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Sample records for active mothers postpartum

  1. Predictors of Postpartum Weight Change Among Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the Active Mothers Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bercedis L.; Krause, Katrina M.; Swamy, Geeta K.; Lovelady, Cheryl A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The postpartum period may be critical for the development of midlife obesity. Identifying factors associated with postpartum weight change could aid in targeting women for healthy lifestyle interventions. Methods Data from Active Mothers Postpartum (AMP), a study of overweight and obese postpartum women (n=450), were analyzed to determine the effect of baseline characteristics, breastfeeding, diet, physical activity, and contraception on weight change from 6 weeks to 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum. The repeated measures mixed model was used to test the association of these effects with weight change. Results Although mean weight loss was modest (0.49 kg by 24 months), the range of weight change was striking (+21.5 kg to −24.5 kg, standard deviation [SD] 7.4). Controlling only for baseline weight, weight loss was associated with breastfeeding, hormonal contraception, lower junk food and greater healthy food intake, and greater physical activity. Only junk food intake and physical activity were significant after controlling for all other predictors. Conclusions Eating less healthy foods and being less physically active put overweight and obese women at risk of gaining more weight after a pregnancy. PMID:22092110

  2. Postpartum nursing for Korean mothers.

    PubMed

    Schneiderman, J U

    1996-01-01

    Growing numbers of Korean-Americans require US health care workers to become knowledgeable of and sensitive to the cultural beliefs and customs of Korean patients. To further such understanding, health behaviors related to infant care and family involvement in the postpartum period were observed in a Los Angeles, California, hospital located in a Korean community. Notable in unassimilated Korean families were the power of the mother-in-law to assume control of decisions regarding infant care and the tendency of new mothers to defer to their mothers-in-law rather than ask nurses for advice. There is a cultural perception that the new mother is sick and unable to handle her infant. Other practices identified include a special diet of seaweed soup, avoidance of cold (including the rejection of ice packs against pain), resistance to breast feeding, preference for a male child, and modesty in the presence of men. In some cases, clinical considerations conflicted with cultural traditions. Respectful teaching, in nonverbal ways if there is a language barrier, and modeling of infant care techniques are recommended. Disregard for childbirth-associated cultural traditions on the part of medical staff can only increase the stress for the infant and family. PMID:8857400

  3. Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

  4. Physical conditions and depressive symptoms of Chinese postpartum mothers in the United States and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Yu; Walker, Lorraine O; Chu, Tsui-Ping

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine commonalities and differences in physical conditions and depressive symptoms of Chinese postpartum mothers in the United States and Taiwan, and whether their relationship differs by country. Data from 151 Chinese mothers in the United States and 238 Taiwanese mothers were analyzed. A physical health condition checklist and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) scale were used. More Taiwanese mothers experienced depression. Depression scores were correlated with physical conditions. Over 50% of mothers with depression experienced physical exhaustion, sleep disturbances, interrupted sleep, and decreases in memory. Active assessments and cultural care for managing physical conditions may prevent postpartum depression. PMID:23384405

  5. Pregnancy Problems, Postpartum Depression, and Early Mother-Infant Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Mothers observed at 3 to 5 months postpartum interacting with their infants were given attitude questionnaires. Mothers who had reported preganancy problems were more depressed and anxious and expressed more punitive childrearing attitudes than mothers not reporting pregnancy problems. (Author/NH)

  6. Postpartum Transitions in Adolescent Mothers' Romantic and Maternal Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Christina B.; Rhodes, Jean E.

    1999-01-01

    Interviewed adolescent mothers at prepartum or early postpartum and 1 year later regarding maternal and romantic relationships, depression, and negative life events. Responses indicated that over time male partner support became more important than maternal support. (LBT)

  7. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes. PMID:26231973

  8. Psychiatric consultation to the postpartum mother.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Eleanor A; Kim, Deborah R

    2015-04-01

    The immediate postpartum period is a time of acute vulnerability to mental illness, which presents unique challenges for the psychiatric consultant. Because the postpartum hospital stay is typically brief, the consultant must have a working knowledge of postpartum physiology and the myriad forms of mental illness that may emerge in this vulnerable time, in order to quickly make a diagnosis and formulate a treatment plan. This review aims to characterize the most common reasons for postpartum consultation, review postpartum physiology and psychiatric conditions, and propose an evidence-based, practical approach to treatment. A literature search using the terms "postpartum," "obstetric," "consultation," and "psychiatry" yielded six studies that identified reasons for psychiatric consultation to the obstetrics and gynecology services. These studies informed the structure of the article such that we review the most common reasons for consultation and how to approach each issue. The most common reason for consultation is past psychiatric history, often in the absence of current symptoms. For each clinical situation, including depression, adverse birth events, and psychosis, we present a differential diagnosis, as well as risk factors, clinical signs, and recommended treatment. PMID:25764006

  9. The other mother: a narrative analysis of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Michele M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a metastory of nonbiological lesbian mothers' postpartum experiences utilizing Riessman's structural approach to thematic analysis. Ten nonbirth lesbian mothers were interviewed. Each shared a unique story of her first year of motherhood. Themes were individually analyzed within each story. The metastory of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers revealed 6 themes including the following: At the mercy of health care providers, Nursing is the major difference between us, Defined by who I am not, Fighting for every piece of motherhood: The world can take them away, What's in a name?, and Epilogue: The new normal. PMID:24786200

  10. Active ghrelin and the postpartum.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jessica H; Pedersen, Cort; Leserman, Jane; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2016-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) occurs in 10-15 % of women. The appetite hormone ghrelin, which fluctuates during pregnancy, is associated with depression in nonpregnant samples. Here, we examine the association between PPD and active ghrelin from pregnancy to postpartum. We additionally examine whether ghrelin changes from pregnancy to postpartum and differs between breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding women. Sixty women who participated in a survey examining PPD and had information in regard to ghrelin concentrations were included in the study. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess symptoms of PPD. Raw ghrelin levels and ghrelin levels adjusted for creatinine were included as outcomes. Women screening positive for PPD at 12 weeks postpartum had higher pregnancy ghrelin concentrations. Ghrelin concentrations significantly decreased from pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum and this change differed based on pregnancy depression status. Finally, ghrelin levels were lower in women who breastfed compared with women who were bottle-feeding. No significant findings remained once ghrelin levels were adjusted for creatinine. Although results do not suggest an association between PPD and ghrelin after adjusting for creatinine, future research should continue to explore this possibility extending further across the postpartum period with larger sample sizes. PMID:26424410

  11. [Children murdered by their mothers in the postpartum period].

    PubMed

    Trautmann-Villalba, P; Hornstein, C

    2007-11-01

    The parental killing of children constitutes a complex phenomenon which has been reported across numerous cultures and throughout history. Children in the 1st year of life are at the highest risk of filicide. Types of filicide in the postpartum period include altruistic filicide, extended suicide, fatal child maltreatment, and neonaticide. Babies are murdered more frequently by mothers who are psychiatrically disturbed. With high frequency, depressive and psychotic symptoms are related to the newborn or to the maternity itself. The knowledge about maternal factors associated with filicide is not homogeneous. Sociodemographic characteristics are presented in relation to the different types of filicide. Risk constellations that may lead to a child's murder are described. PMID:17926015

  12. Early School Outcomes for Children of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Comparison with a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Smeekens, Sanny; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on child development have mostly focused on a limited set of outcomes, and have often not controlled for risk factors associated with maternal depression. The present study compared children of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 29) with children from a community…

  13. Factors associated with parenting behavior of mothers in the early postpartum period in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Calışır, Hüsniye; Karaçam, Zekiye

    2011-12-01

    This study determined the factors associated with parenting behavior during the early postpartum period in first-time mothers. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the postpartum ward of a state hospital in Aydın, Turkey. The study included 207 first-time mothers selected by non-probability sampling method. A significant weak, positive correlation was found between the Postpartum Parenting Behavior Scale score at the time of initial acquaintance with her infant and the Labor Agentry Scale score. Stepwise multiple regression analyses, performed to determine factors associated with the parenting behavior score of the mothers in the early postpartum period, revealed two statistically significant variables, which increased the strength of the model: maternal age and infant's birth weight. Midwives should observe early parenting behaviors, particularly of younger mothers having babies with low birth weight, appreciate their positive behaviors, and encourage them to develop appropriate behavior. PMID:22070622

  14. MODERATE TO SEVERE DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS AMONG ADOLESCENT MOTHERS FOLLOWED FOUR YEARS POSTPARTUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to examine race/ethnic differences in depressive symptoms among adolescent mothers during the first four years postpartum. A prospective study of 623 adolescent mothers, 18 years or younger followed four years after delivery. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Beck Depress...

  15. Pathways to Violence in the Children of Mothers Who Were Depressed Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Angold, Adrian; Harold, Gordon T.; Sharp, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The impact of postnatal depression on a child's risk for violent behavior was evaluated in an urban British community sample (N=122 families). Mothers were interviewed during pregnancy, at 3 months postpartum, and when the child was 1, 4, and 11 years of age. Mothers, teachers, and children reported on violent symptoms at age 11. Structural…

  16. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  17. Social Support, Postpartum Depression, and Professional Assistance: A Survey of Mothers in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Catherine P.; Kwasky, Andrea N.; Groh, Carla J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transition into motherhood is generally a joyful life event; for some women, however, it is marked by emotional turmoil. Lack of support can be associated with postpartum depression and can compromise both the mother and infant. A descriptive, cross-sectional study (N = 61) was conducted to explore the relationship between social support and postpartum depression and to determine whether mothers overwhelmed with childcare, or overwhelmed with life in general since becoming a mother, sought professional help. The results revealed that screening for depression alone may not be sufficient, that mothers are willing to contact a professional for help in the postpartum period, and that assessments after birth should include a broader assessment of life’s difficulties rather than focusing on childcare responsibilities alone. PMID:26937161

  18. Delusions related to infant and their association with mother-infant interactions in postpartum psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Chandra, P S; Bhargavaraman, R P; Raghunandan, V N G P; Shaligram, D

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between mother infant interactions and psychopathology in postpartum psychotic disorders has been recognised as being clinically important, however data in the field is sparse. The current study had two aims--firstly, to study the prevalence and nature of delusions towards the infant among mothers with postpartum onset severe mental illness and secondly, to study the association between delusional symptoms towards the infant and mother infant interactions. 108 consecutive women with onset of severe mental illness in the postpartum, who were admitted to an inpatient psychiatric unit in South India over a two-year period, were systematically assessed for presence of delusions related to the infant, using the Kannada version of the Birmingham Interview for Maternal Mental Health. Fifty-three percent of subjects reported delusions related to the infant, with 34% reporting more than one delusion. Mothers with infant related persecutory delusions were more likely to show affectionate behaviour and had normal competence and caring for baby's basic needs; however, they were more likely to get disturbed and agitated if separated from the baby. Mothers who had delusions that the baby was a devil or ill fated or someone else's baby, were more likely to have significant abusive incidents towards the baby. Overall, the mothers who had delusions related to the infant were seen to have more significant abusive incidents and were more likely to be considered unsafe in looking after the baby alone. The study emphasises the need for systematic clinical assessment of psychopathology in mothers with postpartum psychosis. PMID:16937315

  19. Impact of postpartum depressive and anxiety symptoms on mothers' emotional tie to their infants 2-3 months postpartum: a population-based study from rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima-E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms on maternal bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum and the influence of the mother's bonding to the infant during pregnancy and to her own caregiver during her childhood on maternal bonding 2-3 months postpartum. This study originated from a community-based cohort study carried out in rural Bangladesh. Trained staff collected data and administrated the questionnaires during the third trimester of pregnancy, at childbirth and 2-3 months postpartum. Maternal depressive and anxiety symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the State Anxiety Inventory and the mother's emotional bonding to the infant with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. The results showed that 11% of the women reported depressive symptoms, 35% anxiety symptoms, 3.4% both depressive and anxiety symptoms and 51% neither depressive nor anxiety symptoms. Mothers with depressive symptoms were older, were poorer, fewer were literate, reported more intimate partner violence and showed lower emotional bonding to their infants 2-3 months postpartum compared to mentally well and anxious mothers. Approximately 11% of the mothers reported mild bonding disturbances and nearly one third of them showed depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms and giving birth to a girl were negatively associated to a mother's emotional bonding to her infant, while maternal anxiety symptoms and high bonding to the foetus during pregnancy were positively associated to the mother's emotional bonding to the infant 2-3 months postpartum. PMID:21626173

  20. Postpartum cultural practices are negatively associated with depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Wu, Tsai-Wei; Chiang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Li-Yin

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of researchers in this study were to examine acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and their association with postpartum depressive symptoms among Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men. While the postpartum cultural practices in China are similar to mainstream Taiwanese practices, those of Vietnam differ from Taiwanese practices. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Taiwan from October 2007 through March 2008, and included190 immigrant mothers from China and Vietnam who had delivered a child within the past year. Immigrant mothers from China had higher levels of acceptance and adherence to mainstream Taiwanese postpartum cultural practices and a lower rate of postpartum depressive symptoms than immigrant mothers from Vietnam, but the association between adherence to "doing-the-month" practices and postpartum depressive symptoms did not vary significantly between Chinese and Vietnamese mothers. Adherence to these practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms among immigrant mothers (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.90-0.96) after adjustment for social support, duration between moving to Taiwan and delivery, and country of origin. Adherence to mainstream postpartum cultural practices was negatively associated with postpartum depressive symptoms for both Chinese and Vietnamese immigrant women married to Taiwanese men. PMID:22860702

  1. [Comorbid Personality Disorders and Parenting Stress in Mothers with Postpartum Depression].

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The original peer-reviewed paper presents the results of the analysis of the effects of psychiatric comorbidities of maternal postpartum depression, anxiety disorder and personality disorder (PD) on parenting stress. In the aforementioned analysis, mothers without PD (depression/ anxiety only) were compared to mothers with Borderline PD and mothers with other PD. Depending on the maternal PD, different sources of parenting stress have been revealed as specific to the mothers’ experience of parenting stress, suggesting differential indications for psychosocial interventions to ease the burden of stress on the mother-infant system. PMID:27027218

  2. Young Mothers' Involvement in a Prenatal and Postpartum Support Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Korfmacher, Jon; Hans, Sydney L.; Henson, Linda G.

    2010-01-01

    The involvement of 124 young mothers in a doula support program was measured in two dimensions--quantity of program contact and quality of mother-doula helping relationship. The study examined each dimension's differential associations with maternal outcomes, as well as the moderating effects of mother characteristics on these associations.…

  3. Patterns of Postpartum Depot Medroxyprogesterone Administration Among Low-Income Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alice; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Howard, Cynthia R.; Lawrence, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is often administered immediately postpartum to reduce the risk of short-interval repeat or unintended pregnancies, but little is known about the actual patterns of postpartum DMPA use. This article examines the patterns of DMPA administered among low-income new mothers in an upstate New York State community. Methods: Mothers attending urban pediatric practices (births 2009–2011) completed a mailed survey approximately 5 months after delivery. Among 83 survey items were questions about breastfeeding and timing of DMPA receipt. Results: Unintended pregnancy was reported by 48.8% of the subjects. Their deliveries occurred across four local hospitals. Among the 31.3% of subjects who received postpartum DMPA, 62.6% received it prior to hospital discharge. Those receiving in-hospital DMPA (n=127) were significantly more likely than other mothers to be black, older, urban dwelling, non–high school graduates, multiparous, and planning to formula feed. Administration patterns differed by hospital. Conclusions: This study of postpartum DMPA administration among a convenience sample of low-income mothers demonstrated rates of 26% overall, but there was between-hospital variability. Additional study may identify approaches to ensure timely administration to appropriate candidates. PMID:24443831

  4. Gestational and Postpartum Weight Change Patterns in Mothers with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    ZERWAS, Stephanie C.; VON HOLLE, Ann; PERRIN, Eliana M.; SKINNER, Asheley Cockrell; REBA-HARRELSON, Lauren; HAMER, Robert M.; STOLTENBERG, Camilla; TORGERSEN, Leila; REICHBORN-KJENNERUD, Ted; BULIK, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although pregnancy can be associated with adaptive changes in weight and eating behavior for women with eating disorders, less is known about whether these changes are maintained in the postpartum period. We used a longitudinal design to examine gestational and postpartum weight trajectories in mothers with and without eating disorders in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Methods Fifty-six women reported anorexia nervosa (AN), 636 bulimia nervosa (BN), 3,327 binge eating disorder (BED), and 69 EDNOS purging type (EDNOS-P). The referent group included 61,233 mothers with no eating disorder. We used a mixed effects model to predict weight change over time by eating disorder subtype. Results Mothers with AN, BN, BED and EDNOS had greater increases in BMI during pregnancy and greater decreases in BMI over the first six months postpartum. Women with AN shifted from the underweight BMI range before pregnancy to the normal weight range at 36 months postpartum Conclusions Patterns of maternal weight gain and retention during the perinatal period vary across eating disorder subtype and warrant clinical attention. PMID:25201473

  5. Mothers who are securely attached in pregnancy show more attuned infant mirroring at 7 months postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Martinez, Sheila; Iyengar, Udita; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-01-01

    This study contrasted two forms of mother-infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., “direct mirroring”) and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's experience (i.e., “intention mirroring”). Fifty mothers completed the Adult Attachment Interview during the third trimester of pregnancy. Mothers returned with their infants 7 months postpartum and completed a modified still-face procedure. While direct mirroring did not distinguish between secure and insecure/dismissing mothers, secure mothers were observed to engage in intention mirroring more than twice as frequently as did insecure/dismissing mothers. Infants of the two mother groups also demonstrated differences, with infants of secure mothers directing their attention toward their mothers at a higher frequency than did infants of insecure/dismissing mothers. The findings underscore marked and ostensive verbalization as a distinguishing feature of secure mothers’ well-attuned, affect-mirroring communication with their infants. PMID:25020112

  6. The Relationship Between Parental Stress and Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Given the high co-occurrence of depression and parental stress among adolescent mothers, we evaluated the relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. We conducted an observational analysis among a cohort of 106 adolescent mothers at 289 postpartum visits who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index, short form. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses was administered to assess for postpartum depression; subthreshold depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale, revised version. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to assess the relationship of parental stress on postpartum depression during the first 6 months postpartum. We present adjusted odds ratios (AOR) controlling for study arm, age, born in the United States, prior history of depression, and number of study visits. The median age was 16 years, 53 % were Latina, and 16 % reported a past history of depression. Nineteen adolescents (19 %) were diagnosed with postpartum depression and 25 % experienced high levels of parental stress through 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of parental stress were at significantly increased risk for postpartum depression [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.04–1.09); p < 0.0001]. High levels of parental stress predicted subsequent postpartum depression when assessing parental stress at visits prior to a depression diagnosis to determine whether we could establish a temporal association [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02– 1.09); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was also a risk factor for subthreshold depression [AOR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01– 1.07); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was a significant risk factor for developing both postpartum depression as well as subthreshold depression among adolescent mothers. Interventions that target a reduction in parental stress may

  7. Prenatal depression predicts postpartum maternal attachment in low-income Latina mothers with infants.

    PubMed

    Perry, Deborah F; Ettinger, Anna K; Mendelson, Tamar; Le, Huynh-Nhu

    2011-04-01

    Although maternal attachment is an important predictor of infant attachment security and other developmental outcomes, little is known about the formation of maternal attachment in the first few months of the infant's life, particularly among ethnic minority mothers. The current study examined the predictors of postpartum maternal attachment in a sample of 217 Latina women enrolled in a perinatal depression prevention trial. Mothers' attachment to their infants was measured at 6-8 weeks postpartum using the Maternal Postnatal Attachment Scale. A variety of predictors of early attachment were explored including: depressive symptoms during pregnancy, pregnancy intention, feelings about the pregnancy, and the quality of the partner relationship. The strongest predictor of lower maternal attachment was depressive symptoms late in pregnancy; pregnancy intention was marginally predictive of attachment, with lower scores being associated with unwanted pregnancies. The study fills a critical gap in our understanding of the role of depressive symptoms during pregnancy in shaping mothers' early attachment to their infants. PMID:21402409

  8. HIV control in postpartum mothers: a turbulent time.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Hannah; Burnett, Alexander; Naylor, Simone; Bates, Sylvia; Greig, Julia

    2016-07-01

    We conducted an audit looking at the management of HIV-positive women in the postpartum period. We found that of the women with a previous AIDS-defining condition or a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, 83% were correctly continued on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 84.1% of these had good virological control. ART was correctly stopped in 100% of women who had always had a CD4 count >500 cells/µL. A significant finding from our audit was that all of the women who had poor virological control or stopped ART against medical advice had social issues or self-reported depression. The main recommendation was to extend the pregnancy multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting to include the 12-month postpartum period to offer support to women to try to improve treatment outcomes. PMID:26384944

  9. Postpartum Maternal Sleep, Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Self-Perceived Mother-Infant Emotional Relationship.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the links between maternal sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mothers' perceptions of their emotional relationship with their infant in a self-recruited sample of mothers. Eighty mothers of infants 3-18 months old completed sleep diaries for 5 consecutive nights, and questionnaires assessing sleep (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), depressive symptom severity (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]), and perceived mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ] and Maternal Postnatal Attachment Questionnaire [MPAQ]). Significant correlations, controlling for depression severity, were found between more disturbed maternal sleep and more negative maternal perceptions of the mother-infant relationship. Regression analyses revealed that EPDS showed the strongest association with PBQ, whereas ISI demonstrated the strongest association with MPAQ. The present study highlights the importance of deepening and expanding our understanding of the negative implications of maternal sleep problems. PMID:25127316

  10. Interactive regulation of affect in postpartum depressed mothers and their infants: an overview.

    PubMed

    Reck, Corinna; Hunt, Aoife; Fuchs, Thomas; Weiss, Robert; Noon, Andrea; Moehler, Eva; Downing, George; Tronick, Edward Z; Mundt, Christoph

    2004-01-01

    Specific patterns of interaction emerging in the first months of life are related to processes regulating mutual affects in the mother-child dyad. Particularly important for the dyad are the matching and interactive repair processes. The interaction between postpartum depressed mothers and their children is characterized by a lack of responsiveness, by passivity or intrusiveness, withdrawal and avoidance, as well as a low level of positive expression of affect. Thus, an impaired capability to regulate the child's affect has been demonstrated in depressed mothers. Maternal aggression, neglect toward infants, infanticidal thoughts, as well as infanticidal behavior are mainly linked to severe postpartum depression, especially with psychotic symptoms. The findings on mother-child interaction reported in this paper are based on mothers with mild to moderate depressive disorders without psychotic symptoms. Considering the stability of interaction patterns in the course of depressive illness as well as the long-term consequences of these interactions, it seems surprising that there are still few systematic studies of depressed mothers interacting with their infants. In connection with an overview on these issues, treatment models for parent-infant psychotherapy are discussed. PMID:15539778

  11. Does activity matter: an exploratory study among mothers with preterm infants?

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Grantham, Carol H; Shelton, Susan; Meaney-Delman, Dana

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the daytime activity levels and their association with sleep, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and quality of life. Wrist actigraphy and questionnaires were used to examine 51 mothers with a preterm infant during their second week postpartum. Circadian activity rhythms (CAR) were less synchronized in these mothers; they experienced sleep disturbances, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and poor health-related quality of life (H-QOL). Compared to high-activity mothers, mothers with low activity levels slept less during nighttime but napped more during daytime, and reported more postpartum depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to examine the effect of low activity level and sleep loss on postpartum depression, and to develop interventions for improving rest/activity patterns for new mothers. PMID:22526404

  12. Physical Activity Beliefs, Barriers, and Enablers among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Aytur, Semra A.; Borodulin, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background and Methods Physical activity during postpartum is both a recommended and an essential contributor to maternal health. Understanding the beliefs, barriers, and enablers regarding physical activity during the postpartum period can more effectively tailor physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to document self-reported beliefs, barriers, and enablers to physical activity among a cohort of women queried at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Five questions about beliefs and two open-ended questions about their main barriers and enablers regarding physical activity and exercise were asked of 667 women at 3 months postpartum. Among the sample, 530 women answered the same questions about barriers and enablers to physical activity at 12 months postpartum. Results Agreement on all five beliefs statements was high (≥89%), indicating that women thought that exercise and physical activity were appropriate at 3 months postpartum, even if they continued to breastfeed. For the cohort, the most common barriers to physical activity at both 3 and 12 months postpartum were lack of time (47% and 51%, respectively) and issues with child care (26% and 22%, respectively). No barrier changed by more than 5% from 3 to 12 months postpartum. For the cohort, the most common enablers at 3 months postpartum were partner support (16%) and desire to feel better (14%). From 3 to 12 months postpartum, only one enabler changed by >5%; women reported baby reasons (e.g., baby older, healthier, not breastfeeding, more active) more often at 12 months than at 3 months postpartum (32% vs. 10%). Environmental/policy and organizational barriers and enablers were reported less often than intrapersonal or interpersonal barriers at both time points. Conclusions A number of barriers and enablers were identified for physical activity, most of which were consistent at 3 and 12 months postpartum. This study provides information to create more successful interventions to

  13. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS. PMID:26740743

  14. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers.

    PubMed

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS. PMID:26740743

  15. WIC mothers' social environment and postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Darfour-Oduro, Sandra Asantewaa; Kim, Juhee

    2014-12-01

    A low breastfeeding rate has been a consistent maternal and child health problem in the United States, especially for low-income families. Understanding mothers' social environment and overall well-being is important in determining how mothers will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period in relation to the breastfeeding rate among low-income mothers. In this study, we examined the effects of the social environment of mothers enrolled in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in eastern Illinois and their postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation (n=103) and maintaining breastfeeding for at least 3 months (n=73). Using logistic regression models, a significant positive association (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-10.47; p=0.03) between marital status and breastfeeding initiation and a significant negative association (AOR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06-0.88) between receiving food stamps and breastfeeding initiation were found. WIC mothers who were married were 4.1 times as likely to maintain any breastfeeding for at least 3 months than single mothers, and the association was significant (AOR=4.08; 95% CI, 1.36-12.27; p=0.01). The breastfeeding initiation rate was 77.7%, however, the mean±standard deviation age of the child when breastfeeding stopped was 2.2±1.4 months. There was a nonsignificant association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding initiation and maintaining any breastfeeding for 3 months. This study has shown that the familial environment of mothers plays a very important role in improving breastfeeding rates among WIC mothers. In addition, there is a negative relationship between using a food assistance program and breastfeeding among low-income women. PMID:25188784

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and maternal satisfaction of a newly established integrative postpartum community-based clinic providing comprehensive support for mothers during the first month after discharge from the hospital. Our primary interests were breastfeeding rates, readmission and patient satisfaction. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, where 472 mothers were randomized via a 1:2 ratio to either receive standard of care (n = 157) or to attend the postpartum breastfeeding clinic (n = 315). Outcome data were captured through questionnaires completed by the participants at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included breastfeeding rate at 2, 4 and 24 weeks, breastfeeding self-efficacy scale, readmission rate, and satisfaction score. Results More mothers in the intervention group (n = 195, 66.1%) were exclusively breastfeeding at 12 weeks compared to mothers in the control group (n = 81, 60.5%), however no statistically significant difference was observed (OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.84–1.95)). The rate of emergency room visits at 2 weeks for the intervention group was 11.4% compared to the standard of care group (15.2%) (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.39–1.23). The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with the overall care they received for breastfeeding compared to the control group (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 3.50–6.88)). Conclusion This new model of care did not significantly increase exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks. However, there were clinically meaningful improvements in the rate of postnatal problems and satisfaction that support this new service delivery model for postpartum care. A community-based multidisciplinary postpartum clinic is feasible to implement and can provide appropriate and highly satisfactory care to

  17. Screening for postpartum depression among low-income mothers using an interactive voice response system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Helen G; Geppert, Joni; Quan, Tu; Bracha, Yiscah; Lupo, Virginia; Cutts, Diana B

    2012-05-01

    This study tested the feasibility of using an interactive voice response (IVR) phone system to screen for postpartum depression among low-income, English- and Spanish-speaking mothers. Newly delivered mothers were interviewed in the hospital. Consenting subjects completed a background questionnaire and were asked to call an automated phone system 7 days postpartum to complete an IVR version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Screen (EPDS). During the phone screen, subjects were branched to different closing narratives based on their depression scores which were later posted to a password protected website. Logistic regression was used to assess relationships between demographic and psychosocial factors, IVR participation, and depression scores. Among 838 ethnically diverse, low income, postpartum mothers, 324 (39%) called into the automated phone screening system. Those who called were more likely to have at least a high school education (OR = 1.63, 95%CI: 1.23, 2.16), be employed (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.08, 2.03) and have food secure households (OR = 1.50, 95%CI: 1.06, 2.13). There was no statistically significant difference between callers and non-callers in terms of marital status, race/ethnicity, parity, or self-reported history of depression. Postpartum depression symptoms were present in 17% (n = 55) and were associated with being single (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI: 1.29, 4.50), first time mother status (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.34, 4.40), temporary housing (AOR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.30, 4.26), history of anxiety (AOR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.69, 6.67), and history of self-harm (AOR = 2.66, 95% C: 1.01, 6.99). Automated phone screening for postpartum depression is feasible among disadvantaged mothers but those with the highest psychosocial risk factors may not choose or be able to access it. IVR could be used to supplement office- and home visit-based screening protocols and to educate patients about mental health resources. PMID:21584791

  18. [Breast feeding: impact of early mother-child post-partum contact].

    PubMed

    Toussaint, G; Casanueva, E; Atkin, L C; Avila-rosas, H

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of early contact between mother and her newborn (during the 1st hour after birth) and the establishment and duration of breastfeeding, within the context of a rooming-in service which provides continuous 24 hour contact during postpartum hospitalization. 60 healthy pares were studied, 30 of which were provided with early contact and rooming-in, while the other 30 experienced regular rooming-in. Milk production was measured during the 1st 3 days postpartum. The early contact group had significantly greater milk production on the 1st day than the group with only rooming-in. However, by the 2nd and 3rd days, this difference was no longer present. These results suggest that the continued contact and demand feeding which rooming-in provides compensates for the initial advantage of the mothers early contact group. With respect to duration of lactation, 50% of the mothers were still breastfeeding at 6 months regardless of the group to which they belonged. It is concluded that the early contact has a positive effect on the establishment of milk production in the 1st day. However, it had no additional impact on the duration of breastfeeding given the continued contact of the rooming-in experience. Mothers for this study all lived in the Federal District in Mexico and delivered full-term, healthybabies. They had no significant differences in age, parity, socioeconomic status, education, or prenatal care/instruction. (author's modified) PMID:12315314

  19. Adjustment in First-Time Mothers: Changes in Mood and Mood Content during the Early Postpartum Months.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Alison S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Studied changes in content of mood and mood levels of 32 primiparous mothers interviewed during pregnancy and at 1, 3, and 16 months postpartum. Despite improvement in mood, mothers showed different temporal patterns in relation to feelings about infant, spouse, and self. (RH)

  20. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  1. Relationship between fatigue and sleepiness with general health of mothers in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Khayamim, Nafiseh; Bahadoran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue and changes in sleep patterns are one of the impressive features in the first year after birth, which have negative effects on work, family life, and social relationships. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and Stanford sleepiness with the general health of mothers in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: The current research is a descriptive correlational study which was performed on 190 mothers between 2 and 24 postpartum weeks, referring to the health centers of Isfahan in 2014. All mothers meeting the inclusion criteria were selected through cluster purposive sampling. Data were collected by use of four questionnaires including profile and fertility, fatigue, Stanford sleepiness, and general health. Data were analyzed by statistical tests at a significance level of ≤0.05. Results: The results showed that 5.3%, 59.5%, and 35.3% of subjects had mild, moderate, and severe fatigue, respectively. In addition, 26.3% of women showed a public health disorder, and according to Stanford sleepiness, 20.5% of subjects had sleepiness. The statistical results indicated that there were significant relationships between fatigue (P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.52) and Stanford sleepiness (P = 0.04, r = 0.14), and mothers’ general health. Conclusions: According to prevalence of fatigue and sleepiness in the postpartum period and its relationship with maternal health, application of sleep health education and appropriate counseling during pregnancy and after delivery is recommended to prevent mothers’ mental complications in order to achieve a safe pregnancy. PMID:27563322

  2. Randomized Trial of Psychological Interventions to Preventing Postpartum Depression among Iranian First-time Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Ghobari-Bonab, Bagher; Azizi, Mohammed Parsa; Saheb-Alzamani, Sayeh Moosavi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of cognitive behavior therapy on the reduction postpartum mood disorder and increasing the self-esteem of at-risk Iranian mothers. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 135 at-risk mothers were selected from the population by means of cluster sampling and randomly assigned into one of two groups: Intervention (n = 64), or control (n = 71). The control group received usual medical care, and the intervention group received an eight sessions’ cognitive behavior program during pregnancy. Assessments were administered at two time points (pretest at the beginning of the third trimester and posttest at 2 weeks postpartum). Beck anxiety, beck depression, Edinburgh postpartum depression, (PPD) Coopersmith self-esteem, and religious attitude questionnaire were used to collect data. Results: The mean age of participants was 25.8 ± 3.7 years. One-third of them had either bachelor or higher degrees in education (33%). About two-third of participants were unemployment with similar distribution in both the groups (intervention = 80%, control = 83%). The majority (70%) of the participants had cesarean section deliveries. There were no statistically significant differences respects to sociodemographic characteristics between the control and intervention groups (P > 0.05). The multivariate analysis of covariance results showed that the average scores of PPD were reduced significantly in the intervention group (P < 0.001). Also while the mean score of anxiety in the intervention group decreased from 23.31 (standard error [SE] =12.11) to 16.64 (SE = 8.33) and self-esteem increased from 29.09 (SE = 3.51) to 31.81 (SE = 2.76), no change was statistically significant in comparison to the control group. Conclusions: According to the findings of the present study, cognitive behavior intervention is effective in reducing PPD in at-risk mothers. PMID:26682030

  3. Feasibility and Perception of Using Text Messages as an Adjunct Therapy for Low-Income, Minority Mothers With Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ladley, Amy S; Rhyne, Elizabeth A; Halloran, Donna R

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical problem among new mothers that can have a negative impact on infant health. Traditional treatments are often difficult for low-income mothers to complete, particularly given the numerous barriers families face. Objective Among low-income, primarily racial, and ethnic minority mothers with postpartum depression, our aim was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of sending supportive text messages, and (2) the perception of receiving private, supportive text messages for postpartum depression. Methods Mothers found to be at risk for postpartum depression received supportive text messages four times weekly for 6 months in addition to receiving access to traditional counseling services based within an academic pediatric office. Feasibility was evaluated along with cellular and text messaging use, access, and perception of the message protocol. Perception of the message protocol was evaluated at study completion via a Likert scale questionnaire and open-ended qualitative survey. Results In total, 4158/4790 (86.81%) text messages were successfully delivered to 54 mothers over a 6-month period at a low cost (US $777.60). Among the 96 scripted messages, 37 unique messages (38.54%) allowed for a response. Of all sent messages that allowed for responses, 7.30% (118/1616) were responded to, and 66.1% of those responses requested a call back; 46% (25/54) of mothers responded at least once to a text message. Mothers felt that messages were easily received and read (25/28, 89%) and relevant to them personally (23/28, 82%). Most shared texts with others (21/28, 75%). Conclusions Text messaging is feasible, well-accepted, and may serve as a simple, inexpensive adjunct therapy well-suited to cross socioeconomic boundaries and provide private support for at-risk mothers suffering from postpartum depression. PMID:26543910

  4. Postpartum Maternal Sleep and Mothers' Perceptions of Their Attachment Relationship with the Infant among Women with a History of Depression during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikotzky, Liat; Chambers, Andrea S.; Kent, Jamie; Gaylor, Erika; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the links between maternal sleep and mothers' perceptions of their attachment relationship with their infant among women at risk for postpartum depression by virtue of having been depressed during pregnancy. Sixty-two mothers completed sleep diaries and questionnaires at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Regression analyses,…

  5. Parenting stress and depressive symptoms in postpartum mothers: bidirectional or unidirectional effects?

    PubMed

    Thomason, Elizabeth; Volling, Brenda L; Flynn, Heather A; McDonough, Susan C; Marcus, Sheila M; Lopez, Juan F; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-08-01

    Despite the consistent link between parenting stress and postpartum depressive symptoms, few studies have explored the relationships longitudinally. The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional and unidirectional models of depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Uniquely, three specific domains of parenting stress were examined: parental distress, difficult child stress, and parent-child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI). One hundred and five women completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form at 3, 7, and 14 months after giving birth. Structural equation modeling revealed that total parenting stress predicted later depressive symptoms, however, there were different patterns between postpartum depressive symptoms and different types of parenting stress. A unidirectional model of parental distress predicting depressive symptoms best fit the data, with significant stability paths but non-significant cross-lagged paths. A unidirectional model of depressive symptoms predicted significant later difficult child stress. No model fit well with PCDI. Future research should continue to explore the specific nature of the associations of postpartum depression and different types of parenting stress on infant development and the infant-mother relationship. PMID:24956500

  6. Parenting stress and depressive symptoms in postpartum mothers: Bidirectional or unidirectional effects?

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Elizabeth; Volling, Brenda L.; Flynn, Heather A.; McDonough, Susan C.; Marcus, Sheila M.; Lopez, Juan F.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the consistent link between parenting stress and postpartum depressive symptoms, few studies have explored the relationships longitudinally. The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional and unidirectional models of depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Uniquely, three specific domains of parenting stress were examined: parental distress, difficult child stress, and parent–child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI). One hundred and five women completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form at 3, 7, and 14 months after giving birth. Structural equation modeling revealed that total parenting stress predicted later depressive symptoms, however, there were different patterns between postpartum depressive symptoms and different types of parenting stress. A unidirectional model of parental distress predicting depressive symptoms best fit the data, with significant stability paths but non-significant cross-lagged paths. A unidirectional model of depressive symptoms predicted significant later difficult child stress. No model fit well with PCDI. Future research should continue to explore the specific nature of the associations of postpartum depression and different types of parenting stress on infant development and the infant–mother relationship. PMID:24956500

  7. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  8. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: A longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A.; Petras, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth; b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3,397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large U.S. urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age one, three, and five years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20–25: n=1,717; ages 26–35: n=1,367; ages 36+: n=313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the five years post-delivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20–25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20–25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  9. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages. PMID:25344349

  10. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  11. Self-reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity Among a Cohort of Postpartum Women: The PIN Postpartum Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Herring, Amy H.; Wen, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Background Few studies measure physical activity objectively or at multiple time points during postpartum. We describe physical activity at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of women using both self-reported and objective measures. Methods In total, 181 women completed the 3-month postpartum measures, and 204 women completed the 12-month postpartum measures. Participants wore an Actigraph accelerometer for one week and completed in-home interviews that included questions on physical activity. A cohort of 80 women participated at both time points. Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity differed over time for the cohort. Results For the cohort, average counts/minute were 364 at 3-months postpartum and 394 at 12-months postpartum. At both time periods for the cohort, vigorous activity averaged 1 to 3 minutes/day, and moderate activity (NHANES cutpoints) averaged 16 minutes/day. Sedentary time averaged 9.3 hours at 3-months postpartum and 8.8 hours at 12-months postpartum, out of a 19-hour day. Average counts/minute increased and sedentary behavior declined from 3- to 12-months postpartum. Conclusion Interventions are needed to help women integrate more moderate to vigorous physical activity and to capitalize on the improvements in sedentary behavior that occur during postpartum. PMID:22232505

  12. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  13. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment security at one year: The impact of co-morbid maternal personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard; Cordes, Katharina; Mehlhase, Heike; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been divergent. This may be due to not taking into account the effects of stable difficulties not specific for depression, such as maternal personality disorder (PD). Mothers (N=80) were recruited for a longitudinal study either during pregnancy (comparison group) or eight weeks postpartum (clinical group). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms only or in combination with a PD diagnosis were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were assessed using self-report and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment (in)security was calculated as a continuous score based on the four interactive behavioral scales of the SSP, and the conventional scale for attachment disorganization was used. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only if the mother also had a PD diagnosis. Infants of PPD mothers without co-morbid PD did not differ from infants of mothers with no psychopathology. These results suggest that co-existing PD may be crucial in understanding how PPD impacts on parenting and infant social-emotional development. Stable underlying factors may magnify or buffer effects of PPD on parenting and child outcomes. PMID:27400381

  14. Parenting stress and postpartum depression/anxiety in mothers with personality disorders: indications for differential intervention priorities.

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Mühlhan, Christine; Mueller, Jessica; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2016-06-01

    To date, parenting stress has rarely been examined in clinical samples of mothers with postpartum comorbid Axis-I disorders and Axis-II personality disorders (PD). Previous research has shown important links between maternal psychopathology and the development of child psychopathology. For these reasons, a clinical sample (N = 54) of mothers with various PD and comorbid depression/anxiety disorders were compared in this study. The clinical sample was divided into three groups based on PD: without PD, other PD, and borderline PD (BPD), and then matched according to depression/anxiety diagnoses and age. Parenting stress index (PSI, Abidin, 1995) scores were compared between these subsamples and to a nonclinical control group. No significant differences were found between mothers with various PD on global PSI scores. However, further examination of the PSI subscale scores revealed that PD were linked to an impaired sense of competence and positive reinforcement in relation to parenting. Compared to mothers with other PD, mothers with BPD had significantly more interpersonal issues. Compared to the nonclinical controls, clinically referred mothers had significantly higher PSI global and subscale scores, with notable PD-specific exceptions. These results illustrate the need for more differentiated treatment options for mothers with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders with PD to prevent later development of psychopathology in children of these mothers. PMID:26400074

  15. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  16. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  17. Barriers to service use for postpartum depression symptoms among low-income ethnic minority mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Laura S; Dornig, Katrina; Curran, Laura

    2009-04-01

    The risks of untreated postpartum depression (PPD) in the United States are higher among low-income ethnic minority mothers. However, research has not adequately investigated barriers to formal help seeking for PPD symptoms among this vulnerable population. We used convenience and purposive sampling strategies to recruit mothers experiencing past-year (the year prior to interview) PPD symptoms (n=14), community key informants (n=11), and service providers (n=12) to participate in focus groups and individual interviews. A grounded theory analysis of these nested perspectives revealed individual, community, and provider-level barriers operating at various stages of the help-seeking process: thinking about symptoms, seeking advice, and rejecting formal care. Although mothers overwhelmingly recommended "talking it out" for other mothers with PPD, an array of attitudinal and instrumental barriers led mothers to choose self-help practices in lieu of formal mental health care. PMID:19299758

  18. Oxytocin increases VTA activation to infant and sexual stimuli in nulliparous and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Rebecca; Cheng, Hu; Rupp, Heather A; Sengelaub, Dale R; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-03-01

    After giving birth, women typically experience decreased sexual desire and increased responsiveness to infant stimuli. These postpartum changes may be viewed as a trade-off in reproductive interests, which could be due to alterations in brain activity including areas associated with reward. The goal of this study was to describe the roles of oxytocin and parity on reward area activation in response to reproductive stimuli, specifically infant and sexual images. Because they have been shown to be associated with reward, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) were targeted as areas of expected alterations in activity. Oxytocin was chosen as a potential mediator of reproductive trade-offs because of its relationship to both mother-infant interactions, including breastfeeding and bonding, and sexual responses. We predicted that postpartum women would show higher reward area activation to infant stimuli and nulliparous women would show higher activation to sexual stimuli and that oxytocin would increase activation to infant stimuli in nulliparous women. To test this, we measured VTA and NAc activation using fMRI in response to infant photos, sexual photos, and neutral photos in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Participants completed the Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales and the Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women (BISF-W), which includes a sexual desire dimension, and received either oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before viewing crying and smiling infant and sexual images in an fMRI scanner. For both groups of women, intranasal oxytocin administration increased VTA activation to both crying infant and sexual images but not to smiling infant images. We found that postpartum women showed lower SES, higher SIS, and lower sexual desire compared to nulliparous women. Across parity groups, SES scores were correlated with VTA activation and subjective arousal ratings to sexual images. In postpartum women, sexual

  19. A case study of a mother's intertwining experiences with incest and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Røseth, Idun; Bongaardt, Rob; Binder, Per-Einar

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression disorder (MDD) gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject “Nina,” who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience. PMID:21760836

  20. The effect of social support around pregnancy on postpartum depression among Canadian teen mothers and adult mothers in the maternity experiences survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder that affects 10–20 percent of women, and can begin any time during first year after delivery lasting for months. Social support may decrease risk of depression during pregnancy for women. However, literature shows that the amount of social support received during and after pregnancy is different for teen mothers and adult mothers. This study examined the effects of social support received during and after pregnancy on PPD among Canadian women and identified if the relationship was different for teen mothers compared to adult mothers. Methods The study was based on secondary analysis of the Maternity Experiences Survey. A total of 6,421 women with singleton live births, aged 15 years and older were analyzed. Teen mothers were identified as 15–19 years old and adult mothers were identified as 20 years and older. The main outcome of the study was PPD, which was evaluated using the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale. The main independent variable was social support received during pregnancy and after birth. Logistic regression was computed to assess the relationship between social support and PPD after adjusting for confounding variables and age as an interaction term. Adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were reported. Results PPD was experienced by 14.0% among teen mothers and 7.2% among adult mothers (p < .001). Overall, teen mothers reported receiving more support during pregnancy and after birth than adult mothers (p < .010). The relationship between social support and PPD did not significantly differ for teen compared to adult mothers. Both teen and adult mothers were approximately five times more likely to experience PPD if they received no support or minimal support after the birth of the baby (95% CI, 3.51-7.36). Conclusion Receiving social support especially after birth is important for mothers of all ages to reduce the risk of PPD. PMID:24884410

  1. Delivery and postpartum practices among new mothers in Laputta, Myanmar: intersecting traditional and modern practices and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Thet, May Me; Khaing, Ei Ei; Sudhinaraset, May

    2016-09-01

    Myanmar is witnessing increased access to modern maternity care, along with shifting norms and practices. Past research has documented low rates of facility-based deliveries in the country, along with adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Research has also documented diverse traditional practices in the postpartum period, related to maternity care and maternal food intake. Through 34 qualitative interviews with women who recently gave birth and their mothers-in-law in one township in Myanmar (Laputta), we explore factors influencing decision-making around postpartum care and the practices that women engage in. We find that women use both modern and traditional providers because different types of providers play particular roles in the delivery and postpartum period. Despite knowledge of about healthy foods to eat postpartum, many women restrict the intake of certain foods, and mothers-in-laws' beliefs in these practices are particularly strong. Findings suggest that women and their families are balancing two different sets of practices and beliefs, which at times come in conflict. Educational campaigns and programmes should address both modern and traditional beliefs and practices to help women be better able to access safe care and improve their own and their children's health. PMID:27212423

  2. Effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose levels and postpartum screening in mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Khorshidi Roozbahani, Rezvan; Geranmayeh, Mehrnaz; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Mehran, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. GDM, defined as glucose intolerance, first diagnosed or initiated during pregnancy affects 1-14% of pregnancies based on various studies. Screening and early diagnosis and appropriate glycemic control can improve prenatal outcomes. Telephone follow-up seems to be a reasonable way for pregnant women follow-up. The present study evaluated the effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose level during pregnancy and postpartum screening. Methods: Eighty mothers with GDM were enrolled in this clinical trial and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. All mothers were asked to check their blood sugar levels fivetimes daily. In intervention group, telephone intervention was performed for 10 weeks. In each follow-up, individuals were followed for insulin injections, diet, clinical tests and reminding the next visit. In control group, three times of telephone call was established to record blood sugar levels. Another telephone call was established at 6 weeks of postpartum in both study groups to evaluate the performance of the screening test for blood sugar. Results: The mean age of mothers was 30.9±5 years in the control and 30.7±5.1 years in the intervention groups In intervention group, mean level of blood glucose, 2 hours after lunch at 28 weeks of pregnancy was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05). Mean differences in levels of fasting blood glucose between 28 weeks and 32 and between 28 and 36 weeks of pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (P<0.05). Rate of postpartum glucose screening test was significantly higher in the intervention group (P<0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that telephone follow-up could significantly reduce fasting blood glucose levels in mothers with gestational diabetes and also increased the rate of postpartum screening test. PMID:26793640

  3. Influence of Cultural Beliefs on Infant Feeding, Postpartum and Childcare Practices among Chinese-American Mothers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adele; Brann, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    As one of the fastest growing communities in the United States, Chinese-Americans receive relatively little research attention on their rates of breastfeeding versus formula feeding, and what factors influence that choice. This research aims to examine the influence of elders and cultural beliefs on postpartum, infant feeding, and childcare practices. Semi-structured interviews with 22 recently postpartum mothers who met the recruiting criteria were conducted between July 2012 and February 2013. The traditional postpartum practice, zuo yuezi, presented negative physical and emotional outcomes and maternal reporting of delay in lactation. Early introduction of solids for traditional reasons was reported. The support from husbands and elders were necessary for breastfeeding success, while some mothers had to first negotiate with elders for breastfeeding. The practice of sending infants back to China to be taken care of by extended families presented cultural implications related to grandparents' involvement in raising grandchildren. With the respect and appreciation for elders and traditions, it is likely that Chinese mothers negotiate between cultural traditions and societal expectation in the western home. PMID:25331609

  4. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Theresa; Cattelona, Georg’ann

    2014-01-01

    Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1) breastfeeding initiation, (2) early post-partum breastfeeding, (3) breastfeeding plan, (4) post-partum breastfeeding support and (5) breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported ques­tionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67) of mothers received helped from their husband or part­ner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79) of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-par­tum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations. PMID:25649998

  5. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted. PMID:24093957

  6. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

  7. "And You're Telling Me Not to Stress?" A Grounded Theory Study of Postpartum Depression Symptoms among Low-Income Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Low-income mothers in the U.S. are more likely to experience postpartum depression (PPD) and less likely to seek treatment than their middle-class counterparts. Despite this knowledge, prior research has not provided an in-depth understanding of PPD symptoms as they are experienced by low-income mothers. Through in-depth interviews, this study…

  8. Perceptions of general and parenting-specific posttraumatic change among postpartum mothers with histories of childhood maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Fava, Nicole M; Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Khan, Maria; Kovacevic, Merdijana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Menke, Rena; Muzik, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Although adaptive meanings of childhood maltreatment (CM) are critical to posttraumatic adaptation, little is known about perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) during the vulnerable postpartum period. PTC may be positive or negative as well as global or situational. This study examined general and parenting-specific PTC among 100 postpartum women with CM histories (Mage=29.5 years). All reported general and 83% reported parenting PTC. General PTC were more likely to include negative and positive changes; parenting PTC were more likely to be exclusively positive. Indicators of more severe CM (parent perpetrator, more CM experiences) were related to parenting but not general PTC. Concurrent demographic risk moderated associations between number of CM experiences and positive parenting PTC such that among mothers with more CM experiences, demographic risk was associated with stronger positive parenting PTC. Results highlight the significance of valence and specificity of PTC for understanding meanings made of CM experiences. PMID:27131270

  9. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  10. Barriers to access to treatment for mothers with postpartum depression in primary health care centers: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Pablo; Vöhringer, Paul A; Rojas, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to develop a predictive model to evaluate the factors that modify the access to treatment for Postpartum Depression (PPD). Methods prospective study with mothers who participated in the monitoring of child health in primary care centers. For the initial assessment and during 3 months, it was considered: sociodemographic data, gyneco-obstetric data, data on the services provided, depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and quality of life according to the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). The diagnosis of depression was made based on MINI. Mothers diagnosed with PPD in the initial evaluation, were followed-up. Results a statistical model was constructed to determine the factors that prevented access to treatment, which consisted of: item 2 of EPDS (OR 0.43, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and item 5 (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21-1.09), and previous history of depression treatment (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.61-1.06). Area under the ROC curve for the model=0.79; p-value for the Hosmer-Lemershow=0.73. Conclusion it was elaborated a simple, well standardized and accurate profile, which advises that nurses should pay attention to those mothers diagnosed with PPD, presenting low/no anhedonia (item 2 of EPDS), scarce/no panic/fear (item 5 of EPDS), and no history of depression, as it is likely that these women do not initiate treatment. PMID:27027674

  11. Barriers to access to treatment for mothers with postpartum depression in primary health care centers: a predictive model1

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Pablo; Vöhringer, Paul A.; Rojas, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to develop a predictive model to evaluate the factors that modify the access to treatment for Postpartum Depression (PPD). Methods prospective study with mothers who participated in the monitoring of child health in primary care centers. For the initial assessment and during 3 months, it was considered: sociodemographic data, gyneco-obstetric data, data on the services provided, depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and quality of life according to the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). The diagnosis of depression was made based on MINI. Mothers diagnosed with PPD in the initial evaluation, were followed-up. Results a statistical model was constructed to determine the factors that prevented access to treatment, which consisted of: item 2 of EPDS (OR 0.43, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and item 5 (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21-1.09), and previous history of depression treatment (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.61-1.06). Area under the ROC curve for the model=0.79; p-value for the Hosmer-Lemershow=0.73. Conclusion it was elaborated a simple, well standardized and accurate profile, which advises that nurses should pay attention to those mothers diagnosed with PPD, presenting low/no anhedonia (item 2 of EPDS), scarce/no panic/fear (item 5 of EPDS), and no history of depression, as it is likely that these women do not initiate treatment. PMID:27027674

  12. Levels of innate immune factors in preterm and term mothers' breast milk during the 1st month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Trend, Stephanie; Strunk, Tobias; Lloyd, Megan L; Kok, Chooi Heen; Metcalfe, Jessica; Geddes, Donna T; Lai, Ching Tat; Richmond, Peter; Doherty, Dorota A; Simmer, Karen; Currie, Andrew

    2016-04-14

    There is a paucity of data on the effect of preterm birth on the immunological composition of breast milk throughout the different stages of lactation. We aimed to characterise the effects of preterm birth on the levels of immune factors in milk during the 1st month postpartum, to determine whether preterm milk is deficient in antimicrobial factors. Colostrum (days 2-5 postpartum), transitional milk (days 8-12) and mature milk (days 26-30) were collected from mothers of extremely preterm (<28 weeks of gestation, n 15), very preterm (28-<32 weeks of gestation, n 15), moderately preterm (32-<37 weeks of gestation, n 15) and term infants (37-41 weeks of gestation, n 15). Total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA, soluble CD14 receptor (sCD14), transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2), α defensin 5 (HD5), β defensins 1 (HBD1) and 2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-γ, TNF-α and lysozyme (LZ) were quantified in milk. We examined the effects of lactation stage, gestational age, volume of milk expressed, mode of delivery, parity and maternal infection on milk immune factor concentrations using repeated-measures regression analysis. The concentrations of all factors except LZ and HD5 decreased over the 1st month postpartum. Extremely preterm mothers had significantly higher concentrations of HBD1 and TGF-β2 in colostrum than term mothers did. After controlling for other variables in regression analyses, preterm birth was associated with higher concentrations of HBD1, LZ and sCD14 in milk samples. In conclusion, preterm breast milk contains significantly higher concentrations of some immune proteins than term breast milk. PMID:26891901

  13. Improving postpartum care for mothers and newborns in Niger and Mali: a case study of an integrated maternal and newborn improvement programme

    PubMed Central

    Boucar, M; Hill, K; Coly, A; Djibrina, S; Saley, Z; Sangare, K; Kamgang, E; Hiltebeitel, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite appropriate guidelines, healthcare services worldwide often fail to deliver high-impact evidence-based care. This case study describes a large-scale programme to improve integrated postpartum care for mothers and newborns in Niger and Mali. As a result of an improvement effort based on common objectives, local ownership and shared learning to accelerate implementation of best practices, 78 facilities demonstrated rapid improvement in compliance with standards for post-partum haemorrhage prevention and Essential Newborn Care as well as a reduction in estimated postpartum haemorrhage. This approach yields rapid results and can be efficiently spread to improve care in low-resource settings. PMID:25236646

  14. Exposure of mother-child and postpartum woman-infant pairs to DDT and its metabolites in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Rang; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Qian; Yang, De-Yi; Li, Chao-Lin; Liu, Jing; Li, Jian-Guo; Li, Hao; Yang, Xue-Ying

    2008-06-15

    1,1,1-trichloro-2,2'-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) exhibits its long persistence in the environment, unusual bioaccumulation, effects on wildlife, and the possibility of long-term adverse effects on human health, especially reproductive toxicity. Despite the prohibition of most persistent organochlorine pesticides in China, the presence of organochlorine residue, including DDT, has been widely indicated in environmental substance. However, scarce information is available about accumulative levels of DDT in human tissues in China. To evaluate levels of DDT and its potential effects on women and children's health in a Chinese pesticide-exposed area, we recruited 50 pairs of mother-child and 50 postpartum women, and determined the levels of total DDT and its four main metabolites (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT) in venous blood, breast milk and umbilical blood cord by gas chromatography. Accordingly, data on reproductive outcomes of mothers and postpartum women and healthy status of children and infants were gathered through a questionnaire and medical examinations. Furthermore, we also assayed the DDT levels of some environmental samples (soil, food, milk, et al.). The levels of DDT in children's blood were higher than that in the women's. As compared to breast milk, the umbilical blood cord and the ventral fat individually demonstrated a significantly lower and higher level of DDT in the postpartum women. DDT was lower in milk and crucian carp than in the soil near the chemical plant. p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were the main metabolites of DDT. Our findings suggested the cumulative effect of DDT in human body in Tianjin, China. PMID:18387653

  15. Maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of infant-mother and infant-father synchrony in preterm and full-term infants: the role of neonatal vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ruth; Eidelman, Arthur I

    2007-04-01

    Relations between maternal postpartum behavior and the emergence of parent-infant relatedness as a function of infant autonomic maturity were examined in 56 premature infants (birthweight = 1000-1500 g) and 52 full-term infants. Maternal behavior, mother depressive symptoms, and infant cardiac vagal tone were assessed in the neonatal period. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony, maternal and paternal affectionate touch, and the home environment were observed at 3 months. Premature birth was associated with higher maternal depression, less maternal behaviors, decreased infant alertness, and lower coordination of maternal behavior with infant alertness in the neonatal period. At 3 months, interactions between premature infants with their mothers and fathers were less synchronous. Interaction effects of premature birth and autonomic maturity indicated that preterm infants with low vagal tone received the lowest amounts of maternal behavior in the postpartum and the least maternal touch at 3 months. Infant-mother and infant-father synchrony were each predicted by cardiac vagal tone and maternal postpartum behavior in both the preterm and full-term groups. Among preterm infants, additional predictors of parent-infant synchrony were maternal depression (mother only) and the home environment (mother and father). Findings are consistent with evolutionary perspectives on the higher susceptibility of dysregulated infants to rearing contexts and underscore the compensatory mechanisms required for social-emotional growth under risk conditions for parent-infant bonding. PMID:17380505

  16. Predicting Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in New Mothers: The Role of Optimism and Stress Frequency during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    During the transition to motherhood, women typically show favorable psychological adjustment after the first child is born, whereas 10 percent to 26 percent of women are at risk of developing clinically significant postpartum depressive symptoms. Little is known about which individuals are especially protected against the emergence of postpartum…

  17. Mothers who are securely attached in pregnancy show more attuned infant mirroring 7 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study contrasted two forms of mother–infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., "direct mirroring") and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's own experience (i.e., "inten...

  18. Stress in the City: Influence of Urban Social Stress and Violence on Pregnancy and Postpartum Quality of Life among Adolescent and Young Mothers.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives. PMID:26791234

  19. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  20. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, C. Neill; Barber, Jacques P.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others’ judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  1. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period. PMID:24643422

  2. Violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression in mothers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Chen, Hong-Lin; Xu, Xu-Juan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the association between violence and postpartum depression (PPD). The data sources of this study are: Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier, Springer Link were examined from their start date through July1, 2011. "Violence", "domestic violence", "physical violence", "sexual violence", "domestic violence", "postpartum depression", "postnatal depression", and "puerperal depression" were some of the terms included in the purview of MeSH terms. Relevant studies from reference lists were also scanned. Studies examining the association between violence and postpartum depression have been included. A total of 679 studies were included in this screening. Essential information of these included studies was independently extracted by two raters. Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used to assess the clinical data of these research studies. Random-effects model was chosen in this meta-analysis for maintaining significant heterogeneity. Publication bias was evaluated with the help of a funnel plot. Six studies involving 3,950 participants were included in this clinical study. Violence was one of the factors responsible for PPD [OR = 3.47; 95% confidence interval (CI; 2.13-5.64)]. Significant heterogenity was found in this meta-analysis (P < 0.00001; I (2) = 79%)and publication bias was detected through a funnel plot. A sensitivity analysis of 3.00, 95%CI (2.44-3.68), p < 0.00001 indicated that our findings were robust and reliable. Our meta-analysis indicated a positive correlation between violence and PPD. In women of reproductive age, PPD induced through violence can be prevented through early identification. In addition, due to heterogeneity and wide CIs in this meta-analysis, further research is evidently required. PMID:22382278

  3. Predictors of Postpartum Sexual Activity and Function in a Diverse Population of Women

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Lynn M.; Kaimal, Anjali J.; Nakagawa, Sanae; Houston, Kathryn; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of postpartum sexual activity and functioning in a diverse population of women using the Sexual Health Outcomes in Women Questionnaire (SHOW-Q). Methods This was a prospective study of 160 postpartum women assessing relationships between demographic factors, mode of birth, depression, breastfeeding, and sexual activity and function. Questionnaires were administered over the telephone 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and in person 6 to 8 months postpartum. Primary outcomes were sexual activity at 8 to 10 weeks postpartum and global and subscale SHOW-Q scores at 6 to 8 months postpartum; the primary predictor was mode of birth. Associations were assessed using multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. Results Seventy-five percent of this population (n = 140 at 8–10 weeks, n = 129 at 6–8 months) gave birth vaginally, and 60.7% resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum. Only multiparity was associated with increased odds of having resumed sexual activity by 8 to 10 weeks postpartum (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.44; P = .03), whereas older age was associated with decreased odds (aOR, 0.92; P = .02) of having resumed sexual activity. Women who were depressed (effect estimate, −13.3; P = .01), older (−1.1, P = .01), or exclusively breastfeeding (−16.5, P < .001) had significantly poorer sexual satisfaction, whereas multiparous women reported better sexual satisfaction (11.1, P = .03). A significant relationship between mode of birth and SHOW-Q scores did not emerge, although we did observe a trend toward lower SHOW-Q scores among women who underwent cesarean compared with those giving birth vaginally. Discussion Multiparity and younger age predict early resumption of sexual activity, whereas depression and breastfeeding are associated with poorer postpartum sexual functioning. The relationship between mode of birth and resumed sexual activity or postpartum sexual function remains

  4. Effects of Sheng Hua Tang on Uterine Involution and Ovarian Activity in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Lee, K. H.; Lee, Y. T.; Chen, T. C.; Yeh, C. C.; Chen, J. Y.; Liu, L. Y.; Chi, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Sheng Hua Tang (SHT) on uterine involution and ovarian activity were investigated in postpartum dairy cows. SHT (70 g) was given to dairy cows (n = 10) to evaluate its effects for five days from the first postpartum day. Postpartum cows fed with a basal diet without SHT were used as the control group (n = 10). Ultrasounds and blood tests were recorded for four weeks from postpartum day seven with a 3-d interval. The results showed that the areas and diameters of endometria were significantly (p<0.01) reduced in the group that received SHT compared to the control group on the seventh postpartum day. The group that received SHT had an intrauterine fluid volume mean of 1.2±0.6 cm3, which was significantly lower than that of the control group, 2.3±0.8 cm3 (p<0.01) on the 13th postpartum day. In addition, the uterine tension score was a mean of 1.0±0.0 in the group that received SHT, which was also significantly lower than that of the control group, 1.5±0.5 (p<0.01) on the 19th postpartum day. Taken together, the Chinese herbal medicine remedy, SHT, promoted uterine involution and ovarian activity in postpartum dairy cows. PMID:25049906

  5. Screening for symptoms of postpartum traumatic stress in a sample of mothers with preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Richard J; Lilo, Emily A; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Ball, M Bethany; Proud, Melinda S; Vierhaus, Nancy S; Huntsberry, Audrey; Mitchell, Kelley; Adams, Marian M; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2014-03-01

    There are no established screening criteria to help identify mothers of premature infants who are at risk for symptoms of emotional distress. The current study, using data obtained from recruitment and screening in preparation for a randomized controlled trial, aimed to identify potential risk factors associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety and posttraumatic stress in a sample of mothers with premature infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit. One hundred, thirty-five mothers of preterm infants born at 26-34 weeks of gestation completed three self-report measures: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory (2nd ed.), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory to determine their eligibility for inclusion in a treatment intervention study based on clinical cut-off scores for each measure. Maternal sociodemographic measures, including race, ethnicity, age, maternal pregnancy history, and measures of infant medical severity were not helpful in differentiating mothers who screened positive on one or more of the measures from those who screened negative. Programs to screen parents of premature infants for the presence of symptoms of posttraumatic stress, anxiety, and depression will need to adopt universal screening rather than profiling of potential high risk parents based on their sociodemographic characteristics or measures of their infant's medical severity. PMID:24597585

  6. Calcium supplementation, bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers during the 6-month postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Malpeli, Agustina; Apezteguia, María; Mansur, José L; Armanini, Alicia; Macías Couret, Melisa; Villalobos, Rosa; Kuzminczuk, Marta; Gonzalez, Horacio F

    2012-03-01

    We determined the effect of calcium supplementation on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) and identified predictors of bone mass changes in adolescent mothers 6 months postpartum. A prospective, analytical, clinical study was performed in adolescent mothers (< or = 19 years old; n = 37) from La Plata, Argentina. At 15 days postpartum, mothers were randomly assigned into one of two groups and started with calcium supplementation; one group received dairy products (932 mg Ca; n = 19) and the other calcium citrate tablets (1000 mg calcium/day; n = 18). Weight, height and dietary intake were measured and BMD was determined by DEXA at 15 days (baseline) and 6 months postpartum. BMC, total body BMD and BMD were assessed in lumbar spine, femoral neck, trochanter and total hip. Regression models were used to identify the relationship of total body BMD and BMC with independent variables (calcium supplementation, months of lactation, weight at 6 months, percent weight change, lean mass at 6 months, percent lean mass change, total calcium intake). Results showed that changes in BMD and BMC at the different sites were similar in both groups, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were the main predictive factors. In conclusion, the effect of calcium was similar with either form of supplementation, i.e., dairy products or tablets, and changes in percent body weight and total calcium intake were predictors of total body BMD and BMC changes. PMID:23477205

  7. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    RUPP, HEATHER A.; JAMES, THOMAS W.; KETTERSON, ELLEN D.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; DITZEN, BEATE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman’s sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women’s neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

  8. 1What do first-time mothers worry about? A study of usage patterns and content of calls made to a postpartum support telephone hotline

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Telephone hotlines designed to address common concerns in the early postpartum could be a useful resource for parents. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using a telephone as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We also aimed to test to use of algorithms to address parental concerns through a telephone hotline. Methods Healthy first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum wards of hospitals throughout Lebanon. Participants were given the number of a 24-hour telephone hotline that they could access for the first four months after delivery. Calls were answered by a midwife using algorithms developed by the study team whenever possible. Callers with medical complaints were referred to their physicians. Call patterns and content were recorded and analyzed. Results Eighty-four of the 353 women enrolled (24%) used the hotline. Sixty percent of the women who used the service called more than once, and all callers reported they were satisfied with the service. The midwife received an average of three calls per day and most calls occurred during the first four weeks postpartum. Our algorithms were used to answer questions in 62.8% of calls and 18.6% of calls required referral to a physician. Of the questions related to mothers, 66% were about breastfeeding. Sixty percent of questions related to the infant were about routine care and 23% were about excessive crying. Conclusions Utilization of a telephone hotline service for postpartum support is highest in the first four weeks postpartum. Most questions are related to breastfeeding, routine newborn care, and management of a fussy infant. It is feasible to test a telephone hotline as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. Algorithms can be developed to provide standardized answers to the most common questions. PMID:20946690

  9. Texting improves testing: a randomized trial of two-way SMS to increase postpartum prevention of mother-to-child transmission retention and infant HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Yuhas, Krista; Camlin, Carol S.; McClelland, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many sub-Saharan African countries report high postpartum loss to follow-up of mother–baby pairs. We aimed to determine whether interactive text messages improved rates of clinic attendance and early infant HIV testing in the Nyanza region of Kenya. Design Parallel-group, unblinded, randomized controlled trial. Methods HIV-positive pregnant women at least 18 years old and enrolled in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme were randomized to receive either text messages (SMS group, n = 195) or usual care (n = 193). Messages were developed using formative focus group research informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model. The SMS group received up to eight text messages before delivery (depending on gestational age), and six messages postpartum. Primary outcomes included maternal postpartum clinic attendance and virological infant HIV testing by 8 weeks postpartum. The primary analyses were intention-to-treat. Results Of the 388 enrolled women, 381 (98.2%) had final outcome information. In the SMS group, 38 of 194 (19.6%) women attended a maternal postpartum clinic compared to 22 of 187 (11.8%) in the control group (relative risk 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.02–2.70). HIV testing within 8 weeks was performed in 172 of 187 (92.0%) infants in the SMS group compared to 154 of 181 (85.1%) in the control group (relative risk 1.08, 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.16). Conclusions Text messaging significantly improved maternal postpartum visit attendance, but overall return rates for these visits remained low. In contrast, high rates of early infant HIV testing were achieved in both arms, with significantly higher testing rates in the SMS compared to the control infants. PMID:25313586

  10. Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Evenson, Kelly R

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. METHOD: The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. RESULTS: To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:21278835

  11. Towards an Understanding of Change in Physical Activity from Pregnancy Through Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this paper was to describe the rationale, data collection, and proposed analyses for examination of mediators of change in physical activity from pregnancy to postpartum among a cohort of pregnant women. Method The Pregnancy Infection and Nutrition 3 (PIN3) Study enrolled 2006 pregnant women into the cohort from 2001 to 2005. All women lived in central North Carolina upon enrollment. Physical activity was assessed using a self-reported one week recall, measured twice during pregnancy and once each at 3- and 12-months postpartum. On a subset of women, one-week accelerometer measures were also collected during the two postpartum time periods. Potential mediators (intrapersonal, interpersonal, community) were collected during pregnancy and postpartum through interviews and take home questionnaires. Results To assess mediation of physical activity among our cohort, we will first describe change in physical activity and the mediators, as well as their associations, through pregnancy into the postpartum period. Following this, the product of coefficients approach will be applied to examine whether each measure had indirect effects on change in physical activity. Each individual level mediator will be examined one at a time and across the time points in which it was available. The Sobel standard error approximation formula will be used to test for significance of the mediation effect. Conclusions This study will provide evidence to develop appropriate interventions targeted at physical activity and will help focus efforts on the appropriate time periods between pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:21278835

  12. Mortality and Health Outcomes in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Mothers at 18–20 Months Postpartum in Zomba District, Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Landes, Megan; van Lettow, Monique; Bedell, Richard; Mayuni, Isabell; Chan, Adrienne K.; Tenthani, Lyson; Schouten, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected women is a global concern. This study compared mortality and health outcomes of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected mothers at 18–20 months postpartum within routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services in a rural district in Malawi. Methods A retrospective cohort study of mother-child dyads at 18–20 months postpartum in Zomba District. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, service uptake, maternal health outcomes and biometric parameters were collected. Results 173 HIV-infected and 214 HIV-uninfected mothers were included. HIV-specific cohort mortality at 18–20 months postpartum was 42.4 deaths/1000 person-years; no deaths occurred among HIV-uninfected women. Median time to death was 11 months post-partum (range 3–19). Women ranked their health on a comparative qualitative scale; HIV-infected women perceived their health to be poorer than did HIV-uninfected women (RR 2.4; 95% CI 1.6–3.7). Perceived maternal health status was well correlated with an objective measure of functional status (Karnofsky scale; p<0.001). HIV-infected women were more likely to report minor (RR 3.8; 95% CI 2.3–6.4) and major (RR 6.2; 95% CI 2.2–17.7) signs or symptoms of disease. In multivariable analysis, HIV-infected women remained twice as likely to report poorer health [adjusted OR (aOR) 2.3; 95% CI 1.4–3.6], as did women with low BMI (aOR 2.1; 95% CI 1.1–4.0) and scoring lowest on the welfare scale (aOR 2.0; 95% CI 1.1–3.8). Conclusions HIV-infected women show increased mortality and morbidity at 18–20 months postpartum. In our rural Malawian operational setting, where there is documented under-application of ART and poor adherence to PMTCT services, these results support attention to optimizing maternal participation in PMTCT programs. PMID:22973443

  13. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  14. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women. PMID:26132887

  15. Using Young Mothers' Clubs to Improve Knowledge of Postpartum Hemorrhage and Family Planning in Informal Settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ndirangu, Gathari; Gichangi, Anthony; Kanyuuru, Lynn; Otai, Jane; Mulindi, Rose; Lynam, Pamela; Koskei, Nancy; Tappis, Hannah; Archer, Linda

    2015-08-01

    Women living in Nairobi's informal settlements face a higher risk of maternal death than those living elsewhere in the country, and have limited knowledge of actions they can take to improve their chances of survival during pregnancy and childbirth. As one strategy to reach this high risk group, Jhpiego has implemented young mothers' clubs (YMCs). These clubs comprise mothers aged 18-30 who come together on a weekly basis to share experiences and solutions to their challenges while receiving health education from health facility staff and community health workers (CHWs). The aim of this study was to assess whether the YMC strategy could be used to improve participants' knowledge of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), positive behavior around childbirth, and family planning. Participants in nine YMCs (n = 193) across four informal settlements were interviewed to assess their knowledge of safe motherhood topics before and after a series of eight health education sessions. Data were analyzed with the McNemar test to determine significance of change in knowledge pre- and post-intervention. The largest improvements were observed in knowledge about what to include in a birth plan, with correct responses increasing from 32 to 73% (p < 0.001), 58-93% (p < 0.001), 36-66% (p < 0.001), 58-85% (p < 0.001), and 64-88% (p < 0.001) for identifying a birth companion, budget, skilled birth attendant, emergency supplies, and place of birth, respectively. Less substantial improvements were observed in knowledge of danger signs of PPH (up 10% from 77%, p = 0.003). Although knowledge of actions to take in the event of bleeding after delivery did significantly improve, final knowledge scores remained low--knowledge to urinate increased from 14 to 28% (p < 0.001) and to breastfeed from 12 to 24% (p = 0.005). Even though the vast majority of respondents (84%) knew before the intervention that a woman should space pregnancy by at least 2 years after delivery, there was an increase to 94% after

  16. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4–8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. Method/design A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. Discussion This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752 PMID:23714411

  17. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. Methods We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. Results MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a one hour/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR=1.14; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.03–1.27) and a one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR=0.93; 95% CI=0.88–0.99). A one hour/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR=1.08, 95% CI=1.00–1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and one hour/week increases in indoor household (OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01–1.18) and overall MVPA (OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01–1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR=2.40, 95% CI=1.12–5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.05–3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Conclusions Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep. PMID:24577601

  18. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test-retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates. PMID:27490583

  19. Postpartum depression: a metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano

    2002-04-01

    Postpartum depression has been described as a dangerous thief that robs mothers of the love and happiness they expected to feel toward their newborn babies. Even though the number of qualitative studies on postpartum depression is increasing, knowledge development will be impeded unless the rich understandings gleaned from these studies are synthesized. Using Noblit and Hare's 1988 approach, the author conducted a metasynthesis of 18 qualitative studies on postpartum depression. Four overarching themes emerged that reflected four perspectives involved in postpartum depression: (a) incongruity between expectations and the reality of motherhood, (b) spiraling downward, (c) pervasive loss, and (d) making gains. Implications for clinical practice and theory development are addressed. PMID:11939248

  20. Contact with infants modulates anxiety-generated c-fos activity in the brains of postpartum rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl D.; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    The postpartum period is associated with many behavioral changes, including a reduction in anxiety, which is thought to be necessary for mothers’ ability to appropriately care for infants. In laboratory rats, this reduction in anxiety requires recent contact with pups, but areas of the brain where infant contact influences neural activity to reduce anxiety are mostly unknown. We examined c-fos expression in lactating rats whose pups were removed for 4 hours to increase mothers’ anxiety, or not removed to maintain low anxiety in mothers, followed by exposure to the anxiogenic stimuli of either brief handling or handling followed by exposure to an elevated plus maze. Control animals had their litters removed or not, but no further stimulation. A large number of neural sites traditionally implicated in regulating anxiety in male rats were examined, and similar to what is found in male rats, most showed increased Fos expression after handling and/or elevated plus-maze exposure. Litter presence before testing affected Fos expression due to handling or elevated plus-maze exposure only in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, dorsal and ventral preoptic area, ventromedial hypothalamus, lateral habenula, and supramammillary nucleus. Contrary to expectations, prior litter presence was associated with more Fos expression in most of these sites after handling and/or elevated plus maze stimulation, and only after such stimulation. These sites may be of particular importance for how sensory inputs from infants modulate anxiety and other mood states during the postpartum period. PMID:18374995

  1. Oxytocin increases VTA activation to infant and sexual stimuli in nulliparous and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Rebecca; Cheng, Hu; Rupp, Heather A.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    After giving birth, women typically experience decreased sexual desire and increased responsiveness to infant stimuli. These postpartum changes may be viewed as a trade-off in reproductive interests, which could be due to alterations in brain activity including areas associated with reward. The goal of this study was to describe the roles of oxytocin and parity on reward area activation in response to reproductive stimuli, specifically infant and sexual images. Because they have been shown to be associated with reward, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) were targeted as areas of expected alterations in activity. Oxytocin was chosen as a potential mediator of reproductive trade-offs because of its relationship to both mother–infant interactions, including breastfeeding and bonding, and sexual responses. We predicted that postpartum women would show higher reward area activation to infant stimuli and nulliparous women would show higher activation to sexual stimuli and that oxytocin would increase activation to infant stimuli in nulliparous women. To test this, we measured VTA and NAc activation using fMRI in response to infant photos, sexual photos, and neutral photos in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Participants completed the Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales and the Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women (BISF-W), which includes a sexual desire dimension, and received either oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before viewing crying and smiling infant and sexual images in an fMRI scanner. For both groups of women, intranasal oxytocin administration increased VTA activation to both crying infant and sexual images but not to smiling infant images. We found that postpartum women showed lower SES, higher SIS, and lower sexual desire compared to nulliparous women. Across parity groups, SES scores were correlated with VTA activation and subjective arousal ratings to sexual images. In postpartum women, sexual

  2. The Role of Physical Activity in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum Health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Brown, Wendy J; Hayman, Melanie; Moran, Lisa J; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-03-01

    The rise in obesity and associated morbidity is currently one of our greatest public health challenges. Women represent a high risk group for weight gain with associated metabolic, cardiovascular, reproductive and psychological health impacts. Regular physical activity is fundamental for health and well-being with protective benefits across the spectrum of women's health. Preconception, pregnancy and the early postpartum period represent opportune windows to engage women in regular physical activity to optimize health and prevent weight gain with added potential to transfer behavior change more broadly to children and families. This review summarizes the current evidence for the role of physical activity for women in relation to preconception (infertility, assisted reproductive therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight gain prevention and psychological well-being) pregnancy (prevention of excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia as well as labor and neonatal outcomes) and postpartum (lactation and breastfeeding, postpartum weight retention and depression) health. Beneficial outcomes validate the importance of regular physical activity, yet key methodological gaps highlight the need for large, high-quality studies to clarify the optimal type, frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity required for beneficial health outcomes during preconception, pregnancy and postpartum. PMID:27169984

  3. U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Teen Mothers: A Descriptive Study of Factors That Relate to Postpartum Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 154 U.S.-born and 127 Mexico-born Hispanic teens delivering at a county hospital in Houston, only 50 returned for their scheduled postpartum visit. Returning teens across groups were more likely to have no prenatal care, have a preterm or expired infant, report no educational plan, and have a support system. (KS)

  4. Associations between preterm birth, low birthweight, and postpartum health in a predominantly Hispanic WIC population

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Gee, Denise; Zhu, Yuda; Crespi, Catherine M.; Whaley, Shannon E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the postpartum health of predominantly Hispanic WIC participants and identify how health characteristics differ between mothers who delivered preterm or low birthweight infants and those who did not. Design Cross-sectional survey among postpartum WIC mothers. Setting Los Angeles and Orange Counties, California. Participants WIC participants within 1 year of delivery (n = 1,420). Main Outcome Measures Postpartum health behaviors, health characteristics, and birth spacing intentions and behaviors. Analysis The frequencies of health characteristics were estimated using analyses with sample weights. Differences were assessed with chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with a Bonferroni correction for pairs of tests. Results Many women exhibited postpartum risk factors for future adverse health events, including overweight or obesity (62.3%), depressive symptoms (27.5%), and no folic acid supplementation (65.5 %). Most characteristics did not differ significantly (P>0.025) between mothers of preterm infants and full-term infants or between mothers of low birthweight and normal birthweight infants. Conclusions and Implications Despite few differences between postpartum characteristics of mothers who delivered preterm or low birthweight infants and those who did not, a high percentage of mothers had risk factors that need to be addressed. Current postpartum educational activities of WIC programs should be evaluated and shared. PMID:25092236

  5. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  6. Perspectives of pregnant and postpartum latino women on diabetes, physical activity, and health.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Willis, Sharla K; Arellano, Natalia; Guzman, Ricardo

    2002-10-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes are prevalent among Latino women of childbearing age. Physical activity during and after pregnancy may contribute to weight control and improved metabolic status, but recommended activities may not be perceived as appropriate or feasible. To plan realistic and acceptable interventions, pregnant and postpartum Latino women in Detroit met in a focus group series to discuss their beliefs about diabetes and factors influencing their participation in regular physical activity during pregnancy and postpartum. Women believed that diabetes was primarily related to heredity and diet but not to physical activity. Exercise was believed to reduce stress and improve general health. Women suggested an organized group intervention, in a respected location, that offered safe physical activities within the context of a variety of activities for women and children. This strategy reduced concerns about safety and social acceptability while addressing their primary interest in social support. PMID:12238699

  7. Perinatal Parenting Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Outcomes in First-Time Mothers and Fathers: A 3- to 6-Months Postpartum Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Laura; Rollè, Luca; Agostini, Francesca; Sechi, Cristina; Fenaroli, Valentina; Molgora, Sara; Neri, Erica; Prino, Laura E.; Odorisio, Flaminia; Trovato, Annamaria; Polizzi, Concetta; Brustia, Piera; Lucarelli, Loredana; Monti, Fiorella; Saita, Emanuela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although there is an established link between parenting stress, postnatal depression, and anxiety, no study has yet investigated this link in first-time parental couples. The specific aims of this study were 1) to investigate whether there were any differences between first-time fathers’ and mothers’ postnatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms and to see their evolution between three and 6 months after their child’s birth; and 2) to explore how each parent’s parenting stress and anxiety levels and the anxiety levels and depressive symptoms of their partners contributed to parental postnatal depression. Method: The sample included 362 parents (181 couples; mothers’ MAge = 35.03, SD = 4.7; fathers’ MAge = 37.9, SD = 5.6) of healthy babies. At three (T1) and 6 months (T2) postpartum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: The analyses showed that compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on postpartum anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. The scores for all measures for both mothers and fathers decreased from T1 to T2. However, a path analysis suggested that the persistence of both maternal and paternal postnatal depression was directly influenced by the parent’s own levels of anxiety and parenting stress and by the presence of depression in his/her partner. Discussion: This study highlights the relevant impact and effects of both maternal and paternal stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms during the transition to parenthood. Therefore, to provide efficacious, targeted, early interventions, perinatal screening should be directed at both parents. PMID:27445906

  8. Sleep, daily activity rhythms and postpartum mood: A longitudinal study across the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Krawczak, Elizabeth M; Minuzzi, Luciano; Simpson, William; Hidalgo, Maria Paz; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Women with a diagnosis of bipolar and major depressive disorders are at higher risk to develop postpartum depression. The primary objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether daily activity rhythms and sleep parameters differ between women with and without a history of a mood disorder across the perinatal period. A secondary objective was to determine whether changes in these parameters were associated with postpartum mood. In total, 33 women were included in this study, 15 of which had a history of a mood disorder (high-risk group) and 18 who did not (low-risk group). Sleep and daily rhythms were assessed subjectively and objectively during the third trimester (≥26 weeks gestation) and again at 6-12 weeks postpartum. Mood was also assessed at both time points. Women in the high-risk group showed greater subjective daily rhythms and sleep disturbances across the perinatal period. Objective sleep efficiency was worse in the high-risk group in the postpartum period. Changes in both subjective daily rhythms and objective sleep efficiency were predictive of changes in depressive symptoms across the perinatal period. These findings encourage the development of preventative therapeutics to ensure circadian rhythm and sleep stability throughout the perinatal period. PMID:27097327

  9. Neighborhood Rhythms and the Social Activities of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda M.; Graham, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal ethnographic study explores the relationship between the temporal organization of neighborhood activities and the social engagements of urban African American teen mothers. Found that courting activities occurred during the morning, baby parading during the afternoon-evening, with teen mothers avoiding the illicit drug…

  10. Baseline results from Hawaii's Nā Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  11. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  12. Acceptability and Feasibility of a Mobile Phone-Based Case Management Intervention to Retain Mothers and Infants from an Option B+ Program in Postpartum HIV Care.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Clouse, Kate; Yende, Nompumelelo; Van Rie, Annelies; Bassett, Jean; Ratshefola, Mamothe; Pettifor, Audrey

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a cell phone based case manager intervention targeting HIV-infected pregnant women on highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Pregnant women ≥36 weeks gestation attending antenatal care and receiving HAART through the Option B+ program at a primary care clinic in South Africa were enrolled into a prospective pilot intervention to receive text messages and telephone calls from a case manager through 6 weeks postpartum. Acceptability and feasibility of the intervention were assessed along with infant HIV testing rates and 10-week and 12-month postpartum maternal retention in care. Retention outcomes were compared to women of similar eligibility receiving care prior to the intervention. Fifty women were enrolled into the pilot from May to July 2013. Most (70%) were HAART-naive at time of conception and started HAART during antenatal care. During the intervention, the case manager sent 482 text messages and completed 202 telephone calls, for a median of 10 text messages and 4 calls/woman. Ninety-six percent completed the postpartum interview and 47/48 (98%) endorsed the utility of the intervention. Engagement in 10-week postpartum maternal HIV care was >90% in the pre-intervention (n = 50) and intervention (n = 50) periods; by 12-months retention fell to 72% and was the same across periods. More infants received HIV-testing by 10-weeks in the intervention period as compared to pre-intervention (90.0 vs. 63.3%, p < 0.01). Maternal support through a cell phone based case manager approach was highly acceptable among South African HIV infected women on HAART and feasible, warranting further assessment of effectiveness. PMID:25656728

  13. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman’s mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  14. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression. PMID:24274243

  15. Risk factors for postpartum depression in women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Yator, Obadia; Mathai, Muthoni; Vander Stoep, Ann; Rao, Deepa; Kumar, Manasi

    2016-07-01

    Mothers with HIV are at high risk of a range of psychosocial issues that may impact HIV disease progression for themselves and their children. Stigma has also become a substantial barrier to accessing HIV/AIDS care and prevention services. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and severity of postpartum depression (PPD) among women living with HIV and to further understand the impact of stigma and other psychosocial factors in 123 women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital located in Nairobi, Kenya. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWHA (HASI - P). Forty-eight percent (N = 59) of women screened positive for elevated depressive symptoms. Eleven (9%) of the participants reported high levels of stigma. Multivariate analyses showed that lower education (OR = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04-0.46], p = .001) and lack of family support (OR = 2.49, 95% CI [1.14-5.42], p = .02) were associated with the presence of elevated depressive symptoms. The presence of stigma implied more than ninefold risk of development of PPD (OR = 9.44, 95% CI [1.132-78.79], p = .04). Stigma was positively correlated with an increase in PPD. PMTCT is an ideal context to reach out to women to address mental health problems especially depression screening and offering psychosocial treatments bolstering quality of life of the mother-baby dyad. PMID:27045273

  16. Perceived Intrinsic Barriers to Physical Activity Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Keith M.; MacKenzie, Todd A.; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Longacre, Meghan R.; Hendricks, Kristy M.; Beach, Michael L.; Dalton, Madeline A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify and determine the influence of perceived intrinsic barriers to physical activity among mothers living in rural areas. Methods Mothers were identified through a study of child-parent dyads in the predominantly rural states of New Hampshire and Vermont. Using a telephone interview, we asked mothers (n = 1691) about their level of physical activity and assessed eight potential barriers to physical activity. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, t tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparisons for groups within each variable. We used multiple regression analysis to assess associations between perceived barriers to physical activity and self-reported levels of physical activity. Results Each barrier was inversely associated with physical activity. Multivariate models that included terms for all potential barriers and covariates identified three barriers associated with lower levels of physical activity: lack of self-discipline, lack of time, and lack of interest. Conclusions Rural mothers are less likely to be physically active if they identify lack of self-discipline, time, or interest as barriers, suggesting that they have difficulty prioritizing exercise for themselves. Interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for mothers should specifically consider these barriers. One possible solution may be to support infrastructure that facilitates active living as the default option, to remove the issue of having to purposefully engage in physical activity as a separate aspect of a mother's life. PMID:20973674

  17. Evaluation of the effects of ice massage applied to large intestine 4 (hegu) on postpartum pain during the active phase of labor

    PubMed Central

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Saruhan, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The uterus continues to contract after childbirth. The pain caused by the contractions of the uterus can be as severe as labor pain. The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ice massage applied to the large intestine 4 (LI4) on postpartum pain during the active phase of labor. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with three groups and carried out in two stages. The study sample comprised of 150 pregnant women, who were referred to a maternity hospital. In the experimental group, ice massage was applied to LI4 during four contractions within the active phase of labor. In the placebo group, pressure was applied to LI4 using silicone balloons and the third group was the control group. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and The McGill (Melzack) Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) were compared among the experimental, placebo, and control groups. Results: The mothers in the ice application group had the lowest mean VAS score. It was determined that ice massage applied to LI4 during the active phase of labor did not lead to any statistical differences in mothers in the first 24 hours postpartum in terms of the characteristics of the pain with MPQ and VAS. Conclusions: In the study, the perception of pain was tried to be minimized by applying pressure with ice balloons to LI4. However, although the application was determined to have made no difference in the pain intensity, the mothers’ statements in the ice application group suggested that they felt more comfortable than did the mothers in the other groups. PMID:25709702

  18. A Cross Sectional Study on Acceptability and Safety of IUCD among Postpartum Mothers at Tertiary Care Hospital, Telangana

    PubMed Central

    Jairaj, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is world’s 2nd largest populated country. It is first to introduce family planning services. IUCD is most effective, safe, long acting and do not interfere with coitus. Immediately or within 72 hours after delivery of placenta in a health care facility is convenient for those who are in outreach area, where family planning facilities are less available. Objectives To study the socio demographic profile of parturients attended to obstetric ward for delivery. To assess the acceptability and safety of IUCD among study population Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among eligible postpartum women at Gandhi hospital secunderabad. Counseling was given about IUCD. After obtaining consent, Cu-T 380 was inserted in a 250 women, followed up to 6 weeks. The reasons for both acceptance and decline were recorded. Results Mean age of acceptance was 23.70±2.95 years. Majority were from urban area (79.75%). Acceptance was more in those who completed their secondary school level education (23.3%). Women undergoing caesarean section were accepting PPIUCD, more frequently than those who underwent normal vaginal delivery. Majority (67.12%) accepters told that they accepted IUCD because it is a reversible method. Main reported complications were pain abdomen (17.14%), bleeding (14.28%). Expulsion rate was 6.8%. Most common reason (40%) for removal of IUCD was inclination to other methods. Conclusion Even though expulsion rate high with, acceptance was high IUCD when it is inserted in postpartum period. PMID:26894092

  19. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  20. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy. PMID:21616029

  1. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses. PMID:19896506

  2. What Do Mothers Say? Korean Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Participation in Extra-Curricular Musical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun

    2015-01-01

    A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…

  3. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18–24 Months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Cole, Pamela M.; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n = 21) and fathers (n = 19) underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3–4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18–24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18–24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  4. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  5. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  6. Postpartum Blood Clots

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots (thrombophlebitis) is ... Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. CONSUMERS: Click ...

  7. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  8. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  9. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy if you have postpartum depression. Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may help reduce ... Having good social support from family, friends, and coworkers may ... seriousness of postpartum depression, but may not prevent it. ...

  10. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... and do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... get treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  11. The postpartum triathlete.

    PubMed

    Thein-Nissenbaum, Jill

    2016-09-01

    The postpartum period in a woman's life is filled with numerous changes, including physical changes, changes in sleep habits, and learning how to best care for a newborn. A common goal among postpartum women is to either begin or resume an active lifestyle, which often includes physical activity such as running, biking and swimming. The postpartum athlete may discover barriers that prevent her from returning to or beginning an exercise routine. These obstacles include muscle weakness, fatigue, depression and physical changes that require exercise modification. The physical therapist is well-suited to properly assess, treat and manage the care of the postpartum athlete. Postpartum athletes wishing to begin or resume training for triathlons require special consideration, as the triathlete must balance training to compete in three different sports. The purpose of the paper is to identify the unique physical and physiological changes that occur to the female during the postpartum period. In addition, injuries that are more commonly seen during the postpartum period will be discussed. Recommendations for beginning or resuming an exercise program will be reviewed. Lastly, sport-specific training for the postpartum triathlete, including challenges presented with each triathlon component, will be discussed. PMID:27497835

  12. Physical activity barriers and facilitators among working mothers and fathers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The transition to parenthood is consistently associated with declines in physical activity. In particular, working parents are at risk for inactivity, but research exploring physical activity barriers and facilitators in this population has been scarce. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively examine perceptions of physical activity among working parents. Methods Working mothers (n = 13) and fathers (n = 12) were recruited to participate in one of four focus group sessions and discuss physical activity barriers and facilitators. Data were analyzed using immersion/crystallization in NVivo 10. Results Major themes for barriers included family responsibilities, guilt, lack of support, scheduling constraints, and work. Major themes for facilitators included being active with children or during children’s activities, being a role model for children, making time/prioritizing, benefits to health and family, and having support available. Several gender differences emerged within each theme, but overall both mothers and fathers reported their priorities had shifted to focus on family after becoming parents, and those who were fitting in physical activity had developed strategies that allowed them to balance their household and occupational responsibilities. Conclusions The results of this study suggest working mothers and fathers report similar physical activity barriers and facilitators and would benefit from interventions that teach strategies for overcoming barriers and prioritizing physical activity amidst the demands of parenthood. Future interventions might consider targeting mothers and fathers in tandem to create an optimally supportive environment in the home. PMID:24974148

  13. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  14. Postpartum Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Interactions Pill Identifier Commonly searched drugs Aspirin Metformin Warfarin Tramadol Lactulose Ranitidine News & Commentary Recent News ... Muscle Disorders Brain, Spinal Cord, and Nerve Disorders Cancer Children's Health Issues ... Bladder and Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum ...

  15. Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies: awareness and perceptions of existing breastfeeding and postpartum depression support among parents and perinatal health care providers in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai'i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai'i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai'i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along with a

  16. Changes in Physical Activity Among Postpartum Overweight and Obese Women: Results from the KAN-DO Study

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Brouwer, Rebecca J. N.; Østbye, Truls

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed physical activity at multiple time points in the postpartum period or used both self-reported and objective measures of assessment. The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity and sedentary behavior at two time points in a cohort of overweight or obese postpartum women using both self-reported and objective measures. In total, 132 women completed physical activity assessments at a median of 24 weeks postpartum and again approximately 10 months later. At both time points, women wore an Actical accelerometer for one week and completed the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey at both time points. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine whether physical activity changed over time for the cohort. Overall counts per minute and moderate to vigorous physical activity increased from baseline to 10-months later, although the absolute levels were modest (median 6.9 to 8.8 minutes/day). A median of 64–71% at baseline and 63–67% at follow-up of their monitored time was sedentary. More intensive interventions are needed to help postpartum women integrate physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. PMID:23705761

  17. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. Methods This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. Results For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Conclusions Implications provide

  18. Postpartum Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gudeta, Alemeshet; Zerihun, Aklilu; Lewis, Odene; Ahmed, Sohail; Gajjala, Jhansi; Thomas, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department. Current guidelines recommend primary Isoniazid prophylaxis in TB exposed pregnant women who are immune-suppressed and have chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Treatment during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with active TB at delivery should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary Isoniazid prophylaxis for at least twelve weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. This case highlights important aspects for management of TB during the postpartum period which has a higher morbidity. We present a case of a young mother migrating from a developing nation to the USA, who was found to have a positive quantiFERON test associated with multiple cavitary lung lesions and gave birth to a healthy baby. PMID:27610260

  19. Postpartum Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

    PubMed

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Gudeta, Alemeshet; Zerihun, Aklilu; Lewis, Odene; Ahmed, Sohail; Gajjala, Jhansi; Thomas, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother's TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department. Current guidelines recommend primary Isoniazid prophylaxis in TB exposed pregnant women who are immune-suppressed and have chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Treatment during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with active TB at delivery should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary Isoniazid prophylaxis for at least twelve weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. This case highlights important aspects for management of TB during the postpartum period which has a higher morbidity. We present a case of a young mother migrating from a developing nation to the USA, who was found to have a positive quantiFERON test associated with multiple cavitary lung lesions and gave birth to a healthy baby. PMID:27610260

  20. Determinants of changes in vitamin D status postpartum in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Brembeck, Petra; Winkvist, Anna; Bååth, Mari; Bärebring, Linnea; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-02-14

    Low vitamin D status has been associated with unfavourable health outcomes. Postpartum, it is speculated that maternal vitamin D status decreases due to transfer of vitamin D from mother to child through breast milk. A few studies have investigated changes in maternal vitamin D postpartum and possible determinants. Thus, the aims of the present study were to determine changes in serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum in Swedish women and to evaluate lactation and other determinants for changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. In total, seventy-eight women were studied at 2 weeks, 4 months and 12 months postpartum. Data collection included measurements of weight and height as well as information about lactation, sun exposure, use of oestrogen contraceptives and physical activity level. Blood samples were collected and serum 25(OH)D levels were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem MS. Dietary intake of vitamin D was recorded using 4-d food diaries. For all the women studied, mean serum 25(OH)D did not change between 2 weeks and 12 months postpartum (67 (SD 23) v. 67 (SD 19) nmol/l). No association was found between lactation and changes in serum 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. Significant determinants for postpartum changes in 25(OH)D concentration were use of vitamin D supplements (P=0·003), use of oestrogen contraceptives (P=0·013) and season (P=0·005). In conclusion, no changes were observed in 25(OH)D concentrations during the 1st year postpartum in these women and no association was found between lactation and changes in 25(OH)D concentration postpartum. The main determinants for the variation in changes in 25(OH)D concentrations postpartum were use of vitamin D supplements, use of oestrogen contraceptives and season. PMID:26586446

  1. Metabolic and energy status during the dry period is crucial for the resumption of ovarian activity postpartum in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castro, N; Kawashima, C; van Dorland, H A; Morel, I; Miyamoto, A; Bruckmaier, R M

    2012-10-01

    It is well known that the degree of negative energy balance in high-producing dairy cows is the major cause of delayed resumption of the ovarian cyclicity that closely relates to fertility. Recent evidence suggests that the energetic situation during early lactation critically affects nutrient partitioning, metabolism, and the reproductive axis, whereas the effect of energy status during the dry period is widely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of energy status throughout the entire dry period until early lactation on the onset of the ovarian cyclicity. Blood samples were taken in 23 cows from dry off at 8 wk before expected parturition to 8 wk postpartum for the analyses of metabolites and hormones, and milk samples were obtained 3 times weekly from d 7 of lactation onward to confirm luteal activity and pregnancy by milk progesterone analysis. Energy balance (EB) was measured weekly during the last 6 wk of the dry period and every other week after parturition. Liver biopsies were obtained at 8 wk before expected calving, within 1 d after calving, and at 4 wk postpartum to measure the mRNA abundance of various gluconeogenic enzymes and metabolic hormone receptors. Cows showing luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as ovulatory during the first follicular wave postpartum (OC), whereas cows without luteal activity within 3 wk postpartum were defined as anovulatory (AC). Energy balance and, concomitantly, plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were higher in OC than in AC during the dry period. Plasma thyroxine concentrations and body condition score during the postpartum period were higher in OC than in AC. At the mRNA level (19 cows), hepatic insulin receptor decreased from dry off to early lactation, and mRNA of pyruvate carboxylase was highest at parturition and decreased in early lactation in AC only, whereas both parameters remained unchanged

  2. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Posillico, Caitlin K; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers [28]. While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known, however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26589802

  3. Frontal Lobe Activity and Affective Behavior of Infants of Mothers with Depressive Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In comparison to infants of mothers who had no symptoms of depression, infants of mothers with symptoms exhibited reduced left frontal lobe activity during play and failed to exhibit increased right frontal lobe activity during distress. Infants of symptomatic mothers showed less distress during maternal separation than infants of nonsymptomatic…

  4. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  5. Women with postpartum depression: "my husband" stories

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Phyllis; Bailey, Pat; Purdon, Sheri Johnson; Snelling, Susan J; Kauppi, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Background The research on Postpartum Depression (PPD) to date suggests that there is a knowledge gap regarding women's perception of their partners' role as carer and care activities they perform. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe women's understanding of their partners' or husbands' involvement in the midst of PPD. Methods This study used interview data from a larger study of northern and rural Ontario women's stories of help-seeking for PPD. The interpretive description approach was used to illustrate the complexity of women's spousal connections in PPD. Data from a purposive community sample of 27 women who self-identified as having been diagnosed with PPD was used. From the verbatim transcribed interviews a number of data excerpts were identified and labeled as "my husband" stories. Narrative analysis was employed to examine these stories. Results During this time of vulnerability, the husbands' physical, emotional and cognitive availability positively contributed to the women's functioning and self-appraisals as wife and mother. Their representations of their husbands' 'doing for' and/or 'being with' promoted their well-being and ultimately protected the family. Conclusion Given that husbands are perceived to be central in mitigating women's suffering with PPD, the consistent implementation of a triad orientation, that includes woman, child and partner rather than a more traditional and convenient dyadic orientation, is warranted in comprehensive postpartum care. Finally, this study contributes a theoretical understanding of responsive as well as reactive connections between women and family members during the postpartum period. PMID:19732461

  6. Maternal stress predicts postpartum weight retention.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-11-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  7. Maternal Stress Predicts Postpartum Weight Retention

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Kara; Vernon, Marlo; Wilcox, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum weight retention (PPWR) is a significant contributor to the development of overweight and obesity in women of childbearing age. Stress may be a key mechanism making it more difficult for mothers to lose weight in the year following delivery. The aim of this study was to assess whether specific aspects of parenting stress and life stress influence postpartum weight retention in new mothers. Women in late pregnancy or up to 2 months postpartum (n = 123) were enrolled in the study and followed through the first year postpartum. Linear regression models evaluated the associations of parenting stress (isolation, attachment and depressive symptoms) as well as overall life stress at 2, 6, and 12 months postpartum with PPWR at 6 and 12 months. During the first year postpartum, higher depression and life stress were significantly associated with greater PPWR. As the effect of depression diminished, the effect of life stress became significant. Contrary to hypothesized relationships, fewer problems with attachment and less social isolation were significantly associated with greater PPWR. Higher gestational weight gain and African American race were also significantly associated with greater PPWR at both 6 and 12 months. Different types of stress predict weight retention in first time mothers during the first year postpartum. Understanding the relationships between parenting stress, concurrent life stress and PPWR can enhance the development of future interventions that specifically target self-identified stressors, leading to improved weight related outcomes. PMID:24760321

  8. Postpartum blues: relationship between not-protein bound steroid hormones in plasma and postpartum mood changes.

    PubMed

    Heidrich, A; Schleyer, M; Spingler, H; Albert, P; Knoche, M; Fritze, J; Lanczik, M

    1994-02-01

    The relationship between non-bound steroid hormone levels in plasma and the occurrence of postpartum mood changes was investigated in 26 newly delivered mothers throughout the first 5 days postpartum. Studies with saliva samples had reported higher concentrations of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone on the days of symptoms in women experiencing postpartum blues. As there had been a controversy as to how far saliva concentrations reflect free hormone levels in plasma, free hormone levels of 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone were determined in plasma using ultrafiltration. No significant difference concerning free hormone levels could be found between women with and without postpartum blues. PMID:8201129

  9. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    PubMed

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. PMID:27357921

  10. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Mother Tinctures of Cholistan Desert Plants in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, M.; Ghafoor, Nazia; Aamir, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The mother tinctures of desert were screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Mother tinctures were prepared by maceration process and antibacterial activity of different plants was evaluated and compared by measuring their zones of inhibition. The results indicated that Boerrhavia diffusa mother tincture had excellent activity only against Escherichia coli. Mother tincture of Chorozophora plicata showed highly effective results against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas Echinops echinatus mother tincture showed highly effectiveness only against Salmonella typhi. Heliotropium europaeum mother tincture exhibited highly effective results against Bacillus subtilis in all concentrations. Tamrix aphylla presented maximum activity only against Bacillus subtilis in all three concentrations. Among the selected species Heliotropium europaeum, Chorozophora plicata and Tamrix aphylla were more effective plants against many microorganisms. However, Boerrhavia diffusa and Echinops echinatus were less effective plants against tested pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23716878

  12. Antibacterial activity of mother tinctures of cholistan desert plants in pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Ghafoor, Nazia; Aamir, M N

    2012-09-01

    The mother tinctures of desert were screened for antibacterial activity against bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Mother tinctures were prepared by maceration process and antibacterial activity of different plants was evaluated and compared by measuring their zones of inhibition. The results indicated that Boerrhavia diffusa mother tincture had excellent activity only against Escherichia coli. Mother tincture of Chorozophora plicata showed highly effective results against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa whereas Echinops echinatus mother tincture showed highly effectiveness only against Salmonella typhi. Heliotropium europaeum mother tincture exhibited highly effective results against Bacillus subtilis in all concentrations. Tamrix aphylla presented maximum activity only against Bacillus subtilis in all three concentrations. Among the selected species Heliotropium europaeum, Chorozophora plicata and Tamrix aphylla were more effective plants against many microorganisms. However, Boerrhavia diffusa and Echinops echinatus were less effective plants against tested pathogenic bacteria. PMID:23716878

  13. "She Learned it from her Mother and Grandmother": Women's Experiences with Delivery and Post-partum Practices in Peri-urban Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sheehy, Grace; Aung, Yadanar; Foster, Angel M

    2016-04-01

    Background Every year in Myanmar more than one million women give birth. Although births in hospitals and those attended by skilled birth attendants have increased considerably, the majority of women continue to give birth at home. Our needs assessment explored women's reproductive health in peri-urban Yangon, a rapidly growing area characterized by poor infrastructure, slum settlements and a mobile, migrant population. In this article, we focus specifically on the perceptions and experiences of adult women, key informants, and health care providers regarding delivery and post-partum care. Methods Our study team conducted a systematic literature review, 18 key informant interviews, 27 facility surveys, a survey with 147 adult women, and seven focus group discussions with women and health care providers over the summer of 2014. We analyzed these data for content and themes using deductive and inductive techniques and used descriptive statistics to analyze the survey results. Results Women in peri-urban Yangon are increasingly choosing to give birth in hospitals; however public hospitals are often inaccessible due to financial constraints and lack of transportation. Further, sociocultural and financial considerations continue to make deliveries with a traditional birth attendant an appealing option for some women and potentially harmful traditional post-partum practices remain common. Conclusions Peri-urban populations face competing influences that guide decision-making surrounding delivery. Efforts to address the barriers to accessing hospital-based maternity services and trained providers appear warranted. The development of culturally-relevant resources that seek to raise awareness of the potential risks of traditional post-partum practices may also be of use. PMID:26880487

  14. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  15. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  16. Amygdala response to negative images in postpartum vs nulliparous women and intranasal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    The neuroendocrine state of new mothers may alter their neural processing of stressors in the environment through modulatory actions of oxytocin on the limbic system. We predicted that amygdala sensitivity to negatively arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum compared to nulliparous women and that this suppression would be modulated by administration of oxytocin nasal spray. We measured brain activation (fMRI) and subjective arousal in response to negatively arousing pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women who received either oxytocin nasal spray or placebo before scanning. Pre- and post-exposure urinary cortisol levels were also measured. Postpartum women (placebo) demonstrated lower right amygdala activation in response to negative images, lower cortisol and lower negative photo arousal ratings to nulliparous women. Nulliparous women receiving oxytocin had lower right amygdala activation compared to placebo. Cortisol levels in the placebo group, and ratings of arousal across all women, were positively associated with right amygdala activation. Together, these findings demonstrate reductions in both amygdala activation and subjective negative arousal in untreated postpartum vs nulliparous women, supporting the hypothesis of an attenuated neural response to arousing stimuli in postpartum women. A causal role of oxytocin and the timing of potential effects require future investigation. PMID:22956670

  17. Content Analysis of Motivational Counseling Calls Targeting Obesity-Related Behaviors Among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine mothers’ perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0–6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants’ health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants’ TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers’ perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

  18. Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

  19. Negative relationships between erythrocyte Ca-pump activity and lead levels in mothers and newborns.

    PubMed

    Campagna, D; Huel, G; Hellier, G; Girard, F; Sahuquillo, J; Fagot-Campagna, A; Godin, J; Blot, P

    2000-12-01

    Lead poisoning induces hematological, gastrointestinal and neurological dysfunctions. One of the potential mechanisms is the inhibition of calcium-pump (Ca-pump), a transport protein. We investigated the effects of an environmental low lead exposure on Ca-pump activity in 247 mothers and their newborns. Maternal and cord blood, and newborn and mother hair, were sampled at delivery. Geometric means for mother and cord blood lead (Pb-B), and for mother and newborn hair lead (Pb-H), were 6.3 and 4.8 microg/dl, and 1.7 and 1.1 microg/g. Means for mother and cord basal Ca-pump activities were 2,442 and 2,675 nM/mg/hr. Mother enzymatic activity was negatively related to her Pb-B and Pb-H and to the cord Pb-B and newborn Pb-H levels. Newborn enzymatic activity was negatively related to his Pb-H level only. Adjustment for gestational age, child's sex, mother's age at delivery, alcohol, coffee and tea consumption, and smoking habits during pregnancy did not modify these relationships. Our findings support the hypothesis that lead toxicity could be in part mediated by a reduction of Ca-pump activity. This effect could be observed at low environmental exposure, in mothers and newborns. PMID:11191638

  20. What are postpartum women doing while the rest of the world is asleep?

    PubMed

    McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2015-06-01

    Large individual differences characterize maternal postpartum sleep and adjustment. Our goal was to explore aspects of mothers' nocturnal environments and behaviours that may explain differences in postpartum adjustment. A total of 201 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months completed an online survey with demographics, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings, caretaking behaviours, environment and nocturnal activities during 'one typical night during the past week'. Mothers reported 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) ± 1.7] nocturnal awakenings, each lasting 33.9 (SD ± 22.5) min. Infant age was related inversely to duration but unrelated to number of awakenings. Falling asleep while feeding was less frequent among exclusively formula-feeders. Among the entire sample, mothers used a cellphone (59%), backlit tablet (25%), TV (20%) and computer (16%) during nocturnal awakenings. Watching TV and using a computer were each associated with longer nocturnal awakenings. Eighty-nine per cent of women used ≥1 extra light source during nocturnal awakenings: night light (35%), light from a cracked door (28%), desk lamp (25%), electronic device (19%) or room light (14%). Light source(s) was unrelated to number or duration of nocturnal awakenings. These data suggest that, although supplemental light sources were not associated with awakenings, TV and computer use accounted for longer awakenings. Feeding method and technology use may help to explain individual differences in postpartum adjustments and may be targets for more effective interventions. PMID:25431167

  1. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  2. The Knowledge of Third Trimester Pregnant Women about Postpartum and Newborn Infants Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahayuningsih, Faizah Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Postpartum period is a transition period but it is being neglected aspect from women health care. Mother's knowledge and education before childbirth is important to be prepared for postpartum. Misinformation about traditions/customs in society are considered irrational, causing confusion in puerperal women, especially for mothers who…

  3. Reduction of liver function delays resumption of postpartum ovarian activity and alters the synthesis of acute phase proteins in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Paula; Krause, Ana Rita Tavares; Schwegler, Elizabeth; Weschenfelder, Marina Menoncin; Rabassa, Viviane Rohrig; Schneider, Augusto; Pereira, Rubens Alves; Brauner, Cássio Cassal; Del Pino, Francisco Augusto Burkert; Gonçalves, Fernanda Medeiros; Corrêa, Marcio Nunes

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of acute phase proteins, milk production, and resumption of postpartum ovarian activity of clinically healthy dairy cows in a semi-extensive system with different Liver Functionality Index (LFI) values. The animals were divided into two groups: Low LFI (LLFI: -7 to -12; n: 10) and High LFI (HLFI: -7 to -4; n: 10). Animals with LLFI had lower paraoxonase activity and lower albumin concentration in the pre- and postpartum periods (P<0.05), higher non-esterified fatty acids prepartum (P<0.005), and higher haptoglobin concentration postpartum (P<0.01). The LLFI group showed lower resumption of ovarian activity until 44days postpartum (29%; P<0.05) than HLFI (86%). Milk production did not differ between groups. Therefore, this study suggests that the LFI is an important biomarker of synthesis of acute phase proteins and the first ovulation interval, and it can be used to improve the production and reproductive performance. PMID:27234541

  4. Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Mothers of Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Babić, Ana; Humer, Jasmina Tomašić; Sincek, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore physical activity regarding mothers of preschool children and connections concerning different aspects of their physical activity (at work, during transport, in free time, while doing housework) with subjective quality of life. Another aim was to investigate factors that are obstacles of living a physically active life in this population. The participants of the study were 252 Croatian women, who have at least one preschool child older than three years. The World Health Organization Quality Of Life - BREF questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used. Participants also gave some personal demographic data, and answered to questions about obstacles for participation in organized physical activity. Results of this research showed that mothers of preschool children were more physically active than the population of adults in general, but their physical activity was mostly housework activity. Physical activity in their free time was the only aspect of physical activity that was significantly correlated with different aspects of mother's subjective quality of life. Employed mothers and those who live in the towns had more physical activities in their free time. Organizational factors and feeling that family suffers for their absence were the most frequently perceived barriers for organized physical activity participation. Results revealed that only the physical activity in their free time contributes to mother's quality of life. Mothers of preschool children mostly do housework physical activity, so support of the social community for physical activity in their free time in this population is recommended. Such activities should be especially directed to unemployed mothers and those who live in the villages. PMID:26753459

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation. PMID:20586688

  6. POSTPARTUM DOULAS: MOTIVATIONS AND PERCEPTIONS OF PRACTICE

    PubMed Central

    McComish, Judith Fry; Visger, Joan M.; Rowland, Carolynn A.; Kelleher, Jacqueline

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the perceptions of a United States cohort of experienced birth doulas who were among the first in the country to be trained to provide postpartum support. Design A qualitative, longitudinal study using ethnographic methods; participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Setting Midwestern, urban, US; postpartum homecare over three months Participants Four postpartum doulas; 13 families Measurements Participant observation during six postpartum home visits per family; thirteen semi-structured interviews with doulas at the completion of each family’s care; four summative interviews with doulas at the end of the study. Findings When describing their postpartum practice, four themes emerged: supporting women, taking the mother’s perspective, empowering women, and empowering families. When speaking of the motivations three themes emerged: being “called” to practice, interest in preventing negative experiences, and career development. Key conclusions and implications for practice In the US, new mothers see midwives and physicians sporadically after discharge from the hospital. Postpartum doulas fill this gap in continuity of care by providing support for families as they transition to life with their new infant. Understanding the beliefs, values, and practices of these important paraprofessionals will help midwives effectively integrate postpartum doula care into the care of women and infants. PMID:21055853

  7. Maternal neglect with reduced depressive-like behavior and blunted c-fos activation in Brattleboro mothers, the role of central vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Balazsfi, Diana; Kovacs, Krisztina B; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2012-09-01

    Early mother-infant relationships exert important long-term effects in offspring and are disturbed by factors such as postpartum depression. We aimed to clarify if lack of vasopressin influences maternal behavior paralleled by the development of a depressive-like phenotype. We compared vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro mothers with heterozygous and homozygous normal ones. The following parameters were measured: maternal behavior (undisturbed and separation-induced); anxiety by the elevated plus maze; sucrose and saccharin preference and forced swim behavior. Underlying brain areas were examined by c-fos immunocytochemistry among rest and after swim-stress. In another group of rats, vasopressin 2 receptor agonist was used peripherally to exclude secondary changes due to diabetes insipidus. Results showed that vasopressin-deficient rats spend less time licking-grooming their pups through a centrally driven mechanism. There was no difference between genotypes during the pup retrieval test. Vasopressin-deficient mothers tended to explore more the open arms of the plus maze, showed more preference for sucrose and saccharin and struggled more in the forced swim test, suggesting that they act as less depressive. Under basal conditions, vasopressin-deficient mothers had more c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area, shell of nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala, but not in other structures. In these areas the swim-stress-induced activation was smaller. In conclusion, vasopressin-deficiency resulted in maternal neglect due to a central effect and was protective against depressive-like behavior probably as a consequence of reduced activation of some stress-related brain structures. The conflicting behavioral data underscores the need for more sex specific studies. PMID:23006866

  8. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Activities for Integrating Science and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn; Bell, Ann

    The pairing of Mother Goose rhymes and nursery tales with the scientific thinking process is an effective instructional strategy linking reading and science learning at the primary level. This paper presents several such pairings which stress the basic science processes in grades K-3 of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and…

  9. Mother and Child Health Pmp Report: 2011-2012 Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION

  10. The Ontario Mother and Infant Study (TOMIS) III: A multi-site cohort study of the impact of delivery method on health, service use, and costs of care in the first postpartum year

    PubMed Central

    Sword, Wendy; Watt, Susan; Krueger, Paul; Thabane, Lehana; Landy, Christine Kurtz; Farine, Dan; Swinton, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    Background The caesarean section rate continues to rise globally. A caesarean section is inarguably the preferred method of delivery when there is good evidence that a vaginal delivery may unduly risk the health of a woman or her infant. Any decisions about delivery method in the absence of clear medical indication should be based on knowledge of outcomes associated with different childbirth methods. However, there is lack of sold evidence of the short-term and long-term risks and benefits of a planned caesarean delivery compared to a planned vaginal delivery. It also is important to consider the economic aspects of caesarean sections, but very little attention has been given to health care system costs that take into account services used by women for themselves and their infants following hospital discharge. Methods and design The Ontario Mother and Infant Study III is a prospective cohort study to examine relationships between method of delivery and maternal and infant health, service utilization, and cost of care at three time points during the year following postpartum hospital discharge. Over 2500 women were recruited from 11 hospitals across the province of Ontario, Canada, with data collection occurring between April 2006 and October 2008. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire in hospital and structured telephone interviews at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after discharge. Data will be analyzed using generalized estimating equation, a special generalized linear models technique. A qualitative descriptive component supplements the survey approach, with the goal of assisting in interpretation of data and providing explanations for trends in the findings. Discussion The findings can be incorporated into patient counselling and discussions about the advantages and disadvantages of different delivery methods, potentially leading to changes in preferences and practices. In addition, the findings will be useful to hospital- and community

  11. Adolescent Mothers Leaving Multigenerational Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…

  12. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  13. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Activity plus Diet Interventions on Body Weight in Overweight or Obese Women who are Pregnant or in Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and PA plus diet interventions in managing weight among overweight or obese (OW/OB) pregnant or postpartum women. Methods Four databases were searched for randomized controlled studies published between January 2000 and December 2011 that reported weight change outcomes of PA interventions in OW/OB pregnant or postpartum women. PA alone as well as PA plus diet interventions were included. Results Of 681 abstracts identified, 11 were included (7 trials with pregnant women and 4 trials with postpartum women). Overall, we found that PA interventions were effective for OW/OB pregnant as well as postpartum women. On average, pregnant women in the intervention groups gained 0.91 kg less (95% CI: −1.76, −0.06) compared to those in the usual care groups. Postpartum women in the intervention groups significantly lost more body weight (−1.22 kg; 95% CI: −1.89, −0.56) than those in the control groups. In the subgroup analyses by PA intervention types, supervised PA plus diet interventions were the most effective. Conclusions PA plus diet interventions may require more than advice; supervised PA programs or personalized prescription/goals are needed to prevent excessive weight gain for OW/OB pregnant women and excessive weight retention for OW/OB postpartum women. PMID:23480971

  14. Oxytocin course over pregnancy and postpartum period and the association with postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Krause, Daniela; Maiwald, Carina; Härtl, Kristin; Myint, Aye-Mu; Kästner, Ralph; Obermeier, Michael; Padberg, Frank; Brücklmeier, Benedikt; Weidinger, Elif; Kieper, Susann; Schwarz, Markus; Zill, Peter; Müller, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women. We evaluated 100 women twice during pregnancy (weeks 35 and 38) and three times in the postpartum period (within 2 days and 7 weeks and 6 months after delivery) by measuring oxytocin plasma levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assessing depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Oxytocin plasma levels significantly increased from the 35th week of gestation to 6 months postpartum in all women. However, levels decreased from the 38th week of gestation to 2 days after delivery in participants with postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas they continuously increased in the group without postpartum depressive symptoms; the difference between the course of oxytocin levels in the two groups was significant (Δt2-t3: t = 2.14; p = 0.036*). Previous depressive episodes and breastfeeding problems predicted postpartum depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that alterations in the oxytocin system during pregnancy might be specific for women who develop postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether oxytocin plasma levels might have predictive value in women at high risk for PPD. PMID:27320943

  15. Postpartum pyomyoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Tina C.; Adair, Jamie; Lee, Yi Chun

    2005-01-01

    Leiomyomata are common benign tumors of the uterus and female pelvis. Myomas have been reported in 25% of Caucasian American women and 50% of African-American women. The true incidence is unknown, but descriptions of 50% have been found at postmortem examinations. Considering the high incidence of uterine myomata in women of reproductive age, they are reported as complications in only 2% of pregnancies. Pyomyoma (suppurative leiomyoma) a rare complication results from infarction and infection of a leiomyoma. Without a strong clinical suspicion and surgical intervention, fatalities may occur. Since 1945, only 15 cases have been described in the literature, mostly in pregnant or postmenopausal women after ascending infection. This report documents a pyomyoma that presented as a postpartum enlargement of a previously known leiomyoma. This case is unique because the patient did not undergo a hysterectomy at the time of exploratory laparotomy. Six months after the procedure, normal cyclic bleeding was noted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16035584

  16. Developing Content for a mHealth Intervention to Promote Postpartum Retention in Prevention of Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission Programs and Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Newman, Maya; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; McClelland, R. Scott; Cohen, Craig R.; Camlin, Carol S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal attendance at postnatal clinic visits and timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection are important steps for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We aimed to use theory-informed methods to develop text messages targeted at facilitating these steps. Methods We conducted five focus group discussions with health workers and women attending antenatal, postnatal, and PMTCT clinics to explore aspects of women's engagement in postnatal HIV care and infant testing. Discussion topics were informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prior empirical research. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed according to the construct of the HBM to which they related. Themes were extracted and used to draft intervention messages. We carried out two stages of further messaging development: messages were presented in a follow-up focus group in order to develop optimal phrasing in local languages. We then further refined the messages, pretested them in individual cognitive interviews with selected health workers, and finalized the messages for the intervention. Results Findings indicated that brief, personalized, caring, polite, encouraging, and educational text messages would facilitate women bringing their children to clinic after delivery, suggesting that text messages may serve as an important “cue to action.” Participants emphasized that messages should not mention HIV due to fear of HIV testing and disclosure. Participants also noted that text messages could capitalize on women's motivation to attend clinic for childhood immunizations. Conclusions Applying a multi-stage content development approach to crafting text messages – informed by behavioral theory – resulted in message content that was consistent across different focus groups. This approach could help answer “why” and “how” text messaging may be a useful tool to support maternal and child health. We are evaluating the effect of these messages on

  17. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of…

  18. Mothers' efforts to promote healthy nutrition and physical activity for their preschool children.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Ann L; Reilly, Sandra M

    2011-10-01

    Children's lifestyles profoundly impact their health. This action research study explores how mothers manage to provide good nutrition and physical activity opportunities for their preschool children despite the challenges of daily living. Aware of these daily challenges, mothers are the best source of information about the usefulness of different strategies in providing healthy lifestyles for their children. In so doing, they display an ecological viewpoint that recognizes health as an individual and collective responsibility. PMID:21930026

  19. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25940687

  20. [Infanticide as a consequence of postpartum bonding disorder].

    PubMed

    Hornstein, C; Trautmann-Villalba, P

    2007-05-01

    Parental killing of their own children in the 1st year constitutes a rare phenomenon. Studies on infanticide show that mothers who kill their children are frequently psychiatrically disturbed. Depression is the most common postpartum disorder and may represent a vital danger for both mother and child. The association between depression and infanticide can usually be explained by maternal psychopathologic symptoms. The importance of a mother's bonding to her infant has not often been examined in respect to infanticide. The present case report underlines the importance of postpartum bonding disorder and its relation to a higher risk of infanticide. PMID:17464496

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-12-01

    Mothers' constitute is a very important part of infants' social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10-15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children's growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children's cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children's development seem to be mediated by the mother's interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children's cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  2. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  3. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  4. Disrupted posterior cingulate–amygdala connectivity in postpartum depressed women as measured with resting BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Henry W.; Zevallos, Carlos; Wisner, Katherine L.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Disengagement of emotion regulation circuits was previously shown in depressed mothers and was hypothesized to underlie the impaired maternal–infant sensitivity described in postpartum depression (PPD). We hypothesized similarly reduced resting-state functional connectivity in default mode network (DMN) regions involved in social cognition in PPD. Resting-state functional MRI, clinical and mother–infant attachment data were obtained from 14 unmedicated postpartum women with major depression and 23 healthy postpartum women. Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) time series were extracted, filtered between 0.007 and 0.08 Hz and used as regressors in a whole brain general linear model analysis. PCC–right amygdala connectivity was significantly disrupted in depressed compared to healthy mothers for low-frequency neural activity, showing a negative (inverse) coupling in the depressed group but not in the controls. PCC–right amygdala connectivity was positively correlated with PCC–parahippocampus connectivity. Resting connectivity patterns of positive co-activations in postpartum women mirrored the canonical DMN. These findings of reduced PCC–amygdala coupling raise the possibility that PPD might involve the disruption of outward, preventative aspects of self-relevant thought and theory of mind/empathy processes. Further integrated studies of neural connectivity and these cognitive/behavioral dimensions are warranted. PMID:23709351

  5. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  6. Latino Mothers in Farmworker Families’ Beliefs about Preschool Children’s Physical Activity and Play

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Document beliefs about the contribution of physical activity to preschool-aged children’s health held by Latino mothers in farmworker families, and delineate their perceived barriers or constraints that impose limits on preschool-aged children’s physical activity. Method Qualitative data obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews (N=33) with mothers of preschool-aged children living in Latino farmworker families in North Carolina. Results Mothers universally agree that regular vigorous physical activity is good for preschool-aged children’s health, including obesity prevention. However, excessive physical activity can produce illnesses, as well as other physical and emotional problems, and should be limited. Mothers wanted their children to engage in more sedentary forms of activity because they believed it would benefit learning. Physical and chemical hazards in rural environments, distance to parks and play spaces, and lack of familiarity and concerns about neighbors constrained children’s physical activity. Conclusions Although physical activity is believed to be beneficial, strong cultural beliefs and real contextual barriers undermine preschool-aged Latino farmworker children’s level of physical activity. PMID:24522435

  7. Use of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey for physical activity assessment in postpartum Latinas: a validation study of a linguistically translated Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen S

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the concurrent validity of the English and a linguistic Spanish translation of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) with pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) among postpartum Latinas. Latinas (n 97) completed the SBAS in either English (n 47) or Spanish (n 50) and wore pedometers 7 days at three different assessment periods. The English version demonstrated significant trends (p .01) for differentiating aerobic walking steps (AWS) and aerobic walking time (AWT) across SBAS intensity categories at two of the three assessment periods. The Spanish version showed marginally significant trends for differentiating AWS (p .048) and AWT (p .052) across SBAS intensity categories at only one assessment period. The English version of the SBAS is effective in assessing PA status among Latinas; however, the Spanish version indicates a need for research to further explore cultural and linguistic adaptations of the SBAS. PMID:25239211

  8. Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

  9. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated. PMID:7476012

  10. Psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression in diverse groups of women.

    PubMed

    Logsdon, M C; Usui, W

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the extent to which a causal model developed from a theoretical formulation of postpartum depression was consistent with data collected from three groups of postpartum women. In this cross-sectional, correlational design, the samples consisted of primarily middle-class, Caucasian mothers of term infants and preterm infants, and low-income, African American mothers of term infants. Instruments included the CES-D Depression instrument, the Postpartum Support Questionnaire, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem instrument, and a question regarding closeness to partner. The causal model was tested with structural equation modeling. Importance of support, support received, and closeness to partner were significant predictors of both self-esteem and depression. Predictors of postpartum depression are the same across diverse samples of women, as proposed in the causal model. PMID:11569330

  11. [Postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Guo, S F

    1993-09-01

    A retrospective study was carried out in Beijing, China, in 1992. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale was used to inquire the mothers at 6-12 month after delivery. A total of 550 women were investigated by mailing. 425 women replied. The positive rate of PPD in our study was 17.9%. Women who had had a history of mood disorder before pregnancy had a higher risk of PPD. Social and psychological factors such as lacking support from the women's relatives, the poor marital relationship and the bad living condition shown to be significantly associated with postnatal depression. PPD can seriously affected the physical and mental health and well-being of women, her child's early education causing delayed development and her family causing a great deal of suffering, personal distress and marital troubles even causing divorce and suicide. Thus it is important to identify the high risk women and give treatment as early as possible. PMID:8313745

  12. Postpartum Depression and Social Support in China: A Cultural Perspective.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lu; Zhu, Ruijuan; Zhang, Xueying

    2016-09-01

    This study explored how Chinese culture affects the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. In-depth interviews with 38 mothers in mainland China showed that discrepancies between expected and perceived available social support and conflicts among social support providers are two major contributors to the stress associated with postpartum depression. These dynamics are deeply rooted in the context of Chinese culture with its distinctive gender roles and family dynamics. These cultural norms further prevent women from seeking social support. PMID:27491938

  13. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation. PMID:25339431

  14. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  15. [Postpartum pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Escalante, Juan Pablo; Diez, Ana; Figueroa Casas, Marcelo; Lasave, Alejandro; Cursack, Guillermo; Poy, Carlos; Rodríguez, María Soledad; Galuppo, Marcela; Zapata, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) in pregnancy is a rare disorder that carries a high risk to mother and child, and as such, it is considered a contraindication to becoming pregnant. However, there are few published reports related to the diagnosis of this condition after delivery. We describe three PH cases diagnosed after their normal pregnancies and deliveries. Although the causes are unknown, several mechanisms such as hypercoagulation, placental hypoxia or amniotic fluid embolism have been considered as possible causes. It is difficult to define whether a PH diagnosed in the postpartum period, relates to an earlier asymptomatic PH period that was triggered by the physiological stress of labor or if it is a recently acquired condition. Despite the lack of data to support the absence of PH previous to pregnancy in our three patients, lack of events during this period, asymptomatic and normal deliveries, lead us to believe that they did not suffer this disease prior to pregnancy; considering that high hemodynamic demands impair a ventricle with little reserve, and its subsequent appearance at time of delivery. PMID:25637900

  16. Mothers' Knowledge of Early Adolescents' Activities following the Middle School Transition and Pubertal Maturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a sequential mediation model to determine whether experiences, social cognitions, or parent-adolescent interactional processes account for lower levels of mothers' knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts and activities following early adolescents' transition into middle school (MS) and pubertal development. Cross-sectional data…

  17. Mother-Child Interactions during Shared Literacy Activities: Education in a Fractured Bilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers scaffold the literacy skills of their children when jointly engaged in literacy-related activities in monolingual families (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001). Yet little is known about the linguistic environment of English language learners in the USA, a group at high risk for reading difficulties if they are only taught…

  18. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-08-15

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with /sup 14/C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition.

  19. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring. PMID:26319224

  20. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595585

  1. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health. PMID:26595580

  2. Oxytocin and postpartum depression: Delivering on what's known and what's not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with life long consequences for infant socioemotional and...

  3. Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers' decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Thomson, Courtney E; White, Katherine M

    2013-07-01

    Given increasing trends of obesity being noted from early in life and that active lifestyles track across time, it is important that children at a very young age be active to combat a foundation of unhealthy behaviours forming. This study investigated, within a theory of planned behaviour (TPB) framework, factors which influence mothers' decisions about their child's (1) adequate physical activity (PA) and (2) limited screen time behaviours. Mothers (N = 162) completed a main questionnaire, via on-line or paper-based administration, which comprised standard TPB items in addition to measures of planning and background demographic variables. One week later, consenting mothers completed a follow-up telephone questionnaire which assessed the decisions they had made regarding their child's PA and screen time behaviours during the previous week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed support for the predictive model, explaining an overall 73 and 78 % of the variance in mothers' intention and 38 and 53 % of the variance in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in adequate PA and limited screen time, respectively. Attitude and subjective norms predicted intention in both target behaviours, as did intentions with behaviour. Contrary to predictions, perceived behavioural control (PBC) in PA behaviour and planning in screen time behaviour were not significant predictors of intention, neither was PBC a predictor of either behaviour. The findings illustrate the various roles that psycho-social factors play in mothers' decisions to ensure their child engages in active lifestyle behaviours which can help to inform future intervention programs aimed at combating very young children's inactivity. PMID:22833334

  4. A cry in the dark: depressed mothers show reduced neural activation to their own infant’s cry

    PubMed Central

    Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated depression-related differences in primiparous mothers’ neural response to their own infant’s distress cues. Mothers diagnosed with major depressive disorder (n = 11) and comparison mothers with no diagnosable psychopathology (n = 11) were exposed to their own 18-months-old infant’s cry sound, as well as unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound, during functional neuroimaging. Depressed mothers’ response to own infant cry greater than other sounds was compared to non-depressed mothers’ response in the whole brain [false discovery rate (FDR) corrected]. A continuous measure of self-reported depressive symptoms (CESD) was also tested as a predictor of maternal response. Non-depressed mothers activated to their own infant’s cry greater than control sound in a distributed network of para/limbic and prefrontal regions, whereas depressed mothers as a group failed to show activation. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers showed significantly greater striatal (caudate, nucleus accumbens) and medial thalamic activation. Additionally, mothers with lower depressive symptoms activated more strongly in left orbitofrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate and medial superior frontal regions. Non-depressed compared to depressed mothers activated uniquely to own infant greater than other infant cry in occipital fusiform areas. Disturbance of these neural networks involved in emotional response and regulation may help to explain parenting deficits in depressed mothers. PMID:21208990

  5. How Mothers Perceive Their Own Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…

  6. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  7. Effects of antenatal, postpartum and post-weaning melatonin supplementation on blood pressure and renal antioxidant enzyme activities in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, S K; Sirajudeen, K N S; Sundaram, Arunkumar; Zakaria, Rahimah; Singh, H J

    2011-06-01

    Although melatonin lowers blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), its effect following antenatal and postpartum supplementation on the subsequent development of hypertension in SHR pups remains unknown. To investigate this, SHR dams were given melatonin in drinking water (10 mg/kg body weight/day) from day 1 of pregnancy until day 21 postpartum. After weaning, a group of male pups continued to receive melatonin till the age of 16 weeks (Mel-SHR), while no further melatonin was given to another group of male pups (Maternal-Mel-SHR). Controls received plain drinking water. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured at 4, 6, 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age, after which the kidneys were collected for analysis of antioxidant enzyme profiles. SBP was significantly lower till the age of 8 weeks in Maternal-Mel-SHR and Mel-SHR than that in the controls, after which no significant difference was evident in SBP between the controls and Maternal-Mel-SHR. SBP in Mel-SHR was lower than that in controls and Maternal-Mel-SHR at 12 and 16 weeks of age. Renal glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione s-transferase (GST) activities, levels of total glutathione and relative GPx-1 protein were significantly higher in Mel-SHR. GPx protein was however significantly higher in Mel-SHR. No significant differences were evident between the three groups in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase. In conclusion, it appears that while antenatal and postpartum melatonin supplementation decreases the rate of rise in blood pressure in SHR offspring, it however does not alter the tendency of offspring of SHR to develop hypertension. PMID:21210316

  8. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude. PMID:22865022

  9. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population. PMID:24964227

  10. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  11. Predictive value of weight loss on mortality of HIV-positive mothers in a prolonged breastfeeding setting.

    PubMed

    Koyanagi, Ai; Humphrey, Jean H; Moulton, Lawrence H; Ntozini, Robert; Mutasa, Kuda; Iliff, Peter; Ruff, Andrea J

    2011-11-01

    HIV-positive lactating women may be at high risk of weight loss due to increased caloric requirements and postpartum physiological weight loss. Ten percent weight loss is associated with a higher risk of mortality in HIV-positive patients and this alone is a criterion for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) initiation where CD4 counts are not available. However, no study has investigated this association in lactating postpartum women. We investigated whether 10% weight loss predicts death in postpartum HIV-positive women. A total of 9207 HIV-negative and 4495 HIV-positive mothers were recruited at delivery. Women were weighed at 6 weeks, 3 months, and every 3 months thereafter for up to 24 months postpartum and data on mortality up to 2 years were collected. The median duration of breastfeeding was longer than 18 months. Among HIV-positive women, the independent predictors of ≥10% weight loss were CD4 cell count, body mass index, and household income. Mortality was up to 7.12 (95% CI 3.47-14.61) times higher in HIV-positive women with ≥10% weight loss than those without weight loss. Ten percent weight loss in postpartum lactating HIV-positive women was significantly predictive of death. Our findings suggest that 10% weight loss is an appropriate criterion for HAART initiation among postpartum breastfeeding women. PMID:21226627

  12. Annual Research Review: All Mothers Are Not Created Equal--Neural and Psychobiological Perspectives on Mothering and the Importance of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jennifer; Fleming, Alison S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of mothering relies on the integrity of multiple physiological and behavioral systems and on two maternal factors, one proximal and one distal, that have a great impact on how a mother mothers: postpartum depression and early experiences. To mother appropriately requires the action of systems that regulate sensation, perception, affect,…

  13. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual. PMID:23957180

  14. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  15. Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian Birth Mothers and Comothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…

  16. Effect of Pilates exercises on postpartum maternal fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafinia, Farzaneh; Mirmohammadali, Mandana; Rajabi, Hamid; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Haghighi, Khosro Sadeghniiat; Amelvalizadeh, Mehrnoosh

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Postpartum fatigue is a pervasive phenomenon and often affects mothers immediately after delivery. The present study aimed to assess the effect Pilates home exercises had on postpartum maternal fatigue. METHODS A total of 80 women participated in our clinical trial study. The women were randomly divided into two groups – the intervention group (n = 40) and the control group (n = 40). In the intervention group, the women performed Pilates exercises five times a week (30 min per session) for eight consecutive weeks. The first session was conducted 72 hours after delivery. The control group did not receive any intervention. Each woman’s level of fatigue was evaluated at hospital discharge (as a baseline), and at four and eight weeks after delivery, using the standard Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) questionnaire and repeated measures analysis. RESULTS During the eight weeks of follow-up, we found that the intervention group had lower mean MFI-20 scores than the control group with regard to general fatigue (7.80 ± 2.07 vs. 12.72 ± 1.79; p < 0.001), physical fatigue (7.12 ± 1.41 vs. 10.42 ± 2.02; p < 0.001), reduced activity (6.95 ± 1.35 vs. 11.27 ± 1.70; p < 0.001), reduced motivation (6.20 ± 1.01 vs. 9.80 ± 2.04; p < 0.001) and mental fatigue (6.85 ± 1.45 vs. 10.72 ± 1.98; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The present study’s findings show that physical exercise can significantly reduce postpartum maternal fatigue in all subscales. PMID:25820848

  17. Eating disorder symptoms pre- and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Cecilia Brundin; Zandian, Modjtaba; Clinton, David

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate symptoms of disordered eating pre- and postpartum using a standardised and widely used measure of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. A consecutive series of women attending either prenatal (N = 426) or postnatal (N = 345) clinics in metropolitan Stockholm were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Assessments were conducted at either the first visit to prenatal clinics (10-12 weeks of pregnancy) or 6 to 8 months postpartum. An optimised shortened version of the EDE-Q was best suited for studying eating disorders pre- and postpartum. Using the optimised version of the instrument with 14 items and a cut-off score of ≥2.8, it was estimated that 5.3 % of prepartum and 12.8 % of postpartum mothers were suffering from clinical eating disorders. Seriously disordered eating behaviour during, and especially after, pregnancy may be more common than previously thought. It is imperative that health services focus increased attention on these problems by raising awareness, developing and extending specialist services, as well as through implementing educational programmes and training directed toward frontline healthcare services. PMID:26961005

  18. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article

    PubMed Central

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-anari, Pouria

    2015-01-01

    Mothers’ constitute is a very important part of infants’ social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10–15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children’s growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children’s cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children’s development seem to be mediated by the mother’s interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children’s cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care. PMID:26816593

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms and parenting practices 3-months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Balbierz, Amy; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Wang, Jason J; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2015-06-01

    Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, we examined the association between postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting practices among a diverse group of mothers. We examined the association between safety practices (back sleep position, car seat use, smoke alarm), feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant intake of cereal, juice, water), and health care practices (routine well child and Emergency Room (ER) visits) with 3-month postpartum depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS ≥10). Fifty-one percent of mothers were black or Latina, 33 % had Medicaid, and 30 % were foreign born. Depressed mothers were less likely to have their infant use back sleep position (60 vs. 79 %, p < .001), always use a car seat (67 vs. 84 %, p < .001), more likely to feed their infants water, juice, or cereal (36 vs. 25 %, p = .04 respectively), and to bring their babies for ER visits (26 vs. 16 %, p = .03) as compared with non-depressed mothers. In multivariable model, depressed mothers remained less likely to have their infant use the back sleep position, to use a car seat, and to have a working smoke alarm in the home. Findings suggest the need to intervene early among mothers with depressive symptoms and reinforce positive parenting practices. PMID:25374288

  20. Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Parenting Practices 3-Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Balbierz, Amy; Bodnar-Deren, Susan; Wang, Jason J; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Using data from two postpartum depression randomized trials, we examined the association between postpartum depressive symptoms and parenting practices among a diverse group of mothers. Methods We examined the association between safety practices (back sleep position, car seat use, smoke alarm), feeding practices (breastfeeding, infant intake of cereal, juice, water), and health care practices (routine well child and Emergency Room (ER) visits) with 3-month postpartum depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale (EPDS≥10). Results Fifty-one percent of mothers were black or Latina, 33% had Medicaid, and 30% were foreign born. Depressed mothers were less likely to have their infant use back sleep position (60% vs. 79%, p<.001), always use a car seat (67% vs. 84%, p<.001), more likely to feed their infants water, juice, or cereal (36% vs. 25%, p=.04 respectively), and to bring their babies for ER visits (26% vs. 16%, p=.03) as compared with non-depressed mothers. In multivariable model, depressed mothers remained less likely to have their infant use the back sleep position, to use a car seat, and to have a working smoke alarm in the home. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to intervene early among mothers with depressive symptoms and reinforce positive parenting practices. PMID:25374288

  1. A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

  2. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  3. Systematic review of lifestyle interventions to limit postpartum weight retention: implications for future opportunities to prevent maternal overweight and obesity following childbirth.

    PubMed

    van der Pligt, P; Willcox, J; Hesketh, K D; Ball, K; Wilkinson, S; Crawford, D; Campbell, K

    2013-10-01

    Postpartum weight retention can predict future weight gain and long-term obesity. Moreover, failure to lose weight gained during pregnancy can lead to increased body mass index for subsequent pregnancies, increasing the risk of adverse maternal and foetal pregnancy outcomes. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing postpartum weight retention. Seven electronic databases were searched for intervention studies and trials enrolling women with singleton pregnancies and published in English from January 1990 to October 2012. Studies were included when postpartum weight was a main outcome and when diet and/or exercise and/or weight monitoring were intervention components. No limitations were placed on age, body mass index or parity. Eleven studies were identified as eligible for inclusion in this review, of which 10 were randomized controlled trials. Seven studies were successful in decreasing postpartum weight retention, six of which included both dietary and physical activity components, incorporated via a range of methods and delivered by a variety of health practitioners. Few studies utilized modern technologies as alternatives to traditional face-to-face support and cost-effectiveness was not assessed in any of the studies. These results suggest that postpartum weight loss is achievable, which may form an important component of obesity prevention in mothers; however, the optimal setting, delivery, intervention length and recruitment approach remains unclear. PMID:23773448

  4. [Management of major postpartum hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Nebout, Sophie; Merbai, Nadia; Faitot, Valentina; Keita, Hawa

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is defined by loss of greater than 500 mL of blood following vaginal delivery or 1,000 mL of blood following cesarean section, in the first 24 hours postpartum. Its incidence is up to 5% and the severe forms represent 1% of births. PPH is the first cause of obstetrical maternal mortality in France and 90% of these deaths are considered as preventable. Its management is multidisciplinary (obstetricians, anesthetists, midwives, biologists and interventional radiologists), based on treatment protocols where time is a major prognosis factor. In case of failure of the initial measures (oxytocin, manual placenta removal, uterus and birth canal examination), the management of severe forms includes active resuscitation (intravenous fluids, blood transfusion, vasoactive drugs), haemostatic interventions (sulprostone, tamponnade and haemostatic suture, surgical procedures and arterial embolization) and the correction of any potential coagulopathy (administration of blood products and haemostatic agents). PMID:24373716

  5. Effectiveness of a combined prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation program.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Anne; Adams, Laurie; Tallman, Nancy; Krupa, Nicole; Jenkins, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Women frequently quit smoking during pregnancy but then relapse postpartum. The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program combines prenatal and postpartum smoking cessation counseling and biomarker feedback with monthly postpartum incentives. The settings included 22 sites (WIC offices and prenatal clinics) in upstate New York. A quasi-experimental design was used to evaluate this intervention, that included four face-to-face prenatal sessions with a counselor who did smoking cessation counseling, carbon monoxide testing and random saliva cotinine testing. For 1 year postpartum, mothers were biochemically tested every 3-4 weeks and, if negative, were issued a voucher for diapers. Three implementation models were studied: multi-tasking counselors at fixed sites (Models 1 and 2) versus itinerant smoking cessation specialists (Model 3). Outcomes included biochemically validated abstinence rates during pregnancy and postpartum. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of postpartum abstinence and program dropout. Proportional hazards regression was used to compare implementation models. Of the 777 pregnant women who enrolled in the program, 588 were eligible for the postpartum program. The intention to treat pregnancy quit rate was 60%. Postpartum, Model 3 showed consistently better quit outcomes than the other models. Predictors of abstinence at 6 months postpartum are: older age (OR = 1.07, 95% C.I. 1.02-1.12), lower baseline carbon monoxide level (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. 0.49-0.97), Model 3 (OR = 4.60, 95% C.I. 2.80-7.57) and attending more prenatal sessions (OR = 3.52; 95% C.I. 2.19-5.65). The BABY & ME-Tobacco Free program is an effective smoking cessation program for pregnant and parenting women. PMID:20091107

  6. Association of Postpartum Depression With Weight Retention 1 Year After Childbirth

    PubMed Central

    Herring, Sharon J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Oken, Emily; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken P.; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the extent to which early postpartum depression is associated with weight retention 1 year after childbirth. Methods and Procedures In a prospective cohort study of 850 women enrolled in Project Viva, mothers reported depressive symptoms on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at midpregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A score >12 indicated probable depression. We assessed associations of antenatal and postpartum depression with risk of substantial weight retention (at least 5 kg) 1 year after childbirth. Results Seven-hundred thirty-six women (87%) were not depressed during or after pregnancy, 55 (6%) experienced antenatal depression only, 22 (3%) experienced both antenatal and postpartum depression, and 37 (4%) experienced postpartum depression only. At 1 year, participants retained a mean of 0.6 kg (range −16.4 to 25.5), and 12% retained at least 5 kg. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, after adjustment for weight-related covariates, maternal sociodemographics, and parity, new-onset postpartum depression was associated with more than a doubling of risk of retaining at least 5 kg (odds ratio (OR): 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 6.09). Antenatal depression, either alone or in combination with postpartum depression, was not associated with substantial weight retention. Discussion New-onset postpartum depression was associated with substantial weight retention in the first postpartum year. Interventions to manage depressive symptoms may help reduce excess weight retained postpartum and aid in the prevention of obesity among women. PMID:18369338

  7. Systemic Immune Activation Profiles of HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Children and Their Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Makhubele, Tinyiko G.; Steel, Helen C.; Anderson, Ronald; van Dyk, Gisela; Theron, Annette J.; Rossouw, Theresa M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about immune activation profiles of children infected with HIV-1 subtype C. The current study compared levels of selected circulating biomarkers of immune activation in HIV-1 subtype C-infected untreated mothers and their children with those of healthy controls. Multiplex bead array, ELISA, and immunonephelometric procedures were used to measure soluble CD14 (sCD14), beta-2 microglobulin (β2M), CRP, MIG, IP-10, and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1). Levels of all 6 biomarkers were significantly elevated in the HIV-infected mothers and, with the exception of MIG, in their children (P < 0.01–P < 0.0001). The effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and maternal smoking on these biomarkers were also assessed. With the exception of TGF-β1, which was unchanged in the children 12 months after therapy, initiation of ART was accompanied by decreases in the other biomarkers. Regression analysis revealed that although most biomarkers were apparently unaffected by smoking, exposure of children to maternal smoking was associated with a significant increase in IP-10. These findings demonstrate that biomarkers of immune activation are elevated in HIV-infected children pre-ART and decline, with the exception of TGF-β1, after therapy. Although preliminary, elevation of IP-10 in smoke-exposed infants is consistent with a higher level of immune activation in this group. PMID:27019552

  8. Not Just a Middle-Class Affliction: Crafting a Social Work Research Agenda on Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…

  9. Patterns of Brain Activation when Mothers View Their Own Child and Dog: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, Randy L.; Niemi, Steven M.; Evins, Anne Eden

    2014-01-01

    Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation), while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition) characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal) and pleasantness (valence), although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships. PMID:25279788

  10. Ovarian activity in beef and dairy cows with prolonged postpartum period and heifers that fail to conceive.

    PubMed

    Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Saharee, A A; Yap, K C; Ganesamurthi, P

    2010-04-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses. These animals were initially checked for absence of pregnancy via palpation per rectum. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice a week for 2 to 3 months following their spontaneous oestrous cycle, and all animals were rechecked for pregnancy at the end of the study. Progesterone analysis indicated that 33.9% of the total animals were having AOC: 18.9% with cessation of ovarian cyclicity, 9.4% with prolonged luteal phases (PLP), and 5.7% short luteal phases. The highest incidence was observed in Brangus crosses (62.5%), followed by Braford crosses (43.8%), and Friesian crosses (35.3%). In contrast, no AOC was observed in the local KKX breeds, and all of them were found to be pregnant at the end of the study. A significant difference (p < 0.05) in the incidence of AOC and its type was observed between Kedah-Kelantan crosses and the other breeds. Although not significant (p > 0.05), Friesian crosses showed a higher percentage incidence of AOC than beef cows (40% vs 36.4%), with major types being PLP (26.7%) in dairy and cessation of ovarian cycle (27.3%) in beef cows. Compared with beef heifers, beef cows showed a higher percentage of AOC (36.4% vs 28.6%) where again, cessation of cyclicity was the predominant abnormality. In conclusion, AOC reflected by abnormal endocrine pattern is a possible cause of reduction in fertility for dairy and beef cows beyond 90 days postpartum and heifers that fail to conceive. PMID:19809886

  11. Use of a single implant of elcometrine (ST-1435), a nonorally active progestin, as a long acting contraceptive for postpartum nursing women.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, E M; Athayde, C; Dantas, C; Hirsch, C; Barbosa, I

    1999-02-01

    Because of its unique features, the contraceptive effectiveness and tolerance during breast-feeding of 16-methylene-17 alpha-acetoxy-19-nor-4-pregnene-3,20-dione (elcometrine), delivered within a single subdermal capsule of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane, was investigated. Unlike other progestational steroids, elcometrine has no affinity for androgen and estrogen receptors and is inactive by the oral route. A total of 66 breast-feeding women receiving elcometrine by the subdermal route were enrolled in the study, and 69 women who elected to use Copper-T380 intrauterine devices (IUD) served as control subjects. The women and their infants were observed until the end of the first postpartum year. There were no significant differences in growth and development measurements among the infants in the elcometrine and control groups. The percentage of infants continuing to breast-feed at 3 and 6 months was significantly higher in the elcometrine group. There were no significant differences between the concentration of elcometrine in the mother's blood and milk. At 75 days, blood levels of elcometrine in the infants were near the undetectable and were significantly lower than the levels in maternal blood or milk (p < 0.01). In 15 of 25 infants, blood levels of elcometrine were at the limit of assay sensitivity or undetectable. Two pregnancies occurred in women using IUD, whereas none occurred in those using implants. There were menstrual bleeding irregularities in both groups. A single elcometrine capsule placed subcutaneously at 6-monthly intervals appears to be an effective method of contraception for lactating women and results in blood concentrations of nursing infants at or near undetectable levels. PMID:10361626

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Postpartum Depression: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Fiorelli, Marco; Aceti, Franca; Marini, Isabella; Giacchetti, Nicoletta; Macci, Enrica; Tinelli, Emanuele; Calistri, Valentina; Meuti, Valentina; Caramia, Francesca; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a frequent and disabling condition whose pathophysiology is still unclear. In recent years, the study of the neural correlates of mental disorders has been increasingly approached using magnetic resonance techniques. In this review we synthesize the results from studies on postpartum depression in the context of structural, functional, and spectroscopic magnetic resonance studies of major depression as a whole. Compared to the relative wealth of data available for major depression, magnetic resonance studies of postpartum depression are limited in number and design. A systematic literature search yielded only eleven studies conducted on about one hundred mothers with postpartum depression overall. Brain magnetic resonance findings in postpartum depression appear to replicate those obtained in major depression, with minor deviations that are not sufficient to delineate a distinct neurobiological profile for this condition, due to the small samples used and the lack of direct comparisons with subjects with major depression. However, it seems reasonable to expect that studies conducted in larger populations, and using a larger variety of brain magnetic resonance techniques than has been done so far, might allow for the identification of neuroimaging signatures for postpartum depression. PMID:26347585

  13. Postpartum Mood Disorders Screening in the NICU.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia; Mischel, Rebecca; Munson, Margi; Bulaevskaya, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Maternal depression is increasingly recognized as the leading complication of childbearing. A mother's mental health impacts the well-being and long-term outcomes of her children. This column will discuss a systematic approach to screening for maternal postpartum mood disorders (PPMDs) and referring women to resources according to an established algorithm. This work was undertaken in a tertiary referral NICU and performed by dedicated NICU personnel with the goals of optimizing NICU infants' outcomes and supporting maternal and family health and well-being. PMID:27461203

  14. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  15. An unusual cause of postpartum abdominal pain: case report.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Gregory J; Fagen, Kimberly; Shepherd, Matthew; Boswell, Gilbert

    2009-08-01

    Abdominal pain is a common presenting complaint in the Emergency Department. It extends to all populations regardless of age, sex, or socioeconomic status. After gathering a history and examining the patient, most Emergency Physicians form a differential diagnosis and initiate an appropriate work-up. However, in the postpartum woman, additional causes must be considered and treated accordingly, knowing that there are consequences for both mother and child. We present a case of a postpartum woman presenting with right-sided abdominal pain, the cause of which, although atypical, has potential for significant morbidity and mortality if it goes undiscovered. PMID:18572346

  16. Rapid assessment of maternal activity among rural Indian mothers (Pune Maternal Nutrition Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kanade, AN; Rao, S; Yajnik, CS; Margetts, BM; Fall, CHD

    2012-01-01

    Objective To develop an activity questionnaire for objective and rapid assessment of maternal habitual physical activity with the aim of describing its relationship with birth size. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Six villages near Pune, Maharashtra, India. Subjects Seven hundred and ninety-seven rural Indian mothers were studied after excluding abortions and termination of pregnancies, foetal anomalies, etc. Method Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify a few leading questions from an elaborate questionnaire involving 36 questions related to 14 typical maternal activities. Results On the basis of high loading (>0.8), PCA identified three activities, i.e. farming, fetching water and washing clothes. Questions and sub-questions related to these activities only were considered for defining an activity score for rapid assessment. Validation of this new activity score, with the score based on the elaborate questionnaire, showed 70% sensitivity as well as specificity. New activity scores showed strong inverse relationships similar to those observed using the elaborate questionnaire, at early as well as late gestation, with neonatal head circumference (P = 0.001 and 0.055) and mid-arm circumference (P = 0.02 and 0.03). Conclusions Simple questionnaires, based on leading activities identified by PCA, can be as informative as longer and detailed questionnaires. This method has potential for adaptation, especially in rural communities in developing countries. PMID:16236188

  17. Longitudinal changes in PON1 enzymatic activities in Mexican-American mothers and children with different genotypes and haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2010-04-15

    The paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and also detoxifies the oxon derivatives of certain neurotoxic organophosphate (OP) pesticides. PON1 activity in infants is low compared to adults, rendering them with lower metabolic and antioxidant capacities. We made a longitudinal comparison of the role of genetic variability on control of PON1 phenotypes in Mexican-American mothers and their children at the time of delivery (n = 388 and 338, respectively) and again 7 years later (n = 280 and 281, respectively) using generalized estimating equations models. At age 7, children's mean PON1 activities were still lower than those of mothers. This difference was larger in children with genotypes associated with low PON1 activities (PON1{sub -108TT}, PON1{sub 192QQ}, and PON1{sub -909CC}). In mothers, PON1 activities were elevated at delivery and during pregnancy compared to 7 years later when they were not pregnant (p < 0.001). In non-pregnant mothers, PON1 polymorphisms and haplotypes accounted for almost 2-fold more variation of arylesterase (AREase) and chlorpyrifos-oxonase (CPOase) activity than in mothers at delivery. In both mothers and children, the five PON1 polymorphisms (192, 55, -108, -909, -162) explained a noticeably larger proportion of variance of paraoxonase activity (62-78%) than AREase activity (12.3-26.6%). Genetic control of PON1 enzymatic activity varies in children compared to adults and is also affected by pregnancy status. In addition to known PON1 polymorphisms, unidentified environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors may also influence variability of PON1 expression and therefore susceptibility to OPs and oxidative stress.

  18. Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis – effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl D.; Piasecki, Christopher C.; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional hyper-reactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams’ anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine did increase anxiety-related behavior in postpartum females. However, BSTv infusion of idazoxan did not reproduce yohimbine’s anxiogenic effects and anxiety was not reduced by peripheral or intra-BSTv clonidine. Because yohimbine is a weak 5HT1A receptor agonist, other groups of females received BSTv infusion of the 5HT1A receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT, but it did not alter their anxiety-related behavior. Lastly, levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in tissue punches from the BSTv did not differ between postpartum and diestrous rats, but serotonin turnover was lower in mothers. These results suggest that the impaired maternal behavior after BSTv infusion of yohimbine or idazoxan cannot both be readily explained by an increase in dams’ anxiety, and that BSTv α2-autoreceptor modulation alone has little influence anxiety-related behaviors in postpartum or diestrous rats. PMID:23796237

  19. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation. PMID:16157942

  20. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  1. Sleep duration, depression, and oxytocinergic genotype influence prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. PMID:26857197

  2. Lavender Fragrance Essential Oil and the Quality of Sleep in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz Afshar, Mahnaz; Behboodi Moghadam, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Ziba; Bekhradi, Reza; Montazeri, Ali; Mokhtari, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Labor and delivery is a stressful stage for mothers. During these periods, sleep-related disorders have been reported. The problems of inadequate sleep include decrease in concentration, judgment, difficulty in performing daily activities, and an increase in irritability. Even the effects of moderate sleep loss on life and health quality can be similar to sleep deprivation. some research aggravated by aromatherapy on sleep quality in different periods of life so might be useful for the improve of sleep quality in postpartum women. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of aromatherapy on the quality of sleep in postpartum women. The sample was recruited from medical health centers of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with the control group. A total of 158 mothers in postpartum period (with certain inclusion criteria) were enrolled in the study and assigned randomly to two groups of control and intervention. Lavender fragrance (made by Barij Essence Pharmaceutical Co.) was used by participants in the intervention group nightly before sleeping. The fragrance was dropped on cotton balls, which were placed on a cylindrical container at mothers’ disposal. Keeping the container at a projected distance of 20 cm, the participants inhaled 10 deep breaths and then the container was placed beside their pillow until morning. This procedure was done 4 times a week for 8 weeks. For the control group, the same intervention was done with the placebo. The instrument for collecting data was Pittsburgh sleep quality index, which was completed at the baseline, fourth, and eighth weeks after the intervention. Data were analyzed using independent t test and repeated measures analysis of variance calculated by SPSS16. Results: Before the intervention, there were no significant differences between mothers in two groups (P > 0.05). After 8 weeks follow up, a significant improvement appeared in

  3. Ovarian activity and oocyte quality associated with the biochemical profile of serum and follicular fluid from Girolando dairy cows postpartum.

    PubMed

    Alves, Benner G; Alves, Kele A; Lúcio, Aline C; Martins, Muller C; Silva, Thiago H; Alves, Bruna G; Braga, Lucas S; Silva, Thiago V; Viu, Marco A O; Beletti, Marcelo E; Jacomini, José O; Santos, Ricarda M; Gambarini, Maria L

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of heat stress (HS) on the metabolic profile of serum and follicular fluid (FF), ovarian follicle development, and oocyte quality of Girolando dairy cows. Oocytes, blood, and FF (follicles ≥9mm) samples were obtained at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 days postpartum in the summer and winter seasons. During transvaginal follicular aspiration, rectal temperature (RT), body condition score (BCS), number of ovarian follicles, and quality of oocytes were recorded. The ambient air temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) were also recorded to calculate the temperature humidity index (THI). Glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), urea, sodium (Na), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) concentrations were determined using serum and FF samples. The RT, THI, and BCS loss were greater (P<0.01) in the summer; however, glucose, Na, and K serum concentrations decreased in the same season (P<0.05). Degenerated oocytes were positively associated (P<0.05) with THI (r=0.14) and AT (r=0.13), and negatively associated with glucose (r=-0.12) and K (r=-0.11) serum concentrations. HS induces metabolic changes, which compromise the number of ovarian follicles and the follicular environment, thus resulting in morphologically damaged oocytes. PMID:24674823

  4. Sources of Parenting Information in Low SES Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Huberman, Harris S.; Klass, Perri E.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined 3 questions: (1) What are sources from which low socioeconomic status (SES) mothers of newborns receive parenting information? (2) To what extent are sociodemographic characteristics associated with sources? (3) To what extent are sources associated with intentions regarding activities with infants? In this cross-sectional analysis, mothers were interviewed during the postpartum period about potential sources of information about parenting and asked if and when they planned to initiate shared reading and television exposure during infancy. Maternal high school graduation, US birth, non-Latina ethnicity, language English, higher SES, and firstborn child were each associated with one or more categories representing important sources of parenting information. In adjusted analyses, print, physicians and other health care professionals, and family/friends as important sources of information were each significantly associated with increased frequency of intention to begin shared reading in infancy; television as an important source was associated with intention to begin television in infancy. PMID:20118098

  5. Measuring Social Support from Mother-Figures in the Transition from Pregnancy to Parenthood among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-05-01

    Social support for adolescent mothers, particularly from mother figures, can buffer risks and promote well-being. To date, no longitudinal research has investigated how the dimensions of social support may change during the transition from pregnancy to parenthood for adolescent mothers. This study examined stability and change in dimensions of social support from the third trimester of pregnancy to two years postpartum among 191 dyads of Mexican-origin adolescent first-time mothers and their mother figures. Perceptions of social support received from a mother figure shifted from a single dimension (i.e., global support) to three distinct factors (instrumental, emotional, and companionship support) during this transition; however, social support provision as reported by mother figures remained stable. Measurement equivalence was established across interview language (English and Spanish) and across two time points postpartum. Bivariate correlations provided support for the convergent and divergent validity of these measures. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:23729988

  6. [Treating mother and baby in conjoint hospitalization in a psychiatric hospital].

    PubMed

    Maizel, S; Fainstein, V; Katzenelson, S K

    1998-09-01

    Since 1990 we have been admitting mothers with postpartum psychiatric morbidity together with their babies to our open psychiatric ward. The aim of conjoint hospitalization is to maintain and develop the bond between mother and baby while treating the mother's psychiatric disorder. The presence of the infant in the hospital allows both a thorough evaluation of the mothers' maternal ability and to use the infant as a facilitator of the mothers' recovery by engaging maternal functions. It prevents the infants from being placed in a foster home for the duration of the mothers' hospitalization. Readily available in Britain and Australia, such conjoint hospitalization is controversial and rarely available elsewhere. In the past 5 years we hospitalized 10 women with 11 babies (1 woman was hospitalized twice, after different births). All women had received psychiatric treatment prior to childbirth, but this was the first psychiatric hospitalization for 2 of them. Diagnoses (DSM-IIIR) were chronic paranoid schizophrenia (4), affective disorder (4), schizo-affective schizophrenia (1) and borderline personality disorder (1). 8 were suffering from active psychotic symptoms on admission. They were treated pharmacologically, received individual and group psychotherapy, and participated in all ward activities. Families were engaged in marital, family and/or individual therapy according to need. All participated in cognitive-behavior treatment tailored to individual need to build and enrich the mother-infant bond. All improved significantly and were able to function independently on discharge, but in 1 case adoption was recommended. PMID:9885632

  7. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:25377732

  8. Daughters and Mothers Exercising Together (DAMET): Effects of Home- and University-Based Interventions on Physical Activity Behavior and Family Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ransdell, Lynda B.; Eastep, Eric; Taylor, Alison; Oakland, Darcie; Schmidt, Jenny; Moyer-Mileur, Laurie; Shultz, Barry

    2003-01-01

    This study compared two interventions in terms of impact on physical activity participation and mother-daughter relations. Previously sedentary mothers and daughters (N = 34) were randomly assigned to a 12-week university-or home-based physical activity group. Program activities were designed using focus group information, aspects of the social…

  9. The Broken Thread of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention for Women During the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lorraine O.; Murphey, Christina L.; Nichols, Francine

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postpartum maternal health affects maternal functional status, future pregnancy outcomes, maternal chronic disease development, and infant health. After pregnancy, however, many mothers may find that they face gaps in care related to their health and caregiving roles. Research shows that they were unprepared, uninformed, and unsupported during the postpartum period as they struggle with physical and emotional symptoms, infant caregiving, breastfeeding concerns, and lifestyle adjustments. Limited follow-up after a diagnosis of gestational hypertension or gestational diabetes and screening for postpartum depression are additional gaps in preventive and supportive care. Integrative reviews revealed modest efficacy and limitations of recent postpartum health promotion and disease prevention interventions. System, clinical, and community strategies are identified to address these gaps in women’s postpartum health services. PMID:26957891

  10. Oxytocin and Postpartum Depression: Delivering on What’s Known and What’s Not

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Soeken, Timothy A.; Cromer, Sara J.; Martinez, Sheila R.; Hardy, Leah R.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with lifelong consequences for infant socioemotional and cognitive development. In recent years, oxytocin has received attention for its potential role in many neuropsychiatric conditions beyond its well-described functions in childbirth and lactation. In the present review, we present available data on the clinical characteristics and neuroendocrine foundations of postpartum depression. We outline current treatment modalities and their limitations, and proceed to evaluate the potential role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression. The aim of the present review is twofold: a) to bring together evidence from animal and human research concerning the role of oxytocin in postpartum depression, and b) to highlight areas that deserve further research in order to bring a fuller understanding of oxytocin’s therapeutic potential. PMID:24239932

  11. The effects of gestational stress and Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain--A translational model for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Haim, Achikam; Albin-Brooks, Christopher; Sherer, Morgan; Mills, Emily; Leuner, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Although the neural basis of PPD remains unknown, previous research in rats has shown that gestational stress, a risk factor for PPD, induces depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period. Moreover, the effect of gestational stress on postpartum mood is accompanied by structural modifications within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-limbic regions that have been linked to PPD. Mothers diagnosed with PPD are often prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant medications and yet little is known about their effects in models of PPD. Thus, here we investigated whether postpartum administration of Citalopram, an SSRI commonly used to treat PPD, would ameliorate the behavioral and morphological consequences of gestational stress. In addition, we examined the effects of gestational stress and postpartum administration of Citalopram on structural plasticity within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) which together with the mPFC and NAc forms a circuit that is sensitive to stress and is involved in mood regulation. Our results show that postpartum rats treated with Citalopram do not exhibit gestational stress-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. In addition, Citalopram was effective in reversing gestational stress-induced structural alterations in the postpartum NAc shell and mPFC. We also found that gestational stress increased spine density within the postpartum BLA, an effect which was not reversed by Citalopram treatment. Overall, these data highlight the usefulness of gestational stress as a valid and informative translational model for PPD. Furthermore, they suggest that structural alterations in the mPFC-NAc pathway may underlie stress-induced depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period and provide

  12. Maternal anxiety: course and antecedents during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Britton, John R

    2008-01-01

    The early course and antecedents of postpartum anxiety are unknown. This study sought to determine the course and antecedents of maternal anxiety during the first month postpartum and to develop a model to predict 1-month anxiety using information obtainable before perinatal hospital discharge. Two hundred and ninety-six mothers were screened before discharge with the State (SS) and Trait (TS) Scales of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics were assessed by questionnaire and medical record review, and psychiatric history, measures of perinatal stress, and resilient factors were determined by focused questions and formal instruments. At 1-month postpartum, the SS was repeated. Scores on the SS were significantly higher at 1 month than immediately postpartum (35.30+/-0.68 versus 33.38+/-0.60, mean+/-standard error, P=.004), but only 58.6% of mothers with high pre-discharge anxiety had high anxiety at 1 month. One-month anxiety correlated with pre-discharge SS and TS scores, a history of psychiatric problems including depressed mood, medical and negative social life events, lack of pregnancy planning and prenatal class attendance, perceived peripartum stress, and duration of postpartum hospital stay. Inverse correlations were observed with education, household income, and resiliency factors. In multivariate modeling, anxiety trait, education, history >or=2 years of depression, and perception of peripartum stress accounted for 50% of the variance in the 1-month SS score. Maternal anxiety increases during the first postpartum month. Women with high trait anxiety, low education, a history of depressed mood, and a perception of high peripartum stress are at risk for experiencing anxiety at this time. PMID:17397041

  13. Maternal recasts and activity variations: a comparison of mother-child dyads involving children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Rezzonico, Stefano; de Weck, Geneviève; Salazar Orvig, Anne; da Silva Genest, Christine; Rahmati, Somayeh

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated maternal recast and the children's responses comparing dyads made up of a mother and a child with typical language development (TD) or a child with specific language impairment (SLI). More specifically, this article deals with the influence of the type of activity being carried out on the number and types of maternal recasts. A sample of 17 French-speaking children with SLI (age 5 to 7 years) matched with 17 TD same-age peers was observed in interaction with their mother during four different activities (joint reading, symbolic play, question guessing game and clue guessing game). The results showed that group and activity had an impact on the number and type of recasts. Mothers of children with SLI offered more recasts than mothers of TD children. The former preferred phonological recasts whereas the latter preferred lexical ones. Moreover, recasts were more frequently used in joint reading than in other activities. Regarding the children's responses, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. Children with SLI took up the maternal proposition more frequently after a lexical recast than after a recast of another type. The findings provide evidence for considering the features of the activities in clinical settings. PMID:23819678

  14. The Economic Resource Receipt of New Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Laura; Elman, Cheryl; Feltey, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    U.S. federal policies do not provide a universal social safety net of economic support for women during pregnancy or the immediate postpartum period but assume that employment and/or marriage will protect families from poverty. Yet even mothers with considerable human and marital capital may experience disruptions in employment, earnings, and…

  15. The impact of social support on postpartum depression: The mediator role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Jin, Shenghua

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of perceived social support on the depression of postpartum women, and mainly focuses on confirming the mediator role of self-efficacy. A total of 427 new mothers from two general hospitals in Beijing accomplished the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, General Self-efficacy Scale, and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The results revealed that both social support and self-efficacy significantly correlate with postpartum depression. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-efficacy partially mediates the relationship between social support and postpartum depression. PMID:24925546

  16. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  17. Bonding, postpartum dysphoria, and social ties : A speculative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Mira

    2002-09-01

    Since the late 1970s, disruptions and "failure" of maternal-infant bonding have been causally linked to postpartum depression. Part I of this paper examines the grounds for this connection while tracing the ramifications of bonding theory (Klaus and Kennell 1976) through obstetrics, pediatrics, and psychiatry, as well as in the (mis)representations of it in the popular media. This discussion resolves into a view of maternal attachment as a long-term development progressively established through intensive mother-infant interaction. The forms of this interaction are phylogenetically determined, albeit culturally and personally mediated. Flowing from this premise, Part II of the paper casts postpartum depression as an adaptive response to threat (from whatever cause) to adequate mothering, and develops an argument for the evolutionary role of enacted social ties in the establishment of maternal responsiveness. PMID:26192928

  18. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  19. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Chou, Shinn-Yi

    2016-07-18

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  20. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder (ADHD) and Stress: A Mutual Relationship between Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Daneshmand, Reza; Keramatfar, Rasul; Khooshabi, Katayoon; Amiri, Nasrin; Farhadi, Yadollah; Farzadfard, Seyedeh Zeinab; Kachooi, Hamid; Samadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity which may result in mothers' stress. The current study aims to compare stress among 45 mothers of ADHD children who had referred to “Rofeydeh psychiatric center” with 45 mothers of normal children. Methods: Brief demographic researcher-made questionnaire, Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF) were completed for each mother and child. Results: The results showed that except the component of acceptance, ADHD children had more problems in the field of attention compared with normal children. Mothers of ADHD children had also more stress compared with mothers of normal children. Discussion: ADHD can impair mothers' mental health by inducing stress and this issue has important clinical and treatment implications. Specific treatment programs should be designed and implemented in Iran for the mothers of ADHD children to reduce stress among them and therefore, improve their mental health status. PMID:27307956

  1. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations Between Foster Mothers’ Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Simons, Robert; Grasso, Damion

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads (N = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers’ oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of all infant faces in the first two months of the relationship. Three months later, foster mothers’ oxytocin production was still associated with delight toward their foster infant and was also specifically associated with their P3 response to an image of their foster infant. Similar to biologically-related mothers and infants, oxytocin appears to be associated with foster mothers’ brain activity and caregiving behavior, with patterns suggestive of bond formation. PMID:23163703

  2. Treatment - mother-infant relationship psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guedeney, Antoine; Guedeney, Nicole; Wendland, Jaqueline; Burtchen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we briefly describe several modes of parent-infant-psychotherapy, an efficient way of treating parent-infant relationship disorders. We then focus on treatment for postnatally depressed mothers. Perinatal depression defines an episode of major or minor depression occurring during pregnancy or the first 12 months after birth. Attachment-based parent-infant interventions are particularly helpful in the context of maternal perinatal depression, as postpartum depression has a special link with unresolved trauma and losses in the mother's childhood. The goal of treatment is to improve the mother's mood but also to prevent or reduce the effects of postpartum depression on the child. Infants of perinatally depressed mothers are at risk for a large array of negative outcomes, including attachment insecurity (particularly disorganised attachment), social-skills deficits, cognitive difficulties, behaviour problems, and later psychopathology. The 'ghosts in the nursery' concept refers to the painful or disturbed early childhood experiences coming from the mother's past, which haunt the present mother-infant relationship. By addressing the mother's unresolved attachment conflicts (in her relationship to her own parents), it is believed that the development of a more adaptive parenting and a more secure and less disorganised attachment between the mother and her infant is facilitated. Changes in parent- infant interaction are not dependent on the port of entry (e.g. child's behaviour, parent's representation or parent-infant relationship). The perspective of attachment is key to install a therapeutic alliance with parents. PMID:24045134

  3. A longitudinal study of postpartum depressive symptoms: multilevel growth curve analyses of emotion regulation strategies, breastfeeding self-efficacy, and social support.

    PubMed

    Haga, Silje M; Ulleberg, Pål; Slinning, Kari; Kraft, Pål; Steen, Thorbjørn B; Staff, Annetine

    2012-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious health issue affecting as many as 10-15 % of postpartum women. This longitudinal study aimed to explore how psychological variables such as cognitive emotion regulation strategies, breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE), and dimensions of social support predicted postpartum depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). The data were collected with web-based survey questionnaires between May 2008 and December 2009, in a sample of 737 new mothers. The same questionnaire was surveyed at three points in time: 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postpartum. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling (level 1, time points; level 2, person). Results showed that BSE, certain cognitive emotion regulation strategies, perceived available support, and need for support predicted the rate of postpartum depressive symptoms. Only breastfeeding self-efficacy predicted change in postpartum depressive symptoms. This study illustrates the importance of psychological variables with regard to postpartum depressive symptoms. Implications for preventative efforts are discussed. PMID:22451329

  4. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  5. Competence and Responsiveness in Mothers of Late Preterm Infants Versus Term Infants

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Brenda; McGrath, Jacqueline M.; Pickler, Rita; Jallo, Nancy; Cohen, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare maternal competence and responsiveness in mothers of late preterm infants (LPIs) with mothers of full-term infants. Design A nonexperimental repeated-measures design was used to compare maternal competence and responsiveness in two groups of postpartum mothers and the relationship of the theoretical antecedents to these outcomes. Setting Urban academic medical center. Participants Mothers of late preterm infants (34–36, 6/7-weeks gestation) and mothers of term infants (≥37-weeks gestation), including primiparas and multiparas. Data were collected after delivery during the postpartum hospital stay and again at 6-weeks postpartum. Methods Descriptive and inferential analysis. Results A total of 70 mothers completed both data collection periods: 49 term mothers and 21 LPI mothers. There were no differences between the two groups related to their perception of competence or responsiveness at delivery or 6-weeks postpartum. At 6-weeks postpartum, none of the assessed factors in the model was significantly related to competence or responsiveness. Conclusions The results, which may have been limited by small sample size, demonstrated no difference in the perceptions of LPI and term mothers related to competence or responsiveness. Maternal stress and support were significantly related to other factors in the model of maternal competence and responsiveness. PMID:23601024

  6. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  7. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  8. Postpartum depression on the neonatal intensive care unit: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tahirkheli, Noor N; Cherry, Amanda S; Tackett, Alayna P; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD) goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions. PMID:25473317

  9. A Problem-Solving Therapy Intervention for Low-Income, Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…

  10. [Maternal affect regulation of mothers with a history of abuse in mother-infant-interaction].

    PubMed

    Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence. PMID:22957399

  11. Management of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  12. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD. PMID:26372084

  13. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  14. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  15. The Effects of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone Administration in Early Postpartum Dairy Cows on Hormone Concentrations, Ovarian Activity and Reproductive Performance: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, K. E.

    1983-01-01

    Gonadotrophin releasing hormones have become widely used hormonal compounds in veterinary medicine, particularly with respect to bovine reproduction. The character and physiological actions of gonadotrophin releasing hormone are briefly reviewed and its clinical applications are summarized. The endocrinological research concerned with the use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone in the early postpartum period is discussed. Field trials which have been conducted to assess the effects of postpartum gonadotrophin releasing hormone administration on reproductive performance have varied widely in both design and interpretation of results. These experiments are reviewed, including the clinical trials using normal cows as well as those on cows with retained placenta. PMID:17422245

  16. Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-04-01

    Working mothers exhibit high levels of inactivity, and theory-based interventions to bolster physical activity within this population are needed. This study examined the effectiveness of a brief social cognitive theory-based intervention designed to increase physical activity among working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention only, intervention plus follow-up support, or waitlist control condition. The intervention consisted of two group-based workshop sessions designed to teach behavior modification strategies using social cognitive theory. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed intervention participants exhibited short-term increases in physical activity, which were partially maintained 6 months later. Improvements in physical activity were mediated by increases in self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study provides some support for the effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity among working mothers. Future programs should explore alternative support mechanisms which may lead to more effective maintenance of initial behavior changes. PMID:23338616

  17. Body condition loss and increased serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids enhance progesterone levels at estrus and reduce estrous activity and insemination rates in postpartum dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lüttgenau, J; Purschke, S; Tsousis, G; Bruckmaier, R M; Bollwein, H

    2016-03-01

    Data from 96 Holstein Friesian cows on a commercial dairy farm were used to investigate whether body condition and serum levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) postpartum (pp) affect progesterone (P4) levels, estrous activity, and fertility in dairy cows. The examination period started 14 days before the expected calving date and ended either when a cow was inseminated or at a maximum of 90 days pp. Body condition score (BCS; 1-5 scale) and backfat thickness (BFT) were determined every 2 weeks. Blood for analysis of NEFA and P4 concentrations was sampled weekly during the first 35 days pp and then every 48 hours until an ovulation was observed. Transrectal ultrasonography of the ovaries started at 21 days pp and was performed after blood sampling. If cows were not inseminated because of silent ovulation, sampling and ultrasonography continued on Days 7, 14, and 18 after ovulation and again every 48 hours until the next ovulation. Estrous activity was continuously measured with the Heatime estrus detection system. Pregnancy controls were performed ultrasonographically 28 and 42 days after AI. Cows with increased NEFA levels at 28 days pp had an increased risk of maintaining minimum P4 levels above 0.4 ng/mL at first recognized estrus (P = 0.03). Higher NEFA levels at Day 7 were associated with lower probability for a cow to have elevated P4 levels (≥2 ng/mL) by Day 35 pp, indicating delayed commencement of luteal activity (C-LA). Estrous activity was not influenced (P > 0.10) by minimum P4 concentrations at estrus, but more animals with C-LA until Day 35 pp showed estrous activity compared to cows without C-LA throughout this period (P = 0.006). Estrous activity was lower in cows with a low BCS 14 days pp (P = 0.02) and with a low BFT 42 days pp (P = 0.03). Moreover, the probability to exhibit estrus was reduced with higher NEFA levels at 21 days pp (P = 0.01). Eighty-five cows were inseminated and 37 (44%) got pregnant after insemination. Higher NEFA levels

  18. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues. PMID:23707843

  19. Motivators and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among low-income overweight and obese mothers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Wei; Nitzke, Susan; Guilford, Eileen; Adair, Constance H; Hazard, Diana L

    2008-06-01

    Low-income women who are overweight and obese are at high risk for long-term retention of weight gain during pregnancy, in part because they may have poor diets and inadequate physical activity, both of which may be exacerbated by stressful situations. This study identified motivators and barriers to healthful eating and physical activity among low-income overweight and obese non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white mothers. Qualitative data were collected via eight focus group interviews. Eighty low-income overweight and obese non-Hispanic black (n=41) and non-Hispanic white (n=39) mothers, age 18 to 35 years, were recruited from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children sites in six counties in Michigan. Personal appearance, fit in clothes, inability to play with their children, and social support were motivating factors for healthful eating and physical activity. Stressful experiences triggered emotional eating and reduced participants' ability to practice these behaviors. Other factors-for example, wanting quick weight-loss results-made it difficult for these mothers to follow recommended healthful lifestyle practices. Nutrition educators can address these concerns by including information about ways to deal with stress and emotional eating and emphasizing the benefits of healthful eating and physical activity in their program plans. PMID:18502238

  20. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers. PMID:17696049

  1. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth. PMID:25239433

  2. Postpartum and nonpostpartum depression: differences in presentation and response to pharmacologic treatment.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, V; Altshuler, L; Strouse, T; Grosser, S

    2000-01-01

    Following childbirth, major depression (postpartum depression) affects approximately 8-12% of new mothers. However, little is known about the pharmacological management of postpartum depression, and no studies to date have assessed differences in treatment response between women with postpartum and nonpostpartum major depression. The authors reviewed the records of 26 women with postpartum major depression and 25 women with major depression unrelated to childbearing (nonpostpartum depression) who presented to them for treatment over a 4-year period. Compared with the nonpostpartum depressed patients, the postpartum depressed women were significantly more likely to present with anxious features. Also, cases of postpartum depression were more severe than cases of nonpostpartum depression. While the postpartum patients were equally as likely to recover (as defined by a Clinical Global Impression score of 1 or 2) compared to the nonpostpartum-depressed patients, their time to response was significantly longer. By 3 weeks of pharmacotherapy, 75% of the nonpostpartum cases had recovered, in contrast to only 36% of the postpartum cases. Further, postpartum patients were significantly more likely to be receiving more than one antidepressant agent at the time of response to treatment. Length of depression prior to treatment did not explain the difference in treatment response. Presence of depressive symptoms during pregnancy and timing of onset of the depression (before vs. after 4 weeks of delivery) did not affect likelihood of treatment response in this sample. Women with postpartum depression appear to be significantly more likely than the nonpostpartum women to present with anxious features, take longer to respond to pharmacotherapy for depression, and require more antidepressant agents at the time of response to treatment. PMID:10812531

  3. Mothers with depressive symptoms display differential brain activations when empathizing with infant faces.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Delia; Trentini, Cristina; Macaluso, Emiliano; Graziano, Sonia; Speranza, Anna Maria; Pantano, Patrizia; Ammaniti, Massimo

    2016-03-30

    Maternal care during the first year of life provides the foundation for the infant's emotional and cognitive development. Depressive symptoms in mothers can undermine their early dyadic interaction, which may lead to various psychopathological disorders with long-term consequences. During this period, the mother-child interaction is exclusively preverbal and is based on the mother's ability to understand her infant's needs and feelings (i.e., empathy) and on reciprocal imitation of facial expressions that promote a social dialog that influences the development of the infant self. To study the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on neural circuits underlying these processes, we studied 16 healthy mothers (H) and 14 mothers with depressive symptoms (D), as assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance during observation/empathizing (OE) and imitation (IM) of the faces of both their own child and of that of an unknown child aged between 6 and 12 months. During OE, D deactivated the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex to a greater extent (compared with H), thus pointing to an increased internally focused cognitive style during rest. Moreover, D, in respect to H, displayed a greater reactivity of the right amygdala, which may be an expression of emotional dysregulation. PMID:27000301

  4. Prevention of Perinatal Substance Use: Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants Demonstration Grant Program. Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This document presents summaries of the 147 demonstration grant projects sponsored by the federal Pregnant and Postpartum Women and Their Infants initiative, which is jointly funded by the Center for Substance Abuse Prevention and the Maternal and Child Health Bureau. This substance abuse prevention grant program, the largest federally funded…

  5. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P < 0.03). Children's reports of management strategies were associated with 5 of 7 work activities measured. Labor in food-insecure children was the main activity that explained school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences. PMID:25143373

  6. Association of Postpartum Maternal Morbidities with Children's Mental, Psychomotor and Language Development in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tofail, F.; Hilaly, A.; Mehrin, F.; Shiraji, S.; Banu, S.; Huda, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development. PMID:22838161

  7. Perceived parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression: the buffering effect of maternal bonding.

    PubMed

    Reck, C; Zietlow, A-L; Müller, M; Dubber, S

    2016-06-01

    Research investigating maternal bonding and parenting stress in the course of postpartum depression is lacking. Aim of the study was to investigate the development and potential mediation of both constructs in the course of postpartum depression. n = 31 mothers with postpartum depression according to DSM-IV and n = 32 healthy controls completed the German version of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index at two measuring times: acute depression (T1) and remission (T2). At T1, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress. Bonding was found to partially mediate the link between maternal diagnosis and parenting stress. Furthermore, the clinical group reported lower bonding and higher parenting stress averaged over both measurement times. However, at T2, the clinical group still differed from the controls even though they improved in bonding and reported less parenting stress. A significant increase of bonding was also observed in the control group. Maternal bonding seems to buffer the negative impact of postpartum depression on parenting stress. The results emphasize the need for interventions focusing on maternal bonding and mother-infant interaction in order to prevent impairment of the mother-child relationship. PMID:26592705

  8. The Role of Childhood Trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Postpartum Sleep Disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Leslie M.; Hamilton, Lindsay; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined sleep complaints in postpartum women with a past history of childhood trauma relative to postpartum women who were not exposed to childhood trauma. We also assessed whether sleep was differentially affected by the type of childhood trauma experienced and the relative contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder. Participants completed questionnaires related to mental health over the phone at four months postpartum (n = 173). We found that after adjusting for covariates, participants who reported childhood neglect or physical abuse (regardless of sexual abuse) were significantly more likely to endorse difficulty falling asleep and staying asleep relative to participants who were not exposed to childhood trauma. Furthermore, PTSD was associated with sleep problems, such that mothers with childhood trauma who had recovered from a past history of PTSD were more likely to have difficulty falling and staying asleep than mothers who were exposed to childhood trauma but never developed PTSD, while mothers with persistent PTSD were at the highest risk for reporting sleep problems. Our findings affirm the contribution of childhood trauma and PTSD to postpartum sleep problems, and suggest that sleep may be disturbed in the postpartum even in women who have recovered from PTSD. PMID:25403425

  9. Latent Transition Models to Study Women's Changing of Dietary Patterns From Pregnancy to 1 Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H.; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000–2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them “prudent,” “health conscious Western,” and “Western.” Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the “prudent” class than the “health conscious Western” or the “Western” class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the “health conscious Western” class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum. PMID:23538942

  10. PRIMARY POSTPARTUM HEMORRHAGE

    PubMed Central

    Melody, George F.

    1951-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is the outstanding cause of maternal mortality, and a redoubtable contributor to puerperal death from other causes, notably infection and renal failure. The clinical situations in which hemorrhage is liable to occur must be better known, so that anticipatory and preventive measures can be taken. Recent knowledge about defibrinated blood in women with degenerative changes at the placental site must be incorporated in the thinking and practice of physicians dealing with obstetrical cases. The indications, limitations, and hazards of the various anesthetic methods available for parturient women should be carefully considered in the circumstances of each case. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:14886749

  11. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included. PMID:12623687

  12. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  13. Mood and objective and subjective measures of sleep during late pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Coo, Soledad; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association between measures of objective sleep (OS) and subjective sleep (SS) to postpartum mood in healthy women from the third trimester of pregnancy to 10 to 12 weeks postpartum. Twenty-nine pregnant women completed self-report measures of mood and SS, and wore actigraphs for 7 continuous days during the third trimester (Time 1), within 15 days (Time 2), and 10 to 12 weeks postpartum (Time 3). The subjective perception of marked daytime dysfunction was associated with low mood during Time 1 and Time 3. Poor nighttime SS was related to low mood only at Time 2, whereas poor nighttime OS influenced stress during the same assessment time. These data indicate a stronger association between postpartum mood and the subjective perception of sleep than with OS quality and duration in healthy, non-depressed women, and highlight the awareness of poor daytime functioning as a significant contributor to new mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:24128191

  14. Altered stress patterns and increased risk for postpartum depression among low-income pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Scheyer, Kathryn; Urizar, Guido G

    2016-04-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has been associated with a number of negative maternal and infant health outcomes. Despite these adverse health effects, few studies have prospectively examined patterns of pre- and postnatal stress that may increase a woman's risk for PPD. The current study examined whether the timing of altered salivary cortisol patterns and perceived stress levels during pregnancy and at 3 months postpartum was associated with PPD symptoms among 100 low-income mothers. Higher levels of PPD were found among women with a lower cortisol awakening response (first and second trimester), lower average daily cortisol (second trimester), a flatter diurnal cortisol pattern (second and third trimester and at 3 months postpartum), and a less abrupt drop in both cortisol and perceived stress from the third trimester to 3 months postpartum. These results support the need for early screening and regulation of stress levels to promote depression prevention efforts in at-risk populations. PMID:26275372

  15. Preventing postpartum depression: review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth; Miller, Maia; Osborne, Lauren M; Kuzava, Sierra; Monk, Catherine

    2015-02-01

    Nearly 20 % of mothers will experience an episode of major or minor depression within the first 3 months postpartum, making it the most common complication of childbearing. Postpartum depression (PPD) is significantly undertreated, and because prospective mothers are especially motivated for self-care, a focus on the prevention of PPD holds promise of clinical efficacy. This study is a qualitative review of existing approaches to prevent PPD. A PubMed search identified studies of methods of PPD prevention. The search was limited to peer-reviewed, published, English-language, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biological, psychological, and psychosocial interventions. Eighty articles were initially identified, and 45 were found to meet inclusion criteria. Eight RCTs of biological interventions were identified and 37 RCTs of psychological or psychosocial interventions. Results were mixed, with 20 studies showing clear positive effects of an intervention and 25 showing no effect. Studies differed widely in screening, population, measurement, and intervention. Among biological studies, anti-depressants and nutrients provided the most evidence of successful intervention. Among psychological and psychosocial studies, 13/17 successful trials targeted an at-risk population, and 4/7 trials using interpersonal therapy demonstrated success of the intervention versus control, with a further two small studies showing trends toward statistical significance. Existing approaches to the prevention of PPD vary widely, and given the current literature, it is not possible to identify one approach that is superior to others. Interpersonal therapy trials and trials that targeted an at-risk population appear to hold the most promise for further study. PMID:25422150

  16. Biological and psychosocial predictors of postpartum depression: systematic review and call for integration.

    PubMed

    Yim, Ilona S; Tanner Stapleton, Lynlee R; Guardino, Christine M; Hahn-Holbrook, Jennifer; Dunkel Schetter, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) adversely affects the health and well being of many new mothers, their infants, and their families. A comprehensive understanding of biopsychosocial precursors to PPD is needed to solidify the current evidence base for best practices in translation. We conducted a systematic review of research published from 2000 through 2013 on biological and psychosocial factors associated with PPD and postpartum depressive symptoms. Two hundred fourteen publications based on 199 investigations of 151,651 women in the first postpartum year met inclusion criteria. The biological and psychosocial literatures are largely distinct, and few studies provide integrative analyses. The strongest PPD risk predictors among biological processes are hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal dysregulation, inflammatory processes, and genetic vulnerabilities. Among psychosocial factors, the strongest predictors are severe life events, some forms of chronic strain, relationship quality, and support from partner and mother. Fully integrated biopsychosocial investigations with large samples are needed to advance our knowledge of PPD etiology. PMID:25822344

  17. Effects of the postpartum period on nortriptyline pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wisner, K L; Perel, J M; Peindl, K S; Findling, R L; Hanusa, B H

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate sequential serum levels and level/dose ratios of the tricyclic antidepressant nortriptyline (NTP) through the first 17 postpartum weeks. The initial NTP dose was given immediately postpartum to 16 mothers and increased gradually to 70 mg over the first week. A dose of 75 mg was prescribed until adjustment according to serum levels. Serum levels of NTP and its metabolites Z- and E-OH-NTP were determined. At postpartum Week 2, the women developed a mean level/dose (L/D) ratio for NTP of 1.11 (range 0.37 to 3.23), and subsequently experienced an increase in the L/D ratios which continued through Week 6. At Week 8, the NTP L/D ratios declined, and became relatively stable at Week 11 and beyond. For postpartum women treated with NTP, side effect profiles should be carefully followed during the first 6 weeks after delivery as a clinical marker for elevation of serum levels. Since our highest L/D ratios for NTP occurred at Week 6, a serum level is recommended at this time. If the dose needs to be lowered to maintain a nontoxic level, a repeat serum level should be obtained at Week 11, at which time an increase in dose may be required. PMID:9230637

  18. The Association Between Postpartum Depression and Pica During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeddin, Neda; Zavoshy, Roza; Noroozi, Mostafa; Sarichloo, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jahanihashemi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder and social debilitating that has adverse effects on the mother, child and family. Pica is an eating disorder characterized by persistent ingestion of substances that the consumer does not define as food. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of postpartum depression with pica during pregnancy. Method: This is case-control study was carried out in health centers in west Tehran. 152 depressed women (case group) and 148 non-depressed women (control group) were selected randomly from these health care centers. In addition to collecting demographic and pica data, the Edinburgh Depression Scale was used. The data was analyzed by both descriptive and analytic analyses such as chi-squared and logistic regression in SPSS version 16. Result: In this study, there wasn’t a significant association between PPD and pica during pregnancy (P=0.153, OR=2.043, CI=0.767, 5.438), but, postpartum depression has a significant association with type (clay) (P= 0.024) and duration (more than 2 months) (P= 0.023) of pica practice. Conclusions: In the present study, pregnancy pica was not important risk factor for PPD but there were similar risk factors such as iron supplementation during and postpartum pregnancy with pica and PPD. PMID:26573027

  19. Cryptogenic postpartum stroke.

    PubMed

    Bereczki, Dániel; Szegedi, Norbert; Szakács, Zoltán; Gubucz, István; May, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 25-40% of ischemic strokes are classified as cryptogenic, which means the cause of the cerebral infarction remains unidentified. One of the potential pathomechanisms - especially among young patients with no cardiovascular risk factors - is paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale. Pregnancy, cesarean delivery and the postpartum period are associated with an increased risk of cerebrovascular events. Factors that may contribute to ischemic strokes during gestation and puerperium include classic cardiovascular risk factors, changes in hemostaseology/hemodynamics, and pregnancy-specific disorders such as pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, postpartum cerebral angiopathy or peripartum cardiomyopathy. In this case report, we present a 36-year-old thrombolysis candidate undergoing mechanical thrombectomy 3 weeks after a cesarean section due to HELLP-syndrome. After evaluation of anamnestic and diagnostic parameters, closure of the patent foramen ovale has been performed. In the absence of specific guidelines, diagnostic work-up for cryptogenic stroke should be oriented after the suspected pathomechanism based on patient history and clinical picture. As long as definite evidences emerge, management of cryptogenic stroke patients with pathogenic right-to-left shunt remains individual based on the mutual decision of the patient and the multidisciplinary medical team. PMID:27591063

  20. What barriers thwart postpartum women's Physical Activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D.; Woekel, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants’ barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12-months. Healthy, inactive women (n=115, mean age=31 ±5 years, infants’ mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months, in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month; in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for two months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for nine months. Across all Phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers. PMID:25402618

  1. Postpartum depression screening in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: program development, implementation, and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Amanda S; Blucker, Ryan T; Thornberry, Timothy S; Hetherington, Carla; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this project were to describe the development of a postpartum depression screening program for mothers of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and assess the implementation of the screening program. Methods Screening began at 14 days postpartum and was implemented as part of routine medical care. A nurse coordinator facilitated communication with mothers for increasing screen completion, review of critical self-harm items, and making mental health referrals. During the 18-month study period, 385 out of 793 eligible mothers completed the screen. Results Approximately 36% of mothers had a positive screen that resulted in a mental health referral and an additional 30% of mothers had screening results indicating significant symptoms. Conclusion Several barriers were identified, leading to adjustments in the screening process, and ultimately recommendations for future screening programs and research. Development of a postpartum depression screening process in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit involves support, training, implementation, and coordination from administrators, medical staff, new mothers, and mental health specialists. Several predictable challenges to program development require ongoing assessment and response to these challenges. Relevance This study highlights the expanding role of the psychologist and behavioral health providers in health care to intervene as early as possible in the life of a child and family with medical complications through multidisciplinary program development and implementation, as well as key considerations for institutions initiating such a program. PMID:26937199

  2. The obstetrical and postpartum benefits of continuous support during childbirth.

    PubMed

    Scott, K D; Klaus, P H; Klaus, M H

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evidence regarding the effectiveness of continuous support provided by a trained laywoman (doula) during childbirth on obstetrical and postpartum outcomes. Twelve individual randomized trials have compared obstetrical and postpartum outcomes between doula-supported women and women who did not receive doula support during childbirth. Three meta-analyses, which used different approaches, have been performed on the results of the clinical trials. Emotional and physical support significantly shortens labor and decreases the need for cesarean deliveries, forceps and vacuum extraction, oxytocin augmentation, and analgesia. Doula-supported mothers also rate childbirth as less difficult and painful than do women not supported by a doula. Labor support by fathers does not appear to produce similar obstetrical benefits. Eight of the 12 trials report early or late psychosocial benefits of doula support. Early benefits include reductions in state anxiety scores, positive feelings about the birth experience, and increased rates of breastfeeding initiation. Later postpartum benefits include decreased symptoms of depression, improved self-esteem, exclusive breastfeeding, and increased sensitivity of the mother to her child's needs. The results of these 12 trials strongly suggest that doula support is an essential component of childbirth. A thorough reorganization of current birth practices is in order to ensure that every woman has access to continuous emotional and physical support during labor. PMID:10643833

  3. [IPPF declaration on breast feeding, fertility and postpartum contraception].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Mother's milk protects the newborn against various infections, especially against gastrointestinal infections, as well as strengthening the mother-child bond. Breast-feeding is also associated with birth spacing and plays an important role in the regulation of fertility in countries where the rate of use of contraceptives is low. In breast-feeding women amenorrhea may last several months or even a year, while in women who do not breast-feed menstruation returns 35-40 days postpartum. The risk of getting pregnant in women who rely on amenorrhea for contraception increases with the appearance of the first postpartum menstruation (spotting), with the introduction of food supplement into the diet of the infant, and approximately 6 months after childbirth. Family planning programs have to collaborate with maternal health programs with respect to the need for contraception, including postpartum contraception, which involves the training of nurse-midwives or traditional birth attendants. The choice of contraceptives includes the IUD, with a high degree of efficacy, which is particularly advantageous during breast-feeding. Tubal ligation has no negative effect on breast-feeding, but it also requires proper counseling. Other methods are vasectomy, implants and injectables containing progestational hormones, and estrogen-progesterone containing pills, which should not be used for 6 weeks after childbirth. PMID:12179264

  4. Social support during the postpartum period: Mothers’ views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support

    PubMed Central

    Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women’s perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women’s views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n=33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6 to 12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. Results The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother’s major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Conclusions Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women’s basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women’s expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers’ recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support. PMID:22581378

  5. The influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding confidence and attitudes on breastfeeding initiation and duration.

    PubMed

    Mossman, Marion; Heaman, Maureen; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Morris, Margaret

    2008-08-01

    A prospective correlational study was conducted to examine the influence of adolescent mothers' breastfeeding attitudes and confidence on breastfeeding initiation and duration. A convenience sample of 100 pregnant adolescents who were contemplating breastfeeding completed the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and the Breastfeeding Attitude Questionnaire (BAQ). The BSES-SF was readministered during the first week postpartum to those adolescents who initiated breastfeeding (n=84). Adolescents who were breastfeeding at the initial contact received a follow-up contact at 4 weeks postpartum. Comparisons were made between those adolescent mothers who initiated breastfeeding (n=84) and those who did not (n=16). Significantly more mothers with higher prenatal attitude scores initiated breastfeeding. Mothers with higher prenatal breastfeeding attitude scores and higher prenatal and postnatal confidence scores were more likely to continue breastfeeding to 4 weeks postpartum. Health professionals are encouraged to develop strategies to enhance breastfeeding attitudes and confidence among adolescent mothers. PMID:18689714

  6. Parental Protectiveness and Unprotected Sexual Activity among Latino Adolescent Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Latino pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are one of the populations at risk for acquiring HIV. Although teen parenthood has been predominantly looked at with a focus on potential adverse physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes for the mother and child; a growing body of literature has documented the strengths and…

  7. Self-Capacitating Activities of Mothers' Clubs of Primarily Indigenous Membership in Bolivia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felty, Amelia Smith

    A case study was conducted of the organized, cooperative efforts of women in six communities in Bolivia. From December 1978 through January 1988, visits were made to women's organizations called "mothers' clubs." Effects of club membership on members, their families, and their communities were examined. A research review showed that: (1) women can…

  8. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  9. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  10. Social Support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: A Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.

    1986-01-01

    Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

  11. Relationship between Postpartum Depression and Maternal Perceptions about Ethnotheories and Childrearing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defelipe, Renata P.; Bussab, Vera S. R.; Vieira, Mauro L.

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder which can adaptively alter maternal socialisation strategies. Our objective was to investigate differences in ethnotheories and childrearing practices of mothers with low (N = 46) and high (N = 45) intensity of PPD. The Brazilian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied at 3, 8 and…

  12. Substance Use among Adolescent Mothers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Shawna L. Carroll; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2013-01-01

    Maternal substance abuse is a critical problem, and adolescent mothers appear to be at high risk for such behaviors. We review studies on postpartum adolescent substance use to explore the extent of this problem and avenues for new research. Authors screened 1,300 studies, identifying 12 articles on substance use among postpartum adolescent mothers for this review. Adolescent mothers reported greater substance use before pregnancy compared to other adolescent females. Although some adolescents continued substance use during pregnancy, most stopped using only to resume within six months after birth. Comparisons of use to national samples of nulliparous adolescent females showed a higher prevalence of substance use in this population. Substances used often varied by race/ethnicity, with white mothers more likely to smoke cigarettes and use marijuana, and Black mothers more likely than whites to drink and use drugs. Of all identified studies, only one focused on Hispanics. Beliefs about drug use grew less negative as girls transitioned from pregnancy to parenthood. As they transitioned to adulthood, substance use remained prevalent and stable. Psychological distress and low self-esteem appeared to influence continued use. Friends’ cigarette smoking predicted early initiation of and persistent smoking, while increased education predicted quitting. Early initiation of substances often predicted problem behaviors. Adolescent mothers are a vulnerable population, implicating use of problem behavior theory or the self-medication hypothesis in future research. Multiple avenues for new studies are needed to help identify effective treatment and intervention for this understudied population. PMID:23641120

  13. [Multidisciplinary approach to postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Arranz Lara, Lilia Cristina; Aguirre Rivera, Wilfrido; Ruiz Ornelas, Jaime; Gaviño Ambriz, Salvador; Cervantes Chávez, José Francisco; Carsi Bocanegra, Eduardo; Camacho Díaz, Margarita; Ochoa Madrigal, Martha Georgina

    2008-06-01

    Postpartum depression is a multifactorial condition suffered by 15% of women after delivery. We report a clinical case of a 32 years old female admitted at Postpartum depression clinic of gyneco-obstetric coordination at Centro Médico Nacional 20 de Noviembre, ISSTE, Mexico City. Patient was evaluated by psychiatric and psychological service personnel and diagnosed as with postpartum depression. She was admitted with her child during two weeks to be studied and treated. Several evaluation tests were applied and specific interventions by multidisciplinary team were designed. PMID:18800591

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis I: A special difficulty arising from an unusually low enzyme activity in mother's cells.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; Borrone, C; Filocamo, M; Pannone, N; Di Natale, P

    1985-01-01

    We investigated a case (I.I.) of the severe form of mucopolysaccharidosis I (Hurler syndrome). Prenatal diagnosis was requested by the parents and the next pregnancy was monitored. We report here a special difficulty arising in this diagnosis due to the low enzyme activity in the mother's cells (10-15 per cent of controls) as well as in amniotic cells and would like to stress the need for studying the index case as well as the parents' enzyme activities in order to be prepared for possible difficulties at prenatal analysis. PMID:3921950

  15. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  16. EFFECTS OF BODY CONDITION SCORE AT PARTURITION AND POSTPARTUM SUPPLEMENTAL FAT EFFECTS ON ADIPOSE TISSUE LIPOGENIC ACTIVITY OF LACTATING BEEF COWS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three-year-old Angus ' Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 ± 0.07 (BW = 479.3 ± 36.3 kg) or 6 ± 0.07 (BW 579.6 ± 53.1 kg) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of prepartum energy balance and postpartum lipid supplementation on ...

  17. Bipolar Disorder in Pregnancy and Postpartum: Principles of Management.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabrina J; Fersh, Madeleine E; Ernst, Carrie; Klipstein, Kim; Albertini, Elizabeth Streicker; Lusskin, Shari I

    2016-02-01

    Pregnancy and postpartum represent times of increased vulnerability for women with bipolar disorder, yet this condition remains under-diagnosed and under-treated. As 50 % of pregnancies are unplanned, the risks associated with the illness and the potential risks associated with treatment should be considered when a woman of reproductive age first presents for evaluation. This article reviews the epidemiology of perinatal bipolar disorder, screening recommendations, and treatment with pharmacotherapy and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). An overview of the data in pregnancy and lactation is presented for lithium, lamotrigine, valproic acid, newer antipsychotics, and ECT. General principles of management include close monitoring in pregnancy and postpartum, careful adjustment of the treatment regimen to attenuate the risk of relapse, and avoidance of valproic acid when possible. Thoughtful consideration of these issues will minimize the risks to the mother and baby. PMID:26781551

  18. Teen Mothers' Experience of Intimate Partner Violence: A Metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Bekaert, Sarah; SmithBattle, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Pregnant and parenting teens suffer higher rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) than older mothers. This qualitative metasynthesis explores teen mothers' experience with IPV during pregnancy and postpartum. Organized by the metaphor of a web, findings highlight how pervasive violence during childhood contributes to teen pregnancy and the risk of IPV as violence is normalized. The web constricts through the partner's control as violence emerges or worsens with pregnancy. Young mothers become increasingly isolated, and live with the physical and psychological consequences of IPV. Trauma-informed nursing practice is needed to support teen mothers in violent intimate relationships to spin a new web. PMID:27490882

  19. Can postpartum maternal urinary iodine be used to estimate iodine nutrition status of newborns?

    PubMed

    Nazeri, Pantea; Mirmiran, Parvin; Hedayati, Mehdi; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Delshad, Hossein; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-04-14

    I deficiency can lead to detrimental effects, particularly in neonates and young infants. The aim of this study was to explore whether postpartum maternal urinary I can be used to estimate the I status of newborns. In this cross-sectional study conducted in Tehran, lactating mothers and newborns, within 3-5 d postpartum, were randomly selected. Urine samples were collected from each mother and newborn, and a heel-prick blood sample was obtained from all newborns as part of the routine national newborn screening programme. According to the WHO criteria, median urinary I concentration (UIC) 5 mIU/l was considered as I insufficiency. A total of 147 postpartum women and neonates, aged 27·8 (SD 5·3) years and 4·2 (SD 0·6) d, respectively, completed this study. The median UIC was 68·0 (interquartile range (IQR) 39·4-133·5) and 212·5 (IQR 92·3-307·3) µg/l in postpartum mothers and newborns, respectively. The median neonatal TSH was 1·00 (IQR 0·50-1·70) mIU/l. There was no significant difference in the neonatal UIC and TSH of infants whose mothers had deficient and sufficient urinary I. In the multiple linear regression, neonatal UIC value was associated with maternal urinary I (P=0·048) and parity (P=0·039); a significant association was observed between neonatal TSH and infant sex (P=0·038) and birth weight (P=0·049). The findings of our study demonstrate that, despite postpartum mothers being mildly I deficient, I status of their infants was adequate as assessed by UIC and TSH values. It seems factors other than maternal urinary I may influence the I status in newborns. PMID:26857284

  20. Postpartum management of diabetes pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Nazli

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus has assumed the role of an epidemic. Previously considered a disease of affluent developed countries, it has become more common in developing countries. Pakistan is included among the countries with a high prevalence of diabetes. In this scenario, postpartum management of a woman with diabetes mellitus becomes more important as in this period counseling and educating a woman is essential. Counselling includes life style modifications to prevent future risks involving all the systems of the body. This review article discusses management of diabetes mellitus in postpartum period, guidelines for postpartum screening of women with gestational diabetes mellitus, risks involved in future life and stresses upon the need of local population based studies. Primary care providers and gynaecologists must realize the importance of postpartum screening for diabetes mellitus and provide relevant information to women as well. PMID:27582163

  1. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  2. Repeated Long Separations from Pups Produces Depression-like Behavior in Rat Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Boccia, Maria L.; Razzoli, Maria; Vadlamudi, Sivaram Prasad; Trumbull, Whit; Caleffie, Christopher; Pedersen, Cort A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Long (LMS) versus brief (BMS) daily separations of rat pups from their mothers have contrasting effects on their adult stress responses and maternal behavior by respectively decreasing and increasing licking received from their mothers. We hypothesized that LMS decreases pup licking in mothers by inducing learned helplessness, creating a depression-like state. We subjected postpartum rats to LMS (3 h), BMS (15 min) or no separation (NMS) on postpartum days 2–14. After weaning, mothers were given a forced swim test (FST). LMS mothers exhibited more immobility and fewer escape attempts than BMS or NMS mothers. These results suggest that LMS induces a depression-like state, which may account for the reductions in maternal behavior seen in LMS mothers. Immobility in the FST is recognized as an animal model of depression. Therefore, LMS may be a model of maternal depression. PMID:17118566

  3. The impact of postpartum depression and anxiety disorders on children's processing of facial emotional expressions at pre-school age.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Susanne; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Reck, Corinna; Träuble, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    To enhance understanding of impaired socio-emotional development in children of postpartum depressed or anxious mothers, this longitudinal study addressed the question of whether maternal postpartum depression and anxiety disorders result in deficits in children's processing of facial emotional expressions (FEEs) at pre-school age. Thirty-two mothers who had fulfilled Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) criteria for postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorder and their pre-school aged children were tested for FEE processing abilities and compared to a healthy control group (n = 29). Child assessments included separate tasks for emotion recognition and emotion labelling. Mothers completed an emotion recognition test as well as the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders I (SCID-I). Children of postpartum depressed and/or anxious mothers performed significantly worse than control children at labelling, but not at recognizing facial expressions of basic emotions. Emotion labelling at pre-school age was predicted by child age and maternal postpartum mental health, but neither current maternal mental health nor current maternal emotion recognition was associated with child FEE processing. Results point to a specific importance of early social experiences for the development of FEE labelling skills. However, further studies involving sensitive measures of emotion recognition are needed to determine if there might also exist subtle effects on FEE recognition. PMID:25833807

  4. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-01-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24527704

  5. A review of postpartum depression, preterm birth, and culture.

    PubMed

    Gulamani, Salima S; Premji, Shahirose Sadrudin; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Azam, Syed Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) varies worldwide and is considered a serious issue because of its devastating effects on mothers, families, and infants or children. Preterm birth may be a risk factor for PPD. In 2005, the global incidence of preterm birth was estimated to be 9.6%, and of these births, 85% occurred in Africa and Asia. Among Asian countries, Pakistan has a preterm birth rate of 15.7% and the highest prevalence rate of PPD (63.3%). A literature review was therefore undertaken to better understand the potential contribution of preterm birth to PPD and to identify gaps in the scientific literature. Limited studies compare prevalence rates of PPD in mothers of full-term infants and mothers of preterm infants. Furthermore, meta-analyses examining predictors of PPD have not included preterm birth as a variable. The interrelationship between preterm birth and PPD may be explained by early parental stress and mother-infant interaction among mothers of preterm infants. Culture plays an important role in shaping communication between mothers and their infants and defines social support rituals that may or may not mediate PPD. More research is needed to provide evidence for practice. PMID:23360942

  6. Immediate postpartum insertion of the norplant contraceptive device.

    PubMed

    Molland, J R; Morehead, D B; Baldwin, D M; Castracane, V D; Lasley, B; Bergquist, C A

    1996-07-01

    During December 1992 to October 1994, in Texas, clinical researchers conducted a prospective case control study (15 cases receiving Norplant immediately postpartum vs. 6 controls undergoing bilateral tubal ligation immediately postpartum) to determine the safety and efficacy of inserting the contraceptive implant Norplant (6 capsules inserted subdermally, each containing 35 mg levonorgestrel) immediately postpartum. They followed the cases and the controls for three months. The study subjects were 18-35 years old, received prenatal care at one of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology's (Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center) community clinics, had an uncomplicated term pregnancy and normal spontaneous vaginal delivery, and did not breast feed. They tended to be poor. During the first week after Norplant insertion, serum levonorgestrel levels peaked at about 2000 pg/ml, then fell abruptly until about the eighth week to about 250 pg/ml. This lower levonorgestrel level concerned the researchers because it is just slightly higher than levels associated with pregnancy. They were also concerned about the possibility of Norplant inducing a hypoestrogenic state in postpartum women. The Norplant group was more likely than the tubal ligation group to experience irregular bleeding (p 0.01), headaches (p 0.01), hair loss (p 0.05), and abdominal discomfort (p 0.05). The various serum metabolic biomarkers, serum electrolytes, and blood components fell into the normal range in both groups. The serum estradiol, progesterone, and urinary steroid biomarkers suggested that the Norplant group experienced very suppressed steroid secretion throughout the three month study period, while the controls had normal postpartum ovarian activity. Thus, ovarian activity was absent in the Norplant group. These findings suggest that postpartum insertion of Norplant is safe and effective. Yet further clinical evaluation is needed to address concerns about the long-term hypoestrogenic

  7. The Role of Co-Infections in Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV§

    PubMed Central

    King, Caroline C.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Kourtis, Athena P.

    2015-01-01

    In HIV-infected women, co-infections that target the placenta, fetal membranes, genital tract, and breast tissue, as well as systemic maternal and infant infections, have been shown to increase the risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT). Active co-infection stimulates the release of cytokines and inflammatory agents that enhance HIV replication locally or systemically and increase tissue permeability, which weakens natural defenses to MTCT. Many maternal or infant co-infections can affect MTCT of HIV, and particular ones, such as genital tract infection with herpes simplex virus, or systemic infections such as hepatitis B, can have substantial epidemiologic impact on MTCT. Screening and treatment for co-infections that can make infants susceptible to MTCT in utero, peripartum, or postpartum can help reduce the incidence of HIV infection among infants and improve the health of mothers and infants worldwide. PMID:23305198

  8. The impact of migration on women’s mental health in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Caldas, José Peixoto; Dias, Sónia; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the influence of I mmigration on the psychological health of women after childbirth. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, immigrant and Portuguese-native women delivering in the four public hospitals of the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal, were contacted by telephone between February and December 2012 during the first postpartum month to schedule a home visit and fill in a questionnaire. Most immigrant (76.1%) and Portuguese mothers (80.0%) agreed to participate and with the visits, thus a total of 89 immigrants and 188 Portuguese women were included in the study. The questionnaire included the application of four validated scales: Mental Health Inventory-5, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Scale of Satisfaction with Social Support. Statistical analysis included t-test and Chi-square or Fisher’s test, and logistic regression models. RESULTS Immigrants had an increased risk of postpartum depression (OR = 6.444, 95%CI 1.858–22.344), and of low satisfaction with social support (OR = 6.118, 95%CI 1.991–18.798). We did not perceive any associations between migrant state, perceived stress, and impoverished mental health. CONCLUSIONS Immigrant mothers have increased vulnerabilities in the postpartum period, resulting in an increased risk of postpartum depression and lesser satisfaction with the received social support. PMID:27355463

  9. Maternity leave duration and postpartum mental and physical health: implications for leave policies.

    PubMed

    Dagher, Rada K; McGovern, Patricia M; Dowd, Bryan E

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the association of leave duration with depressive symptoms, mental health, physical health, and maternal symptoms in the first postpartum year, using a prospective cohort design. Eligible employed women, eighteen years or older, were interviewed in person at three Minnesota hospitals while hospitalized for childbirth in 2001. Telephone interviews were conducted at six weeks (N = 716), twelve weeks (N = 661), six months (N = 625), and twelve months (N = 575) after delivery. Depressive symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale), mental and physical health (SF-12 Health Survey), and maternal childbirth-related symptoms were measured at each time period. Two-stage least squares analysis showed that the relationship between leave duration and postpartum depressive symptoms is U-shaped, with a minimum at six months. In the first postpartum year, an increase in leave duration is associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms until six months postpartum. Moreover, ordinary least squares analysis showed a marginally significant linear positive association between leave duration and physical health. Taking leave from work provides time for mothers to rest and recover from pregnancy and childbirth. Findings indicate that the current leave duration provided by the Family and Medical Leave Act, twelve weeks, may not be sufficient for mothers at risk for or experiencing postpartum depression. PMID:24305845

  10. Risk factors, cross-cultural stressors and postpartum depression among immigrant Chinese women in Japan.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiongai; Mori, Emi; Sakajo, Akiko

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method design study was to examine factors contributing to depression among immigrant Chinese women (primipara and multipara) (n = 22) delivering a child for the first time in Japan. Data were obtained just after hospital discharge by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Social Support Scale, a new scale to measure cross-cultural stressors in the postpartum setting and a visual analogue scale for stress and a demographic survey. The average EPDS score was 9.0 (SD ± 3.7) at 1-3 weeks postpartum; yet, more than half of the subjects (n = 12; 54.5%) were high risk for depression (EPDS ≥ 10). Low household income and primiparous status were associated with depression scores. New mothers with depression also reported more general stress and more cross-cultural stress in the postpartum setting, although social support appeared to mediate cross-cultural stressors. Semi-structured interviews were held with two immigrant women at high risk for depression; these new mothers described additional stress because they could not follow Zuoyuezi, an important postpartum Chinese tradition, in the Japanese hospital. These findings suggest that immigrant Chinese women are at higher risk for postpartum depression when they give birth for the first time in Japan. PMID:27184701

  11. Commentary: postpartum psychosis, infanticide, and insanity--implications for forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sorrentino, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Two dozen nations have infanticide laws that decrease the penalty for mothers who kill their children of up to one year of age. The United States does not have such a law, but mentally ill mothers may plead not guilty by reason of insanity. As in other crimes, in addition to the diagnosis of a mental disorder, other factors, such as knowledge of wrongfulness and motive, are critical to the assessment. Postpartum psychosis has been described for 2,000 years and modern science supports a genetic component to the risk. Yet, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not include it as a diagnosis, leading to difficulty in testimony. In this article, we discuss postpartum psychosis, infanticide law, and research regarding mothers who kill, and we make recommendations to forensic psychiatrists. PMID:22960914

  12. [Dynamics of lysozyme levels in the blood serum and milk of puerperae with various functional activities of the breasts].

    PubMed

    Safronov, O V; Bakuleva, L P; Nesterova, A A; Babaian, S S

    1991-05-01

    The morbidity rates, ++features of lactation formation, and serum and breast milk lysozyme levels were studied in 91 parturients who showed various breast functional activity in the early postpartum period. The highest frequency of postpartum ++pyo-septic diseases was found in females with hyperlactation. There was earlier appearance of foremilk and milk in these females. Healthy mothers with higher breast functional activity exhibited the greatest levels of lysozyme in the milk and marked decreases in its levels in the blood within the first 3 days as compared to those observed in females who had normal or insufficient quantities of milk. PMID:1897671

  13. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  14. Use of primary health care prior to a postpartum psychiatric episode

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Vedsted, Peter; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Childbirth is a strong trigger of psychiatric episodes. Nevertheless, use of primary care before these episodes is not quantified. The aim was to study the use of general practice in Denmark from two years before to one year after childbirth in women who developed postpartum psychiatric disorders. Design. A matched cohort study was conducted including women who gave birth in the period 1996–2010. Women were divided into four groups: (i) all mothers with postpartum psychiatric episodes 0–3 months after birth, n = 939; 2: All mothers with a postpartum psychiatric episode 3–12 months after birth, n = 1 436; and (iii) two comparison groups of mothers, total n = 6 630 among 320 620 eligible women. Setting. Denmark. Subjects. Women born in Denmark after 1 January 1960, restricting the cohort to women who gave birth to their first singleton child between 1 January 1996 and 20 October 2010. Main outcome measures. The main outcome measures were consultation rates, consultation rate ratios, and rate differences. Results. Women who developed a psychiatric episode after childbirth had higher GP consultation rates before, during, and after the pregnancy. Women with a psychiatric episode 0–3 months postpartum had 6.89 (95% CI 6.60; 7.18) mean number of consultations during pregnancy, corresponding to 1.52 (95% CI 1.22; 1.82) more visits than the comparison group. Conclusion. Women with a postpartum psychiatric episode had higher use of GP-based primary health care services years before the childbirth, and in this specific group of patients childbirth itself triggered a marked increase in the number of GP contacts postpartum. PMID:26174691

  15. The Roles of Resilience and Childhood Trauma History: Main and Moderating Effects on Postpartum Maternal Mental Health and Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Minden B.; Hamilton, Lindsay; McGinnis, Ellen W.; Rosenblum, Katherine L.; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recently postpartum women participated to investigate main and moderating influences of resilience and childhood history of maltreatment on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), parental sense of mastery, and family functioning. Method At 4-months postpartum, 214 mothers (145 with a history of childhood abuse or neglect) completed interviews assessing mental health symptoms, positive functioning, resilience and trauma history. Multiple and moderated linear regression with the Connor- Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaires (CTQ) were conducted to assess for main and moderating effects. Results Resilience, childhood trauma severity, and their interaction predicted postpartum PTSD and MDD. In mothers without childhood maltreatment, PTSD was absent irrespective of CD-RISC scores. However, for those with the highest quartile of CTQ severity, 8% of those with highest resilience in contrast with 58% of those with lowest CD-RISC scores met PTSD diagnostic criteria. Similar, in those with highest resilience, no mothers met criteria for postpartum MDD, irrespective of childhood trauma, while for those with lowest quartile of resilience, 25% with lowest CTQ severity and 68% of those with highest CTQ severity were depressed. The CD-RISC, but not the CTQ, was predictive of postpartum sense of competence. The CD-RISC and the CTQ were predictive of postpartum family functioning, though no moderating influence of resilience on childhood trauma was found. Conclusions Resilience is associated with reduced psychopathology and improved wellbeing in all mothers. It further serves as a buffer against psychiatric symptoms following childhood trauma. Such findings may assist in identification of those at greatest risk of adverse functioning postpartum, utilization of resilience-enhancing intervention may benefit perinatal wellness, and reduce intergenerational transmission of risk. PMID:25560192

  16. Delineating the Association between Heavy Postpartum Haemorrhage and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdal, Patricia; Kollia, Natasa; Löfblad, Johanna; Hellgren, Charlotte; Karlsson, Linnea; Högberg, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15–4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH. PMID:26807799

  17. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  18. The Physical and Social Environment of Sleep in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Doering, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the physical and social environment of sleep self-management in postpartum socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Design Descriptive, exploratory design. Setting Participants were recruited in the hospital after giving birth. Data were collected in participant homes after discharge. Participants Postpartum women on Medicaid with normal healthy infants. Methods Participants completed a survey about features within their physical and social sleep environment at 2 weeks postpartum. Participants then completed three days and nights of sleep diaries at both 4 and 8 weeks postpartum to document perceived awakenings, select sleep hygiene practices, bed sharing, and reasons for sleep disruption. Results The sleep environments of participants were dynamic from night to night. Bed sharing was common with nearly half of participants sharing with a partner, approximately 25 percent with the infant, and 20 percent with older children. Fifty-two percent of participants slept with the television on part (31%) or all (69%) of the night. Eight-five percent of participants drank caffeine and 24 percent smoked. Conclusions These results inform theory-driven postpartum sleep interventions. Modifications to the physical and social sleep environment that attend specifically to how sleep hygiene and environmental factors are manifested in the postpartum period have the potential to improve sleep for socioeconomically disadvantaged women. Future research is needed to articulate which changes can be effectively self-managed by mothers through nursing interventions. PMID:23181913

  19. Autoimmune Encephalitis in Postpartum Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bergink, Veerle; Armangue, Thaís; Titulaer, Maarten J.; Markx, Sander; Dalmau, Josep; Kushner, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Significant immunological alterations have been observed in women with first-onset affective psychosis during the postpartum period. Recent studies have highlighted the possibility that a subset of patients with first-onset severe psychiatric episodes might suffer from undiagnosed autoimmune encephalitis. Therefore, the authors performed a three-step immunohistochemistry-based screening for CNS autoantibodies in a large cohort of patients with postpartum psychosis and matched postpartum comparison subjects. Method Ninety-six consecutive patients with postpartum psychosis and 64 healthy postpartum women were included. Screening for antibodies in patient serum was performed using immunohistochemistry. Samples showing any staining were further examined by immunocytochemistry using live hippocampal neurons and cell-based assays to test for anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies. Cell-based assays for all other known CNS antigens were performed in those samples with immunocytochemistry labeling but negative for NMDA receptor antibodies. Results Four patients (4%) with neuropil labeling suggestive for extracellular antigen reactivity were identified. Serum samples from all four patients showed clear extracellular labeling of live hippocampal neurons. Two women had the specific staining pattern characteristic for anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity, which was confirmed by cell-based assays. Neither patient with anti-NMDA receptor antibody positivity had evidence of an ovarian teratoma. The other two patients tested negative by cell-based assays for all known CNS antigens. None of the matched postpartum comparison subjects had confirmed neuronal surface antibodies. The two patients with anti-NMDA receptor antibodies both showed extrapyramidal symptoms following initiation of treatment with low-dose haloperidol. Conclusions In patients with acute psychosis during the postpartum period, systematic screening for anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies

  20. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account. PMID:27333431

  1. Improving quality and efficiency of postpartum hospital education.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Barbara L; Gutshall, Connie H; Jordan, Elizabeth T

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of an evidence-based, streamlined, education process (comprehensive education booklet, individualized education plan, and integration of education into the clinical pathway) and nurse education to improve the quality and efficiency of postpartum education during hospitalization. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to measure the quality of discharge teaching for new mothers and efficiency of the education process for registered nurses before and after implementation of an intervention. Results indicated that a comprehensive educational booklet and enhanced documentation can improve efficiency in the patient education process for nurses. PMID:23997552

  2. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers…

  3. Sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in healthy postpartum women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shao-Yu; Thomas, Karen A

    2012-06-01

    In this pilot study we examined the relationship between objective and subjective sleep disturbances and depressive symptoms in 22 healthy primiparous postpartum women within 3 months after delivery. We found that none of the women in our study had clinically significant depression scores on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale; nonetheless, a variable duration of night-time sleep from night to night during the 7-day monitoring period and reported awakening too early were significantly correlated with increased depressive symptoms. Results suggest that first-time mothers who complain of irregular night-time sleep duration and waking up too early should be screened and evaluated for potential postpartum depressive symptoms. PMID:22431157

  4. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Mother and Toddler Activity in the Zone of Proximal Development for Pretend Play as a Predictor of Higher Child IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Anne-Marie; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the pretend play of mother-toddler dyads in relation to later child IQ. Twenty-one toddlers were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months, and later assessed at 5 years of age on the Stanford-Binet IV. Children's and mothers' pretend play levels and frequencies were measured using…

  7. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  8. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... 944.4773 Learn More Pregnancy & Postpartum Mental Health Social Support Online Training Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During ... this illness is caused by a real or perceived trauma during delivery or postpartum. ... and/or lack of support and reassurance during the delivery Women who have ...

  9. Postpartum Coronary Vasospasm with Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Koneru, Jayanth; Alattar, Fadi; Alqaqa, Ashraf; Virk, Hirtaj; Shamoon, Fayez; Bikkina, Mahesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute myocardial infarction during pregnancy or the postpartum period is rare. We report a case of a 39-year-old postpartum woman who developed non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction due to severe diffuse coronary vasospasm. To our knowledge, this is the first case of angiographically evidenced coronary vasospasm, in a postpartum woman, with resistance to intracoronary nitroglycerin. PMID:25105029

  10. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression.

    PubMed

    Okun, Michele L

    2016-07-01

    The perinatal period introduces a myriad of changes. One important but often overlooked change is an increased reporting of sleep disturbance. Although casually regarded as a consequence of pregnancy or postpartum, there is emerging evidence implicating significant sleep disturbance, characterized by insomnia symptoms and/or poor sleep quality, with adverse outcomes, such as an increase in depressive symptomatology or the development postpartum depression (PPD). Significant consequences may arise as a result including issues with maternal-infant bonding, effective care for the infant, and behavioral or emotional difficulties in the infant. This review discusses the relevant literature as to how disturbed sleep during pregnancy as well as in the postpartum may increase the risk for PPD. PMID:27222140

  11. Smoking and harm-reduction efforts among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2008-09-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women ( N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women's harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative. PMID:18689532

  12. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  13. The effect of preterm birth on infant negative affect and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: A preliminary examination in an underrepresented minority sample

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole; Hartley, Chelsey M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of preterm birth on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect in an underrepresented minority sample. Method Participants were 102 mothers and their 3- to 10-month-old infants. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Results Relative to normative samples, the current underrepresented minority sample of mostly Hispanics and Blacks displayed high rates of preterm birth (30%) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (17%). Preterm birth had a significant direct effect on postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect. Additionally, there was an indirect effect of postpartum depressive symptoms on the relation between preterm birth and infant negative affect. Specifically, lower birth weight and gestational age predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, in turn, predicted higher levels of infant negative affect. Conclusion Findings emphasize the importance of screening for postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect among mothers and their preterm infants, especially among families from underrepresented minority backgrounds. PMID:25879520

  14. Better care and better teaching. New model of postpartum care for early discharge programs.

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, M. J.; Russillo, B.; Hyland, C.; Kovacs, L.; McAlister, E.

    2001-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Rapid postpartum discharge has reduced opportunities to detect early newborn or parenting problems and to teach neonatal assessment and maternal postpartum care to medical trainees. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: Development of a program to not only ensure adequate care of mothers and newborns after early hospital discharge, but also to teach outpatient assessment skills to family medicine residents. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: In an urban, secondary care, university-affiliated teaching hospital predominantly training family medicine residents, an interdisciplinary committee created and supervised a neonatal and maternal postpartum assessment program. Newborn infants and their mothers are seen by a family physician, a family medicine resident, and a nurse within 48 hours of discharge, after which care is assumed in the community by the child's primary care physician. An assessment protocol developed by the interdisciplinary group promotes standardized mother and child care and a structured learning experience for trainees. CONCLUSION: Rapid follow up of early discharged infants and their mothers can be facilitated by a program of standardized assessment by a roster of pooled, interacting family physicians and nurses. When this assessment occurs in a teaching milieu, a comprehensive learning experience can be combined with defined objectives that emphasize and encourage newborn and maternal assessment for ambulatory patients. PMID:11723597

  15. Screening and Referral for Postpartum Depression among Low-Income Women: A Qualitative Perspective from Community Health Workers.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Mogul, Marjie; Newman, Deena; Coyne, James C

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a serious and common psychiatric illness. Mothers living in poverty are more likely to be depressed and have greater barriers to accessing treatment than the general population. Mental health utilization is particularly limited for women with postpartum depression and low-income, minority women. As part of an academic-community partnership, focus groups were utilized to examine staff practices, barriers, and facilitators in mental health referrals for women with depression within a community nonprofit agency serving low-income pregnant and postpartum women. The focus groups were analyzed through content analyses and NVIVO-8. Three focus groups with 16 community health workers were conducted. Six themes were identified: (1) screening and referral, (2) facilitators to referral, (3) barriers to referral, (4) culture and language, (5) life events, and (6) support. The study identified several barriers and facilitators for referring postpartum women with depression to mental health services. PMID:21603131

  16. Intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy as risk factors for postpartum mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although research has established the profound effects that intimate partner abuse can have on postpartum mental health, little is known regarding how this association may change as a function of the timing and type of abuse. This study examined associations of psychological, physical and sexual abuse experienced as adults before and during pregnancy with symptoms of postpartum mental health problems in a non-clinical sample of women. Methods English-speaking mothers aged 18 years and older in the metropolitan area of a large, Western Canadian city were recruited to participate in a study of women’s health after pregnancy. The study was advertised in hospitals, local newspapers, community venues, and relevant websites. One-hundred women completed standardized, self-report questionnaires during semi-structured interviews conducted by female research assistants at approximately 2 months postpartum. In addition to questions about their general health and well-being, participants answered questions about their experiences of intimate partner abuse and about their mental health during the postpartum period. Results Almost two-thirds (61.0%) of women reported postpartum mental health symptoms above normal levels, with 47.0% reporting symptoms at moderate or higher levels. The majority reported some form of intimate partner abuse before pregnancy (84.0%) and more than two-thirds (70.0%), during pregnancy; however, the abuse was typically minor in nature. Multivariate models revealed that women who experienced intimate partner abuse—whether before or during pregnancy—reported higher levels of postpartum mental health problems; however, associations differed as a function of the timing and type of abuse, as well as specific mental health symptoms. Multivariate models also showed that as the number of types of intimate partner abuse experienced increased, so did the negative effects on postpartum mental health. Conclusions Results of this study provide

  17. [Do's and don'ts in post-partum contraception].

    PubMed

    Buhler, M

    1985-10-01

    It is sometimes difficult to plan contraception with a woman who has just delivered a baby, because she is sometime not motivated in the week following delivery, feeling unable to contemplate intercourse because of perineal pain and other discomforts. Effective contraception should be used beginning with the 25th postpartum day because of the subsequent strong possibility of ovulation before the return of menstruation. The woman should be provided with as much information on contraception as possible during this period, and possible contraindications to specific methods should be sought, such as thromboembolic accidents, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, infection, ectopic pregnancy, abortion, and desire for subsequent pregnancy. No request for contraception should be ignored and the same method should not be imposed on all women. The topic of contraception should not be deferred until the postpartum check-up in the 2nd month, because 50% of women will have had intercourse by the end of the 2nd month, often unprotected. Local methods such as spermicides and condoms are effective when the couple is motivated and they are well accepted. The thromboembolic risk appears minimal when oral contraceptives (OCs) are begun on the 15th postpartum day for non-breastfeeding women. OCs should not be prescribed for women after prolonged bedrest, and women who previously used pills should have lipid and glucose tests before the 2nd month postpartum consultation. The low dose progestin pill should be preferred to the low dose combined pill if a potential thromboembolic risk exists. Infants of breastfeeding women using pills receive 1/500 of the estrogen dose administered to the mother and 1/1000 of the progestin dose. No effects of these doses have been found on the growth or genital development of infants, and modifications of milk composition are not constant. A low dose progestin pill beginning on postpartum day 20 may however be preferred. It is better to await the

  18. A nutrition and physical activity intervention promotes weight loss and enhances diet attitudes in low-income mothers of young children.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kristine C; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Klohe-Lehman, Deborah M; Cai, Guowen; Voruganti, V Saroja; Proffitt, J Michael; Nuss, Henry J; Milani, Tracey J; Bohman, Thomas M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a nutrition and physical activity program for reducing body weight and improving nutrition attitudes in mothers of young children. A convenience sample of 114 intervention mothers and 33 comparison mothers was recruited from public health clinics and community centers. Eligibility criteria included Hispanic, African American, or white ethnicity; body mass index of at least 25 kg/m(2); low income (< 200% of the federal poverty index); and youngest child aged 1 to 4 years. For intervention participants, height, weight, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, demographics, nutrition attitudes, and dietary intake were measured at weeks 0 and 8; height, weight, percentage of body fat, and waist circumference were reassessed at 6 months. Overweight mothers in the comparison group provided anthropometric and demographic data at weeks 0 and 8. Changes in anthropometrics, attitudes, and dietary intake were evaluated in intervention mothers. Anthropometric data of intervention vs comparison group mothers were examined. Differences in anthropometrics and attitude scores between weight loss responders (> or = 2.27 kg) and nonresponders (< 2.27 kg) were assessed at week 8. Intervention participants lost weight (x = -2.7 kg; P < .001), whereas comparison mothers gained a slight amount of weight (x = 0.1 kg) by week 8. Weight loss responders had healthier eating attitudes (5.6 vs 5.2; P < .01) and fewer perceived barriers (2.4 vs 2.9; P < .05) than nonresponders postintervention. In conclusion, this dietary and physical activity curriculum is a valuable resource for weight management programs serving low-income women. PMID:19083382

  19. Stimulation of rat cutaneous fibroblasts and their synthetic activity by implants of powdered nacre (mother of pearl).

    PubMed

    Lopez, E; Le Faou, A; Borzeix, S; Berland, S

    2000-02-01

    The components of the cutaneous envelope, the epidermis and the dermis, change in response to aging or environmental stress factors. The fibroblasts involved in maintaining skin tone are the main targets. Nacre, mother of pearl, from Pinctada maxima, which can stimulate and regulate bone forming cells, was implanted in the dermis of rats to test its action on the skin fibroblasts. This report describes the effect of nacre on the skin fibroblast recruitment and physiological activity. It resulted in enhanced extracellular matrix synthesis and the production of components implicated in cell to cell adhesion and communication (such as decorine) and in tissue regeneration (type I and type III collagens). The nacre implant produced a well vascularized tissue. The physiological conditions in the region around the implant are thus those required for the positive interactions between the dermis and epidermis which are fundamental for the physiological function of the skin. PMID:10798323

  20. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Shaikh Alaudeen; Nor Muslim; Kamarul Faridah; Ali Azman; Hamid Arshat

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income, and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. The authors have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers (Malay, Chinese, and Indians) of full-term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/1) of sodium is highest 48.2 +/- 1.7; mean +/- SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation. Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers was similar but the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7 +/- 3.4 mmpl/1) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited the lowest concentration (25.9 +/- 2.6 mmol/1) of sodium that is significantly (p .05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however, did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. PMID:12342168

  1. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    PubMed

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's). PMID:12342169

  2. Education for adolescent mothers in a hospital setting.

    PubMed Central

    Badger, E; Burns, D; Rhoads, B

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative service program designed to help adolescent mothers become more effective parents. Mother-infant pairs are recruited in the postpartum unit of Cincinnati (Ohio) General Hospital, and weekly classes are held in a pediatric clinic waiting room until infants are approximately six months of age. Medical consultation and/or treatment and education for parenthood in the areas of health, nutrition, and infant stimulation are the foci of the program. The interest and participation of the mothers, the opinion of professionals, tests of maternal knowledge, and measurements of maternal-infant interaction attest to the value and success of this program. PMID:1275122

  3. Intimate Partner Violence Among Mothers of Sick Newborns in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L; Wiesner, Theodore F; Gold, Katherine J

    2016-05-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15%-71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semistructured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. Forty-six percent of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%), and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  4. Bio-psycho-socio-demographic and Obstetric Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Pregnancy: A prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Fatemeh; Rohani, Samad; Sazlina, Ghazali Shariff; Zarghami, Mehran; Azhar, Md Zain; Lye, Munn Sann; Rezaiee Abhari, Farideh; Majidi, Zohreh; Mozafari, Soghra

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province’ primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis. Results: A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression. Conclusion: A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression. PMID:25053953

  5. Declining levels of erythrocyte folate during the postpartum period among Hispanic women living on the Texas-Mexico border.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, K M; Redlinger, T E; Waller, D K

    2000-05-01

    Hispanic women have higher parity and shorter interbirth intervals than women of other ethnic groups. Thus, they are more likely to become pregnant relatively soon after giving birth, which may place these women at risk of low or deficient levels of specific nutrients. Folic acid is of particular concern because recent studies suggest that maternal use of folic acid supplements may be associated with better reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this study was to assess folic acid levels in postpartum Hispanic women. Using a cross-sectional design, we measured erythrocyte folate values for 188 low-income Hispanic women 1-12 months postpartum who were receiving services at the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in El Paso, Texas. An interview was administered to collect information on diet, vitamin use, and method of infant feeding. Mean erythrocyte folate levels decreased from >1300 ng/ml during the first 4 months postpartum to a low of 1017 ng/ml by 12 months postpartum, for an overall decrease of approximately 23% (p = 0.004). Use of postpartum vitamin supplements was significantly associated with higher folate levels. However, only 35% of mothers used vitamins beyond 1 month postpartum. Study results suggest that these mothers may be at risk of developing low or deficient levels of folic acid during the postpartum period. Educational campaigns targeting these women as well as other groups of postpartum women should encourage them to comply with the U.S. Public Health Service recommendation that women of childbearing age consume 0.4 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:10868612

  6. Perception of Partner Sleep and Mood: Postpartum Couples' Relationship Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Costello, Chelsea R.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2011-01-01

    Separate research areas indicate that sleep quality, mood, and relationship satisfaction decline among couples during the postpartum period. Furthermore, accurate partner perceptions are associated with positive relationship qualities. Twenty-one first-time postpartum mother-father dyads, contributed one week of continuous wrist actigraphy along with concurrent subjective Palm Pilot monitoring to provide both objective and subjective sleep measures. Parents also reported on their own as well as their perception of their partners’ sleep, mood, and relationship satisfaction. Greater objectively measured total sleep time was associated with greater relationship satisfaction. Mothers underestimated fathers’ self-reported frequency of nocturnal awakenings and relationship satisfaction, and overestimated fathers’ self-reported sleep quality. Fathers underestimated mothers’ self-reported duration of wake at night and sleep quality, and overestimated mothers’ self-reported mood disturbance. Preventative measures that target sleep and improvement in perception of partner’s experiences could be used to buffer against decreases in relationship satisfaction among new parents. PMID:21961447

  7. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality. PMID:26252623

  8. Efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Mirteimouri, Masoumeh; Tara, Fatemeh; Teimouri, Batool; Sakhavar, Nahid; Vaezi, Afsaneh

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality after delivery. Active management of postpartum hemorrhage by an uterotonic drug decreases the rate of postpartum hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of rectal misoprostol for prevention of postpartum hemorrhage. This double blind randomized clinical trial was performed on full term pregnant women candidate for vaginal delivery, referred to Zahedan Imam Ali Hospital during 2008-2009. They were randomly divided into two groups of rectal misoprostol and oxytocin. The women in misoprostol group received 400 μg rectal misoprostol after delivery and the women in oxytocin group received 3 IU oxytocin in 1 L ringer serum, intravenously. Rate of bleeding, need to any surgery interventions, rate of transfusion and changes in hemoglobin and hematocrite were compared between two groups. A total of 400 patients (200 cases in misoprostol group and 200 in oxytocin group) entered to the study. Rate of bleeding > 500 cc was significantly higher in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (33% vs. 19%) (p = 0.005). Also, need to excessive oxytocin for management of postpartum hemorrhage was significantly lower in misoprostol group than oxytocin group (18% vs. 30%) (p = 0.003). Decrease in hematocrite was significantly more observed in oxytocin group than misoprostol group (mean decrease of hematocrite was 1.3 ± 1.6 in misoprostol group and 1.6 ± 2.2 in oxytocin group). Two groups were similar in terms of side-effects. Rectal misoprostol as an uterotonic drug can decrease postpartum hemorrhage and also can prevent from decrease of hemoglobin as compared to oxytocin. PMID:24250623

  9. Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

    Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

  10. The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Attachment in a South African Peri-Urban Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…

  11. Duration of Expulsive Efforts and Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage in Nulliparous Women: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dionne, Marie-Danielle; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Dupont, Corinne; Basso, Olga; Rudigoz, René-Charles; Bouvier-Colle, Marie-Hélène; Le Ray, Camille

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the specific association between the duration of expulsive efforts and the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Methods Population-based cohort-nested case-control study of nulliparous women delivering vaginally in 106 French maternity units between December 2004 and November 2006, including 3,852 women with PPH (blood loss ≥ 500 mL and/or peripartum Hb decrease ≥ 2 g/dL), 1,048 of them severe (peripartum Hb decrease ≥ 4 g/dL or transfusion of ≥ 2 units of red blood cells), and 762 controls from a representative sample of deliveries without hemorrhage in the same population. The association between duration of expulsive efforts and postpartum hemorrhage was estimated by multilevel logistic regression models adjusted for individual and hospital characteristics. Results Median duration of expulsive efforts was 18 minutes among controls, 20 minutes among postpartum hemorrhage and 23 minutes among severe postpartum hemorrhage (p<0.01). Duration of expulsive efforts was significantly, positively, and linearly associated with both postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. After adjustment for other risk factors, every additional 10 minutes of expulsive efforts was associated with about a 10% increase in the risk of postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.11 [1.02–1.21]) and severe postpartum hemorrhage (aOR = 1.14 [1.03–1.27]). Oxytocin during labor, duration of active phase of labor, forceps use, episiotomy, perineal tears, and birth weight were also independently associated with both risks. Conclusion Duration of expulsive efforts was independently associated with postpartum hemorrhage and severe postpartum hemorrhage. Interventions to shorten the duration of this stage, such as oxytocin, forceps, and episiotomy, are also associated with higher risks of postpartum hemorrhage. Beyond duration, other aspects of the management of active second stage should be evaluated as some might allow it to last longer with a minimal increase in

  12. Characteristics of Postpartum Depression in Anand District, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Patel, Himadri L; Ganjiwale, Jaishree D; Nimbalkar, Archana S; Vani, Shashi N; Vasa, Rohitkumar; Nimbalkar, Somashekhar M

    2015-10-01

    Characteristics of postpartum depression (PPD) in Anand District, Gujarat, India. PPD affects 1 in 10 women in the developed world. It has been implicated as an independent factor with adverse effect on child health, and health care-seeking behavior of mothers. We sought to find the prevalence of PPD in our hospital by including mothers who registered and delivered live babies at our hospital. Basic demographic information related to pregnancy was acquired from mothers and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), pre-translated and validated in Gujarati language, was administered. Current study observed prevalence of PPD as 48.5% using cutoff score of 10.5 for classifying depression in Gujarati women. Factors associated with depression after multivariable logistic regression were: age of mother, modified Kuppuswami category (MKC) score, family type, violence from husband, gravida, para and sex of infant. PPD has higher prevalence in our study vis-a-vis Western countries. This may be because of early administration of EPDS. PMID:26179494

  13. Low Omega-3 Index in Pregnancy Is a Possible Biological Risk Factor for Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Markhus, Maria Wik; Skotheim, Siv; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Frøyland, Livar; Braarud, Hanne Cecilie; Stormark, Kjell Morten; Malde, Marian Kjellevold

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder affecting 10–15% women in the postpartum period. Postpartum depression can disrupt early mother-infant interaction, and constitutes a risk factor for early child development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the hypothesis that a low intake of seafood in pregnancy can be a risk factor for postpartum depression. Seafood is a unique dietary source of the marine omega-3 fatty acids and is a natural part of a healthy balanced diet that is especially important during pregnancy. Methods In a community based prospective cohort in a municipality in Western Norway, we investigated both nutritional and psychological risk factors for postpartum depression. The source population was all women who were pregnant within the period November 2009 - June 2011. The fatty acid status in red blood cells was assessed in the 28th gestation week and participants were screened for postpartum depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three months after delivery. The aim of the present study was to investigate if a low omega-3 index in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for postpartum depression. Results In a simple regression model, the omega-3 index was associated with the EPDS score in a nonlinear inverse manner with an R square of 19. Thus, the low omega-3 index explained 19% of the variance in the EPDS score. The DPA content, DHA content, omega-3 index, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, total HUFA score, and the omega-3 HUFA score were all inversely correlated with the EPDS score. The EPDS scores of participants in the lowest omega-3 index quartile were significantly different to the three other omega-3 index quartiles. Conclusion In this study population, a low omega-3 index in late pregnancy was associated with higher depression score three months postpartum. PMID:23844041

  14. Integrating family planning into postpartum care through modern quality improvement: experience from Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Youssef; Rahimzai, Mirwais; Ahmadzai, Malalah; Clark, Phyllis Annie; Kamgang, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    To address low contraceptive use in Afghanistan, we supported 2 large public maternity hospitals and 3 private hospitals in Kabul to use modern quality improvement (QI) methods to integrate family planning into postpartum care. In 2012, QI teams comprising hospital staff applied root cause analysis to identify barriers to integrated postpartum family planning (PPFP) services and to develop solutions for how to integrate services. Changes made to service provision to address identified barriers included creating a private counseling space near the postpartum ward, providing PPFP counseling training and job aids to staff, and involving husbands and mothers-in-law in counseling in person or via mobile phones. After 10 months, the proportion of postpartum women who received family planning counseling before discharge in the 5 hospitals increased from 36% to 55%, and the proportion of women who received family planning counseling with their husbands rose from 18% to 90%. In addition, the proportion of postpartum women who agreed to use family planning and left the hospital with their preferred method increased from 12% to 95%. Follow-up telephone surveys with a random sample of women who had received PPFP services in the 2 public hospitals and a control group of postpartum women who had received routine hospital services found significant differences in the proportion of women with self-reported pregnancies: 3% vs. 15%, respectively, 6 months after discharge; 6% vs. 22% at 12 months; and 14% vs. 35% at 18 months (P < .001). Applying QI methods helped providers recognize and overcome barriers to integration of family planning and postpartum services by testing changes they deemed feasible. PMID:25276580

  15. No relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in two samples in China.

    PubMed

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Shao, Jie; Li, Ming; Zhao, Gengli; Zhao, Zhengyan; Xu, Guobing; Zhou, Min; Zhan, Jianying; Bian, Yang; Ji, Chai; Li, Xing; Jiang, Yaping; Zhang, Zhixiang; Richards, Blair J; Tardif, Twila; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Maternal iron status is thought to be related to postpartum depressive symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pre- and postnatal maternal iron status and depressive symptoms in pilot (n = 137) and confirmatory (n = 567) samples of Chinese women. Iron status was evaluated at mid- and late pregnancy and 3 days postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess maternal postpartum depression 24-48 hours after delivery and 6 weeks later. In the pilot sample, correlations between early- and late-pregnancy maternal Hb and EPDS scores at 6 weeks were r = 0.07 and -0.01, respectively (nonsignificant). In the confirmatory sample, the correlations between maternal iron measures (Hb, MCV, ZPP, ferritin, sTfR, and sTfR Index) in mid- or late pregnancy or 3 days postpartum and EPDS scores shortly after delivery or at 6 weeks were also low (r values < 0.10). EPDS scores in anemic and nonanemic mothers did not differ, regardless of sample or timing of maternal iron status assessment. In addition, women with or without possible PPD were similar in iron status in both samples. Thus, there was no relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in these samples. PMID:22900184

  16. No Relationship between Maternal Iron Status and Postpartum Depression in Two Samples in China

    PubMed Central

    Armony-Sivan, Rinat; Shao, Jie; Li, Ming; Zhao, Gengli; Zhao, Zhengyan; Xu, Guobing; Zhou, Min; Zhan, Jianying; Bian, Yang; Ji, Chai; Li, Xing; Jiang, Yaping; Zhang, Zhixiang; Richards, Blair J.; Tardif, Twila; Lozoff, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    Maternal iron status is thought to be related to postpartum depressive symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between pre- and postnatal maternal iron status and depressive symptoms in pilot (n = 137) and confirmatory (n = 567) samples of Chinese women. Iron status was evaluated at mid- and late pregnancy and 3 days postpartum. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was used to assess maternal postpartum depression 24–48 hours after delivery and 6 weeks later. In the pilot sample, correlations between early- and late-pregnancy maternal Hb and EPDS scores at 6 weeks were r = 0.07 and −0.01, respectively (nonsignificant). In the confirmatory sample, the correlations between maternal iron measures (Hb, MCV, ZPP, ferritin, sTfR, and sTfR Index) in mid- or late pregnancy or 3 days postpartum and EPDS scores shortly after delivery or at 6 weeks were also low (r values < 0.10). EPDS scores in anemic and nonanemic mothers did not differ, regardless of sample or timing of maternal iron status assessment. In addition, women with or without possible PPD were similar in iron status in both samples. Thus, there was no relationship between maternal iron status and postpartum depression in these samples. PMID:22900184

  17. Oxytocin and postpartum depression: delivering on what's known and what's not.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sohye; Soeken, Timothy A; Cromer, Sara J; Martinez, Sheila R; Hardy, Leah R; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-09-11

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with lifelong consequences for infant socioemotional and cognitive development. In recent years, oxytocin has received attention for its potential role in many neuropsychiatric conditions beyond its well-described functions in childbirth and lactation. In the present review, we present available data on the clinical characteristics and neuroendocrine foundations of postpartum depression. We outline current treatment modalities and their limitations, and proceed to evaluate the potential role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression. The aim of the present review is twofold: (a) to bring together evidence from animal and human research concerning the role of oxytocin in postpartum depression, and (b) to highlight areas that deserve further research in order to bring a fuller understanding of oxytocin's therapeutic potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. PMID:24239932

  18. The relationship between sleep and mood in first-time and experienced mothers.

    PubMed

    Coo Calcagni, Soledad; Bei, Bei; Milgrom, Jeannette; Trinder, John

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disruption has been suggested to contribute to postpartum mood, but few studies have explored differences in this relationship between nulliparous and multiparous mothers. This study compared the interaction of sleep and mood as a function of parity. Thirty-five nulliparous and 34 multiparous mothers completed questionnaires on mood and sleep, and wore actigraphs for 7 days during the third trimester of pregnancy and within 2 weeks postpartum. Mood and objective sleep were better in multiparas than in nulliparas after delivery. However, other than a stronger association between subjective sleep and stress in nulliparous mothers, the relationship between sleep and mood did not differ significantly between the two groups. This suggests that parity might play only a limited role in the interaction between sleep and mood during the immediate postpartum period. PMID:22742435

  19. Mother Goose Is Alive and Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)

  20. Mother-child bonding assessment tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859

  1. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people. PMID:23789249

  2. The Postpartum Telogen Effluvium Fallacy

    PubMed Central

    Mirallas, Oriol; Grimalt, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum telogen effluvium (PPTE) is a commonly described entity, but few studies deal with the real incidence and pathogenesis of this claimed common disease. Objective To analyze the objective data published and to define the real incidence of the so-called PPTE. Method A retrospective review of the published data was conducted. Results No statistically significant data were found in any of the papers reviewed, which could support the conclusion that the amount of hair shedding between pregnant and postpartum women is different. Conclusion PPTE is not a well-defined entity, and the exact incidence is unknown. From our literature review, we could state that the frequency of PPTE is so low and undefined that we dare say that PPTE does not exist. PMID:27386466

  3. Sleep education during pregnancy for new mothers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a high association between disturbed (poor quality) sleep and depression, which has lead to a consensus that there is a bidirectional relationship between sleep and mood. One time in a woman’s life when sleep is commonly disturbed is during pregnancy and following childbirth. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance is another factor that may contribute to the propensity for women to become depressed in the postpartum period compared to other periods in their life. Post Natal Depression (PND) is common (15.5%) and associated with sleep disturbance, however, no studies have attempted to provide a sleep-focused intervention to pregnant women and assess whether this can improve sleep, and consequently maternal mood post-partum. The primary aim of this research is to determine the efficacy of a brief psychoeducational sleep intervention compared with a control group to improve sleep management, with a view to reduce depressive symptoms in first time mothers. Method This randomised controlled trial will recruit 214 first time mothers during the last trimester of their pregnancy. Participants will be randomised to receive either a set of booklets (control group) or a 3hour psychoeducational intervention that focuses on sleep. The primary outcomes of this study are sleep-related, that is sleep quality and sleepiness for ten months following the birth of the baby. The secondary outcome is depressive symptoms. It is hypothesised that participants in the intervention group will have better sleep quality and sleepiness in the postpartum period than women in the control condition. Further, we predict that women who receive the sleep intervention will have lower depression scores postpartum compared with the control group. Discussion This study aims to provide an intervention that will improve maternal sleep in the postpartum period. If sleep can be effectively improved through a brief psychoeducational program, then it may have a protective role in

  4. Mothers in an urban township in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Watts, T; Ng'andu, N; Wray, J

    1989-06-01

    Two hundred and forty-nine mothers living in an urban township were followed at their home from delivery for 1 year. Sixty-four families were lost to follow up due to moving house. The neonatal mortality was 50.6 per thousand and the infant mortality 118 per thousand live births. Child loss increased after parity 8 of the mother. The mean (SD) weight of mothers was 56.8 kg (8.8), the mean height 157.8 cm (6.1) and the mean ponderal index 22.53 (3.51). The mid-arm circumference was 26.1 cm (2.8). Body size varied considerably with around 10 per cent of mothers being undernourished and 10 per cent obese. Weight and mid-arm circumference generally decreased after 6 months post-partum. Breast feeding became less frequent after 8 months and by a year four babies had stopped receiving any breast milk. Average birth intervals were around 30 months, but thirty-seven mothers (20 per cent of multiparous mothers) had intervals of less than two years often following the loss of a previous child. Women generally received less education than their husbands with 35 (17 per cent) having had no education and only 23 (11 per cent) with some secondary education. Thirty-five mothers (18 per cent) had no men living at home with them although some fathers provided support. By one year fifteen fathers had abandoned the mother. Incomes of most families were insufficient and half the mothers worked, usually by selling food at the market or outside their homes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2754769

  5. Child murder committed by severely mentally III mothers: an examination of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity. 2005 Honorable Mention/Richard Rosner Award for the best paper by a fellow in forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J

    2005-11-01

    Forensic hospital records of 39 severely mentally ill mothers adjudicated Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity for filicide (child murder by parents) were analyzed to describe characteristics preceding this tragedy and to suggest prevention strategies. Almost three-quarters of the mothers (72%) had previous mental health treatment. Over two thirds (69%) of the mothers were experiencing auditory hallucinations, most frequently command hallucinations, and half (49%) were depressed at the time of the offense. Over one third (38%) of the filicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum period, and many had a history of postpartum psychosis. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the mothers had experienced considerable developmental stressors, such as death of their own mother or incest. Maternal motives for filicide were predominantly "altruistic" (meaning murder out of love) or "acutely psychotic" (occurring in the throes of psychosis, without rational motive). Psychiatrists should perform careful risk assessments for filicide in mothers with mental illnesses. PMID:16382847

  6. Facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool physical activity program in preadolescent African-American girls and their mothers

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Greever, Cory; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Traditional physical activity (PA) programs have not been effective in increasing PA in African-American girls. Currently, there is limited information regarding the components of PA programs that drive participation in African-American girls. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the facilitators, barriers, and components of a culturally-tailored afterschool PA program that will potentially inspire the participation of African-American mother-daughter dyads. Methods Six focus groups (n=12 mother-daughter dyads; daughters, 7–10 yrs in age) were conducted between March and May 2012. Focus group semi-structured interviews were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed using NVivo. Results Mothers reported a preference for non-traditional (dancing, household chores) types of PA. While daughters preferred to participate in both dance-based and traditional types (walking, riding bikes) of PA. Participants felt that the use of a culturally-tailored dance program would be appealing because it highlights the cultural and historical legacy of the African-American culture. Mothers wanted programs that would allow them time to spend with their daughters. Top three dance styles that mothers wanted to participate in were African, Hip-hop, and Salsa/samba. While, daughters reported that they would enjoy participating in Hip-hop, African, and Jazz. The most common responses given for resources needed for participating in a culturally-tailored afterschool dance program were the location of the program, transportation, and childcare for siblings. Conclusions The present investigation highlights some cultural factors related to facilitators and barriers of PA that should be addressed in designing PA studies for African-American girls and their mothers. PMID:24620442

  7. Mothering and anxiety: Social support and competence as mitigating factors for first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Chavis, Llena

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated anxiety as a phenomenon distinct from depression and evaluated several variables that influence anxiety in first-time mothers. This explored the relationship between maternal sense of competence (both of mothering and efficacy) and perceived social support (from family, friends, and significant others) and first-time mothers' postpartum anxiety, when depression, socioeconomic status (SES), and marital status were controlled for. The population studied were 86 first-time mothers made up of women with children 24 months or younger in two populations of Kentucky and Michigan. The constructs of maternal sense of competence and perceived social support were found to be significant in explaining first-time mothers' anxiety. The study concluded that a combined association of perceived social support and maternal sense of competence were associated with a 34% (change in R-squared = .339) decrease of a first-time mothers' anxiety. However, not all types of social support, or maternal competence appeared to be equally important with regards to maternal anxiety: social support from friends and family and maternal sense of competence in regard to productivity appeared to be most significant. Lastly, some recommendations for health practitioners who work with mothers are provided. PMID:27266719

  8. Tuberculosis in Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Epidemiology, Management, and Research Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Mathad, Jyoti S.; Gupta, Amita

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis is most common during a woman's reproductive years and is a major cause of maternal–child mortality. National guidelines for screening and management vary widely owing to insufficient data. In this article, we review the available data on (1) the global burden of tuberculosis in women of reproductive age; (2) how pregnancy and the postpartum period affect the course of tuberculosis; (3) how to screen and diagnose pregnant and postpartum women for active and latent tuberculosis; (4) the management of active and latent tuberculosis in pregnancy and the postpartum period, including the safety of tuberculosis medications; and (5) infant outcomes. We also include data on HIV/tuberculosis coinfection and drug-resistant tuberculosis. Finally, we highlight research gaps in tuberculosis in pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:22942202

  9. Differences in sedentary time and physical activity among mothers and children using a movement-to-music video program in the home environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2016-01-01

    Measured objectively, less than a quarter of adults and under half of preschool children in Finland meet the physical activity recommendations. Moreover, higher sedentary time among parents (such as watching television) is associated with higher sedentary time of their children. The study introduces an intervention based on reducing sedentary behavior among mothers and their children. It utilizes a combination of music and exercise via a motivation-targeting movement-to-music video program in the home environment. Data were collected in summer 2014 from Finland's Pirkanmaa region. Each mother-child pair (n = 24, child age: 4-7 years) was assigned to the intervention and control group. Both groups used an accelerometer and completed physical activity diaries for two consecutive weeks (14 days) during waking hours. In addition, the intervention group was instructed to use the movement-to-music video program during the second week. Differences between groups were expected in analysis of sedentary time and physical activity between weeks 1 and 2. The parameters assessed were sedentary time (i.e., lying down or sitting), standing still, and time spent in physical activity. Less sedentary time was revealed in week 2 than in week 1 among both intervention group mothers (56.6 vs. 53.3 %) and for intervention group children (49.5 vs. 46.0 %). The opposite was true of control group mothers (52.1 vs. 52.4 %) and children (46.7 vs. 49.8 %). Within-group differences in mothers' sedentary time correlated moderately with the children's sedentary time (Spearman's r = 0.56). All groups exhibited slightly more standing in the second week than in week 1. Both sets of intervention participants also engaged in more light physical activity in week 2, with the opposite evident for the two control sets. In all groups, except the control children, the proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity was higher in the second week than the first. The use of music and video

  10. Immune-Based Approaches to the Prevention of Mother-to-child-Transmission of HIV-1: Active and Passive Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Lohman-Payne, Barb; Slyker, Jennifer; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Despite more than two decades of research, an effective vaccine that can prevent HIV-1 infection in populations exposed to the virus remains elusive. In the pursuit of an HIV-1 vaccine, does prevention of exposure to maternal HIV-1 in utero, at birth or in early life through breast-milk require special consideration? In this article we will review what is known about the immune mechanisms of susceptibility and resistance to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and will summarise studies that have used passive or active immunisation strategies to interrupt -MTCT of HIV-1. We will also describe potentially modifiable infectious co-factors that may enhance transmission and/or disease progression (especially in the developing world). Ultimately an effective prophylactic vaccine against HIV-1 infection will need to be deployed as part of the Extended Programme of Immunisation (EPI) recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for use in developing countries, so it is important to understand how the infant immune system responds to HIV-1 antigens, both in natural infection and presented by candidate vaccines. PMID:21078451

  11. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    KAWASHIMA, Chiho; ITO, Nozomi; NAGASHIMA, Shuntarou; MATSUI, Motozumi; SAWADA, Kumiko; SCHWEIGERT, Florian J.; MIYAMOTO, Akio; KIDA, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0–3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7–4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3–1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0–3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  12. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene. PMID:26935323

  13. In Search of Neural Endophenotypes of Postpartum Psychopathology and Disrupted Maternal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, E. L.; Horner, M. S.; Phillips, M. L.; Hipwell, A. E.; Swain, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This is a selective review that provides the context for the study of perinatal affective disorder mechanisms and outlines directions for future research. We integrate existing literature along neural networks of interest for affective disorders and maternal caregiving: (i) the salience/fear network; (ii) the executive network; (iii) the reward/social attachment network; and (iv) the default mode network. Extant salience/fear network research reveals disparate responses and corticolimbic coupling to various stimuli based upon a predominantly depressive versus anxious (post-traumatic stress disorder) clinical phenotype. Executive network and default mode connectivity abnormalities have been described in postpartum depression (PPD), although studies are very limited in these domains. Reward/social attachment studies confirm a robust ventral striatal response to infant stimuli, including cry and happy infant faces, which is diminished in depressed, insecurely attached and substance-using mothers. The adverse parenting experiences received and the attachment insecurity of current mothers are factors that are associated with a diminution in infant stimulus-related neural activity similar to that in PPD, and raise the need for additional studies that integrate mood and attachment concepts in larger study samples. Several studies examining functional connectivity in resting state and emotional activation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms have revealed attenuated corticolimbic connectivity, which remains an important outcome that requires dissection with increasing precision to better define neural treatment targets. Methodological progress is expected in the coming years in terms of refining clinical phenotypes of interest and experimental paradigms, as well as enlarging samples to facilitate the examination of multiple constructs. Functional imaging promises to determine neural mechanisms underlying maternal psychopathology and impaired caregiving, such

  14. Mother-infant interaction in mother and baby unit patients: before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU. PMID:23786913

  15. Schizophrenia: Do Sense Perceptions Correlate with Episodic Activity, as Indians Know Kokopelli/Pele Matches with Mother Earth's Electromagnetic Field Activity, EMF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Aspen; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo; McLeod, David Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Certain Indian cognomens seem to indicate an environmental awareness of an electromagnetic wrath some traditional cultures are careful to acknowledge and accommodate. These include Pele/Kokopelli, Keitan, and Hobomock, that have carried explicit information our cultures have been cognizant of Mother Earth's not-always-benign influences. Let's consider schizophrenia, with or without a viral cofactor, and Kokopelli/Pele. She/he may be explicitly referenced as a hunch-backed, flute-playing individual, dancing-around in correlation with Earth's electromagnetic activities. Depending on the specific version and its details, individuals, particularly children, are admonished to avoid certain areas. Of especial importance and relevance may be cultural awareness that individuals, whom another type of culture has discriminated against, despite no a priori guilt, are explicitly absolved of culpability by the blanket statement that The Great Spirit is implicated in their behavior. Of course, this provides information of a religious sort, possibly corroborated by a currently prominent individual.

  16. Intrauterine, postpartum and adult relationships between arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Remko S; Luxwolda, Martine F; Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, D A; Muskiet, Frits A J

    2011-11-01

    Erythrocyte (RBC) fatty acid compositions from populations with stable dietary habits but large variations in RBC-arachidonic (AA) and RBC-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) provided us with insight into relationships between DHA and AA. It also enabled us to estimate the maternal RBC-DHA (mRBC-DHA) status that corresponded with no decrease in mRBC-DHA during pregnancy, or in infant (i) RBC-DHA or mRBC-DHA during the first 3 months postpartum (DHA-equilibrium) while exclusively breastfeeding. At delivery, iRBC-AA is uniformly high and independent of mRBC-AA. Infants born to mothers with low RBC-DHA exhibit higher, but infants born to mothers with high RBC-DHA exhibit lower RBC-DHA than their mothers. This switch from 'biomagnification' into 'bioattenuation' occurs at 6g% mRBC-DHA. At 6g%, mRBC-DHA is stable throughout pregnancy, corresponds with postpartum infant DHA-equilibrium of 6 and 0.4g% DHA in mature milk, but results in postpartum depletion of mRBC-DHA to 5g%. Postpartum maternal DHA-equilibrium is reached at 8g% mRBC-DHA, corresponding with 1g% DHA in mature milk and 7g% iRBC-DHA at delivery that increases to 8g% during lactation. This 8g% RBC-DHA concurs with the lowest risks of cardiovascular and psychiatric diseases in adults. RBC-data from 1866 infants, males and (non-)pregnant females indicated AA vs. DHA synergism at low RBC-DHA, but antagonism at high RBC-DHA. These data, together with high intakes of AA and DHA from our Paleolithic diet, suggest that bioattenuation of DHA during pregnancy and postnatal antagonism between AA and DHA are the physiological standard for humans across the life cycle. PMID:21561751

  17. Genetic contribution to postpartum haemorrhage in Swedish population: cohort study of 466 686 births

    PubMed Central

    Hernandéz-Diaź, Sonia; Frisell, Thomas; Greene, Michael F; Almqvist, Catarina; Bateman, Brian T

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the familial clustering of postpartum haemorrhage in the Swedish population, and to quantify the relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects. Design Register based cohort study. Setting Swedish population (multi-generation and medical birth registers). Main outcome measure Postpartum haemorrhage, defined as >1000 mL estimated blood loss. Participants The first two live births to individuals in Sweden in 1997-2009 contributed to clusters representing intact couples (n=366 350 births), mothers with separate partners (n=53 292), fathers with separate partners (n=47 054), sister pairs (n=97 228), brother pairs (n=91 168), and mixed sibling pairs (n=177 944). Methods Familial clustering was quantified through cluster specific tetrachoric correlation coefficients, and the influence of potential sharing of known risk factors was evaluated with alternating logistic regression. Relative contributions of genetic and environmental effects to the variation in liability for postpartum haemorrhage were quantified with generalised linear mixed models. Results The overall prevalence of postpartum haemorrhage after vaginal deliveries in our sample was 4.6%. Among vaginal deliveries, 18% (95% confidence interval 9% to 26%) of the variation in postpartum haemorrhage liability was attributed to maternal genetic factors, 10% (1% to 19%) to unique maternal environment, and 11% (0% to 26%) to fetal genetic effects. Adjustment for known risk factors only partially explained estimates of familial clustering, suggesting that the observed shared genetic and environmental effects operate in part through pathways independent of known risk factors. There were similar patterns of familial clustering for both of the main subtypes examined (atony and retained placenta), though strongest for haemorrhage after retained placenta. Conclusions There is a maternal genetic predisposition to postpartum haemorrhage, but more than half of the total

  18. CLEFT PALATE IN HIV-EXPOSED NEWBORNS OF MOTHERS ON HIGHLY ACTIVE ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    James, Ayotunde; Oluwatosin, Babatunde; Njideka, Georgina; Babafemi; Benjamin, Onyekwere George; Olufemi, David; Leo, Robert; Folorunso, Isaac; Phylis; Olusina, Olusegun

    2014-01-01

    Aims Cleft lip/palate, though rare, is the commonest head and neck congenital malformation. Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the aetiopathogenesis but the role of in-utero exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is still being investigated. This short communication reports the occurrence of cleft palate in three newborns exposed in-utero to HIV and HAART. Material and methods This is a case series of HIV-exposed newborns observed to have cleft palate among a larger cohort of HIV-exposed and unexposed newborns in a study evaluating the effect of HIV infection and HAART on newborn hearing. The Risk Ratio (RR) was calculated to detect a potential association between in-utero exposure to Efavirenz containing ART and cleft palate. Results Three HIV-exposed newborns with cleft palate were identified during hearing screening performed on 126 HIV-exposed and 121 HIV unexposed newborns. Two had exposure to tenofovir+lamivudine+efavirenz (TDF+3TC+EFV) while the third had exposure to zidovudine+lamivudine+nevirapine (ZDV+3TC+NVP) during the first trimester. There was no statistically significant association between presence of cleft palate and exposure to an EFV containing HAART regimen (p=0.07, RR=10.95 [0.94-126.84]). Conclusions This communication highlights the possible aetiologic role of HAART in cleft palate, the need for further prospective follow-up studies and establishment of antiretroviral pregnancy, birth and neonatal registries. PMID:25653715

  19. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  20. Infant health of mothers with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Elsie E; Johnson, Shanda

    2004-10-01

    Controversy surrounds whether mothers with multiple sclerosis (MS) who wish to breast-feed their infants should forego breast-feeding in order to resume immunomodulating therapy following birth even though breast-feeding has not been shown to have deleterious effects on these mothers. Knowledge of potential health benefits to infants through breast-feeding could influence health care providers to encourage mothers with MS who wish to breast-feed to do so. This study of 140 breast-feeding and 35 non-breast-feeding mothers with MS identifies the type and prevalence of illnesses experienced by their infants during the first 6 postpartum months and at 9 months and 12 months. Significantly more non-breast-fed than breast-fed infants experienced otitis media, lower respiratory illness, constipation, milk intolerance, and allergy during the 1st year. Study results support the need to encourage mothers with MS who wish to breast-feed their infants to do so and to delay immunomodulating therapy until breast-feeding cessation. PMID:15359075

  1. Committee Opinion No. 666: Optimizing Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    In the weeks after birth, postpartum care often is fragmented among maternal and pediatric health care providers, and communication between inpatient and outpatient settings is inconsistent. To optimize postpartum care, anticipatory guidance should begin during pregnancy. During antenatal care, it is recommended that the patient and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider formulate a postpartum care plan and identify the health care professionals who will comprise the postpartum care team for the woman and her infant. Ideally, during the postpartum period, a single health care practice assumes responsibility for coordinating the woman's care. At discharge from maternity care, the woman should receive contact information for her postpartum care team and written instructions regarding the timing of follow-up postpartum care. It is recommended that all women undergo a comprehensive postpartum visit within the first 6 weeks after birth. This visit should include a full assessment of physical, social, and psychological well-being. Systems should be implemented to ensure each woman can receive her desired form of contraception during the comprehensive postpartum visit, if not done earlier. At the conclusion of the postpartum visit, the woman and her obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider should determine who will assume primary responsibility for her ongoing care. If responsibility is transferred to another primary care provider, the obstetrician-gynecologist or other obstetric care provider is responsible for ensuring that there is communication with the primary care provider so that he or she can understand the implications of any pregnancy complications for the woman's future health and maintain continuity of care. PMID:27214194

  2. Learning the baby: an interpretive study of teen mothers.

    PubMed

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2007-08-01

    This study examined how parenting is learned by teenage mothers, and the challenges, resources, and constraints for learning and knowing the baby. A convenience sample of 18 families, consisting of teens and their parents, were interviewed once prenatally and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 10 months postpartum. Interpretive analysis revealed four patterns in learning the baby as meaningful constellations of family and social worlds. The implications of the findings for strengthening nursing care for these families are described. PMID:17645954

  3. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration

    PubMed Central

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and ‘equiplot’ displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Results Overall

  4. New evidence on breastfeeding and postpartum depression: the importance of understanding women's intentions.

    PubMed

    Borra, Cristina; Iacovou, Maria; Sevilla, Almudena

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the causal effect of breastfeeding on postpartum depression (PPD), using data on mothers from a British survey, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were performed to investigate the effects of breastfeeding on mothers' mental health measured at 8 weeks, 8, 21 and 32 months postpartum. The estimated effect of breastfeeding on PPD differed according to whether women had planned to breastfeed their babies, and by whether they had shown signs of depression during pregnancy. For mothers who were not depressed during pregnancy, the lowest risk of PPD was found among women who had planned to breastfeed, and who had actually breastfed their babies, while the highest risk was found among women who had planned to breastfeed and had not gone on to breastfeed. We conclude that the effect of breastfeeding on maternal depression is extremely heterogeneous, being mediated both by breastfeeding intentions during pregnancy and by mothers' mental health during pregnancy. Our results underline the importance of providing expert breastfeeding support to women who want to breastfeed; but also, of providing compassionate support for women who had intended to breastfeed, but who find themselves unable to. PMID:25138629

  5. Longitudinal effects of contextual and proximal factors on mother-infant interactions among Brazilian adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Eva; DeSousa, Diogo; Koller, Silvia H; Volling, Brenda L

    2016-05-01

    Adolescent mothers often come from vulnerable backgrounds which might impact the quality of both maternal and infant behavior. Despite the negative impact of adolescent motherhood for maternal and infant behavior, social support may decrease the risks and promote maternal behavior toward the infant. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinally the effects of proximal (maternal behavior) and distal (mother's perceived social support) variables on infant development in a sample of Brazilian adolescent mothers and their infants. Thirty-nine adolescent mothers (Mage=17.26years; SD=1.71) were observed interacting with their infants at 3 and 6 months postpartum and reported on social support. Results revealed that maternal and infant behavior were associated within and across times. Mothers' perceived social support at 3 months had an indirect effect on infant behavior at 6 months, totally mediated by maternal behavior at 6 months. Our findings revealed the mutual influence between maternal and infant behavior, revealing a proximal process. The results also underscored the importance of the passage of time in the interplay between mother-infant interactions and their developmental context. PMID:27110652

  6. New IPPF statement on breastfeeding, fertility and post-partum contraception.

    PubMed

    1990-04-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Federation International Medical Advisory Panel drew up the following statement in November, 1989. Breastfeeding is good for the infant. Antibodies passed to it from the mother protect it from infection. Patterns of breastfeeding are changing. Therefore, the risk of pregnancy is increased. Postpartum amenorrhea plays a major role in natural fertility regulation. Studies from around the world show a positive correlation between the length of breastfeeding and the length of lactational amenorrhea. Amenorrhea lasts longer in those who breastfeed more often at night and during the day. There is controversy over the effect of nutrition on postpartum infertility. Pregnancy and the puerperium are a good time for counseling on maternal nutrition, child spacing, breastfeeding, and contraceptive methods. Counseling nursing mothers about potential fertility during lactation should be based on local information. All women should be advised to fully breastfeed. Family planning programs should cooperate with maternity services in providing counseling and education for postpartum women who need contraception, for providing referral services, for producing educational resources, and in training health personnel. Postpartum contraception should be included in the training of traditional birth attendants. Women who do not breastfeed can select any contraceptive method. Mothers who nurse must not hurt success of lactation or the infant's health. Nonhormonal contraception should be the 1st choice for lactating women. IUDs do not harm infant growth or lactation. Postpartum insertions are appropriate, though care must be taken. Female sterilization can be conveniently done at this time. Barrier methods are reliable when used regularly. The failure rate should be lower when used after delivery. Progestagen-only contraception consists of progestagen-only pills, injectables, and Norplant. These do not affect quality and quantity of breast milk or length

  7. A qualitative study of Western Australian women's perceptions of using a Snoezelen room for breastfeeding during their postpartum hospital stay

    PubMed Central

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Summers, Lisa; White, Ellie; Jones, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on the use of the Snoezelen concept for maternity clients. Snoezelen, a Dutch concept, initiated in the 1970s as a leisure activity for severely disabled people, involves creating an indoor environment using controllable stimuli to enhance comfort and relaxation. These specially designed rooms expose the user to multiple sensory stimulations combining vision, touch, sounds and aromas. The aim of this study was to provide insight into breastfeeding women's experience of using a Snoezelen room during hospitalisation. Methods A qualitative exploratory design was chosen to reveal women's perceptions of using the Snoezelen room. Osborne Park Hospital, the study setting is the second largest public provider of obstetric services in Western Australia. A purposive sample was drawn from breastfeeding women who used the Snoezelen room during their postpartum stay from March 2006 to March 2007. Saturation was achieved after eleven breastfeeding women were interviewed six weeks post discharge. Data analysis involved the constant comparison method. Results Participants entered the room feeling tired and emotional with an unsettled baby and breastfeeding issues aggravated by maternal stress and anxiety. All women indicated they were able to achieve relaxation while in the room and would recommend its use to other breastfeeding mothers. Two key themes revealed how the Snoezelen room facilitated maternal relaxation, which ultimately enhanced the breastfeeding experience. The first theme, "Finding Relaxation for the Breastfeeding Mother" incorporates three subthemes: 'Time out' for mother; Control in own personal space; and a Quiet/calm environment with homelike atmosphere. The second theme, "Enabling Focus on Breastfeeding", occurred after relaxation was achieved and involved four subthemes: Able to get one-on-one attention; Not physically exposed to others; Away from prying, judgemental eyes and Able to safely attempt breastfeeding alone

  8. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices. PMID:23386519

  9. A Randomized Controlled Community-Based Trial to Improve Breastfeeding Rates Among Urban Low-Income Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Linda C.; Serwint, Janet R.; Frick, Kevin D.; Nanda, Joy P.; Sharps, Phyllis W.; Spatz, Diane L.; Milligan, Renee A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess whether providing a breastfeeding support team (BST) results in higher breastfeeding rates at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum among urban low-income mothers. Methods Design: A randomized controlled trial with mother-infant dyads recruited from two urban hospitals. Participants: Breastfeeding mothers of full term infants who were eligible for Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) (n=328) were randomized to intervention (n=168) or usual care group (n=160). Intervention: The 24 week intervention included hospital visits by a breastfeeding support team (BST), home visits, telephone support, and 24 hour pager access. The usual care group received standard care. Outcome Measure: Breastfeeding status was assessed by self report at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Results There were no differences in the sociodemographic characteristics between the groups: 87% were African American, 80% single, and 51% primiparous. Compared to the usual care group, more women reported breastfeeding in the intervention at 6 weeks postpartum, 66.7% vs. 56.9% OR 1.71 (95% CI 1.07, 2.76). The difference in rates at 12 weeks postpartum, 49.4% versus 40.6%, and 24 weeks postpartum, 29.2% versus 28.1%, were not statistically significant. Conclusions The intervention group was more likely to be breastfeeding at six weeks postpartum compared with usual care group, a time that coincided with the most intensive part of the intervention. PMID:19854119

  10. Long-term postpartum adherence to antiretroviral drugs among women in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Coelho, Debora Fernandes; Kakehasi, Fabiana Maria; Hofer, Cristina Barroso; Read, Jennifer S; Losso, Marcelo; Haberer, Jessica E; Siberry, George K; Harris, D Robert; Yu, Qilu

    2016-04-01

    Antiretroviral adherence in the postpartum period is crucial for maternal health and decreasing the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission and transmission to sexual partners. Self-reported antiretroviral adherence was examined between 6- to 12-weeks and 30 months postpartum among 270 HIV-infected women enrolled in a prospective cohort study from 2008 to 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence data were collected at each study visit to quantify the proportion of prescribed antiretrovirals taken during the previous three days, assess the timing of the last missed dose, and identify predictors of adherence. Mean adherence rates were 89.5% at 6-12 weeks and 92.4% at 30 months; the proportions with perfect adherence were 80.3% and 83.6%, respectively. The overall trend for perfect adherence was not significant (p = 0.71). In adjusted regression modelling, younger age was associated with an increased probability of non-perfect adherence at 18 and 24 months postpartum. Other factors associated with increased probability of non-perfect adherence were higher parity, current use of alcohol and tobacco, and more advanced HIV disease. Women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads. Interventions for alcohol and tobacco use cessation, and support for young women and those with advanced HIV disease should be considered to improve postpartum adherence. PMID:25931238

  11. Treatment of depression associated with the menstrual cycle: premenstrual dysphoria, postpartum depression, and the perimenopause

    PubMed Central

    W. Freeman, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Several forms of depression are unique to women because of their apparent association with changes in gonadal hormones, which in turn modulate neuroregulatory systems associated with mood and behavior. This review examines the evaluation and treatment of depression that occurs premenstrually, postpartum, or in the perimenopause on the basis of current literature. The serotonergic antidepressants consistently show efficacy for severe premenstrual syndromes (PMSs) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), and are the first-line treatment for these disorders. The use of antidepressants for postpartum depression is compromised by concerns for effects in the infants of breast-feeding mothers, but increasing evidence suggests the relative safety of the antidepressant medications, and the risk calculation should be made on an individual basis. Estradiol may be effective for postpartum depression and for moderate-to-severe major depression in the perimenopause. In spite of its frequent use, progesterone is not effective for the mood and behavioral symptoms of PMS/PMDD, postpartum depression, or perimenopausal depressive symptoms. PMID:22033555

  12. Meta-analysis of the role of delivery mode in postpartum depression (Iran 1997-2011)

    PubMed Central

    Bahadoran, Parvin; Oreizi, Hamid Reza; Safari, Saeideh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is the riskiest time for mood disorders and psychosis. Postpartum depression is the most important mood disorder after delivery, which can be accompanied by mother-child and family relationship disorders. Meta-analysis with the integration of research results demonstrates to investigate the association between the mode of delivery and postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This meta-analysis uses the Rosenthal and Robin approach. For this purpose, 18 studies which were acceptable in terms of methodology were selected and meta-analysis was conducted on them. Research instrument was a checklist of meta-analysis. After summarizing the results of the studies, effect sizes were calculated manually and combined based on meta-analysis method. Results: The findings showed that the amount of effect size (in term of Cohen d) of delivery mode on postpartum depression was 0/30 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Delivery mode on maternal mental health is assessed medium. Meta analysis also indicates moderator variables role, and researcher must focus in these variables. PMID:25540791

  13. Course and predictors of maternal eating disorders in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Knoph, Cecilie; Holle, Ann Von; Zerwas, Stephanie; Torgersen, Leila; Tambs, Kristian; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Bulik, Cynthia M; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate course and predictors of eating disorders in the postpartum period. Method A total of 77,807 women, participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), completed questionnaires during pregnancy including items covering DSM-IV criteria for pre-pregnancy anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS-P), and binge eating disorder (BED). Additional questionnaires were completed at 18 and 36 months postpartum. Results Proportions of women remitting at 18 months and 36 months postpartum were 50% and 59% for AN, 39% and 30% for BN, 46% and 57% for EDNOS-P, and 45% and 42% for BED, respectively. However, disordered eating persisted in a substantial proportion of women meeting criteria for either full or subthreshold eating disorders. BN during pregnancy increased the risk for continuation of BN. BMI and psychological distress were significantly associated with course of BED. Discussion This is the first large-scale population-based study on course of eating disorders in the postpartum period. The results indicated that disordered eating persists in a substantial proportion of women with pre-pregnancy eating disorders. Health care professionals working with women in this phase of life need to pay specific attention to eating disorder symptoms and behaviors. PMID:23307499

  14. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying.

    PubMed

    Leerkes, Esther M; Parade, Stephanie H; Burney, Regan V

    2010-11-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers endorsed more infant-oriented and less parent-oriented beliefs about crying than did fathers. Consistent with prediction, a history of emotion minimization was linked with more parent-oriented and fewer infant-oriented beliefs about infant crying for both mothers and fathers either as a main effect or in conjunction with the partners' infant-oriented beliefs. Contrary to expectation, parents' own emotional dispositions had little effect on parents' beliefs about crying. The pattern of associations varied for mothers and fathers in a number of ways. Implications for future research and programs promoting sensitive parenting are discussed. PMID:21152107

  15. "Waiting for Better Times": Experiences in the First Postpartum Year by Swedish Fathers With Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun; Carlberg, Magdalena; Simon, Fia; Lindberg, Lene

    2016-09-01

    Swedish fathers are largely involved in their infant's care, and Sweden has a generous parental leave, with 2 months especially assigned for fathers. The prevalence of depressive symptoms postpartum for fathers appears to be similar as for mothers in Sweden. This study aimed to describe fathers' experiences of the first year postpartum, when they showed depressive symptoms 3 to 6 months postpartum. Semistructured interviews with 19 fathers were conducted and analyzed with content analysis. The fathers experienced loss of control and powerlessness due to discrepancies between their expectations and the reality they met after birth. They found the everyday-life turbulent, with much stress and worries for the infant, conflicts between family and work, and lack of support in everyday life. In addition, the fathers struggled with impaired partner-relationship, losses, and contradictory messages from both the society and their partners. These findings indicate that the fathers had difficulties to balance the competing demands of family, work, and their own needs. Thus, it is important to identify fathers with depressive symptoms at the Child Health Care Centers and attend to fathers' needs of support and acknowledge them as parents equal to mothers. PMID:25739550

  16. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r = 0.54; p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the four subscales ranged from 0.58 to 0.71. The final 18-item version of the questionnaire is potentially a valuable tool for assessing postnatal risk factors in Chinese postpartum mothers. PMID:25142052

  17. Postpartum depression: perceptions of a diverse sample of low-income women.

    PubMed

    Jarosinski, Judith M; Pollard, Deborah Lynn

    2014-03-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) continues to significantly impact women and their families during the perinatal period. Consequences of untreated PPD in the mother may lead to impaired mother-infant bonding, recurring psychiatric illness, and fewer positive parenting behaviors. North Carolina participates in the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and has the second highest self-reported rate of postpartum depressive symptoms at 19.0%. The full study used both quantitative and qualitative methods. The qualitative approach, an interpretive Heideggerian perspective, elicited the postpartum clients' perceptions of risk factors, how those perceptions affected the pregnancy experience, and how self-efficacy played a role in their perceived ability to make healthy choices. The sample was comprised of 60 pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 40. Four themes were found: (1) Feeling joy and apprehension at once, (2) Depression is something you think about (3) Rearranging your thinking, and (4) Garnering support. The women in this study believed that support was an indispensable tool in dealing with feelings of sadness and depression. Critical aspects of becoming involved in their pregnancy included changing their expectations and knowing how to detect and seek help when depressive symptoms occurred. PMID:24597584

  18. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  19. Influence of Social Context on Eating, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors of Latina Mothers and their Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Greaney, Mary L.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from…

  20. [Vestibular dysfunction in the postpartum period following gestosis].

    PubMed

    Likhachev, S A; Astapenko, A V; Osos, E L; Tarasevich, N M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the vestibular system was evaluated in 30 postpartum women following gestosis and 25 controls after uncomplicated pregnancy. Examination using the electronystagmographic technique failed to reveal spontaneous nystagmus (Ny) in the latter group whereas 13.3% and 30% women of the former group had it with the eyes open and closed respectively. Provocative functional tests significantly improved detectability of Ny. Hyperventilation was associated with Ny in 80% and 12% of the women after complicated and uneventful pregnancy respectively while orthostatic test revealed Ny in 63% and 12% of them. Active head rotation with closed eyes produced well-apparent experimental Ny in women of both groups, but it was significantly more pronounced in the former one. Post-gestosis women displayed markedly impaired reaction in vestibular-ocular reflex suppression test. It is concluded that 80% of the women with complicated pregnancy exhibited vestibular dysfunction of central origin in the postpartum period. PMID:20517270

  1. Drug Dependence in Pregnancy: Clinical Management of Mother and Child. Services Research Reports and Monograph Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnegan, Loretta P., Ed.

    This resouce manual compiles research findings concerning treatment of pregnant addicts. Major topics covered are: (1) prevalence and classification of psychotropic drug use; (2) pharmacologic effects on mother and infant; (3) clinical management during pregnancy; (4) management of labor, delivery, and the immediate post-partum period; (5)…

  2. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  3. Mother-Infant Dyadic State Behaviour: Dynamic Systems in the Context of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Shayna S.; Crnic, Keith A.; Ross, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic systems methods offer invaluable insight into the nuances of the early parent-child relationship. This prospective study aimed to highlight the characteristics of mother-infant dyadic behavior at 12?weeks post-partum using state space grid analysis (total n?=?322). We also examined whether maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and…

  4. The Effect of Early and Extended Neonatal Contact on Mother-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.

    In this study, 104 primarily indigent primiparous mothers from urban and rural areas and their healthy, full-term neonates were placed in one of four conditions during the normal postpartum lying-in period. Conditions were control, initial contact, rooming-in, and initial contact plus rooming-in. Dependent variables consisted of scores on the…

  5. Infant Care in England: Mothers' Aspirations, Experiences, Satisfaction and Caregiver Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Leach, Penelope; Sylva, Kathy; Stein, Alan; Malmberg, Lars-Erik

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates non-maternal infant care in the first year of life, examining the relationships between child care ideals, attitudinal, sociodemographic and psychological characteristics of mothers at three months postpartum and their child care experiences at 10 months. Predictors of child care use, satisfaction with non-maternal care and…

  6. Early Contact and Infant-Mother Attachment at One-Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottaviano, Christine M.; And Others

    This paper reports the effects of one hour of extra post-partum contact between mother and infant on the quality of the attachment observed when the infant was one year old. It was hypothesized that infants in the extra contact condition would be classified as securely attached while regular contact infants would be less frequently classified as…

  7. Postnatal foraging demands alter adrenocortical activity and psychosocial development.

    PubMed

    Lyons, D M; Kim, S; Schatzberg, A F; Levine, S

    1998-05-01

    Mother squirrel monkeys stop carrying infants at earlier ages in high-demand (HD) conditions where food is difficult to find relative to low-demand (LD) conditions. To characterize these transitions in psychosocial development, from 10- to 21-weeks postpartum we collected measures of behavior, adrenocortical activity, and social transactions coded for initiator (mother or infant), goal (make-contact or break-contact), and outcome (success or failure). Make-contact attempts were most often initiated by HD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and less than 50% were successful. Break-contact attempts were most often initiated by LD infants, but mothers often opposed these attempts and fewer LD than HD infant break-contact attempts were successful. Plasma levels of cortisol were significantly higher in HD than LD mothers, but differences in adrenocortical activity were less consistent in their infants. HD and LD infants also spent similar amounts of time nursing on their mothers and feeding on solid foods. By rescheduling some transitions in development (carry-->self-transport), and not others (nursing-->self-feeding), mothers may have partially protected infants from the immediate impact of an otherwise stressful foraging task. PMID:9589217

  8. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women. PMID:26694498

  9. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and infection in neonatal target cells

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nafees

    2010-01-01

    HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) occurs mainly at three stages, including prepartum, intrapartum and postpartum. Several maternal factors, including low CD4+ lymphocyte counts, high viral load, immune response, advanced disease status, smoking and abusing drugs have been implicated in an increased risk of HIV-1 MTCT. While use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) during pregnancy has significantly reduced the rate of MTCT, selective transmission of ART resistant mutants has been reported. Based on HIV-1 sequence comparison, the maternal HIV-1 minor genotypes with R5 phenotypes are predominantly transmitted to their infants and initially maintained in the infants with the same properties. Several HIV-1 structural, regulatory and accessory genes were highly conserved following MTCT. In addition, HIV-1 sequences from non-transmitting mothers are less heterogeneous compared with transmitting mothers, suggesting that a higher level of viral heterogeneity influences MTCT. Analysis of the immunologically relevant epitopes showed that variants evolved to escape the immune response that influenced HIV-1 MTCT. Several cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes were identified in various HIV-1 genes that were conserved in HIV-1 mother-infant sequences, suggesting a role in MTCT. We have shown that HIV-1 replicates more efficiently in neonatal T-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages compared with adult cells, and this differential replication is influenced at the level of HIV-1 gene expression, which was due to differential expression of host factors, including transcriptional activators, signal transducers and cytokines in neonatal than adult cells. In addition, HIV-1 integration occurs in more actively transcribed genes in neonatal compared with adult cells, which may influence HIV-1 gene expression. The increased HIV-1 gene expression and replication in neonatal target cells contribute to a higher viral load and more rapid disease progression in neonates/infants than adults

  11. A maternal and child health program to prepare and support parents in the postpartum.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, D L; Adam, V J

    1982-10-01

    The Maternal and Child Health Program Kit has been developed to prepare and support parents in the postpartum. The kit responds to four objectives: to help families to get to know their babies; develop feelings of competence; set realistic expectations for the postpartum; and to identify and use supports and resources. In developing the kit, two target groups have been identified--the primary group, the parents; the transmitter group, the educators. The kit includes question booklets at the bedside that encourage mothers to ask questions; resource cards for health professionals that facilitate consistency in information giving; information sheets to provide concise information on topics that cover detailed information or emotional areas; four slide-tape shows on breastfeeding and a coloring book for siblings. The Maternal and Child Health Program Kit is currently being evaluated. PMID:10257928

  12. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m−2 and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m−2) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  13. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m(-2) and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m(-2)) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  14. The Impact of a Volunteer Postpartum Doula Program on Breastfeeding Success: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cattelona, Georg'ann; Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J

    2015-11-01

    Bloomington Area Birth Services (BABS), centered in Bloomington, Indiana, is a community-based program that provides comprehensive education and support for new breastfeeding mothers, infants, family members, and the community by working together with local hospitals, midwives, obstetricians, pediatric offices, and social service agencies to create a seamless continuity of care for families. To help with continuity of care in the community, BABS established a volunteer doula program (birth and postpartum), allowing BABS to combine the services of a community lactation center with birth and postpartum doulas. This article describes the volunteer doula program and highlights one client's story in an effort to encourage and motivate other communities to focus their limited dollars on the development of a volunteer doula program. PMID:25900845

  15. A New Mother-Child Play Activity Program to Decrease Parenting Stress and Improve Child Cognitive Abilities: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Ai; Saito, Hitomi; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Ushida, Kazuo; Yoneyama, Susumu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Background We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4–6 years old) from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (for mothers), the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM), and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT) (for children) were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre–post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities). The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Conclusions/Significance Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265 PMID:22848340

  16. Postpartum Loss to HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among Previously Diagnosed HIV-Infected Women with a Live Birth in New York State

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in the United States has been greatly reduced, with clear benefits for the child. However, little is known about factors that predict maternal loss to HIV care in the postpartum year. This retrospective cohort study included 980 HIV-positive women, diagnosed with HIV at least one year before pregnancy, who had a live birth during 2008–2010 in New York State. Women who did not meet the following criterion in the 12 months after the delivery-related hospital discharge were considered to be lost to HIV care: two or more laboratory tests (CD4 or HIV viral load), separated by at least 90 days. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of postpartum loss to HIV care were identified with Poisson regression, solved using generalized estimating equations. Having an unsuppressed (>200 copies/mL) HIV viral load in the postpartum year was also evaluated. Overall, 24% of women were loss to HIV care during the postpartum year. Women with low participation in HIV care during preconception were more likely to be lost to HIV care during the postpartum year (aRR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.09–3.49). In contrast, having a low birth weight infant was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of loss to HIV care (aRR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.98). While 75% of women were virally suppressed at the last viral load before delivery only 44% were continuously suppressed in the postpartum year; 12% had no viral load test reported in the postpartum year and 44% had at least one unsuppressed viral load test. Lack of engagement in preconception HIV-related health care predicts postpartum loss to HIV care for HIV-positive parturient women. Many women had poor viral control during the postpartum period, increasing the risk of disease progression and infectivity. PMID:27513953

  17. Family Health Climate and Adolescents’ Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The importance of the family environment for children’s and adolescents’ health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. Results The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents’ intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. Discussion These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents’ health behavior. PMID:26606157

  18. "I can't stop worrying about everything"—experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers' experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2-3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers' mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today. PMID:25595913

  19. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families. PMID:25486931

  20. Adherence to extended postpartum antiretrovirals is associated with decreased breastmilk HIV-1 transmission: Results of the BAN study

    PubMed Central

    DAVIS, Nicole L.; MILLER, William C.; HUDGENS, Michael G.; CHASELA, Charles S.; SICHALI, Dorothy; KAYIRA, Dumbani; NELSON, Julie A. E.; STRINGER, Jeffrey S. A.; ELLINGTON, Sascha R.; KOURTIS, Athena P.; JAMIESON, Denise J; VAN DER HORST, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Objective Estimate association between postpartum antiretroviral adherence and breastmilk HIV-1 transmission Design Prospective cohort study Methods Mother-infant pairs were randomized after delivery to immediately begin receiving 28 weeks of either triple maternal antiretrovirals (zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine, nelfinavir, or lopinavir-ritonavir) or daily infant nevirapine as part of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study. Associations between postpartum antiretroviral adherence and rate of breastmilk HIV-1 transmission were estimated using Cox models. We measured adherence over four postpartum time intervals using pill count, suspension bottle weight, and maternal self-report. Adherence was categorized and lagged by one interval. Missing adherence measures were multiply imputed. Infant HIV-1 infection was determined by DNA PCR every 2-6 weeks. The primary endpoint was infant HIV-1 infection by 38 weeks of age among infants alive and uninfected at 5 weeks. Results Analyses included 1479 mother-infant pairs and 45 transmission events. Using pill count and bottle weight information, 22-40% of mother-infant pairs at any given interval were <90% adherent. Having ≥90% adherence was associated with a 52% (95% CI 3-76%) relative reduction in the rate of breastmilk HIV-1 transmission, compared with having <90% adherence when controlling for study arm, breastfeeding status, and maternal characteristics. Complete case analysis rendered similar results (n=501; relative reduction 59%, 95% CI 6-82%). Conclusion Non-adherence to extended postpartum ART regimens in ‘real world’ settings is likely to be higher than that seen in BAN. Identifying mothers with difficulty adhering to antiretrovirals, and developing effective adherence interventions, will help maximize benefits of ARV provision throughout breastfeeding. PMID:25493600

  1. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871

  2. Are Norplant, Depo-Provera good options for nursing mothers?

    PubMed

    1993-03-01

    Family planning providers do not agree on whether it is good clinical practice to administer Norplant or Depo-Provera to mothers shortly after delivery. Manufacturers of both contraceptives recommend that providers not prescribe them before 6 weeks postpartum for lactating mothers. The hormones enter the breast milk, but the amount is minimal, and no studies show the small amount of hormones to be harmful. Some providers point to this lack of data as a reason to prescribe them to mothers immediately after delivery because progestin-only pills do neat adversely affect breast feeding. Some providers even claim Norplant should be inserted no later than 3 weeks. On the other hand, other providers, like a physician from Chile, stress that the lack of studies does not mean it is safe, just that there have not been enough studies. The Chilean physician is investigating the effect of hormones on infant health and central nervous system development. A nurse midwife at the University Medical Center in Jacksonville, Florida, reports that no woman using Depo-Provera has complained of breast-feeding problems. More than 50% of postpartum women leave this hospital after receiving an injection of Depo-Provera and those who do not come back for their 3-month injection are those who did not receive proper prenatal counseling about its side effects. The most upsetting side effect is bleeding which becomes less stressful with adequate counseling. Depo-provera extends the normal postpartum bleeding by a month. A director of services at a family planning clinic in San Marcos, Texas, notes that proper counseling, both before insertion and before removal, is also the key to proper management of Norplant acceptors. Providers at this clinic insert it 6 weeks postpartum. Hispanic women in San Marcos are concerned about bleeding because their partners do not want to have sex with a bleeding partner. Another side effect concerning clients is weight gain. PMID:12318085

  3. Neurogenesis and anxiety-like behavior in male California mice during the mate's postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hyer, M M; Hunter, T J; Katakam, J; Wolz, T; Glasper, E R

    2016-03-01

    Our understanding of postpartum anxiety (PPA) in fathers is limited, despite the negative consequences of anxiety on the father and child. Offspring contact reduces PPA in mothers; however, parallel investigations in fathers has gone unaddressed. Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to anxiety regulation and is altered during the postpartum period, yet the effects of fatherhood on the production, or survival, of newborn cells in the DG, and the role of adult neurogenesis in PPA regulation, have not been examined. Using the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus), we examined the relationships among postnatal day, anxiety-like behavior and adult neurogenesis in fathers. We hypothesized that attenuated anxiety-like behavior and enhanced adult neurogenesis would be observed when father-offspring contact was increased. We observed a reduction in anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze, but only at PND 16, a time of peak pup retrieval. Fatherhood reduced 1-week survival of newborn cells; however, surviving cells were maintained until 2 weeks postpartum. In contrast, non-fathers experienced a significant reduction in the survival of newborn cells between 1 and 2 weeks postpartum. Fatherhood also increased the numbers of newborn cells that expressed a neuronal phenotype. Collectively, these findings suggest that offspring interaction contributes to reductions in anxiety-like behavior and the maintenance of newborn neurons in the DG of fathers. These data contribute to our knowledge of the postpartum affective state in fathers, findings that may contribute to improved health of both the father and offspring. PMID:26750200

  4. Web-Based Intervention for Postpartum Depression: Formative Research and Design of the MomMoodBooster Program

    PubMed Central

    Milgrom, Jeannette; Seeley, John R; Stuart, Scott; Schembri, Charlene; Tyler, Milagra S; Ericksen, Jennifer; Lester, Whitney; Gemmill, Alan W; Lewinsohn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a significant public health problem affecting approximately 13% of women. There is strong evidence supporting Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for successful psychosocial treatment. This treatment model combines cognitive and behavioral strategies to address pessimism, attributions for failure, low self-esteem, low engagement in pleasant activities, social withdrawal, anxiety, and low social support. Encouraging results have been reported for using Web-based CBT interventions for mental health domains, including the treatment of panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and complicated grief and depression. To date, however, Web-based interventions have not been used and evaluated specifically for the treatment of postpartum depression. Objective We describe the formative work that contributed to the development of our Web-based intervention for helping to ameliorate symptoms of postpartum depression, and the design and key components of the program. Methods A total of 17 focus group participants and 22 usability testers, who shared key characteristics with the participants of our planned feasibility study, took part. The proposed structure and ingredients of the program and mock-ups of selected webpages were presented to focus group participants. At various points, participants were asked a series of thought questions designed to elicit opinions and set the occasion for group discussion. At the end of the session, participants were asked to describe their overall reaction to the proposed features of the program emphasizing candid opinions about what they did not like and features they thought were missing and should be added. Usability testers were asked to interact with a series of seven different Web-based interactions planned for the program while receiving minimal direction. Each tester was asked to describe her thoughts using a think-aloud technique. They were then asked to consider all that they had learned about

  5. Relationship Satisfaction Among Mothers of Children With Congenital Heart Defects: A Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Øivind; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Landolt, Markus A.; Eskedal, Leif T.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of partner relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with different severity of congenital heart defects (CHD) compared with mothers in the cohort. Methods Mothers of children with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 182) and a cohort of mothers of children without CHD (n = 46,782) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed at 5 time points from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. A 5-item version of the Relationship Satisfaction scale was used, and relevant covariates were explored. Results The trajectories of relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with varying CHD severity did not differ from the trajectories in the cohort. All women in the cohort experienced decreasing relationship satisfaction from 18 months after delivery up to 36 months after delivery. Conclusions Having a child with CHD, regardless of severity, does not appear to exacerbate the decline in relationship satisfaction. PMID:23792348

  6. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult. PMID:25311827

  7. Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice.

    PubMed

    Earls, Marian F

    2010-11-01

    Every year, more than 400,000 infants are born to mothers who are depressed, which makes perinatal depression the most underdiagnosed obstetric complication in America. Postpartum depression leads to increased costs of medical care, inappropriate medical care, child abuse and neglect, discontinuation of breastfeeding, and family dysfunction and adversely affects early brain development. Pediatric practices, as medical homes, can establish a system to implement postpartum depression screening and to identify and use community resources for the treatment and referral of the depressed mother and support for the mother-child (dyad) relationship. This system would have a positive effect on the health and well-being of the infant and family. State chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics, working with state Early Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) and maternal and child health programs, can increase awareness of the need for perinatal depression screening in the obstetric and pediatric periodicity of care schedules and ensure payment. Pediatricians must advocate for workforce development for professionals who care for very young children and for promotion of evidence-based interventions focused on healthy attachment and parent-child relationships. PMID:20974776

  8. Small families mean better health for mothers and kids.

    PubMed

    Mugumya, E

    1994-01-01

    The practice of family planning (FP) has been used since time immemorial to solve community, individual, and familial problems. There are Biblical references to incest being used to ensure the conception of children and to coitus interruptus being used to prevent conception. Pastoralists used cessation of breastfeeding of male calves to promote the conception and birth of more desirable female calves. The condom has ancient precursors made of animal intestines, and the IUD has a prototype in the stone commonly inserted in the uterus of a camel during long journeys to prevent conception. The issues of effectiveness, safety, and convenience that led to these ancient activities also inform the development and use of modern contraception. FP incorporates fertility control, both treatment for infertility and contraception; abortion is regarded as an indicator of a need for FP, not as part of FP. FP is justified on the grounds of human rights, because it allows an individual to choose whether or not to have a child; on the grounds of health, because maternal age and parity affect the health of the mother and child; on socioeconomic grounds, because overpopulation creates drains on already decreasing resources and because birth to unwed mothers creates difficulties for the children and for society; and on the grounds of improving the status of women because unwanted pregnancy causes women to abandon educational and employment opportunities. The maternal and child health and FP services in Uganda provide immunization, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, young child clinic services, school health education, and FP services. PMID:12318959

  9. Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096

  10. Validation of the Breastfeeding Experience Scale in a Sample of Iranian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ2/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers. PMID:24963304

  11. Effect of early mother-baby close contact over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Kamala; Sharma, Anna; Dhungel, Sachin

    2005-12-01

    This is a prospective study involving ninety-two lactating mother- infant pairs in the first six months of birth. They were followed-up up to six months for various perinatal factors determining the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact had a powerful influence (P<0.001) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to 4-6 months and was found to be more significant than early initiation of breastfeeding (P<0.05). Mode of delivery did not have any significant effect (P<0.5) over the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Thus health care centers can easily adopt a policy to allow few minutes of early postpartum mother-baby skin-to-skin contact and early initiation of breastfeeding to all vaginal as well as caesarian deliveries to promote breastfeeding. PMID:16519083

  12. Mentalization-based psychotherapy interventions with mothers-to-be.

    PubMed

    Markin, Rayna D

    2013-09-01

    In recent years, the theory of mentalization has been applied to a number of clinically relevant areas including psychotherapy for patients with borderline personality disorder, therapy with adolescents and children, treatment of self-harm in young people, parent-infant early interventions, and even community outreach (see Midgley & Vrouvam, 2012. Minding the child: Mentalizing interventions with children, young people, and their families. London and New York: Routledge). Extending on this body of work, the present article applies the theory of mentalization to psychotherapies that aim to help first time expecting mothers psychologically adjust to and prepare for motherhood. Theory and research suggest that pregnancy represents an intermediate space in which, under ideal circumstances, the woman comes to represent herself as a mother, her unborn child as a separate and intentional being, and her emotional bond or attachment to the fetus. However, the expecting mother's own conflictual experiences being mothered are likely to influence her ability to mentalize her pregnancy, setting the stage for problems in the mother-infant dyad postpartum. This article explores how mentalizing techniques may be used in psychotherapy to help mothers-to-be to mentalize their emerging identity as a mother, their unborn child, and their developing relationship to the fetus. PMID:24000852

  13. Correlates of impaired mother-infant bonding in a partial hospital program for perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Battle, Cynthia L; Howard, Margaret; Davis, Thamara

    2014-10-01

    Maternal psychopathology is a risk factor for impaired mother-infant bonding, but not all women with this illness experience impaired bonding. This study investigated correlates of mother-infant bonding among 180 postpartum women treated in a psychiatric partial hospitalization program. Women completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and mother-infant bonding, and a retrospective chart review assessed demographic characteristics, clinician-rated diagnoses, and obstetric factors. Symptoms of depression, self-reported suicidality, demographic characteristics, and mode of delivery were significantly associated with impaired bonding. PMID:24643421

  14. Fathers' and Mothers' Involvements in Sibling Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghout Austin, Ann M.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Measures fathers' and mothers' linguistic involvement in the development of communication between young siblings--infants and toddlers. In a laboratory setting, 39 families, each with a mother, a father and two children, were videotaped in semistructured activities. Results suggest that fathers very actively direct sibling interactions, especially…

  15. Optimistic outlook regarding maternity protects against depressive symptoms postpartum.

    PubMed

    Robakis, Thalia K; Williams, Katherine E; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L

    2015-04-01

    The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however, the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through 3 months postpartum. We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated with depressive symptoms, a

  16. Stressful Events During Pregnancy and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Hafsatou; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard J.; Fox, Matthew P.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the influence of perinatal stressors on the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and help-seeking for PDS using surveillance data can inform service provision and improve health outcomes. Methods: We used Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MA-PRAMS) 2007–2010 data to evaluate associations between selected perinatal stressors and PDS and with subsequent help-seeking behaviors. We categorized 12 stressors into 4 groups: partner, traumatic, financial, and emotional. We defined PDS as reporting “always” or “often” to any depressive symptoms on PRAMS Phase 5, or to a composite score ≥10 on PRAMS Phase 6 depression questions, compared with women reporting “sometimes,” “rarely” or “never” to all depressive symptoms. The median response time to MA-PRAMS survey was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 2.9–4.0 months). We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using modified Poisson regression models, controlling for socioeconomic status indicators, pregnancy intention and prior mental health visits. Results: Among 5,395 participants, 58% reported ≥1 stressor (partner=26%, traumatic=16%, financial=29% and emotional=30%). Reporting of ≥1 stressor was associated with increased prevalence of PDS (PR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98). The strongest association was observed for partner stress (PR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.51–2.38). Thirty-eight percent of mothers with PDS sought help. Mothers with partner-related stressors were less likely to seek help, compared with mothers with other grouped stressors. Conclusions: Women who reported perinatal common stressors—particularly partner-related stressors—had an increased prevalence of PDS. These data suggest that women should be routinely screened during pregnancy for a range of stressors and encouraged to seek help for PDS. PMID:25751609

  17. Optimistic Outlook Regarding Maternity Protects Against Depressive Symptoms Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Thalia K.; Williams, Katherine E.; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Methods 98 pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through three months postpartum. Results We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. Conclusions We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated

  18. Postpartum and neonatal nursing care during the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Zapata, Lauren B; Ruch-Ross, Holly S; Williams, Jennifer L; Ruhl, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We describe select influenza infection control policies and practices related to postpartum and newborn care during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. In an online survey of obstetric and neonatal nurses, significantly more nurses indicated a written hospital policy supporting each of the practices during versus before the pandemic. The two practices least often implemented were temporary separation of healthy newborns from ill mothers (37.7 percent) and testing newborns for influenza virus infection if signs of influenza were observed (31.4 percent). Presence of written hospital policies increased implementation of practices. Findings may be useful to guide planning for future pandemics or other public health emergencies. PMID:23957794

  19. The Neurobiological Impact of Postpartum Maternal Depression: Prevention and Intervention Approaches.

    PubMed

    Drury, Stacy S; Scaramella, Laura; Zeanah, Charles H

    2016-04-01

    The lasting negative impact of postpartum depression (PPD) on offspring is well established. PPD seems to have an impact on neurobiological pathways linked to socioemotional regulation, cognitive and executive function, and physiologic stress response systems. This review focus on examining the current state of research defining the effect of universal, selected, and indicated interventions for PPD on infant neurodevelopment. Given the established lasting, and potentially intergenerational, negative implications of maternal depression, enhanced efforts targeting increased identification and early intervention approaches for PPD that have an impact on health outcomes in both infants and mothers represent a critical public health concern. PMID:26980123

  20. Neuroendocrinology of childbirth and mother-child attachment: the basis of an etiopathogenic model of perinatal neurobiological disorders.

    PubMed

    Olza-Fernández, Ibone; Marín Gabriel, Miguel Angel; Gil-Sanchez, Alfonso; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Arevalo, Maria Angeles

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the neuroendocrine mechanisms in the mother and the newborn that are involved in the generation and consolidation of mother-child attachment. The role that different hormones and neurotransmitters play on the regulation of these mechanisms during parturition, the immediate postpartum period and lactation is discussed. Interferences in the initiation of mother-child attachment may have potential long-term effects for the behavior and affection of the newborn. Therefore, the possible consequences of alterations in the physiological neuroendocrine mechanisms of attachment, caused by elective Cesarean section, intrapartum hormonal manipulations, preterm delivery, mother-infant postpartum separation and bottle-feeding instead of breastfeeding are also discussed. PMID:24704390

  1. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues. PMID:3367072

  2. Mother-baby friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1996-01-01

    In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center. PMID:12347466

  3. An exploratory factor analysis of the Parenting strategies for Eating and physical Activity Scale (PEAS) for use in Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight.

    PubMed

    Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; Posada, Alexandria; Wiesner, Margit; Olvera, Norma

    2015-12-01

    Existing measures of feeding and physical activity parenting strategies have not been validated for use among Hispanic mothers of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the Parenting strategies for Eating and Activity Scale (PEAS) among 134 Hispanic mothers (Mage=38.81, SD±6.34) of adolescent and preadolescent daughters with overweight. Results from this exploratory study revealed that a three-factor structure (Limit Setting, Monitoring, and Discipline) and a 13-item revised PEAS measure might be better suited for use with this population. The revised Limit Setting, Monitoring, Discipline, and total subscales had good reliability (α=0.89, α=0.88, α=0.90, and α=0.87, respectively) and the subscale inter-item correlations were strong. To assess the concurrent validity, the revised PEAS subscales were correlated with both subscales of the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat and Increase Fiber (Parent Report) in a subset of the sample (n=78). The Monitoring and Discipline subscales were found to be correlated with the Behavioral Strategies to Reduce Fat (r=.36 and r=.27, p<.05, respectively) and Increase Fiber (r=.40 and r=.35, p<.01, respectively) subscales. However, the revised PEAS Limit Setting subscale was not correlated with either Reduce Fat or Increase Fiber strategy. Taken together, these results indicated some degree of concurrent validity. Results from this study should be cross-validated using confirmatory factor analysis approaches. PMID:26519927

  4. Postpartum IUCD: Rediscovering a Languishing Innovation.

    PubMed

    Balsarkar, Geetha Dharmesh; Nayak, Arun

    2015-07-01

    The National Family Planning Programme of India, since its inception in 1951, has been able to successfully achieve significant reductions in maternal mortality and fertility. Over the past decade, the need for contraception has changed dramatically in India. Couples no longer desire sterilization, but prefer modern reversible long-term methods of contraception. The ideal time to discuss contraception is in the antenatal period when there is a good rapport between the doctor and the patient. The window period when the patient is admitted in the hospital during delivery can be used effectively to offer postpartum contraception. It has been found that the highest chance of unwanted pregnancy is in the first year after delivery, when women do not report to the doctor if this window period is missed. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices are ideal for a country like India and it can be used to cover the unmet need of contraception if inserted immediately after delivery. There are two types of insertion: post placental, within 10 min of delivery of placenta and postpartum, within 48 h of delivery. Although there is a greater chance of expulsion in the postpartum insertions, it can be significantly reduced with proper training and user experience. Postpartum IUCD should be routinely offered to all patients delivering in institutions to provide complete care to a parturient and to achieve safe motherhood. PMID:26243985

  5. Oral contraceptives in the immediate postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Hume, A L; Hijab, J C

    1991-04-01

    Although there is a critical need for effective contraception in the immediate postpartum period for women who are not breastfeeding, this need must be balanced against the inherent risks. The most effective form of contraceptive protection--oral contraceptives (OCs)--can present an increased risk of thromboembolism in the period after delivery. The thrombotic changes associated with pregnancy, and the statistics and vascular damage following a delivery, can combine to create greater potential for thromboembolism after delivery than during pregnancy. Reported here is the case of a 21-year-old woman who, 4 weeks postpartum, developed pain and swelling in the right lower calf and mottled discoloration extending from the proximal thigh to the toes. A diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis was made and heparin was administered. In the hospital, the patient experienced pleuritic chest pain and diaphoresis. A ventilation-perfusion scan indicated a pulmonary embolism. 1 week after delivery, the patient had initiated use of Triphasil. Although this woman had other risk factors (obesity, light cigarette smoking, and a sedentary life-style), OC use in the immediate postpartum period may have been the final factor precipitating the thromboembolic event. It is recommended that OC use should be delayed until at least 2 weeks postpartum in women without other risk factors for thromboembolism and until 4-6 weeks postpartum in those with such factors. PMID:2010744

  6. Antecedents and consequences of caregiving structure on young mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Anna; Lewis, Jessica; Maximovich, Alexey; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the multigenerational caregiving structure of infants born to young women, the prenatal predictors of caregiving structure, and the effects of caregiving structure on the health of young mothers and their infants 6 months postpartum. The sample consisted of 784 young mothers involved in a longitudinal study in two U.S. cities. Women were classified into eight caregiving structure groups based on the mother's report of herself as a caregiver and her selection of the baby's father and/or grandparents as caregivers. ANCOVA analyses identified predictors and 6 month postpartum outcomes of caregiving structure. Planned comparisons explored the relationships among caregiving structure groups. A majority of women reported caregiving structures other than herself and the father as caregivers (87.1%). Grandparents were indicated as caregivers by most women (62.2%). Postpartum caregiving groups differed on prenatal social support, self-esteem, attachment avoidance and anxiety, relationship status, and living with the baby's father. While mother's self esteem significantly predicted father involvement, there were no differences on predictors between when the mother and father were caregivers, versus when the mother and grandparents were caregivers. Differences existed between groups on mother and child outcomes, including parenting stress, distress, and child dysfunction. Women reported significantly less parenting stress, child dysfunction, and negative child emotions when she and the father were caregivers, versus when she and grandparents were caregivers. The family system and the intergenerational dynamics within a multigenerational caregiving structure are critical to the health and well-being of both mothers and their children. PMID:20680671

  7. [The Efficacy of Rooming-In in the Context the Physical and Mental Health of New Mothers].

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shuo-Shin; Yang, Mei-Sang; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-06-01

    The Breastfeeding-Friendly Policy promotes successful breastfeeding by encouraging postpartum rooming-in and other practices that have been shown to increase breastfeeding success. Puerperium is a key transition period in a woman's life during which she faces physical changes as well as changes in roles and tasks as she transitions into motherhood. During this transition period, postpartum women typically follow the rooming-in and breastfeeding practices that are recommended by the hospital. However, without suitable assistance, the physical and mental problems that often accompany childbirth may impact the postpartum health of the mother. This article reflects on the potential health problems that are encountered by postpartum women who adopt 24-hour rooming-in practices from the perspective of their health rights and proposes suggestions for improving these practices as a reference for related government and healthcare workers. PMID:27250966

  8. Contraceptive practices and fertility among Southeast Asian, black, and white mothers attending a maternal infant care program.

    PubMed

    Swenson, I; Erickson, D; Enlinger, E; Swaney, S; Carlson, G

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to determine if there were differences in selected fertility characteristics including parity, pregnancy spacing, age at 1st pregnancy, age of menarche, breastfeeding postpartum, and contraceptive practices among white, black, Hmong, and other Southeast Asian mothers attending a maternal infant care program in Minneapolis, Minnesota, during 1980-1982. White and black mothers were younger than the Hmong and other Asian mothers. The lowest mean age of 1st pregnancy was among blacks. Ages of 1st pregnancy were similar for whites, Hmong, and other Asians, although the mean age of menarche was approximately 2 years later for Hmong and other Southeast Asian mothers compared to the white and black mothers. Based on self reports at the 1st postpartum visit 1 month after delivery, 39% of the whites and 25% of the blacks were breastfeeding. In comparison 8.7% of the Hmong and 17% of the other southeast Asian mothers were breastfeeding. Maternal aged age at 1st pregnancy were significant predictors of parity for whites, blacks, Hmong, and other Southeast Asians. Ever-use of contraception was significant predictor of parity only for Hmong. The highest proportion of ever-users of contraception was among the white mothers (80%) followed by the blacks (69.3%) and other Asian mothers (34.85). Hmong mothers had the lowest proportion having used contraception (17.1%). PMID:3686070

  9. "It's Not All About My Baby's Sleep": A Qualitative Study of Factors Influencing Low-Income African American Mothers' Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Danielle N; Mindell, Jodi A; Reyes, Naomi R; Hart, Chantelle N; Herring, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Low-income African American mothers are at particular risk for poor postpartum sleep. This study sought to understand facilitators and barriers that exist to getting a good night's sleep among these high-risk mothers. Semistructured interviews with 18 low-income African Americans (3-6 months postpartum) were conducted. Most mothers described their own sleep quality to be poor, despite the fact that their babies' sleep improved substantially from the newborn period. Mothers kept themselves awake due to their own internal worry and anxiety, along with external factors that were largely independent of babies' sleep, including work and school commitments and the home environment. For the few mothers with good sleep quality, time management and family support were strong facilitators. Findings lay the groundwork for sleep improvement interventions. PMID:26488388

  10. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  11. Kawasaki disease in a postpartum patient.

    PubMed Central

    Fason, Janet T.; Fry, Yvonne W.; Smith, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, is a multisystem disease. It usually affects children below the age of five, but it occasionally affects adults. There are less than 50 English-reported adult cases in the literature, and only five reported cases of Kawasaki disease and pregnancy, as of 2003. The cases associated with pregnancy involved patients who had a history of Kawasaki disease during childhood and addressed how the complications of the illness (i.e,. coronary artery aneurysms) were managed during pregnancy and delivery. There are no reported cases of Kawasaki disease in postpartum patients. This article presents a case of Kawasaki disease in a 21-year-old, four-week postpartum patient who initially responded to intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. This paper will review the diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease as well as the multiple outside variables that impact the management of adult postpartum patients with Kawasaki disease. PMID:15586654

  12. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting as postpartum headache.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Mariam; Salahuddin, Ayesha; Mathew, Namitha R; Nandhagopal, Ramachandiran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum headache is described as headache and neck or shoulder pain during the first 6 weeks after delivery. Common causes of headache in the puerperium are migraine headache and tension headache; other causes include pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-dural puncture headache, cortical vein thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain tumor, cerebral ischemia, meningitis, and so forth. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare cause of postpartum headache. It is usually associated with papilledema, headache, and elevated intracranial pressure without any focal neurologic abnormality in an otherwise healthy person. It is more commonly seen in obese women of reproductive age group, but rare during pregnancy and postpartum. We present a case of IIH who presented to us 18 days after cesarean section with severe headache and was successfully managed. PMID:26818168

  13. Case Report: Postpartum Cough and Dyspnea.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Eileen M

    2016-01-01

    Peripartum/postpartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a rare condition associated with pregnancy in which there is left ventricular (LV) dysfunction resulting in symptoms of heart failure (). This occurs in previously healthy women and is seen in the last month of pregnancy or during the first 5 months postpartum (). Incidence ranges from 1 in 1,300 to 1 in 15,000 pregnancies in the United States (). A case study is presented of a patient with severe impairment of LV function seen in the emergency department (ED). The ED is a common location for initial presentation; therefore, the ED provider should be cognizant of key features of PPCM. The differential diagnosis and medical management of PPCM are discussed. Emergency department management should focus on 3 key elements: an increase in inotropy and a reduction in preload and afterload. Differences between postpartum and peripartum states are outlined. PMID:27482991

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity and Correlates in Postpartum Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Koudike, Umashree; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of psychological disorders occur in women in the postpartum period apart from the traditional blues, postpartum depression and psychosis. These include obsession of infanticide, PTSD, morbid preoccupations regarding child birth and disorders of mother-infant relationships, though they are under emphasized. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study conducted in the tertiary maternity care hospital. A total of 152 study subjects were interviewed on MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) within 2 weeks after delivery. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was seen in 67 (44%) of the study subjects. About 26% of subjects had Depressive disorder NOS. Obsessive harm to the child, Panic disorder, Social phobia were the other disorders identified. There were no cases of Mania, Bipolar disorder, psychosis, post traumatic stress disorder or substance use disorder diagnosed across the sample. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score averaged 87.8. Statistically significant association was seen to be present between psychiatric illness and number of previous still births and dead children before this delivery (P = 0.045). Conclusions: The study reveals that psychiatric co-morbidity is very common in the postpartum period and can be detected as early as first week after delivery. Social phobia identified as a common association is a new finding and needs further replication. It needs a larger sample with a prospective assessment to generalize the findings of our study. PMID:27570341

  15. Using clinical decision support as a means of implementing a universal postpartum depression screening program.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Holly; Nentin, Farida; Silverman, Michael E

    2016-06-01

    A major barrier to the diagnosis of postpartum depression (PPD) includes symptom detection. The lack of awareness and understanding of PPD among new mothers, the variability in clinical presentation, and the various diagnostic strategies can increase this further. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of adding clinical decision support (CDS) to the electronic health record (EHR) as a means of implementing a universal standardized PPD screening program within a large, at high risk, population. All women returning to the Mount Sinai Hospital OB/GYN Ambulatory Practice for postpartum care between 2010 and 2013 were presented with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in response to a CDS "hard stop" built into the EHR. Of the 2102 women who presented for postpartum care, 2092 women (99.5 %) were screened for PPD in response to a CDS hard stop module. Screens were missing on ten records (0.5 %) secondary to refusal, language barrier, or lack of clarity in the EHR. Technology is becoming increasingly important in addressing the challenges faced by health care providers. While the identification of PPD has become the recent focus of public health concerns secondary to the significant social burden, numerous barriers to screening still exist within the clinical setting. The utility of adding CDS in the form of a hard stop, requiring clinicians to enter a standardized PPD mood assessment score to the patient EHR, offers a sufficient way to address a primary barrier to PPD symptom identification at the practitioner level. PMID:26669601

  16. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied. PMID:24164818

  17. Associations Between Prenatal Coparenting Behavior and Observed Coparenting Behavior at 9 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Altenburger, Lauren E.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Lang, Sarah N.; Bower, Daniel J.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.

    2015-01-01

    Coparenting, or the ways partners relate to each other in their roles as parents, is important to child and family functioning. However, it remains unclear whether coparenting begins at or prior to a child’s birth. This study tested whether expectant parents’ behavior in the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play procedure (PLTP), an assessment designed in Switzerland for examining prebirth coparenting behavior, forecasted postnatal observations of coparenting behavior in a sample of first-time parents in the United States. 182 dual-earner couples expecting their first child participated in the PLTP during the third trimester of pregnancy, and at 9 months postpartum, observations of coparenting behavior were obtained from mother-father-infant play interactions. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated significant continuity between expectant parents’ prenatal coparenting behavior and their observed postpartum coparenting behavior one year later. In particular, couples who engaged in higher quality prenatal coparenting behavior demonstrated more supportive and less undermining coparenting behavior at 9 months postpartum, even after controlling for observed prenatal couple behavior and self-reported couple relationship functioning. Thus, this study demonstrated the validity and utility of the PLTP as a window into the development of coparenting, and supported the notion that the coparenting relationship develops prior to the child’s birth and is already distinct from the couple relationship. PMID:25000135

  18. The postpartum management of women with gestational diabetes using a continuum model for health care.

    PubMed

    Castorino, Kristin; Jovanovič, Lois

    2013-12-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus require a continuum of care before, during, and after pregnancy for optimal management of hyperglycemia. Postpartum education and lifestyle modification should begin during pregnancy, and should continue during the postpartum period. Women should receive education on the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and should be encouraged to breastfeed, engage in regular physical activity, and select a highly effective contraceptive method in preparation for subsequent pregnancy. Postpartum women with gestational diabetes mellitus should be empowered to take ownership of their own health, including knowledge of health indicators such as weight, waist circumference hemoglobin A1C levels, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels. PMID:24036480

  19. Case Report: Postpartum hemorrhage associated with Dengue with warning signs in a term pregnancy and delivery

    PubMed Central

    Phi Hung, Le; Diem Nghi, Tran; Hoang Anh, Nguyen; Van Hieu, Mai; Thien Luan, Nguyen; Phuoc Long, Nguyen; Trong Thach, Than

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dengue infection during peripartum period, although rare in endemic regions, has challenged clinicians regarding its management, especially if a parturient woman experiences postpartum hemorrhage due to a classical risk factor of maternal bleeding. Case: A full-term pregnant Vietnamese woman was diagnosed with polyhydramnios and Dengue with warning signs (DWS). She was administered platelet transfusion prior to delivery and then gave birth to a healthy newborn. After active management of the third stage of labor, the patient suffered a postpartum hemorrhage which was caused by uterine atony and accompanied with thrombocytopenia. Therefore, we decided to administer uterotonic drugs and additionally transfuse platelets. Conclusion: We describe a case of postpartum hemorrhage caused by uterine atony and coinciding with Dengue infection during delivery period, which is a rare clinical entity. With timely detection and management, the patient was finally discharged without complications. PMID:26925224

  20. The association between diabetes and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Peri, Marisa R; Gossett, Dana R

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to estimate if diabetic women were more likely to experience postpartum depression symptoms than women without diabetes. This was a prospective cohort of women who received prenatal care at a hospital-affiliated prenatal clinic serving low-income women in Chicago, Illinois. For the primary analysis, women were divided by diabetes status (i.e., no diabetes or either gestational diabetes or pre-pregnancy diabetes). Postpartum depression was defined as a positive screen on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Rates of postpartum depression were compared, stratified by diabetic status. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for potential confounders. A planned secondary analysis compared women with pre-pregnancy diabetes to those without pre-pre-pregnancy diabetes. Three hundred and five women consented to participate of whom 100 (30.5 %) had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 (10.8 %) had pre-pregnancy diabetes. Compared to women without any diabetes, women with diabetes (either GDM or pre-pregnancy diabetes) had similar rates of antenatal [(OR) 0.69, 95 % CI) 0.44-1.08] and postpartum depression (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.33-1.66). However, postpartum depression was more common among women with pre-pregnancy diabetes (34.8 %) compared to non-diabetic women (16.7 %) (OR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-6.78). This association persisted even after adjusting for potential confounders (aOR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-9.79). Gestational diabetes was not associated with increased rates of depression. However, women with pre-pregnancy diabetes are more likely to experience postpartum depression compared to women without pre-pregnancy diabetes, even after adjusting for related comorbidities. PMID:26184833

  1. Obstetric, Sociodemographic, and Psychosocial Problems of Postpartum Adolescents of Huambo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Hamilton Dos Prazeres; Tavares, Suelma Beatriz Marques Prata; Capingana, Daniel Pires; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira; da Silva, Luiz Guilherme Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to establish a profile of teenage pregnancy (<20 years) at a hospital in Huambo, Angola. Subjects were categorized into two age groups, 10-16 and 17-19 years. We interviewed 381 mothers in the postpartum maternity ward of the Central Hospital of Huambo. Statistical analysis then followed two stages, a descriptive analysis of the study population and analysis through a bivariate 2 × 2 table, using a chi-squared test to evaluate the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions with a significance level of 5%. Comparing the two groups revealed a more frequent occurrence of problems among mothers under 17 years of age, including a higher frequency of involvement with unemployed parents, more often not living with parents, and fewer prenatal consultations. PMID:27226740

  2. Obstetric, Sociodemographic, and Psychosocial Problems of Postpartum Adolescents of Huambo, Angola

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Hamilton dos Prazeres; Tavares, Suelma Beatriz Marques Prata; Capingana, Daniel Pires; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira; da Silva, Luiz Guilherme Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to establish a profile of teenage pregnancy (<20 years) at a hospital in Huambo, Angola. Subjects were categorized into two age groups, 10–16 and 17–19 years. We interviewed 381 mothers in the postpartum maternity ward of the Central Hospital of Huambo. Statistical analysis then followed two stages, a descriptive analysis of the study population and analysis through a bivariate 2 × 2 table, using a chi-squared test to evaluate the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions with a significance level of 5%. Comparing the two groups revealed a more frequent occurrence of problems among mothers under 17 years of age, including a higher frequency of involvement with unemployed parents, more often not living with parents, and fewer prenatal consultations. PMID:27226740

  3. “I Was a Full Time Proper Smoker”: A Qualitative Exploration of Smoking in the Home after Childbirth among Women Who Relapse Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Tim; Lewis, Sarah; Cooper, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Background Many women stop smoking during pregnancy but relapse shortly afterwards, potentially putting their infants at risk of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Women who were able to stop during pregnancy may be a motivated group, receptive to making behaviour changes postpartum to protect their infant from SHS exposure. Understanding more about their experiences of relapse, and if this influences home smoking behaviours and children’s exposure to SHS in the home may help to inform intervention development to prevent infant SHS exposure. Methods Guided by interpretative phenomenological methodology we conducted and analysed nine semi-structured interviews with women who quit smoking during pregnancy, but relapsed ≤3 months postpartum. Findings Central to mothers’ accounts of their smoking behaviours during pregnancy and postpartum was their desire to be a ‘responsible mother’. Mothers described using strategies to protect their infant from SHS exposure, and held strong negative attitudes towards other smoking parents. After relapsing, mothers appeared to reposition themselves as ‘social’ or ‘occasional’ smokers rather than ‘regular’ smokers. Conclusions Findings suggest that interventions to prevent/reduce infants' home SHS exposure should build on mothers' intentions to be responsible parents. As mothers who relapse principally view themselves as ‘social’ or ‘occasional’ smokers, interventions that are highlighted as relevant for women with these types of smoking patterns may be more likely to be responded to, and, ultimately, be effective. PMID:27308829

  4. Contemporary impingements on mothering.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2009-03-01

    Mothering in contemporary Western society needs to be understood in the context of a rapidly changing social context. Increased geographic mobility, improved access to child-related information through the media, and scientific and technological progress have contributed to significant shifts in cultural views on mothering. Several contextual impingements on mothering, including changing family structure, economic pressures, decreased social support, cultural ideals of the perfect mother, and increased awareness of interpersonal and global trauma impact mothers' internal worlds. These societal changes often reinforce mothers' fear of losing their children and an idealization of intensive mothering, and evoke challenges in reorganizing their sense of personal identity. Implications for psychoanalytic theory and practice, and specifically the need to integrate individual and contextual forces related to experiences of mothers will be explored. PMID:19295618

  5. Hispanic Mothers' Perceptions of Self-Determination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shogren, Karrie

    2012-01-01

    Limited research has explored the perceptions of self-determination held by diverse families. In this study, seven mothers of transition-age youth with severe disabilities who were Hispanic were interviewed. Each mother was actively engaged in advocacy related to diverse children with disabilities in their local schools and communities. Mothers…

  6. The Effect of Baby Books on Mothers' Reading Beliefs and Reading Practices.

    PubMed

    Auger, Anamarie; Reich, Stephanie M; Penner, Emily K

    2014-07-01

    The impact of a baby book intervention on promoting positive reading beliefs and increasing reading frequency for low-income, new mothers (n = 167) was examined. The Baby Books Project randomly assigned low-income, first-time mothers to one of three study conditions, receiving educational books, non-educational books, or no books, during pregnancy and over the first year of parenthood. Home-based data collection occurred through pregnancy until 18 months post-partum. Mothers who received free baby books had higher beliefs about the importance of reading, the value of having resources to support reading, and the importance of verbal participation during reading. The results showed that providing any type of baby books to mothers positively influenced maternal reading beliefs, but did not increase infant-mother reading practices. Maternal reading beliefs across all three groups were significantly associated with self-reported reading frequency when children were at least 12 months of age. PMID:25264394

  7. Recognition of the efficacy of relaxation program on sleep quality of mothers with premature infants

    PubMed Central

    Karbandi, Soheila; Hosseini, Seyedeh Maryam; Masoudi, Reza; Hosseini, Seyedeh Asieh; Sadeghi, Farshad; Moghaddam, Maryam Hesari

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: The postpartum period is a critical then effects on the structure of the family. Most women in the postpartum period may place at risk of undesirable experiences such as changes in sleep patterns. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the efficacy of the relaxation program on sleep quality of mothers with premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study is a clinical trial that 60 mothers with premature infants. The mothers in the intervention group were trained for muscle progressive relaxation by Jacobson method within 24–72 h after delivery. Research tool was the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, which was completed by the mother at the beginning of the study, end of the first and the second 4-week. Data were analyzed using parametric statistics tests by SPSS software version 16. Results: No significant difference was observed between two groups in terms of underlying characteristics (P < 0.05). The independent t-test at the beginning of the study showed that the comparison of the mean scores of mothers’ sleep quality has no significant difference between two groups (P = 0.43). But, 1-month after the intervention (P = 0.024) and 2 months after the intervention (P > 0.001), mean sleep quality score in the intervention group was significantly less than the control group. Conclusion: Relaxation training can improve mothers’ sleep quality at postpartum period. PMID:27462639

  8. Prevalence of postpartum depression in Nuuk, Greenland – a cross-sectional study using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

    PubMed Central

    Motzfeldt, Iben; Andreasen, Sabina; Pedersen, Amalia Lynge; Pedersen, Michael Lynge

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of postnatal depression in Nuuk, Greenland. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods The primary health care system in Nuuk initiated a project aiming to screen new mothers for depression using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). EPDS has a range on a scale from 0 to 30. All mothers residing in Nuuk who had given birth in 2011 were included in the study group. The screening was performed by health care visitors approximately 3 months following birth. Mothers who scored 13 points or above were defined as having possible postpartum depression (PPD). These mothers were then referred to a physician. A score at or less than 8 was defined as normal, whereas an intermediate score from 9 to 12 indicated a need for an extra visit. Results During 2011, a total of 217 mothers gave birth in Nuuk. Of them, 80.2% (174) were screened for PPD using EPDS. Fifteen mothers scored 13 points or above corresponding to a prevalence of possible PPD at 8.6% (15/174). Seventy-nine percentage scored less than 9 points (137/174), whereas 15% (22/174) scored from 9 to 12 points. Conclusion PPD seems to be a common problem in Nuuk, Greenland. EPDS seems to be a valuable tool in identifying women with PPD and vulnerable mothers with extra needs for support in a Greenlandic context. Continual routine screening is recommended. PMID:23984294

  9. Don't worry, be (moderately) happy: Mothers' anxiety and positivity during pregnancy independently predict lower mother-infant synchrony.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ginger A; Quigley, Kelsey M; Voegtline, Kristin M; DiPietro, Janet A

    2016-02-01

    Maternal positivity and mother-infant synchrony have been linked, independently, to beneficial infant outcomes; however, research that has examined relations between the two has found that higher positivity is associated with lower synchrony. Methodological issues may inform this counter-intuitive association and clinical theory supports its validity. This study examined the theory that heightened positivity associated with anxiety is a way of avoiding negative emotion and contributes to lower synchrony because it interferes with appropriate responding to infant cues. We examined mothers' (N=75) self-reported anxiety and verbal expression of positivity during pregnancy in relation to mother-infant synchrony at 6 months post-partum. Verbal positivity was assessed using linguistic analysis of interviews about pregnancy experiences. Mother and infant affect and gaze were coded during interaction and synchrony was computed as the correlation between mother and infant behaviors. Higher verbal positivity and anxiety during pregnancy independently predicted lower mother-infant synchrony, suggesting distinct pathways to the same degree of synchrony with potentially different consequences for infant development. PMID:26705933

  10. Amygdala Response to Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  11. Breastfeeding Practices During the First Month Postpartum and Associated Factors: Impact on Breastfeeding Survival

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Wambach, Karen Ann; Mortazavi, Saideh Sadat; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The introduction of fluids to infants during the first days postpartum, which may be harmful to infant health, is a common practice in Iran. Objectives: This study aimed to find the prevalence of breastfeeding practices using monthly dietary recall and factors associated with introduction of fluids during the first month of life and determine the effects of these supplementations on breastfeeding survival. Patients and Methods: This longitudinal study carried out in Shahroud, Iran from May 2011 to October 2013. Using convenient sampling strategy, 358 mothers in their third trimester of pregnancy were enrolled in the study and completed the questionnaires. Then the data regarding the introduction of fluids during first month postpartum was collected. We followed women monthly up to breastfeeding cessation. Kaplan-Meier and time-to-event methods were used to assess breastfeeding survival. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify the variables that determined breastfeeding practices at the first month postpartum. The Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of variables on breastfeeding survival. Results: The prevalence of exclusive, predominant, and partial breastfeeding during the first month postpartum were 33.1%, 58.2%, and 8.6%, respectively. Predominant breastfeeding was associated with the lack of breastfeeding experience (OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.02 - 3.66]). Partial breastfeeding was associated with the maternal age ≥ 30 y (OR = 5.96; CI [1.66 - 21.37]), family income higher than the mean (OR = 3.39; 95% CI [1.17 - 9.81]), and breastfeeding difficulties score higher than mean (OR = 3.09; 95% CI [1.10 - 8.71]). The Cox regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding practices at the first month was associated with an increased risk for breastfeeding discontinuation. The hazard ratio of breastfeeding discontinuation for predominant and partial breastfeeding groups were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.51; P = 0.49) and 2

  12. Mother surrogate and nutritional status of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Choudhry, M

    1993-01-01

    The study was conducted on 200 preschool children to find out the effect of mother surrogate on the nutritional status. The nutritional status of children was found to be affected by the time devoted by mother on child care activities, working status of mother and type of family independently and jointly. The children cared by mother had better nutritional status than those children who were cared by servants and any other family member in the absence of mother. It shows that no one can substitute the care provided by the mother. PMID:8253493

  13. Grandmothers' familism values, adolescent mothers' parenting efficacy, and children's well-being.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  14. Psychosocial aspects of Taiwanese postpartum depression phenomenological approach: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Chen, C H; Wu, H Y; Tseng, Y F; Chou, F H; Wang, S Y

    1999-01-01

    To understand how Taiwanese women experience postpartum depression, a phenomenological study was conducted. A purposive sample of six mothers participated in the present study. All the subjects' interviews were tape recorded and then transcribed. The transcription of each subject's oral description of postpartum depression experience was analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological methodology. Three categories, with ten themes, were derived from the analysis. The first category is unbalanced role-enacting. It includes these four themes: (1) the discrepancies in the husband-wife relationship; (2) the shadowy position of a daughter-in-law; (3) the incompetence as a mother; and (4) the dilemma of a woman's identity. The second category is fragmented time-space representation. The themes included are: (5) cultural bondage; (6) loss of ideals; and (7) reinterpretation of family history. The third category is the uneasy self. It contains the themes of: (8) psychological disability; (9) sense of self-dissatisfaction; and (10) the notion or behavior of destruction. PMID:10063795

  15. Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated in many Southeast Asian cultures, and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet and traditional medicine. Little is known of the Kry, a small ethnic group whose language was recently described, concerning its traditions and use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare. This research aims to study those traditions and identify medicinal plant use. Methods Data were collected in the 3 different Kry villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 49 different plant species are used in women's healthcare. Plant use is culturally different from the neighboring Brou and Saek ethnic groups. Menstruation, delivery and postpartum recovery take place in separate, purpose-built, huts and a complex system of spatial restrictions is observed. Conclusions Traditions surrounding childbirth are diverse and have been strictly observed, but are undergoing a shift towards those from neighboring ethnic groups, the Brou and Saek. Medicinal plant use to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care, is more common than previously reported (49 species instead of 14). The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as traditional delivery, spatial taboos, confinement and dietary restrictions, and their potential in modern healthcare. PMID:21569234

  16. Women's perceptions of antenatal, delivery, and postpartum services in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Gladys Reuben; Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara Dennis; Mbekenga, Columba Kokusiima; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; Goicolea, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal health care provision remains a major challenge in developing countries. There is agreement that the provision of quality clinical services is essential if high rates of maternal death are to be reduced. However, despite efforts to improve access to these services, a high number of women in Tanzania do not access them. The aim of this study is to explore women's views about the maternal health services (pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period) that they received at health facilities in order to identify gaps in service provision that may lead to low-quality maternal care and increased risks associated with maternal morbidity and mortality in rural Tanzania. Design We gathered qualitative data from 15 focus group discussions with women attending a health facility after child birth and transcribed it verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used for analysis. Results ‘Three categories emerged that reflected women's perceptions of maternal health care services: “mothers perceive that maternal health services are beneficial,” “barriers to accessing maternal health services” such as availability and use of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) and the long distances between some villages, and “ambivalence regarding the quality of maternal health services” reflecting that women had both positive and negative perceptions in relation to quality of health care services offered’. Conclusions Mothers perceived that maternal health care services are beneficial during pregnancy and delivery, but their awareness of postpartum complications and the role of medical services during that stage were poor. The study revealed an ambivalence regarding the perceived quality of health care services offered, partly due to shortages of material resources. Barriers to accessing maternal health care services, such as the cost of transport and the use of TBAs, were also shown. These findings call for improvement on the services provided. Improvements

  17. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods Expectant AI women (mean age = 18.15; N = 47) were randomized (1:1) to either the Living in Harmony program (LIH, an 8 lesson cognitive-behaviorally based program) or an Educational–Support program (ES, an 8 lesson education program). Both interventions were delivered by AI paraprofessionals. Adolescents were evaluated during their pregnancy at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies–Depression scale (CES-D). Additional measures of depression included the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD; assessed via computerized diagnostic interview) and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Secondary outcomes included changes in mothers' global functioning and social support. Results At all post intervention assessments, mothers in both groups showed similar reductions in depressive symptoms and similar rates of MDD (0 and 6% in LIH and ES respectively). Both groups of participants also showed similar improvements in global functioning. No changes in either group were found on the measure of social support. Conclusions Findings suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs. Replication with a larger sample, a usual care control condition, blinded evaluators, and a longer follow-up is needed. PMID:22701296

  18. The Importance of Religiosity/Spirituality in the Sexuality of Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, José Manuel de Matos; Fabião, Joana Alice da Silva Amaro de Oliveira; García, Ana Maria Carrobles; Abellán, Minerva Velasco; Rodrigues, Manuel Alves

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we decided to study the representation of the Spanish pregnant and postpartum women and the importance of religiosity/spirituality and the social context for them. We analyzed the influence of religion on the woman within her social context. Objective: to understand how pregnant and postpartum women experience their sexuality according to their religious beliefs and the opinion of others from a socially learned perspective. Method: qualitative study using ethnography. This study aims at understanding reality from the women’s point of view, acknowledging that the points of view are constructed through interaction with others, through cultural and historical norms that influence the lives of individuals. Results: The findings indicate a difference in the religious beliefs and sexual behaviors of these women, which is more marked in urban than rural areas. Mothers have an influence on their daughters, conditioning their behavior. Conclusion We conclude that the process of change is underway. However, some paradoxes still persist concerning the sexual roles to be adopted, as well as some contradictions between sexual behaviors and the statements on religion. Within the scope of our study, we can confirm that pregnant and postpartum women are more or less pressured by the religious and social norms conveyed by their mothers, mainly in rural settings. From an external point of view, to be sexually free goes against the maternal and social expectations. However, the internal representation, marked by religion, that has been experienced over the years does not change the narratives of sexual experiences, assigning women to traditional role. This role brings conflict more or less assumed by women. PMID:27309528

  19. Wound healing-like immune program facilitates postpartum mammary gland involution and tumor progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinson, Holly A.; Jindal, Sonali; Durand-Rougely, Clarissa; Borges, Virginia F.; Schedin, Pepper

    2014-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years postpartum have poor survival rates. The process of postpartum mammary gland involution, whereby the lactating gland remodels to its pre-pregnant state, promotes breast cancer progression in xenograft models. Macrophage influx occurs during mammary gland involution, implicating immune modulation in the promotion of postpartum breast cancer. Herein, we characterize the postpartum murine mammary gland and find an orchestrated influx of immune cells similar to that which occurs during wound healing. Further, the normal involuting gland may be in an immunosuppressed state as discerned by the transient presence of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and IL-10+ macrophages with T cell suppressive function. To determine the influence of the postpartum immune microenvironment on mammary tumor promotion, we developed an immune-competent