic Neutral Hydrogen and in the Cosmic Microwave Background Observed by PLANCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  18. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE IN LOCAL GALACTIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN AND IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND OBSERVED BY PLANCK

    SciTech Connect

    Verschuur, Gerrit L.

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution galactic neutral hydrogen (HI) data obtained with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) over 56 square degrees of sky around l = 132°, b = 25° are compared with small-scale structure in the Cosmic Microwave Background observed by PLANCK, specifically at 143 and 857 GHz, as well as with 100 μm observations from the IRIS survey. The analysis uses data in 13 2° × 2° sub-areas found in the IRSA database at IPAC. The results confirm what has been reported previously; nearby galactic HI features and high-frequency continuum sources believed to be cosmological are in fact clearly associated. While several attempts strongly suggest that the associations are statistically significant, the key to understanding the phenomenon lies in the fact that in any given area HI is associated with cirrus dust at certain HI velocities and with 143 GHz features at different velocities. At the same time, for the 13 sub-areas studied, there is very little overlap between the dust and 143 GHz features. The data do not imply that the HI itself gives rise to the high-frequency continuum emission. Rather, they appear to indicate undiagnosed brightness enhancements indirectly associated with the HI. If low density interstellar electrons concentrated into clumps, or observed in directions where their integrated line-of-sight column densities are greater than the background in a manner similar to the phenomena that give rise to structure in diffuse HI structure, they will profoundly affect attempts to create a foreground electron mask used for processing PLANCK as well as WMAP data.

  19. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  20. Observing the advection of sea ice in the Weddell Sea using buoy and satellite passive microwave data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massom, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Data from four buoys tracked by Nimbus 6 and concurrent ice concentrations retrieved from Nimbus 7 scanning multichannel microwave radiometer data are used to investigate the progress and behavior of an area of sea ice as it drifts from the southwestern Weddell Sea. The overall drift characteristics and their relationship to ice edge displacement are examined within the framework of four zones. Three phases are identified in the large-scale behavior of the Weddell Sea ice cover, namely, a rapid equatorward and eastward advance, a quasi-equilibrium phase, and a period of rapid recession. Outbreaks of cold continental air alternate with incursions of relatively warm air from the north; warm conditions are recorded as far as 1200 km in from the ice edge in winter. Closed loops in the buoy trajectories, which are clockwise to the south of 63 deg S, reverse to become anticlockwise to the north. A coherence is observed in the response of the buoys to the passage of storms, even though the buoys separated by a distance of over 100 km.

  1. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guenther, Bruce W. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability.

  2. Calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3-5, 1991

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Bruce W.

    Various papers on the calibration of passive remote observing optical and microwave instrumentation are presented. Individual topics addressed include: on-board calibration device for a wide field-of-view instrument, calibration for the medium-resolution imaging spectrometer, cryogenic radiometers and intensity-stabilized lasers for EOS radiometric calibrations, radiometric stability of the Shuttle-borne solar backscatter ultraviolet spectrometer, ratioing radiometer for use with a solar diffuser, requirements of a solar diffuser and measurements of some candidate materials, reflectance stability analysis of Spectralon diffuse calibration panels, stray light effects on calibrations using a solar diffuser, radiometric calibration of SPOT 23 HRVs, surface and aerosol models for use in radiative transfer codes. Also addressed are: calibrated intercepts for solar radiometers used in remote sensor calibration, radiometric calibration of an airborne multispectral scanner, in-flight calibration of a helicopter-mounted Daedalus multispectral scanner, technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources, remote colorimetry and its applications, spatial sampling errors for a satellite-borne scanning radiometer, calibration of EOS multispectral imaging sensors and solar irradiance variability. (For individual items see A93-23576 to A93-23603)

  3. Detection of the Earth with the SETI microwave observing system assumed to be operating out in the galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Tarter, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper estimates the maximum range at which radar signals from the Earth could be detected by a search system similar to the NASA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Microwave Observing Project (SETI MOP) assumed to be operating out in the galaxy. Figures are calculated for the Targeted Search, and for the Sky Survey parts of the MOP, both operating, as currently planned, in the second half of the decade of the 1990s. Only the most powerful terrestrial transmitters are considered, namely, the planetary radar at Arecibo in Puerto Rico, and the ballistic missile early warning systems (BMEWS). In each case the probabilities of detection over the life of the MOP are also calculated. The calculation assumes that we are only in the eavesdropping mode. Transmissions intended to be detected by SETI systems are likely to be much stronger and would of course be found with higher probability to a greater range. Also, it is assumed that the transmitting civilization is at the same level of technological evolution as ours on Earth. This is very improbable. If we were to detect another technological civilization, it would, on statistical grounds, be much older than we are and might well have much more powerful transmitters. Both factors would make detection by the NASA MOP a much more likely outcome.

  4. SIGNIFICANT FOREGROUND UNRELATED NON-ACOUSTIC ANISOTROPY ON THE 1 DEGREE SCALE IN WILKINSON MICROWAVE ANISOTROPY PROBE 5-YEAR OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Bizhu; Zhang Shuangnan; Lieu, Richard; Wakker, Bart

    2010-01-01

    The spectral variation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as observed by WMAP was tested using foreground reduced WMAP5 data, by producing subtraction maps at the 1 deg. angular resolution between the two cosmological bands of V and W, for masked sky areas that avoid the Galactic disk. The resulting V - W map revealed a non-acoustic signal over and above the WMAP5 pixel noise, with two main properties. First, it possesses quadrupole power at the approx1 muK level which may be attributed to foreground residuals. Second, it fluctuates also at all values of l> 2, especially on the 1 deg. scale (200 approx< l approx< 300). The behavior is random and symmetrical about zero temperature with an rms approx7 muK, or 10% of the maximum CMB anisotropy, which would require a 'cosmic conspiracy' among the foreground components if it is a consequence of their existence. Both anomalies must be properly diagnosed and corrected if 'precision' cosmology is the claim. The second anomaly is, however, more interesting because it opens the question on whether the CMB anisotropy genuinely represents primordial density seeds.

  5. Comparison of a coupled snow thermodynamic and radiative transfer model with in situ active microwave signatures of snow-covered smooth first-year sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, M. C.; Geldsetzer, T.; Yackel, J.; Gill, J. P. S.

    2015-11-01

    Within the context of developing data inversion and assimilation techniques for C-band backscatter over sea ice, snow physical models may be used to drive backscatter models for comparison and optimization with satellite observations. Such modeling has the potential to enhance understanding of snow on sea-ice properties required for unambiguous interpretation of active microwave imagery. An end-to-end modeling suite is introduced, incorporating regional reanalysis data (NARR), a snow model (SNTHERM89.rev4), and a multilayer snow and ice active microwave backscatter model (MSIB). This modeling suite is assessed against measured snow on sea-ice geophysical properties and against measured active microwave backscatter. NARR data were input to the SNTHERM snow thermodynamic model in order to drive the MSIB model for comparison to detailed geophysical measurements and surface-based observations of C-band backscatter of snow on first-year sea ice. The NARR variables were correlated to available in situ measurements with the exception of long-wave incoming radiation and relative humidity, which impacted SNTHERM simulations of snow temperature. SNTHERM snow grain size and density were comparable to observations. The first assessment of the forward assimilation technique developed in this work required the application of in situ salinity profiles to one SNTHERM snow profile, which resulted in simulated backscatter close to that driven by in situ snow properties. In other test cases, the simulated backscatter remained 4-6 dB below observed for higher incidence angles and when compared to an average simulated backscatter of in situ end-member snow covers. Development of C-band inversion and assimilation schemes employing SNTHERM89.rev4 should consider sensitivity of the model to bias in incoming long-wave radiation, the effects of brine, and the inability of SNTHERM89.Rev4 to simulate water accumulation and refreezing at the bottom and mid-layers of the snowpack. These impact

  6. ERS satellite microwave radar observations of Antarctic sea-ice dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drinkwater, Mark R.; Liu, Xiang

    1997-01-01

    ERS-1 and ERS-2 scatterometer and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data are used to monitor and track large and small scale sea ice dynamics in the Southern Ocean, and in particular in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica. Sea ice formation in the Weddell Sea regulates vertical and horizontal thermohaline circulation and influences bottom water production rates. Significant seasonal to interannual variability is observed in the sea ice drift dynamics. Coupled model simulations reproduce this variability and indicate that there is significant interannual variability in Weddelll Sea ice formation, drifts and extent on the El Nino southern oscillation (ENSO) timescale, with a period of approximately eight years. Changes in ice dynamics on these timescales regulate the amount of sea ice divergence and polynya formation. Anomalies in the timing and duration of the opening of the Ronne ice shelf polynya system are closely related to the variability in outflow of Weddell Sea bottom water measured at Joinville Island.

  7. A comparative study of microwave radiometer observations over snowfields with radiative transfer model calculations. [for water runoff estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, A. T. C.; Shiue, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Truck mounted microwave instrumentation was used to study the microwave emission characteristics of the Colorado Rocky Mountain snowpack in the vicinity of Fraser, Colorado during the winter of 1978. The spectral signatures of 5.0, 10.7, 18, and 37 GHz radiometers with dual polarization were used to measure the snowpack density and temperature profiles, rain profile, and free water content. These data were compared with calculated results based on microscopic scattering models for dry, surface melting, and very wet snowpacks.

  8. Timing and regional patterns of snowmelt on Antarctic sea ice from passive microwave satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Stefanie; Willmes, Sascha; Dierking, Wolfgang; Nicolaus, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    An improved understanding of the temporal variability and the spatial distribution of snowmelt on Antarctic sea ice is crucial to better quantify atmosphere-ice-ocean interactions, in particular sea-ice mass and energy budgets. It is therefore important to understand the mechanisms that drive snowmelt, both at different times of the year and in different regions around Antarctica. In this study, we combine diurnal brightness temperature differences (dTB(37 GHz)) and ratios (TB(19 GHz)/TB(37 GHz)) to detect and classify snowmelt processes. We distinguish temporary snowmelt from continuous snowmelt to characterize dominant melt patterns for different Antarctic sea-ice regions from 1988/1989 to 2014/2015. Our results indicate four characteristic melt types. On average, 38.9 ± 6.0% of all detected melt events are diurnal freeze-thaw cycles in the surface snow layer, characteristic of temporary melt (Type A). Less than 2% reveal immediate continuous snowmelt throughout the snowpack, i.e., strong melt over a period of several days (Type B). In 11.7 ± 4.0%, Type A and B take place consecutively (Type C), and for 47.8 ± 6.8% no surface melt is observed at all (Type D). Continuous snowmelt is primarily observed in the outflow of the Weddell Gyre and in the northern Ross Sea, usually 17 days after the onset of temporary melt. Comparisons with Snow Buoy data suggest that also the onset of continuous snowmelt does not translate into changes in snow depth for a longer period but might rather affect the internal stratigraphy and density structure of the snowpack. Considering the entire data set, the timing of snowmelt processes does not show significant temporal trends.

  9. GroundBIRD: Observing Cosmic Microwave Polarization at Large Angular Scale with Kinetic Inductance Detectors and High-Speed Rotating Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Damayanthi, T.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Ishitsuka, H.; Karatsu, K.; Mima, S.; Minowa, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Otani, C.; Sekimoto, Y.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Yoshida, M.; Won, E.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) is an important source of information about the origin of our universe. In particular, odd-parity large angular scale patterns in the CMB polarization, the primordial B-modes, are strong evidence for an inflationary universe, related to the accelerating expansion of the metric. We are developing a unique telescope, GroundBIRD, to take CMB polarization measurements. The telescope combines novel techniques: high-speed rotation scanning, cold optics, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). We evaluated the response of MKIDs on the rotation stage. Method of shielding from the geo-magnetic field is established. We have also developed a receiver cryostat. We are able to maintain a sufficient cold status for observations on the optical configuration. We plan to start commissioning the system by observing CMB in Japan in 2015-2016. We will then deploy GroundBIRD in the Canary Islands for further scientific observations.

  10. Observations of H-alpha and microwave brightening caused by a distant solar flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Bobrowsky, M.; Rust, D. M.

    1983-01-01

    Synthesized maps with integration times of 10 and 30 sec, based on the observation of three subflares at 6 cm and H-alpha 6563 A, indicate that most of the 6 cm burst emission originated in 10-15 arcsec features coincident with, or adjacent to, H-alpha flare kernels. During the onset of one of the subflares, 6 cm emission was discovered in a loop stretching over 100,000 km from the primary flare site in association with H-alpha flare-like brightness at the remote footpoint of the loop. Assuming a primary flare site origin for the energy of the distant brightening, about 4 x 10 to the 24th ergs/sec propagated along the connecting magnetic loop at a velocity of more than 6000 km/sec. It is suggested that the energy may have been carried by electrons originating in the high energy tail of the electron thermal velocity distribution, escaping from the primary flare site.

  11. Effects of microwave exposure and Gemcitabine treatment on apoptotic activity in Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells.

    PubMed

    Canseven, Ayşe G; Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Kayhan, Handan; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 1.8 MHz Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-modulated microwave (MW) radiation on apoptotic level and cell viability of Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells with or without Gemcitabine, which exhibits cell phase specificity, primarily killing cells undergoing DNA synthesis (S-phase). Raji cells were exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM-modulated MW radiation at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.350 W/kg in a CO2 incubator. The duration of the exposure was 24 h. The amount of apoptotic cells was analyzed using Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining with flow cytometer. The apoptotic activity of MW exposed Raji cells was increased significantly. In addition, cell viability of exposed samples was significantly decreased. Combined exposure of MW and Gemcitabine increased the amount of apoptotic cells than MW radiation alone. Moreover, viability of MW + Gemcitabine exposed cells was lower than that of cells exposed only to MW. These results demonstrated that MW radiation exposure and Gemcitabine treatment have a synergistic effect on apoptotic activity of Raji cells.

  12. Microwave plasma doping: Arsenic activation and transport in germanium and silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hidenori; Oka, Masahiro; Ueda, Hirokazu; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Sugimoto, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Yuuki; Nakamura, Genji; Hirota, Yoshihiro; Kaitsuka, Takanobu; Kawakami, Satoru

    2016-04-01

    Microwave RLSA™ plasma doping technology has enabled conformal doping of non-planar semiconductor device structures. An important attribute of RLSA™ plasma doping is that it does not impart physical damage during processing. In this work, carrier activation measurements for AsH3 based plasma doping into silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge) using rapid thermal annealing are presented. The highest carrier concentrations are 3.6 × 1020 and 4.3 × 1018 cm-3 for Si and Ge, respectively. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiles of arsenic in Ge show that intrinsic dopant diffusion for plasma doping followed by post activation anneal is much slower than for conventional ion implantation. This is indicative of an absence of defects. The comparison is based on a comparison of diffusion times at identical annealing temperatures. The absence of defects, like those generated in conventional ion implantation, in RLSA™ based doping processes makes RLSA™ doping technology useful for damage free conformal doping of topographic structures.

  13. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activity of Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Fuyang; Hua, Yingjie; Wang, Chongtai; Zhao, Xudong; Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Hongdong

    2016-12-01

    Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 has been successfully synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal method at 140°C for 30min. The structure, morphology and optical property of the Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products have been systematically investigated. This study indicates that the incorporation of Tb(3+) could induce the conversion of structure from monoclinic to tetragonal for BiVO4. Furthermore, the as-obtained Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 samples showed an obvious morphological change: the hollow square rod-like BiVO4 crystal gradually changed to spindle-like crystal. The Tb(3+) doped BiVO4 products exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic activity for Methylene Blue (MB) degradation under visible light irradiation. The doped BiVO4 at a molar ratio of 2at% (Tb and Bi) with a mixture of monoclinic and tetragonal phases showed and prominent photocatalytic degradation rate, which reached 99.9% in 120min. The results suggest that the differences in the photocatalytic activity of these BiVO4 crystals with different Tb(3+) doping concentrations can be attributed to the change of crystalline phases, and the coexistence of the monoclinic/tetragonal phases in BiVO4 products, which improve the efficient charge separation and transportation. PMID:27565962

  14. The 10.7-cm microwave observations of AR 5395 and related terrestrial effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaizauskas, V.; Hughes, T. J.; Tapping, K. F.

    1989-01-01

    The 10.7 cm flux patrols in Canada recorded 4 Great Bursts (peaks greater than 500 sfu) during the disk passage of AR 5395 in March 1989. The Great Bursts of 16 and 17 March were simple events of great amplitude and with half-life durations of only several minutes. Earlier Great Bursts, originating on 6 March towards the NE limb and on 10 March closer to the central meridian, belong to an entirely different category of event. Each started with a very strong impulsive event lasting just minutes. After an initial recovery, however, the emission climbed back to level as greater or greater than the initial impulsive burst. The events of 6 and 10 March stayed above the Great Burst threshold for at least 100 minutes. The second component of long duration in these cases is associated with Type 4 continuum emission and thus very likely with CMEs. Major geomagnetic disturbances did not occur as a result of the massive complex event of 6 March or the two simple but strong events of 16 and 17 March. But some 55 hours after the peak in the long-enduring burst of 10 March, a storm began which qualifies as the fourth strongest geomagnetic storm in Canada since 1932. The vertical component of the earth's field measured during the storm by a fluxgate magnetometer at a station in Manitoba is presented. Within a minute of the sudden commencement of this storm, a series of breakdowns began in the transmission system of Hydro-Quebec which resulted in a total loss of power, on a bitterly cold winter's day, for at least 10 hours. The loss of power provoked an enormous outcry from the public resulting in the power utilities being more receptive to the need to monitor solar as well as geomagnetic activity.

  15. The effects of snowpack grain size on satellite passive microwave observations from the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Josberger, E.G.; Gloersen, P.; Chang, A.; Rango, A.

    1996-01-01

    Understanding the passive microwave emissions of a snowpack, as observed by satellite sensors, requires knowledge of the snowpack properties: water equivalent, grain size, density, and stratigraphy. For the snowpack in the Upper Colorado River Basin, measurements of snow depth and water equivalent are routinely available from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, but extremely limited information is available for the other properties. To provide this information, a field program from 1984 to 1995 obtained profiles of snowpack grain size, density, and temperature near the time of maximum snow accumulation, at sites distributed across the basin. A synoptic basin-wide sampling program in 1985 showed that the snowpack exhibits consistent properties across large regions. Typically, the snowpack in the Wyoming region contains large amounts of depth hoar, with grain sizes up to 5 mm, while the snowpack in Colorado and Utah is dominated by rounded snow grains less than 2 mm in diameter. In the Wyoming region, large depth hoar crystals in shallow snowpacks yield the lowest emissivities or coldest brightness temperatures observed across the entire basin. Yearly differences in the average grain sizes result primarily from variations in the relative amount of depth hoar within the snowpack. The average grain size for the Colorado and Utah regions shows much less variation than do the grain sizes from the Wyoming region. Furthermore, the greatest amounts of depth hoar occur in the Wyoming region during 1987 and 1992, years with strong El Nin??o Southern Oscillation, but the Colorado and Utah regions do not show this behavior.

  16. Classification methods for monitoring Arctic sea ice using OKEAN passive/active two-channel microwave data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belchansky, Gennady I.; Douglas, David C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents methods for classifying Arctic sea ice using both passive and active (2-channel) microwave imagery acquired by the Russian OKEAN 01 polar-orbiting satellite series. Methods and results are compared to sea ice classifications derived from nearly coincident Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) image data of the Barents, Kara, and Laptev Seas. The Russian OKEAN 01 satellite data were collected over weekly intervals during October 1995 through December 1997. Methods are presented for calibrating, georeferencing and classifying the raw active radar and passive microwave OKEAN 01 data, and for correcting the OKEAN 01 microwave radiometer calibration wedge based on concurrent 37 GHz horizontal polarization SSM/I brightness temperature data. Sea ice type and ice concentration algorithms utilized OKEAN's two-channel radar and passive microwave data in a linear mixture model based on the measured values of brightness temperature and radar backscatter, together with a priori knowledge about the scattering parameters and natural emissivities of basic sea ice types. OKEAN 01 data and algorithms tended to classify lower concentrations of young or first-year sea ice when concentrations were less than 60%, and to produce higher concentrations of multi-year sea ice when concentrations were greater than 40%, when compared to estimates produced from SSM/I data. Overall, total sea ice concentration maps derived independently from OKEAN 01, SSM/I, and AVHRR satellite imagery were all highly correlated, with uniform biases, and mean differences in total ice concentration of less than four percent (sd<15%).

  17. Front-End Electronics for the Array Readout of a Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector Towards Observation of Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishitsuka, H.; Ikeno, M.; Oguri, S.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Uchida, T.

    2016-07-01

    Precise measurements of polarization patterns in cosmic microwave background (CMB) provide deep knowledge about the begin of the Universe. The GroundBIRD experiment aims to measure the CMB polarization by using microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID) arrays. The MKID is suited to multiplexing. One of our requirements is a MUX factor (the number of readout channels for a single wire pair) of at least 100. If we make frequency combs of the MKIDs with 2-MHz spacing, a bandwidth of 200 MHz satisfies 100 MUX. The analog electronics must consist of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), and local oscillator. We developed our own analog electronics board " RHEA." Two outputs/inputs of DAC/ADC with a 200-MHz clock provide an effective bandwidth of 200 MHz. The RHEA allows us to measure both the amplitude and phase responses of each MKID simultaneously. These data are continuously sampled at a high rate (e.g., 1 kSPS) and with no dead time. We achieved 12 and 14 bits resolution for ADC and DAC, respectively. This corresponds to achieve that our electronics achieved low noise: 1/1000 compared with the detector noise. We also achieved low power consumption compared with that of other electronics development for other experiments. Another important feature is that the board is completely separated from the digital part. Each user can choose their preferred field-programmable array. With the combination of the Kintex-7 evaluation kit from Xilinx, we demonstrated readout of MKID response.

  18. Recent glacier surface snowpack melt in Novaya Zemlya and Severnaya Zemlya derived from active and passive microwave remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meng

    The warming rate in the Russian High Arctic (RHA) (36˜158°E, 73˜82°N) is outpacing the pan-Arctic average, and its effect on the small glaciers across this region needs further examination. The temporal variation and spatial distribution of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) throughout the Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) archipelagoes serve as good indicators of ice mass ablation and glacier response to regional climate change in the RHA. However, due to the harsh environment, long-term glaciological observations are limited, necessitating the application of remotely sensed data to study the surface melt dynamics. The high sensitivity to liquid water and the ability to work without solar illumination and penetrate non-precipitating clouds make microwave remote sensing an ideal tool to detect melt in this region. This work extracts resolution-enhanced passive and active microwave data from different periods and retrieves a decadal melt record for NovZ and SevZ. The high correlation among passive and active data sets instills confidence in the results. The mean MOD is June 20th on SevZ and June 10th on NovZ during the period of 1992-2012. The average TMDs are 47 and 67 days on SevZ and NovZ from 1995 to 2011, respectively. NovZ had large interannual variability in the MOD, but its TMD generally increased. SevZ MOD is found to be positively correlated to local June reanalysis air temperature at 850hPa geopotential height and occurs significantly earlier (˜0.73 days/year, p-value < 0.01) from 1992 to 2011. SevZ also experienced a longer TMD trend (˜0.75 days/year, p-value < 0.05) from 1995 to 2011. Annual mean TMD on both islands are positively correlated with regional summer mean reanalysis air temperature and negatively correlated to local sea ice extent. These strong correlations might suggest that the Russian High Arctic glaciers are vulnerable to the continuously diminishing sea ice extent, the associated air temperature

  19. Microvariability Observations of Three Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Hirschmann, A.; Jenks, A.; Keshishian, G.; Torres, Y.

    2000-12-01

    Microvariability observations are presented for three objects - the BL Lac object OQ 530, the OVV quasar 3CR 345, and the very high redshift quasar PSS 1057+4555. All objects were observed using the 0.76m telescope at the Rosemary Hill Observatory. The object OQ 530 was observed in the R band during three nights in June of 1997. Observations in the V and I bands were made of the OVV quasar 3CR 345 in May of 2000. The microvariability behavior reported here for OQ 530 and 3CR 345 is compared to the previously reported behavior for these objects. In addition, observations were carried out over four nights in March and May of 2000 to search for microvariability of the very high redshift (z = 4.10) quasar PSS 1057+4555. The data presented here for these three objects are discussed in relation to current models for microvariability.

  20. Sea Surface Salinity and Wind Retrieval Algorithm Using Combined Passive-Active L-Band Microwave Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Chaubell, Mario J.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined passive/active L-band microwave instrument developed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The data will support studies of the coupling between ocean circulation, the global water cycle, and climate. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 kilometers and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units globally on a monthly basis. The measurement principle is based on the response of the L-band (1.413 gigahertz) sea surface brightness temperatures (T (sub B)) to sea surface salinity. To achieve the required 0.2 practical salinity units accuracy, the impact of sea surface roughness (e.g. wind-generated ripples and waves) along with several factors on the observed brightness temperature has to be corrected to better than a few tenths of a degree Kelvin. To the end, Aquarius includes a scatterometer to help correct for this surface roughness effect.

  1. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  2. Active microwave measurements of sea ice under fall conditions: The RADARSAT/FIREX fall experiment. [in the Canadian Arctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Moore, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    A series of measurements of the active microwave properties of sea ice under fall growing conditions was conducted. Ice in the inland waters of Mould Bay, Crozier Channel, and intrepid inlet and ice in the Arctic Ocean near Hardinge Bay was investigated. Active microwave data were acquired using a helicopter borne scatterometer. Results show that multiyear ice frozen in grey or first year ice is easily detected under cold fall conditions. Multiyear ice returns were dynamic due to response to two of its scene constituents. Floe boundaries between thick and thin ice are well defined. Multiyear pressure ridge returns are similar in level to background ice returns. Backscatter from homogeneous first year ice is seen to be primarily due to surface scattering. Operation at 9.6 GHz is more sensitive to the detailed changes in scene roughness, while operation at 5.6 GHz seems to track roughness changes less ably.

  3. Impact of active ingredients on the swelling properties of orally disintegrating tablets prepared by microwave treatment.

    PubMed

    Sano, Syusuke; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Susumu; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    The impact of different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) loading on the properties of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) prepared according to our previously reported microwave (MW) treatment process was evaluated using famotidine (FAM), acetaminophen (AAP), and ibuprofen (IBU). None of the APIs interrupted the tablet swelling during the MW treatment and the tablet hardness were improved by more than 20 N. MW treatment, however, led to a significant increase in the disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU, but it had no impact on that of the ODTs containing FAM or AAP. This increased disintegration time of the ODTs containing IBU was attributed to the relatively low melting point of IBU (Tm=76 °C), with the IBU particles melting during the MW treatment to form agglomerates, which interrupted the penetration of water into the tablets and delayed their disintegration. The effects of the MW treatment on the chemical stability and dissolution properties of ODTs were also evaluated. The results revealed that MW treatment did not promote the degradations of FAM and AAP or delay their release from the ODTs, while dissolution of the ODTs containing IBU delayed by MW treatment. Based on these results, the MW method would be applicable to the preparation of ODTs containing APIs with melting points higher than 110 °C.

  4. Enhanced activity in ethanol oxidation of Pt3Sn electrocatalysts synthesized by microwave irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanović, S.; Tripković, D.; Rogan, J.; Minić, D.; Gavrilović, A.; Tripković, A.; Jovanović, V. M.

    2011-12-01

    High surface area carbon supported Pt and Pt3Sn catalysts were synthesized by microwave irradiation and investigated in the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction. The catalysts were obtained using a modified polyol method in an ethylene glycol solution and were characterized in terms of structure, morphology and composition by employing XRD, STM and EDX techniques. The diffraction peaks of Pt3Sn/C catalyst in XRD patterns are shifted to lower 2θ values with respect to the corresponding peaks at Pt/C catalyst as a consequence of alloy formation between Pt and Sn. Particle size analysis from STM and XRD shows that Pt and Pt3Sn clusters are of a small diameter (˜2 nm) with a narrow size distribution. Pt3Sn/C catalyst is highly active in ethanol oxidation with the onset potential shifted for ˜150 mV to more negative values and with ˜2 times higher currents in comparison to Pt/C.

  5. Soil Moisture Retrieval Through Changing Corn Using Active/Passive Microwave Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. E.; Joseph, A.; DeLannoy, G.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Kim, E.; Houser, P.; Gish, T.

    2003-01-01

    An extensive field experiment was conducted from May-early October, 2002 at the heavily instrumented USDA-ARS (U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service) OPE3 (Optimizing Production Inputs for Economic and Environmental Enhancement) test site in Beltsville, MD to acquire data needed to address active/passive microwave algorithm, modeling, and ground validation issues for accurate soil moisture retrieval. During the experiment, a tower-mounted 1.4 GHz radiometer (Lrad) and a truck-mounted dual-frequency (1.6 and 4.75 GHz) radar system were deployed on the northern edge of the site. The soil in this portion of the field is a sandy loam (silt 23.5%, sand 60.3%, clay 16.1%) with a measured bulk density of 1.253 g/cu cm. Vegetation cover in the experiment consisted of a corn crop which was measured from just after planting on April 17, 2002 through senescence and harvesting on October 2. Although drought conditions prevailed during the summer, the corn yield was near average, with peak biomass reached in late July.

  6. Preparation of Granular Red Mud Adsorbent using Different Binders by Microwave Pore - Making and Activation Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Thiquynhxuan; Wang, Hanrui; Ju, Shaohua; Peng, Jinhui; Zhou, Liexing; Wang, Shixing; Yin, Shaohua; Liu, Chao

    2016-04-01

    In this work, microwave energy is used for preparing a granular red mud (GRM) adsorbent made of red mud with different binders, such as starch, sodium silicate and cement. The effects of the preparation parameters, such as binder type, binder addition ratio, microwave heating temperature, microwave power and holding time, on the absorption property of GRM are investigated. The BET surface area, strength, pore structure, XRD and SEM of the GRM absorbent are analyzed. The results show that the microwave roasting has a good effect on pore-making of GRM, especially when using organic binder. Both the BET surface area and the strength of GRM obtained by microwave heating are significantly higher than that by conventional heating. The optimum conditions are obtained as follows: 6:100 (w/w) of starch to red mud ratio, microwave roasting with a power of 2.6 kW at 500℃ for holding time of 30 min. The BET surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter of GRM prepared at the optimum conditions are 15.58 m2/g, 0.0337 cm3/g and 3.1693 A0, respectively.

  7. Performance test of the synergetic use of simulated lidar and microwave radiometer observations for mixing-layer height detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Umar; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Crewell, Susanne

    2015-10-01

    There are several instruments and methods to retrieve the atmospheric Mixing Layer Height (MLH). However, none of these instruments or methods can measure the development of the MLH under all atmospheric conditions. For example, aerosol signatures measured by backscatter lidars can be used to determine the MLH but this approach is reasonable only when the atmosphere is well-mixed. Microwave Radiometer (MWR) derived profiles have low vertical resolution and cannot resolve fine structures in the boundary layer, especially, at higher altitudes. Here we propose a method which combines data from a ground-based lidar and a MWR, in simulated as well as real measurements scenarios, to overcome these limitations. The method works by fitting an erf-like transition model function to the section of range-corrected lidar backscatter signal. The section of the lidar backscatter signal for fitting the model function is obtained by incorporating the MWR estimates of MLH along with their uncertainties. The fitting is achieved by using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The proposed approach, by exploiting the synergy between the two instruments, enables to detect MLH with original vertical and temporal resolutions. Test cases combining simulated data for a co-located lidar-ceilometer and a MWR are presented. The simulated data is obtained from the Dutch Atmospheric Large Eddy Simulation (DALES) model for boundary layer studies. Doppler wind lidar along with radiosondes (whenever available) data is used to assess the quality of the synergetic MLH estimates. Data from the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) campaign at Jülich, Germany is used to test the proposed method.

  8. Sensitivity study for a remotely piloted microwave-powered sailplane used as a high-altitude observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turriziani, R. V.

    1979-01-01

    The sensitivity of several performance characteristics of a proposed design for a microwave-powered, remotely piloted, high-altitude sailplane to changes in independently varied design parameters was investigated. Results were expressed as variations from baseline values of range, final climb altitude and onboard storage of radiated energy. Calculated range decreased with increases in either gross weight or parasite drag coefficient; it also decreased with decreases in lift coefficient, propeller efficiency, or microwave beam density. The sensitivity trends for range and final climb altitude were very similar. The sensitivity trends for stored energy were reversed from those for range, except for decreasing microwave beam density. Some study results for single parameter variations were combined to estimate the effect of the simultaneous variation of several parameters: for two parameters, this appeared to give reasonably accurate results.

  9. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  10. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  11. ALTERNATIVE ROUTES FOR CATALYST PREPARATION: USE OF ULTRASOUND AND MICROWAVE IRRADIATION FOR THE PREPARATION OF VANADIUM PHOSPHORUS OXIDE CATALYST AND THEIR ACTIVITY FOR HYDROCARBON OXIDATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vanadium phosphorus oxide (VPO) has been prepared using ultrasound and microwave irradiation methods and compared with the catalyst prepared by conventional method for both the phase composition and activity for hydrocarbon oxidation. It is found that ultrasound irradiation metho...

  12. Observational Activities at Manipur University, India (Abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. Y.; Meitei, I. A.; Singh, S. A.; Singh, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) We have innovatively designed and constructed three observatories each costing a few hundred USD for housing three small Schmidt-Cassegrain type telescopes namely, Celestron CGE925, Celestron CGE1400, Meade 12-inch LX200GPS. These observatories are completely different in design and are found to be perfectly usable for doing serious work on astronomical observation and measurements. The observatory with the Celestron CGE1400 telescope has been inducted, since January 2012, as one of the observatories of the international “Orion Project” headquartered at Phoenix, Arizona, which is dedicated for photometric and spectroscopic observations of five bright variable stars of the Orion constellation namely, Betelgeuse (alpha Ori), Rigel (beta Ori), Mintaka (delta Ori), Alnilam (epsilon Ori) and Alnitak (zeta Ori). Using this observatory, we have been producing BVRI photometric data for the five stars of the Orion project. The other observatory with the Meade 12-inch LX200GPS telescope is being inducted into service for CCD photometric study of SU UMa stars in connection with implementation of a project funded by Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). In the present paper, we would like to describe our self-built observatories, our observational facilities, the BVRI photometric data that we acquired for the Orion project, and our future plan for observation of variable stars of interest.

  13. Microwave-assisted Synthesis and antifungal activity of coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Zhang, Rong-Rong; Yin, Wen-Zheng; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Ya-Ling; Liu, Pin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of novel coumarin[8,7-e][1,3]oxazine derivatives through a microwave-assisted three-component one-pot Mannich reaction is described in this study. All the target compounds were evaluated in vitro for their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum capsici, Alternaria solani, Gibberella zeae, Rhizoctonia solani, and Alternaria mali. The preliminary bioassays showed that 5e, 5m, and 5s exhibited good antifungal activity and the most active compound was 5m with an [Formula: see text] value as low as 2.1 nM against Botrytis cinerea. PMID:26880591

  14. Utilization of oil palm biodiesel solid residue as renewable sources for preparation of granular activated carbon by microwave induced KOH activation.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2013-02-01

    In this work, preparation of granular activated carbon from oil palm biodiesel solid residue, oil palm shell (PSAC) by microwave assisted KOH activation has been attempted. The physical and chemical properties of PSAC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, volumetric adsorption analyzer and elemental analysis. The adsorption behavior was examined by performing batch adsorption experiments using methylene blue as dye model compound. Equilibrium data were simulated using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models. Kinetic modeling was fitted to the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and Elovich kinetic models, while the adsorption mechanism was determined using the intraparticle diffusion and Boyd equations. The result was satisfactory fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model with a monolayer adsorption capacity of 343.94mg/g at 30°C. The findings support the potential of oil palm shell for preparation of high surface area activated carbon by microwave assisted KOH activation.

  15. Identifying the Influence of Variable Ice Types on Passive and Active Microwave Measurements for the Purpose of SWE Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunn, G. E.; Duguay, C. R.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Dual polarized airborne passive microwave (PM) brightness temperatures (Tbs) at 6.9, 19 and 37 GHz H/V and satellite X-band (9.65 GHz VV/VH) active microwave backscatter measurements were combined with coincident in-situ measurements of snow and ice characteristics to determine the potential of unique emission/interaction caused by variable ice properties. Algorithms designed to estimate snow water equivalent (SWE) using the common brightness temperature difference approach (37GHz - 19 GHz) continually underestimate in-situ levels when applied to pure-ice pixels in the Canadian subarctic. Ice thickness measurements were positively correlated with 19 GHz vertically polarised (V pol) passive microwave emissions (R= 0.67), and negatively with 19 GHz horizontally polarised (H pol) emissions (R = -0.79), indicating that surface conditions at the ice/snow interface affect the emissivity at H pol. This study examines the effect of ice types on coincident passive and active microwave measurements for free-floating ice in two lakes (Sitidgi, Husky Lakes). Ice types are delineated using the SAR segmentation program MAGIC (MAp Guided Ice Classification) that has previously been used to characterize sea ice types. Based on output ice types produced by MAGIC, the relationship between active and passive microwave measurements is examined. Output ice classes corresponded well to those measured at coincident in-situ sampling sites. Emissions at 19 GHz H and cross-polarised X-band backscatter (9.65 GHz) increase coincident to ice types that exhibit more scattering potential. Clear ice exhibits the lowest return, followed by a transition zone between clear ice and grey ice. Grey ice exhibits higher returns as a result of the inclusion of spherical air bubbles, followed by rafted ice, which exhibits an excess of scattering potential. Concurrently, transects of dual polarized 6.9 and 19 GHz PM Tbs exhibited a positive relationship with cross-polarized active microwave backscatter (VH

  16. Summertime Coincident Observations of Ice Water Path in the Visible/Near-IR, Radar, and Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pittman, Jasna V.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate representation of the physical and radiative properties of clouds in climate models continues to be a challenge. At present, both remote sensing observations and modeling of microphysical properties of clouds rely heavily on parameterizations or assumptions on particle size distribution (PSD) and cloud phase. In this study, we compare Ice Water Path (IWP), an important physical and radiative property that provides the amount of ice present in a cloud column, using measurements obtained via three different retrieval strategies. The datasets we use in this study include Visible/Near-IR IWP from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument flying aboard the Aqua satellite, Radar-only IWP from the CloudSat instrument operating at 94 GHz, and NOAA/NESDIS operational IWP from the 89 and 157 GHz channels of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) instrument flying aboard the NOAA-18 satellite. In the Visible/Near-IR, IWP is derived from observations of optical thickness and effective radius. CloudSat IWP is determined from measurements of cloud backscatter and assumed PSD. MHS IWP retrievals depend on scattering measurements at two different, non-water absorbing channels, 89 and 157 GHz. In order to compare IWP obtained from these different techniques and collected at different vertical and horizontal resolutions, we examine summertime cases in the tropics (30S - 30N) when all 3 satellites are within 4 minutes of each other (approximately 1500 km). All measurements are then gridded to a common 15 km x 15 km box determined by MHS. In a grid box comparison, we find CloudSat to report the highest IWP followed by MODIS, followed by MHS. In a statistical comparison, probability density distributions show MHS with the highest frequencies at IWP of 100-1000 g/m(exp 2) and CloudSat with the longest tail reporting IWP of several thousands g/m(exp 2). For IWP greater than 30 g/m(exp 2), MODIS is consistently higher than CloudSat, and it is higher at

  17. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Stress Analysis Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffner, Robert

    1996-01-01

    Stress analysis of the primary structure of the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) Advanced Microwave Sounding Units-A, A1 Module using static loads is presented. The structural margins of safety and natural frequency predictions for the METSAT design are reported.

  18. Synergism of active and passive microwave data for estimating bare surface soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saatchi, Sasan S.; Njoku, Eni G.; Wegmueller, Urs

    1993-01-01

    Active and passive microwave sensors were applied effectively to the problem of estimating the surface soil moisture in a variety of environmental conditions. Research to date has shown that both types of sensors are also sensitive to the surface roughness and the vegetation cover. In estimating the soil moisture, the effect of the vegetation and roughness are often corrected either by acquiring multi-configuration (frequency and polarization) data or by adjusting the surface parameters in order to match the model predictions to the measured data. Due to the limitations on multi-configuration spaceborne data and the lack of a priori knowledge of the surface characteristics for parameter adjustments, it was suggested that the synergistic use of the sensors may improve the estimation of the soil moisture over the extreme range of naturally occurring soil and vegetation conditions. To investigate this problem, the backscattering and emission from a bare soil surface using the classical rough surface scattering theory were modeled. The model combines the small perturbation and the Kirchhoff approximations in conjunction with the Peak formulation to cover a wide range of surface roughness parameters with respect to frequency for both active and passive measurements. In this approach, the same analytical method was used to calculate the backscattering and emissivity. Therefore, the active and passive simulations can be combined at various polarizations and frequencies in order to estimate the soil moisture more actively. As a result, it is shown that (1) the emissivity is less dependent on the surface correlation length, (2) the ratio of the backscattering coefficient (HH) over the surface reflectivity (H) is almost independent of the soil moisture for a wide range of surface roughness, and (3) this ratio can be approximated as a linear function of the surface rms height. The results were compared with the data obtained by a multi-frequency radiometer

  19. Ground-based microwave weather radar observations and retrievals during the 2014 Holuhraun eruption (Bárðarbunga, Iceland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereu, Luigi; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Barsotti, Sara; Montopoli, Mario; Yeo, Richard; Arngrimsson, Hermann; Björnsson, Halldór; Bonadonna, Costanza

    2015-04-01

    During an eruptive event the real-time forecasting of ash dispersal into the atmosphere is a key factor to prevent air traffic disasters. The ash plume is extremely hazardous to aircraft that inadvertently may fly through it. Real-time monitoring of such phenomena is crucial, particularly to obtain specific data for the initialization of eruption and dispersion models in terms of source parameters. The latter, such as plume height, ash concentration, mass flow rate and size spectra, are usually very difficult to measure or to estimate with a relatively good accuracy. Over the last years different techniques have been developed to improved ash plume detection and retrieval. Satellite-based observations, using multi-frequency visible and infrared radiometers, are usually exploited for monitoring and measuring dispersed ash clouds. The observations from geostationary orbit suffer from a relatively poor spatial resolution, whereas the low orbit level has a relatively poor temporal resolution. Moreover, the field-of-view of infrared radiometric measurements may be reduced by obstructions caused by water and ice clouds lying between the ground and the sensor's antenna. Weather radar-based observations represent an emerging technique to detect and, to a certain extent, mitigate the hazard from the ash plumes. Ground-based microwave scanning radar systems can provide the three-dimensional information about the detected ash volume with a fairly high spatial resolution every few minutes and in all weather conditions. Methodological studies have recently investigated the possibility of using single-polarization and dual-polarization ground-based radar for the remote sensing of volcanic ash cloud. In this respect, radar observations can be complementary to satellite observations. A microphysical electromagnetic characterization of volcanic ash was carried out in terms of dielectric properties, composition, size and orientation of ash particles. An extended Volcanic Ash Radar

  20. Einstein observations of active galaxies and quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreier, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The radio galaxies Centaurus A and Signus B are discussed. In both these sources, a comparison of the radio and imaged X-ray flux is allowed for the measurement of the magnetic fields. Einstein observations of quasars are discussed. The number of known X-ray emitting QSO's was increased from 3 to 22 and the distances where these QSO's were seen to correspond to an age of 15 billion years. It was shown that these quasars contributed significantly to the X-ray background.

  1. Effects of microwave, ultrasonic and enzymatic treatment on chemical and physical properties of waste-activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wei G; Lo, Kwang V; Mavinic, Donald S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of microwave irradiation, microwave enhanced advanced oxidation process (MW/H2O2-AOP), ultrasonic and/or protease enzymatic treatments on chemical and physical properties of waste-activated sludge were studied. The different treatment mechanisms resulted in various degrees of biomass cell destruction and nutrient release, as evidenced by transformation of chemical constituents, particle size distribution, and scanning electron microscopic imaging. The microwave irradiation and the MW/H2O2-AOP resulted in higher soluble protein concentrations, but lower amino acids. High concentrations of soluble polysaccharide and deoxyribonucleic acid were also obtained in solution. The particle size distribution profile, after treatments, remained similar to that of waste-activated sludge; however, the distribution shifted toward smaller particle sizes. Ultrasonic treatment resulted in a high concentration of amino acids and overall protein disintegration/hydrolysis. Protease enzymatic treatment, after ultrasonic disintegration, further enhanced protein degradation. The particle size distribution profile for ultrasonic treatment was altered to a further nonuniform distribution. The ultrasonic plus protease treatment yielded the best results, in terms of cell wall destruction.

  2. Overview of Microwave and Millimeter Wave Testing Activities for the Inspection of the Space Shuttle SOH and Heat Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoughi, R.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation methods, have shown great potential for inspecting the Space Shuttle s external tank spray on foam insulation (SOFI) and acreage heat tiles. These methods are capable of producing high-resolution images of et interior of these structures. To this end, several different microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing methods have been investigated for this purpose. These methods have included near-field as well as focused approaches ranging in frequency from 10 GHz to beyond 100 GHz. Additionally, synthetic aperture focusing methods have also been developed in this regime for obtaining high-resolution images of the interior of these critical structures. These methods possess the potential for producing 3D images of these structures in a relatively short amount of time. This paper presents a summary of these activities in addition to providing examples of images produced using these diverse methods.

  3. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites and their photocatalytic activities under ultraviolet and visible-light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Dafeng; Pu, Xipeng; Li, Huaiyong; Yu, Young Moon; Shim, Jae Jeong; Cai, Peiqing; Kim, Sun Il; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a microwave-assisted combustion method. • Ag/ZnO nanocomposites exhibited improved photocatalytic activities under UV irradiation. • Poorer photocatalytic performances were obtained under visible-light irradiation. - Abstract: Ag/ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a rapid one-step microwave-assisted combustion method. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, photoluminescence and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. XRD results showed that hexagonal ZnO and cubic Ag were obtained. Ag nanoparticles were chemically attached on the surface of ZnO. The decrease in the energy band gap of Ag/ZnO nanocomposites and the photoluminescence quenching were observed while the Ag content was increased. Furthermore, the introduction of Ag nanoparticles leads to significantly improved photocatalytic activities in the case of ultraviolet irradiation, but in the case of visible-light irradiation opposite results were obtained. The corresponding mechanism was discussed in detail.

  4. Microwave ECR Ion Thruster Development Activities at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Outer solar system missions will have propulsion system lifetime requirements well in excess of that which can be satisfied by ion thrusters utilizing conventional hollow cathode technology. To satisfy such mission requirements, other technologies must be investigated. One possible approach is to utilize electrodeless plasma production schemes. Such an approach has seen low power application less than 1 kW on earth-space spacecraft such as ARTEMIS which uses the rf thruster the RIT 10 and deep space missions such as MUSES-C which will use a microwave ion thruster. Microwave and rf thruster technologies are compared. A microwave-based ion thruster is investigated for potential high power ion thruster systems requiring very long lifetimes.

  5. Electro-catalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-metal (Pt or Pd) nanohybrid materials synthesized using microwave-induced reactions and their possible use in fuel cells

    PubMed Central

    V, Lakshman Kumar; Ntim, Susana Addo; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Janardhana, Chelli; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Mitra, Somenath

    2012-01-01

    Microwave induced reactions for immobilizing platinum and palladium nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotubes are presented. The resulting hybrid materials were used as catalysts for direct methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation in acidic as well as alkaline media. The electrodes are formed by simply mixing the hybrids with graphite paste, thus using a relatively small quantity of the precious metal. We report Tafel slopes and apparent activation energies at different potentials and temperatures. Ethanol electro-oxidation with the palladium hybrid showed an activation energy of 7.64 kJmol−1 which is lower than those observed for other systems. This system is economically attractive because Pd is significantly less expensive than Pt and ethanol is fast evolving as a commercial biofuel. PMID:23118490

  6. Electro-catalytic activity of multiwall carbon nanotube-metal (Pt or Pd) nanohybrid materials synthesized using microwave-induced reactions and their possible use in fuel cells.

    PubMed

    V, Lakshman Kumar; Ntim, Susana Addo; Sae-Khow, Ornthida; Janardhana, Chelli; Lakshminarayanan, V; Mitra, Somenath

    2012-11-30

    Microwave induced reactions for immobilizing platinum and palladium nanoparticles on multiwall carbon nanotubes are presented. The resulting hybrid materials were used as catalysts for direct methanol, ethanol and formic acid oxidation in acidic as well as alkaline media. The electrodes are formed by simply mixing the hybrids with graphite paste, thus using a relatively small quantity of the precious metal. We report Tafel slopes and apparent activation energies at different potentials and temperatures. Ethanol electro-oxidation with the palladium hybrid showed an activation energy of 7.64 kJmol(-1) which is lower than those observed for other systems. This system is economically attractive because Pd is significantly less expensive than Pt and ethanol is fast evolving as a commercial biofuel.

  7. Intercomparisons between passive and active microwave remote sensing, and hydrological modeling for soil moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, E. F.; Lin, D.-S.; Mancini, M.; Thongs, D.; Troch, P. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Engman, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    Soil moisture estimations from a distributed hydrological model and two microwave sensors were compared with ground measurements collected during the MAC-HYDRO'90 experiment. The comparison was done with the purpose of evaluating the performance of the hydrological model and examining the limitations of remote sensing techniques used in soil moisture estimation. An image integration technique was used to integrate and analyze rainfall, soil properties, land cover, topography, and remote sensing imagery. Results indicate that the hydrological model and microwave sensors successfully picked up temporal variations of soil moisture and that the spatial soil moisture pattern may be remotely sensed with reasonable accuracy using existing algorithms.

  8. Multiple Wavelength Observations of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    The radio emission of quiescent active regions at 6 cm wavelength marks the legs of magnetic dipoles, and the emission at 20 cm wavelength delineates the radio wavelength counterpart of the coronal loops previously detected at X-ray wavelengths. At both wavelengths the temperatures have coronal values of a few million degrees. The polarization of the radio emission specifies the structure and strength of the coronal magnetic field (H ≈ 600 Gauss at heights h ≈ 4 x 109 cm above sunspot umbrae). At 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength the solar bursts have angular sizes between 5" and 30", brightness temperatures between 2 x 107 K and 2 x 108 K, and degrees of circular polarization between 10% and 90%. The location of the burst energy release is specified with second-of-arc accuracy. At radio wavelengths the bursts occur within the central regions of magnetic loops, while the flaring Ha kernels are located at the loop footpoints. Coronal loops exhibit enhanced radio emission (preburst heating) a few minutes before the release of burst energy. The radio polarization data indicate magnetic changes before and during solar bursts.

  9. A facile synthesis of arylazonicotinates for dyeing polyester fabrics under microwave irradiation and their biological activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Al-Mousawi, Saleh M; El-Apasery, Morsy A; Mahmoud, Huda M

    2012-09-27

    A as textile dyes and the fastness properties of the dyed samples were measured. Most of the dyed fabrics tested displayed very good washing and perspiration fastness and series of 2-hydroxy- and 2-amino-6-substituted-5-arylazonicotinate monoazo compounds 7a-e and 9a-c were prepared via condensation of 3-oxo-3-substituted-2-arylhydrazonals 2a-e with active methylene nitriles 3a-d using microwave irradiation as an energy source. These substances were then tested moderate light fastness. Finally, the biological activity of the synthesized compounds against gram positive bacteria, gram negative bacteria and yeast were evaluated.

  10. Coronal Magnetic Fields Derived from Simultaneous Microwave and EUV Observations and Comparison with the Potential Field Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyawaki, Shun; iwai, Kazumasa; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Shiota, Daikou; Nozawa, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    We estimated the accuracy of coronal magnetic fields derived from radio observations by comparing them to potential field calculations and the differential emission measure measurements using EUV observations. We derived line-of-sight components of the coronal magnetic field from polarization observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung in the NOAA active region 11150, observed around 3:00 UT on 2011 February 3 using the Nobeyama Radioheliograph at 17 GHz. Because the thermal bremsstrahlung intensity at 17 GHz includes both chromospheric and coronal components, we extracted only the coronal component by measuring the coronal emission measure in EUV observations. In addition, we derived only the radio polarization component of the corona by selecting the region of coronal loops and weak magnetic field strength in the chromosphere along the line of sight. The upper limits of the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields were determined as 100-210 G. We also calculated the coronal longitudinal magnetic fields from the potential field extrapolation using the photospheric magnetic field obtained from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. However, the calculated potential fields were certainly smaller than the observed coronal longitudinal magnetic field. This discrepancy between the potential and the observed magnetic field strengths can be explained consistently by two reasons: (1) the underestimation of the coronal emission measure resulting from the limitation of the temperature range of the EUV observations, and (2) the underestimation of the coronal magnetic field resulting from the potential field assumption.

  11. Low-level microwave irradiation and central cholinergic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, H.; Carino, M.A.; Horita, A.; Guy, A.W. )

    1989-05-01

    Our previous research showed that 45 min of exposure to low-level, pulsed microwaves (2450-MHz, 2-microseconds pulses, 500 pps, whole-body average specific absorption rate 0.6 W/kg) decreased sodium-dependent high-affinity choline uptake in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of the rat. The effects of microwaves on central cholinergic systems were further investigated in this study. Increases in choline uptake activity in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and hypothalamus were observed after 20 min of acute microwave exposure, and tolerance to the effect of microwaves developed in the hypothalamus, but not in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, of rats subjected to ten daily 20-min exposure sessions. Furthermore, the effects of acute microwave irradiation on central choline uptake could be blocked by pretreating the animals before exposure with the narcotic antagonist naltrexone. In another series of experiments, rats were exposed to microwaves in ten daily sessions of either 20 or 45 min, and muscarinic cholinergic receptors in different regions of the brain were studied by 3H-QNB binding assay. Decreases in concentration of receptors occurred in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to ten 20-min microwave exposure sessions, whereas increase in receptor concentration occurred in the hippocampus of animals exposed to ten 45-min sessions. This study also investigated the effects of microwave exposure on learning in the radial-arm maze. Rats were trained in the maze to obtain food reinforcements immediately after 20 or 45 min of microwave exposure.

  12. Microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod and evaluation of its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzheng; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhao, Xiuhua

    2014-01-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed in simultaneous extraction of luteolin and apigenin from tree peony pod. The MAE procedure was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) and compared with other conventional extraction techniques of macerate extraction (ME) and heat reflux extraction (HRE). The optimal conditions of MAE were as follows: employing 70% ethanol volume fraction as solvent, soaking time of 4 h, liquid-solid ratio of 10 (mL/g), microwave irradiation power of 265 W, microwave irradiation time of 9.6 min, and 3 extraction cycles. Under the optimal conditions, 151 μg/g luteolin and 104 μg/g apigenin were extracted from the tree peony pod. Compared with ME and HRE, MAE gave the highest extraction efficiency. The antioxidant activities of the extracts obtained by MAE, ME, and HRE were evaluated using a 2,2-di(4-tert-octylphenyl)-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay, a ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), and a reducing power assay. Meanwhile, the structural changes of the unprocessed and processed tree peony pod samples were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Observations of the seasonal variability of soil moisture and vegetation cover over Africa using satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.; Patel, Indu R.

    1986-01-01

    Multispectral passive microwave data from the scanning multichannel microwave radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite were processed selectively for a 1 yr period over Africa. The data show a wide dynamic range of brightness temperature (180 to 290 K), corresponding to variations in surface features such as moisture, temperature, vegetation, roughness, and large-scale topography. It appears that soil moisture variability is detectable with the SMMR over large regions of Africa. To what extent roughness and vegetation affect this capability is not clear. The lowest SMMR frequency is C-band (6.6 GHz), thus any soil moisture sensitivity at this frequency would be much improved by a sensor at L-band (1 to 2 GHz) less affected by roughness and vegetation.

  14. Diagnosing physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites from observations of solar microwave type III bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Bao-Lin; Karlický, Marian; Mészárosová, Hana; Huang, Guang-Li

    2016-05-01

    In the physics of solar flares, it is crucial to diagnose the physical conditions near the flare energy-release sites. However, so far it is unclear how to diagnose these physical conditions. A solar microwave type III burst is believed to be a sensitive signature of primary energy release and electron accelerations in solar flares. This work takes into account the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma density and develops a set of formulas which can be used to estimate the plasma density, temperature, magnetic field near the magnetic reconnection site and particle acceleration region, and the velocity and energy of electron beams. We apply these formulas to three groups of microwave type III pairs in an X-class flare, and obtained some reasonable and interesting results. This method can be applied to other microwave type III bursts to diagnose the physical conditions of source regions, and provide some basic information to understand the intrinsic nature and fundamental processes occurring near the flare energy-release sites.

  15. Coronal extension of flaring region magnetic fields inferred from high-resolution microwave and type III burst observations

    SciTech Connect

    Lantos, P.; Pick, M.; Kundu, M.R.

    1984-08-15

    Observations of three solar radio bursts, obtained with the Very Large Array of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory at 6 cm wavelength, have been combined with meter observationss from the Mark III Nancay Radioheliograph. There is a good correlation between solar activity observed at the two wavelength domains. A small change by about 10'' in the centimetric burst location corresponds to a large change, by about 0.5 R/sub sun/, in the related metric type III burst location. This indicates discrete injection/acceleration regions and the presence of very divergent magnetic fields.

  16. A new neural network approach including first guess for retrieval of atmospheric water vapor, cloud liquid water path, surface temperature, and emissivities over land from satellite microwave observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aires, F.; Prigent, C.; Rossow, W. B.; Rothstein, M.

    2001-07-01

    The analysis of microwave observations over land to determine atmospheric and surface parameters is still limited due to the complexity of the inverse problem. Neural network techniques have already proved successful as the basis of efficient retrieval methods for nonlinear cases; however, first guess estimates, which are used in variational assimilation methods to avoid problems of solution nonuniqueness or other forms of solution irregularity, have up to now not been used with neural network methods. In this study, a neural network approach is developed that uses a first guess. Conceptual bridges are established between the neural network and variational assimilation methods. The new neural method retrieves the surface skin temperature, the integrated water vapor content, the cloud liquid water path and the microwave surface emissivities between 19 and 85 GHz over land from Special Sensor Microwave Imager observations. The retrieval, in parallel, of all these quantities improves the results for consistancy reasons. A database to train the neural network is calculated with a radiative transfer model and a global collection of coincident surface and atmospheric parameters extracted from the National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis, from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project data, and from microwave emissivity atlases previously calculated. The results of the neural network inversion are very encouraging. The theoretical RMS error of the surface temperature retrieval over the globe is 1.3 K in clear-sky conditions and 1.6 K in cloudy scenes. Water vapor is retrieved with a theoretical RMS error of 3.8 kg m-2 in clear conditions and 4.9 kg m-2 in cloudy situations. The theoretical RMS error in cloud liquid water path is 0.08 kg m-2. The surface emissivities are retrieved with an accuracy of better than 0.008 in clear conditions and 0.010 in cloudy conditions. Microwave land surface temperature retrieval presents a very attractive

  17. Weak solar flares with a detectable flux of hard X rays: Specific features of microwave radiation in the corresponding active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigor'eva, I. Yu.; Livshits, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The emission of very weak flares was registered at the Suzaku X-ray observatory in 2005-2009. The photon power spectrum in the 50-110 keV range for a number of these phenomena shows that some electrons accelerate to energies higher than 100 keV. The corresponding flares originate in active regions (ARs) with pronounced sunspots. As in the case of AR 10933 in January 2007 analyzed by us previously (Grigor'eva et al., 2013), the thoroughly studied weak flares in May 2007 are related to the emergence of a new magnetic field in the AR and to the currents that originate in this case. A comparison of the Suzaku data with the RATAN-600 microwave observations indicates that a new polarized source of microwave radiation develops in the AR (or the previously existing source intensifies) one-two days before a weak flare in the emerging flux regions. Arguments in favor of recent views that fields are force-free in the AR corona are put forward. The development of weak flares is related to the fact that the free energy of the currents that flow above the field neutral line at altitudes reaching several thousand kilometers is accumulated and subsequently released.

  18. Mapping UK snow accumulation using satellite passive microwave and visible-infrared remote sensing observations: two case studies from 2009 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Richard

    2010-05-01

    In February 2009, an unusually significant snow storm deposited considerable amounts of snow in the UK for the first time in several years. A more persistent event deposited larger amounts of snow between December 2009 and January 2010; during this time snow cover duration exceeded a month in some locations and on 7 January, England Scotland and Wales were almost completely covered in snow as observed by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Such widespread snow cover has not been observed since 1963 and 1979. Information about snow quantity and distribution in the UK is sparse and while some official observations are made, most observations are made through community-based observers or via more esoteric online social networks. Furthermore, daily snow accumulation maps are not easily obtainable for the UK. Coupled with unusually cold temperatures which began in mid December, these case studies provide an excellent opportunity to re-evaluate the role of satellite passive microwave observations for estimating snow water equivalent in the UK. Satellite remote sensing observations were obtained for the two snow event periods. MODIS observations are used to determine the location of the snow when cloud does not obscure the field of view. Passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) are used to estimate SWE. In the first instance, AMSR-E estimates from the standard NASA algorithm are tested. On account of the documented radio frequency interference at 10 GHz the estimates are deemed unsuitable. A re-configured algorithm is developed at the native sampling resolution (10 km in along and across track) projected to a UTM grid. The re-configured approach to estimate SWE uses 18, 23 36 and 89GHz channels (vertical and horizontal polarization) and uses a frequency ratio approach, rather than difference, to minimize the physical temperature effect on brightness temperatures at 18, 36 and 89 GHz. It also

  19. Earth Observing System (EOS)/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) worst-case analysis: Antenna beam pointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a worst-case analysis of the EOS/AMSU-A (Earth Observing System/Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) Antenna beam-pointing accuracy. There are three sources of beam pointing error. These are mechanical tolerances in the manufacture and assembly of the parts, allowable axial displacement of the reflector relative to the motor shaft, and on-orbit thermal distortions. For the worst-case analysis, each will be assumed to act independently and thus each contribution is additive.

  20. Meteorological Satellites (METSAT) and Earth Observing System (EOS) Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and Critical Items List (CIL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is for the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) instruments that are being designed and manufactured for the Meteorological Satellites Project (METSAT) and the Earth Observing System (EOS) integrated programs. The FMEA analyzes the design of the METSAT and EOS instruments as they currently exist. This FMEA is intended to identify METSAT and EOS failure modes and their effect on spacecraft-instrument and instrument-component interfaces. The prime objective of this FMEA is to identify potential catastrophic and critical failures so that susceptibility to the failures and their effects can be eliminated from the METSAT/EOS instruments.