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Sample records for active mothers postpartum

  1. Early Interactions between Infants and Their Postpartum Depressed Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Tiffany

    The present study investigated whether infants of mothers who were depressed postpartum would behave like infants of non-depressed mothers who simulated depression. A total of 24 mothers and their 3-month-old infants were videotaped during face-to-face interactions. All mothers were given the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait…

  2. PREPP: postpartum depression prevention through the mother-infant dyad.

    PubMed

    Werner, Elizabeth A; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Lee, Seonjoo; Feng, Tianshu; Jiang, Nan; Desai, Preeya; Monk, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Most interventions to prevent postpartum depression (PPD) focus on the mother rather than the mother-infant dyad. As strong relationships between infant sleep and cry behavior and maternal postpartum mood have been demonstrated by previous research, interventions targeted at the dyad may reduce symptoms of PPD. The goal of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of Practical Resources for Effective Postpartum Parenting (PREPP). PREPP is a new PPD prevention protocol that aims to treat women at risk for PPD by promoting maternally mediated behavioral changes in their infants, while also including mother-focused skills. Results of this randomized control trial (RCT) (n = 54) indicate that this novel, brief intervention was well tolerated and effective in reducing maternal symptoms of anxiety and depression, particularly at 6 weeks postpartum. Additionally, this study found that infants of mothers enrolled in PREPP had fewer bouts of fussing and crying at 6 weeks postpartum than those infants whose mothers were in the Enhanced TAU group. These preliminary results indicate that PREPP has the potential to reduce the incidence of PPD in women at risk and to directly impact the developing mother-child relationship, the mother's view of her child, and child outcomes.

  3. The dialectic in becoming a mother: experiencing a postpartum phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Sethi, S

    1995-01-01

    In this study of the phenomenon of the postpartum period grounded theory methodology was used to investigate the experiences of first-time mothers during the first three months following their deliveries. The sample consisted of 12 primipara women and 3 multipara women. The data were generated by using unstructured interviews and field notes. Each woman was interviewed twice, the first time between 2 and 3 weeks postpartum, and the second time between 10 and 12 weeks postpartum. The final data for analysis consisted of: data generated through interviews, field notes, and the narratives of four mothers found in the non-fiction literature. Constant comparative analysis resulted in the generation of four categories and corresponding subcategories. These were: (1) Giving of Self; (2) Redefining Self; (3) Redefining Relationships; and (4) Redefining Professional Goals. The categories were not mutually exclusive. All the categories converged to provide support for the core variable 'Dialectic in Becoming a Mother'. The dialectic perspective demonstrated that, in becoming mothers, the women experienced transition, contradictions, tensions and transformations. A theoretical model was developed to show relationships among these major concepts. The findings of this study will be useful in effecting change in the provision of care to postpartum women and their families.

  4. Postpartum Mental State of Mothers of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brantmüller, Éva; Gyúró, Mónika; Galgán, Kitti; Pakai, Annamária

    2016-01-01

    Twin birth is a relevant risk factor for postnatal depression (PND). The primary objective of our study is to reveal the prevalence of suspected cases of depression and to identify some background factors among mothers of twins. We applied convenience sampling method within a retrospective, quantitative study among mothers given birth to twins for…

  5. The other mother: a narrative analysis of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers.

    PubMed

    McKelvey, Michele M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a metastory of nonbiological lesbian mothers' postpartum experiences utilizing Riessman's structural approach to thematic analysis. Ten nonbirth lesbian mothers were interviewed. Each shared a unique story of her first year of motherhood. Themes were individually analyzed within each story. The metastory of the postpartum experiences of nonbirth lesbian mothers revealed 6 themes including the following: At the mercy of health care providers, Nursing is the major difference between us, Defined by who I am not, Fighting for every piece of motherhood: The world can take them away, What's in a name?, and Epilogue: The new normal.

  6. Prenatal predictors of postpartum depression and postpartum depressive symptoms in Mexican mothers: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lara, María Asunción; Navarrete, Laura; Nieto, Lourdes

    2016-10-01

    Prospective studies on the predictors of postpartum depression (PPD) in Latin America are scarce, which is a matter of importance, since the significance of PPD risk factors may vary according to the level of development of a country, the types of measurement and the time periods assessed. This study identifies the prenatal predictors for PPD (diagnostic interview) and postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDS) (self-report scale) in Mexican mothers at 6 weeks and 6 months postpartum. Two hundred and ten women were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-I), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and various risk factor scales. Univariate logistic regressions showed that social support, marital satisfaction, life events, a history of psychopathology, anxiety symptoms, depressive symptoms, the traditional female role, previous miscarriages/termination of pregnancy and unplanned/unwanted pregnancy were significant predictors for both PPD and PPDS at both assessment times in the postpartum. Education, age, marital status, income, occupation, parity, C-section and resilience were significant for only one of the measurements and/or at just one assessment time. General findings replicate a high- and low-income country observed psychosocial risk profile and confirm a sociodemographic and obstetric profile of vulnerability that is more prevalent in resource-constrained countries. PPD constitutes a high burden for new mothers, particularly for those living in low-middle-income countries who face social disadvantages (such as low educational attainment and income).

  7. Maternal self-efficacy, postpartum depression, and their relationship with functional status in Iranian mothers.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Fahimeh; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan

    2017-02-07

    Readiness to care for family, infant, and self are important during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to determine the relationships of self-efficacy and postpartum depressive symptoms with functional status in randomly sampled Iranian mothers (n = 437). The study was cross-sectional and conducted in 2015. The mean (SD) of the total functional status score was 2.3 (0.2) out of a possible score of 1-4. The maximum and minimum scores in infant care were 4.0 and 2.2 and, in social and community activity, levels were 3.5 and 1.0, respectively. Significant inverse correlations were observed between postpartum depressive symptoms and total scores for functional status, self-care, and levels of social and community activity. A significant positive relationship was observed between self-efficacy and functional status and all of its subscales. In the multivariate linear regression model, postpartum depressive symptoms, nulliparity, and low income were significantly negatively related with functional status; maternal self-efficacy, having a spouse aged 26-35 years, high school diploma, lower educational level, and the spouse's job (shopkeeper) were significantly positively correlated with functional status. Early diagnosis and treatment of depressive symptoms and promotion of maternal self-efficacy may improve overall functional status of mothers in the postpartum.

  8. Pattern and determinants of breast feeding and contraceptive practices among mothers within six months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kunwar, Shipra; Faridi, Mohammad M A; Singh, Shivani; Zahra, Fatima; Alizaidi, Zeashan

    2010-08-01

    The present study aims to determine the patterns of breast feeding, return of menstruation, and contraceptive practices in the first six months postpartum in women visiting the outpatient department at a teaching hospital in Lucknow, Northern India. Mothers of infants between six to eight months of age visiting the outpatient department of Era's Lucknow Medical College were interviewed regarding breast feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity, and contraceptive practices within the first six months postpartum using a structured questionnaire. Of all women interviewed only 75.8% practiced exclusive breast feeding with the mean duration of exclusive breast feeding (EBF) being 3.5 months with only 41% practicing EBF for six months, 28% were sexually active within six weeks postpartum, 64.5% women had a return of menstruation within six months. Contraception was practiced by only 54.4% women with a barrier method such as a condom, being the most common. Better education was the only factor significantly affecting EBF (p < 0.004) and use of contraception (p < 0.027). There were a total of 10 pregnancies within six months postpartum. In conclusion, optimal breast feeding practices are poor in this part of the country and lactational amenorrhoea cannot be effectively and reliably used as a method of contraception. Therefore, optimal breast feeding practices, timely introduction of contraception and institutional delivery need to be encouraged.

  9. Social support during the postpartum period: mothers' views on needs, expectations, and mobilization of support.

    PubMed

    Negron, Rennie; Martin, Anika; Almog, Meital; Balbierz, Amy; Howell, Elizabeth A

    2013-05-01

    Research has indicated that social support is a major buffer of postpartum depression. Yet little is known concerning women's perceptions on social support during the postpartum period. The objective of this study was to explore postpartum women's views and experiences with social support following childbirth. Four focus groups were conducted with an ethnically diverse sample of women (n = 33) in a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. Participants had completed participation in a postpartum depression randomized trial and were 6-12 months postpartum. Data transcripts were reviewed and analyzed for themes. The main themes identified in the focus group discussions were mother's major needs and challenges postpartum, social support expectations and providers of support, how mothers mobilize support, and barriers to mobilizing support. Women across all groups identified receipt of instrumental support as essential to their physical and emotional recovery. Support from partners and families was expected and many women believed this support should be provided without asking. Racial/ethnic differences existed in the way women from different groups mobilized support from their support networks. Instrumental support plays a significant role in meeting women's basic needs during the postpartum period. In addition, women's expectations surrounding support can have an impact on their ability to mobilize support among their social networks. The results of this study suggest that identifying support needs and expectations of new mothers is important for mothers' recovery after childbirth. Future postpartum depression prevention efforts should integrate a strong focus on social support.

  10. Early School Outcomes for Children of Postpartum Depressed Mothers: Comparison with a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten-Alvarez, Laura E.; Hosman, Clemens M. H.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; van Doesum, Karin T. M.; Smeekens, Sanny; Hoefnagels, Cees

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies of the long-term effects of maternal postpartum depression (PPD) on child development have mostly focused on a limited set of outcomes, and have often not controlled for risk factors associated with maternal depression. The present study compared children of postpartum depressed mothers (n = 29) with children from a community…

  11. [A study of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) on 859 mothers: detection of mothers at risk for postpartum depression].

    PubMed

    Teissedre, F; Chabrol, H

    2004-01-01

    The postpartum is a high-risk period for the occurrence of anxious and depressive episodes. Indeed, during the first few days after delivery, mothers can present postpartum blues symptomatology: fatigue, anxiety, disordered sleeping and a changing mood. Postpartum depression is characterised by a changing mood, anxiety, irritability, depression, panic and obsessional phenomena. It occurs in approximately 10 to 20% mothers. The exact prevalence depending on the criteria used for detection. The first symptoms usually appear between the fourth and sixth week postpartum. However, postpartum depression can start from the moment of birth, or may result from depression evolving continuously since pregnancy. We can add that the intensity of postpartum blues is a risk factor that can perturb maternal development. So it is important for health professionals to dispose of predictive tools. This study is a validation of the French version of the EPDS. The aims of the study were to evaluate the postpartum depression predictive value at 3 days postpartum and to determine a cut-off score for major depression. Subjects participating in this study were met in 3 obstetrical clinics in, or in the vicinity of, Toulouse. Mothers with psychological problems, under treatment for psychological problems or mothers whose babies present serious health problems were excluded from the study. The EPDS was presented to 859 mothers (mean age=30.3; SD=4.5) met at one of the clinics at 3 days postpartum (period 1). They had an EPDS mean score of 6.4 (SD=4.6); 258 (30%) mothers had an EPDS score 9. 82.6% of these mothers experienced a natural childbirth and 17.3% a caesarean section; 51.5% gave birth to their first child, 36.2% to their second child and 12.3% to their third or more. All subjects were given a second EPDS with written instructions to complete the scale during the period 4 to 6 weeks postpartum and return it for analysis (period 2). Between the 4 to 6 weeks postpartum period, 722

  12. Perceptions and Satisfaction with Father Involvement and Adolescent Mothers' Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jay; Lee, Yookyong

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the associations between adolescent mothers' postpartum depressive symptoms and their perceptions of amount of father care giving and satisfaction with father involvement with the baby. The sample included 100 adolescent mothers (ages 13-19; mainly African-American and Latina) whose partners were recruited for a randomized…

  13. Pathways to Violence in the Children of Mothers Who Were Depressed Postpartum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Angold, Adrian; Harold, Gordon T.; Sharp, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The impact of postnatal depression on a child's risk for violent behavior was evaluated in an urban British community sample (N=122 families). Mothers were interviewed during pregnancy, at 3 months postpartum, and when the child was 1, 4, and 11 years of age. Mothers, teachers, and children reported on violent symptoms at age 11. Structural…

  14. Postpartum Health Services Requested by Mothers with Newborns Receiving Intensive Care.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, Sarah; McClain, Erin; Stuebe, Alison; Menard, M Kathryn

    2016-11-01

    Objectives Our pilot study aimed to build knowledge of the postpartum health needs of mothers with infants in a newborn intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Between May 2008 and December 2009, a Certified Nurse Midwife was available during workday hours to provide health care services to mothers visiting their infants in the NICU at a large tertiary care center. Results A total of 424 health service encounters were recorded. Maternal requests for services covered a wide variety of needs, with primary care being the most common. Key health concerns included blood pressure monitoring, colds, coughs, sore throats, insomnia and migraines. Mothers also expressed a need for mental health assessment and support, obstetric care, treatment for sexually transmitted infections, tobacco cessation, breastfeeding assistance, postpartum visits, and provision of contraception. Conclusions Our study suggests that mothers with babies in the NICU have a host of health needs. We also found that women were receptive to receiving health services in a critical care pediatric setting. Intensive care nurseries could feasibly partner with in-patient mother-baby units and/or on-site obstetric clinics to increase access to health care for the mothers of the high-risk newborns in their units. Modifications should be made within health care systems that serve high-risk infants to better address the many needs of the mother/baby dyad in the postpartum period.

  15. Mothers who are securely attached in pregnancy show more attuned infant mirroring 7 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sohye; Fonagy, Peter; Allen, Jon; Martinez, Sheila; Iyengar, Udita; Strathearn, Lane

    2014-11-01

    This study contrasted two forms of mother-infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., "direct mirroring") and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's own experience (i.e., "intention mirroring"). Fifty mothers completed the Adult Attachment Interview (Dynamic Maturational Model) during the third trimester of pregnancy. Mothers returned with their infants 7 months postpartum and completed a modified still-face procedure. While direct mirroring did not distinguish between secure and insecure/dismissing mothers, secure mothers were observed to engage in intention mirroring more than twice as frequently as did insecure/dismissing mothers. Infants of the two mother groups also demonstrated differences, with infants of secure mothers directing their attention toward their mothers at a higher frequency than did infants of insecure/dismissing mothers. The findings underscore marked and ostensive verbalization as a distinguishing feature of secure mothers' well-attuned, affect-mirroring communication with their infants.

  16. Postpartum Health Information Seeking Using Mobile Phones: Experiences of Low-Income Mothers.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Christie, Vanessa M; Prabhakar, Annu; Harris, Asia L; Siek, Katie A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives To assess low-income mothers' perceptions of their postpartum information needs; describe their information seeking behavior; explore their use of mobile technology to address those needs; and to contribute to the sparse literature on postpartum health and wellness. Methods Exploratory community-based qualitative approach. Interviewees were recruited among clients of community partners and had children aged 48 months and under. A survey assessing demographics was used to identify low-income mothers. 10 low-income mothers were recruited from survey participants to complete in-depth interviews regarding postpartum information needs, information seeking, and technology use. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded by three researchers independently. Narratives were analyzed along predetermined (etic) and emergent (emic) categories. Results Establishing breastfeeding and solving breastfeeding problems were central postpartum concerns leading to information seeking. Interviewees reported almost exclusive use of mobile phones to access the Internet. Mobile applications were widely used during pregnancy, but were not valuable postpartum. Face-to-face information from medical professionals was found to be repetitive. Online information seeking was mediated by default mobile phone search engines, and occurred over short, fragmented time periods. College graduates reported searching for authoritative knowledge sources; non-graduates preferred forums. Conclusions for Practice Low-income postpartum women rely on their smartphones to find online infant care and self-care health information. Websites replace pregnancy-related mobile applications and complement face-to-face information. Changes in searching behavior and multitasking mean information must be easily accessible and readily understood. Knowledge of page-rank systems and use of current and emergent social media will allow health-related organizations to better engage with low-income mothers online and

  17. Postpartum mothers' napping and improved cognitive growth fostering of infants: results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ronzio, Cynthia R; Huntley, Edward; Monaghan, Maureen

    2013-04-01

    Little is known about how maternal sleep disturbances in the postpartum period affect mother-infant interaction. The study was designed to assess if less maternal sleep disturbance and less fatigue were associated with more positive mother-child interaction, independent of maternal depression symptoms. Twenty-three mothers completed 1 week of actigraphy and self-report measures of fatigue and depression symptoms. To determine the quality of mother-infant interaction, mothers and infants were then observed in a structured, video-recorded teaching episode. Greater maternal napping frequency was associated with better cognitive growth fostering of the infant (r s = .44, p < .05), a subscale of the interaction assessment. Maternal napping, not the quality or quantity of nocturnal sleep, appears to be associated with improvements in mother-infant interactions.

  18. The Relationship Between Parental Stress and Postpartum Depression Among Adolescent Mothers Enrolled in a Randomized Controlled Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Maureen G.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-01-01

    Given the high co-occurrence of depression and parental stress among adolescent mothers, we evaluated the relationship between parental stress and postpartum depression among primiparous adolescent mothers. We conducted an observational analysis among a cohort of 106 adolescent mothers at 289 postpartum visits who were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression. Parental stress was measured using the Parenting Stress Index, short form. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses was administered to assess for postpartum depression; subthreshold depression was assessed using the Children's Depression Rating Scale, revised version. Generalized estimating equations were utilized to assess the relationship of parental stress on postpartum depression during the first 6 months postpartum. We present adjusted odds ratios (AOR) controlling for study arm, age, born in the United States, prior history of depression, and number of study visits. The median age was 16 years, 53 % were Latina, and 16 % reported a past history of depression. Nineteen adolescents (19 %) were diagnosed with postpartum depression and 25 % experienced high levels of parental stress through 6 months postpartum. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of parental stress were at significantly increased risk for postpartum depression [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.04–1.09); p < 0.0001]. High levels of parental stress predicted subsequent postpartum depression when assessing parental stress at visits prior to a depression diagnosis to determine whether we could establish a temporal association [AOR 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02– 1.09); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was also a risk factor for subthreshold depression [AOR 1.04 (95 % CI 1.01– 1.07); p < 0.01]. Parental stress was a significant risk factor for developing both postpartum depression as well as subthreshold depression among adolescent mothers. Interventions that target a reduction in parental stress may

  19. Postpartum Maternal Sleep, Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Self-Perceived Mother-Infant Emotional Relationship.

    PubMed

    Tikotzky, Liat

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the links between maternal sleep, maternal depressive symptoms, and mothers' perceptions of their emotional relationship with their infant in a self-recruited sample of mothers. Eighty mothers of infants 3-18 months old completed sleep diaries for 5 consecutive nights, and questionnaires assessing sleep (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), depressive symptom severity (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale [EPDS]), and perceived mother-infant relationship (Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire [PBQ] and Maternal Postnatal Attachment Questionnaire [MPAQ]). Significant correlations, controlling for depression severity, were found between more disturbed maternal sleep and more negative maternal perceptions of the mother-infant relationship. Regression analyses revealed that EPDS showed the strongest association with PBQ, whereas ISI demonstrated the strongest association with MPAQ. The present study highlights the importance of deepening and expanding our understanding of the negative implications of maternal sleep problems.

  20. Accuracy of Depression Screening Tools for Identifying Postpartum Depression Among Urban Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Chaudron, Linda H.; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Tang, Wan; Anson, Elizabeth; Talbot, Nancy L.; Wadkins, Holly I.M.; Tu, Xin; Wisner, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The goal was to describe the accuracy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II), and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS) in identifying major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MnDD) in low-income, urban mothers attending well childcare (WCC) visits during the postpartum year. Design/Methods Mothers (N=198) attending WCC visits with their infants 0 to 14 months of age completed a psychiatric diagnostic interview (standard method) and 3 screening tools. The sensitivity and specificity of each screening tool were calculated in comparison with diagnoses of MDD or MDD/MnDD. Receiver operating characteristic curves were calculated and the areas under the curves for each tool were compared to assess accuracy for the entire sample (representing the postpartum year) and sub-samples (representing early, middle and late postpartum time frames). Optimal cut-points were calculated. Results At some point between 2 weeks and 14 months postpartum, 56% of mothers met criteria for either MDD (37%) or MnDD (19%). When used as a continuous measures, all scales performed equally well (areas under the curves of ≥ 0.8). With traditional cut-points, the measures did not perform at the expected levels of sensitivity and specificity. Optimal cut-points for the BDI-II (≥14 for MDD, ≥11 for MDD/MnDD) and EPDS (≥9 for MDD, ≥7 for MDD/MnDD) were lower than currently recommended. For the PDSS, the optimal cut-point was consistent with current guidelines for MDD (≥80) but higher than recommended for MDD/MnDD (≥ 77). Conclusions Large proportions of low-income, urban mothers attending WCC visits experience MDD or MnDD during the postpartum year. The EPDS, BDI-II and PDSS have high accuracy in identifying depression but cutoff points may need to be altered to more accurately identify depression in urban, low-income mothers. PMID:20156899

  1. Cross-sectional and longitudinal validation of a 13-item fatigue scale among Japanese postpartum mothers.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Miyako; Mori, Emi; Sakajo, Akiko; Iwata, Hiroko; Maehara, Kunie; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of a 13-item fatigue scale for postpartum mothers. Japanese mothers (n = 2026) from a cohort study completed questionnaires (e.g. fatigue scale, Japanese version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, demographics) during their hospital stay after childbirth (baseline) and at 1, 2, 4 and 6 months postpartum. Initial factor analysis of baseline data revealed that the fatigue scale had three factors or subscales (physical, emotional and cognitive). Within-group analysis across each measurement time revealed the same three-factor structure with acceptable fit. Between-group analysis also showed longitudinal factorial invariance across time. The fatigue subscales had acceptable divergent and convergent validities with the depression scale. The subscale scores differed significantly based on participant background. The Japanese Fatigue Scale is a concise and informative tool for assessing aspects of fatigue in clinical settings and in the community.

  2. Analysis of Discharged First Time Mothers Recall of Information Presented in Postpartum Teaching Sessions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-31

    or breastfeeding her infant. The questionnaire includes 13 statements pertaining to the maternal postpartum period, 13 statements regarding newborn...subjects. Mean and standard deviation values were calculated for age, responses to breastfeeding statements, responses to bottle-feeding statements...section, while five (45.5%) delivered their infants vaginally. 20 21 Most of the mothers, eight (72.7%), stated that they were breastfeeding

  3. WIC Mothers' Social Environment and Postpartum Health on Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Darfour-Oduro, Sandra Asantewaa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A low breastfeeding rate has been a consistent maternal and child health problem in the United States, especially for low-income families. Understanding mothers' social environment and overall well-being is important in determining how mothers will take care of themselves and their infants during the postnatal period in relation to the breastfeeding rate among low-income mothers. In this study, we examined the effects of the social environment of mothers enrolled in a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program in eastern Illinois and their postpartum health on breastfeeding initiation (n=103) and maintaining breastfeeding for at least 3 months (n=73). Using logistic regression models, a significant positive association (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15–10.47; p=0.03) between marital status and breastfeeding initiation and a significant negative association (AOR=0.23; 95% CI, 0.06–0.88) between receiving food stamps and breastfeeding initiation were found. WIC mothers who were married were 4.1 times as likely to maintain any breastfeeding for at least 3 months than single mothers, and the association was significant (AOR=4.08; 95% CI, 1.36–12.27; p=0.01). The breastfeeding initiation rate was 77.7%, however, the mean±standard deviation age of the child when breastfeeding stopped was 2.2±1.4 months. There was a nonsignificant association between postpartum depression and breastfeeding initiation and maintaining any breastfeeding for 3 months. This study has shown that the familial environment of mothers plays a very important role in improving breastfeeding rates among WIC mothers. In addition, there is a negative relationship between using a food assistance program and breastfeeding among low-income women. PMID:25188784

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Innovative Postpartum Care Model for Mother-Baby Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Corinne; Dunn, Sandra; Pound, Catherine; Sourial, Nadia; Yasseen, Abdool S.; Millar, David; Rennicks White, Ruth; Walker, Mark; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and maternal satisfaction of a newly established integrative postpartum community-based clinic providing comprehensive support for mothers during the first month after discharge from the hospital. Our primary interests were breastfeeding rates, readmission and patient satisfaction. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Ottawa, Canada, where 472 mothers were randomized via a 1:2 ratio to either receive standard of care (n = 157) or to attend the postpartum breastfeeding clinic (n = 315). Outcome data were captured through questionnaires completed by the participants at 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were conducted to determine the effect of the intervention on exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks (primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included breastfeeding rate at 2, 4 and 24 weeks, breastfeeding self-efficacy scale, readmission rate, and satisfaction score. Results More mothers in the intervention group (n = 195, 66.1%) were exclusively breastfeeding at 12 weeks compared to mothers in the control group (n = 81, 60.5%), however no statistically significant difference was observed (OR = 1.28; 95% CI:0.84–1.95)). The rate of emergency room visits at 2 weeks for the intervention group was 11.4% compared to the standard of care group (15.2%) (OR = 0.69; 95% CI: 0.39–1.23). The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with the overall care they received for breastfeeding compared to the control group (OR = 1.96; 95% CI: 3.50–6.88)). Conclusion This new model of care did not significantly increase exclusive breastfeeding at 12 weeks. However, there were clinically meaningful improvements in the rate of postnatal problems and satisfaction that support this new service delivery model for postpartum care. A community-based multidisciplinary postpartum clinic is feasible to implement and can provide appropriate and highly satisfactory care to

  5. Maternal bonding in mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder: the crucial role of subclinical depressive symptoms and maternal avoidance behaviour.

    PubMed

    Tietz, A; Zietlow, A-L; Reck, C

    2014-10-01

    Hardly any research has examined the link between postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding. This study examined if postpartum anxiety disorder and maternal bonding are related in the postpartum period. Thereby, subclinical depressive symptoms and specific aspects of an anxious symptomatology were also taken into consideration. The German sample of N = 78 mother-infant dyads is composed of n = 30 mothers with postpartum anxiety disorders but without major or minor depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV (DSM-IV) and n = 48 healthy mothers. Subjects were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders at an average infant age of M = 4.1 months. Moreover, mothers filled out the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire-16. The Anxiety Cognitions Questionnaire, the Body Sensations Questionnaire and the Mobility Inventory were chosen to assess different aspects of anxious symptomatology. To control for concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms, we used the German Edinburgh-Postnatal-Depression Scale. Mothers with postpartum anxiety disorder reported significantly lower bonding than healthy mothers. However, in a linear regression analysis, concurrent subclinical depressive symptoms and avoidance of anxiety-related situations in company explained 27 % of the overall variance in maternal bonding. The perceived lower bonding of mothers with anxiety disorder could be due to aspects of a concurrent subclinical depressive symptomatology. This notion emphasizes the need to target even mild depressive symptoms in the treatment of postpartum anxiety disorders. The outcomes also underline that the severity of anxious symptomatology, reflected by avoidance behaviour in company, puts the mother-infant bond at risk.

  6. Estimating risk factors and causes for postpartum febrile morbidity in teenage mothers.

    PubMed

    Haeri, S; Baker, A M

    2013-02-01

    In this cohort study, our objective was to identify potentially modifiable risk factors and causes for febrile morbidity in teenage mothers. We identified all cases of febrile morbidity using the United States Joint Commission on Maternal Welfare definition in a cohort of teenage deliveries over a 4-year period at one institution. Of the 730 included teenage deliveries, 49 (7%) women suffered postpartum febrile morbidity. Higher maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI: 34.0 ± 8.6 vs 30.3 ± 6.0 kg/m(2), p = 0.0001), caesarean delivery (RR 21.3, 95% CU 8.9-54.9) and postpartum haemorrhage (RR 3.0, 95% CI 1.1-6.7) were associated with postpartum febrile morbidity. Risk factors for febrile morbidity in the teenage parturient include obesity, caesarean delivery and postpartum haemorrhage. Considering the increasing rates of teenage obesity and overall caesarean delivery rates, attention must be focused on these modifiable risk factors to avoid this complication during a tenuous time for the teenage parent.

  7. Six-Week Postpartum Maternal Self-Criticism and Dependency and 4-Month Mother-Infant Self- and Interactive Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were…

  8. Relationship between fatigue and sleepiness with general health of mothers in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Khayamim, Nafiseh; Bahadoran, Parvin; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fatigue and changes in sleep patterns are one of the impressive features in the first year after birth, which have negative effects on work, family life, and social relationships. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the relationship between fatigue and Stanford sleepiness with the general health of mothers in the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: The current research is a descriptive correlational study which was performed on 190 mothers between 2 and 24 postpartum weeks, referring to the health centers of Isfahan in 2014. All mothers meeting the inclusion criteria were selected through cluster purposive sampling. Data were collected by use of four questionnaires including profile and fertility, fatigue, Stanford sleepiness, and general health. Data were analyzed by statistical tests at a significance level of ≤0.05. Results: The results showed that 5.3%, 59.5%, and 35.3% of subjects had mild, moderate, and severe fatigue, respectively. In addition, 26.3% of women showed a public health disorder, and according to Stanford sleepiness, 20.5% of subjects had sleepiness. The statistical results indicated that there were significant relationships between fatigue (P ≤ 0.001, r = 0.52) and Stanford sleepiness (P = 0.04, r = 0.14), and mothers’ general health. Conclusions: According to prevalence of fatigue and sleepiness in the postpartum period and its relationship with maternal health, application of sleep health education and appropriate counseling during pregnancy and after delivery is recommended to prevent mothers’ mental complications in order to achieve a safe pregnancy. PMID:27563322

  9. Barriers and Facilitators of Breastfeeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-11

    allowing more rapid involution of the uterus and decreased postpartum bleeding. Amenorrhea caused by breastfeeding results in less menstrual blood loss in...BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED... BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY” beyond brief excerpts is with the permission of the copyright owner, and

  10. Barriers and Facilitators of Breasteeding for Primiparous Active Duty Military Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-05-01

    Breastfeeding increases oxytocin levels, allowing more rapid involution of the uterus and decreased postpartum bleeding. Amenorrhea caused by breastfeeding ...BARRIERS AND FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY Kristine Markley Bristow APPROVED...FACILITATORS OF BREASTFEEDING FOR PRIMIPAROUS ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY MOTHERS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Parenting stress and depressive symptoms in postpartum mothers: bidirectional or unidirectional effects?

    PubMed

    Thomason, Elizabeth; Volling, Brenda L; Flynn, Heather A; McDonough, Susan C; Marcus, Sheila M; Lopez, Juan F; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-08-01

    Despite the consistent link between parenting stress and postpartum depressive symptoms, few studies have explored the relationships longitudinally. The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional and unidirectional models of depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Uniquely, three specific domains of parenting stress were examined: parental distress, difficult child stress, and parent-child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI). One hundred and five women completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form at 3, 7, and 14 months after giving birth. Structural equation modeling revealed that total parenting stress predicted later depressive symptoms, however, there were different patterns between postpartum depressive symptoms and different types of parenting stress. A unidirectional model of parental distress predicting depressive symptoms best fit the data, with significant stability paths but non-significant cross-lagged paths. A unidirectional model of depressive symptoms predicted significant later difficult child stress. No model fit well with PCDI. Future research should continue to explore the specific nature of the associations of postpartum depression and different types of parenting stress on infant development and the infant-mother relationship.

  12. Parenting stress and depressive symptoms in postpartum mothers: Bidirectional or unidirectional effects?

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Elizabeth; Volling, Brenda L.; Flynn, Heather A.; McDonough, Susan C.; Marcus, Sheila M.; Lopez, Juan F.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the consistent link between parenting stress and postpartum depressive symptoms, few studies have explored the relationships longitudinally. The purpose of this study was to test bidirectional and unidirectional models of depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Uniquely, three specific domains of parenting stress were examined: parental distress, difficult child stress, and parent–child dysfunctional interaction (PCDI). One hundred and five women completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the Parenting Stress Index–Short Form at 3, 7, and 14 months after giving birth. Structural equation modeling revealed that total parenting stress predicted later depressive symptoms, however, there were different patterns between postpartum depressive symptoms and different types of parenting stress. A unidirectional model of parental distress predicting depressive symptoms best fit the data, with significant stability paths but non-significant cross-lagged paths. A unidirectional model of depressive symptoms predicted significant later difficult child stress. No model fit well with PCDI. Future research should continue to explore the specific nature of the associations of postpartum depression and different types of parenting stress on infant development and the infant–mother relationship. PMID:24956500

  13. Feasibility and Perception of Using Text Messages as an Adjunct Therapy for Low-Income, Minority Mothers With Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ladley, Amy S; Rhyne, Elizabeth A; Halloran, Donna R

    2015-01-01

    Background Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common medical problem among new mothers that can have a negative impact on infant health. Traditional treatments are often difficult for low-income mothers to complete, particularly given the numerous barriers families face. Objective Among low-income, primarily racial, and ethnic minority mothers with postpartum depression, our aim was to evaluate (1) the feasibility of sending supportive text messages, and (2) the perception of receiving private, supportive text messages for postpartum depression. Methods Mothers found to be at risk for postpartum depression received supportive text messages four times weekly for 6 months in addition to receiving access to traditional counseling services based within an academic pediatric office. Feasibility was evaluated along with cellular and text messaging use, access, and perception of the message protocol. Perception of the message protocol was evaluated at study completion via a Likert scale questionnaire and open-ended qualitative survey. Results In total, 4158/4790 (86.81%) text messages were successfully delivered to 54 mothers over a 6-month period at a low cost (US $777.60). Among the 96 scripted messages, 37 unique messages (38.54%) allowed for a response. Of all sent messages that allowed for responses, 7.30% (118/1616) were responded to, and 66.1% of those responses requested a call back; 46% (25/54) of mothers responded at least once to a text message. Mothers felt that messages were easily received and read (25/28, 89%) and relevant to them personally (23/28, 82%). Most shared texts with others (21/28, 75%). Conclusions Text messaging is feasible, well-accepted, and may serve as a simple, inexpensive adjunct therapy well-suited to cross socioeconomic boundaries and provide private support for at-risk mothers suffering from postpartum depression. PMID:26543910

  14. Maternal patterns of postpartum alcohol consumption by age: a longitudinal analysis of adult urban mothers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiwei; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Petras, Hanno

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate a) longitudinal patterns of maternal postpartum alcohol use as well as its variation by maternal age at child birth and b) within maternal age groups, the association between other maternal characteristics and alcohol use patterns for the purposes of informed prevention design. Study sample consists of 3397 mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study representing medium and large US urban areas. Maternal drinking and binge drinking were measured at child age 1, 3, and 5 years. We conducted separate longitudinal latent class analysis within each of the three pre-determined maternal age groups (ages 20-25, n = 1717; ages 26-35, n = 1367; ages 36+, n = 313). Results revealed different class structures for maternal age groups. While two classes (NB [non-binge]-drinkers and LL [low-level]-drinkers) were identified for mothers in each age group, a third class (binge drinkers) was separately distinguished for the two older age groups. Whereas binge drinking rates appear to remain stable over the 5 years postdelivery for mothers who gave birth in their early twenties, mothers ages 26 and older increasingly engaged in binge drinking over time, surpassing the binge drinking behavior of younger mothers. Depression significantly increases the odds of being a NB-drinker for the 20-25 age group and that of being a binge drinker for the 36+ age group, whereas smoking during pregnancy is associated with subsequent binge drinking only for mothers ages 20-25. Findings highlight the importance of distinguishing risk factors by maternal age groups for drinking while parenting a young child, to inform the design of intervention strategies tailored to mothers of particular ages.

  15. Postpartum Maternal Sleep and Mothers' Perceptions of Their Attachment Relationship with the Infant among Women with a History of Depression during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikotzky, Liat; Chambers, Andrea S.; Kent, Jamie; Gaylor, Erika; Manber, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the links between maternal sleep and mothers' perceptions of their attachment relationship with their infant among women at risk for postpartum depression by virtue of having been depressed during pregnancy. Sixty-two mothers completed sleep diaries and questionnaires at 3 and 6 months postpartum. Regression analyses,…

  16. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  17. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  18. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W.; Lee, Andy H.

    2016-01-01

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum. PMID:27735835

  19. Increased Calcium Supplementation Postpartum Is Associated with Breastfeeding among Chinese Mothers: Finding from Two Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Zhao, Yun; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-10-09

    The calcium supplementation status during the postpartum period among Chinese lactating women is still unclear. The objective of this study is to utilize data from two population-based prospective cohort studies to examine the calcium supplementation status and to identify whether breastfeeding is associated with increased calcium supplementation among Chinese mothers after child birth. Information from 1540 mothers on breastfeeding and calcium supplementation measured at discharge, 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum were extracted to evaluate the association between breastfeeding and calcium supplementation postpartum. A generalized linear mixed model was applied to each study initially to account for the inherent correlation among repeated measurements, adjusting for socio-demographic, obstetric factors and calcium supplementation during pregnancy. In addition, breastfeeding status measured at different follow-up time points was treated as a time dependent variable in the longitudinal analysis. Furthermore, the effect sizes of the two cohort studies were pooled using fixed effect model. Based on the two cohort studies, the pooled likelihood of taking calcium supplementation postpartum among breastfeeding mothers was 4.02 times (95% confidence interval (2.30, 7.03)) higher than that of their non-breastfeeding counterparts. Dietary supplementation intervention programs targeting different subgroups should be promoted in Chinese women, given currently a wide shortage of dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation postpartum.

  20. Higher Leptin but Not Human Milk Macronutrient Concentration Distinguishes Normal-Weight from Obese Mothers at 1-Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Frasquet-Darrieux, Marine; Gaud, Marie-Agnès; Christin, Patricia; Boquien, Clair-Yves; Millet, Christine; Herviou, Manon; Darmaun, Dominique; Robins, Richard J.; Ingrand, Pierre; Hankard, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exclusively breastfed infants born to obese mothers have previously been shown to gain less weight by 1-month postpartum than infants of normal-weight mothers. Our hypothesis is that human milk composition and volume may differ between obese and normal-weight mothers. Objective To compare human milk leptin, macronutrient concentration, and volume in obese and normal-weight mothers. Mother and infant characteristics were studied as secondary aims. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional observational study compared 50 obese mothers matched for age, parity, ethnic origin, and educational level with 50 normal-weight mothers. Leptin, macronutrient human milk concentration, and milk volume were determined at 1 month in exclusively breastfed infants. Mother characteristics and infant growth were recorded. Results Human milk leptin concentration was higher in obese mothers than normal-weight mothers (4.8±2.7 vs. 2.5±1.5 ng.mL-1, p<0.001). No difference was observed between obese and normal-weight mothers in protein, lipid, carbohydrate content, and volume, nor in infant weight gain. Conclusion Leptin concentration was higher in the milk of obese mothers than that of normal-weight mothers, but macronutrient concentration was not. It remains to be established whether the higher leptin content impacts on infant growth beyond the 1-month of the study period. PMID:28005966

  1. Prevention of Postpartum Depression in Low-Income Women: Development of the "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh; Diaz, Manuela A.; Urizar, Guido G., Jr.; Soto, Jose; Mendelson, Tamar; Delucchi, Kevin; Lieberman, Alicia F.

    2007-01-01

    A prenatal intervention designed to prevent the onset of major depressive episodes (MDEs) during pregnancy and postpartum was pilot tested at a public sector women's clinic. The "Mamas y Bebes"/Mothers and Babies Course is an intervention developed in Spanish and English that uses a cognitive-behavioral mood management framework, and incorporates…

  2. New mothers and postpartum depression: a narrative review of peer support intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Leger, Joni; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a serious maternal mental health issue that negatively impacts new mothers and their infants. Various interventions have been studied and one that has shown promise is social support delivered by peers. Understanding what previous studies on peer support interventions have found will contribute to the development and implementation of future peer support interventions for women with PPD. To this end, a systematic search and narrative review of studies that investigated peer support interventions for PPD was conducted. Relevant studies were identified using CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO and the Cochrane Library published between 2000 and 2010. Six studies matching inclusion criteria were reviewed. Each of the studies had specific selection criteria and some used screening tools for recruitment. There were differences regarding the criteria for volunteers. All volunteers participated in some form of training and had support from a co-ordinator. Interventions varied in terms of length and nature of support offered, frequency and mode of delivery. Volunteers reported positively on their experience, although there were some challenges in providing support. Overall findings suggest that interventions should be targeted and take into consideration the age of the mother, any cultural and linguistic differences, the mother's circumstances and her needs. All volunteers should receive training before providing support and be screened for their ability to commit their time. Although the results were mixed, they provide insights into how peer support volunteers can be an innovative part of a team approach to PPD intervention.

  3. Randomized controlled trial to prevent postpartum depression in mothers on public assistance

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnick, Caron; Tzilos, Golfo; Miller, Ivan; Seifer, Ronald; Stout, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant and common public health problem for women. Aims To examine the efficacy of an intervention based on the principles of interpersonal therapy (IPT) in reducing the risk of PPD in pregnant women. Methods Randomized controlled trial of 205 pregnant women who were 18 years old or older, on public assistance, and at risk for PPD. Participants (mean age=23; 38% Hispanic and 23% Black) were randomized to either the IPT group intervention (n=104) or the treatment as usual control (TAU) program (n=101). Results At 6 months, the overall depression rate in the intervention group (16%) was lower than the control group (31%) and the effect of the intervention was statistically significant at p<0.05. Limitations It is unknown if findings will generalize to a more heterogeneous sample of women than the current study, such as women from a range of socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, or marital status. There was a differential amount of contact between TAU and intervention conditions. Conclusions An IPT based intervention during the prenatal period has the potential to reduce cases of PPD within 6 months postpartum in at risk mothers on public assistance. PMID:26454186

  4. Postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment security at one year: The impact of co-morbid maternal personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Tharner, Anne; Steele, Howard; Cordes, Katharina; Mehlhase, Heike; Vaever, Mette Skovgaard

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies on effects of postpartum depression (PPD) on infant-mother attachment have been divergent. This may be due to not taking into account the effects of stable difficulties not specific for depression, such as maternal personality disorder (PD). Mothers (N=80) were recruited for a longitudinal study either during pregnancy (comparison group) or eight weeks postpartum (clinical group). Infants of mothers with depressive symptoms only or in combination with a PD diagnosis were compared with infants of mothers with no psychopathology. Depression and PD were assessed using self-report and clinical interviews. Infant-mother attachment was assessed when infants were 13 months using Strange Situation Procedure (SSP). Attachment (in)security was calculated as a continuous score based on the four interactive behavioral scales of the SSP, and the conventional scale for attachment disorganization was used. PPD was associated with attachment insecurity only if the mother also had a PD diagnosis. Infants of PPD mothers without co-morbid PD did not differ from infants of mothers with no psychopathology. These results suggest that co-existing PD may be crucial in understanding how PPD impacts on parenting and infant social-emotional development. Stable underlying factors may magnify or buffer effects of PPD on parenting and child outcomes.

  5. Parenting stress and postpartum depression/anxiety in mothers with personality disorders: indications for differential intervention priorities.

    PubMed

    Ramsauer, Brigitte; Mühlhan, Christine; Mueller, Jessica; Schulte-Markwort, Michael

    2016-06-01

    To date, parenting stress has rarely been examined in clinical samples of mothers with postpartum comorbid Axis-I disorders and Axis-II personality disorders (PD). Previous research has shown important links between maternal psychopathology and the development of child psychopathology. For these reasons, a clinical sample (N = 54) of mothers with various PD and comorbid depression/anxiety disorders were compared in this study. The clinical sample was divided into three groups based on PD: without PD, other PD, and borderline PD (BPD), and then matched according to depression/anxiety diagnoses and age. Parenting stress index (PSI, Abidin, 1995) scores were compared between these subsamples and to a nonclinical control group. No significant differences were found between mothers with various PD on global PSI scores. However, further examination of the PSI subscale scores revealed that PD were linked to an impaired sense of competence and positive reinforcement in relation to parenting. Compared to mothers with other PD, mothers with BPD had significantly more interpersonal issues. Compared to the nonclinical controls, clinically referred mothers had significantly higher PSI global and subscale scores, with notable PD-specific exceptions. These results illustrate the need for more differentiated treatment options for mothers with postpartum depression and/or anxiety disorders with PD to prevent later development of psychopathology in children of these mothers.

  6. School outcomes for minority-group adolescent mothers at 28 to 36 months postpartum: a longitudinal follow-up.

    PubMed

    Leadbeater, B J

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the educational status of 120 adolescent postpartum women in the US during 1987-88. Mothers were 14-19 years old at delivery. 53.1% were African American and 42.5% were Puerto Rican. All but 2 deliveries were first births. 71.7% lived with their own mothers. 64.6% came from families on welfare. The average number of years of completed schooling was 9.5. At 28-36 months postpartum the average age was 19.7 years, 52.4% lived with their mothers, 52.4% lived off their mother's public assistance, and 17.9% supported themselves. 7.9% were married. Interviews were conducted at 3-4 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and 28-36 months postpartum. 94% had completed interviews by 12 months, and 71% had completed interviews by 28-36 months. 33% of mothers had attended school or graduated through the pregnancy and the last follow-up period. 19% who were not in school at the first birth returned or graduated by 28-36 months postpartum. 12% dropped out before the pregnancy and never returned; 36% dropped out during the pregnancy and never returned. Greater risk of delayed grade placement by 28-36 months was significantly associated with age at delivery and reports of stressful life events 1 year postpartum. Mothers who were more grade-delayed reported more depressive symptoms, more repeat pregnancies, and lower work plans. At 1 year postpartum, school returners reported significantly fewer stresses and more child care support than dropouts. 41% of the mothers had a new mate. 25.7% reported a close relationship with the baby's father. About 80% reported problems with the fathers such as drugs, promiscuity, jail, death, machismo, or physical abuse. Only 39% of attenders had a repeat pregnancy compared to 68% of returners, 93% of dropouts during pregnancy, and 70% of dropouts before pregnancy. Only half of the mothers were likely to pursue educational and occupational goals.

  7. Postpartum Depression: Is It a Condition Affecting the Mother-Infant Interaction and the Development of the Child across the First Year of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueiredo, B.

    Noting that maternal depression is common during a baby's first year, this study examined the interaction of depressed and non-depressed mother-child dyads. A sample of 26 first-time mothers with postpartum depression at the third month after birth and their 3-month-old infants was compared to a sample of 25 first-time mothers with no postpartum…

  8. Postpartum Mood Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Misri, Shaila; Burgmann, Allan J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Adjusting to the role of mother, a creative and joyous change for most women, combines with simultaneous physiological and psychological changes to develop into psychiatric problems in some women. Three common syndromes during the postpartum period are postpartum blues, postpartum depression, and postpartum psychosis. Any postpartum condition should be diagnosed rapidly to prevent short- and long-term disorders. PMID:21221273

  9. A case study of a mother's intertwining experiences with incest and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Røseth, Idun; Bongaardt, Rob; Binder, Per-Einar

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression disorder (MDD) gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject "Nina," who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience.

  10. A case study of a mother's intertwining experiences with incest and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Røseth, Idun; Bongaardt, Rob; Binder, Per-Einar

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and major depression disorder (MDD) gives reason to suspect that many mothers with postpartum depression (PPD) have a history of CSA. However, few studies have investigated how CSA and PPD are related. In this case study we explore how the experience of incest intertwines with the experience of postpartum depression. We focus on participant subject “Nina,” who has experienced both. We interviewed her three times and we analysed the interviews with Giorgi's phenomenological descriptive method to arrive at a contextualised meaning structure. Nina's intruding fantasies of men who abuse her children merge with her recollections of her own incest experiences. She may succeed in forcing these fantasies out of her consciousness, but they still alter her perceptions, thoughts, and emotions. She feels overwhelmed and succumbs to sadness, while she also is drawn towards information about CSA, which in turn feeds her fantasies. The psychodynamic concepts of repetition compulsion, transference, and projection may provide some explanation of Nina's actions, thoughts, and emotions through her past experiences. With our phenomenological stance, we aim to acknowledge Nina's descriptions of her everyday life here and now. With reference to Husserl, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, and Minkowski, we show that Nina's past is not a dated memory; rather it determines the structure of her consciousness that constitutes her past as her true present and future. Incest dominates Nina's world, and her possibilities for action are restricted by this perceived world. Any suspension of action implies anguish, and she resolves this by incest-structured action that in turn feeds and colours her expectations. Thus anxiety and depression are intertwined in the structure of this experience. PMID:21760836

  11. Oxytocin increases VTA activation to infant and sexual stimuli in nulliparous and postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Rebecca; Cheng, Hu; Rupp, Heather A; Sengelaub, Dale R; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-03-01

    After giving birth, women typically experience decreased sexual desire and increased responsiveness to infant stimuli. These postpartum changes may be viewed as a trade-off in reproductive interests, which could be due to alterations in brain activity including areas associated with reward. The goal of this study was to describe the roles of oxytocin and parity on reward area activation in response to reproductive stimuli, specifically infant and sexual images. Because they have been shown to be associated with reward, the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) were targeted as areas of expected alterations in activity. Oxytocin was chosen as a potential mediator of reproductive trade-offs because of its relationship to both mother-infant interactions, including breastfeeding and bonding, and sexual responses. We predicted that postpartum women would show higher reward area activation to infant stimuli and nulliparous women would show higher activation to sexual stimuli and that oxytocin would increase activation to infant stimuli in nulliparous women. To test this, we measured VTA and NAc activation using fMRI in response to infant photos, sexual photos, and neutral photos in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Participants completed the Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales and the Brief Index of Sexual Function for Women (BISF-W), which includes a sexual desire dimension, and received either oxytocin or placebo nasal spray before viewing crying and smiling infant and sexual images in an fMRI scanner. For both groups of women, intranasal oxytocin administration increased VTA activation to both crying infant and sexual images but not to smiling infant images. We found that postpartum women showed lower SES, higher SIS, and lower sexual desire compared to nulliparous women. Across parity groups, SES scores were correlated with VTA activation and subjective arousal ratings to sexual images. In postpartum women, sexual

  12. Stability and change in levels of depression and personality: a follow-up study of postpartum depressed mothers that were hospitalized in a mother-infant unit.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick; Besser, Avi; Casalin, Sara; Kempke, Stefan; Tang, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal study investigated the role of the personality dimensions of dependency and self-criticism in the course of depressive symptoms in a sample of inpatient severely postpartum depressed mothers (n = 55). Depressive symptoms and personality were measured during hospitalization and on average 3 1/2 years later. In line with previous research, a considerable subgroup of mothers (39%) reported moderate to severe symptoms of depression at time 2. In addition, although these mothers did not exhibit more depressive episodes during follow-up period compared with mothers with a less chronic course of depression, their depressive episodes were considerably longer, and they had higher levels of severity of depression as well as of dependency and self-criticism at Time 1. Finally, self-criticism, but not dependency, assessed at Time 1, predicted both depression diagnosis and levels of depression at follow-up, supporting a vulnerability model positing that self-criticism confers vulnerability for depression over time.

  13. Influence of Cultural Beliefs on Infant Feeding, Postpartum and Childcare Practices among Chinese-American Mothers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Adele; Brann, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    As one of the fastest growing communities in the United States, Chinese-Americans receive relatively little research attention on their rates of breastfeeding versus formula feeding, and what factors influence that choice. This research aims to examine the influence of elders and cultural beliefs on postpartum, infant feeding, and childcare practices. Semi-structured interviews with 22 recently postpartum mothers who met the recruiting criteria were conducted between July 2012 and February 2013. The traditional postpartum practice, zuo yuezi, presented negative physical and emotional outcomes and maternal reporting of delay in lactation. Early introduction of solids for traditional reasons was reported. The support from husbands and elders were necessary for breastfeeding success, while some mothers had to first negotiate with elders for breastfeeding. The practice of sending infants back to China to be taken care of by extended families presented cultural implications related to grandparents' involvement in raising grandchildren. With the respect and appreciation for elders and traditions, it is likely that Chinese mothers negotiate between cultural traditions and societal expectation in the western home.

  14. Six-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency and 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies.

    PubMed

    Beebe, Beatrice; Jaffe, Joseph; Buck, Karen; Chen, Henian; Cohen, Patricia; Blatt, Sidney; Kaminer, Tammy; Feldstein, Stanley; Andrews, Howard

    2007-11-01

    Associations of 6-week postpartum maternal self-criticism and dependency with 4-month mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were investigated in 126 dyads. Infant and mother face, gaze, touch, and vocal quality were coded second by second from split-screen videotape. Self- and interactive contingencies were defined as auto- and lagged cross-correlation, respectively, using multilevel time-series models. Statistical significance was defined as p<.05. Regarding self-contingency, (a) more self-critical mothers showed primarily lowered self-contingency, whereas their infants showed both lowered and heightened, and (b) infants of more dependent mothers showed primarily lowered self-contingency, whereas findings were absent in mothers. Regarding interactive contingency, (a) more self-critical mothers showed lowered attention and emotion contingencies but heightened contingent touch coordination with infant touch, and (b) more dependent mothers and their infants showed heightened facial/vocal interactive contingencies. Thus, maternal self-criticism and dependency have different effects on mother-infant communication.

  15. Birth Preparedness and Its Association with Skilled Birth Attendance and Postpartum Checkups among Mothers in Gibe Wereda, Hadiya Zone, South Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tessema, Fasil; Hailu, Chernet

    2016-01-01

    Background. Birth preparedness program was designed to enhance skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups of women in a developing country to reduce the three delays that lead women and neonates to death and disability. However, the relationship between birth preparedness with skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups among mothers is not well studied. Therefore this study is intended to assess the association between birth preparedness and skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to April 2014. Eight out of 22 Kebeles were selected using probability proportional to size sampling method. Seven hundred and forty-five mothers were selected randomly from the sampling frame, generated from family folders obtained from health posts. Data was collected using pretested questionnaire by face-to-face interview. Data was entered into EpiData version 3.1 database and analyzed by SPSS version 16. Result. Out of 745 sampled mothers 728 (97.7%) participated in the study. One hundred and twelve (15.4%) and 128 (17.6%) mothers got skilled birth attendance and received postpartum checkups for their last child, respectively. Birth preparedness, educational status of women and their husbands, and antenatal care visits of mothers were found to be predictor of skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups. Mothers well prepared for child birth were 6.7 times more likely to attend skilled birth attendance [AOR = 6.7 (2.7–16.4)] and 3 times more likely to follow postpartum checkups [AOR = 3.0 (1.5–5.9)] than poorly prepared mothers, respectively. Travel time to reach the nearest health facility was found as predictor for postpartum checkups of mothers; mothers who travel ≤ 2 hours were three times more likely to follow postpartum checkups than mothers who travel > 2 hours (AOR (95% CI) = 3.4 (1.5–7.9)). Conclusion and Recommendation. Skilled birth attendance and postpartum checkups

  16. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n = 97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n = 53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors.

  17. Identifying Mothers of Very Preterm Infants At-risk for Postpartum Depression and Anxiety Prior to Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Wallendorf, Michael; Inder, Terrie E

    2013-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether particular demographic, maternal psychosocial, and infant factors identified mothers of very preterm infants at risk for postpartum depression or anxiety at the time of discharge from a level III urban Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Study Design A racially diverse cohort of mothers (N=73) of preterm infants (gestational age <30 weeks) completed a comprehensive questionnaire at discharge from the NICU assessing postpartum depression, anxiety, and psychosocial and demographic factors. Additionally, infants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging prior to discharge. Result Twenty percent of mothers had clinically significant levels of depression while 43% had moderate-severe anxiety. Being married (p<.01), parental role alteration (p<.01) and prolonged ventilation (p<.05) were associated with increased depressive symptoms. No psychosocial, demographic, or infant factors, including severity of brain injury, were associated with state anxiety levels. Conclusion Maternal factors, such as marital status, stress from parental role alteration, and infant factors, such as prolonged ventilation, are associated with increased depression. However, clinically significant levels of anxiety are common in mothers of very preterm infants with few identifiable risk factors. These findings support the need for universal screening within the NICU. PMID:22678144

  18. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... It's important for new mothers — and those who love them — to understand the symptoms of postpartum depression ... Once she's receiving the care she needs, support, love, and friendship are good medicine, too. Here are ...

  19. "And You're Telling Me Not to Stress?" A Grounded Theory Study of Postpartum Depression Symptoms among Low-Income Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Low-income mothers in the U.S. are more likely to experience postpartum depression (PPD) and less likely to seek treatment than their middle-class counterparts. Despite this knowledge, prior research has not provided an in-depth understanding of PPD symptoms as they are experienced by low-income mothers. Through in-depth interviews, this study…

  20. Depression and suicidality during the postpartum period after first time deliveries, active component service women and dependent spouses, U.S. Armed Forces, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Do, Tai; Hu, Zheng; Otto, Jean; Rohrbeck, Patricia

    2013-09-01

    Although suicide is a leading cause of death among new mothers during the postpartum period, there has been limited research on self-harm in the postpartum period and associated risk factors. One potential risk factor for suicidality (completed suicides, suicide attempts, and suicide ideation including thoughts of self harm) during the postpartum period is postpartum depression (PPD). In this study of women who gave birth for the first time between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011, 5,267 (9.9% of all who delivered) active component service women and 10,301 (8.2%) dependent spouses received incident PPD diagnoses during the one year postpartum period; 213 (0.4%) service women and 221 (0.2%) dependent spouses were diagnosed with incident suicidality. After adjusting for the effects of other covariates, service women with PPD had 42.2 times the odds to be diagnosed with suicidality in the postpartum period compared to service women without PPD; dependent spouses with PPD had 14.5 times the odds compared to those without PPD. The findings of this report suggest that a history of mental disorders was common among service women and dependent spouses with PPD in the postpartum period, and, in turn, PPD was a strong predictor for suicidality in the postpartum period. These results emphasize the importance of PPD screening during the postpartum period. They also suggest that additional focused screening for suicidal behavior among those already diagnosed with PPD may be warranted.

  1. Developmental Profile of Infants Born to Mothers with Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalita, Kamal Narayan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Postpartum period is associated with higher rates for depression, blues and psychosis. Anxiety is also significant. These disorders may have serious implications in the cognitive development of the infant. There is relative lack of data in this area. So we tried to estimate postpartum anxiety and depression in a group of women and…

  2. Prefrontal activity during response inhibition decreases over time in the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Bannbers, Elin; Gingnell, Malin; Engman, Jonas; Morell, Arvid; Sylvén, Sara; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Kask, Kristiina; Bäckström, Torbjörn; Wikström, Johan; Poromaa, Inger Sundström

    2013-03-15

    The postpartum period is characterized by complex hormonal changes, but human imaging studies in the postpartum period have thus far predominantly focused on the neural correlates of maternal behavior or postpartum depression, whereas longitudinal studies on neural correlates of cognitive function across the postpartum period in healthy women are lacking. The aim of this study was to longitudinally examine response inhibition, as a measure of executive function, during the postpartum period and its neural correlates in healthy postpartum women and non-postpartum controls. Thirteen healthy postpartum women underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a Go/NoGo task. The first assessment was made within 48 h of delivery, and the second at 4-7 weeks postpartum. In addition, 13 healthy women examined twice during the menstrual cycle were included as non-postpartum controls. In postpartum women region of interest analyses revealed task-related decreased activations in the right inferior frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and bilateral precentral gyri at the late postpartum assessment. Generally, postpartum women displayed lower activity during response inhibition in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and precentral gyri compared to non-postpartum controls. No differences in performance on the Go/NoGo task were found between time-points or between groups. In conclusion, this study has discovered that brain activity in prefrontal areas during a response inhibition task decreases throughout the course of the first postpartum weeks and is lower than in non-postpartum controls. Further studies on the normal adaptive brain activity changes that occur during the postpartum period are warranted.

  3. Barriers to access to treatment for mothers with postpartum depression in primary health care centers: a predictive model1

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Pablo; Vöhringer, Paul A.; Rojas, Graciela

    2016-01-01

    Objective to develop a predictive model to evaluate the factors that modify the access to treatment for Postpartum Depression (PPD). Methods prospective study with mothers who participated in the monitoring of child health in primary care centers. For the initial assessment and during 3 months, it was considered: sociodemographic data, gyneco-obstetric data, data on the services provided, depressive symptoms according to the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) and quality of life according to the Short Form-36 Health Status Questionnaire (SF-36). The diagnosis of depression was made based on MINI. Mothers diagnosed with PPD in the initial evaluation, were followed-up. Results a statistical model was constructed to determine the factors that prevented access to treatment, which consisted of: item 2 of EPDS (OR 0.43, 95%CI: 0.20-0.93) and item 5 (OR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.21-1.09), and previous history of depression treatment (OR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.61-1.06). Area under the ROC curve for the model=0.79; p-value for the Hosmer-Lemershow=0.73. Conclusion it was elaborated a simple, well standardized and accurate profile, which advises that nurses should pay attention to those mothers diagnosed with PPD, presenting low/no anhedonia (item 2 of EPDS), scarce/no panic/fear (item 5 of EPDS), and no history of depression, as it is likely that these women do not initiate treatment. PMID:27027674

  4. Factors associated with early postpartum maternity blues and depression tendency among Japanese mothers with full-term healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuki; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Maternity blues and postpartum depression are common mental health problems during the early postpartum period. However, few studies have examined the factors associated with maternity blues and postpartum depression in healthy mothers with spontaneous births of healthy full-term infants. This study aimed to determine the demographic and obstetric factors, various feelings during pregnancy, and psychological factors by using the Maternity Blues Scale (MBS) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) among healthy Japanese mothers. We distributed the MBS and EPDS self-administered questionnaires to 100 Japanese mothers during their 4-5 day hospitalization and at a health check-up 1-month after delivery, respectively. Multiple regression analyses were performed including the above-mentioned variables as independent variables and the maximum MBS or EPDS scores as dependent variables. The answers "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [beta (95% confidence interval) = -1.53 (-2.68 - -0.378)] and "Satogaeri bunben", a Japanese traditional support system wherein a postnatal woman lives with her husband/parents [-2.82 (-4.73 - -0.898)] were significantly associated with MBS scores. The answer "Having a friend I can talk to about maternity life or child rearing" [-2.83 (-4.76 - -0.903)] was also significantly associated with EPDS scores, although the association between the partner's age and these scores was marginally significant [-0.106 (-0.008 - 0.221)]. This study shows that it is important to provide support for healthy women without delivery complications, both at home and in the community.

  5. Psychological Distress in Healthy Low-Risk First-Time Mothers during the Postpartum Period: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patricia; Price, Larry R.; Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Nichols, Francine

    2017-01-01

    Psychological distress, defined as depression, anxiety, and insomnia in this study, can occur following the birth of a baby as new mothers, in addition to marked physiological changes, are faced with adapting to new roles and responsibilities. We investigated the cooccurrence of stress, depression, anxiety, and insomnia in mothers during the postpartum period; tested the feasibility of study methods and procedures for use in this population; and identified new mothers interest in using cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) as an intervention for reducing psychological distress. We recruited healthy, low-risk, English speaking first-time mothers, ages 18–32 years, with healthy babies (N = 33), within 12 months of an uncomplicated birth. Participants completed the PSS, HAM-D14, HAM-A17, and PSQI19. No problems were encountered with study procedures. Mothers reported a high interest (4.9) in the potential use of CES to treat or prevent the occurrence of psychological distress. All participants (N = 33) reported moderate levels of depression and anxiety, while 75.8% (n = 25) reported insomnia. PSS scores were within the norms for healthy women. Further research is recommended to investigate if our findings can be replicated or if different patterns of associations emerge. Implications for clinical practice are addressed. PMID:28191350

  6. Improving postpartum care for mothers and newborns in Niger and Mali: a case study of an integrated maternal and newborn improvement programme

    PubMed Central

    Boucar, M; Hill, K; Coly, A; Djibrina, S; Saley, Z; Sangare, K; Kamgang, E; Hiltebeitel, S

    2014-01-01

    Despite appropriate guidelines, healthcare services worldwide often fail to deliver high-impact evidence-based care. This case study describes a large-scale programme to improve integrated postpartum care for mothers and newborns in Niger and Mali. As a result of an improvement effort based on common objectives, local ownership and shared learning to accelerate implementation of best practices, 78 facilities demonstrated rapid improvement in compliance with standards for post-partum haemorrhage prevention and Essential Newborn Care as well as a reduction in estimated postpartum haemorrhage. This approach yields rapid results and can be efficiently spread to improve care in low-resource settings. PMID:25236646

  7. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    PubMed

    Watson, Hunna J; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating.

  8. Eating Disorders, Pregnancy, and the Postpartum Period: Findings from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa)

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Hunna J.; Torgersen, Leila; Zerwas, Stephanie; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Knoph, Cecilie; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Von Holle, Ann; Hamer, Robert M.; Meltzer, Helle; Ferguson, Elizabeth H.; Haugen, Margaretha; Magnus, Per; Kuhns, Rebecca; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes studies on eating disorders in pregnancy and the postpartum period that have been conducted as part of the broader Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Prior to the 2000s, empirical literature on eating disorders in pregnancy was sparse and consisted mostly of studies in small clinical samples. MoBa has contributed to a new era of research by making population-based and large-sample research possible. To date, MoBa has led to 19 studies on diverse questions including the prevalence, course, and risk correlates of eating disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum. The associations between eating disorder exposure and pregnancy, birth and obstetric outcomes, and maternal and offspring health and well-being, have also been areas of focus. The findings indicate that eating disorders in pregnancy are relatively common and appear to confer health risks to mother and her child related to sleep, birth outcomes, maternal nutrition, and child feeding and eating. PMID:27110061

  9. Fatigue, depression, maternal confidence, and maternal satisfaction during the first month postpartum: A comparison of Japanese mothers by age and parity.

    PubMed

    Mori, Emi; Tsuchiya, Miyako; Maehara, Kunie; Iwata, Hiroko; Sakajo, Akiko; Tamakoshi, Koji

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess fatigue, depressive symptoms, and maternal confidence or satisfaction among older primiparae during the first month postpartum. The number of older Japanese primiparae has rapidly increased. Older primiparae are believed to be at high risk for puerperal morbidity. A multicentre prospective cohort study design was used. Data were examined from 2854 Japanese women who participated in a 6-month prospective cohort study conducted between May 2012 and September 2013. The women were classified into 4 groups based on maternal age and parity. All participants completed the Postnatal Accumulated Fatigue Scale, Japanese Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, Postpartum Maternal Confidence Scale, and Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Primiparae in all age groups were more severely fatigued and had a higher risk of postpartum depression than multiparous mothers during the first month postpartum. Older primiparae had significantly lower scores on maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction than the other 3 groups at 1 month postpartum. These findings suggest that postpartum nursing should focus on promoting adequate sleep, providing emotional support, and fostering the process of maternal role adaptation among older Japanese primiparae, particularly during the first postpartum month.

  10. Intra-individual stability and developmental change in hair cortisol among postpartum mothers and infants: Implications for understanding chronic stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cindy H; Snidman, Nancy; Leonard, Alexandra; Meyer, Jerrold; Tronick, Ed

    2016-05-01

    The study goal was to determine the intra-individual stability, developmental change, and maternal-reported correlates (socio-demographic, stress experiences, hair characteristics, and care) of hair cortisol in mothers and their infants. To assess cortisol deposition in hair during the periods of 6-to-9 months and 9-to-12 months of age, 3 cm segments of hair samples deemed to represent approximately 3 months of retrospective hair cortisol were sampled longitudinally at 9- and 12-months in 41 mothers and infants. Bivariate correlations and mean level comparisons of log-transformed hair cortisol levels at 9- (T1) and 12-months (T2) in mothers and infants were examined. Hair cortisol values were positively correlated from T1 to T2 for mothers (r = .41, p < .05) and infants (r = .39, p < .05). Hair cortisol values did not significantly differ from T1 to T2 in infants but decreased for mothers (F(1,34) = 9.2, p < .01). Maternal and infant hair cortisol was not associated with each other at either time point. Self-reported measures of stress, and hair characteristics and care were not associated with hair cortisol. This is the first study to obtain hair cortisol from more than one time point within the first year after birth in mothers and infants. The intra-individual stability of hair cortisol suggests that it may be a possible biomarker for detecting change in chronic stress experiences within the first year of life and in the postpartum period.

  11. Predicting Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in New Mothers: The Role of Optimism and Stress Frequency during Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bledsoe, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    During the transition to motherhood, women typically show favorable psychological adjustment after the first child is born, whereas 10 percent to 26 percent of women are at risk of developing clinically significant postpartum depressive symptoms. Little is known about which individuals are especially protected against the emergence of postpartum…

  12. Circadian activity rhythms for mothers with an infant in ICU.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Lee, Kathryn A; Aycock, Dawn; Decker, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Circadian rhythms influence sleep and wakefulness. Circadian activity rhythms (CAR) are altered in individuals with dementia or seasonal affective disorder. To date, studies exploring CAR and sleep in postpartum women are rare. The purpose of this report is to describe relationships between CAR, sleep disturbance, and fatigue among 72 first-time mothers during their second week postpartum while their newborn remain hospitalized in intensive care unit. Seventy-two mothers were included in this secondary data analysis sample from three separate studies. Participants completed the general sleep disturbance scale (GSDS), numerical rating scale for fatigue, and a sleep diary. The objective sleep data included total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and CAR determined by the circadian quotient (amplitude/mesor) averaged from at least 48-h of wrist actigraphy monitoring. The TST of mothers who self-reported as poor sleepers was 354 min (SEM = 21.9), with a mean WASO of 19.5% (SEM = 2.8). The overall sleep quality measured by the GSDS was clinically, significantly disrupted (M = 5.5, SD = 1.2). The mean score for morning fatigue was 5.8 (SD = 2.0), indicating moderate fatigue severity. The CAR was 0.62 (SEM = 0.04), indicating poor synchronization. The self-reported good sleepers (GSDS < 3) had better CAR (M = 0.71, SEM = 0.02) than poor sleepers (GSDS > 3) (t[70] = 2.0, p < 0.05). A higher circadian equation was associated with higher TST (r = 0.83, p < 0.001), less WASO (r = -0.50, p < 0.001), lower self-reported sleep disturbance scores (r = -0.35, p = 0.01), and less morning fatigue (r = -0.26). Findings indicate that mothers with a hospitalized infant have both nocturnal sleep problems and disturbed circadian activity rhythms. Factors responsible for these sleep and rhythm disturbances, the adverse effects on mother's physical and mental well-being, and mother

  13. Mothers who are securely attached in pregnancy show more attuned infant mirroring 7 months postpartum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study contrasted two forms of mother–infant mirroring: the mother's imitation of the infant's facial, gestural, or vocal behavior (i.e., "direct mirroring") and the mother's ostensive verbalization of the infant's internal state, marked as distinct from the infant's own experience (i.e., "inten...

  14. Post-partum blues among Korean mothers: a structural equation modelling approach.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sung Suk; Yoo, Il Young; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to propose the post-partum blues (PPB) model and to estimate the effects of self-esteem, social support, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy on PPB. Data were collected from 249 women post-partum during their stay in the maternity units of three hospitals in Korea using a self-administered questionnaire. A structural equation modelling approach using the Analysis of Moments Structure program was used to identify the direct and indirect effects of the variables on PPB. The full model had a good fit and accounted for 70.3% of the variance of PPB. Antenatal depression and stressful events during pregnancy had strong direct effects on PPB. Household income showed indirect effects on PPB via self-esteem and antenatal depression. Social support indirectly affected PPB via self-esteem, antenatal depression, and stressful events during pregnancy.

  15. The experience of labor, maternal perception of the infant, and the mother's postpartum mood in a low-risk community cohort.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Omri; Granat, Adi; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva; Singer, Magi; Gordon, Ilanit; Azulay, Hila; Kuint, Jacob; Feldman, Ruth

    2010-12-01

    Postpartum negative mood interferes with maternal-infant bonding and carries long-term negative consequences for infant growth. We examined the effects of birth-related risks on mother's postpartum anxiety and depression. A community cohort of 1,844 low-risk women who delivered a singleton term baby completed measures assessing delivery, emotions during labor, attitudes toward pregnancy and infant, mood regulation, and postpartum anxiety and depression. Under conditions of low risk, 20.5% of parturient women reported high levels of depressive symptoms. Following Cesarean Section Delivery (CSD), 23% reported high depressive symptoms, compared to 19% following Vaginal Delivery (VGD), and 21% after Assisted Vaginal Delivery (AVGD). State anxiety was highest in CSD and lowest in VGD. Mothers undergoing CSD experienced labor as most negative, reported highest somatic symptoms during the last trimester, and were least efficient in regulating negative mood. Postpartum depression was independently associated with higher maternal age, CSD, labor pain, lower negative and higher positive emotions during labor, inefficient mood regulation, somatic symptoms, and more negative and less positive perception of fetus during last trimester. Results demonstrate that elevated depressive symptoms are prevalent in the postpartum even under optimal socioeconomic and health conditions and increase following CSD. Interventions to increase positive infant-related perceptions and emotions may be especially important for promoting bond formation following CSD.

  16. Postpartum Psychosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum Obsessive Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for ...

  17. Stress in the City: Influence of Urban Social Stress and Violence on Pregnancy and Postpartum Quality of Life among Adolescent and Young Mothers.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Powell, Adeya; Kershaw, Trace

    2016-02-01

    Adolescent and young mothers transitioning from pregnancy to postpartum need to maintain an optimal quality of life. Stress and exposure to violence (e.g., intimate partner violence (IPV), nonpartner violence) are predictors of poor quality of life for adult women; however, these associations remain understudied among adolescent and young mothers in urban areas. Guided by the social ecological model, the current study created a latent variable, urban social stress, to examine the impact of the urban social environment (i.e., stressful life events, discrimination, family stress, and neighborhood problems) on the quality of life of adolescent and young mothers during both pregnancy and postpartum. The current study is a secondary data analysis of a prospective cohort study of 296 expectant young mothers recruited at obstetrics and gynecology clinics. Results from structural equation and multigroup models found that higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life during pregnancy, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-exposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. In the postpartum period, higher urban social stress predicted lower mental and physical quality of life, but these associations were significantly stronger for IPV-unexposed and nonpartner violence-exposed mothers. Stress reduction programs need to help adolescent and young mothers in urban areas develop stress management skills specific to urban social stress. Pregnancy and parenting programs need to be tailored to the specific needs of young mothers in urban areas by becoming sensitive to the role of IPV and nonpartner violence in these young women's lives.

  18. The relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety among pregnant and postpartum first-time mothers.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Epperson, C Neill; Barber, Jacques P

    2014-06-01

    Two studies examined the relationship between maternal attitudes and symptoms of depression and anxiety during pregnancy and the early postpartum period. In the first study, a measure of maternal attitudes, the Attitudes Toward Motherhood Scale (AToM), was developed and validated in a sample of first-time mothers. The AToM was found to have good internal reliability and convergent validity with cognitive biases and an existing measure of maternal attitudes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses determined that the measure comprises three correlated factors: beliefs about others' judgments, beliefs about maternal responsibility, and maternal role idealization. In the second study, we used the AToM to assess the relationship between maternal attitudes and other psychological variables. The factor structure of the measure was confirmed. Maternal attitudes predicted symptoms of depression and anxiety, and these attitudes had incremental predictive validity over general cognitive biases and interpersonal risk factors. Overall, the results of these studies suggest that maternal attitudes are related to psychological distress among first-time mothers during the transition to parenthood and may provide a useful means of identifying women who may benefit from intervention during the perinatal period.

  19. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael…

  20. Changes in sexual relationships in postpartum couples.

    PubMed

    Fischman, S H; Rankin, E A; Soeken, K L; Lenz, E R

    1986-01-01

    To assess perceived changes in intimacy and sexuality in postpartum couples, an Intimate Relationship Scale was developed, tested for reliability (alpha = 0.86), and administered by mail. Sixty-eight, middle-class couples responded at four months postpartum and 126 couples at 12 months postpartum. Data revealed declines in the frequency of and desire for sexual activity, especially for mothers, when compared to sexual activity before the infant's birth. At four months postpartum, most women reported physical discomfort with sexual intercourse, a decline in physical strength, dissatisfaction with bodily appearance, and fatigue which interfered with sex. Strategies and techniques to promote and maintain intimacy and sexuality in postpartum couples are suggested to assist their transition to parenthood and may positively influence parenting behaviors.

  1. Physiologically activated mammary fibroblasts promote postpartum mammary cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qiuchen; Burchard, Julja; Spellman, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer within 5 years of childbirth have poorer prognosis than nulliparous or pregnant women. Weaning-induced breast involution is implicated, as the collagen-rich, immunosuppressive microenvironment of the involuting mammary gland is tumor promotional in mice. To investigate the role of mammary fibroblasts, isolated mammary PDGFRα+ cells from nulliparous and postweaning mice were assessed for activation phenotype and protumorigenic function. Fibroblast activation during involution was evident by increased expression of fibrillar collagens, lysyl oxidase, Tgfb1, and Cxcl12 genes. The ability of mammary tumors to grow in an isogenic, orthotopic transplant model was increased when tumor cells were coinjected with involution-derived compared with nulliparous-derived mammary fibroblasts. Mammary tumors in the involution-fibroblast group had increased Ly6C+ monocytes at the tumor border, and decreased CD8+ T cell infiltration and tumor cell death. Ibuprofen treatment suppressed involution-fibroblast activation and tumor promotional capacity, concurrent with decreases in tumor Ly6C+ monocytes, and increases in intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltration, granzyme levels, and tumor cell death. In total, our data identify a COX/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–dependent activated mammary fibroblast within the involuting mammary gland that displays protumorigenic, immunosuppressive activity, identifying fibroblasts as potential targets for the prevention and treatment of postpartum breast cancer. PMID:28352652

  2. The association between physical activity and maternal sleep during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Vladutiu, Catherine J; Evenson, Kelly R; Borodulin, Katja; Deng, Yu; Dole, Nancy

    2014-11-01

    Physical activity is associated with improved sleep quality and duration in the general population, but its effect on sleep in postpartum women is unknown. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between hours/week of self-reported domain-specific and overall moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep quality and duration at 3- and 12-months postpartum among a cohort of 530 women in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Postpartum Study. MVPA was not associated with sleep quality or duration at 3-months postpartum. At 12-months postpartum, a 1 h/week increase in recreational MVPA was associated with higher odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (odds ratio, OR 1.14; 95 % confidence interval, CI, 1.03-1.27) and a 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA was associated with lower odds of good (vs. poor) sleep quality (OR = 0.93; 95 % CI 0.88-0.99). A 1 h/week increase in child/adult care MVPA (OR 1.08, 95 % CI 1.00-1.16) was associated with higher odds of long sleep duration and 1 h/week increases in indoor household (OR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.18) and overall MVPA (OR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.07) were associated with higher odds of short (vs. normal) sleep duration. Comparing 3-months postpartum to 12-months postpartum, increased work MVPA was associated with good sleep quality (OR 2.40, 95 % CI 1.12-5.15) and increased indoor household MVPA was associated with short sleep duration (OR 1.85, 95 % CI 1.05-3.27) as measured at 12-months postpartum. Selected domains of MVPA and their longitudinal increases were associated with sleep quality and duration at 12-months postpartum. Additional research is needed to elucidate whether physical activity can improve postpartum sleep.

  3. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

    2013-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman's sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women's neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli.

  4. Steam sauna and mother roasting in Lao PDR: practices and chemical constituents of essential oils of plant species used in postpartum recovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fundamental in traditional postpartum recovery in Lao PDR is the use of hotbeds, mother roasting, steam sauna and steam baths. During these treatments medicinal plants play a crucial role, but little has been published about how the treatments are carried out precisely, which species are used, the medicinal properties of these species, and the medicinal efficacy of their chemical constituents. Methods Sixty-five interviews, in 15 rural villages, with women of 4 different ethnic groups were conducted to survey confinement rituals, and postpartum plant use and salience. Essential oils from the main species used were extracted using steam distillation and the main chemical constituents characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results A total of 10 different species were used by three or more of the ethnic groups included in this study. All species were used in steam sauna and bath, but only 3 species were used in hotbed and mother roasting. Essential oils of Amomum villosum, Amomum microcarpum and Blumea balsamifera were found to contain significant amounts of the following terpenes: β-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, borneol, linalool, D-limonene, fenchone, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpinene. Conclusions Many of these terpenes have documented antimicrobial and analgesic properties, and some have also synergistic interactions with other terpenes. The mode of application in hotbed and mother roasting differs from the documented mechanisms of action of these terpenes. Plants in these two practices are likely to serve mainly hygienic purposes, by segregating the mother from infection sources such as beds, mats, stools, cloth and towels. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through inhalation of essential oils vapors can possibly have medicinal efficacy, but is unlikely to alleviate the ailments commonly encountered during postpartum convalescence. Steam sauna medicinal plant use through dermal condensation of essential oils, and steam bath

  5. Effects of Online Self-Regulation Activities on Physical Activity Among Pregnant and Early Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    Physical and psychological changes that occur during pregnancy present a unique challenge for women's physical activity. Using a theory-based prospective design, this study examines the effects of pregnant women's (a) physical activity cognitions (self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and safety beliefs) and (b) online self-regulation activities (goal-setting and self-monitoring) on subsequent changes in their physical activity intentions and behavior during pregnancy and immediately postpartum. The authors used data from three panel surveys administered to pregnant women enrolled in a web-based intervention to promote healthy pregnancy and postpartum weight, as well as log data on their use of self-regulatory features on the intervention website. Perceived self-efficacy and perceived safety of physical activity in pregnancy enhanced subsequent intentions to be physically active. Repeated goal-setting and monitoring of those goals helped to maintain positive intentions during pregnancy, but only repeated self-monitoring transferred positive intentions into actual behavior. Theoretically, this study offers a better understanding of the roles of self-regulation activities in the processes of goal-striving. The authors also discuss practical implications for encouraging physical activity among pregnant and early postpartum women.

  6. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Postpartum Depression Home For Patients Search FAQs Postpartum Depression Page ... Postpartum Depression FAQ091, December 2013 PDF Format Postpartum Depression Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What are the ...

  7. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    PubMed

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  8. Postpartum Bonding Disorder: Factor Structure, Validity, Reliability and a Model Comparison of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire in Japanese Mothers of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ohashi, Yukiko; Kitamura, Toshinori; Sakanashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Negative attitudes of mothers towards their infant is conceptualized as postpartum bonding disorder, which leads to serious health problems in perinatal health care. However, its measurement still remains to be standardized. Our aim was to examine and confirm the psychometric properties of the Postnatal Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ) in Japanese mothers. We distributed a set of questionnaires to community mothers and studied 392 mothers who returned the questionnaires at 1 month after childbirth. Our model was compared with three other models derived from previous studies. In a randomly halved sample, an exploratory factor analysis yielded a three-factor structure: Anger and Restrictedness, Lack of Affection, and Rejection and Fear. This factor structure was cross-validated by a confirmatory factor analysis using the other halved sample. The three subscales showed satisfactory internal consistency. The three PBQ subscale scores were correlated with depression and psychological abuse scores. Their test–retest reliability between day 5 and 1 month after childbirth was measured by intraclass correlation coefficients between 0.76 and 0.83. The Akaike Information Criteria of our model was better than the original four-factor model of Brockington. The present study indicates that the PBQ is a reliable and valid measure of bonding difficulties of Japanese mothers with neonates. PMID:27490583

  9. Comparisons of different instruments to measure blues and to predict depressive symptoms 2 months postpartum: a study of new mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate 'blues' during the first week postpartum in new mothers and fathers and to compare different instruments for measuring blues, as well as their ability to predict depressive symptoms at 2 months. Parents were informed while at the maternity clinic about the study and asked to independently answer questions for 5 days during the first week on the Blues Questionnaire, a VAS questionnaire and on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 1 week and 2 months. Of the parents who initially agreed to participate in the study 171 (38%) of the mothers and 133 (31%) of the fathers returned all questionnaires completely filled-out after the first week, and of these, 155 mothers and 113 fathers also completed the EPDS at 2 months. The results showed that mothers experienced more blues than fathers, and that mothers' blues peaked on day 3, while fathers' peaked on day 1 after the delivery-day. The Blues Questionnaire and the VAS subscale 'depressed mood' identified more women as having blues (64% and 52%, respectively) during the first week over the EPDS (24%), but the EPDS identified women with the highest scores on the Blues Questionnaire. At 2 months, 19 (12%) of the mothers, and one father scored 10 or more on the EPDS. All these women, except for one, had experienced severe blues according to the Blues Questionnaire, the first week. Regression analyses showed that the Blues Questionnaire subscale 'depression' was the best predictor for a high EPDS score at 2 months in mothers, while the subscales 'primary blues', 'hypersensitivity' and 'despondency' best predicted depressive symptoms in fathers. Our results indicate that the EPDS could be a valuable instrument to measure 'blues', as EPDS seemed to indicate women with the highest risk for depressive symptoms.

  10. Postpartum mental health of immigrant mothers by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Vigod, Simone N; Bagadia, Ashlesha J; Hussain-Shamsy, Neesha; Fung, Kinwah; Sultana, Anjum; Dennis, Cindy-Lee E

    2017-04-04

    Immigrant women are at high risk for postpartum mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to understand how rates of postpartum mental health contact differ among immigrant women by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status. We conducted a population-based cohort study of immigrant mothers in Ontario, Canada, with children born from 2008 to 2012 (N = 123,231). We compared risk for mental health contact (outpatient, emergency department, inpatient hospitalization) in the first postpartum year by region of origin, time since immigration, and refugee status, generating adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Immigrants from North Africa and the Middle East were more likely to have outpatient mental health contact than a referent group of immigrants from North America or Europe (aOR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14); those from East Asia and the Pacific, Southern Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa were less likely (0.64, 0.61-0.68; 0.78, 0.74-0.83; 0.88, 0.81-0.94). Refugees were more likely to have contact than non-refugees (1.10, 1.04-1.15); those in Canada <5 years were less likely than longer-term immigrants (0.83, 0.79-0.87). Refugees were more likely to have an emergency department visit (1.81, 1.50-2.17) and a psychiatric hospitalization than non-refugees (1.78, 1.31-2.42). These findings have implications for targeted postpartum mental health service delivery targeting certain immigrant groups and particularly refugees.

  11. Postpartum autoimmune thyroid syndrome: a model of aggravation of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Amino, N; Tada, H; Hidaka, Y

    1999-07-01

    Postpartum thyroid dysfunction is rather a common problem during the postpartum period being found in approximately 5% of mothers in the general population. It occurs from subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis that is aggravated after parturition and causes various types of thyroid dysfunction. Immune activity is physiologically suppressed during pregnancy so that the fetus is not rejected, and rebounds above the normal level after parturition. Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis also spontaneously ameliorate during pregnancy, and are often aggravated after parturition. The high-risk mothers for postpartum thyroid dysfunction are well screened by antithyroid microsomal antibody (MCAb) and 60% to 70% of MCAb-positive mothers develop postpartum thyroid dysfunction, which is transient in most cases. New onset of Graves' disease may be screened by thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSAb) and 70% of TSAb-positive mothers develop either transient or persistent postpartum Graves' disease that usually occurs 3 to 6 months postpartum. Immune rebound after parturition may cause not only autoimmune thyroid diseases but other autoimmune diseases, which may be investigated with similar strategies to those in postpartum autoimmune thyroid disease. Thus, we found that postpartum onset of rheumatoid arthritis was found in 0.08% of women in the general population and could be partially predicted by measuring rheumatoid factors in early pregnancy. There are several case reports of other autoimmune diseases that develop after delivery; postpartum renal failure or postdelivery hemolytic-uremic syndrome, postpartum idiopathic polymyositis, postpartum syndrome with antiphospholipid antibodies, postpartum autoimmune myocarditis. Many other possible postpartum autoimmune diseases are still unexplored. Puerperal diseases should be carefully examined in relation to autoimmune abnormalities in the affected organs.

  12. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crying Reduced concentration Appetite problems Trouble sleeping Postpartum depression symptoms Postpartum depression may be mistaken for baby ... drugs, which can make mood swings worse Postpartum depression Postpartum depression is often treated with psychotherapy (also ...

  13. Postpartum Sterilization

    MedlinePlus

    f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ052 CONTRACEPTION Postpartum Sterilization • What is sterilization? • What is postpartum sterilization? • How is postpartum sterilization performed? • What kind of anesthesia is used for postpartum sterilization? • How ...

  14. Thrombolysis with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator during early postpartum period: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Munetoshi; Nishida, Makoto

    2017-02-21

    Thromboembolic events are one of the leading causes of maternal death during the postpartum period. Postpartum thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is controversial because the treatment may lead to massive bleeding. Data centralization may be beneficial for analyzing the safety and effectiveness of systemic thrombolysis during the early postpartum period. We performed a computerized MEDLINE and EMBASE search. We collected data for 13 cases of systemic thrombolytic therapy during the early postpartum period, when limiting the early postpartum period to 48 hours after delivery. Blood transfusion was necessary in all cases except for one (12/13; 92%). In seven cases (7/13; 54%), a large amount of blood was required for transfusion. Subsequent laparotomy to control bleeding was required in five cases (5/13; 38%), including three cases of hysterectomy and two cases of hematoma removal, all of which involved cesarean delivery. In cases of transvaginal delivery, there was no report of laparotomy. The occurrence of severe bleeding was high in relation to cesarean section, compared with vaginal deliveries. Using rt-PA in relation to cesarean section might be worth avoiding. However, the paucity of data in the literature makes it difficult to assess the ultimate outcomes and safety of this treatment.

  15. U.S.- and Mexico-Born Hispanic Teen Mothers: A Descriptive Study of Factors That Relate to Postpartum Compliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1994-01-01

    In a group of 154 U.S.-born and 127 Mexico-born Hispanic teens delivering at a county hospital in Houston, only 50 returned for their scheduled postpartum visit. Returning teens across groups were more likely to have no prenatal care, have a preterm or expired infant, report no educational plan, and have a support system. (KS)

  16. The Role of Physical Activity in Preconception, Pregnancy and Postpartum Health.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Brown, Wendy J; Hayman, Melanie; Moran, Lisa J; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-03-01

    The rise in obesity and associated morbidity is currently one of our greatest public health challenges. Women represent a high risk group for weight gain with associated metabolic, cardiovascular, reproductive and psychological health impacts. Regular physical activity is fundamental for health and well-being with protective benefits across the spectrum of women's health. Preconception, pregnancy and the early postpartum period represent opportune windows to engage women in regular physical activity to optimize health and prevent weight gain with added potential to transfer behavior change more broadly to children and families. This review summarizes the current evidence for the role of physical activity for women in relation to preconception (infertility, assisted reproductive therapy, polycystic ovary syndrome, weight gain prevention and psychological well-being) pregnancy (prevention of excess gestational weight gain, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia as well as labor and neonatal outcomes) and postpartum (lactation and breastfeeding, postpartum weight retention and depression) health. Beneficial outcomes validate the importance of regular physical activity, yet key methodological gaps highlight the need for large, high-quality studies to clarify the optimal type, frequency, duration and intensity of physical activity required for beneficial health outcomes during preconception, pregnancy and postpartum.

  17. Abuse from in-laws during pregnancy and post-partum: qualitative and quantitative findings from low-income mothers of infants in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Raj, Anita; Sabarwal, Shagun; Decker, Michele R; Nair, Saritha; Jethva, Meghna; Krishnan, Suneeta; Donta, Balaiah; Saggurti, Niranjan; Silverman, Jay G

    2011-08-01

    To examine experiences of perinatal (in pregnancy or post-partum) abuse from in-laws and to assess associations between such experiences and perinatal intimate partner violence (IPV) from husbands, as reported by Indian women residing in low-income communities in Mumbai. The present study includes both qualitative and quantitative research conducted across two phases of study. The qualitative phase involved face-to-face, semi-structured in-depth interviews (n = 32) with women seeking health care for their infants (6 months or younger) and self-reporting emotional or physical abuse from their husband. The quantitative arm involved survey data collection (n = 1,038) from mothers seeking immunization for their infants 6 months or younger at three large Urban Health Centers in Mumbai. Results of the qualitative study documented the occurrence of both non-physical and physical abuse from in-laws during pregnancy and post-partum. Non-physical forms of abuse included forced heavy domestic labor, food denial and efforts toward prevention of medical care acquisition. Quantitative results demonstrated that 26.3% of the sample reported perinatal abuse (non-physical and physical) from in-laws and that women experiencing perinatal sexual or physical IPV from husbands were significantly more likely to report perinatal abuse from in-laws (AOR = 5.33, 95% CI = 3.93-7.23). Perinatal abuse from in-laws is not uncommon among women in India and may be compromising maternal and child health in this context; such abuse is also linked to perinatal violence from husbands. Programs and interventions that screen and address IPV in pregnant and post-partum populations in India should be developed to include consideration of in-laws.

  18. Perinatal Parenting Stress, Anxiety, and Depression Outcomes in First-Time Mothers and Fathers: A 3- to 6-Months Postpartum Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Vismara, Laura; Rollè, Luca; Agostini, Francesca; Sechi, Cristina; Fenaroli, Valentina; Molgora, Sara; Neri, Erica; Prino, Laura E.; Odorisio, Flaminia; Trovato, Annamaria; Polizzi, Concetta; Brustia, Piera; Lucarelli, Loredana; Monti, Fiorella; Saita, Emanuela; Tambelli, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although there is an established link between parenting stress, postnatal depression, and anxiety, no study has yet investigated this link in first-time parental couples. The specific aims of this study were 1) to investigate whether there were any differences between first-time fathers’ and mothers’ postnatal parenting stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms and to see their evolution between three and 6 months after their child’s birth; and 2) to explore how each parent’s parenting stress and anxiety levels and the anxiety levels and depressive symptoms of their partners contributed to parental postnatal depression. Method: The sample included 362 parents (181 couples; mothers’ MAge = 35.03, SD = 4.7; fathers’ MAge = 37.9, SD = 5.6) of healthy babies. At three (T1) and 6 months (T2) postpartum, both parents filled out, in a counterbalanced order, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results: The analyses showed that compared to fathers, mothers reported higher scores on postpartum anxiety, depression, and parenting stress. The scores for all measures for both mothers and fathers decreased from T1 to T2. However, a path analysis suggested that the persistence of both maternal and paternal postnatal depression was directly influenced by the parent’s own levels of anxiety and parenting stress and by the presence of depression in his/her partner. Discussion: This study highlights the relevant impact and effects of both maternal and paternal stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms during the transition to parenthood. Therefore, to provide efficacious, targeted, early interventions, perinatal screening should be directed at both parents. PMID:27445906

  19. Views of Women and Clinicians on Postpartum Preparation and Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Anika; Horowitz, Carol; Howell, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    To explore important domains of women’s postpartum experiences as perceived by postpartum mothers and obstetricians/midwives, and to investigate how postpartum care could enhance patient preparation for the postpartum period. Qualitative research study was conducted to explore women’s and clinicians’ perceptions of the postpartum experience. Four focus groups of postpartum women (n = 45) and two focus groups of obstetric clinicians (n = 13) were held at a large urban teaching hospital in New York City. All focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory. Four main themes were identified: lack of women’s knowledge about postpartum health and lack of preparation for the postpartum experience, lack of continuity of care and absence of maternal care during the early postpartum period, disconnect between providers and postpartum mothers, and suggestions for improvement. Mothers did not expect many of the symptoms they experienced after childbirth and were disappointed with the lack of support by providers during this critical time in their recovery. Differences existed in the major postpartum concerns of mothers and clinicians. However, both mothers and clinicians agreed that preparation during the antepartum period could be beneficial for postpartum recovery. Results from this study indicate that many mothers do not feel prepared for the postpartum experience. Study findings raise the hypothesis that capturing patient-centered domains that define the postpartum experience and integrating these domains into patient care may enhance patient preparation for postpartum recovery and improve postpartum outcomes. PMID:23775250

  20. [Postpartum risk factors in the development of children born to opiate-addicted mothers; comparison between mothers with and without methadone substitution].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, M; Poustka, F; von Loewenich, V; Englert, E

    2000-09-01

    In a retrospective case control study at the University of Frankfurt, Germany, 101 babies born to opiate-addicted mothers were identified from birth charts from 1988 to 1995. After birth, they developed a withdrawal syndrome (neonatal abstinence syndrome). Fifty control infants and their mothers were selected from neonatal wards. The group of opiate-exposed babies was subdivided into a group born to mothers without methadone treatment (n = 48) and a group born to mothers who were enrolled in a methadone program (n = 51). The methadone infants had a significantly higher mean birth weight (2822 g) than children in the group without methadone (2471 g). The abstinence syndrome was much more intense in the methadone group (convulsions 47.1%) than in heroin-exposed babies without methadone treatment (convulsions 27.1%). Women in methadone maintenance programs lived in more stable socioeconomic conditions than opiate-addicted women without methadone substitution. Moreover, they cared significantly better for their babies: 81.3% of the methadone mothers visited their children on a regular basis and 90.9% cared adequately. The data emphasize the need in future research to look more closely at the role of methadone treatment programs in the development of opiate-exposed babies.

  1. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  2. Neighborhood Rhythms and the Social Activities of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Linda M.; Graham, Joan E.

    1998-01-01

    A five-year longitudinal ethnographic study explores the relationship between the temporal organization of neighborhood activities and the social engagements of urban African American teen mothers. Found that courting activities occurred during the morning, baby parading during the afternoon-evening, with teen mothers avoiding the illicit drug…

  3. Postpartum depression

    MedlinePlus

    Depression - postpartum; Postnatal depression; Postpartum psychological reactions ... The exact causes of postpartum depression are unknown. Changes in hormone levels during and after pregnancy may affect a woman's mood. Many non-hormonal factors may also ...

  4. Risk factors for postpartum depression in women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Yator, Obadia; Mathai, Muthoni; Vander Stoep, Ann; Rao, Deepa; Kumar, Manasi

    2016-07-01

    Mothers with HIV are at high risk of a range of psychosocial issues that may impact HIV disease progression for themselves and their children. Stigma has also become a substantial barrier to accessing HIV/AIDS care and prevention services. The study objective was to determine the prevalence and severity of postpartum depression (PPD) among women living with HIV and to further understand the impact of stigma and other psychosocial factors in 123 women living with HIV attending prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) clinic at Kenyatta National Hospital located in Nairobi, Kenya. We used the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and HIV/AIDS Stigma Instrument - PLWHA (HASI - P). Forty-eight percent (N = 59) of women screened positive for elevated depressive symptoms. Eleven (9%) of the participants reported high levels of stigma. Multivariate analyses showed that lower education (OR = 0.14, 95% CI [0.04-0.46], p = .001) and lack of family support (OR = 2.49, 95% CI [1.14-5.42], p = .02) were associated with the presence of elevated depressive symptoms. The presence of stigma implied more than ninefold risk of development of PPD (OR = 9.44, 95% CI [1.132-78.79], p = .04). Stigma was positively correlated with an increase in PPD. PMTCT is an ideal context to reach out to women to address mental health problems especially depression screening and offering psychosocial treatments bolstering quality of life of the mother-baby dyad.

  5. Internet confessions of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-12-01

    Women with postpartum depression may suffer in silence due to the stigma of depression and failed motherhood. It is important to consider how mothers are able to talk about postpartum depression and what strategies they use. Foucault's idea that confession is a widespread technique for producing truth in Western societies was tested through discourse analysis of posts on an Internet forum for women with postpartum depression. The Internet forum showed women's use of confessionary language and self-judgments as well as their sense of disconnected mothering, shame, and disembodiment. Discourses of depression included the good mother, biomedical illness, and social dysfunction. Findings have implications for creating safe spaces for helping mothers with postpartum depression.

  6. A Cross Sectional Study on Acceptability and Safety of IUCD among Postpartum Mothers at Tertiary Care Hospital, Telangana

    PubMed Central

    Jairaj, Sangeetha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is world’s 2nd largest populated country. It is first to introduce family planning services. IUCD is most effective, safe, long acting and do not interfere with coitus. Immediately or within 72 hours after delivery of placenta in a health care facility is convenient for those who are in outreach area, where family planning facilities are less available. Objectives To study the socio demographic profile of parturients attended to obstetric ward for delivery. To assess the acceptability and safety of IUCD among study population Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among eligible postpartum women at Gandhi hospital secunderabad. Counseling was given about IUCD. After obtaining consent, Cu-T 380 was inserted in a 250 women, followed up to 6 weeks. The reasons for both acceptance and decline were recorded. Results Mean age of acceptance was 23.70±2.95 years. Majority were from urban area (79.75%). Acceptance was more in those who completed their secondary school level education (23.3%). Women undergoing caesarean section were accepting PPIUCD, more frequently than those who underwent normal vaginal delivery. Majority (67.12%) accepters told that they accepted IUCD because it is a reversible method. Main reported complications were pain abdomen (17.14%), bleeding (14.28%). Expulsion rate was 6.8%. Most common reason (40%) for removal of IUCD was inclination to other methods. Conclusion Even though expulsion rate high with, acceptance was high IUCD when it is inserted in postpartum period. PMID:26894092

  7. The Influence of Back Pain and Urinary Incontinence on Daily Tasks of Mothers at 12 Months Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Sheila W.; Tough, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined back pain (BP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) impact on the ability to perform daily tasks at 12 months after childbirth in healthy reproductive women who sought maternity care in community based family practice clinics. Methods This study is a secondary analysis from the All Our Babies Study, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort in Calgary, Alberta. Maternal self-reported information on demographics, lifestyle, experiences with pregnancy and childbirth, occurrence of BP, UI and consequent impairment of daily tasks were collected by questionnaires administered before 25 weeks, at 34-36 weeks gestation and at 4 and 12 months postpartum. The occurrence and severity of BP and UI at one year after childbirth was assessed using descriptive and bivariate analyses. Logistic regression models examined the association between demographic and obstetrical variables and the severity of functional impairment due to UI and BP. Results From 1574 women with singleton pregnancies included in the study, 1212 (77%) experienced BP, 773 (49%) UI, and 620 (40%) both BP and UI. From the 821 women reporting impairment of daily tasks due to BP, 199 (24 %) were moderately and 90 (11%) severely affected with the remainder, 532 (64%) being mildly affected. From 267 women with functional impairment due to UI, 52 (19%) reported moderately to severe impairment in their ability to perform daily tasks. Obesity and parity were risk factors for impairment of daily functioning due to BP, whereas obesity and vaginal delivery increased the risk of moderate to severe impairment due to UI. Conclusions BP and UI are common occurrences 1 year after childbirth. Maternal performance of daily tasks and women’s health and quality of life are more often impaired due to BP than UI. Our study brings new evidence of the risk factors that predict severity and impact of these conditions on women functioning at 12 months postpartum. PMID:26083252

  8. Evaluation of the effects of ice massage applied to large intestine 4 (hegu) on postpartum pain during the active phase of labor

    PubMed Central

    Can, Hafize Ozturk; Saruhan, Aynur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The uterus continues to contract after childbirth. The pain caused by the contractions of the uterus can be as severe as labor pain. The study was aimed to evaluate the effects of ice massage applied to the large intestine 4 (LI4) on postpartum pain during the active phase of labor. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with three groups and carried out in two stages. The study sample comprised of 150 pregnant women, who were referred to a maternity hospital. In the experimental group, ice massage was applied to LI4 during four contractions within the active phase of labor. In the placebo group, pressure was applied to LI4 using silicone balloons and the third group was the control group. The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and The McGill (Melzack) Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) were compared among the experimental, placebo, and control groups. Results: The mothers in the ice application group had the lowest mean VAS score. It was determined that ice massage applied to LI4 during the active phase of labor did not lead to any statistical differences in mothers in the first 24 hours postpartum in terms of the characteristics of the pain with MPQ and VAS. Conclusions: In the study, the perception of pain was tried to be minimized by applying pressure with ice balloons to LI4. However, although the application was determined to have made no difference in the pain intensity, the mothers’ statements in the ice application group suggested that they felt more comfortable than did the mothers in the other groups. PMID:25709702

  9. Factors that influence physical activity for pregnant and postpartum women and implications for primary care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Frances; Davis, Kierrynn

    2011-01-01

    Many pregnant women and women of child-bearing age do not engage in the recommended levels of physical activity despite the well known benefits. Pregnancy and the postpartum period can be a time when inactivity actually increases. Women who experience gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during their pregnancy are often advised to become more active in order to ameliorate their increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Health professionals have an influential role in promoting physical activity, which would be enhanced with an understanding of the factors that positively and negatively influence women's participation in physical activity during pregnancy and in the postpartum period. This research sought to explore these factors with pregnant and postpartum women including those who had experienced GDM and the attention given to physical activity during pregnancy. A survey was developed after a critical review of factors identified from previous studies. Women were recruited from the antenatal clinic, community health centres and the local media. Results from 72 women are reported from a predominately well educated, Caucasian population. Overall, the results were confirmatory of factors previously identified. Lack of child care, time constraints, no time and feeling unwell during pregnancy hindered activity and factors that facilitated activity included family support, enjoyment of activity and to prevent later health problems. It was also found that non-GDM women are given minimal advice about exercise during pregnancy. A checklist has been developed for health professionals, in partnership with women, to direct attention to the factors that enable and hinder participation in physical activity during and after pregnancy.

  10. Postpartum contraceptive methods.

    PubMed

    1990-08-01

    Contraceptive methods suitable for postpartum women include sterilization, intrauterine devices (IUDs), barrier methods, oral contraceptives, implants, injectables, breastfeeding, and natural family planning. Couples considering either male or female sterilization should receive counseling since this method is irreversible; however, it is very effective. IUDs are effective, reversible, and can be inserted as early as 10 minutes following placental delivery. Barrier methods are not as effective and include condoms, spermicides, diaphragm, and cervical caps. While condoms and spermicides can be employed whenever sexual activity resumes, diaphragms and cervical caps can be used 4-6 weeks postpartum. The progestin-only and the combined oral contraceptives are both very effective. There is disagreement among professionals regarding when nursing mothers should start taking oral contraceptives and implant and injectable contraceptives. Implants and injectable contraceptives have long acting effects. Breastfeeding is a natural form of contraception which can last up to 6 months; it also supplies nutritional and immunological benefits. Natural family planning requires providing women with information on fertility awareness.

  11. Long-term postpartum anxiety and depression-like behavior in mother rats subjected to maternal separation are ameliorated by palatable high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-03-17

    While the effects of maternal separation on pups are well studied, the impact on dams has attracted little attention. The consumption of palatable food is known to dampen stress responses in animals, and emotions influence food choice in humans. Here we examined the early- and long-term impacts of maternal separation on behavioral profile of the dams, and the effects of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD). After littering, Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to prolonged separation, S180 (180 min) or brief separation, S15 (15 min/day) from postnatal days (PND) 2-14. At 4 weeks postpartum, half the dams were assigned to HFD. Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were assessed pre- and post-diet. Compared to S15 dams, S180 dams consuming chow demonstrated increased anxiety and depression-like behaviors assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim (FST) tests, respectively. These behavioral deficits were observed at 4 weeks, and persisted until 17 weeks postpartum. The S180 dams also had increased plasma corticosterone concentration compared to S15 dams, which coincided with increased hypothalamic CRH mRNA and reduced hippocampal GR mRNA expression, suggesting possible dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Interestingly, continuous provision of HFD improved the behavioral deficits observed in S180 dams with significant reduction of hypothalamic CRH mRNA expression. These data are the first to describe long-term detrimental behavioral impacts of separation in dams, suggesting this may provide a model of postpartum depression. Moreover, they support the notion of long-term beneficial effects of 'comfort food' on stress responses.

  12. What Do Mothers Say? Korean Mothers' Perceptions of Children's Participation in Extra-Curricular Musical Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Eun

    2015-01-01

    A recent study of Korean middle-class mothers' perceptions and parenting practices associated with children's participation in musical activities reported unique forms of musical parenting, which closely correspond with previous studies of concerted cultivation in Western middle-class families. Are these unique patterns exclusive to middle-class…

  13. Adolescent Motherhood and Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkeland, Robyn; Thompson, J. Kevin; Phares, Vicky

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent mothers undergo unique personal and social challenges that may contribute to postpartum functioning. In this exploratory investigation completed within a risk and resilience framework, 149 adolescent mothers, ages 15 to 19, who participated in school-based teen parents' programs, completed measures of parental stress (social isolation…

  14. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  15. Postpartum Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... do not need treatment. The symptoms of postpartum depression last longer and are more severe. You may ... treatment right away, often in the hospital. Postpartum depression can begin anytime within the first year after ...

  16. [Post-partum psychosis].

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Letranchant, Aurélie; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-02-01

    Postpartum psychosis occurs in 1-2/1000 childbearing women. It is commonly admitted that it belongs to bipolar disorder with psychotic features. A strong link between puerperal psychosis and bipolar disorder has been established. Symptoms include rapid mood fluctuations, confusion, delusions, hallucinations and bizarre behaviour. It can lead to devastating consequences. It is a psychiatric emergency that requires an urgent evaluation to exclude any organic cause. Therefore, early identification and appropriate treatment are critical. A quick and effective relief is necessary for maternal and child health and mother-infant relationship. Perinatal health professionals have to be accurate screening postpartum psychosis symptoms and have to educate patients and their family.

  17. Postpartum hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Su, Cindy W

    2012-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a very common obstetric emergency with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Understanding its etiology is fundamental to effectively managing PPH in an acute setting. Active management of the third stage of labor is also a key component in its prevention. Management strategies include conservative measures (medications, uterine tamponade, and arterial embolization) as well as surgical interventions (arterial ligations, compression sutures, and hysterectomy). Creating a standardized PPH protocol and running simulation-based drills with a multidisciplinary team may also help decrease maternal morbidity and improve perinatal outcomes, although further studies are needed.

  18. Breast Milk Concentration of Rubidium in Lactating Mothers by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis Method

    PubMed Central

    Khatami, Seyedeh-Fatemeh; Parvaresh, Pouya; Parvaresh, Parviz; Madani Kouchak, Sara Sadat; Khorsandi, Jamshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little is known about the trace elements content of human milk from different countries. This has not been fully investigated especially among Iranian women. This study aimed to assess the concentration of Rubidium (Rb) as a poisonous trace element in transitional breast milk of lactating mothers living in Mashhad. Methods: Forty nursing mothers in early lactation 3 days to 15 days postpartum, free from any medical disorder and/or medication were randomly selected. We have applied Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to assess the long-lived isotope trace element Rb in transitional milk of these economically moderate 18–39 year old Iranian women. Findings: The average concentration level of Rb was 32.176 ppm dry weight (min 8.660, max 107.210 ppm). No significant correlation was observed between Rb concentration and maternal weight and age (P=0.06, P=0.05 respectively) and newborns’ weight, age and sex (P=0.07, P=0.2, P=0.2 respectively). Conclusion: Although the Rubidium concentration found in this study is among the highest reported in the literature, it could not be compared to other studies because of differences in analytical performance, state of lactation, and unavailable reference ranges, so this finding needs further investigations. PMID:26019773

  19. A Prospective Longitudinal Study of Perceived Infant Outcomes at 18–24 Months: Neural and Psychological Correlates of Parental Thoughts and Actions Assessed during the First Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Rigo, Paola; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Cole, Pamela M.; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2015-01-01

    The first postpartum months constitute a critical period for parents to establish an emotional bond with their infants. Neural responses to infant-related stimuli have been associated with parental sensitivity. However, the associations among these neural responses, parenting, and later infant outcomes for mothers and fathers are unknown. In the current longitudinal study, we investigated the relationships between parental thoughts/actions and neural activation in mothers and fathers in the neonatal period with infant outcomes at the toddler stage. At the first month postpartum, mothers (n = 21) and fathers (n = 19) underwent a neuroimaging session during which they listened to their own and unfamiliar baby’s cry. Parenting-related thoughts/behaviors were assessed by interview twice at the first month and 3–4 months postpartum and infants’ socioemotional outcomes were reported by mothers and fathers at 18–24 months postpartum. In mothers, higher levels of anxious thoughts/actions about parenting at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with infant’s low socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Anxious thoughts/actions were also associated with heightened responses in the motor cortex and reduced responses in the substantia nigra to own infant cry sounds. On the other hand, in fathers, higher levels of positive perception of being a parent at the first month postpartum, but not at 3–4 months postpartum, were associated with higher infant socioemotional competencies at 18–24 months. Positive thoughts were associated with heightened responses in the auditory cortex and caudate to own infant cry sounds. The current study provides evidence that parental thoughts are related to concurrent neural responses to their infants at the first month postpartum as well as their infant’s future socioemotional outcome at 18–24 months. Parent differences suggest that anxious thoughts in mothers and positive thoughts in

  20. The association between pregnancy intendedness and experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in the United States, 2009 to 2011: A secondary analysis of PRAMS data.

    PubMed

    Gauthreaux, Christina; Negron, Jenesis; Castellanos, Daniel; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuña, Juan Manuel

    2017-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder affecting approximately 13% of women worldwide. Unintended pregnancies, reaching close to 50% of the pregnancies in the United States, have become a major health concern. While many physiologic and psychosocial causes have been analyzed, few studies have examined the relationship between unintended pregnancy and symptoms of PPD.A cross-sectional study was conducted using surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2009 to 2011. The PRAMS population-based random sample included women who have had recent live births and is representative of 78% of the United States population. The chi-squared test was used to examine bivariate associations. Binary logistic regression was utilized to study unadjusted and adjusted associations between PPD and pregnancy intendedness, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics of mothers in the sample. Multicollinearity in the adjusted model was evaluated using variance inflation factors. Sampling weights were used to account for PRAMS' complex sampling design.Of the 110,231 mothers included in the sample, only 32.3% reported desiring the pregnancy at the time of conception. Women with pregnancies categorized as mistimed: desired sooner, mistimed: desired later, or unwanted were 20% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3), 30% (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2-1.4), and 50% (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7) more likely to experience symptoms of PPD, respectively, compared to women with desired pregnancies. Other factors found to be associated with experiencing symptoms of PPD were a gestational age of <27 weeks (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.5-4.0), having a previous history of depression (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0), and being abused during or before pregnancy (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.0).We found that women with mistimed or unwanted

  1. Healthy Mothers Healthy Babies: awareness and perceptions of existing breastfeeding and postpartum depression support among parents and perinatal health care providers in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Lisa J; McGee, Amelia; Baird, Shelagh; Viloria, Joanne; Nagatsuka, Melissa

    2015-03-01

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies Coalition of Hawai'i (HMHB) is a local nonprofit organization dedicated to eliminating health disparities and improving Hawai'i's maternal, child, and family health though collaborative efforts in public education, advocacy, and partner development. A review of HMHB services revealed overwhelming requests for both breastfeeding and postpartum depression (PPD) support. The purpose of this article is to present the findings of two surveys that highlight the awareness of existing breastfeeding and PPD resources based on both parents and health care providers; perceptions of where and how care is accessed; and whether mothers throughout Hawai'i have equitable access to support. Results helped assess gaps in resources and determine barriers to care, as well as provide suggestions for new services or resources. Web-based surveys were sent to 450 providers and 2,955 parents with response rates of 8.9% and 4.0%, respectively. Less than half of parent participants reported that their health provider discussed PPD with them. Participants identified a number of barriers to increasing access and utilization of PPD support resources, including: not feeling like symptoms were server enough, feeling embarrassed to seek help, not knowing where to find support/information, and not able to afford or insurance wouldn't cover PPD support. Only 40% of providers reported screening for PPD and 33% felt they had not received adequate training. Barriers identified by providers were a lack of trained providers, lack of PPD specific support groups, cultural stigma, and lack of PPD awareness among providers. Of the women who did not exclusively breastfeed for the full six-month recommendation, the most common breastfeeding concerns included: perceptions of low milk supply; lack of lactation support; medical reasons; and pain. Providers described an environment of uneven distribution of resources, general lack of awareness of available resources, along with a

  2. The association between pregnancy intendedness and experiencing symptoms of postpartum depression among new mothers in the United States, 2009 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gauthreaux, Christina; Negron, Jenesis; Castellanos, Daniel; Ward-Peterson, Melissa; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuña, Juan Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Postpartum depression (PPD) is a form of major depressive disorder affecting approximately 13% of women worldwide. Unintended pregnancies, reaching close to 50% of the pregnancies in the United States, have become a major health concern. While many physiologic and psychosocial causes have been analyzed, few studies have examined the relationship between unintended pregnancy and symptoms of PPD. A cross-sectional study was conducted using surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) from 2009 to 2011. The PRAMS population-based random sample included women who have had recent live births and is representative of 78% of the United States population. The chi-squared test was used to examine bivariate associations. Binary logistic regression was utilized to study unadjusted and adjusted associations between PPD and pregnancy intendedness, as well as other demographic and clinical characteristics of mothers in the sample. Multicollinearity in the adjusted model was evaluated using variance inflation factors. Sampling weights were used to account for PRAMS’ complex sampling design. Of the 110,231 mothers included in the sample, only 32.3% reported desiring the pregnancy at the time of conception. Women with pregnancies categorized as mistimed: desired sooner, mistimed: desired later, or unwanted were 20% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–1.3), 30% (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.2–1.4), and 50% (AOR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.3–1.7) more likely to experience symptoms of PPD, respectively, compared to women with desired pregnancies. Other factors found to be associated with experiencing symptoms of PPD were a gestational age of <27 weeks (AOR = 3.1; 95% CI: 2.5–4.0), having a previous history of depression (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.6–2.0), and being abused during or before pregnancy (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). We found that women with

  3. Mothers' Prenatal Activities Predict Adjustment to Pregnancy and Early Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Ronalda; Turner, Nita

    This study examined the activities of pregnant women and how these activities facilitated a positive adjustment to pregnancy and early parenting. Subjects were 49 expectant first-time mothers ranging in age from 20 to 41 and attending a childhood preparation class. Eighty-two percent of the women were married. Subjects completed two questionnaires…

  4. Postpartum psychiatric disorders: Early diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Shashi; Pathak, Abhishek; Sharma, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, physical, social, and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Pregnant women and their families have lots of aspirations from the postpartum period, which is colored by the joyful arrival of a new baby. Unfortunately, women in the postpartum period can be vulnerable to a range of psychiatric disorders like postpartum blues, depression, and psychosis. Perinatal mental illness is largely under-diagnosed and can have far reaching ramifications for both the mother and the infant. Early screening, diagnosis, and management are very important and must be considered as mandatory part of postpartum care. PMID:26330638

  5. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. Methods This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. Results For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Conclusions Implications provide

  6. Foster mother-infant bonding: associations between foster mothers' oxytocin production, electrophysiological brain activity, feelings of commitment, and caregiving quality.

    PubMed

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads (N = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to images of all infant faces in the first 2 months of the relationship. Three months later, foster mothers' oxytocin production was still associated with delight toward their foster infant and was also specifically associated with their P3 response to an image of their foster infant. Similar to biologically related mothers and infants, oxytocin appears to be associated with foster mothers' brain activity and caregiving behavior, with patterns suggestive of bond formation.

  7. Dream-associated Behaviors Affecting Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna

    2007-01-01

    Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P < 0.05 and 42%, P < 0.0001). More postpartum (63%) than pregnant (40%) women reported dream-associated behaviors (P < 0.01), but neither group differed from null gravida women (56%). This was due to different distributions over groups of the behavior subtypes. Motor activity was present in twice as many postpartum (57%) as pregnant (24%) or null gravida (25%) women (all P < 0.0001). Expressing emotion was more prevalent among null gravida (56%) than postpartum women (27%) (P < 0.05) but was not different from pregnant women (37

  8. CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol during the early postpartum period has an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takafumi; Kubono, Naoko; Ishida, Takuya; Deguchi, Shuhei; Sugihara, Masahisa; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Kawakami, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4/5 activity in early postpartum women and its impact on the plasma disposition of amlodipine. Twenty-seven early postpartum women treated with amlodipine for pregnancy-induced hypertension were enrolled. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum and in non-perinatal women were evaluated. The predose plasma concentration of amlodipine was determined at steady state. The medians of the plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol concentration at day 0-3 and 8-21 after delivery were 146 and 161 ng/mL, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol between the postpartum periods. The plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol and its ratio to cholesterol in postpartum women were significantly higher than those in non-perinatal women. A large individual variability was observed in the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine in early postpartum women. A weak negative correlation was observed between the dose-normalized plasma concentration of amlodipine and the plasma concentration of 4β-hydroxycholesterol. In conclusion, early postpartum women possessed higher CYP3A activity based on plasma 4β-hydroxycholesterol and had a large pharmacokinetic variability in amlodipine. CYP3A activity during the early postpartum period had an effect on the plasma disposition of amlodipine.

  9. Return to sexual activity and modern family planning use in the extended postpartum period: an analysis of findings from seventeen countries.

    PubMed

    Borda, Maria R; Winfrey, William; McKaig, Catharine

    2010-12-01

    Unintended pregnancies can lead to poor maternal and child health outcomes. Family planning use during the first year postpartum has the potential to significantly reduce at least some of these unintended pregnancies. This paper examines the relationship of menses return, breastfeeding status, and postpartum duration on return to sexual activity and use of modern family planning among postpartum women. This paper presents results from a secondary data analysis of Demographic and Health Surveys from 17 countries. For postpartum women, the return of menses, breastfeeding status, and postpartum duration are significantly associated with return to sexual activity in at least 10 out of the 17 countries but not consistently associated with family planning use. Only menses return had a significant association with use of modern family planning in the majority of countries. These findings point to the importance of education about pregnancy risk prior to menses return.

  10. Patient Satisfaction With Postpartum Teaching Methods.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Debra L; Washington, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum discharge instructions are a crucial part of a mother's birth experience. Finding the method to provide those discharge instructions in a manner that increases the mother's satisfaction with her hospital experience is important. This quasi-experimental study examined the relationship between new mothers' interaction with nurses providing postpartum instructions by the traditional and class methods and their satisfaction with discharge teaching. The results indicated new mothers were satisfied with both methods of discharge teaching; however, they were more likely to report stronger agreement with overall satisfaction with the traditional method of discharge teaching than with attending the discharge class.

  11. Postpartum Resumption of Sexual Activity, Sexual Morbidity and Use of Modern Contraceptives Among Nigerian Women in Jos

    PubMed Central

    Anzaku, AS; Mikah, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum sexual abstinence until when the child is weaned from breast milk is deeply rooted in most cultures in Nigeria. Aim: The study aimed at describing the current sexual practices of postpartum women, sexual morbidity, contraceptive prevalence and predictive factors for early postpartum sexual intercourse and associated sexual problems in our setting. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive 340 women at a child welfare clinic 14 weeks after childbirth. Questionnaires were administered between January 2012 and June 2012 to ascertain their socio-demographic and obstetric features, sexual activity, time to coital resumption, reasons for resumption and non-resumption of intercourse, sexual problems encountered and contraceptive usage. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS version 16 for windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results: Sexual intercourse was resumed by 67.6% (230/340) of women with a mean time to resuming intercourse of 8.2 (2.9) weeks postpartum and a median time of 8.0 weeks. About 3.5% (8/230) did so within the puerperium. Sexual intercourse was initiated mainly (77.4% [178/230]) by their husbands and only 19.1% (44/230) of them were using modern contraceptives. About 62.6% (144/230) of women experienced sexual morbidities including vaginal dryness/insufficient lubrication, dyspareunia and vaginal discharge. Socio-demographic and obstetric features, menstrual and breastfeeding status were not predictive of early resumption of coitus. Vaginal delivery (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.3-10.0, P = 0.01,) and previous episiotomy (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 2.0-6.1, P = 0.04,) were predictive of sexual morbidity. Conclusion: Women in our setting resume sexual intercourse early after childbirth without the use of contraception and often with associated sexual morbidity. Emphasis on sexual and contraceptive education during the immediate postpartum period is therefore imperative. PMID:24761240

  12. Implementing at-scale, community-based distribution of misoprostol tablets to mothers in the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Early results and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ikoro, Nnenna; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Balami, Wapada; Beal, Katherine; Ganiyu, Akeem; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Austin, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale. Methods A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers’ conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths. Results Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects. Conclusion It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State’s at-scale program implementation

  13. Postpartum contraception.

    PubMed

    Sober, Stephanie; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2014-12-01

    As birth spacing has demonstrated health benefits for a woman and her children, contraception after childbirth is recognized as an important health issue. The potential risk of pregnancy soon after delivery underscores the importance of initiating postpartum contraception in a timely manner. The contraceptive method initiated in the postpartum period depends upon a number of factors including medical history, anatomic and hormonal factors, patient preference, and whether or not the woman is breastfeeding. When electing a contraceptive method, informed choice is paramount. The availability of long-acting reversible contraceptive methods immediately postpartum provides a strategy to achieve reductions in unintended pregnancy.

  14. Postpartum psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, G E; Stewart, D E

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum blues, postpartum neurotic depression and puerperal psychoses have distinct clinical features; they affect women in all social classes and in all cultures, and despite numerous studies they have not been linked definitively with any biologic or psychosocial variables. The only possible exception is puerperal psychosis, which emerges much more often in women with a personal or family history of a bipolar affective disorder than in women without, a finding that probably explains the reluctance of some researchers to recognize puerperal psychotic episodes as distinct from psychotic episodes at other times. If postpartum blues last longer than 2 weeks and are disabling they are classified as neurotic depression and warrant treatment, often requiring both psychosocial approaches and psychotropic drug therapy. Antidepressants, major tranquillizers, electroconvulsive therapy and lithium have proved effective in the treatment of postpartum psychoses, depending on the symptoms. Both lithium and diazepam have been reported to cause deleterious side effects on breast-fed infants, and as the side effects of other psychotropic drugs given to a nursing mother are imperfectly understood, bottle feeding seems prudent. PMID:3510069

  15. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors.

    PubMed

    Posillico, Caitlin K; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers [28]. While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known, however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors.

  16. An investigation into the effects of antenatal stressors on the postpartum neuroimmune profile and depressive-like behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Posillico, Caitlin K.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a specific type of depression that affects approximately 10-15% of mothers (Wisner et al., 2013). While many have attributed the etiology of postpartum depression to the dramatic change in hormone levels that occurs immediately postpartum, the exact causes are not well-understood. It is well-known; however, that pregnancy induces a number of dramatic changes in the peripheral immune system that foster the development of the growing fetus. It is also well-known that changes in immune function, specifically within the brain, have been linked to several neuropsychiatric disorders including depression. Thus, we sought to determine whether pregnancy induces significant neuroimmune changes postpartum and whether stress or immune activation during pregnancy induce a unique neuroimmune profile that may be associated with depressive-like behaviors postpartum. We used late-gestation sub-chronic stress and late-gestation acute immune activation to examine the postpartum expression of depressive-like behaviors, microglial activation markers, and inflammatory cytokines within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus (HP). The expression of many immune molecules was significantly altered in the brain postpartum, and postpartum females also showed significant anhedonia, both independently of stress. Following late-gestation immune activation, we found a unique set of changes in neuroimmune gene expression immediately postpartum. Thus, our data indicate that even in the absence of additional stressors, postpartum females exhibit significant changes in the expression of cytokines within the brain that are associated with depressive-like behavior. Additionally, different forms of antenatal stress produce varying profiles of postpartum neuroimmune gene expression and associated depressive-like behaviors. PMID:26589802

  17. Long-lasting changes in morphine-induced locomotor sensitization and tolerance in Long-Evans mother rats as a result of periodic postpartum separation from the litter: a novel model of increased vulnerability to drug abuse?

    PubMed

    Kalinichev, Mikhail; Easterling, Keith W; Holtzman, Stephen G

    2003-02-01

    Daily postpartum separations from the litter produce enduring changes in anxiety and sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of morphine in Long-Evans dams. We tested whether postpartum experience alters sensitivity to the effects of morphine on locomotor activity. Dams were tested 4-6 weeks after their pups were weaned, and had one of the following backgrounds: daily separation from the litter on postpartum days 2-14 for either 3 h (prolonged separation-LS) or 15 min (brief separation-BS), or no separation (nonhandled control-NH). After 2 consecutive days (B1-2) of baseline activity measurements, subjects were tested daily after s.c. injections of either morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for 7 days and again on day 10. Beginning 5 days later, saline and 1.0-10 mg/kg of morphine were tested in all dams. On B1, LS and BS dams habituated slower than NH controls, yielding higher horizontal counts. LS dams failed to habituate across baseline days and were more active than other dams on B2. Sensitization, a progressive increase in horizontal activity, was more rapid and robust in LS and BS dams compared to NH animals. LS was the only group that developed tolerance to morphine-induced decreases in vertical activity. In LS dams with the history of morphine treatment, injection of saline resulted in higher horizontal activity and center time compared to saline-treated counterparts, indicative of conditioning. Among animals with a history of saline treatment, LS dams were more sensitive to morphine challenges than BS and NH dams. As a result of the robust and long-lasting increases in the ability of morphine to induce behavioral sensitization in litter-separated dams, periodic postpartum separation may represent a new animal model of increased vulnerability to substance abuse.

  18. Measuring women's fatigue during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Milligan, R A; Parks, P L; Kitzman, H; Lenz, E R

    1997-01-01

    The Fatigue Symptom Checklist (FSC) (Yoshitake, 1978), developed in Japan, was selected to measure postpartum fatigue among American women. Minor wording changes and a change in the reference time frame were made. Reliability and validity of this modification of the FSC were tested in this reanalysis of data from a longitudinal study of 285 mothers. Internal consistency reliability for the total 30-item FSC was acceptable. Evidence for criterion-related and construct validity was found. Original FSC subscales were not confirmed in these analyses. Using factor analysis, a shortened 10-item postpartum scale and two postpartum subscales, physical and mental fatigue, were identified. LISRAEL confirmatory factor analysis supported the subscales. Results support appropriateness of the total 30-item FSC, the shortened 10-item postpartum scale, and postpartum subscales for measuring postpartum fatigue in American women.

  19. Plants used during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum healthcare in Lao PDR: A comparative study of the Brou, Saek and Kry ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Hugo; Lamxay, Vichith

    2009-01-01

    Background In many Southeast Asian cultures the activities and diet during the postpartum period are culturally dictated and a period of confinement is observed. Plants play an important role in recovery during the postpartum period in diet, traditional medicine, steam bath and mother roasting (where mother and child placed on a bed above a brazier with charcoal embers on which aromatic plants are laid). This research focuses on the use of plants during pregnancy, parturition, postpartum recovery and infant healthcare among three ethnic groups, the Brou, Saek and Kry. It aims to identify culturally important traditions that may facilitate implementation of culturally appropriate healthcare. Methods Data were collected in 10 different villages in Khammouane province, Lao PDR, through group and individual interviews with women by female interviewers. Results A total of 55 different plant species are used in women's healthcare, of which over 90% are used in postpartum recovery. Consensus Analysis rejects the hypothesis that the three ethnic groups belong to a single culture for postpartum plant use, and multidimensional scaling reveals non-overlapping clusters per ethnic group. Conclusion Medicinal plant use is common among the Brou, Saek and Kry to facilitate childbirth, alleviate menstruation problems, assist recovery after miscarriage, mitigate postpartum haemorrhage, aid postpartum recovery, and for use in infant care. The wealth of novel insights into plant use and preparation will help to understand culturally important practices such as confinement, dietary restrictions, mother roasting and herbal steam baths and their incorporation into modern healthcare. PMID:19737413

  20. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan

    2015-12-01

    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  1. Effectiveness of a 12-month randomized clinical trial to increase physical activity in multiethnic postpartum women: Results from Hawaii’s Nā Mikimiki Project

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; White, Kami K.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Saiki, Kara; Brown, Wendy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few postpartum ethnic minority women perform leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The study tested the effectiveness of a 12-month tailored intervention to increase MVPA in women with infants 2–12 months old. Methods From 2008–2011, women (n=311) with infants (average age = 5.7 months) from Honolulu, Hawaii were randomly assigned to receive tailored telephone calls and access to a mom-centric website (n=154) or access to a standard PA website (n=157). MVPA was measured at baseline, 6, and 12 months using self-report and acclerometers. Results Controlling for covariates, the tailored condition significantly increased self-reported MVPA from an average of 44 to 246 minutes/week compared with 46 to 156 minutes/week for the standard condition (p=0.027). Mothers with ≥ 2 children had significantly greater increases in MVPA in response to the tailored intervention than those with one child (p=0.016). Accelerometer-measured MVPA significantly increased over time (p=0.0001), with no condition differences. There was evidence of reactivity to initially wearing accelerometers; the tailored intervention significantly increased MVPA among women with low baseline accelerometer MVPA minutes, but not among those with high minutes (pinteraction=0.053). Conclusion A tailored intervention effectively increased MVPA over 12 months in multiethnic women with infants, particularly those with more than one child. PMID:25285751

  2. Antiretroviral concentrations in breast-feeding infants of mothers receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Mirochnick, Mark; Thomas, Timothy; Capparelli, Edmund; Zeh, Clement; Holland, Diane; Masaba, Rose; Odhiambo, Prisca; Fowler, Mary Glenn; Weidle, Paul J; Thigpen, Michael C

    2009-03-01

    There are limited data describing the concentrations of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine in nursing infants as a result of transfer via breast milk. The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study is a phase IIb open-label trial of prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum maternal treatment with zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine from 34 weeks of gestation to 6 months postpartum. In a pharmacokinetic substudy, maternal plasma, breast milk, and infant dried blood spots were collected for drug assay on the day of delivery and at 2, 6, 14, and 24 weeks after delivery. Sixty-seven mother-infant pairs were enrolled. The median concentrations in breast milk of zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine during the study period were 14 ng/ml, 1,214 ng/ml, and 4,546 ng/ml, respectively. Zidovudine was not detectable in any infant plasma samples obtained after the day of delivery, while the median concentrations in infant plasma samples from postpartum weeks 2, 6, and 14 were 67 ng/ml, 32 ng/ml, and 24 ng/ml for lamivudine and 987 ng/ml, 1,032 ng/ml, and 734 ng/ml for nevirapine, respectively. Therefore, lamivudine and nevirapine, but not zidovudine, are transferred to infants via breast milk in biologically significant concentrations. The extent and effect of infant drug exposure via breast milk must be well understood in order to evaluate the benefits and risks of maternal antiretroviral use during lactation.

  3. Postpartum Preeclampsia

    MedlinePlus

    ... after the 20th week of your pregnancy. Other risk factors include obesity, a family history of high blood pressure, age (younger than 20 and older than 40), and being pregnant with multiple babies (twins, triplets, or more). How is postpartum preeclampsia diagnosed? ...

  4. A natural model of behavioral depression in postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Chu, Xun-Xun; Dominic Rizak, Joshua; Yang, Shang-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Hong; Ma, Yuan-Ye; Hu, Xin-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a modified form of major depressive disorders (MDD) that can exert profound negative effects on both mothers and infants than MDD. Within the postpartum period, both mothers and infants are susceptible; but because PPD typically occurs for short durations and has moderate symptoms, there exists challenges in exploring and addressing the underlying cause of the depression. This fact highlights the need for relevant animal models. In the present study, postpartum adult female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) living in breeding groups were observed for typical depressive behavior. The huddle posture behavior was utilized as an indicator of behavioral depression postpartum (BDP) as it has been established as the core depressive-like behavior in primates. Monkeys were divided into two groups: A BDP group (n=6), which were found to spend more time huddling over the first two weeks postpartum than other individuals that formed a non-depression control group (n=4). The two groups were then further analyzed for locomotive activity, stressful events, hair cortisol levels and for maternal interactive behaviors. No differences were found between the BDP and control groups in locomotive activity, in the frequencies of stressful events experienced and in hair cortisol levels. These findings suggested that the postpartum depression witnessed in the monkeys was not related to external factors other than puerperium period. Interestingly, the BDP monkeys displayed an abnormal maternal relationship consisting of increased infant grooming. Taken together, these findings suggest that the adult female cynomolgus monkeys provide a natural model of behavioral postpartum depression that holds a number of advantages over commonly used rodent systems in PPD modeling. The cynomolgus monkeys have a highly-organized social hierarchy and reproductive characteristics without seasonal restriction-similar to humans-as well as much greater homology to humans

  5. Do Mothers' Opinions Matter in Teens' Sexual Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerson, Laura

    2005-01-01

    Using the Add Health data (N = 9,530 dyads), this study explores sexual socialization in the family using the theory of reasoned action by assessing how mothers' opinions are associated with their childrens' sexual behavior. Findings suggest that the more sexually liberal teens think their mothers are, the more likely the teens are to have higher…

  6. Postpartum Early and Extended Contact: Quality, Quantity or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, John B.; Vietze, Peter M.

    This study examined the effects of early vs. extended mother-infant contact on infant, maternal and interactional outcomes in the lying-in period for 104 lower class mother-infant dyads. The early contact treatment consisted of placing the mother and neonate together for 10 to 45 minutes within the first 3 postpartum hours. The extended contact…

  7. Exploring the use of Storybooks to Reach Mothers of Preschoolers with Nutrition and Physical Activity Messages

    PubMed Central

    Bellows, Laura; Spaeth, Amanda; Lee, Victoria; Anderson, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess perceptions stay-at-home mothers have about their preschoolers’ eating and physical activity behaviors and to explore the feasibility of utilizing storybooks in home-based nutrition and activity programming. Methods Focus groups were conducted with 24 mothers; intercept interviews with 30 parents; and a storybook prototype was developed and pretested in 8 preschool classrooms. Results Mothers acknowledged picky eating as an issue and were less likely to identify issues with physical activity but were interested in information on gross motor development. Mothers strongly supported storybooks as a modality to convey and reinforce health messages at home. The storybook prototype was well liked by parents, teachers and preschoolers. Conclusions and Implications Storybooks are a practical method to reach mothers and preschoolers and have the potential to elicit changes in eating and activity behaviors. Understanding mothers’ perceptions of healthy eating and physical activity is essential to ensure that storybook messages resonate with this audience. PMID:23415760

  8. Postpartum Depression Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Where can I find more information? Share Postpartum Depression Facts Download PDF Download ePub Download Mobi Order ... for herself or her family. What is postpartum depression? Postpartum depression is a mood disorder that can ...

  9. Content Analysis of Motivational Counseling Calls Targeting Obesity-Related Behaviors Among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Julia; Oken, Emily; Haines, Jess; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to examine mothers’ perspectives of obesity-related health behavior recommendations for themselves and their 0–6 month old infants. A health educator conducted 4 motivational counseling calls with 60 mothers of infants during the first 6 months postpartum. Calls addressed 5 behaviors for infants (breastfeeding, introduction of solid foods, sleep, TV, hunger cues), and 4 for mothers (eating, physical activity, sleep, TV). We recorded detailed notes from each call, capturing responsiveness to recommendations and barriers to change. Two independent coders analyzed the notes to identify themes. Mothers in our study were more interested in focusing on their infants’ health behaviors than on their own. While most were receptive to eliminating their infants’ TV exposure, they resisted limiting TV for themselves. There was some resistance to following infant feeding guidelines, and contrary to advice to avoid nursing or rocking babies to sleep, mothers commonly relied on these techniques. Return to work emerged as a barrier to breastfeeding, yet facilitated healthier eating, increased activity, and reduced TV time for mothers. The early postpartum period is a challenging time for mothers to focus on their own health behaviors, but returning to work appears to offer an opportunity for positive changes in this regard. To improve weight-related infant behaviors, interventions should consider mothers’ perceptions of nutrition and physical activity recommendations and barriers to adherence. PMID:21258960

  10. Factors affecting the incidence of postpartum oestrus, ovarian activity and reproductive performance in Thoroughbred mares bred at foal heat under Indian subtropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sumeet; Davies Morel, M C G; Dhaliwal, G S

    2010-07-01

    Decreased reproductive performance due to summer stress is a well known phenomenon in farm livestock. Whether this occurs in the mare and specifically how this might affect postpartum reproductive activity and performance, especially at Foal Heat (FH), is unknown. This study, therefore, aims to investigate this and the factors that might affect postpartum reproductive activity. Reproductive records of 228 Thoroughbred mares (694 mare years) bred in subtropical north-western India were retrospectively analysed. Overt oestrous activity occurred within 21 d postpartum in 92.94% (645/694) of mares. Significantly (p<0.001) more April foaling mares (97.37%, 185/190) expressed postpartum oestrous activity than those foaling in January (83.61%; 51/61) and February (88.49; 123/139). Similarly significantly (p<0.01) fewer multiparous mares failed to demonstrate oestrous activity than primiparous mares (6.12% vs.15.07%; 38/621 vs. 11/73, respectively). 190 of these 694 mares were additionally monitored to confirm ovulation; in these mares onset of FH (oestrus plus confirmed ovulation) occurred 8.42+/-0.17 d and first ovulation 13.64+/-0.20 d postpartum. Month, stud farm, year, and parity did not affect interval from parturition to FH onset or to first ovulation; or FH onset to ovulation. In FH bred mares Day 16 pregnancy rate and overall foaling rate were 53.76% (100/186) and 46.24% (86/186) respectively and were similar to those of mares bred later postpartum. FH pregnancy rates were not affected by stud, season, month, year, number of matings, or day of ovulation but were significantly (p<0.008) lowered by increasing mare age. Significantly (p<0.01) lower Day 16 pregnancy rates were observed in uterine treated mares compared to untreated mares (31.09% vs. 57.96%; 9/29 vs. 91/157, respectively), this difference was not evident during the rest of pregnancy. In conclusion, postpartum reproductive and ovarian activity appears to be affected by environment, i.e., delayed in

  11. Amygdala response to negative images in postpartum vs nulliparous women and intranasal oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    The neuroendocrine state of new mothers may alter their neural processing of stressors in the environment through modulatory actions of oxytocin on the limbic system. We predicted that amygdala sensitivity to negatively arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum compared to nulliparous women and that this suppression would be modulated by administration of oxytocin nasal spray. We measured brain activation (fMRI) and subjective arousal in response to negatively arousing pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women who received either oxytocin nasal spray or placebo before scanning. Pre- and post-exposure urinary cortisol levels were also measured. Postpartum women (placebo) demonstrated lower right amygdala activation in response to negative images, lower cortisol and lower negative photo arousal ratings to nulliparous women. Nulliparous women receiving oxytocin had lower right amygdala activation compared to placebo. Cortisol levels in the placebo group, and ratings of arousal across all women, were positively associated with right amygdala activation. Together, these findings demonstrate reductions in both amygdala activation and subjective negative arousal in untreated postpartum vs nulliparous women, supporting the hypothesis of an attenuated neural response to arousing stimuli in postpartum women. A causal role of oxytocin and the timing of potential effects require future investigation.

  12. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    PubMed

    Downing, Katherine L; Best, Keren; Campbell, Karen J; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities) as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional) were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers' preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies.

  13. Informing Active Play and Screen Time Behaviour Change Interventions for Low Socioeconomic Position Mothers of Young Children: What Do Mothers Want?

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Karen J.; Hesketh, Kylie D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study investigated views of mothers from disadvantaged urban and regional areas (i.e., beyond major capital cities) as potential end users of child active play and screen time behaviour change interventions, with a focus on text messaging and web-based delivery platforms. Methods. Thirty-two mothers (22 urban; 10 regional) were interviewed. Purpose-designed questions covered topics regarding mothers' preferences for accessing and receiving information related to parenting and child active play and screen time. Data from transcribed interviews were analysed to identify responses and key themes. Results. Mothers reported frequently accessing parenting- and child-related information online. Regional mothers reported seeking information by talking with other people less frequently than urban mothers and seemed to have a stronger preference for receiving information online. There were few differences between responses from low and high educated mothers. The majority of mothers reported that they would be happy to receive text messages containing information about active play and screen time and that they would find a dedicated website with this information useful. Conclusions. Mothers in this study held favourable views on the potential of receiving information via new communication technologies. Future interventions targeting socioeconomically disadvantaged mothers may benefit from delivering intervention messages via these technologies. PMID:28053979

  14. Women's Experiences with Postpartum Anxiety: Expectations, Relationships, and Sociocultural Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardrop, Andrea A.; Popadiuk, Natalee E.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence about anxiety in the postpartum is sparse and contradictory. Our research expands this knowledge by using a qualitative methodology, the Feminist Biographical Method, to explore first time mothers' experiences of postpartum anxiety. Data collection included 1.5 to 2.0 hour interviews with six women about their experiences of anxiety in…

  15. Preliminary experience with use of recombinant activated factor VII to control postpartum hemorrhage in acute fatty liver of pregnancy and other pregnancy-related liver disorders.

    PubMed

    Goel, Ashish; Nair, Sukesh Chandran; Viswabandya, Auro; Masilamani, Vinodh P; Rao, Shoma V; George, Alice; Regi, Annie; Jose, Ruby; Zachariah, Uday; Subramani, Kandasamy; Eapen, C E; Chandy, George

    2013-07-01

    Control of postpartum hemorrhage is difficult in patients with coagulopathy due to acute liver failure. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can help in control of bleed; however, it has short duration of action (2-4 h). The study aimed to report the use of rFVIIa in this setting. We retrospectively analyzed all patients with acute liver failure secondary to pregnancy-related liver disorders who received rFVIIa for control of postpartum hemorrhage (six patients, all six met diagnostic criteria for acute fatty liver of pregnancy). One dose of rFVIIa achieved adequate control of bleeding in five patients, while one patient needed a second dose. rFVIIa administration corrected coagulopathy and significantly reduced requirement of packed red cells and other blood products. No patient had thrombotic complications. In conclusion, rFVIIa was a useful adjunct to standard management in postpartum hemorrhage secondary to acute liver failure of pregnancy-related liver disorders.

  16. Mother-Child Communication Sequences: Play Activity, Child Gender, and Marital Status Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leaper, Campbell; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined mother-child communication patterns in relation to mother's marital status, child gender, and play activity in light of contextual-ecological models. Suggests that the socialization of gender be viewed as a construction influenced directly by factors in the immediate interactive context and influenced indirectly by developed adaptations…

  17. Mothers' Reading-Related Activities at Home and Learning to Read during Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Parrila, Rauno; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Niemi, Pekka; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigates how the reading-related activities of mothers at home relate to the development of reading skills among their kindergarten children. A total of 1,529 children (5-to-6-year-olds) were tested on word reading twice, once at the beginning and once at the end of a kindergarten year. The mothers of the children (n =…

  18. The Andrea Yates Effect: Priming Mental Illness Stereotypes Through Exemplification of Postpartum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Holman, Lynette; McKeever, Robert

    2016-10-03

    In a randomized between-subjects design, participants (N = 80) were assigned to one of four conditions, 2 (pregnant, not pregnant) × 2 (extreme prime, moderate prime). It was hypothesized that primes involving moderate mental illness would be positively associated with increased perceived risk of developing postpartum depression. Hayes and Preacher's bootstrapping procedure was used to test the direct, indirect, and conditional indirect effects related to the hypothesized model. In addition, further analyses evaluated whether implicitly activated goals (to be healthy or to be a good mother) were positively associated with increased perceptions of risk and engagement of downstream avoidance behavioral intentions. Findings show that for pregnant participants, the effect of the prime condition on perceived personal risk of developing postpartum depression was mediated by perceptions about the target character's sanity. However, activated "healthy" and "good mother" goals are not influencing behavioral intentions.

  19. What are postpartum women doing while the rest of the world is asleep?

    PubMed

    McBean, Amanda L; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2015-06-01

    Large individual differences characterize maternal postpartum sleep and adjustment. Our goal was to explore aspects of mothers' nocturnal environments and behaviours that may explain differences in postpartum adjustment. A total of 201 mothers of infants aged 0-6 months completed an online survey with demographics, number and duration of nocturnal awakenings, caretaking behaviours, environment and nocturnal activities during 'one typical night during the past week'. Mothers reported 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) ± 1.7] nocturnal awakenings, each lasting 33.9 (SD ± 22.5) min. Infant age was related inversely to duration but unrelated to number of awakenings. Falling asleep while feeding was less frequent among exclusively formula-feeders. Among the entire sample, mothers used a cellphone (59%), backlit tablet (25%), TV (20%) and computer (16%) during nocturnal awakenings. Watching TV and using a computer were each associated with longer nocturnal awakenings. Eighty-nine per cent of women used ≥1 extra light source during nocturnal awakenings: night light (35%), light from a cracked door (28%), desk lamp (25%), electronic device (19%) or room light (14%). Light source(s) was unrelated to number or duration of nocturnal awakenings. These data suggest that, although supplemental light sources were not associated with awakenings, TV and computer use accounted for longer awakenings. Feeding method and technology use may help to explain individual differences in postpartum adjustments and may be targets for more effective interventions.

  20. Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum Obsessive Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for ...

  1. Tips for Postpartum Dads and Partners

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression During Pregnancy & Postpartum Anxiety During Pregnancy & Postpartum Pregnancy or Postpartum Obsessive Symptoms Postpartum Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for ...

  2. Immunization promotion activities: are they effective in encouraging mothers to immunize their children?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cuevas, R; Reyes, H; Pego, U; Tomé, P; Ceja, K; Flores, S; Gutiérrez, G

    1999-10-01

    Mass media communication is an important strategy for increasing parental uptake and to promote community participation when large-scale immunization activities are carried out. In Mexico, the National Vaccination Council (CONAVA) launches three immunization campaigns every year accompanied by three vaccination promotion campaigns. This study was conducted to assess whether communication activities to promote CONAVA's Second National Health Week (SNHW) were effective in providing information to mothers about the importance of immunizing their children under five years of age and in prompting them to seek immunization services. A probability sample of mothers living in the metropolitan area of Mexico City and having at least one child under five years old was selected for the study. Four outcome variables were defined as measuring the impact of the campaign: (1) mothers' knowledge about the SNHW; (2) mothers' comprehension indicating how well they understood the campaign messages (aware, partly aware and unaware); (3) mothers' motivation, i.e. whether or not they sought out immunizations for their children under the age of five and (4) mothers' opinion of how well they liked the messages. A total of 935 mothers were interviewed; 88.2% knew about the SNHW, 64.3% were aware that the campaign aimed to provide immunizations, and most held a favorable opinion about the messages. Among aware mothers, 87.5% of their children received immunizations. In this group 72.1% were prompted by the information in the campaign to seek immunizations for their children while 27.9% had to be personally invited to participate in the campaign. The latter occurred either when health workers or volunteers visited mothers in their homes or by soliciting mothers' participation as they visited or passed by immunization health posts. In the unaware mothers group, 72.7% of their children received immunizations; 62.5% of the mothers took their children because of information they received through

  3. Management of Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Guille, Constance; Newman, Roger; Fryml, Leah D.; Lifton, Clay K.; Epperson, C. Neill

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum depression, now termed peripartum depression by the DSM-V, is one of the most common complications in the postpartum period and has potentially significant negative consequences for mothers and their families. This article highlights common clinical challenges in the treatment of peripartum depression and reviews the evidence for currently available treatment options. Psychotherapy is the first-line treatment options for women with mild-to-moderate peripartum depression. Antidepressant medication in combination with therapy is recommended for women with moderate-to-severe depression. While pooled case reports and small controlled studies have demonstrated undetectable infant serum levels and no short-term adverse events in infants of mothers breastfeeding while taking sertraline (Zoloft) and paroxetine (Paxil), further research is needed including larger samples and long-term follow-up of infants exposed to antidepressants via breastfeeding with control for maternal depression. Pharmacological treatment recommendations in women who are lactating must include discussion with the patient regarding the benefits of breastfeeding, risks of antidepressant use during lactation and risks of untreated illness. There is a growing evidence base for non-pharmacological interventions including repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) which may offer an attractive option for women who wish to continue to breastfeed and are concerned about exposure of medication to their infant. Among severe cases of peripartum depression with psychosis referral to a psychiatrist or psychiatric APRN is warranted. Suicidal or homicidal ideation with a desire, intent or plan to harm oneself or anyone one else, including the infant, is a psychiatric emergency, and an evaluation by a mental health professional should be conducted immediately. Peripartum depression treatment research is limited by small samples sizes and few controlled studies. Much work is still needed to better

  4. Mother and Child Health Pmp Report: 2011-2012 Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charpak, Nathalie; Ruiz-Pelaez, Juan G.; de Leon-Mendoza, Socorro

    2014-07-01

    The following sections are included: * REMINDER: THE MOTHER AND CHILD PMP MANIFESTO (ERICE 2002) * SUMMARY OF THE WORK OF THE KANGAROO FOUNDATION FOR THE PAST 20 YEARS * WHAT ARE WE EXPECTING FROM 2014? * SOME NEWS FROM THE PHILIPPINES AND ASIA KMC NETWORK. * CONCLUSION

  5. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Activities for Integrating Science and Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn; Bell, Ann

    The pairing of Mother Goose rhymes and nursery tales with the scientific thinking process is an effective instructional strategy linking reading and science learning at the primary level. This paper presents several such pairings which stress the basic science processes in grades K-3 of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and…

  6. Nurses' knowledge of traditional Chinese postpartum customs.

    PubMed

    Tien, Sheng-Fang

    2004-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine nurses' and postpartum women's knowledge of and attitudes toward the traditional Chinese custom of 1-month confinement following delivery, to discover factors influencing the attitudes, and to analyze the correlation between them. After a descriptive and inferential analysis of 173 questionnaires (121 recent mothers and 52 nurses), a significant difference was found in the women's and nurses' scores for knowledge of the postpartum confinement custom, with postpartum women scoring higher than the nursing staff on average. Both groups held positive attitudes toward the traditional custom. Attitudes and level of knowledge were positively correlated. Results of this study can serve as a reference for in-service nursing education, which should include information about traditional postpartum customs.

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation.

  8. The Knowledge of Third Trimester Pregnant Women about Postpartum and Newborn Infants Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahayuningsih, Faizah Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Postpartum period is a transition period but it is being neglected aspect from women health care. Mother's knowledge and education before childbirth is important to be prepared for postpartum. Misinformation about traditions/customs in society are considered irrational, causing confusion in puerperal women, especially for mothers who…

  9. The postpartum period in dromedary camels: uterine involution, ovarian activity, hormonal changes, and response to GnRH treatment.

    PubMed

    Derar, R; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F A

    2014-12-30

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the time for complete uterine involution and resumption of ovarian activity in postpartum dromedary camels, relative to hormonal changes. A total of six females were examined by ultrasonography twice weekly starting 3d after parturition. GnRH was administered when the follicles reached ≥0.9cm diameter. Blood samples were collected for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that the mean intervals for complete involution of the previously gravid horn, non-gravid horn, and cervix were 34.33±3.9, 29.01±0.81, and 28.71±1.51d, respectively. After GnRH treatment (Days 17-34), five of the six camels had ovulated. The corpus luteum was detected by Day 4.1±1.6 after GnRH treatment and lasted for 6±1.1d. Serum progesterone (P4) was basal and increased only after GnRH treatment. Serum estradiol 17-β (E2) peaked twice: when a large follicle was detected and 8.5±2.8d post-GnRH treatment. The serum FSH pattern was biphasic, with two peaks just before the recruitment of small follicles and 4.67±4.1d after GnRH treatment. The five ovulating females were mated; two conceived after the first service and three after the second service. The interval from calving to conception was 78.16±3.71d. It was concluded that in dromedary camels, involution of the uterus is completed by the 5th week postpartum, these camels are highly responsive to early GnRH treatment, and they can be mated between the 5th and 6th week after parturition with encouraging conception rates.

  10. Treating postpartum depression and anxiety naturally.

    PubMed

    Zauderer, Cheryl; Davis, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Postpartum depression and or perinatal mood disorders are complex phenomena with numerous interrelated factors. Approximately 13% of women experience some degree of depression following childbirth. Mental health professionals have described postpartum depression as encompassing a variety of syndromes and as ranging from mild depression and anxiety to more severe forms of emotional disorders. Evidence is accumulating that postpartum depression/perinatal mood disorders may adversely affect the mother-child relationship, and that it may also have long-term effects on the child if the mother does not receive treatment. Postpartum depression and anxiety disorders can have devastating effects on the mother, her baby, and the entire family. Frontline management typically includes medication, therapy, and social support. However, many women feel conflicted about using psychotropic medications during pregnancy and breastfeeding and are interested in learning about alternative therapies. If a pregnant or breastfeeding mother is prescribed psychiatric medications, she may not follow the prescription and may also be afraid to tell her provider. Women may refuse medications, even after weighing the pros and cons and safety issues with health care providers. For mild to moderate depression and anxiety, nonpharmacological choices need to be available for these women to provide them with alternative options and to encourage adherence to treatment.

  11. Cultural factors and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taipei City, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chu, Yu-Roo; Han, Kuo-Chiang; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Chien, Li-Yin

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify cultural factors (including acculturation and breastfeeding cultures in subjects' native countries and those in mainstream Taiwanese society) and social support related to breastfeeding among immigrant mothers in Taiwan. This study was a cross-sectional survey performed from October 2007 through January 2008. The study participants were 210 immigrant mothers living in Taipei City. The prevalence of exclusive and partial breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum was 59.0% and 14.3%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that breastfeeding experience among mothers-in-law and the perceived level of acceptance of breastfeeding in Taiwan were positively associated with breastfeeding at 3 months postpartum. Immigrant women with a higher level of household activity support were less likely to breastfeed. Immigrant mothers in Taiwan usually come from cultures with a higher acceptance level for breastfeeding; however, their breastfeeding practices are more likely to be influenced by the mainstream culture in Taiwan.

  12. Maternal neglect with reduced depressive-like behavior and blunted c-fos activation in Brattleboro mothers, the role of central vasopressin.

    PubMed

    Fodor, Anna; Klausz, Barbara; Pintér, Ottó; Daviu, Nuria; Rabasa, Cristina; Rotllant, David; Balazsfi, Diana; Kovacs, Krisztina B; Nadal, Roser; Zelena, Dóra

    2012-09-01

    Early mother-infant relationships exert important long-term effects in offspring and are disturbed by factors such as postpartum depression. We aimed to clarify if lack of vasopressin influences maternal behavior paralleled by the development of a depressive-like phenotype. We compared vasopressin-deficient Brattleboro mothers with heterozygous and homozygous normal ones. The following parameters were measured: maternal behavior (undisturbed and separation-induced); anxiety by the elevated plus maze; sucrose and saccharin preference and forced swim behavior. Underlying brain areas were examined by c-fos immunocytochemistry among rest and after swim-stress. In another group of rats, vasopressin 2 receptor agonist was used peripherally to exclude secondary changes due to diabetes insipidus. Results showed that vasopressin-deficient rats spend less time licking-grooming their pups through a centrally driven mechanism. There was no difference between genotypes during the pup retrieval test. Vasopressin-deficient mothers tended to explore more the open arms of the plus maze, showed more preference for sucrose and saccharin and struggled more in the forced swim test, suggesting that they act as less depressive. Under basal conditions, vasopressin-deficient mothers had more c-fos expression in the medial preoptic area, shell of nucleus accumbens, paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and amygdala, but not in other structures. In these areas the swim-stress-induced activation was smaller. In conclusion, vasopressin-deficiency resulted in maternal neglect due to a central effect and was protective against depressive-like behavior probably as a consequence of reduced activation of some stress-related brain structures. The conflicting behavioral data underscores the need for more sex specific studies.

  13. Depression During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

    PubMed

    Becker, Madeleine; Weinberger, Tal; Chandy, Ann; Schmukler, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Depression is a common complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. There are multiple risk factors for peripartum mood disorders, most important of which is a prior history of depression. Both depression and antidepressant medications confer risk upon the infant. Maternal depression has been associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction, and postnatal cognitive and emotional complications. Antidepressant exposure has been associated with preterm birth, reductions in birth weight, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS) as well as a possible connection with autism spectrum disorder. Paroxetine has been associated with cardiac malformations. Most antidepressant medications are excreted in low levels in breast milk and are generally compatible with breastfeeding. The use of antidepressants during pregnancy and postpartum must be weighed against the risk of untreated depression in the mother.

  14. Adolescent Mothers Leaving Multigenerational Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Magder, Laurence S.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the…

  15. Developing Content for a mHealth Intervention to Promote Postpartum Retention in Prevention of Mother-To-Child HIV Transmission Programs and Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Odeny, Thomas A.; Newman, Maya; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; McClelland, R. Scott; Cohen, Craig R.; Camlin, Carol S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal attendance at postnatal clinic visits and timely diagnosis of infant HIV infection are important steps for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV. We aimed to use theory-informed methods to develop text messages targeted at facilitating these steps. Methods We conducted five focus group discussions with health workers and women attending antenatal, postnatal, and PMTCT clinics to explore aspects of women's engagement in postnatal HIV care and infant testing. Discussion topics were informed by constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM) and prior empirical research. Qualitative data were coded and analyzed according to the construct of the HBM to which they related. Themes were extracted and used to draft intervention messages. We carried out two stages of further messaging development: messages were presented in a follow-up focus group in order to develop optimal phrasing in local languages. We then further refined the messages, pretested them in individual cognitive interviews with selected health workers, and finalized the messages for the intervention. Results Findings indicated that brief, personalized, caring, polite, encouraging, and educational text messages would facilitate women bringing their children to clinic after delivery, suggesting that text messages may serve as an important “cue to action.” Participants emphasized that messages should not mention HIV due to fear of HIV testing and disclosure. Participants also noted that text messages could capitalize on women's motivation to attend clinic for childhood immunizations. Conclusions Applying a multi-stage content development approach to crafting text messages – informed by behavioral theory – resulted in message content that was consistent across different focus groups. This approach could help answer “why” and “how” text messaging may be a useful tool to support maternal and child health. We are evaluating the effect of these messages on

  16. Expectant Fathers’ Intuitive Parenting: Associations with Parent Characteristics and Postpartum Positive Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Altenburger, Lauren E.; Settle, Theresa A.; Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Sullivan, Jason M.; Bower, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior, its correlates, and its associations with fathers’ postpartum positive engagement. One hundred eighty-two expectant couples completed the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play in the third trimester of pregnancy. Coders rated expectant fathers’ and mothers’ intuitive parenting behavior during this procedure. Expectant parents also completed surveys regarding their psychological and demographic characteristics. At 3 months postpartum, fathers completed time diaries that assessed the time they spent in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities with their infants. Examination of correlates of expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior revealed that expectant fathers showed lower levels of these behaviors than expectant mothers, that intuitive parenting behavior was moderately positively associated for mothers and fathers, and that individual differences in expectant fathers’ intuitive parenting behavior were associated with parent demographic and psychological characteristics. In particular, expectant fathers showed greater intuitive parenting behavior when they had greater human capital and more progressive beliefs about parent roles, and when their partners had lower parenting self-efficacy. Findings also indicated that expectant fathers’ greater intuitive parenting behavior was predictive of fathers’ greater subsequent engagement in developmentally appropriate activities at 3 months postpartum, but only when expectant mothers demonstrated low levels of intuitive parenting behavior. PMID:25798492

  17. Impact of health beliefs, social support and self-efficacy on physical activity and dietary habits during the post-partum period after gestational diabetes mellitus: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a glucose intolerance of variable severity occurring or diagnosed for the first time during pregnancy. Numerous epidemiological studies show that this disorder affects between 1 and 18% of pregnancies, depending on the ethnicity of the populations studied, the diagnostic criteria, or the body mass index (BMI). Its incidence is constantly rising worldwide. Patients with GDM have a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the months after delivery. For this reason, GDM patients are encouraged to practice specific health behaviors (dietary habits, physical activity) during the postpartum period. It is important to identify the factors that may impact adherence to these behaviors. Methods/Design A targeted sample size of 200 eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of GDM will be enrolled in this prospective, cohort study. They will be recruited from 30-36 weeks of gestation as part of their diabetes consultation in Geneva University Hospital (GUH) maternity unit. Psychosocial variables that could impact adherence to health behaviors in the postpartum period (behavioral intentions, risk perceptions, general knowledge about diabetes, health beliefs, social support, self-efficacy) will be evaluated using specific tools at the end of pregnancy, at 6 weeks postpartum and at 6 months postpartum. Multiple regression analyses will be performed on SPSS. Discussion For the first time in Europe, the objective of this research is to study in women with very recent GDM the link between dietary habits, physical activity levels, and psychosocial and cognitive factors possibly involved in the adoption of health behaviors in the postpartum period. These factors have been identified in the literature, but to date have never been combined in a single study. The study will allow a predictive theoretical model of health behavior to be established and used as a basis for reflection to optimize interventions carried out on

  18. Foster Mother-Infant Bonding: Associations between Foster Mothers' Oxytocin Production, Electrophysiological Brain Activity, Feelings of Commitment, and Caregiving Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bick, Johanna; Dozier, Mary; Bernard, Kristin; Grasso, Damion; Simons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the biological processes associated with foster mother-infant bonding. In an examination of foster mother-infant dyads ("N" = 41, mean infant age = 8.5 months), foster mothers' oxytocin production was associated with their expressions of behavioral delight toward their foster infant and their average P3 response to…

  19. Postpartum reproductive activities and gestation length in Martina Franca jennies, an endangered Italian donkey breed.

    PubMed

    Tosi, Umberto; Bernabò, Nicola; Verni, Fabiana; Valbonetti, Luca; Muttini, Aurelio; Mattioli, Mauro; Barboni, Barbara

    2013-07-15

    The donkey reproductive physiology is still partially known despite the increasing risk of extinction involving several breeds. The present study was designed to describe the postpartum (PP) reproductive performance of an Italian endangered breed: the Martina Franca donkey. To this aim, 52 jennies were monitored to define the foal-heat (FH) and the first and second PP estrus episodes (1st PPe and 2nd PPe). The data indicate that jennies spontaneously recovered reproduction in approximately 10 days after delivery. Then heats occur with a regular interval of approximately 23 days. Estrus length was 1 week in FH and the 2nd PPe and significantly shorter in the 1st PPe. Estrus-ovulation, and delivery-ovulation interval and follicle growth were similar in all animals tested. Pregnancy rate (PR) was lower when natural mating occurred during the FH and 2nd PPe (approximately 60%) than during the 1st PPe (approximately 70%; P < 0.01). In addition, the higher PR (>80%; P < 0.01) was recorded in jennies when the FH occurred after the first week PP and it dropped (<50%) in early FH animals. The PR was also affected by the season and by age: it significantly declined during the autumn-winter season and in subjects older than the sixth year of age. For the first time, the reproductive performance of PP donkeys were defined on a large number of Martina Franca jennies thus offering useful information to improve farm management with an immediate benefit to increase livestock production. This aspect of management improvement might be particularly important if applied to an endangered breed such as Martina Franca donkeys.

  20. Oxytocin course over pregnancy and postpartum period and the association with postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Krause, Daniela; Maiwald, Carina; Härtl, Kristin; Myint, Aye-Mu; Kästner, Ralph; Obermeier, Michael; Padberg, Frank; Brücklmeier, Benedikt; Weidinger, Elif; Kieper, Susann; Schwarz, Markus; Zill, Peter; Müller, Norbert

    2016-08-01

    During the postpartum period, women are at higher risk of developing a mental disorder such as postpartum depression (PPD), a disorder that associates with mother-infant bonding and child development. Oxytocin is considered to play a key role in mother-infant bonding and social interactions and altered oxytocin plasma concentrations were found to be associated with PPD. In the present study, we evaluated oxytocin plasma levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period in healthy women. We evaluated 100 women twice during pregnancy (weeks 35 and 38) and three times in the postpartum period (within 2 days and 7 weeks and 6 months after delivery) by measuring oxytocin plasma levels with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assessing depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Oxytocin plasma levels significantly increased from the 35th week of gestation to 6 months postpartum in all women. However, levels decreased from the 38th week of gestation to 2 days after delivery in participants with postpartum depressive symptoms, whereas they continuously increased in the group without postpartum depressive symptoms; the difference between the course of oxytocin levels in the two groups was significant (Δt2-t3: t = 2.14; p = 0.036*). Previous depressive episodes and breastfeeding problems predicted postpartum depressive symptoms. Our results indicate that alterations in the oxytocin system during pregnancy might be specific for women who develop postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies should investigate whether oxytocin plasma levels might have predictive value in women at high risk for PPD.

  1. A post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to- child HIV-1 transmission.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Reshmi; Paredes, Roger; Parboosing, Raveen; Moodley, Pravi; Singh, Lavanya; Naidoo, Anneta; Gordon, Michelle

    2015-10-01

    Although the rates of vertical transmission of HIV in the developing world have improved to around 3% in countries like South Africa, resistance to antiretrovirals (ARV) used in Prevention of Mother-to-Child transmission (pMTCT) strategies may thwart such outcomes and affect the efficacy of future ARV regimens in mothers and children. This study conducted in Durban, South Africa, between 2010 and 2013 found a high rate of nevirapine (NVP) resistance among women receiving Zidovudine (AZT) from 14 weeks gestation, single dose nevirapine (sd NVP) at the onset of labor and a single dose of coformulated Tenofovir/Emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) postpartum. Using Sanger sequencing, high and intermediate levels of nevirapine (NVP) resistance were detected in 15/44 (34%) and in 1/44 (2%) of women tested, respectively. Most subjects selected the K103N mutation (22% (10/45) of all patients and 66% (10/15) of those with high-level NVP resistance). Such rate of NVP resistance is comparable to studies where only sd NVP was used. In conclusion, a post-partum single-dose TDF/FTC tail does not prevent the selection of NNRTI resistance in women receiving pre-partum ZDV and intrapartum sd NVP to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission.

  2. What do mothers want to know about teens' activities? Levels, trajectories, and correlates.

    PubMed

    Smetana, Judith G; Rote, Wendy M

    2015-01-01

    Middle class mothers (n = 169) of middle adolescents (M = 15.69 years old) in the U.S. rated how much they want to know and responded qualitatively about what they "always" and "never" want to know about adolescents' risky prudential (e.g., drinking alcohol, using illegal drugs), personal (e.g., teens' private conversations), and multifaceted (involving overlapping prudential and personal concerns) activities. Latent growth curve modeling over one year showed that mothers wanted to know most about prudential, less about multifaceted, and least about personal activities; wanting to know declined over time for each type of activity, but less for prudential than for other activities. With teen problem behavior controlled, psychologically controlling parenting, supportive and negative interactions with teens, knowledge of adolescents' activities, and teens' age were associated with individual differences in mothers' initial ratings and trajectories of wanting to know, although results varied by domain and were moderated by teen gender.

  3. Postpartum Depression: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albright, Angela

    1993-01-01

    Occurring in about 12 percent of postpartum women, postpartum depression has been focus of considerable research. Variables that have been correlated with postpartum depression range from biological causes, to lack of social support, to relationship with husband, to attributional styles, to psychodynamic explanations. There is need for more…

  4. A Counselor's Primer on Postpartum Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Notes that women are particularly vulnerable to depression during the postpartum period. Distinguishes postpartum depression from normal postpartum adjustment, postpartum blues, and postpartum psychosis. Describes biological, psychodynamic, and diathesis-stress perspectives on postpartum depression. Encourages counselors to fashion individualized…

  5. Patient Satisfaction With Postpartum Teaching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Debra L.; Washington, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Postpartum discharge instructions are a crucial part of a mother’s birth experience. Finding the method to provide those discharge instructions in a manner that increases the mother’s satisfaction with her hospital experience is important. This quasi-experimental study examined the relationship between new mothers’ interaction with nurses providing postpartum instructions by the traditional and class methods and their satisfaction with discharge teaching. The results indicated new mothers were satisfied with both methods of discharge teaching; however, they were more likely to report stronger agreement with overall satisfaction with the traditional method of discharge teaching than with attending the discharge class. PMID:27445450

  6. Cognitive Behavioral Development in Children Following Maternal Postpartum Depression: A Review Article.

    PubMed

    Mirhosseini, Hamid; Moosavipoor, Seyed Ahmad; Nazari, Mohammad Ali; Dehghan, Ahmad; Mirhosseini, Sara; Bidaki, Reza; Yazdian-Anari, Pouria

    2015-12-01

    Mothers' constitute is a very important part of infants' social environment and mediate their experience with the surrounding world. Postpartum depression, which is considered one of the most common and important psychiatric disorders, affects 10-15% of mothers, its causes are different. By investigating various sources, some effects of this disorder have been observed on the cognitive development of children, particularly among boys, such as language, intelligence quotient (IQ), and behavioral problems. Thus, it is imperative to study the effects of postpartum depression on children's growth and development and to identify methods of reducing these effects. This review indicates that postpartum depression in mothers reduces children's cognitive performance. The adverse effects of postpartum depression on children's development seem to be mediated by the mother's interpersonal behavior and the infant gender. The review of previous studies shows that postpartum depression reduces children's cognitive performance by impairing maternal mental and behavioral care.

  7. Latino Mothers in Farmworker Families’ Beliefs about Preschool Children’s Physical Activity and Play

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Document beliefs about the contribution of physical activity to preschool-aged children’s health held by Latino mothers in farmworker families, and delineate their perceived barriers or constraints that impose limits on preschool-aged children’s physical activity. Method Qualitative data obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews (N=33) with mothers of preschool-aged children living in Latino farmworker families in North Carolina. Results Mothers universally agree that regular vigorous physical activity is good for preschool-aged children’s health, including obesity prevention. However, excessive physical activity can produce illnesses, as well as other physical and emotional problems, and should be limited. Mothers wanted their children to engage in more sedentary forms of activity because they believed it would benefit learning. Physical and chemical hazards in rural environments, distance to parks and play spaces, and lack of familiarity and concerns about neighbors constrained children’s physical activity. Conclusions Although physical activity is believed to be beneficial, strong cultural beliefs and real contextual barriers undermine preschool-aged Latino farmworker children’s level of physical activity. PMID:24522435

  8. Physical Activity Experiences and Beliefs among Single Mothers: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Single motherhood has been associated with negative health consequences such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Physical activity might reduce these consequences, but little is known about physical activity experiences and beliefs that might inform interventions and programs for single mothers. The present study used…

  9. Postpartum depression in rats: differences in swim test immobility, sucrose preference and nurturing behaviors.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Jamie Winderbaum; Grizzell, J Alex; Philpot, Rex M; Wecker, Lynn

    2014-10-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder affecting both mothers and their offspring. Studies of PPD in laboratory animals have typically assessed either immobility on forced swim testing or sucrose preference in ovariectomized rats following hormone supplementation and withdrawal or in stress models. To date, few studies have related these measures to maternal behaviors, a potential indicator of depressive-like activity postpartum. Because a single measure may be insufficient to characterize depression, the present study determined the distribution of depressive-like behaviors in Sprague-Dawley rats postpartum. Nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors exhibited by undisturbed dams were recorded during the first 12 days postpartum, and immobility in the forced swim test and sucrose preference were determined thereafter. A median-split analysis indicated that 19% of dams exhibited high sucrose preference and low immobility, 30% exhibited either only high immobility or only low sucrose preference, and 21% exhibited both high immobility and low preference. Dams exhibiting depressive-like activity on either or both tests displayed increased self-directed behaviors and decreased active nurturing during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle. This is the first study to characterize undisturbed nurturing and non-nurturing behaviors, and use both sucrose preference and immobility in the forced swim test, to classify PPD endophenotypes exhibited by rat dams following parturition. The present study underscores the idea that multiple tests should be used to characterize depressive-like behavior, which is highly heterogeneous in both the human and laboratory animal populations.

  10. Forced swim test behavior in postpartum rats.

    PubMed

    Craft, R M; Kostick, M L; Rogers, J A; White, C L; Tsutsui, K T

    2010-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether depression-like behavior can be observed in gonadally intact females that have experienced normal pregnancy. When tested on the forced swim test (FST) on postpartum days 1-7, previously pregnant rats spent slightly more time immobile, significantly less time swimming and diving, and defecated more than virgin controls. Subchronic treatment with nomifensine (DA reuptake inhibitor, 2.5mg/kg) but not sertraline (serotonin reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg) or desipramine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, 10mg/kg) significantly decreased immobility on postpartum day 2. In rats pre-exposed to the FST in mid-pregnancy, neither subchronic nor chronic treatment with desipramine or sertraline decreased immobility on postpartum day 2; in contrast, chronic desipramine significantly decreased immobility in virgin controls. These results indicate that postpartum female rats, compared to virgin controls, show a reduction in some "active coping behaviors" but no significant increase in immobility when tested during the early postpartum period, unlike ovariectomized females that have undergone hormone-simulated pregnancy (HSP). Additionally, immobility that is increased by FST pre-exposure is not readily prevented by treatment with standard antidepressant medications in postpartum females. Depression-like behaviors previously observed in females that have undergone HSP may result from the more dramatic changes in estradiol, prolactin or corticosterone that occur during the early "postpartum" period, compared to the more subtle changes in these hormones that occur in actual postpartum females.

  11. Fordyce happiness program and postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Leili; Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Masoudi, Reza; Hasheminia, Sayed Ali Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is endangering the health of mothers and has negative impacts on the evolution of social communication and newborns evolution. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Fordyce Happiness program on the postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental intervention carried out on postpartum mothers that referred to 4 health centers in Isfahan. A total of 133 mothers were selected by convenient sampling and then randomly allocated in two groups (63 and 70 mothers for intervention and control respectively). Maternal depression 3 times before, immediate and 1 months after intervention in both groups was evaluated with Beck Depression Inventory-II-Persian standardized questionnaires. Educational sessions based on the Fordyce happiness program were conducted for intervention group. Data was analyzed in SPSS17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois) descriptive and analytic statistical tests at significance level of 0.05. Results: No significant differences in demographic variables between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05). No significant differences in depression scores in the two groups before training. However after 2 months a significant difference in depression score was observed between two groups (control group: 19.38 ± 3.94; intervention group: 16.24 ± 4.8; P < 0.001). Furthermore in intervention group showed significant differences in depression scores before and after intervention (19.15 ± 3.41 and 16.24 ± 4.83; P < 0.001). However in the control group had not any significant change. Conclusion: Fordyce happiness program was effective in reducing postpartum depression in our study. With attention to the effectiveness and low cost of this program, it is recommended that this program might be considered for all mothers after childbirth in health centers or other community-based settings. PMID:24949034

  12. Helping postpartum rural adolescents visualize future goals.

    PubMed

    Walsh, S M; Corbett, R W

    1995-01-01

    An Art Future Image (AFI) intervention was initiated among postpartum adolescent mothers during the hospitalization period in North Carolina. The aim was to improve adolescents self-image and encourage educational goal setting as a means of changing the cycle of poverty. The hope was that mothers would consider alternatives to public assistance. Nursing students were engaged as teachers during their clinical rotation in the postpartum unit. The project involved 9 mothers (8 Black women and 1 White woman). Women ranged in age from 17 to 24 years. 8 women were single, and all had a low socioeconomic status. Each study participant completed a workbook, which reflected future images as a high school or college graduate, an accountant, and other occupations. The study women selected a future role and spoke about their dreams and plans and constraints to achievement of their goal. Instant photos were taken of the mother and the infant following the interview and the faces placed on personalized body images of their choice. Both students and participants were enthusiastic about the project. An evaluation found, however, that time constraints of staff nurses would prohibit the use of this intervention model. The suggestion was made for this module to be incorporated into two 30 minute classes as part of postpartum classes. Mothers wanted only one time slot. Suggestions were made to expand the AFI program at other postpartum check-up times or when counseling on family planning. Other members of the family unit could be included. The long-term impact of AFI needs to be evaluated.

  13. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-08-15

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with /sup 14/C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition.

  14. [Hypertension and pregnancy: Post-partum period].

    PubMed

    Hugon-Rodin, Justine; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    Post-partum period is associated with specific characteristics in women with gestational disorders or preeclampsia. For breastfeeding women, the choice of antihypertensive treatment should take into account the impact on child health. The impact of breastfeeding on health mother must be also discussed. Moreover, for lactation inhibition, bromocriptine should not be used, especially in the context of gestational disorders. In post-partum period, the best contraceptive strategy is only-progestin contraception or non-hormonal contraceptives use. However, this choice will depend on the stabilization or normalization of blood pressure in early post-partum period. Finally, several consultations should be suggested: an information and announcement to explain the consequences of these gestational disorders and organize their multidisciplinary management and follow-up. A preconceptional consultation takes its place to anticipate potential recurrent preeclampsia or gestational hypertension and to schedule a future pregnancy in optimal conditions.

  15. Wellbeing of new mothers.

    PubMed

    McConachie, Helen; Hammal, Donna; Welsh, Brenda; Keane, Brigid; Waterston, Tony; Parker, Louise; Cook, Margaret

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports indicators of wellbeing and early parenting stress in a representative sample of first-time mothers in north-east England. A total of 185 mothers were recruited in the antenatal period to a controlled trial of an early parenting intervention. They were interviewed at home when the baby was aged around one month, and completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) and the Parenting Daily Hassles Scale. Almost half of mothers reported psychological distress above the accepted GHQ12 cut-off point. However, distress was not related to variables such as low socio-economic status, as had been predicted. Early parenting stress was greater in relatively more educated and older mothers. New motherhood is likely to be stressful, even where mothers do not have postpartum depression, and so a range of supports is required.

  16. Sciencing with Mother Goose: Observation Activities with Chicken Little.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angus, Carolyn

    1996-01-01

    Provides sample observation activities to accompany the nursery tale of Chicken Little. Includes five activities that involve the skills of observing, communicating, comparing, ordering, and categorizing to engage students in hands-on science. (DDR)

  17. Breastfeeding, Brain Activation to Own Infant Cry, and Maternal Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Feldman, Ruth; Mayes, Linda C.; Eicher, Virginia; Thompson, Nancy; Leckman, James F.; Swain, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Research points to the importance of breastfeeding for promoting close mother-infant contact and social-emotional development. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified brain regions related to maternal behaviors. However, little research has addressed the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between breastfeeding and maternal behavior in human mothers. We investigated the associations between breastfeeding, maternal brain response to own infant stimuli, and maternal sensitivity in the early postpartum. Methods Seventeen biological mothers of healthy infants participated in two matched groups according to feeding method – exclusive breastfeeding and exclusive formula-feeding at 2-4 weeks postpartum. fMRI scanning was conducted in the first postpartum month to examine maternal brain activation in response to her own baby's cry versus control baby-cry. Dyadic interactions between mothers and infants at 3-4 months postpartum were videotaped in the home and blindly coded for maternal sensitivity. Results In the first postpartum month, breastfeeding mothers showed greater activations in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, precuneus, striatum, and amygdala while listening to their own baby-cry as compared to formula-feeding mothers. For both breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers, greater activations in the right superior frontal gyrus and amygdala were associated with higher maternal sensitivity at 3-4 months postpartum. Conclusions Results suggest links between breastfeeding and greater response to infant cues in brain regions implicated in maternal-infant bonding and empathy during the early postpartum. Such brain activations may facilitate greater maternal sensitivity as infants enter their social world. PMID:21501165

  18. Postpartum bonding: the role of perinatal depression, anxiety and maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dubber, S; Reck, C; Müller, M; Gawlik, S

    2015-04-01

    Adverse effects of perinatal depression on the mother-child interaction are well documented; however, the influence of maternal-fetal bonding during pregnancy on postpartum bonding has not been clearly identified. The subject of this study was to investigate prospectively the influence of maternal-fetal bonding and perinatal symptoms of anxiety and depression on postpartum mother-infant bonding. Data from 80 women were analyzed for associations of symptoms of depression and anxiety as well as maternal bonding during pregnancy to maternal bonding in the postpartum period using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R), the Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) and the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire (PBQ-16). Maternal education, MFAS, PRAQ-R, EPDS and STAI-T significantly correlated with the PBQ-16. In the final regression model, MFAS and EPDS postpartum remained significant predictors of postpartum bonding and explained 20.8 % of the variance. The results support the hypothesized negative relationship between maternal-fetal bonding and postpartum maternal bonding impairment as well as the role of postpartum depressive symptoms. Early identification of bonding impairment during pregnancy and postpartum depression in mothers plays an important role for the prevention of potential bonding impairment in the early postpartum period.

  19. Committee Opinion No. 650 Summary: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  20. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 650: Physical Activity and Exercise During Pregnancy and the Postpartum Period.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Physical activity in all stages of life maintains and improves cardiorespiratory fitness, reduces the risk of obesity and associated comorbidities, and results in greater longevity. Physical activity in pregnancy has minimal risks and has been shown to benefit most women, although some modification to exercise routines may be necessary because of normal anatomic and physiologic changes and fetal requirements. Women with uncomplicated pregnancies should be encouraged to engage in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should carefully evaluate women with medical or obstetric complications before making recommendations on physical activity participation during pregnancy. Although frequently prescribed, bed rest is only rarely indicated and, in most cases, allowing ambulation should be considered. Regular physical activity during pregnancy improves or maintains physical fitness, helps with weight management, reduces the risk of gestational diabetes in obese women, and enhances psychologic well-being. An exercise program that leads to an eventual goal of moderate-intensity exercise for at least 20-30 minutes per day on most or all days of the week should be developed with the patient and adjusted as medically indicated. Additional research is needed to study the effects of exercise on pregnancy-specific outcomes and to clarify the most effective behavioral counseling methods, and the optimal intensity and frequency of exercise. Similar work is needed to create an improved evidence base concerning the effects of occupational physical activity on maternal-fetal health.

  1. An Examination of Language Practices during Mother-Child Play Activities among Mexican Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Natalia; Kibler, Amanda K.; Baird, Ashley Simpson; Parr, Alyssa; Bergey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    We examined the language practices of five mother-child dyads during a structured play activity, particularly in relation to maternal question use. The study includes second-generation, 4-year-old children of Mexican immigrants who demonstrate either high vocabulary levels in English and Spanish or low levels of vocabulary in both languages.…

  2. Mother-Child Interactions during Shared Literacy Activities: Education in a Fractured Bilingual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Blanca; Dixon, L. Quentin

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers scaffold the literacy skills of their children when jointly engaged in literacy-related activities in monolingual families (Tamis-LeMonda et al., 2001). Yet little is known about the linguistic environment of English language learners in the USA, a group at high risk for reading difficulties if they are only taught…

  3. Experience of Postpartum Active Duty Women in Training for the Fitness Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-10

    complications N=6 Breastfeeding Issues N=8 Sadness/lowered self- esteem N=4 Fear of failing fitness assessment N=11 *Known data from 3 pilot...to breastfeeding . Emotional changes included feelings of sadness, feeling emotionally drained, feeling overwhelmed, and lowered self-esteem... breastfeeding would be beneficial. These results strongly suggest that close follow-up of active duty women after delivery is essential in order to

  4. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  5. Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, Susanne; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Pregnancy and postpartum are associated with dramatic alterations in steroid and peptide hormones which alter the mothers' hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Dysregulations in these endocrine axes are related to mood disorders and as such it should not come as a major surprise that pregnancy and the postpartum period can have profound effects on maternal mood. Indeed, pregnancy and postpartum are associated with an increased risk for developing depressive symptoms in women. Postpartum depression affects approximately 10-15% of women and impairs mother-infant interactions that in turn are important for child development. Maternal attachment, sensitivity and parenting style are essential for a healthy maturation of an infant's social, cognitive and behavioral skills and depressed mothers often display less attachment, sensitivity and more harsh or disrupted parenting behaviors, which may contribute to reports of adverse child outcomes in children of depressed mothers. Here we review, in honor of the "father of motherhood", Jay Rosenblatt, the literature on postnatal depression in the mother and its effect on mother-infant interactions. We will cover clinical and pre-clinical findings highlighting putative neurobiological mechanisms underlying postpartum depression and how they relate to maternal behaviors and infant outcome. We also review animal models that investigate the neurobiology of maternal mood and disrupted maternal care. In particular, we discuss the implications of endogenous and exogenous manipulations of glucocorticoids on maternal care and mood. Lastly we discuss interventions during gestation and postpartum that may improve maternal symptoms and behavior and thus may alter developmental outcome of the offspring.

  6. Familias Sanas: an Intervention Designed to Increase rates of Postpartum Visits among Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Bermudez-Parsai, Monica; Coonrod, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Familias Sanas (Healthy Families) is an educational intervention implemented and tested with low-income, immigrant Latina mothers. The program was designed to reduce existing health disadvantages of Latinas by empowering them to take active part in the management of their health and by encouraging them to advocate for themselves. Familias Sanas was implemented at a prenatal clinic located at a major urban hospital in the southwestern U.S. The efficacy of the intervention was evaluated through a randomized control trial measuring the participants’ rate of postpartum visits and other relevant well-being measures. Initial findings show a significant effect of the intervention, with participants in the experimental group returning for their postpartum clinic visit at a higher rate in comparison with the control group. The results are discussed from a culturally specific perspective. Practice, policy, and research implications and recommendations are provided. PMID:20675950

  7. Factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Miller, Laura J; Zera, Chloe A; Davis, Roger B; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2013-11-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have a substantial risk of subsequently developing type 2 diabetes. This risk may be mitigated by engaging in healthy eating, physical activity, and weight loss when indicated. Since postpartum depressive symptoms may impair a woman's ability to engage in lifestyle changes, we sought to identify factors associated with depressive symptoms in the early postpartum period among women with recent GDM. The participants are part of the baseline cohort of the TEAM GDM (Taking Early Action for Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus) study, a one-year randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention program for women with a recent history of GDM, conducted in Boston, Massachusetts between June 2010 and September 2012. We administered the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at 4-15 weeks postpartum to women whose most recent pregnancy was complicated by GDM (confirmed by laboratory data or medical record review). An EPDS score ≥9 indicated depressive symptoms. We measured height and thyroid stimulating hormone, and administered a questionnaire to collect demographic data and information about breastfeeding and sleep. We calculated body mass index (BMI) using self-reported pre-pregnancy weight and measured height. We reviewed medical records to obtain data about medical history, including history of depression, mode of delivery, and insulin use during pregnancy. We conducted bivariable analyses to identify correlates of postpartum depressive symptoms, and then modeled the odds of postpartum depressive symptoms using multivariable logistic regression. Our study included 71 women (mean age 33 years ± 5; 59 % White, 28 % African-American, 13 % Asian, with 21 % identifying as Hispanic; mean pre-pregnancy BMI 30 kg/m(2) ± 6). Thirty-four percent of the women scored ≥9 on the EPDS at the postpartum visit. In the best fit model, factors associated with depressive symptoms at 6 weeks postpartum included cesarean

  8. Postpartum Traditions, Mental Health, and Help-Seeking Considerations Among Vietnamese American Women: a Mixed-Methods Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ta Park, Van M; Goyal, Deepika; Nguyen, Tung; Lien, Hong; Rosidi, Denise

    2015-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore Vietnamese American mothers' perceptions and experiences with postpartum traditions, postpartum depression (PPD), and mental health help-seeking behavior. Participants were 15 Vietnamese mothers who had given birth to at least one live infant within the previous year. A screening tool revealed that a third of the mothers had probable PPD. More than half reported having recent/current postpartum "sadness" during the interviews. Postpartum traditions played important roles in their well-being and maintaining strong cultural values. However, some reported feelings of isolation and the desire to be able to carry out postpartum traditions more frequently. Many who had reported sadness said that they would not seek professional help; all had felt that their condition was not "severe" enough to warrant help-seeking. Future PPD interventions should consider the importance of postpartum cultural traditions and address help-seeking barriers as ways to prevent the adverse effects of untreated PPD.

  9. Oxytocin and postpartum depression: Delivering on what's known and what's not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of oxytocin in the treatment of postpartum depression has been a topic of growing interest. This subject carries important implications, given that postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both the mother and her infant, with life long consequences for infant socioemotional and...

  10. Low Income, Mexican Mothers' Perception of Their Infants' Weight Status and Beliefs about Their Foods and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimenez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Castillo-Ruiz, Octelina; Mandujano-Trujillo, Zally; Pichardo-Osuna, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is being considered a global health epidemic, and one of the countries mostly affected by it is Mexico. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of low-income mothers with regard to their child's weight status and physical activity and their beliefs about healthy and high-density foods. A total of 813 mothers attending…

  11. Polycythaemia in infants of diabetic mothers: β-hydroxybutyrate stimulates erythropoietic activity.

    PubMed

    Cetin, H; Yalaz, M; Akisu, M; Kultursay, N

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether elevated maternal β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) levels contribute to polycythaemia in infants of diabetic mothers. Pregnant diabetic women (n = 27) and non-diabetic controls (n = 20) and their singleton infants were included. Maternal glycosylated haemoglobin and β-OHB levels were studied at 34-36 weeks' gestation; levels were significantly higher in mothers with diabetes than in controls. Birth weights and cord blood levels of insulin and fetal haemoglobin were significantly higher in infants from diabetic mothers compared with control infants, as were haematocrit levels in venous blood samples taken from each infant at 4 h following delivery. Cord blood erythropoietin levels were similar in both groups. There was a positive strong correlation between maternal β-OHB levels and polycythaemia in newborn infants, indicating that β-OHB could activate erythropoiesis independently from intrauterine hyperinsulinaemia and/or erythropoietin levels, and may be important in the pathogenesis of polycythaemia in infants born to diabetic mothers.

  12. How Mothers Perceive Their Own Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trice-Black, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    For women, the transition to motherhood is often a time period filled with excitement, changes, and challenges. Mothers often face changes in their own sexuality in their adjustment to motherhood. The majority of research on the sexual changes during motherhood has focused on the first year postpartum of mothers and has emphasized biological,…

  13. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population.

  14. Maternal and infant sleep postpartum.

    PubMed

    McGuire, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    New parents should be aware that infants' sleep is unlike that of adults and that meeting their infant's needs is likely to disrupt their own sleep. They will need to adjust their routine to manage their own sleep needs. Parental sleep patterns in the postpartum period are tied to the infant's development of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm, and the infant's feeds. Close contact with the mother and exposure to light/dark cues appear to assist in the development of the infant's circadian rhythm. The composition of breastmilk varies over the course of 24 hours and some components produced at night are likely to contribute to the infant's day/night entrainment. There is no clear evidence that using artificial feeds improves maternal sleep. Most infants need night feeds but requirements for nighttime feeds vary with the individual.

  15. Overweight, Obesity, and Neighborhood Characteristics among Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Todd, Michael; Ainsworth, Barbara; Records, Kathryn; Vega-Lopez, Sonia; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Nagle Williams, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Background. Weight gain during the childbearing years and failure to lose pregnancy weight after birth contribute to the development of obesity in Latinas. Design and Methods. Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health) is a 12-month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring a social support intervention with moderate-intensity physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. This paper describes the initial body composition of the sample, social support, and neighborhood contextual correlations of overweight and obese Latina mothers within the first 6 months after birth. Results. The mean body mass index was 29.68 with 38.56% bioelectrical impedence analysis for body fat. Elements of the environment (e.g., opportunities to walk) received middle or high scores. Access to healthy food was positively related to favorability of the walking environment. Waist-to-hip ratio was uncorrelated with other obesity-related indices. Conclusions. The body adiposity of these Latina mothers was coupled with low levels of social support from family and friends and neighborhood characteristics that were unfavorable to walking. PMID:23476752

  16. [Perinatal prevention network for mentally burdened and adolescent mothers].

    PubMed

    Hornstein, Christiane; Trautmann-Villalba, Patricia; Wild, Elke; Baranski, Natalie; Wunderlich, Regina; Schwarz, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatric disorder in pregnancy and after child birth as well as psychological distress are well known factors that put child wellbeing at risk. They are, however, often estimated as less frequent and less severe then they occur. Postpartum psychiatric disorder meets mothers of all social classes, they are highly stigmatized, therefore often disregarded and remain undetected. The affected mothers socially withdraw themselves due to feelings of shame, fear and guilt. They cut themselves off from psychiatric treatment and from support by child welfare institutions. The regional network "Hand in Hand" in the Rhine-Neckar-area consisting of psychiatrists, psychotherapists, gynaecologists, paediatricians, social workers and midwives uses and connects the resources available in public health and youth aid to support both the child wellbeing as well as the mental health of mothers. Our program begins by identifying risk factors for mothers' postpartum disorders and continues by increasing awareness with the previous named professional groups, so that they act promptly and offer treatment and support. The following paper describes our network activities emphasizing anti-stigma, instruction of professionals and intervention with affected families.

  17. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    PubMed

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  18. Antenatal psychosocial risk factors associated with adverse postpartum family outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, L M; Reid, A J; Midmer, D K; Biringer, A; Carroll, J C; Stewart, D E

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the strength of the association between antenatal psychosocial risk factors and adverse postpartum outcomes in the family, such as assault of women by their partner, child abuse, postpartum depression, marital dysfunction and physical illness. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cinahl, Famli, Psych Abstracts and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials were searched from relevant articles published from Jan. 1, 1980, to Dec. 31, 1993, with the use of MeSH terms "depression, involutional," "child abuse," "child neglect," "domestic violence," "family," "marital adjustment," "family health," "newborn health," "child health," "physical illness," "social support," "psychosocial risk," "prediction," "risk factors," "obstetrics" and "prenatal care." Further articles were identified from bibliographies. STUDY SELECTION: Of the 370 articles identified through the search, 118 were included for review. Studies were included if they examined the association between psychosocial risk factors and the outcomes of interest. Articles were excluded if they were reviews of poor quality or they had one or more of the following features: insufficient description of the sample, a high attrition rate, a lack of standardized outcome measures, outcomes other than the ones of interest or results that had already been reported in a previous study. DATA EXTRACTION: The strength of evidence of each study was evaluated. On the basis of the evidence, each risk factor was assigned a rating of the strength of its association with each of the postpartum outcomes. The ratings were class A (good evidence of association), class B (fair evidence) and class C (no clear evidence). Of the 129 antenatal psychosocial risk factors studied, 15 were found to have a class A association with at least one of the postpartum outcomes. DATA SYNTHESIS: Child abuse and abuse of the mother by her partner were most strongly correlated (class A evidence) with a history of lack of social support, recent life

  19. Differentials of post-partum amenorrhea: a survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Aryal, T R

    2007-01-01

    Post-partum amenorrhea is an important event for females' reproductive life and their health. It is the time period between the end of pregnancy and the resumption of menstruation after delivery, and it is considered to be the temporary infecundable period of women's reproductive life-span. The main aim of this article is to examine the differentials of post-partum amenorrhea by using current status reporting data according to the characteristics of the mother and her child. The data are utilized from a sample survey of Palpa and Rupandehi districts of western rural Nepal. A life-table based technique of survival analysis has been used. Important summary measures have been computed in order to see the differentials of duration of post-partum amenorrhea. The study revealed that parity of mothers, age of mothers, breast-feeding practices and survival status of the child were found to be the main differentials of the duration of post-partum amenorrhea. Amenorrhea period was found shorter for lower parity and younger mothers. Amenorrheic period was found to be increased with increased birth-interval and duration of breast-feeding practices. A strong positive association was found between the duration of post-partum amenorrhea and breast-feeding. The study also revealed that an inverse association was found between the duration of post-partum amenorrhea and socio-economic status of mothers. The survival status of the child showed a strong effect for the timing of amenorrhea. This study investigated the important differentials of amenorrhea by using current status reporting data according to the characteristics of mother and her child. The estimated values of mean, median and trimean duration of amenorrhea were compared. For instance, trimean of amenorrheic period was found to be 9.6 months while median was 8.4 months and mean was 10.4 months. This finding indicates that the trimean provided the most consistent and best estimates of the duration of amenorrhea than other

  20. The interrelationships among acculturation, social support, and postpartum depression symptoms among marriage-based immigrant women in Taiwan: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Hui; Hwang, Fang-Ming; Tai, Chen-Jei; Chien, Li-Yin

    2013-02-01

    This cohort study assessed the structural relationships among social support, acculturation, and postpartum depressive symptoms experienced by marriage-based immigrant mothers in Taiwan. Data were collected at 1 and 6 months postpartum from 203 immigrant mothers married to Taiwanese men in Taipei, Taiwan. The structural equation modeling results showed that social support and postpartum depression were directly and negatively related. Higher social support and lower depression at 1 month postpartum were related to a positive social attitude (i.e., accepting attitude toward mainstream society). Social attitude was a moderator of the relationship between depression at 1 month and social support at 6 months postpartum, where a positive social attitude decreased the negative effect of depression at 1 month on social support at 6 months. Social support in the early postpartum period not only directly decreased postpartum depression, but also indirectly decreased postpartum depression through improving social attitude.

  1. Effect of subclinical uterine infection on cervical and uterine involution, estrous activity and fertility in postpartum buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Usmani, R H; Ahmad, N; Shafiq, P; Mirza, M A

    2001-01-15

    Nili-Ravi buffaloes (n=29) that calved normally between August and November and did not develop any clinical reproductive disorder after calving were studied for the incidence of sub-clinical bacterial infection of the uterus and its effects on postpartum reproductive efficiency. The incidence of subclinical uterine infection was 24% (7/29). Involution of the cervix and uterus was slower (P < 0.01) in the infected group than in the normal group (45.6 vs 31.1 days and 46.3 vs 35.8 days), respectively. The mean diameters of cervix and gravid horn on Day 12 post partum and on completion of involution did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. However, the rate of involution of the cervix and the gravid horn was lower in buffaloes of the infected group (2.2 vs. 2.7 mm/day and 2.6 vs. 3.2 mm/day). The mean interval to first post partum ovulation was similar in buffaloes in the infected (35.5 days) and the normal group (33.8 days). The life span of corpus luteum formed after first ovulation was shorter (11 days) in buffaloes of both groups than that of a normal estrous cycle (15 to 17 days). The incidence of silent ovulation was apparently higher in buffaloes of the infected group (83 vs. 60%) but the difference was not significant. For the first four months after calving, the mean interval to first postpartum estrus was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (73.0 vs. 47.7 days; P < 0.01). Similarly, the average service period was longer in buffaloes of the infected group (91.0 vs. 64.8 days; P < 0.05). The overall pregnancy rate for the first four months after calving did not differ between buffaloes of the two groups. We conclude that subclinical bacterial infection of the postpartum uterus delays the cervical and uterine involution which can, in turn, delay the occurrence of first postpartum estrus and prolong the service period in buffaloes.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Factors Associated With Early Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Elizabeth A.; Mora, Pablo A.; Horowitz, Carol R.; Leventhal, Howard

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore racial differences in reporting of early postpartum depressive symptoms. To explore whether racial differences in early postpartum experience (such as mother’s health status and social context) might account for racial differences in reported postpartum depressive symptoms. METHODS This was a telephone survey of 655 white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers between 2 and 6 weeks postpartum. Mothers reported on demographic factors, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behaviors, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust in the medical system. We explored racial differences in report of early postpartum depressive symptoms using bivariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS African-American and Hispanic women more commonly reported postpartum depressive symptoms (43.9% and 46.8%, respectively) than white women (31.3%, P < .001). Similar factors (physical symptom burden, lack of social support, and lack of self-efficacy) were associated with early postpartum depressive symptoms in white, African-American, and Hispanic mothers. In a comprehensive model including other demographic factors, history of depression, physical symptoms, daily function, infant behavior, social support, skills in managing infant and household, access, and trust, the adjusted odds ratio for reported postpartum depressive symptoms remained elevated for African-American women at 2.16 (95% confidence interval 1.26–3.70) and Hispanic women at 1.89 (95% confidence interval 1.19–3.01) as compared with white women. CONCLUSION African-American and Hispanic mothers are at higher risk for reporting early postpartum depressive symptoms as compared with white mothers. Factors associated with these symptoms are similar among African-American, Hispanic, and white mothers. PMID:15932842

  3. Normative longitudinal maternal sleep: the first four postpartum months

    PubMed Central

    MONTGOMERY-DOWNS, Hawley E.; INSANA, Salvatore P.; CLEGG-KRAYNOK, Megan M.; MANCINI, Laura M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the normative course of maternal sleep during the first four months postpartum. Study Design Sleep was objectively measured using continuous wrist actigraphy. This was a longitudinal, field-based assessment of nocturnal sleep during postpartum weeks two through 16. Fifty mothers participated during postpartum weeks two through 13; 24 participated during postpartum weeks nine through 16. Results Maternal nocturnal sleep time was 7.2 (SD±.95) hours and did not change significantly across postpartum weeks two through 16. Maternal sleep efficiency did improve across weeks two (79.7% [SD±5.5]) through 16 (90.2% [SD±3.5]) as a function of decreased sleep fragmentation across weeks two (21.7 [SD±5.2]) through 16 (12.8 [SD±3.3]). Conclusion Though postpartum mothers’ total sleep time was higher than expected during the initial postpartum months, this sleep was highly fragmented (similar to fragmenting sleep disorders) and inefficient. This profile of disturbed sleep should be considered in intervention designs and family leave policies. PMID:20719289

  4. Annual Research Review: All Mothers Are Not Created Equal--Neural and Psychobiological Perspectives on Mothering and the Importance of Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Jennifer; Fleming, Alison S.

    2011-01-01

    Quality of mothering relies on the integrity of multiple physiological and behavioral systems and on two maternal factors, one proximal and one distal, that have a great impact on how a mother mothers: postpartum depression and early experiences. To mother appropriately requires the action of systems that regulate sensation, perception, affect,…

  5. A Family Approach to Treatment of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Judith; Shaver-Hast, Laura; Sharnoff, Wendy; Warren, Mary Ellen; Wright, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) has an impact on the entire family. The authors describe a model of intervention that emphasizes the family system and includes mothers, fathers, and children in the treatment of PPD. The intervention is provided by a multidisciplinary team consisting of a psychiatrist, social worker, child psychologist, and therapists.…

  6. Relaxation Training and Expectation in the Treatment of Postpartum Distress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halonen, Jane S.; Passman, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effectiveness of relaxation training in reducing postpartum distress for 48 first-time mothers-to-be via a treatment-component strategy. Compared with nonrelaxation conditions, relaxation treatments reduced reported postpartal distress. Expectations about treatment effectiveness were not significant factors in treatment outcome.…

  7. Trajectories of Postpartum Maternal Depressive Symptoms and Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Yelena P.; Selig, James P.; Roberts, Michael C.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of new mothers experience at least some depressive symptoms. Postpartum maternal depressive symptoms can greatly influence children's outcomes (e.g., emotional, cognitive, language, and social development). However, there have been relatively few longitudinal studies of how maternal depressive symptoms may influence children's…

  8. The Relationship Between Intuitive Eating and Postpartum Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Leahy, Katie; Berlin, Kristoffer S; Banks, Gabrielle G; Bachman, Jessica

    2017-02-07

    Objective Postpartum weight loss is challenging for new mothers who report limited time and difficulties following traditional weight loss methods. Intuitive eating (IE) is a behavior that includes eating based on physical hunger and fullness and may have a role in encouraging weight loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between IE and postpartum weight loss. Methods Women 12-18 months postpartum completed a questionnaire regarding weight changes surrounding pregnancy, exercise, breastfeeding and intuitive eating using the Intuitive Eating Scale. Latent growth curve modeling was utilized to determine the relationship between IE, breastfeeding, weight gain during pregnancy, and postpartum weight trajectories. Results Participants (n = 50) were 28.5 ± 4.9 years old, had an average pre-pregnancy BMI of 26.4 ± 6.8 and the majority were married, and non-Hispanic white. The conditional model revealed that more intuitive eating practices predicted greater postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.10, p < .05) when controlling for breastfeeding duration, exercise duration, and initial BMI and pregnancy BMI changes. Greater pregnancy BMI increases were associated with more rapid postpartum BMI decreases (Est. = -0.34, p < .001) while breastfeeding duration, exercise and initial BMI were not related. Conclusions for Practice Postpartum weight retention is a challenge for many women. Following a more intuitive eating approach to food consumption may encourage postpartum weight loss without the required weighing, measuring, recording and assessing dietary intake that is required of traditional weight loss programs. IE could offer an alternative approach that may be less arduous for new mothers.

  9. [Acute postpartum psychoses].

    PubMed

    Tabbane, K; Charfi, F; Dellagi, L; Guizani, L; Boukadida, L

    1999-11-01

    The post-partum is a high risk period for the development of acute psychotic disorders. The frequence of post-partum psychoses is evaluated at 1 to 2 per 1,000 births. Post-partum psychosis include major affective disorders which is the most frequent diagnosis. The clinical pictures have specific characteristics: rapid change of symptomatology, liability of mood, and frequent confusional signs. The short-term prognosis is generally good but the risk of recurrence of the mental disorder, in or outside puerperal context, is high. At clinical, evolutive and genetic levels, the studies do not provide arguments for nosological autonomy of post-partum psychosis. At therapeutic level, the ECT is particularly efficient in this indication.

  10. Postpartum Support International

    MedlinePlus

    ... Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Bipolar Mood Disorders Postpartum Psychosis Tools for Mom Frequently Asked Questions Screening Recommendations ... the Blues: Partners Coping with Suicide & Loss Perinatal Psychosis Related Tragedies Professionals Overview PSI Certificate Trainings Trainings & ...

  11. The prenatal and immediate postpartum periods

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    A mother's nutritional status during pregnancy has important implications for both her own health and her ability to produce and breast-feed a healthy infant. Knowledge about adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is incomplete, however, and there is still considerable debate about the level of extra energy needed by a pregnant woman. A woman's usual nutritional requirements increase during pregnancy to meet her needs and those of the growing fetus. Additional energy is needed because of increased basal metabolism, the greater cost of physical activity, and the normal accumulation of fat as the energy reserve. The protein, vitamin and mineral requirements of the mother also increase during pregnancy, but the precise amounts for the last two are still a matter for discussion. A woman's weight increments during pregnancy vary between privileged and underprivileged communities. In addition to calcium, phosphorus and iron, a mother provides considerable amounts of protein and fat for fetal growth. Placental metabolism and placental blood flow, which are interrelated, are the most critical factors for fetal development. The nutritional requirements of healthy newborns vary widely according to their weight, gestational age, rate of growth, as well as environmental factors. However, recommendations for some components may be derived from the average composition of early human milk and the amounts consumed by healthy, mature newborns who are following a normal postpartum clinical course. The water requirements of infants are related to their caloric consumption, activity, rate of growth, and the ambient temperature. A postnatal weight loss of 5-8% of body weight is usual during the first few days of life in mature newborn infants; in contrast, infants who experienced intrauterine malnutrition lose little or no weight at all. The dynamic process of mother—newborn interaction from the first hours of life is intimately related to successful early breast-feeding. If

  12. Self-Reported Depressive Symptoms in Lesbian Birth Mothers and Comothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maccio, Elaine M.; Pangburn, Jaimee A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the frequency of postpartum depression, little is known about the experiences of lesbian birth mothers and their female partners, or comothers. In this modest yet important exploratory investigation, 20 lesbian mothers completed a survey of self-reported postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and related risk factors. Results indicate that…

  13. Mothers Who Formula Feed: Their Practices, Support Needs and Factors Influencing Their Infant Feeding Decision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarrant, Roslyn C.; Sheridan-Pereira, Margaret; McCarthy, Roberta A.; Younger, Katherine M.; Kearney, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to six months postpartum,…

  14. Charting the Eccles' expectancy-value model from mothers' beliefs in childhood to youths' activities in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Fredricks, Jennifer A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2012-07-01

    The Eccles' expectancy-value model posits that a cascade of mechanisms explain associations between parents' beliefs and youths' achievement-related behaviors. Specifically, parents' beliefs predict parents' behaviors; in turn, parents' behaviors predict youths' motivational beliefs, and youths' motivational beliefs predict their behaviors. This investigation focused on testing this model with mothers in sports, music, math, and reading over a 12-year period. Data were drawn from mother, youth, and teacher questionnaires collected as part of Childhood and Beyond Study (92% European American; N = 723). Mothers' beliefs in sports, music, and math positively predicted their behaviors in these areas 1 year later, which predicted youths' self-concepts of ability and values (i.e., their motivational beliefs) in these domains 1 year later. Adolescents' motivational beliefs predicted time spent in organized sport activities, playing music, and reading after school measured 4 years later as well as the number of math courses taken in high school. Furthermore, except in reading, mothers' behaviors mediated the relations between mothers' and youths' beliefs, and youths' beliefs mediated the relations between mothers' behaviors and youths' behaviors. Although there were mean-level differences in several indicators based on child gender, in most cases the relations among these indicators did not significantly vary by child gender. This study highlights the processes by which mothers' beliefs during their children's childhood can predict children's activities in adolescence.

  15. A comparison of fatigue and energy levels at 6 weeks and 14 to 19 months postpartum.

    PubMed

    Troy, N W

    1999-05-01

    It has been assumed that women recover from pregnancy and childbirth within 6 weeks. Recent research shows that women's fatigue levels are the same, or higher, at 6 weeks postpartum as at the time of delivery. This study determined the differences in primiparous women's fatigue and energy levels at 6 weeks and 14 to 19 months postpartum. Determinations of how some contributing factors and outcomes of postpartum fatigue relate to each other and to fatigue and energy at 14 to 19 months postpartum were also made. Analyses revealed that women are more fatigued and less energetic at 14 to 19 months than they were at 6 weeks postpartum. Quality of sleep did not correlate with fatigue or energy. At 14 to 19 months postpartum return to full functional status is almost complete, with household and infant care responsibilities being most complete. The women were experiencing mild life crises of various sorts, were somewhat depressed, and were gratified in the mothering role.

  16. Cholinesterase and paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme activities in Mexican-American mothers and children from an agricultural community.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Veronica; Huen, Karen; Venkat, Subha; Pratt, Kelly; Xiang, Pin; Harley, Kim G; Kogut, Katherine; Trujillo, Celina M; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina T

    2012-11-01

    Exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides can lead to neurotoxic effects through inhibition of cholinesterase enzymes. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme can detoxify oxon derivatives of some organophosphates. Lower PON1, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities have been reported in newborns relative to adults, suggesting increased susceptibility to organophosphate exposure in young children. We determined PON1, acetylcholinesterase, and butyrylcholinesterase activities in Mexican-American mothers and their 9-year-old children (n=202 pairs) living in an agricultural community. We used Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to compare enzymatic activities among mothers and their children, and analysis of variance to identify factors associated with enzyme activities. Substrate-specific PON1 activities were slightly lower in children than their mothers; however, these differences were only statistically significant for the paraoxon substrate. We observed significantly lower acetylcholinesterase but higher butyrylcholinesterase levels in children compared with their mothers. Mean butyrylcholinesterase levels were strongly associated with child obesity status (body mass index Z scores >95%). We observed highly significant correlations among mother-child pairs for each of the enzymatic activities analyzed; however, PON1 activities did not correlate with acetylcholinesterase or butyrylcholinesterase activities. Our findings suggest that by age 9 years, PON1 activities approach adult levels, and host factors including sex and obesity may affect key enzymes involved in pesticide metabolism.

  17. Patterns of Brain Activation when Mothers View Their Own Child and Dog: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gollub, Randy L.; Niemi, Steven M.; Evins, Anne Eden

    2014-01-01

    Neural substrates underlying the human-pet relationship are largely unknown. We examined fMRI brain activation patterns as mothers viewed images of their own child and dog and an unfamiliar child and dog. There was a common network of brain regions involved in emotion, reward, affiliation, visual processing and social cognition when mothers viewed images of both their child and dog. Viewing images of their child resulted in brain activity in the midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra involved in reward/affiliation), while a more posterior cortical brain activation pattern involving fusiform gyrus (visual processing of faces and social cognition) characterized a mother's response to her dog. Mothers also rated images of their child and dog as eliciting similar levels of excitement (arousal) and pleasantness (valence), although the difference in the own vs. unfamiliar child comparison was larger than the own vs. unfamiliar dog comparison for arousal. Valence ratings of their dog were also positively correlated with ratings of the attachment to their dog. Although there are similarities in the perceived emotional experience and brain function associated with the mother-child and mother-dog bond, there are also key differences that may reflect variance in the evolutionary course and function of these relationships. PMID:25279788

  18. Postpartum domperidone use in British Columbia: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smolina, Kate; Morgan, Steven G.; Hanley, Gillian E.; Oberlander, Tim F.; Mintzes, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Domperidone is commonly used off-label to stimulate milk production in mothers who have low milk supply. The aim of this study was to describe trends, patterns and determinants of postpartum domperidone use. Methods: This is a retrospective, population-based study involving all women with a live birth between Jan. 1, 2002, and Dec. 31, 2011, in the province of British Columbia. We examined administrative data sets containing person-specific information on filled prescriptions and use of medical services, and we used logistic regression to examine associations between domperidone use and maternal characteristics. Results: The study population consisted of 225 532 women with 320 351 live births. The prevalence of postpartum domperidone use more than doubled between 2002 and 2011. In 2011, 1 in 3 women with a preterm birth and 1 in 5 women with a full-term birth were prescribed domperidone in the first 6 months postpartum. Women who were older, had a higher body mass index, had a chronic disease, were first-time mothers, delivered more than 1 baby (multiple pregnancy), had a preterm birth or had a cesarian delivery were more likely to fill a postpartum domperidone prescription. Interpretation: We found an increase in postpartum domperidone use over a 10-year period. More research is needed on maternal and infant health outcomes. PMID:27280111

  19. [The Millennium project of the United Nations, focusing on adequate postpartum care to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality world-wide].

    PubMed

    Lagro, M G P; Stekelenburg, J

    2006-05-20

    One of the goals of the Millennium project of the United Nations is to reduce maternal and infant mortality. This includes adequate care for mothers and newborns during childbirth. Most maternal deaths occur during the post-partum period. Postpartum haemorrhage, eclampsia and sepsis are the main causes of maternal death. Preventive measures include active management of the third stage of labour, use of magnesium sulphate in pre-eclampsia, and implementing hygienic birth practices and the use of antibiotics, respectively. Major causes of neonatal mortality are pre- and dysmaturity, infections, congenital abnormalities and birth trauma, including asphyxia. The kangaroo-method can reduce morbidity in premature infants. The use of hygienic practices and antibiotics decreases the number of newborn deaths due to infection. Antiretroviral therapy is effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. In many resource poor countries formula feeding is not feasible and the WHO advises exclusive breastfeeding for HIV positive women in these settings. A formula of 6 hours, 6 days, 6 weeks and 6 months after birth is recommended by the WHO to check the condition of mother and baby. This should be integrated in mother and child health clinics and also includes child vaccinations and counselling the mother on family planning and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.

  20. Maternal Postpartum Role Collapse as a Theory of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development of a theory of maternal postpartum role collapse. The influences of traditional role theory and symbolic interactionism are presented. The development of the maternal postpartum role collapse theory emerged from the study of postpartum depression among African-American women (Amankwaa, 2000).…

  1. Not Just a Middle-Class Affliction: Crafting a Social Work Research Agenda on Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…

  2. Adolescent mothers leaving multigenerational households.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Sarah E; Shebl, Fatma M; Magder, Laurence S; Black, Maureen M

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how the developmental processes of autonomy and relatedness are related to changes in the residential status of 181 first-time, adolescent, urban, low-income, African American mothers over the first 24 months postpartum. Although adolescent mothers were eager to live independently, few made a clear transition out of the multigenerational household; 56% lived in the household of origin continuously (IN), 21% left and never returned (OUT), and 23% had multiple moves in and out of the household (IN/OUT). Older adolescent maternal age, less supportive adolescent mother-grandmother relations, and high household density were associated with leaving the household of origin. The IN/OUT group had difficulty adopting the roles of adult and parent. Helping adolescent mothers and grandmothers negotiate roles to reduce conflict may promote autonomy and relatedness, allowing mothers to learn parenting skills, qualify for public assistance, and continue their education.

  3. Creating New Strategies to Enhance Postpartum Health and Wellness.

    PubMed

    Cornell, Andria; McCoy, Carolyn; Stampfel, Caroline; Bonzon, Erin; Verbiest, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Over the past 5 years there have been a number of new initiatives focused on improving birth outcomes and reducing infant mortality, including a renewed focus on the complex interactions between motherhood and infancy that influence lifelong health trajectories. Beginning in 2012, the Association of Maternal & Child Health Programs (AMCHP) facilitated a series of meetings to enhance coordination across initiatives. Emerging from these conversations was a shared desire across stakeholders to reimagine the postpartum visit and improve postpartum care and wellness. AMCHP convened a Postpartum Think-Tank Meeting in 2014 to map the system of postpartum care and identify levers for its transformation. The meeting findings are presented in an infographic which frames the challenges and proposed solutions from the woman's perspective. The infographic describes maternal issues and concerns along with a concise summary of the recommended solutions. Strategies include creating integrated services and seamless care transitions from preconception through postpartum and well-baby; business, community, and government support, including paid parental leave, health insurance and spaces for new parents to meet each other; and mother-centered care, including quality visits on her schedule with complete and culturally appropriate information. These solutions catalyze a postpartum system of care that supports women, children, and families by infusing new ideas and capitalizing on existing opportunities and resources.

  4. Local anesthetic use in the pregnant and postpartum patient.

    PubMed

    Fayans, Edgar P; Stuart, Hunter R; Carsten, David; Ly, Quen; Kim, Hanna

    2010-10-01

    The use of systemically absorbed drugs in the gravid and in the lactating patient is of concern to the dentist. This article reviews concerns for the health and safety of the mother, developing fetus, and neonate involving local anesthetics. The available literature on the use of local anesthetics for dentistry in the pregnant and postpartum patient is also reviewed. In addition, the physiology of the pregnant and postpartum woman is discussed because this is essential to understanding potential interplay with local anesthesia and the stress of a dental appointment.

  5. Longitudinal changes in PON1 enzymatic activities in Mexican-American mothers and children with different genotypes and haplotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Huen, Karen; Harley, Kim; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Holland, Nina

    2010-04-15

    The paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme prevents low-density lipoprotein oxidation and also detoxifies the oxon derivatives of certain neurotoxic organophosphate (OP) pesticides. PON1 activity in infants is low compared to adults, rendering them with lower metabolic and antioxidant capacities. We made a longitudinal comparison of the role of genetic variability on control of PON1 phenotypes in Mexican-American mothers and their children at the time of delivery (n = 388 and 338, respectively) and again 7 years later (n = 280 and 281, respectively) using generalized estimating equations models. At age 7, children's mean PON1 activities were still lower than those of mothers. This difference was larger in children with genotypes associated with low PON1 activities (PON1{sub -108TT}, PON1{sub 192QQ}, and PON1{sub -909CC}). In mothers, PON1 activities were elevated at delivery and during pregnancy compared to 7 years later when they were not pregnant (p < 0.001). In non-pregnant mothers, PON1 polymorphisms and haplotypes accounted for almost 2-fold more variation of arylesterase (AREase) and chlorpyrifos-oxonase (CPOase) activity than in mothers at delivery. In both mothers and children, the five PON1 polymorphisms (192, 55, -108, -909, -162) explained a noticeably larger proportion of variance of paraoxonase activity (62-78%) than AREase activity (12.3-26.6%). Genetic control of PON1 enzymatic activity varies in children compared to adults and is also affected by pregnancy status. In addition to known PON1 polymorphisms, unidentified environmental, genetic, or epigenetic factors may also influence variability of PON1 expression and therefore susceptibility to OPs and oxidative stress.

  6. Madres para la Salud: Design of a Theory-based Intervention for Postpartum Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Background Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. Objectives This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for “Madres para la Salud” [Mothers for Health]. Design and Methods Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using “bouts” of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. Summary The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. PMID:21238614

  7. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Psychological distress and milk volume in lactating mothers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Pamela D; Aldag, Jean C; Chatterton, Robert T; Zinaman, Michael

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to compare psychological distress as measured via self-reported perceived stress, sleep, and fatigue levels in lactating mothers of a term infant and mothers of a preterm infant and(b) to determine whether the addition of psychological distress to a previous model predicts milk volume at Postpartum Week 6 by gestation group. The convenience sample of 95 mothers of a preterm infant (31 weeks) and 98 mothers of a term infant completed the Perceived Stress Visual Analogue Scale, Richards-Campbell Sleep Questionnaire, and the Fatigue Visual Analog Scale. Stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue levels decreased during the 6-week study period for mothers of a term but not for mothers of a preterm infant. Perceived stress, sleep difficulty, and fatigue during the first 6 weeks postpartum were not related to milk volume; thus, the mother's perceived psychological distress had no apparent effect on lactation.

  9. Postpartum amenorrhoea and breast-feeding in a Danish sample.

    PubMed

    Vestermark, V; Høgdall, C K; Plenov, G; Birch, M

    1994-01-01

    The duration of postpartum amenorrhoea was studied in a Danish sample of 361 women. The median duration of amenorrhoea was 17 weeks. The 25th and 75th percentiles were 10 and 30 weeks, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and of breast-feeding. However, lactation for more than 9 months did not extend the duration of amenorrhoea. Menstruation before weaning occurred in 57% of the women, and 43% terminated breast-feeding before the first menstruation. Four weeks after weaning menstruation had returned in 79% and by 8 weeks after in 93% of the mothers. At 6 months postpartum, frequency of breast-feeding, and of night-time feeding were determinants of amenorrhoea.

  10. Elevated corticosterone levels during the first postpartum period influence subsequent pregnancy outcomes and behaviours of the dam.

    PubMed

    Wong, J H K; Brummelte, S; Galea, L A M

    2011-11-01

    Postpartum depression affects 15% of new mothers and previous depressive episodes increase the risk for postpartum depression. Chronic administration of corticosterone (CORT) to dams during the postpartum period causes depressive-like behaviour and has been used as a model of postpartum depression. To better understand the subsequent progress of this model, we examined whether there were persistent effects of CORT treatment during the dam's first postpartum period on maternal care and mood following a subsequent pregnancy. Sprague-Dawley female rats received either sesame oil (control) or CORT (40 mg/kg) injections for 22 days during their first postpartum period. Subsequently, all females were re-mated for a second time and neither group received treatment during the second postpartum period. Maternal care was observed from days 2-8 of each postpartum period and dams were tested in the forced-swim test on days 21 and 22 of the first and days 4 and 21 of the second postpartum period. As expected, the amount of time spent immobile in the forced-swim test was increased in CORT dams at the end of the first postpartum period; however, the amount of time spent immobile was decreased at the end of the second postpartum period relative to oil dams. Furthermore, dams treated with CORT in first postpartum period gave birth to a smaller litter with a larger male/female sex ratio after their second pregnancy. This implies that elevated stress hormone levels during the first postpartum period have a substantial influence on subsequent postpartum behaviour and litter characteristics. Further investigations are necessary to fully understand the effect of parity, experience during first motherhood, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation on postpartum depression.

  11. Screening for Postpartum Depression and Associated Factors Among Women in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Xinli; Zhang, Peichao; Wu, Haiyan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined what percentage of Chinese mothers during a three-year postpartum period were screened for postpartum depression and explored the correlation between postpartum depression and various socio-demographic, psychological, and cultural factors. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Methods: A total of 506 mothers 23 years of age and older who were within three years postpartum completed the online survey. The survey collected information such as family economic status, a history of depression, preparation for pregnancy, relationships with husbands, and family members, adult attachment types (Adult Attachment Scale, AAS), and depression (The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, CESD). Results: Approximately 30% of mothers 1–3 years postpartum reported symptoms above the CESD cut-off score (≥16 scores) associated with the risk for depression (28.0% in the first year, 30.8% in the second year, and 31.8% in the third year). Factors significantly associated with depression in participants in the correlation analysis were education level; family income; preparation for pregnancy; a history of depression; amount of time spent with their husbands; relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a close, dependent, and/or anxious attachment style. Multiple regression analyses revealed that a history of depression; less preparation for pregnancy; poorer relationships with husbands, parents, and parents-in-law; and a more anxious attachment style were strongly related to a higher risk of postpartum depression. Conclusion: The overall percentage of mothers after delivery who were vulnerable to depression in China remains high. Various factors were significant predictors of postpartum depression. The research findings have several valuable implications for intervention practices. For example, attachment styles and depression history in the assessments of perinatal depression could improve screenings and the design of

  12. Mothers impose physical activity restrictions on their asthmatic children and adolescents: an analytical cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activities are important for children and adolescents, especially asthmatics. A significant proportion is considered less active than their non-asthmatic peers and mother’s beliefs about asthma are thought to be a determinant factor. The research objectives were to investigate whether mothers try to impose limitations on the physical activity (PA) of their asthmatic children/adolescents; identify associated factors; and explore if this attitude has any impact on children’s PA levels. Methods In this cross sectional investigation, we studied 115 asthmatics aged between 9 and 19 years and their mothers. Asthma severity, PA level and exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) were evaluated. Mothers were questioned on their beliefs about physical activity in non-asthmatic and asthmatic children, if they imposed restrictions on their children’s physical activity, on EIB perception and personal levels of anxiety and depression. Results Ninety six percent of the mothers answered that PA are important for children and adolescents. Despite this, 37% of them admitted imposing restrictions to their children’s PA. This attitude was associated with mother’s negative opinions about asthmatics doing PA, perception of children’s dyspnea after running on a treadmill, mother’s anxiety level and children’s asthma severity. The mother’s restrictive attitudes were not associated with children’s lower PA levels. Conclusion A high proportion of the mothers said that they restrained their asthmatic children from engaging in physical activity. This fact should be recognized by health professionals and discussed with parents and caregivers as these negative beliefs may lead to conflicts and prejudiced attitudes that could discourage children’s involvement in physical activities and sports. PMID:24673939

  13. The effects of gestational stress and SSRI antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain - a translational model for postpartum depression

    PubMed Central

    Haim, Achikam; Albin-Brooks, Christopher; Sherer, Morgan; Mills, Emily; Leuner, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Although the neural basis of PPD remains unknown previous research in rats has shown that gestational stress, a risk factor for PPD, induces depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period. Moreover, the effect of gestational stress on postpartum mood is accompanied by structural modifications within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) – limbic regions that have been linked to PPD. Mothers diagnosed with PPD are often prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant medications and yet little is known about their effects in models of PPD. Thus, here we investigated whether postpartum administration of Citalopram, an SSRI commonly used to treat PPD, would ameliorate the behavioral and morphological consequences of gestational stress. In addition, we examined the effects of gestational stress and postpartum administration of Citalopram on structural plasticity within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) which together with the mPFC and NAc forms a circuit that is sensitive to stress and is involved in mood regulation. Our results show that postpartum rats treated with Citalopram do not exhibit gestational stress-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. In addition, Citalopram was effective in reversing gestational stress-induced structural alterations in the postpartum NAc shell and mPFC. We also found that gestational stress increased spine density within the postpartum BLA, an effect which was not reversed by Citalopram treatment. Overall, these data highlight the usefulness of gestational stress as a valid and informative translational model for PPD. Furthermore, they suggest that structural alterations in the mPFC-NAc pathway may underlie stress-induced depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period and provide much needed information on how SSRIs may act in the

  14. The effects of gestational stress and Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant treatment on structural plasticity in the postpartum brain--A translational model for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Haim, Achikam; Albin-Brooks, Christopher; Sherer, Morgan; Mills, Emily; Leuner, Benedetta

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common complication following childbirth experienced by one in every five new mothers. Although the neural basis of PPD remains unknown, previous research in rats has shown that gestational stress, a risk factor for PPD, induces depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period. Moreover, the effect of gestational stress on postpartum mood is accompanied by structural modifications within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-limbic regions that have been linked to PPD. Mothers diagnosed with PPD are often prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant medications and yet little is known about their effects in models of PPD. Thus, here we investigated whether postpartum administration of Citalopram, an SSRI commonly used to treat PPD, would ameliorate the behavioral and morphological consequences of gestational stress. In addition, we examined the effects of gestational stress and postpartum administration of Citalopram on structural plasticity within the basolateral amygdala (BLA) which together with the mPFC and NAc forms a circuit that is sensitive to stress and is involved in mood regulation. Our results show that postpartum rats treated with Citalopram do not exhibit gestational stress-induced depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. In addition, Citalopram was effective in reversing gestational stress-induced structural alterations in the postpartum NAc shell and mPFC. We also found that gestational stress increased spine density within the postpartum BLA, an effect which was not reversed by Citalopram treatment. Overall, these data highlight the usefulness of gestational stress as a valid and informative translational model for PPD. Furthermore, they suggest that structural alterations in the mPFC-NAc pathway may underlie stress-induced depressive-like behavior during the postpartum period and provide

  15. Sleep and sleepiness among first-time postpartum parents: a field- and laboratory-based multimethod assessment.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2013-05-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N = 42) and seven childless control dyads (N = 14). Within their natural environment, participants completed 1 week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory-based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers' sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness-associated impairments. Study results can inform social policy, postpartum sleep intervention development, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness.

  16. Breast Milk of HIV-Positive Mothers Has Potent and Species-Specific In Vivo HIV-Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Angela; Baker, Caroline; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Stamper, Lisa W.; Fouda, Genevieve G.; Permar, Sallie R.; Hinde, Katie; Kuhn, Louise; Bode, Lars; Aldrovandi, Grace M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the nutritional and health benefits of breast milk, breast milk can serve as a vector for mother-to-child HIV transmission. Most HIV-infected infants acquire HIV through breastfeeding. Paradoxically, most infants breastfed by HIV-positive women do not become infected. This is potentially attributed to anti-HIV factors in breast milk. Breast milk of HIV-negative women can inhibit HIV infection. However, the HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk from HIV-positive mothers has not been evaluated. In addition, while significant differences in breast milk composition between transmitting and nontransmitting HIV-positive mothers have been correlated with transmission risk, the HIV-inhibitory activity of their breast milk has not been compared. This knowledge may significantly impact the design of prevention approaches in resource-limited settings that do not deny infants of HIV-positive women the health benefits of breast milk. Here, we utilized bone marrow/liver/thymus humanized mice to evaluate the in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity of breast milk obtained from HIV-positive transmitting and nontransmitting mothers. We also assessed the species specificity and biochemical characteristics of milk's in vivo HIV-inhibitory activity and its ability to inhibit other modes of HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that breast milk of HIV-positive mothers has potent HIV-inhibitory activity and indicate that breast milk can prevent multiple routes of infection. Most importantly, this activity is unique to human milk. Our results also suggest multiple factors in breast milk may contribute to its HIV-inhibitory activity. Collectively, our results support current recommendations that HIV-positive mothers in resource-limited settings exclusively breastfeed in combination with antiretroviral therapy. IMPORTANCE Approximately 240,000 children become infected with HIV annually, the majority via breastfeeding. Despite daily exposure to virus in breast milk, most infants

  17. Postpartum early discharge: impact on maternal fatigue and functional ability.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hanrahan, C; Deblois, D

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a postpartum early discharge program, with home follow-up by hospital nursing staff, on the maternal fatigue and functional ability of low-risk mothers with healthy neonates. A quasi-experimental design was used. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups receiving the early-discharge program (hospital stay less than 60 hours plus home follow-up by hospital-based nurses; n = 35) or traditional hospital care (hospital stay more than 60 hours and no home follow-up by hospital staff; n = 17). A third group emerged from those originally assigned to traditional care but later transferred to early discharge due to bed shortages (n = 29). The Rhoten Fatigue Scale and the Inventory of Functional Status After Childbirth were used to collect the data at discharge and 1 and 6 weeks postpartum period. No significant differences between groups were found, suggesting that early discharge with adequate home follow-up does not affect the low-risk mother's fatigue and functional ability to any significantly greater extent than traditional care. It was also noted that, regardless of type of care, the proportion of subjects reporting severe fatigue was relatively large (25%, 31%, and 19% at discharge, 1 and 6 weeks postpartum period), highlighting the need for further study of maternal fatigue in the postpartum period.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyper Activity Disorder (ADHD) and Stress: A Mutual Relationship between Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mercedeh; Daneshmand, Reza; Keramatfar, Rasul; Khooshabi, Katayoon; Amiri, Nasrin; Farhadi, Yadollah; Farzadfard, Seyedeh Zeinab; Kachooi, Hamid; Samadi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by high levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity which may result in mothers' stress. The current study aims to compare stress among 45 mothers of ADHD children who had referred to “Rofeydeh psychiatric center” with 45 mothers of normal children. Methods: Brief demographic researcher-made questionnaire, Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4), the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), and Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF) were completed for each mother and child. Results: The results showed that except the component of acceptance, ADHD children had more problems in the field of attention compared with normal children. Mothers of ADHD children had also more stress compared with mothers of normal children. Discussion: ADHD can impair mothers' mental health by inducing stress and this issue has important clinical and treatment implications. Specific treatment programs should be designed and implemented in Iran for the mothers of ADHD children to reduce stress among them and therefore, improve their mental health status. PMID:27307956

  19. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  20. Assessing Postpartum Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Midmer, Deana; Talbot, Yves

    1988-01-01

    The birth of a child requires adaptation and reorganization within the family system in order to accommodate the new family member and to allow the family to continue in its psychosocial development. Knowledge of the normative and transitional changes required at this stage of family life will enhance family practitioners' understanding of some of the common concerns and complaints related to them by various family members during the postpartum period. The Family FIRO model represents a helpful conceptual framework to increase the family physician's understanding of the issues of inclusion, control, and intimacy that are highlighted during the transition to parenthood. The authors briefly present this model and discuss its application to postpartum adjustment and its implications for health-care professionals. PMID:21253238

  1. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Postpartum female sexual function.

    PubMed

    Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

    2009-08-01

    Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being.

  3. All-Cause Mortality in Women With Severe Postpartum Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Johannsen, Benedicte Marie Winther; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Bergink, Veerle; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Munk-Olsen, Trine

    2017-01-01

    Objective The postpartum period is associated with a high risk of psychiatric episodes. The authors studied mortality in women with first-onset severe psychiatric disorders following childbirth and compared their mortality rates with those in women from the background population including other female psychiatric patients (mothers and childless women). Method In a register-based cohort study with linked information from Danish population registers, the authors identified women with first psychiatric inpatient or outpatient contacts 0–3 months postpartum. The main outcome measure was mortality rate ratios (MRRs): deaths from natural causes (diseases and medical conditions) or unnatural causes (suicides, accidents, and homicides). The cohort included 1,545,857 women representing 68,473,423 person-years at risk. Results In total, 2,699 women had first-onset psychiatric disorders 0–3 months postpartum, and 96 of these died during follow-up. Women with postpartum psychiatric disorders had a higher MRR (3.74; 95% CI=3.06–4.57) than non-postpartum-onset mothers (MRR=2.73; 95% CI=2.67–2.79) when compared with mothers with no psychiatric history. However, childless women with psychiatric diagnoses had the highest MRR (6.15; 95% CI=5.94–6.38). Unnatural cause of death represented 40.6% of fatalities among women with postpartum psychiatric disorders, and within the first year after diagnosis, suicide risk was drastically increased (MRR=289.42; 95% CI=144.02–581.62) when compared with mothers with no psychiatric history. Conclusions Women with severe postpartum psychiatric disorders had increased MRRs compared with mothers without psychiatric diagnoses, and the first year after diagnosis represents a time of particularly high relative risk for suicide in this vulnerable group. PMID:26940804

  4. Management of postpartum haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Marie Pierre; Benhamou, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of acquired coagulopathy observed in severe PPH is an important part of PPH management, but is mainly based on literature in trauma patients, and data thus should be interpreted with caution. This review describes recent advances in transfusion strategy and in the use of tranexamic acid and fibrinogen concentrates in women with PPH. PMID:27408694

  5. The influence of offspring, parity, and oxytocin on cognitive flexibility during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Albin-Brooks, Christopher; Nealer, Connor; Sabihi, Sara; Haim, Achikam; Leuner, Benedetta

    2017-03-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of profound behavioral change including alterations in cognitive function. This has been most often studied using hippocampal-dependent tasks assessing spatial learning and memory. However, less is known about the cognitive effects of motherhood for tasks that rely on areas other than the hippocampus. We have previously shown that postpartum females perform better on the extradimensional phase of an attentional set shifting task, a measure of cognitive flexibility which is dependent on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The present experiments aimed to extend this work by examining the importance of postpartum stage as well as offspring and parity in driving improved mPFC cognitive function during motherhood. We also examined whether the neuropeptide oxytocin, which plays a role in regulating numerous maternal functions, mediates enhanced cognitive flexibility during motherhood. Our results demonstrate that compared to virgin females, cognitive flexibility is enhanced in mothers regardless of postpartum stage and is not affected by parity since both first (primiparous) and second (biparous) time mothers showed the enhancement. Moreover, we found that improved cognitive flexibility in mothers requires the presence of offspring, as removal of the pups abolished the cognitive enhancement in postpartum females. Lastly, using an oxytocin receptor antagonist, we demonstrate that oxytocin signaling in the mPFC is necessary for the beneficial effects of motherhood on cognitive flexibility. Together, these data provide insights into the temporal, experiential and hormonal factors which regulate mPFC-dependent cognitive function during the postpartum period.

  6. Antiretroviral adherence during pregnancy and postpartum in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Kreitchmann, Regis; Harris, D Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H; Hofer, Cristina B; Read, Jennifer S

    2012-08-01

    Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6-12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6-12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46-6.14; p=0.0029). At 6-12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00-1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34-6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users.

  7. Antiretroviral Adherence During Pregnancy and Postpartum in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Harris, D. Robert; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Haberer, Jessica E.; Cahn, Pedro; Losso, Marcelo; Teles, Elizabete; Pilotto, Jose H.; Hofer, Cristina B.; Read, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Adherence to antiretrovirals by pregnant women (and postpartum women if breastfeeding) is crucial to effectively decrease maternal viral load and decrease the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Our objectives were to describe self-reported adherence to antiretrovirals during the antepartum (after 22 weeks of pregnancy) and postpartum periods (6–12 weeks and 6 months), and identify predictors of adherence among HIV-infected women enrolled and followed in a prospective cohort study from June 2008 to June 2010 at multiple sites in Latin America. Adherence was evaluated using the number of missed and expected doses during the 3 days before the study visit. At the pre-delivery visit, 340 of 376 women (90%) reported perfect adherence. This rate significantly decreased by 6–12 weeks (171/214 [80%]) and 6 months postpartum (163/199 [82%], p<0.01). The odds for less than perfect adherence at the pre-delivery visit was significantly higher for pregnant women with current tobacco use (odds ratio [OR]=2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–6.14; p=0.0029). At 6–12 weeks postpartum, the probability of non-perfect adherence increased by 6% for each 1 year increase in age (OR=1.06, 95% CI: 1.00–1.12, p=0.0497). At 6 months postpartum, the odds of nonperfect adherence was higher for those who were currently using alcohol (OR=3.04, 95% CI: 1.34–6.90; p=0.0079). Although a self-report measure of adherence based on only 3 days may lead to overestimation of actual adherence over time, women with perfect adherence had lower viral loads and higher CD4 counts. Adherence to antiretrovirals decreased significantly postpartum. Interventions should target women at high risk for lower adherence during pregnancy and postpartum, including tobacco and alcohol users. PMID:22663185

  8. Modeling postpartum depression in rats: theoretic and methodological issues

    PubMed Central

    Ming, LI; Shinn-Yi, CHOU

    2016-01-01

    The postpartum period is when a host of changes occur at molecular, cellular, physiological and behavioral levels to prepare female humans for the challenge of maternity. Alteration or prevention of these normal adaptions is thought to contribute to disruptions of emotion regulation, motivation and cognitive abilities that underlie postpartum mental disorders, such as postpartum depression. Despite the high incidence of this disorder, and the detrimental consequences for both mother and child, its etiology and related neurobiological mechanisms remain poorly understood, partially due to the lack of appropriate animal models. In recent decades, there have been a number of attempts to model postpartum depression disorder in rats. In the present review, we first describe clinical symptoms of postpartum depression and discuss known risk factors, including both genetic and environmental factors. Thereafter, we discuss various rat models that have been developed to capture various aspects of this disorder and knowledge gained from such attempts. In doing so, we focus on the theories behind each attempt and the methods used to achieve their goals. Finally, we point out several understudied areas in this field and make suggestions for future directions. PMID:27469254

  9. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.

  10. Driving through: postpartum care during World War II.

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, E

    1999-01-01

    In 1996, public outcry over shortened hospital stays for new mothers and their infants led to the passage of a federal law banning "drive-through deliveries." This recent round of brief postpartum stays is not unprecedented. During World War II, a baby boom overwhelmed maternity facilities in American hospitals. Hospital births became more popular and accessible as the Emergency Maternal and Infant Care program subsidized obstetric care for servicemen's wives. Although protocols before the war had called for prolonged bed rest in the puerperium, medical theory was quickly revised as crowded hospitals were forced to discharge mothers after 24 hours. To compensate for short inpatient stays, community-based services such as visiting nursing care, postnatal homes, and prenatal classes evolved to support new mothers. Fueled by rhetoric that identified maternal-child health as a critical factor in military morale, postpartum care during the war years remained comprehensive despite short hospital stays. The wartime experience offers a model of alternatives to legislation for ensuring adequate care of postpartum women. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:10191809

  11. Postpartum depression on the neonatal intensive care unit: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tahirkheli, Noor N; Cherry, Amanda S; Tackett, Alayna P; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    As the most common complication of childbirth affecting 10%–15% of women, postpartum depression (PPD) goes vastly undetected and untreated, inflicting long-term consequences on both mother and child. Studies consistently show that mothers of infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) experience PPD at higher rates with more elevated symptomatology than mothers of healthy infants. Although there has been increased awareness regarding the overall prevalence of PPD and recognition of the need for health care providers to address this health issue, there has not been adequate attention to PPD in the context of the NICU. This review will focus on an overview of PPD and psychological morbidities, the prevalence of PPD in mothers of infants admitted to NICU, associated risk factors, potential PPD screening measures, promising intervention programs, the role of NICU health care providers in addressing PPD in the NICU, and suggested future research directions. PMID:25473317

  12. Personality and risk for postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Iliadis, S I; Koulouris, P; Gingnell, M; Sylvén, S M; Sundström-Poromaa, I; Ekselius, L; Papadopoulos, F C; Skalkidou, A

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common childbirth complication, affecting 10-15 % of newly delivered mothers. This study aims to assess the association between personality factors and PPD. All pregnant women during the period September 2009 to September 2010, undergoing a routine ultrasound at Uppsala University Hospital, were invited to participate in the BASIC study, a prospective study designed to investigate maternal well-being. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) while the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS) was used as a diagnostic tool for major depression. Personality traits were evaluated using the Swedish Universities Scale of Personality (SSP). One thousand thirty-seven non-depressed pregnant women were included in the study. Non-depressed women reporting high levels of neuroticism in late pregnancy were at high risk of developing postpartum depressive symptoms (PPDSs) at 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery, even after adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.8-6.5 and adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 3.9, 95 % CI 1.9-7.9). The same was true for a DSRS-based diagnosis of major depression at 6 months postpartum. Somatic trait anxiety and psychic trait anxiety were associated with increased risk for PPDS at 6 weeks (aOR = 2.1, 95 % CI 1.2-3.5 and aOR = 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.1), while high scores of mistrust were associated with a twofold increased risk for PPDS at 6 months postpartum (aOR 1.9, 95 % CI 1.1-3.4). Non-depressed pregnant women with high neuroticism scores have an almost fourfold increased risk to develop depressive symptoms postpartum, and the association remains robust even after controlling for most known confounders. Clinically, this could be of importance for health care professionals working with pregnant and newly delivered women.

  13. High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Aswathi, A; Rajendiren, Soundravally; Nimesh, Archana; Philip, R Ravi; Kattimani, Shivanand; Jayalakshmi, D; Ananthanarayanan, P H; Dhiman, Pooja

    2015-10-01

    In view of the reported cases of mood disorders that occur in mothers following childbirth and believing that sex steroid hormones contribute to mood and behavioral changes, this study has been aimed to explore the role of sex steroid hormones as an etiological factor for postpartum depression (PPD). This study was conducted at JIPMER, Puducherry, India between January 2010 and 2011. 103 women were recruited in the study after childbirth, out of which 62 women who were believed to be suffering from PPD were categorized as cases and the remaining 41 with no mood changes as controls, using Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) (cases had EPDS score ≥10 at 24-28h, controls had score <10 at 24-48h postpartum). The hormones estimated in these two groups included estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, and their levels were compared between these two groups. A significantly high testosterone levels were observed in cases with PPD at 24-28h when compared to controls. Estradiol and progesterone levels did not show significant difference between cases and controls. ROC analysis done at 24-28h showed that testosterone levels beyond 42.71ng/mL predict the development of PPD with 79% sensitivity, 63% specificity, 68% positive predictive value, 74% negative predictive value with AUC being 0.708. This study shows that there is an association between persistent high serum testosterone level in women following childbirth and PPD.

  14. Non-invasive endocrine monitoring of ovarian and adrenal activity in chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) females during pregnancy, parturition and early post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Cantarelli, Verónica I; Galeano, María G; Bourguignon, Nadia S; Gilman, Christine; Ponzio, Marina F

    2015-03-01

    The chinchilla is a rodent that bears one of the finest and most valuable pelts in the world. The wild counterpart is, however, almost extinct because of a drastic past and ongoing population decline. The present work was developed to increase our knowledge of the reproductive physiology of pregnancy and post-partum estrus in the chinchilla, characterizing the endocrine patterns of urinary progesterone, estradiol, LH and cortisol metabolites throughout gestation and post-partum estrus and estimating the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus. Longitudinal urine samples were collected once per week throughout pregnancy and analyzed for creatinine, cortisol, LH, estrogen and progesterone metabolite concentrations. To indirectly determine the ovulation timing at post-partum estrus, a second experiment was performed using pregnant females subjected to a post-partum in vivo fertilization scheme. Urinary progestagen metabolites increased above baseline levels in early pregnancy between weeks-8 and -11 respectively to parturition, and slightly declined at parturition time. Urinary estrogens showed rising levels throughout mid- and late pregnancy (weeks-9 to -6 and a further increase at week-5 to parturition) and decreased in a stepwise manner after parturition, returning to baseline levels two weeks thereafter. Cortisol metabolite levels were relatively constant throughout pregnancy with a tendency for higher levels in the last third of gestation and after the pups' birth. Parturition was associated with dramatic reductions in urinary concentrations of sex steroids (especially progestagens). Observations in breeding farms indicated that the females that resulted in a second pregnancy after mating, did so on the second day after parturition. These data were in agreement with an LH peak detected 24h after parturition. Urinary steroid hormone patterns of estrogen and progestagen metabolites provided valuable information on endocrine events during pregnancy and after

  15. Delivery and Payment Redesign to Reduce Disparities in High Risk Postpartum Care.

    PubMed

    Howell, Elizabeth A; Padrón, Norma A; Beane, Susan J; Stone, Joanne; Walther, Virginia; Balbierz, Amy; Kumar, Rashi; Pagán, José A

    2017-03-01

    Purpose This paper describes the implementation of an innovative program that aims to improve postpartum care through a set of coordinated delivery and payment system changes designed to use postpartum care as an opportunity to impact the current and future health of vulnerable women and reduce disparities in health outcomes among minority women. Description A large health care system, a Medicaid managed care organization, and a multidisciplinary team of experts in obstetrics, health economics, and health disparities designed an intervention to improve postpartum care for women identified as high-risk. The program includes a social work/care management component and a payment system redesign with a cost-sharing arrangement between the health system and the Medicaid managed care plan to cover the cost of staff, clinician education, performance feedback, and clinic/clinician financial incentives. The goal is to enroll 510 high-risk postpartum mothers. Assessment The primary outcome of interest is a timely postpartum visit in accordance with NCQA healthcare effectiveness data and information set guidelines. Secondary outcomes include care process measures for women with specific high-risk conditions, emergency room visits, postpartum readmissions, depression screens, and health care costs. Conclusion Our evidence-based program focuses on an important area of maternal health, targets racial/ethnic disparities in postpartum care, utilizes an innovative payment reform strategy, and brings together insurers, researchers, clinicians, and policy experts to work together to foster health and wellness for postpartum women and reduce disparities.

  16. Individual, social and environmental factors influencing physical activity levels and behaviours of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged urban mothers in Canada: A mixed methods approach

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing data provide little insight into the physical activity context of multiethnic socio-economically disadvantaged mothers in Canada. Our primary objectives were: (1) to use focus group methodology to develop tools to identify the individual, social, and environmental factors influencing utilitarian and leisure time physical activities (LTPA) of multiethnic SED mothers; and (2) to use a women specific physical activity survey tool to assess psychosocial barriers and supports and to quantify individual physical activity (PA) levels of multi-ethnic SED mothers in Canada. Methods Qualitative focus group sessions were conducted in West, Central and Eastern Canada with multiethnic SED mothers (n = 6 focus groups; n = 42 SED mothers) and with health and recreation professionals (HRPs) (n = 5 focus groups; n = 25 HRPs) involved in community PA programming for multiethnic SED mothers. Administration of the women specific Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) tool was completed by consenting SED mothers (n = 59). Results More than half of SED mothers were employed and had higher total PA scores with occupation included than unemployed mothers. However, nearly 60% of both groups were overweight or obese. Barriers to LTPA included the lack of available, affordable and accessible LTPA programs that responded to cultural and social needs. Concerns for safety, nonsupportive cultural and social norms and the winter climate were identified as key barriers to both utilitarian and LTPA. Conclusions Findings show that multiethnic SED mothers experience many barriers to utilitarian and LTPA opportunities within their communities. The varying LTPA levels among these multi-ethnic SED mothers and the occurrence of overweight and obesity suggests that current LTPA programs are likely insufficient to maintain healthy body weights. PMID:22500882

  17. A Problem-Solving Therapy Intervention for Low-Income, Pregnant Women at Risk for Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampson, McClain; Villarreal, Yolanda; Rubin, Allen

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum Depression (PPD) occurs at higher rates among impoverished mothers than the general population. Depression during pregnancy is one of the strongest predictors of developing PPD. Research indicates that non-pharmacological interventions are effective in reducing depressive symptoms but engaging and retaining low-income mothers remains a…

  18. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  19. [Maternal affect regulation of mothers with a history of abuse in mother-infant-interaction].

    PubMed

    Kress, Sandra; Cierpka, Manfred; Möhler, Eva; Resch, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Maternal intuitive skills can be threatened as a result of severe deprivation or unresolved trauma in the own childhood and can even be inaccessible to the mother. A mother's own childhood experience of abuse maybe a risk factor for repeated child abuse. As a follow-up study to assess the emotional availability of abused mothers it was investigated how a physical or sexual abuse appears in the mother-child interaction and communication in the context of "cycle of abuse" and whether it could give effect to it. Interactions of mothers with abuse experience were compared with those of mothers without an abuse experience and evaluated five months postpartum with the Munich clinical communication scale (MKK). The results suggest that maltreatment experienced mothers show less emotion tuning to their child in a standardized interaction sequence.

  20. A case of taeniasis diagnosed postpartum.

    PubMed

    Noss, Matthew R; Gilmore, Katherine; Wittich, Arthur C

    2013-04-01

    A case of postpartum taeniasis will be discussed along with the pathophysiology, proper treatment, potential risks, and prevention of taeniasis infections to the pregnant mother, her infant, and her family members. Taenia spp. infections are relatively rare in developed societies. Increasing immigration to developed countries and an expanding role of medical aid in developing countries will lead to an increase in the number of taeniasis cases seen by medical providers. Taenia solium and T. saginata are the most common species and can be differentiated by proglottids (a segment of a tapeworm containing both male and female reproductive organs) or scolex (the head of a tapeworm which attaches to the intestine of the definitive host). Both carry different risks when considering autoinfection and transmission. Cystercercosis caused by T. solium is a risk for neonates and is cause for immediate treatment of the mother. A 23-year-old new mother, originally from Ethiopia, passed T. strobili shortly after giving birth. Her pregnancy was complicated by limited prenatal care. She did not experience any symptoms related to tapeworm infection. The patient received treatment with praziquantel. With a possible future increase in the number of cases seen by health care providers, understanding the risks of Taenia sp. infection is important as proper treatment and education are needed to halt the life cycle of the tapeworm before more serious infection ensues.

  1. Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-04-01

    Working mothers exhibit high levels of inactivity, and theory-based interventions to bolster physical activity within this population are needed. This study examined the effectiveness of a brief social cognitive theory-based intervention designed to increase physical activity among working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention only, intervention plus follow-up support, or waitlist control condition. The intervention consisted of two group-based workshop sessions designed to teach behavior modification strategies using social cognitive theory. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed intervention participants exhibited short-term increases in physical activity, which were partially maintained 6 months later. Improvements in physical activity were mediated by increases in self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study provides some support for the effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity among working mothers. Future programs should explore alternative support mechanisms which may lead to more effective maintenance of initial behavior changes.

  2. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX)(®) bioassay, (32)P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  3. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.

  4. Postpartum depression among African-American women.

    PubMed

    Amankwaa, Linda Clark

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.

  5. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P < 0.03). Children's reports of management strategies were associated with 5 of 7 work activities measured. Labor in food-insecure children was the main activity that explained school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences.

  6. What barriers thwart postpartum women's physical activity goals during a 12-month intervention? A process evaluation of the Nā Mikimiki Project.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Saiki, Kara; Steffen, Alana D; Woekel, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 70% of new mothers do not meet national guidelines for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project (2008-2011) was designed to increase MVPA among women with infants 2-12 months old. Participants' barriers to exercising and achievement of specific MVPA goals were discussed during telephone counseling calls over 12 months. Healthy, inactive women (n = 115, mean age = 31 ± 5 years, infants' mean age = 5.5 ± 3 months; 80% racial/ethnic minorities) received a total of 17 calls over 12 months in three phases. During Phase 1 weekly calls were made for a month, in Phase 2 biweekly calls were made for 2 months, and in Phase 3 monthly calls were made for 9 months. Across all phases, the most frequent barriers to achieving MVPA goals were: time/too busy (25%), sick child (11%), and illness (10%). Goals for MVPA minutes per week were achieved or surpassed 40.6% of the time during weekly calls, 39.9% during biweekly calls, and 42.0% during monthly calls. The least likely MVPA goals to be achieved (p < 0.04) were those which the woman encountered and for which she failed to overcome the barriers she had previously anticipated would impair her improvement of MVPA. This process evaluation demonstrated that telephone counseling somewhat facilitated the resolution of barriers and achievement of MVPA goals; thus, if clinical settings adopted such methods, chronic disease risks could be reduced in this vulnerable population of new mothers.

  7. Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress during the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Naoko; Shinohara, Hitomi; Kodama, Hideya

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback intervention for reduction of psychological stress in women in the early postpartum period. On postpartum day 4, 55 healthy subjects received a brief explanation about HRV biofeedback using a portable device. Among them, 25 mothers who agreed to implement HRV biofeedback at home were grouped as the biofeedback group, and other 30 mothers were grouped as the control group. At 1 month postpartum, there was a significant decrease in total Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (P < 0.001) in the biofeedback group; this change was brought about mainly by decreases in items related to anxiety or difficulty sleeping. There was also a significant increase in standard deviation of the normal heartbeat interval (P < 0.01) of the resting HRV measures in the biofeedback group after adjusting for potential covariates. In conclusion, postpartum women who implemented HRV biofeedback after delivery were relatively free from anxiety and complained less of difficulties sleeping at 1 month postpartum. Although the positive effects of HRV biofeedback may be partly attributable to intervention effects, due to its clinical outcome, HRV biofeedback appears to be recommendable for many postpartum women as a feasible health-promoting measure after childbirth.

  8. Association of Postpartum Maternal Morbidities with Children's Mental, Psychomotor and Language Development in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Tofail, F.; Hilaly, A.; Mehrin, F.; Shiraji, S.; Banu, S.; Huda, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development. PMID:22838161

  9. Actual and perceived sleep: associations with daytime functioning among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Stacom, Elizabeth E; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E

    2011-02-01

    Sleep and wake have a homeostatic relation that influences most aspects of physiology and waking behavior. Sleep disturbance has a detrimental effect on sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance. The purpose of this study was to identify which actual or perceived sleep characteristics accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning among postpartum mothers. Seventy first-time postpartum mothers' actual sleep (actigraphically estimated: total sleep time, number of wake bouts, length of nocturnal wake, and sleep efficiency) and perceived sleep (self-reported: number of awakenings, wake time, and sleep quality) were measured along with their daytime functioning (Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS], Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Visual Analogue of Fatigue Scale [VAFS], and morning Psychomotor Vigilance Test [PVT]). Data were repeatedly collected from the same sample during postpartum weeks 2, 7, and 13. Four stepwise linear regressions were calculated for each postpartum week to examine which objective and/or subjective variable(s) accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning. The SSS and VAFS were both most consistently associated with perceived sleep quality. The ESS was most consistently associated with actual total sleep time. PVT performance was most consistently associated with estimates of actual and perceived sleep efficiency. Actual and perceived sleep profiles were differentially associated with specific daytime functions. These results from postpartum mothers may indicate that populations who experience specific forms of sleep disturbance (e.g. fragmentation and/or deprivation) may also experience specific daytime conditions.

  10. Association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's mental, psychomotor and language development in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, J D; Tofail, F; Hilaly, A; Mehrin, F; Shiraji, S; Banu, S; Huda, S N

    2012-06-01

    Little is known from developing countries about the effects of maternal morbidities diagnosed in the postpartum period on children's development. The study aimed to document the relationships of such morbidities with care-giving practices by mothers, children's developmental milestones and their language, mental and psychomotor development. Maternal morbidities were identified through physical examination at 6-9 weeks postpartum (n=488). Maternal care-giving practices and postnatal depression were assessed also at 6-9 weeks postpartum. Children's milestones of development were measured at six months, and their mental (MDI) and psychomotor (PDI) development, language comprehension and expression, and quality of psychosocial stimulation at home were assessed at 12 months. Several approaches were used for identifying the relationships among different maternal morbidities, diagnosed by physicians, with children's development. After controlling for the potential confounders, maternal anaemia diagnosed postpartum showed a small but significantly negative effect on children's language expression while the effects on language comprehension did not reach the significance level (p=0.085). Children's development at 12 months was related to psychosocial stimulation at home, nutritional status, education of parents, socioeconomic status, and care-giving practices of mothers at six weeks of age. Only a few mothers experienced each specific morbidity, and with the exception of anaemia, the sample-size was insufficient to make a conclusion regarding each specific morbidity. Further research with a sufficient sample-size of individual morbidities is required to determine the association of postpartum maternal morbidities with children's development.

  11. Latent transition models to study women's changing of dietary patterns from pregnancy to 1 year postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria

    2013-04-15

    Latent class models are useful for classifying subjects by dietary patterns. Our goals were to use latent transition models to identify dietary patterns during pregnancy and postpartum, to estimate the prevalence of these dietary patterns, and to model transition probabilities between dietary patterns as a function of covariates. Women who were enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study (University of North Carolina, 2000-2005) were followed for 1 year postpartum, and their diets were assessed in the second trimester and at 3 and 12 months postpartum (n = 519, 484, and 374, respectively) by using a food frequency questionnaire. After adjusting for energy intake, parity, smoking status, race, and education, we identified 3 dietary patterns and named them "prudent," "health conscious Western," and "Western." Nulliparas were 2.9 and 2.1 times more likely to be in the "prudent" class than the "health conscious Western" or the "Western" class, respectively. The 3 dietary patterns were very stable, with the "health conscious Western" class being the least stable; the probability for staying in the same class was 0.74 and 0.87 at 3 and 12 months postpartum, respectively. Breastfeeding mothers were more likely than nonbreastfeeding mothers to switch dietary pattern class (P = 0.0286). Except for breastfeeding mothers, most women did not switch dietary patterns from pregnancy to postpartum.

  12. Possible Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Acquired Postpartum from Maternal Oral HSV Reactivation after Neuraxial Morphine.

    PubMed

    De Guzman, M Cecilia; Chawla, Rupesh; Duttchen, Kaylene

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we describe a case of a neonatal oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection possibly acquired from a mother who had oral HSV reactivation in association with neuraxial morphine. Neuraxial morphine is commonly administered for postpartum analgesia after cesarean delivery. While there is evidence that neuraxial morphine increases the risks of oral HSV reactivation in parturients, there has been no report of neonatal HSV infection directly acquired from a mother who had HSV recurrence from neuraxial morphine.

  13. The Association Between Postpartum Depression and Pica During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ezzeddin, Neda; Zavoshy, Roza; Noroozi, Mostafa; Sarichloo, Mohammad Ebrahim; Jahanihashemi, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Objectives: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder and social debilitating that has adverse effects on the mother, child and family. Pica is an eating disorder characterized by persistent ingestion of substances that the consumer does not define as food. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of postpartum depression with pica during pregnancy. Method: This is case-control study was carried out in health centers in west Tehran. 152 depressed women (case group) and 148 non-depressed women (control group) were selected randomly from these health care centers. In addition to collecting demographic and pica data, the Edinburgh Depression Scale was used. The data was analyzed by both descriptive and analytic analyses such as chi-squared and logistic regression in SPSS version 16. Result: In this study, there wasn’t a significant association between PPD and pica during pregnancy (P=0.153, OR=2.043, CI=0.767, 5.438), but, postpartum depression has a significant association with type (clay) (P= 0.024) and duration (more than 2 months) (P= 0.023) of pica practice. Conclusions: In the present study, pregnancy pica was not important risk factor for PPD but there were similar risk factors such as iron supplementation during and postpartum pregnancy with pica and PPD. PMID:26573027

  14. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part I: Isolation and lytic activity estimation of bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, R C; Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate bacteriophages from environmental samples of 2 large commercial dairy farms using Escherichia coli isolated from the uteri of postpartum Holstein dairy cows as hosts. A total of 11 bacteriophage preparations were isolated from manure systems of commercial dairy farms and characterized for in vitro antimicrobial activity. In addition, a total of 57 E. coli uterine isolates from 5 dairy cows were phylogenetically grouped by triplex PCR. Each E. coli bacterial host from the uterus was inoculated with their respective bacteriophage preparation at several different multiplicities of infections (MOI) to determine minimum inhibitory MOI. The effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates was assessed using a microplate technique. Furthermore, genetic diversity within and between the different bacteriophage preparations was assessed by bacteriophage purification followed by DNA extraction, restriction, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Phylogenetic grouping based on triplex PCR showed that all isolates of E. coli belonged to phylogroup B1. Bacterial growth was completely inhibited at considerably low MOI, and the effect of a single dose (MOI=10(2)) of bacteriophage preparations on the growth curve of all 57 E. coli isolates showed that all bacteriophage preparations significantly decreased the growth rate of the isolates. Bacteriophage preparation 1230-10 had the greatest antimicrobial activity and completely inhibited the growth of 71.7% (n=57) of the isolates. The combined action of bacteriophage preparations 1230-10, 6375-10, 2540-4, and 6547-2, each at MOI=10(2), had the broadest spectrum of action and completely inhibited the growth (final optical density at 600 nm

  15. Instruction across Time: The Case of Mexican American Mothers with an Everyday Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Robert P.

    This study examined the maternal teaching practices of Mexican American mothers and the relation of these practices to their children's task performance. The questions considered in the study were: (1) what teaching behaviors characterize maternal instruction; (2) how does use of these behaviors change throughout instruction; and (3) how do these…

  16. Parental Protectiveness and Unprotected Sexual Activity among Latino Adolescent Mothers and Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesser, Janna; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Huang, Rong; Takayanagi, Sumiko; Cumberland, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Latino pregnant and parenting adolescents living in inner cities are one of the populations at risk for acquiring HIV. Although teen parenthood has been predominantly looked at with a focus on potential adverse physical, emotional, and socioeconomic outcomes for the mother and child; a growing body of literature has documented the strengths and…

  17. Battered mothers speak out: participatory human rights documentation as a model for research and activism in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slote, Kim Y; Cuthbert, Carrie; Mesh, Cynthia J; Driggers, Monica G; Bancroft, Lundy; Silverman, Jay G

    2005-11-01

    This article describes the work of the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project, a multiyear effort that documented human rights violations against battered women and their children in the Massachusetts family court system. This article (a) presents the Battered Mothers' Testimony Project's participatory human rights methodology as an alternative model for research and activism on violence against women and children in the United States, (b) summarizes the authors' findings and human rights analysis of how the Massachusetts family courts handled custody and visitation in specified cases involving partner and child abuse, and (c) discusses U.S. obligations under international human rights law and the value of a human rights approach to violence against women and children in the United States.

  18. [IPPF declaration on breast feeding, fertility and postpartum contraception].

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    Mother's milk protects the newborn against various infections, especially against gastrointestinal infections, as well as strengthening the mother-child bond. Breast-feeding is also associated with birth spacing and plays an important role in the regulation of fertility in countries where the rate of use of contraceptives is low. In breast-feeding women amenorrhea may last several months or even a year, while in women who do not breast-feed menstruation returns 35-40 days postpartum. The risk of getting pregnant in women who rely on amenorrhea for contraception increases with the appearance of the first postpartum menstruation (spotting), with the introduction of food supplement into the diet of the infant, and approximately 6 months after childbirth. Family planning programs have to collaborate with maternal health programs with respect to the need for contraception, including postpartum contraception, which involves the training of nurse-midwives or traditional birth attendants. The choice of contraceptives includes the IUD, with a high degree of efficacy, which is particularly advantageous during breast-feeding. Tubal ligation has no negative effect on breast-feeding, but it also requires proper counseling. Other methods are vasectomy, implants and injectables containing progestational hormones, and estrogen-progesterone containing pills, which should not be used for 6 weeks after childbirth.

  19. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    PubMed

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  20. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  1. Paternal Psychopathology and Maternal Depressive Symptom Trajectory During the First Year Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Zerbe, Gary O.; Hunter, Sharon K.; Ross, Randal G.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression. PMID:25478124

  2. Postpartum depression screening in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: program development, implementation, and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Amanda S; Blucker, Ryan T; Thornberry, Timothy S; Hetherington, Carla; McCaffree, Mary Anne; Gillaspy, Stephen R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this project were to describe the development of a postpartum depression screening program for mothers of infants in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and assess the implementation of the screening program. Methods Screening began at 14 days postpartum and was implemented as part of routine medical care. A nurse coordinator facilitated communication with mothers for increasing screen completion, review of critical self-harm items, and making mental health referrals. During the 18-month study period, 385 out of 793 eligible mothers completed the screen. Results Approximately 36% of mothers had a positive screen that resulted in a mental health referral and an additional 30% of mothers had screening results indicating significant symptoms. Conclusion Several barriers were identified, leading to adjustments in the screening process, and ultimately recommendations for future screening programs and research. Development of a postpartum depression screening process in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit involves support, training, implementation, and coordination from administrators, medical staff, new mothers, and mental health specialists. Several predictable challenges to program development require ongoing assessment and response to these challenges. Relevance This study highlights the expanding role of the psychologist and behavioral health providers in health care to intervene as early as possible in the life of a child and family with medical complications through multidisciplinary program development and implementation, as well as key considerations for institutions initiating such a program. PMID:26937199

  3. Antepartum and Postpartum Exposure to Maternal Depression: Different Effects on Different Adolescent Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hay, Dale F.; Pawlby, Susan; Waters, Cerith S.; Sharp, Deborah

    2008-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is considered a major public health problem that conveys risk to mothers and offspring. Yet PPD typically occurs in the context of a lifelong episodic illness, and its putative effects might derive from the child's exposure to other episodes, in pregnancy or later childhood. The aim of the study is to test…

  4. Relationship between Postpartum Depression and Maternal Perceptions about Ethnotheories and Childrearing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defelipe, Renata P.; Bussab, Vera S. R.; Vieira, Mauro L.

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a mood disorder which can adaptively alter maternal socialisation strategies. Our objective was to investigate differences in ethnotheories and childrearing practices of mothers with low (N = 46) and high (N = 45) intensity of PPD. The Brazilian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied at 3, 8 and…

  5. Postpartum Depression among Rural Women from Developed and Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villegas, Laura; McKay, Katherine; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Ross, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem, with significant consequences for the mother, infant, and family. Available research has not adequately examined the potential impact of sociodemographic characteristics, such as place of residence, on risk for PPD. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis…

  6. Social Support, Infant Temperament, and Parenting Self-Efficacy: A Mediational Model of Postpartum Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Troutman, Beth R.

    1986-01-01

    Infant temperamental difficulty was strongly related to mothers' level of postpartum depression, both directly and through the mediation of parenting self-efficacy. Social support appeared to function protectively against depression, primarily through self-efficacy. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. (Author/RH)

  7. Risk of Mental Health Disorders Following an Initial Diagnosis of Postpartum Depression, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Chu, Kasi M; Emasealu, Oseizame V; Hu, Zheng; O'Donnell, Francis L; Clark, Leslie L

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is one of the most common psychiatric conditions of the postpartum period. Several studies have found an association between PPD and other mental health disorders. The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) was used to identify a cohort of primiparous service women with PPD between 1998 and 2010 and match them by month of delivery to a cohort of women without PPD. During the surveillance period, there were 5,203 incident cases of PPD with a crude rate of 44.9 per 1,000 person-years. Individuals in the PPD cohort, when compared to their matched controls, were at higher risk for subsequent depressive disorders (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 7.3 [95% CI: 5.2-10.3]), anxiety disorders (adjusted HR: 3.2 [95% CI: 2.5-4.0]), and bipolar disorders (adjusted HR: 4.7 [95% CI: 1.9-11.9]). There were higher rates of these mental health diagnoses among individuals who eventually left service. Early screening, support, and treatment are essential during this vulnerable postpartum time frame to preserve the female fighting force.

  8. New insights into the role of perinatal HPA-axis dysregulation in postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Glynn, Laura M; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Sandman, Curt A

    2013-12-01

    Postpartum depression affects 10-20% of women following birth and exerts persisting adverse consequences on both mother and child. An incomplete understanding of its etiology constitutes a barrier to early identification and treatment. It is likely that prenatal hormone trajectories represent both markers of risk and also causal factors in the development of postpartum depression. During pregnancy the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis undergoes dramatic alterations, due in large part, to the introduction of the placenta, a transient endocrine organ of fetal origin. We suggest that prenatal placental and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation is predictive of risk for postpartum depression. In this model the positive feedback loop involving the systems regulating the products of the HPA axis results in higher prenatal levels of cortisol and placental corticotropin-releasing hormone. Greater elevations in placental corticotropin-releasing hormone are related to a disturbance in the sensitivity of the anterior pituitary to cortisol and also perhaps to decreased central corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion. Secondary or tertiary adrenal insufficiencies of a more extreme nature, which emerge during the prenatal period, may be predictive of an extended or more pronounced postpartum hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal refractory period, which in turn represents a risk factor for development of postpartum depression. In addition to reviewing the relevant existing literature, new data are presented in support of this model which link elevated placental corticotropin-releasing hormone with low levels of ACTH at 3-months postpartum. Future research will further elucidate the role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in postpartum depression and also whether prenatal placental and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal profiles might prove useful in the early identification of mothers at risk for postpartum mood dysregulation.

  9. [Postpartum hemorrhage--an update].

    PubMed

    Gogarten, Wiebke

    2011-07-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The incidence of postpartum hemorrhage appears to be increasing in developed countries due to an increased number of placenta accreta or percreta after previous Cesarean deliveries. The initial therapy of postpartum hemorrhage consists of uterotonic drugs and inspection of the uterine cavum. At the same time, optimization of the clotting potential should be initiated early. Tranexamic acid may be considered as a first line choice, followed by fibrinogen if necessary. If bleeding continues, fresh frozen plasma and packed red cells should be ordered in a ratio of 1:1, as this ratio has been shown to improve survival in trauma victims. All labor and delivery suites should have standard operating procedures for the management of postpartum hemorrhage in place with regular drills.

  10. Postpartum Depression: An Interactional View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Mary Ann; Redman, E. Scott

    1986-01-01

    Postpartum depression is conceptualized as a predictable developmental, family crisis, which occurs when the natural difficulties of childbirth are benignly mishandled. Tactics are illustrated for interdicting maladaptive interpersonal spirals, including normalizing conflicting complaints; reframing depression as positive but costly; regulating…

  11. [Morbidity among mothers and infants after ambulatory deliveries].

    PubMed

    Kierkegaard, O

    1991-07-29

    Postpartum early discharge programs are reviewed. Few programs were mandatory and both primi- and multiparae were included. Discharge varied from two to 72 hours after delivery. Nearly all programs had prenatal preparation and all patients had postpartum follow-up at home. Approximately one per cent of the infants were readmitted mostly on account of hyperbilirubinemia and infections, and half as many mothers were readmitted mostly for hemorrhage and endometritis. Infants discharged very early were readmitted more frequently than others. There were no statistical significant difference in mortality or morbidity between mothers or infants in early discharge groups and control groups.

  12. [Paternal postpartum depression: a review].

    PubMed

    Gressier, Florence; Tabat-Bouher, Myriam; Cazas, Odile; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Postpartum depression affects 1 in 10 fathers worldwide. Paternal PPD tends to develop gradually during the first year. Maternal depression is one of the most important risk factors for depression in fathers. Changes in hormones during the postpartum period in fathers are biological risk factors for PPD. Paternal PPD has negative impacts on family. Paternal PPD has negative effects on the infant's development, independently of maternal PPD. It is essential to identify paternal PPD at early stage.

  13. Postpartum spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma related to preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Anyfantakis, Dimitrios; Kastanakis, Miltiades; Fragiadakis, Georgios; Karona, Paraskevi; Katsougris, Nikolaos; Bobolakis, Emmanouil

    2014-01-01

    Subcapsular hematoma of the liver represents an unusual clinical phenomenon in the pregnancy and postpartum period with serious complications in terms of fetal and maternal mortality. Here we report a case of a 32-year-old primiparous female at 36 weeks of gestation, admitted to a maternity ward of a private clinic for preeclampsia. The woman underwent an emergency caesarean section with the extraction of an alive foetus. A few hours after delivery, she was transferred to the emergency department of our institution complaining of severe epigastric pain. Diagnostic work-up was suggestive of a subcapsular right lob hepatic hematoma which was successfully managed conservatively. Timely diagnosis is necessary for the prevention of life-threatening events in mother and fetus. For this reason acute care physicians have to be vigilant of the condition and consider this in the differential diagnosis of epigastric pain during pregnancy and postpartum.

  14. Activating KIR molecules and their cognate ligands prevail in children with a diagnosis of ASD and in their mothers.

    PubMed

    Guerini, Franca R; Bolognesi, Elisabetta; Chiappedi, Matteo; Manca, Salvatorica; Ghezzo, Alessandro; Agliardi, Cristina; Zanette, Michela; Littera, Roberto; Carcassi, Carlo; Sotgiu, Stefano; Clerici, Mario

    2014-02-01

    The activity of natural killer (NK) cells is modulated by the interaction between killer-cell immune globulin-like receptor (KIR) proteins and their cognate HLA ligands; activated NK cells produce inflammatory cytokines and mediate innate immune responses. Activating KIR/HLA complexes (aKIR/HLA) were recently suggested to prevail in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by brain and behavioral abnormalities and associated with a degree of inflammation. We verified whether such findings could be confirmed by analyzing two sample cohorts of Sardinian and continental Italian ASD children and their mothers. Results showed that aKIR/HLA are increased whereas inhibitory KIR/HLA complexes are reduced in ASD children; notably this skewing was even more significant in their mothers. KIR and HLA molecules are expressed by placental cells and by the trophoblast and their interactions result in immune activation and influence fetal, as well as central nervous system development and plasticity. Data herein suggest that in utero KIR/HLA immune interactions favor immune activation in ASD; this may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  15. Using animal models to study post-partum psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Perani, C V; Slattery, D A

    2014-01-01

    The post-partum period represents a time during which all maternal organisms undergo substantial plasticity in a wide variety of systems in order to ensure the well-being of the offspring. Although this time is generally associated with increased calmness and decreased stress responses, for a substantial subset of mothers, this period represents a time of particular risk for the onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, post-partum anxiety, depression and, to a lesser extent, psychosis may develop, and not only affect the well-being of the mother but also place at risk the long-term health of the infant. Although the risk factors for these disorders, as well as normal peripartum-associated adaptations, are well known, the underlying aetiology of post-partum psychiatric disorders remains poorly understood. However, there have been a number of attempts to model these disorders in basic research, which aim to reveal their underlying mechanisms. In the following review, we first discuss known peripartum adaptations and then describe post-partum mood and anxiety disorders, including their risk factors, prevalence and symptoms. Thereafter, we discuss the animal models that have been designed in order to study them and what they have revealed about their aetiology to date. Overall, these studies show that it is feasible to study such complex disorders in animal models, but that more needs to be done in order to increase our knowledge of these severe and debilitating mood and anxiety disorders. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:24527704

  16. What patterns of postpartum psychological distress are associated with maternal concerns about their children's emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years?

    PubMed Central

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks postpartum, and whether these clusters were associated with maternal-reported child emotional and behavioural problems at the age of three years, as measured by the Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS) questionnaire. In a longitudinal pregnancy cohort (N = 647), three clusters of postpartum psychological characteristics were identified. Contrary to expectations, mothers with the greatest psychological distress did not report concerns about their child's emotional and behavioural problems; rather, they reported concerns about global developmental delay. These findings suggest that infants of mothers experiencing postpartum psychological distress should receive additional follow-up to reduce the risk for global developmental delay. PMID:25544794

  17. Supportive relationships and the trajectory of depressive symptoms among young, African American mothers.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Renee C; Thullen, Matthew J; Isarowong, Nucha; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Henson, Linda; Hans, Sydney L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine changes in young mothers' depressive symptoms from pregnancy through the first two postpartum years and how supportive relationships with key individuals were related to mothers' depressive symptoms over time. Data were collected from young, low-income African American mothers (N = 248) during pregnancy and at 4, 12, and 24 months postpartum. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that depressive symptoms were highest during pregnancy and declined through 24 months postpartum. Supportive relationships with the father of the baby and the mother's parent figure were related to lower levels of depressive symptoms. Although the association between father support and the mother's depressive symptoms remained consistent over time, support from the parent figure became increasingly more important during the young mother's transition to parenting. Further analyses also revealed that the association between support and depressive symptoms depended on other aspects of these relationships. Greater support from the baby's father was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were partnered with the father of the baby. Greater support from the parent figure was only related to fewer depressive symptoms for mothers who were coresiding with the parent. Finally, having a repeat pregnancy during the early postpartum years was related to higher levels of depressive symptoms during the subsequent pregnancy. These findings suggest that screening and interventions for depression in young mothers should begin during pregnancy and include a focus on her proximal social relationships.

  18. Characterization of maternal motivation in the lactating rat: Contrasts between early and late postpartum responses

    PubMed Central

    Wansaw, Michael P.; Pereira, Mariana; Morrell, Joan I.

    2008-01-01

    We previously assessed the motivational properties of pups relative to those of cocaine in parturient female rats (dams) across the postpartum period and demonstrated that the larger subset of dams in early postpartum (PPD8) preferred the pup-associated chamber, whereas the majority of dams tested in late postpartum (PPD16) preferred the cocaine-associated chamber [Mattson, B.J., Williams, S., Rosenblatt, J.S., Morrell, J.I. 2001. Comparison of two positive reinforcing stimuli: pups and cocaine throughout the postpartum period. Behav. Neurosci., 115, 683-694; Seip, K.M., Morrell, J.I. 2007. Increasing the incentive salience of cocaine challenges preference for pup- over cocaine-associated stimuli during early postpartum: place preference and locomotor analyses in the lactating female rat. Psychopharmacology 194, 309-319]. The present study uses a dual-choice conditioned place preference to ask how the progression of the postpartum period, including natural pup development, influences maternal motivation for pups. Preferences for cued chambers associated with pups that were age-matched to the postpartum stage of the dam in contrast to a stimulus with little incentive salience were higher during the early than the late postpartum, suggesting that the incentive salience of pups diminishes as the postpartum period progresses. Preferences of the early postpartum dams deprived of pups for 15 min, 2, 6, 12 or 22 hrs prior to conditioning and testing did not differ statistically but there was a trend of more pup preference after 22 hr deprivation; pup age was not an important factor in early postpartum. In marked contrast, late postpartum dams only exhibited robust pup-associated place preference when they were conditioned with young (4-7 day-old) pups or after a 22 hr period of deprivation from contemporaneous pups. Together these results suggest that both forces are at work in the mother-pup dyad, changes in the pups as they develop and changes in the physiological and

  19. Delineating the Association between Heavy Postpartum Haemorrhage and Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Eckerdal, Patricia; Kollia, Natasa; Löfblad, Johanna; Hellgren, Charlotte; Karlsson, Linnea; Högberg, Ulf; Wikström, Anna-Karin; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the association between postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) and postpartum depression (PPD), taking into account the role of postpartum anaemia, delivery experience and psychiatric history. Methods A nested cohort study (n = 446), based on two population-based cohorts in Uppsala, Sweden. Exposed individuals were defined as having a bleeding of ≥1000ml (n = 196) at delivery, and non-exposed individuals as having bleeding of <650ml (n = 250). Logistic regression models with PPD symptoms (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression scale (EPDS) score ≥ 12) as the outcome variable and PPH, anaemia, experience of delivery, mood during pregnancy and other confounders as exposure variables were undertaken. Path analysis using Structural Equation Modeling was also conducted. Results There was no association between PPH and PPD symptoms. A positive association was shown between anaemia at discharge from the maternity ward and the development of PPD symptoms, even after controlling for plausible confounders (OR = 2.29, 95%CI = 1.15–4.58). Path analysis revealed significant roles for anaemia at discharge, negative self-reported delivery experience, depressed mood during pregnancy and postpartum stressors in increasing the risk for PPD. Conclusion This study proposes important roles for postpartum anaemia, negative experience of delivery and mood during pregnancy in explaining the development of depressive symptoms after PPH. PMID:26807799

  20. Breast-feeding, return of menses, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among mothers in the first six months of lactation in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Egbuonu, I; Ezechukwu, C C; Chukwuka, J O; Ikechebelu, J I

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the exclusive breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices among breast-feeding mothers in the first six months of lactation. The study was based in Onitsha, South Eastern Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain data from breast-feeding mothers on their age, educational attainment, breast-feeding practices, return of menstruation, sexual activity and contraceptive practices within the first six months of lactation at intervals of 6 weeks, 10 weeks 14 weeks and 6 months post delivery. Analysis of the information obtained showed that out of the 178 mothers who participated in the study 81% of the mothers were within the ages of 20 - 34 years. While all the mothers had formal education, the majority (59%) had secondary education. Seventy-three percent initiated breast-feeding within one hour of delivery. On discharge from hospital, all of them had already established breast-feeding which continued up to six weeks and dropped to 97.8% at six months. Exclusive breast-feeding which was practised by 100% on discharge dropped to 3.9% at six months. The feeding regimen was on demand as practised by 98.9% of the mothers. Menstrual flow had returned in 33.8% of the mothers by 6 weeks of lactation, and had risen to 70.2% at six months. There was more prolonged lactational amenorrheoa in exclusively breast-feeding mothers than in those who were not. By 6 weeks post delivery 31.6% of the mothers had resumed sexual activity and this rose to 93.6% at six months. With the resumption of sexual activity only 5% of the mothers resorted to contraceptive practices other than lactational amenorrhea and this increased to 54% at six months. There was no pregnancy in any of these women during the six months period. While appreciating the role of lactational amenorrhea in child spacing and considering the early return of sexual activity among the mothers the practice of introducing

  1. Asynchrony of mother-infant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity following extinction of infant crying responses induced during the transition to sleep.

    PubMed

    Middlemiss, Wendy; Granger, Douglas A; Goldberg, Wendy A; Nathans, Laura

    2012-04-01

    This study examines change in the synchrony between mothers' and infants' physiology as 25 infants (11 males; 4 to 10 months of age) participate in a 5-day inpatient sleep training program in which they learn to self-settle through extinction of crying responses during the transition to sleep. The mothers' and infants' experience during the extinction protocol was "yoked" by the infants' behavioral signaling during the sleep transition period. Saliva was sampled for mothers and infants at initiation of infants' nighttime sleep and following infants' falling to sleep on two program days and later assayed for cortisol. As expected on the first day of the program, mothers' and infants' cortisol levels were positively associated at initiation of nighttime sleep following a day of shared activities. Also, when infants expressed distress in response to the sleep transition, mother and infant cortisol responses were again positively associated. On the third day of the program, however, results showed that infants' physiological and behavioral responses were dissociated. They no longer expressed behavioral distress during the sleep transition but their cortisol levels were elevated. Without the infants' distress cue, mothers' cortisol levels decreased. The dissociation between infants' behavioral and physiological responses resulted in asynchrony in mothers' and infants' cortisol levels. The findings are discussed in relation to understanding the determinants and implications of maternal-infant physiological synchrony in early childhood.

  2. Commentary: postpartum psychosis, infanticide, and insanity--implications for forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Hatters Friedman, Susan; Sorrentino, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Two dozen nations have infanticide laws that decrease the penalty for mothers who kill their children of up to one year of age. The United States does not have such a law, but mentally ill mothers may plead not guilty by reason of insanity. As in other crimes, in addition to the diagnosis of a mental disorder, other factors, such as knowledge of wrongfulness and motive, are critical to the assessment. Postpartum psychosis has been described for 2,000 years and modern science supports a genetic component to the risk. Yet, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders does not include it as a diagnosis, leading to difficulty in testimony. In this article, we discuss postpartum psychosis, infanticide law, and research regarding mothers who kill, and we make recommendations to forensic psychiatrists.

  3. Online Recruitment: Feasibility, Cost, and Representativeness in a Study of Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Butterworth, Peter; Poyser, Carmel; Batterham, Philip J; Farrer, Louise M

    2017-01-01

    Background Online recruitment is feasible, low-cost, and can provide high-quality epidemiological data. However, little is known about the feasibility of recruiting postpartum women online, or sample representativeness. Objective The current study investigates the feasibility of recruiting a population of postpartum women online for health research and examines sample representativeness. Methods Two samples of postpartum women were compared: those recruited online as participants in a brief survey of new mothers (n=1083) and those recruited face-to-face as part of a nationally representative study (n=579). Sociodemographic, general health, and mental health characteristics were compared between the two samples. Results Obtaining a sample of postpartum women online for health research was highly efficient and low-cost. The online sample over-represented those who were younger (aged 25-29 years), were in a de facto relationship, had higher levels of education, spoke only English at home, and were first-time mothers. Members of the online sample were significantly more likely to have poor self-rated health and poor mental health than the nationally representative sample. Health differences remained after adjusting for sociodemographic differences. Conclusions Potential exists for feasible and low-cost e-epidemiological research with postpartum populations; however, researchers should consider the potential influence of sample nonrepresentativeness. PMID:28274906

  4. The impact of migration on women’s mental health in the postpartum period

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Lígia Moreira; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Caldas, José Peixoto; Dias, Sónia; Ayres-de-Campos, Diogo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the influence of I mmigration on the psychological health of women after childbirth. METHODS In this cross-sectional study, immigrant and Portuguese-native women delivering in the four public hospitals of the metropolitan area of Porto, Portugal, were contacted by telephone between February and December 2012 during the first postpartum month to schedule a home visit and fill in a questionnaire. Most immigrant (76.1%) and Portuguese mothers (80.0%) agreed to participate and with the visits, thus a total of 89 immigrants and 188 Portuguese women were included in the study. The questionnaire included the application of four validated scales: Mental Health Inventory-5, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, and Scale of Satisfaction with Social Support. Statistical analysis included t-test and Chi-square or Fisher’s test, and logistic regression models. RESULTS Immigrants had an increased risk of postpartum depression (OR = 6.444, 95%CI 1.858–22.344), and of low satisfaction with social support (OR = 6.118, 95%CI 1.991–18.798). We did not perceive any associations between migrant state, perceived stress, and impoverished mental health. CONCLUSIONS Immigrant mothers have increased vulnerabilities in the postpartum period, resulting in an increased risk of postpartum depression and lesser satisfaction with the received social support. PMID:27355463

  5. Bright light therapy to promote sleep in mothers of low-birth-weight infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Aycock, Dawn M; Moloney, Margaret F

    2013-10-01

    Having a low-birth-weight (LBW) infant in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can intensify a mother's sleep disturbances due to both stress and the dim lighting in the ICU setting, which desynchronizes circadian rhythms. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a 3-week bright light therapy intervention on sleep and health outcomes of mothers with LBW infants in the NICU. Controlled stratified randomization was used to assign 30 mothers to a treatment or control group. Data were collected at pretreatment (second week postpartum) and after the 3-week intervention. Sleep data were assessed by wrist actigraph (total sleep time [TST], circadian activity rhythms [CARs]) and the General Sleep Disturbance scale. Other outcome variables were measured by the Lee's Fatigue scale, Edinburgh Postpartum Depression scale, and the Medical Outcomes Short Form 36, version 2. Mothers averaged 26.6 (SD = 6.3) years of age, and the majority were Black (73%). The mean gestational age for the infants was 27.7 (SD = 2.0) weeks. Small to large effect sizes were found when comparing the pre- to posttreatment differences between groups. Although none of the differences were statistically significant in this small sample, for mothers in the treatment group nocturnal TST (d = .33), CAR (d = 1.06), morning fatigue (d = .22), depressive symptoms (d = .40), physical health-related quality of life (d = .33), and mental health-related quality of life (d = .60) all improved compared to the control group. Bright light therapy is feasible for mothers with infants in an NICU. Clinically significant improvements have been evidenced; a larger-scale trial of effectiveness is needed.

  6. Postpartum corticosterone administration reduces dendritic complexity and increases the density of mushroom spines of hippocampal CA3 arbours in dams.

    PubMed

    Workman, J L; Brummelte, S; Galea, L A M

    2013-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers after giving birth. A complete understanding of depression during the postpartum period has yet to be established, although disruptions in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and stress during the postpartum may be involved. To model these components in rats, we administered high corticosterone (CORT) postpartum, which increases immobility in the forced swim test (FST), and reduces maternal care, body weight and hippocampal cell proliferation in dams. The hippocampus is altered in response to chronic stress, exposure to high glucocorticoids and in major depression in humans. In the present study, we examined whether high CORT reduced dendritic complexity and spines in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. Additionally, housing complexity was manipulated so that dams and litters were housed either with tubes (complex) or without tubes (impoverished) to investigate the consequences of new animal care regulations. Dams received 40 mg/kg/day of CORT or oil starting on day 2 postpartum for 23 days. Maternal behaviours were assessed on postpartum days 2-8 and dams were tested using the FST on days 21 and 22. Dams were killed on day 24 and brains were processed for Golgi impregnation. Pyramidal cells in the CA3 subfield were traced using a camera lucida and analysed for branch points and dendritic complexity, as well as spine density and type on both basal and apical arbours. As previously established, high CORT postpartum reduced maternal care and increased immobility in the FST, which is a measure of depressive-like behaviour. High CORT postpartum reduced the complexity of basal arbours and increased mushroom spines on both apical and basal dendrites. Housing complexity had no effect on spines of CA3 pyramidal cells but modest effects on cell morphology. These data show that chronic high CORT in postpartum females alters hippocampal morphology and may provide insight regarding the neurobiological

  7. Paraganglioma Presenting as Postpartum Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Narechania, Shraddha; Bath, Amrita; Ghassemi, Laleh; Lokhande, Chetan; Haddad, Abdo; Yousuf, Ali Mir; Marquard, Jessica; Gopalakrishna, K. V.

    2015-01-01

    A young healthy postpartum mother presented with intermittent high fevers and tachycardia. Appropriate testing was done to rule out infectious causes including pan cultures but no identifiable infectious source was found. A CT of the abdomen showed a retroperitoneal mass with two small pulmonary nodules and a bony metastatic lesion. She was found to have stage 4 extra-adrenal paraganglioma with metastases to the lungs and spine. She underwent resection of the mass and is currently undergoing palliative radiation to the spine for pain control. Subsequent genetic testing identified a likely pathogenic variant in SDHB, confirming a diagnosis of Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma syndrome. PMID:26236513

  8. Postpartum Depression Affects New Dads, Too

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163092.html Postpartum Depression Affects New Dads, Too Certain men at greater ... HealthDay News) -- Men can also suffer from postpartum depression after their baby is born. "Dads want to ...

  9. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Postpartum Depression URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. ANXIETY AND ATTACHMENT TO THE MOTHER IN PRESCHOOLERS RECEIVING PSYCHIATRIC CARE: THE FATHER-CHILD ACTIVATION RELATIONSHIP AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR.

    PubMed

    Gaumon, Sébastien; Paquette, Daniel; Cyr, Chantal; Émond-Nakamura, Mutsuko; St-André, Martin

    2016-07-01

    This 49-family study is the first to explore the father-child relationship in a clinical population of preschoolers (at a tertiary care child psychiatry clinic) and to examine its relation to child anxiety and attachment to the mother. A moderation model of the father-child activation relationship on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety was tested and discussed. Analyses confirmed the expected independence between mother-child attachment and father-child activation as well as the association between mother-child attachment and anxiety. The highest levels of anxiety were found in insecure children, and more specifically, in insecure-ambivalent children and insecure disorganized-controlling children of the caregiving subtype. Hypotheses regarding the relation between anxiety and activation were only partially confirmed. Finally, the activation relationship with the father was shown to have a moderating effect on the relation between attachment to the mother and child anxiety; activation by the father may be considered either a protective or a risk factor. Results for this clinical population of young children are discussed in the light of attachment theory and activation relationship theory. The study's findings have the potential to contribute to the development of preventative, diagnostic, and intervention programs that take both parental figures into account.

  11. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress

    PubMed Central

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development. PMID:26266033

  12. Paternal and Maternal Transition to Parenthood: The Risk of Postpartum Depression and Parenting Stress.

    PubMed

    Epifanio, Maria Stella; Genna, Vitalba; De Luca, Caterina; Roccella, Michele; La Grutta, Sabina

    2015-05-25

    Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  13. Mother and Toddler Activity in the Zone of Proximal Development for Pretend Play as a Predictor of Higher Child IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Anne-Marie; Brown, P. Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the pretend play of mother-toddler dyads in relation to later child IQ. Twenty-one toddlers were videotaped in monthly play sessions with their mothers, from age 8 to 17 months, and later assessed at 5 years of age on the Stanford-Binet IV. Children's and mothers' pretend play levels and frequencies were measured using…

  14. Depression during pregnancy and postpartum: contribution of stress and ovarian hormones.

    PubMed

    Brummelte, S; Galea, Liisa A M

    2010-06-30

    Depression is the most common psychiatric disease among women, exhibiting a prevalence which is 2-3x higher than in men. The postpartum period is considered the time of greatest risk for women to develop major depression and postpartum depression affects approximately 15% of women. A dysregulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is the most prominent endocrine change seen in depression and normalization of the HPA axis is a major target of recent therapies. Females exhibit different stress sensitivities than males which might contribute to their increased vulnerability for depression. Maternal stress or depression during pregnancy and/or postpartum is particularly concerning as early developmental influences can affect the maturation of the offspring as well as the mental health of the mother. Despite the urgent need for more information on depression in females, especially during pregnancy and postpartum, most animal models of depression have utilized only males. Given the sex differences in incidence of depression and treatment, it is vitally important to create or validate animal models of depression in females. This review will focus on the association between stress, glucocorticoids and depression in humans, with a special focus on depression in women during pregnancy and postpartum and on animal models of postpartum depression and the consequences for the offspring.

  15. The BDI-II factor structure in pregnancy and postpartum: Two or three factors?

    PubMed

    Carvalho Bos, Sandra; Pereira, Ana Telma; Marques, Mariana; Maia, Berta; Soares, Maria João; Valente, José; Gomes, Ana; Macedo, António; Azevedo, Maria Helena

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) in pregnancy and postpartum. Women were asked to fill in the BDI-II in their last trimester of pregnancy and at 3 months after delivery. A total of 331 pregnant women, with a mean age of 29.7 years (SD=4.6), and 354 mothers, aged 30.6 years (SD=4.6 years), answered the BDI-II. The first group was mainly nulliparas (65.6%) and the second group was mostly primiparas (57.4%). Factor analyses with principal components solution and varimax rotation were performed. Based on the scree test of Cattell a 2-factor solution and a 3-factor solution were explored. The 2-factor solution was identical in pregnancy and postpartum. Items loading in the Cognitive-Affective factor and in the Somatic-Anxiety factor were almost the same, though the Cognitive-Affective factor explained more of the BDI-II total variance in pregnancy, whereas in postpartum both factors explained similar total variances. The 3-factor solution of the BDI-II in pregnancy and postpartum slightly diverged. Besides the Cognitive-Affective and the Somatic-Anxiety factors, a third factor, Fatigue, was obtained in pregnancy while Guilt was the third factor identified in postpartum. This study reveals that the BDI-II 3-factor solution might be more appropriate to assess depressive symptoms in pregnancy and postpartum.

  16. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy and disorganized infant-mother attachment

    PubMed Central

    Troutman, Beth R.; Momany, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine the quality of infant-mother attachment in a prospective case series of infants whose mothers took selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy. Background SSRIs are prescribed to 2 to 6% of pregnant women (National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, 2007; Stewart, 2011). Recent articles on the use of SSRIs during pregnancy note the increased risk for problematic infant-mother relationships among mothers with untreated postpartum depression (Gentile, 2011; Stewart, 2011). However, little is known about the quality of infant-mother relationships among mothers who took SSRIs during pregnancy. Methods Five mothers who took SSRIs during pregnancy were recruited from a community study of infant development. Mothers completed ratings of postpartum depression symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) 4 to 6 times between 1 month and 1 year following the infant’s birth. At 1 year postpartum, quality of infant-mother attachment was assessed using the strange situation procedure. Results Four of the 5 infant-mother dyads (80%) were classified as disorganized, a rate considerably higher than in postpartum depression samples. Conclusion These results are used to raise questions about the clinical implications of research on in utero exposure to SSRIs, perinatal depression, and disorganized attachment. Specifically, this case series raises questions about using research on the link between postpartum depression and infant-mother attachment as a rationale for the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. Current research indicates use of SSRIs during pregnancy may: 1) increase risk for disorganized attachment, 2) decrease risk for disorganized attachment, or 3) have no effect on disorganized attachment. PMID:23509416

  17. Preventing Perinatal Depression through Home Visiting: The Mothers and Babies Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Deborah F.; Tandon, S. Darius; Edwards, Karen; Mendelson, Tamar

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting (HV) programs serve women at high risk for developing postpartum depression because of factors such as poverty and low social support. Depression poses serious threats not only to mother-child attachment and healthy infant development but also to women's ability to engage with HV services and supports. The Mothers and Babies (MB)…

  18. Doulas' Perceptions on Single Mothers' Risk and Protective Factors, and Aspirations Relative to Child-Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arat, Gizem

    2013-01-01

    This study the author aims to explore the perceptions of doulas on single mothers' risk and protective factors, and aspirations relative to child-birth in the postpartum care. The current study was conducted by semi-structured questions, case file reviews, field notes, and twelve home visits via utilizing Grounded Theory. These mothers receive…

  19. Postpartum sterilization in cesarean section and non-cesarean section deliveries: United States, 1970-75.

    PubMed Central

    Placek, P J; Taffel, S M; Smith, J C; Maze, J M

    1981-01-01

    National Hospital Discharge Survey data indicate that the overall postpartum sterilization rate per 100 deliveries increased by 75 per cent from 4.0 in 1970 to 7.0 in 1975; by type of delivery, rates rose from 18.0 per 100 cesarean section deliveries and 3.2 for all other deliveries in 1970 to 19.0 and 5.6 respectively in 1975. The South had the highest postpartum sterilization rates overall. Deliveries to older mothers and cesarean section deliveries in hospitals with less than 100 beds were more often characterized by higher sterilization rates. PMID:7294272

  20. Evaluation of Malondialdehyde, Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase Activity in Fetal Cord Blood of Depressed Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Camkurt, Mehmet Akif; Fındıklı, Ebru; Bakacak, Murat; Tolun, Fatma İnanç; Karaaslan, Mehmet Fatih

    2017-01-01

    Objective The umbilical cord consists of two arteries and one vein and it functions in the transport between the maternal and fetal circulation. Biochemical analysis of fetal cord blood (FCB) during delivery could be beneficial in terms of understanding the fetal environment. In this study, we aimed to investigate oxidative parameters like malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) levels in FCB during delivery. Methods We collected FCB samples during caesarean section. Our study included 33 depressed mothers and 37 healthy controls. We investigated MDA, SOD, and CAT levels in FCB samples. Results We found no significant difference between groups in terms of MDA (p=0.625), SOD (p=0.940), and CAT (p=0.413) levels. Conclusion Our study reveals probable protective effects of the placenta from oxidative stress. Future studies should include larger samples. PMID:28138108

  1. Neuroendocrinology of childbirth and mother-child attachment: the basis of an etiopathogenic model of perinatal neurobiological disorders.

    PubMed

    Olza-Fernández, Ibone; Marín Gabriel, Miguel Angel; Gil-Sanchez, Alfonso; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Arevalo, Maria Angeles

    2014-10-01

    This review focuses on the neuroendocrine mechanisms in the mother and the newborn that are involved in the generation and consolidation of mother-child attachment. The role that different hormones and neurotransmitters play on the regulation of these mechanisms during parturition, the immediate postpartum period and lactation is discussed. Interferences in the initiation of mother-child attachment may have potential long-term effects for the behavior and affection of the newborn. Therefore, the possible consequences of alterations in the physiological neuroendocrine mechanisms of attachment, caused by elective Cesarean section, intrapartum hormonal manipulations, preterm delivery, mother-infant postpartum separation and bottle-feeding instead of breastfeeding are also discussed.

  2. Influence of social context on eating, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors of Latina mothers and their preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana C; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Peterson, Karen E

    2009-02-01

    As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from content analysis according to ecologic frameworks for behavior change. Respondents related environmental influences to child feeding, diet, and activity, namely, supermarket proximity, food cost, access to recreational facilities, neighborhood safety, and weather. Television watching was seen as integral to family life, including watching during meals and using TV as babysitter and tool to learn English. Participation in the WIC program helped families address food insecurity, and child care provided healthy eating and physical activity opportunities. Health promotion efforts addressing obesity trends in Latino children must account for organizational and environmental influences on the day-to-day social context of young immigrant families.

  3. Origins of Mothers' and Fathers' Beliefs about Infant Crying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Parade, Stephanie H.; Burney, Regan V.

    2010-01-01

    Origins of mothers' and fathers' beliefs about infant crying were examined in 87 couples. Parents completed measures of emotion minimization in the family of origin, depressive symptoms, empathy, trait anger, and coping styles prenatally. At 6 months postpartum, parents completed a self-report measure of their beliefs about infant crying. Mothers…

  4. Effect of supplementation with corn oil on postpartum ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, and serum concentration of progesterone and lipid metabolites in F1 (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) cows.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Avila, I; Herrera-Camacho, J; Aké-López, J R; Delgado-León, R A; Ku-Vera, J C

    2010-10-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of corn oil supplementation during postpartum anoestrus on ovarian activity, pregnancy rate, progesterone (P(4)), and lipid metabolites (cholesterol, CHO; low and high density lipoproteins; LDL and HDL, respectively) concentrations in blood of F(1) (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) grazing cows. Cows were randomly assigned to an experimental group, fed with a supplement containing 4% corn oil on dry matter basis (OG, n = 11), and a control group with the same supplement without corn oil (CG, n = 12). Both supplements contained equivalent amounts of crude protein and metabolizable energy and were fed for 34 days continuously. All cows were induced to estrous 12 days after beginning of supplementation by using a synthetic progestagen and artificially inseminated 56 h after retiring the implants. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by transrectal palpation 45 days after insemination, evaluating simultaneously ovarian activity. P(4) and lipid metabolites (CHO, HDL, LDL) concentrations were determined in blood samples collected at 3-day intervals, from the beginning of corn oil supplementation and up to 10 days after artificial insemination. Ovarian activity was affected by treatment (p < 0.05), finding ovarian structures in 72.7% of OG cows and in 50% of CG cows. Concentration of P(4) and CHO was higher for OG with respect to CG (2.52 +/- 0.65 vs 1.88 +/- 0.62 ng/ml and 117.79 +/- 11.57 vs 85.71 +/- 12.11 mg/dl, respectively), whereas pregnancy rate and blood concentrations of HDL and LDL were not affected by treatment (p > 0.05). Addition of corn oil to the supplement stimulated ovarian activity and increased serum concentrations of progesterone and cholesterol in grazing B. taurus x B. indicus cows with low body condition score showing postpartum anoestrus.

  5. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  6. Sleep Quality in Women with and without Postpartum Depression

    PubMed Central

    Posmontier, Bobbie

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare and measure the effects of sleep quality on women with and without postpartum depression (PPD). Design A case-control repeated measures matched pairs design. Setting Home and obstetric office. Participants Forty-six women who were 6 to 26 weeks postpartum. Two participants were dropped from the final analysis because they were outliers. Methods Participants underwent wrist actigraphy at home for 7 consecutive days to measure sleep quality (sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, wake episodes). The Postpartum Depression Screening Scale measured depression severity. Psychosocial variables were collected during a screening interview. A structured clinical interview was used to diagnose PPD. Correlations, t-tests, and hierarchical multiple regressions were run to analyze data. Results With the exception of wake episodes, sleep latency (B = 1.80, S.E. = 0.73, P<0.05), wake after sleep onset (B = 6.85, S.E. = 2.85, P<0.05), and thus sleep efficiency (B = −6.31, S.E. = 3.13, P<0.05) predicted PPD symptom severity. Conclusions Women with PPD experienced poorer sleep quality than women without PPD, and sleep quality worsened with increasing PPD symptom severity. Clinicians need to address measures to improve sleep quality in depressed mothers to decrease symptom severity, and researchers need to develop interventions to facilitate better sleep quality in women with PPD. PMID:19012723

  7. TRIPPD: A Practice-Based Network Effectiveness Study of Postpartum Depression Screening and Management

    PubMed Central

    Yawn, Barbara P.; Dietrich, Allen J.; Wollan, Peter; Bertram, Susan; Graham, Debbie; Huff, Jessica; Kurland, Margary; Madison, Suzanne; Pace, Wilson D.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Postpartum depression is common but inadequately recognized and undertreated. Continuing depressive symptoms are associated with adverse outcomes for the woman, her infant, and family. We wanted to determine the effect of a practice-based training program for screening, diagnosis, and management of depression in postpartum mothers. METHODS In this practice-based effectiveness study, 28 practices were randomized to usual care (n = 14) or intervention (n = 14), and 2,343 women were enrolled between 5 and 12 weeks’ postpartum. The intervention sites received education and tools for postpartum depression screening, diagnosis, initiation of therapy, and follow-up within their practices. Usual-care practices received a 30-minute presentation about postpartum depression. Screening information for the usual care was obtained from baseline surveys sent directly to the central site but was not available for patient care. Outcomes were based on patient-reported outcomes (level of depressive symptoms) from surveys at 6 and 12 months, plus medical record review (diagnosis and therapy initiation). RESULTS Among the 2,343 women enrolled, 1,897 (80.1%) provided outcome information, and were included in the analysis. Overall, 654 (34.5% of 1,897) women had elevated screening scores indicative of depression, with comparable rates in the intervention and usual-care groups. Among the 654 women with elevated postpartum depression screening scores, those in the intervention practices were more likely to receive a diagnosis (P = .0006) and therapy for postpartum depression (P = .002). They also had lower depressive symptom levels at 6 (P = .07) and 12 months’ (P=.001) postpartum. CONCLUSIONS Primary care–based screening, diagnosis, and management improved mother’s depression outcomes at 12 months. This practical approach could be implemented widely with modest resources. PMID:22778120

  8. A systematic review of interventions to improve postpartum retention of women in PMTCT and ART care

    PubMed Central

    Geldsetzer, Pascal; Yapa, H Manisha N; Vaikath, Maria; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Fox, Matthew P; Essajee, Shaffiq M; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization recommends lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and breastfeeding women living with HIV. Effective transitioning from maternal and child health to ART services, and long-term retention in ART care postpartum is crucial to the successful implementation of lifelong ART for pregnant women. This systematic review aims to determine which interventions improve (1) retention within prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programmes after birth, (2) transitioning from PMTCT to general ART programmes in the postpartum period, and (3) retention of postpartum women in general ART programmes. Methods We searched Medline, Embase, ISI Web of Knowledge, the regional World Health Organization databases and conference abstracts for data published between 2002 and 2015. The quality of all included studies was assessed using the GRADE criteria. Results and Discussion After screening 8324 records, we identified ten studies for inclusion in this review, all of which were from sub-Saharan Africa except for one from the United Kingdom. Two randomized trials found that phone calls and/or text messages improved early (six to ten weeks) postpartum retention in PMTCT. One cluster-randomized trial and three cohort studies found an inconsistent impact of different levels of integration between antenatal care/PMTCT and ART care on postpartum retention. The inconsistent results of the four identified studies on care integration are likely due to low study quality, and heterogeneity in intervention design and outcome measures. Several randomized trials on postpartum retention in HIV care are currently under way. Conclusions Overall, the evidence base for interventions to improve postpartum retention in HIV care is weak. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that phone-based interventions can improve retention in PMTCT in the first one to three months postpartum. PMID:27118443

  9. Postpartum Adjustment in Primiparous Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, A. Kathleen; Rickel, Annette U.

    Within the framework of the social stress and behavioral theories of depression, this study investigated the hypothesis that postpartum depression is a function of disruption of parents' prepartum functioning by the subsequent demands of infant caretaking. Seventy-eight primiparous married couples (N=156, 78 men and 78 women) volunteered to…

  10. Better care and better teaching. New model of postpartum care for early discharge programs.

    PubMed Central

    Yaffe, M. J.; Russillo, B.; Hyland, C.; Kovacs, L.; McAlister, E.

    2001-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Rapid postpartum discharge has reduced opportunities to detect early newborn or parenting problems and to teach neonatal assessment and maternal postpartum care to medical trainees. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: Development of a program to not only ensure adequate care of mothers and newborns after early hospital discharge, but also to teach outpatient assessment skills to family medicine residents. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: In an urban, secondary care, university-affiliated teaching hospital predominantly training family medicine residents, an interdisciplinary committee created and supervised a neonatal and maternal postpartum assessment program. Newborn infants and their mothers are seen by a family physician, a family medicine resident, and a nurse within 48 hours of discharge, after which care is assumed in the community by the child's primary care physician. An assessment protocol developed by the interdisciplinary group promotes standardized mother and child care and a structured learning experience for trainees. CONCLUSION: Rapid follow up of early discharged infants and their mothers can be facilitated by a program of standardized assessment by a roster of pooled, interacting family physicians and nurses. When this assessment occurs in a teaching milieu, a comprehensive learning experience can be combined with defined objectives that emphasize and encourage newborn and maternal assessment for ambulatory patients. PMID:11723597

  11. Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples.

  12. Anticipatory Guidance about Child Diet and Physical Activity for Latino Farmworker Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Skelton, Joseph A.; Ip, Edward H.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This analysis describes farmworker child health care utilization, anticipatory guidance for child weight, and the association of anticipatory guidance with personal characteristics, practice characteristics, and child’s health care utilization. Methods Data are from interviews conducted with 221 North Carolina Latino farmworker mothers with a child aged 4–5 years. Results Half of the children were healthy weight, 19.0% were overweight, and 28.5% were obese. Most (56.4%) had been with the usual practice for two years or longer; most had well-child visits less frequently than once per year (71.5%). Fewer children with well-child visits than without were obese (14.8% vs. 35.5%; p=.01). More children with obesity than with healthy weight or overweight received guidance messages; more children without a well-child care visit in the past 12 months received guidance messages. Conclusions Health care providers are addressing anticipatory guidance when the opportunity arises. Creative approaches to address disparate primary care for farmworker families are important. PMID:27524752

  13. Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls to infants from their mothers

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Ota, H.

    1980-03-01

    Transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) which are environmental pollutants, to infants from their mothers was investigated from 1974 to 1977. The following samples were collected and analyzed for PCBs using a gas chromatographic determination: (a) maternal blood at 8 and 4 months prepartum, delivery, and 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; (b) cord blood at delivery; (c) human milk at 1, 3, 5, and 7 months postpartum; and (d) newborn infant blood at 3 months, 1, 2, and 3 yr after birth. The PCB levels in maternal blood gradually elevated with the progress of gestation and then decreased, reaching a general population level at 5 months postpartum. The PCB level in maternal blood at delivery was significantly higher than that in the cord blood. The mean values of PCB levels in human milk at 3 months postpartum-both the whole and fat basis-showed some differences in each sampling time period, however, those values were generally obtained within the normal range of ordinary Japanese lactating women. When the cord blood at delivery was considered as newborn infant blood at birth, the PCB levels in the blood of breast-fed infants rose markedly with ingestion of human milk, exceeding the level in the blood of their mothers at 3 months postpartum, and tended to increase until 1 yr of age, and then gradually decreased at 2 and 3 yr of age. However, the PCB levels in the blood of bottle-fed infants remained at a low concentration level during the same period. In this survey, the concentration of PCBs in the blood of two newborn infants who received their mothers' milk for a longer period of time than the other infants, continued to increase exponentially, finally reaching about a four-fold value of their mothers. These results suggest that the quantity of PCBs transferred to infants from their mothers via lactation was much greater than that transferred placentally.

  14. Prospective and Dyadic Associations between Expectant Parents’ Prenatal Hormone Changes and Postpartum Parenting Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Edelstein, Robin S.; Chopik, William J.; Saxbe, Darby E.; Wardecker, Britney M.; Moors, Amy C.; LaBelle, Onawa P.

    2017-01-01

    During the transition to parenthood, both men and women experience hormone changes that are thought to promote parental care. Yet very few studies have explicitly tested the hypothesis that prenatal hormone changes are associated with postpartum parenting behavior. In a longitudinal study of 27 first-time expectant couples, we assessed whether prenatal hormone changes predicted self and partner-reported parenting outcomes at three months postpartum. Expectant fathers showed prenatal declines in testosterone and estradiol, and larger declines in these hormones predicted larger contributions to household and infant care tasks postpartum. Women whose partners showed larger testosterone declines also reported receiving more support and more help with household tasks. Expectant mothers showed prenatal increases in testosterone and estradiol, and larger increases predicted lower partner-rated support. Together, our findings provide some of first evidence that prenatal hormone changes may indeed be functional and that behaviors associated with these changes may be detectable by co-parents. PMID:27604815

  15. [The meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension and premature birth].

    PubMed

    de Souza, Nilba Lima; Araujo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes; Costa, Iris do Céu Clara

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the meanings that postpartum women assign to gestational hypertension that resulted in premature birth. Participants were 70 women, with a mean age of 28 years, 85.7% of whom delivered between the 32nd and 36th gestational week. A questionnaire with subjective questions was applied to identify the meanings of gestational hypertension and premature delivery for postpartum women. Results were analyzed based on the Theory of Social Representations. We observed the construction of a negative social representation, with death as the central nucleus and negative aspects as the peripheral nuclei. The latter derive from the risks the mother and fetus were exposed to during pregnancy and later in the postpartum period with the hospitalization of the child in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  16. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification.

  17. Sleep patterns and fatigue in new mothers and fathers.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Lee, Kathryn A; Lee, Shih-Yu

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the sleep patterns and fatigue of both mothers and fathers before and after childbirth. The authors used wrist actigraphy and questionnaires to estimate sleep and fatigue in 72 couples during their last month of pregnancy and 1st month postpartum. Both parents experienced more sleep disruption at night during the postpartum period as compared to the last month of pregnancy. Compared to fathers, with their stable 24-h sleep patterns over time, mothers had less sleep at night and more sleep during the day after the baby was born. Sleep patterns were also related to parents' work status and type of infant feeding. Both parents self-reported more sleep disturbance and fatigue during the 1st month postpartum than during pregnancy. Mothers reported more sleep disturbance than fathers, but there was no gender difference in ratings of fatigue. At both time points, fathers obtained less total sleep than mothers when sleep was objectively measured throughout the entire 24-h day. Further research is needed to determine the duration of sleep loss for both mothers and fathers, to evaluate the effect of disrupted sleep and sleep loss on psychosocial functioning and job performance, and to develop interventions for improving sleep patterns of new parents.

  18. Caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage in lymphocytes from newborn babies of diabetic mothers with unbalanced glycaemic control.

    PubMed

    Tarquini, F; Tiribuzi, R; Crispoltoni, L; Porcellati, S; Del Pino, A M; Orlacchio, A; Coata, G; Arnone, S; Torlone, E; Cappuccini, B; Di Renzo, G C; Orlacchio, A

    2014-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies showed that gestational diabetes mellitus is the most frequent metabolic disorder of pregnancy, the pathogenesis of which has yet to be completely clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and processing of caspase 3 (Casp3) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in cord blood lymphocytes as markers of apoptosis in relation to glycaemic control during intrauterine life. Our results showed a specific positive correlation between the levels of active Casp3 (17-19 kDa) and the inactive form of PARP1 (89 kDa) in lymphocytes isolated from newborn babies of diabetic women with unbalanced glycaemic control, with a direct correlation between the activation of casp3 and the inactivation of PARP1, that makes lymphocytes unresponsive towards lipopolysaccharide stimulation, highlighting an altered functional response. Besides more studies are required to fully correlate the activation of the apoptotic process during the intrauterine life with the foetal health later in life, our study indicates that a cord blood lymphocyte, an easily accessible source, is informative about the activation of apoptotic stimuli in circulating cells of newborn babies in relation to the glycaemic control reached by the mother during pregnancy.

  19. The Effect of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on the Anxiety Levels of Iranian Women on the First Postpartum Day

    PubMed Central

    Jahdi, Fereshteh; Mehrabadi, Maryam; Mortazavi, Forough; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorder is common during the postpartum period. Back massage relaxation techniques are one of the most important nonpharmacological interventions to prevent and control postpartum-related anxiety. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of slow-stroke back massage on the anxiety levels of primiparous mothers in the first days after delivery. Materials and Methods This single-blind controlled clinical trial consisted of 100 primiparous mothers with normal deliveries. The mothers were randomly allocated to interventional (n = 50) or control (n = 50) groups using binary blocks. Both groups were followed up just before, immediately after, and the morning after the intervention. Data were collected using a demographic questionnaire and Spielberger’s state anxiety inventory (STAI) questionnaire. Results The mean age of the mothers was 22 years. There were no significant between-group differences in age (P = 0.333), education (P = 0.427), and medication during labor and the postpartum period (P = 0.412). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean anxiety scores of the experimental (6.66 ± 35.48) and control groups (9.05 ± 37.42) before the intervention (P = 0.268). Immediately after the massage and the next morning, there was a significant between-group difference in the anxiety scores (P < 0.001). Conclusions The findings demonstrate that slow-stroke back massage is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective method to reduce the anxiety levels of primiparous women during the first postpartum day. PMID:27781122

  20. The relationship between breastfeeding and postpartum weight change--a systematic review and critical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Neville, C E; McKinley, M C; Holmes, V A; Spence, D; Woodside, J V

    2014-04-01

    Pregnancy and the postpartum period is a time of increased vulnerability for retention of excess body fat in women. Breastfeeding (BF) has been shown to have many health benefits for both mother and baby; however, its role in postpartum weight management is unclear. Our aim was to systematically review and critically appraise the literature published to date in relation to the impact of BF on postpartum weight change, weight retention and maternal body composition. Electronic literature searches were carried out using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, BIOSIS, CINAHL and British Nursing Index. The search covered publications up to 12 June 2012 and included observational studies (prospective and retrospective) carried out in BF mothers (either exclusively or as a subgroup), who were ≤ 2 years postpartum and with a body mass index (BMI) >18.5 kg m(-2), with an outcome measure of change in weight (including weight retention) and/or body composition. Thirty-seven prospective studies and eight retrospective studies were identified that met the selection criteria; studies were stratified according to study design and outcome measure. Overall, studies were heterogeneous, particularly in relation to sample size, measurement time points and in the classification of BF and postpartum weight change. The majority of studies reported little or no association between BF and weight change (n=27, 63%) or change in body composition (n=16, 89%), although this seemed to depend on the measurement time points and BF intensity. However, of the five studies that were considered to be of high methodological quality, four studies demonstrated a positive association between BF and weight change. This systematic review highlights the difficulties of examining the association between BF and weight management in observational research. Although the available evidence challenges the widely held belief that BF promotes weight loss, more robust studies are needed to reliably assess the

  1. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  2. Intimate partner violence among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Spangenberg, Kathryn; Wobil, Priscilla; Betts, Cassandra L.; Wiesner, Theodore F.; Gold, Katherine J.

    2016-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a major public health problem estimated to affect 15–71% of women worldwide. We sought to elicit IPV risks among mothers of sick newborns in Ghana. As part of a broader study on postpartum depression, we conducted semi-structured surveys of 153 women in a mother-baby unit, assessing demographics, depression, social support, and IPV with the present partner. 46% of mothers reported some form of violence, mostly emotional (34%), followed by physical (17%) and sexual (15%). The study highlights the frequency of perinatal IPV and the associated risk factors of depression and poor social support. PMID:25864483

  3. Polar bear mother-offspring interactions in maternity dens in captivity.

    PubMed

    van Gessel, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Two female polar bears at Dierenrijk Zoo in the Netherlands were monitored at their maternity den one day before the birth of their cubs and three days postpartum. Each bear was monitored for 96 hr to document behaviour and vocalisations. The goal was to obtain insight into the differences between the mother that lost her litter and the other that successfully reared her cubs. Six groups of cub vocalisations were identified: Comfort, Discomfort, Distress, Nursing Attempts, Nursing, and No Vocalisation. Maternal vocalisations were split into three groups: Calm, Grooming, and Stress. Maternal behaviours were also split into three groups: Active, Rest, and Stress. The unsuccessful mother produced more stress vocalisations before and during the birth of her cub, whereas the successful mother appeared less stressed. Vocalisations indicate that the cub that died tried to nurse but was unsuccessful. The unsuccessful mother showed less stress as her cub got weaker and vocalised less. From this I suggest that maternal stress was a factor in cub mortality.

  4. Affective changes during the postpartum period: Influences of genetic and experiential factors.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". The postpartum period involves some truly transformational changes in females' socioemotional behaviors. For most female laboratory rodents and women, these changes include an improvement in their affective state, which has positive consequences for their ability to sensitively care for their offspring. There is heterogeneity among females in the likelihood of this positive affective change, though, and some women experience elevated anxiety or depression (or in rodents anxiety- or depression-related behaviors) after giving birth. We aim to contribute to the understanding of this heterogeneity in maternal affectivity by reviewing selected components of the scientific literatures on laboratory rodents and humans examining how mothers' physical contact with her infants, genetics, history of anxiety and depression and early-life and recent-life experiences contribute to individual differences in postpartum affective states. These studies together indicate that multiple biological and environmental factors beyond female maternal state shape affective responses during the postpartum period, and probably do so in an interactive manner. Furthermore, the similar capacity of some of these factors to modulate anxiety and depression in human and rodent mothers suggests cross-species conservation of mechanisms regulating postpartum affectivity.

  5. [Misoprostol for treating postpartum hemorrhages].

    PubMed

    Godard, Clémence; Berhoune, Malik; Bertrand, Eric; Schlatter, Joël; Chiadmi, Fouad; Toledano, Audrey; Cisternino, Salvatore; Fontan, Jean-Eudes

    2008-03-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is defined by bleeding > 500 mL through the vagina. It is one of the obstetrical complications that obstetricians fear most. It is the leading cause of maternal mortality in the world, especially in developing countries. The reference treatments in France are parenteral oxytocin and sulprostone. Sulprostone involves sometimes fatal side effects, and must be administered only in appropriate health care facilities. It also has the major disadvantage of requiring refrigeration. Misoprostol has uterotonic properties that have led to its occasional off-label use in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage, by rectal or sublingual administration, as an alternative to sulprostone. A careful review of the literature on this particular use of misoprostol is essential.

  6. Daily parenting engagement among new mothers and fathers: the role of romantic attachment in dual-earner families.

    PubMed

    Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kotila, Letitia E; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the association of prenatal assessments of mothers' and fathers' self-reported romantic attachment anxiety and avoidance with the time mothers and fathers reported in proximity-focused and exploration-focused engagement with their infants at 9 months postpartum. Our sample of 136 dual-earner couples came from a larger longitudinal study of the transition to parenthood. Time in proximity-focused (interactions that emphasize physical or emotional connection) and exploration-focused (activities that stimulate and build knowledge of the world) engagement on workdays and nonworkdays were measured using time diaries. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we found significant across-partners associations between romantic attachment and parental engagement. In particular, analyses revealed interesting interactions: fathers higher in avoidance spent more time in exploration-focused engagement on workdays when mothers were more anxious, whereas mothers higher in anxiety spent more time in proximity-focused engagement on nonworkdays when fathers were more avoidant. Moreover, fathers demonstrated a compensatory pattern of engagement in response to mother's greater attachment anxiety or avoidance. Findings support the utility of studying romantic attachment within a family system and extend the literature on correlates of early parental engagement.

  7. Factors related to breastfeeding discontinuation between hospital discharge and 2 weeks postpartum.

    PubMed

    Brand, Elizabeth; Kothari, Catherine; Stark, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    Although breastfeeding is known to be beneficial to both mother and infant, many women encounter barriers to breastfeeding, even after successful breastfeeding initiation, which may put them at greater risk for early cessation of breastfeeding. The objectives of this study were to conduct a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal study of postpartum depression to (a) examine factors related to very early discontinuation of breastfeeding (at 2 weeks postpartum) following hospital discharge and (b) identify women's reasons for very early cessation of breastfeeding. The results of this study support findings from previous research. Having a perceived support system, whether it is personal or professional, may have an effect on both the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Educating expectant and new mothers, especially women who encounter multiple barriers and are at risk for very early cessation of breastfeeding, of the benefits of breastfeeding and supporting them in developing efficient techniques and problem-solving skills can help increase the duration of breastfeeding.

  8. [Pregnancy in adolescence, associated factors, and perinatal results among low-income post-partum women].

    PubMed

    Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Leal Md, Maria do Carmo

    2002-01-01

    This paper compares socioeconomic characteristics, prenatal care, and life styles of three groups of post-partum women, one consisting of adolescents (< 20 years) and the other two of women 20-34 years old, classified according to their history of pregnancy during adolescence. A sample of 3,508 post-partum women was selected from public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and interviewed just after childbirth. To verify the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions, chi-square tests (chi2) were used. Comparing the three groups, the most adverse conditions were found among the 20-34-year-old mothers with a history of pregnancy during adolescence. These women have the least schooling, the highest rates of smoking and use of illegal drugs during pregnancy, and the fewest prenatal appointments. According to this study, prenatal care proved to be an effective compensatory policy for the prevention of prematurity and low birth weight, especially among adolescent mothers.

  9. Understanding and treating women with schizophrenia during pregnancy and postpartum--Motherisk Update 2008.

    PubMed

    Solari, Hugo; Dickson, Katharine E; Miller, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a synopsis of clinically relevant data pertaining to sexuality, pregnancy, the postpartum period, parenting and family planning in women with schizophrenia. Based on this information, we propose recommendations for the non-pharmacological management of these patients. Along with the deinstitutionalization of people with severe and persistent mental illness, there has been a concurrent increase in relative fertility in women with schizophrenia.Understanding the nature and experience of sexuality in women with schizophrenia helps elucidate the context in which pregnancies occur.Schizophrenia does not diminish sexual desire or activity. However, the quality and relational context of sexuality may be markedly different.Pregnancy appears to worsen mental health in a subset of women with schizophrenia. Psychotic denial of pregnancy is a symptom that poses especially high risks for poor outcomes if not addressed. Psychoeducation can reduce the risks of pregnancy complications for women with schizophrenia. Short-term, focused psychotherapy can be useful for some pregnant women with schizophrenia. Some modifications need to be made in the inpatient treatment of pregnant patients with schizophrenia. In the postpartum period, women can be especially susceptible for acute exacerbation of their schizophrenia. With regards to parenting, many women will provide intermittent parenting for their children while others will lose custody of their children. Those mothers with schizophrenia who do raise their children may face unique challenges in parenting.Both positive and negative symptoms can interfere with the demands of being a parent.A comprehensive parenting assessment of the patient can provide guidance for the implementation of supportive services. Proactive family planning could reduce the high rate of unwanted pregnancies, as women with schizophrenia tend to have more limited knowledge of their contraceptive options.

  10. The Mother-Infant Relationship and Infant Attachment in a South African Peri-Urban Settlement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…

  11. Lesbian Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, G. Dorsey

    Clinical interest in lesbian mothers has begun to emerge from the closet in recent years. Culture has dictated the milieu in which lesbian parents live and has prevented most therapists from being able to respond to lesbian parenting as a healthy option. In a heterosexist world, virtually all public displays of sexuality or family life are…

  12. Mother Goose Is Alive and Culturally Relevant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Sharon

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that Mother Goose rhymes are culturally relevant. Offers ways in which Mother Goose can be used in the classroom. Discusses activities for language arts, movement, art, music, science, and mathematics instruction. (PRA)

  13. The psychoneuroimmunology of postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Elizabeth J; Pajer, Kathleen

    2008-11-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a potentially debilitating disorder that develops in a significant percentage of women during the first year after giving birth. Women afflicted with PPD experience long-term consequences, including sadness, guilt, and despair. Offspring may be affected as well. Several investigators have tested psychosocial risk factors for the development of PPD; however, substantial amounts of variance in PPD have gone unexplained with regression on psychosocial variables alone. Likewise, interventions for PPD that have focused on psychosocial risk factors alone have been largely unsuccessful. The unexplained variance and disappointing treatment success could well be due to investigators' failure to address relevant biological changes occurring during the postpartum period. Two biological systems that are affected significantly and remain in flux during the postpartum period are the innate immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Bidirectional interactions between these two systems are well established, and it is generally acknowledged that dysfunction in either system can lead to depression in nonpregnant, nonpostpartum populations. To date, little research has pursued the contribution of these interacting systems to the development of PPD. The purpose of this paper is to review the psychoneuroimmunology of PPD. The central hypothesis presented is that dysregulation in either system individually or in their bidirectional interaction is associated with the development of PPD.

  14. Glutamate, GABA, and glutamine are synchronously upregulated in the mouse lateral septum during the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Changjiu; Gammie, Stephen C

    2014-12-03

    Dramatic structural and functional remodeling occurs in the postpartum brain for the establishment of maternal care, which is essential for the growth and development of young offspring. Glutamate and GABA signaling are critically important in modulating multiple behavioral performances. Large scale signaling changes occur in the postpartum brain, but it is still not clear to what extent the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA change and whether the ratio of glutamate/GABA remains balanced. In this study, we examined the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle in the lateral septum (LS) of postpartum female mice. In postpartum females (relative to virgins), tissue levels of glutamate and GABA were elevated in LS and increased mRNA was found for the respective enzymes producing glutamate and GABA, glutaminase (Gls) and glutamate decarboxylase 1 and 2 (Gad1 and Gad2). The common precursor, glutamine, was elevated as was the enzyme that produces it, glutamate-ammonia ligase (Glul). Additionally, glutamate, GABA, and glutamine were positively correlated and the glutamate/GABA ratio was almost identical in the postpartum and virgin females. Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate and GABA signaling are increased and that the ratio of glutamate/GABA is well balanced in the maternal LS. The postpartum brain may provide a useful model system for understanding how glutamate and GABA are linked despite large signaling changes. Given that some mental health disorders, including depression and schizophrenia display dysregulated glutamate/GABA ratio, and there is increased vulnerability to mental disorders in mothers, it is possible that these postpartum disorders emerge when glutamate and GABA changes are not properly coordinated.

  15. How Postpartum Women With Depressive Symptoms Manage Sleep Disruption and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Doering, Jennifer J; Sims, Dauphne A; Miller, Donald D

    2017-04-01

    Postpartum sleep and fatigue have bidirectional relationships with depressive symptoms and challenge women's everyday functioning. The everyday process of managing postpartum sleep and fatigue in the context of depressive symptoms remains unexplored. We conducted a grounded theory study with a sample of 19 women who screened positive on the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale (PDSS™) Short Form at 3 weeks postpartum. Women completed semi-structured in-home interviews and the full PDSS and Modified Fatigue Symptoms Checklist at 1, 3, and 6 months postpartum. The sample was on average 27 years old, with 2.8 children, and 63% were African-American. They described a basic social process of Finding a Routine Together, during which women's experiences with their infants progressed from Retreating at month 1 toward Finding a New Normal at month 6. In their work to Find a Routine Together, mothers' patterns of change over time were continuous, gradual, or prolonged. Their progress was influenced by depressive symptoms, social support, work and daycare, stability in social circumstances, and underlying stressors. This study's findings suggest the need to allocate resources and tailor interventions to meet the needs of women who are most vulnerable to the health effects of ongoing persistent severe fatigue, disordered sleep, and sub-clinical and clinical levels of depressive symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women: a call for extension to the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-07-01

    The association between smoking during pregnancy and adverse maternal/neonatal health outcomes is widely acknowledged, and recent health care reform has filled a much-needed gap by extending prenatal smoking cessation intervention coverage to all pregnant women on Medicaid. While more extensive coverage will improve quit rates during pregnancy, there continues to be a need to address high relapse rates in the postpartum period for both the insured and the uninsured. Smoking during the postpartum period exposes infants directly and indirectly to negative health effects, and has additional costs to mothers and society. Approximately 80% of women who quit smoking during pregnancy relapse in the first year postpartum, highlighting a need for effective continuing care that supports them through the challenging postpartum period when stress is high and motivations to stay quit may change. Existing relapse prevention interventions, typically delivered during pregnancy, have been found to be of little benefit during the postpartum period, suggesting the need for a more formal continuing care approach. Phone-based protocols are promising because they address the need for flexible access, and are known to be effective at increasing quit rates and sustained cessation.

  17. Small families mean better health for mothers and kids.

    PubMed

    Mugumya, E

    1994-01-01

    The practice of family planning (FP) has been used since time immemorial to solve community, individual, and familial problems. There are Biblical references to incest being used to ensure the conception of children and to coitus interruptus being used to prevent conception. Pastoralists used cessation of breastfeeding of male calves to promote the conception and birth of more desirable female calves. The condom has ancient precursors made of animal intestines, and the IUD has a prototype in the stone commonly inserted in the uterus of a camel during long journeys to prevent conception. The issues of effectiveness, safety, and convenience that led to these ancient activities also inform the development and use of modern contraception. FP incorporates fertility control, both treatment for infertility and contraception; abortion is regarded as an indicator of a need for FP, not as part of FP. FP is justified on the grounds of human rights, because it allows an individual to choose whether or not to have a child; on the grounds of health, because maternal age and parity affect the health of the mother and child; on socioeconomic grounds, because overpopulation creates drains on already decreasing resources and because birth to unwed mothers creates difficulties for the children and for society; and on the grounds of improving the status of women because unwanted pregnancy causes women to abandon educational and employment opportunities. The maternal and child health and FP services in Uganda provide immunization, nutrition, prenatal and postpartum care, young child clinic services, school health education, and FP services.

  18. The postpartum period in women with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Klein, Autumn

    2012-08-01

    For women with epilepsy (WWE), the postpartum period is a vulnerable time owing to medication alterations, disrupted sleep, increased stress, and the challenges of breastfeeding. Sleep deprivation and the stress of having a new child can be challenging for WWE. Concerns over antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in breast milk and sleep disruption associated with breastfeeding leads some WWE to discontinue breastfeeding. Adjustment of AEDs in the postpartum period can lead to difficulties in seizure control. Postpartum depression is increased in WWE, and patient education about newborn safety remains a concern. This article covers these important topics in postpartum WWE.

  19. The postpartum management of women with gestational diabetes using a continuum model for health care.

    PubMed

    Castorino, Kristin; Jovanovič, Lois

    2013-12-01

    Women with gestational diabetes mellitus require a continuum of care before, during, and after pregnancy for optimal management of hyperglycemia. Postpartum education and lifestyle modification should begin during pregnancy, and should continue during the postpartum period. Women should receive education on the long-term risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and should be encouraged to breastfeed, engage in regular physical activity, and select a highly effective contraceptive method in preparation for subsequent pregnancy. Postpartum women with gestational diabetes mellitus should be empowered to take ownership of their own health, including knowledge of health indicators such as weight, waist circumference hemoglobin A1C levels, and fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels.

  20. Mother-child bonding assessment tools☆

    PubMed Central

    Perrelli, Jaqueline Galdino Albuquerque; Zambaldi, Carla Fonseca; Cantilino, Amaury; Sougey, Everton Botelho

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify and describe research tools used to evaluate bonding between mother and child up to one year of age, as well as to provide information on reliability and validity measures related to these tools. Data source: Research studies available on PUBMED, LILACS, ScienceDirect, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases with the following descriptors: mother-child relations and mother infant relationship, as well as the expressions validity, reliability and scale. Data synthesis: 23 research studies were selected and fully analyzed. Thirteen evaluation research tools were identified concerning mother and child attachment: seven scales, three questionnaires, two inventories and one observation method. From all tools analyzed, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory presented the higher validity and reliability measures to assess mother and fetus relation during pregnancy. Concerning the puerperal period, better consistency coefficients were found for Maternal Attachment Inventory and Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire. Besides, the last one revealed a higher sensibility to identify amenable and severe disorders in the affective relations between mother and child. Conclusions: The majority of research tools are reliable to study the phenomenon presented, although there are some limitations regarding the construct and criterion related to validity. In addition to this, only two of them are translated into Portuguese and adapted to women and children populations in Brazil, being a decisive gap to scientific production in this area. PMID:25479859

  1. Mother and baby yoga is good for you.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Cheryl

    2013-05-01

    Mother and baby yoga is becoming more and more popular in the western world, as postpartum mothers discover the benefits of being able to 'work out', bond with their baby and relax, all in one session. Postnatal yoga can offer calm and a sense of wellbeing, helping mothers to improve and stabilise their emotional health and to bond. Additionally the mother is able to focus on her relationship with her baby, rebuild the weakened pelvic floor, strengthen the abdominal muscles and even alleviate back and neck pain. For babies, yoga can aid digestion and alleviate colic; help to strengthen tiny limbs; improve sleep patterns; and enhance their ability to interact with their mother and other people.

  2. Biomarkers From Late Pregnancy to 6 Weeks Postpartum in HIV-Infected Women Who Continue Versus Discontinue Antiretroviral Therapy After Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Risa M.; Leister, Erin; Kacanek, Deborah; Shapiro, David E.; Read, Jennifer S.; Bryson, Yvonne; Currier, Judith S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who use antiretroviral therapy (ART) solely for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV discontinue postpartum. We hypothesized that women discontinuing ART by 6 weeks postpartum (“discontinuers”) would have elevated postpartum inflammatory biomarker levels relative to women remaining on ART postpartum (“continuers”). Methods Data from HIV-infected pregnant women enrolled in the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group P1025 with CD4 counts >350 cells per cubic millimeter before initiating ART or first pregnancy CD4 counts >400 cells per cubic millimeter after starting ART and with available stored plasma samples at >20 weeks of gestation, delivery, and 6 weeks postpartum were analyzed. Plasma samples were tested for highly sensitive C-reactive protein, D-dimer, and interleukin-6. We used longitudinal linear spline regression to model biomarkers over time. Results Data from 128 women (65 continuers and 63 discontinuers) were analyzed. All biomarkers increased from late pregnancy to delivery, then decreased postpartum (slopes different from 0, P < 0.001). Continuers had a steeper decrease in log D-dimer between delivery and 6 weeks postpartum than discontinuers (P = 0.002). Conclusions In contrast to results from treatment interruption studies in adults, both ART continuers and ART discontinuers had significant decreases in the levels of D-dimer, highly sensitive C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 postpartum. Continuation was associated with a more rapid decline in D-dimer levels compared with discontinuation. PMID:23714738

  3. Sleep education during pregnancy for new mothers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a high association between disturbed (poor quality) sleep and depression, which has lead to a consensus that there is a bidirectional relationship between sleep and mood. One time in a woman’s life when sleep is commonly disturbed is during pregnancy and following childbirth. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance is another factor that may contribute to the propensity for women to become depressed in the postpartum period compared to other periods in their life. Post Natal Depression (PND) is common (15.5%) and associated with sleep disturbance, however, no studies have attempted to provide a sleep-focused intervention to pregnant women and assess whether this can improve sleep, and consequently maternal mood post-partum. The primary aim of this research is to determine the efficacy of a brief psychoeducational sleep intervention compared with a control group to improve sleep management, with a view to reduce depressive symptoms in first time mothers. Method This randomised controlled trial will recruit 214 first time mothers during the last trimester of their pregnancy. Participants will be randomised to receive either a set of booklets (control group) or a 3hour psychoeducational intervention that focuses on sleep. The primary outcomes of this study are sleep-related, that is sleep quality and sleepiness for ten months following the birth of the baby. The secondary outcome is depressive symptoms. It is hypothesised that participants in the intervention group will have better sleep quality and sleepiness in the postpartum period than women in the control condition. Further, we predict that women who receive the sleep intervention will have lower depression scores postpartum compared with the control group. Discussion This study aims to provide an intervention that will improve maternal sleep in the postpartum period. If sleep can be effectively improved through a brief psychoeducational program, then it may have a protective role in

  4. Differences in sedentary time and physical activity among mothers and children using a movement-to-music video program in the home environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tuominen, Pipsa P A; Husu, Pauliina; Raitanen, Jani; Luoto, Riitta M

    2016-01-01

    Measured objectively, less than a quarter of adults and under half of preschool children in Finland meet the physical activity recommendations. Moreover, higher sedentary time among parents (such as watching television) is associated with higher sedentary time of their children. The study introduces an intervention based on reducing sedentary behavior among mothers and their children. It utilizes a combination of music and exercise via a motivation-targeting movement-to-music video program in the home environment. Data were collected in summer 2014 from Finland's Pirkanmaa region. Each mother-child pair (n = 24, child age: 4-7 years) was assigned to the intervention and control group. Both groups used an accelerometer and completed physical activity diaries for two consecutive weeks (14 days) during waking hours. In addition, the intervention group was instructed to use the movement-to-music video program during the second week. Differences between groups were expected in analysis of sedentary time and physical activity between weeks 1 and 2. The parameters assessed were sedentary time (i.e., lying down or sitting), standing still, and time spent in physical activity. Less sedentary time was revealed in week 2 than in week 1 among both intervention group mothers (56.6 vs. 53.3 %) and for intervention group children (49.5 vs. 46.0 %). The opposite was true of control group mothers (52.1 vs. 52.4 %) and children (46.7 vs. 49.8 %). Within-group differences in mothers' sedentary time correlated moderately with the children's sedentary time (Spearman's r = 0.56). All groups exhibited slightly more standing in the second week than in week 1. Both sets of intervention participants also engaged in more light physical activity in week 2, with the opposite evident for the two control sets. In all groups, except the control children, the proportion of moderate to vigorous physical activity was higher in the second week than the first. The use of music and video

  5. Immune-Based Approaches to the Prevention of Mother-to-child-Transmission of HIV-1: Active and Passive Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Lohman-Payne, Barb; Slyker, Jennifer; Rowland-Jones, Sarah L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Despite more than two decades of research, an effective vaccine that can prevent HIV-1 infection in populations exposed to the virus remains elusive. In the pursuit of an HIV-1 vaccine, does prevention of exposure to maternal HIV-1 in utero, at birth or in early life through breast-milk require special consideration? In this article we will review what is known about the immune mechanisms of susceptibility and resistance to mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 and will summarise studies that have used passive or active immunisation strategies to interrupt -MTCT of HIV-1. We will also describe potentially modifiable infectious co-factors that may enhance transmission and/or disease progression (especially in the developing world). Ultimately an effective prophylactic vaccine against HIV-1 infection will need to be deployed as part of the Extended Programme of Immunisation (EPI) recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for use in developing countries, so it is important to understand how the infant immune system responds to HIV-1 antigens, both in natural infection and presented by candidate vaccines. PMID:21078451

  6. Following the digestion of milk proteins from mother to baby.

    PubMed

    Holton, Thérèse A; Vijayakumar, Vaishnavi; Dallas, David C; Guerrero, Andrés; Borghese, Robyn A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela; Underwood, Mark A; Shields, Denis C; Khaldi, Nora

    2014-12-05

    Little is known about the digestive process in infants. In particular, the chronological activity of enzymes across the course of digestion in the infant remains largely unknown. To create a temporal picture of how milk proteins are digested, enzyme activity was compared between intact human milk samples from three mothers and the gastric samples from each of their 4-12 day postpartum infants, 2 h after breast milk ingestion. The activities of 7 distinct enzymes are predicted in the infant stomach based on their observed cleavage pattern in peptidomics data. We found that the same patterns of cleavage were evident in both intact human milk and gastric milk samples, demonstrating that the enzyme activities that begin in milk persist in the infant stomach. However, the extent of enzyme activity is found to vary greatly between the intact milk and gastric samples. Overall, we observe that milk-specific proteins are cleaved at higher levels in the stomach compared to human milk. Notably, the enzymes we predict here only explain 78% of the cleavages uniquely observed in the gastric samples, highlighting that further investigation of the specific enzyme activities associated with digestion in infants is warranted.

  7. Gender differences in postpartum depression: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Artazcoz, Lucía

    2010-01-01

    Background The course of depression from pregnancy to 1 year post partum and risk factors among mothers and fathers are not known. Aims (1) To report the longitudinal patterns of depression from the third trimester of pregnancy to 1 year after childbirth; (2) to determine the gender differences between women and their partners in the effect of psychosocial and personal factors on postpartum depression. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out over a consecutive sample of 769 women in their third trimester of pregnancy and their partners attending the prenatal programme in the Valencian Community (Spain) and follow-up at 3 and 12 months post partum. The outcome variable was the presence of depression at 3 or 12 months post partum measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Predictor variables were: psychosocial (marital dissatisfaction, confidant and affective social support) and personal (history of depression, partner's depression and negative life events, depression during the third trimester of pregnancy) variables. Logistic regression models were fitted via generalised estimating equations. Results At 3 and 12 months post partum, 9.3% and 4.4% of mothers and 3.4% and 4.0% of fathers, respectively, were newly diagnosed as having depression. Low marital satisfaction, partner's depression and depression during pregnancy increased the probability of depression during the first 12 months after birth in mothers and fathers. Negative life events increased the risk of depression only among mothers. Conclusions Psychosocial and personal factors were strong predictors of depression during the first 12 months post partum for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20515899

  8. Child murder committed by severely mentally III mothers: an examination of mothers found not guilty by reason of insanity. 2005 Honorable Mention/Richard Rosner Award for the best paper by a fellow in forensic psychiatry or forensic psychology.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Susan Hatters; Hrouda, Debra R; Holden, Carol E; Noffsinger, Stephen G; Resnick, Phillip J

    2005-11-01

    Forensic hospital records of 39 severely mentally ill mothers adjudicated Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity for filicide (child murder by parents) were analyzed to describe characteristics preceding this tragedy and to suggest prevention strategies. Almost three-quarters of the mothers (72%) had previous mental health treatment. Over two thirds (69%) of the mothers were experiencing auditory hallucinations, most frequently command hallucinations, and half (49%) were depressed at the time of the offense. Over one third (38%) of the filicides occurred during pregnancy or the postpartum period, and many had a history of postpartum psychosis. Almost three-quarters (72%) of the mothers had experienced considerable developmental stressors, such as death of their own mother or incest. Maternal motives for filicide were predominantly "altruistic" (meaning murder out of love) or "acutely psychotic" (occurring in the throes of psychosis, without rational motive). Psychiatrists should perform careful risk assessments for filicide in mothers with mental illnesses.

  9. In Search of Neural Endophenotypes of Postpartum Psychopathology and Disrupted Maternal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Moses-Kolko, E. L.; Horner, M. S.; Phillips, M. L.; Hipwell, A. E.; Swain, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    This is a selective review that provides the context for the study of perinatal affective disorder mechanisms and outlines directions for future research. We integrate existing literature along neural networks of interest for affective disorders and maternal caregiving: (i) the salience/fear network; (ii) the executive network; (iii) the reward/social attachment network; and (iv) the default mode network. Extant salience/fear network research reveals disparate responses and corticolimbic coupling to various stimuli based upon a predominantly depressive versus anxious (post-traumatic stress disorder) clinical phenotype. Executive network and default mode connectivity abnormalities have been described in postpartum depression (PPD), although studies are very limited in these domains. Reward/social attachment studies confirm a robust ventral striatal response to infant stimuli, including cry and happy infant faces, which is diminished in depressed, insecurely attached and substance-using mothers. The adverse parenting experiences received and the attachment insecurity of current mothers are factors that are associated with a diminution in infant stimulus-related neural activity similar to that in PPD, and raise the need for additional studies that integrate mood and attachment concepts in larger study samples. Several studies examining functional connectivity in resting state and emotional activation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigms have revealed attenuated corticolimbic connectivity, which remains an important outcome that requires dissection with increasing precision to better define neural treatment targets. Methodological progress is expected in the coming years in terms of refining clinical phenotypes of interest and experimental paradigms, as well as enlarging samples to facilitate the examination of multiple constructs. Functional imaging promises to determine neural mechanisms underlying maternal psychopathology and impaired caregiving, such

  10. Sigmoid Volvulus Complicating Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Erin; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pieracci, Frederic

    2017-01-01

    Background. Sigmoid volvulus is a rare complication of pregnancy and the puerperium. Case. A 19-year-old patient, gravida 1 para 0 at 41 0/7 weeks of gestation, admitted for late-term induction of labor underwent an uncomplicated primary low transverse cesarean delivery for arrest of descent. Her postoperative period was complicated by sudden onset of abdominal pain and the ultimate diagnosis of sigmoid volvulus. Conclusion. Prompt surgical evaluation of an acute abdomen in the postpartum period is essential; delayed diagnosis and treatment can lead to significant maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:28251004

  11. A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Maternal Postpartum Deworming to Improve Infant Weight Gain in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Casapía, Martín; Aguilar, Eder; Silva, Hermánn; Montresor, Antonio; Rahme, Elham; Fraser, William D.; Marquis, Grace S.; Vercruysse, Jozef; Allen, Lindsay H.; Blouin, Brittany; Razuri, Hugo; Pezo, Lidsky

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional interventions targeting the critical growth and development period before two years of age can have the greatest impact on health trajectories over the life course. Compelling evidence has demonstrated that interventions investing in maternal health in the first 1000 days of life are beneficial for both mothers and their children. One such potential intervention is deworming integrated into maternal postpartum care in areas where soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic. Methodology/Principal Findings From February to August 2014, 1010 mother-infant pairs were recruited into a trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of maternal postpartum deworming on infant and maternal health outcomes. Following delivery, mothers were randomly assigned to receive either single-dose 400 mg albendazole or placebo. Participants were followed-up at 1 and 6 months postpartum. There was no statistically significant difference in mean weight gain between infants in the experimental and control groups (mean difference: -0.02; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.08) at 6 months of age. Further, deworming had no effect on measured infant morbidity indicators. However, ad hoc analyses restricted to mothers who tested positive for STHs at baseline suggest that infants of mothers in the experimental group had greater mean length gain in cm (mean difference: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) and length-for-age z-score (mean difference: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) at 6 months of age. Conclusions/Significance In a study population composed of both STH-infected and uninfected mothers, maternal postpartum deworming was insufficient to impact infant growth and morbidity indicators up to 6 months postpartum. Among STH-infected mothers, however, important improvements in infant length gain and length-for-age were observed. The benefits of maternal postpartum deworming should be further investigated in study populations having higher overall prevalences and intensities of STH infections and, in

  12. Delayed angiographic changes in postpartum cerebral angiopathy.

    PubMed

    Ghia, Darshan; Cuganesan, Ramesh; Cappelen-Smith, Cecilia

    2011-03-01

    Postpartum cerebral angiopathy is a well-recognised subgroup of the reversible vasoconstriction syndromes. Increasingly described is a delay between clinical onset and angiographic changes. We report a patient who presented 19 days postpartum with severe thunderclap headaches, vertigo and a seizure. The clinical syndrome preceded evidence of extensive vasoconstriction on MRA imaging by 15 days; the changes were reversible at 3 months.

  13. [The status of postpartum weight retention and its associated factors among Chinese lactating women in 2013].

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Yang, Z Y; Pang, X H; Duan, Y F; Jiang, S; Zhao, L Y; Yin, S A; Lai, J Q

    2016-12-06

    Objective: To analyze the status of postpartum weight retention and its associated factors among Chinese lactating women in 2013. Methods: This study was based on the databank of Chinese National Nutrition and Health Surveillance in 2013. Using the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling method, we enrolled 12 514 women, at 0-24 months postpartum, from 55 sites in 30 provinces of China (excluding the Tibet Autonomous Region). Questionnaires were used to collect data on basic characteristics, physical activity, lifestyle, food intake, pre-pregnancy weight, weight before delivery, disease history during pregnancy, delivery date, delivery mode, parity and breastfeeding information. Current body weight and height of each subject were measured. Postpartum weight retention in each subject was calculated as the difference between pre-pregnancy and current weights. High postpartum weight retention was defined as ≥5 kg. Survey sample weights were calculated according to the sampling design and number of children under 2 years old from 2010 population census data of China. Associated factors of high postpartum weight retention were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 9 972 women were included in this study. P50 (P25-P75) of weight retention for participants was 3.6 (0.2-7.3) kg and high weight retention accounted for 41.5% of the subjects (4 134/9 972). The weighted means (SE) of weight retention was 3.5 (0.1) kg, and it was at 0 to <3, 3 to <6, 6 to <9, 9 to <12, 12 to <18 and 18 to <24 months postpartum were 5.3 (0.2), 4.5 (0.2), 3.8 (0.2), 3.1 (0.2), 2.8 (0.2) and 3.0 (0.2) kg, respectively. The weighted proportion of high postpartum weight retention was 37.4% (95%CI: 36.0%-38.9%). Compared with women aged under 25 years old, the odds ratio of high postpartum weight retention was 1.31 for women over 30 years old. Compared with women at 18 to <24 months postpartum, the odds ratio of high postpartum weight retention was 2.67, 1.61 and

  14. Maternal anxiety from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum: transactional patterns of maternal early adversity and child temperament.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Daniella; Browne, Dillon; Jonas, Wibke; Meaney, Michael; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-10-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the anxiety trajectories of women from pregnancy to 2 years postpartum and to assess the influence of their early life experiences and the temperament of the child on these trajectories. We evaluated state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) at pregnancy and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postpartum and determined its course as a function of self-reported early adverse experiences (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and the temperament of the child at 18 months (Early Child Behavior Questionnaire). Based on growth curve modeling, we found that anxiety followed a general U-shape pattern from gestation to 2 years postpartum, which was modified by early life experience of women. Greater early adversity was associated with higher gestational anxiety, followed by a marked decrease once the baby was born, and subsequent increase during the later postpartum period. The temperament of the child also modulated anxiety trajectories. Thus, mothers of children high in negative affectivity and who also experienced greater early adversity had elevated and flat anxiety trajectories, while child extraversion was associated with increasing anxiety courses approaching 2 years postpartum. These results show that maternal anxiety dynamically changes through the postpartum period with a course that is affected by previous and current experiences.

  15. Schizophrenia: Do Sense Perceptions Correlate with Episodic Activity, as Indians Know Kokopelli/Pele Matches with Mother Earth's Electromagnetic Field Activity, EMF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCulley, Aspen; Pawa Matagamon, Sagamo; McLeod, David Matthew

    2007-10-01

    Certain Indian cognomens seem to indicate an environmental awareness of an electromagnetic wrath some traditional cultures are careful to acknowledge and accommodate. These include Pele/Kokopelli, Keitan, and Hobomock, that have carried explicit information our cultures have been cognizant of Mother Earth's not-always-benign influences. Let's consider schizophrenia, with or without a viral cofactor, and Kokopelli/Pele. She/he may be explicitly referenced as a hunch-backed, flute-playing individual, dancing-around in correlation with Earth's electromagnetic activities. Depending on the specific version and its details, individuals, particularly children, are admonished to avoid certain areas. Of especial importance and relevance may be cultural awareness that individuals, whom another type of culture has discriminated against, despite no a priori guilt, are explicitly absolved of culpability by the blanket statement that The Great Spirit is implicated in their behavior. Of course, this provides information of a religious sort, possibly corroborated by a currently prominent individual.

  16. Influence of hepatic load from far-off dry period to early postpartum period on the first postpartum ovulation and accompanying subsequent fertility in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Chiho; Ito, Nozomi; Nagashima, Shuntarou; Matsui, Motozumi; Sawada, Kumiko; Schweigert, Florian J; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya

    2016-06-17

    The aim of the present study was to investigate nutritional and metabolic parameters during the dry and early postpartum periods of ovulatory and anovulatory cows, as well as their postpartum reproductive performance. Blood samples from 20 multiparous Holstein cows were collected once a week from the far-off dry period to 3 weeks postpartum. Early postpartum (0-3 weeks) ovulation was confirmed using plasma progesterone concentration profiles, and cows were considered ovulatory if they had resumed luteal activity by this point (n = 9), whereas cows that had not were considered anovulatory (n = 11). Data from the ovulatory and anovulatory cows were analyzed separately for the far-off dry period (7-4 weeks prepartum), the close-up dry period (3-1 weeks prepartum), and the early postpartum period (0-3 weeks). Serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity (far-off, P = 0.065; close-up, P = 0.051; and early postpartum, P = 0.030) and aspartate aminotransferase (close-up, P = 0.050 and early postpartum, P = 0.087) activities were higher in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows. The days open period was longer (P = 0.019) in anovulatory than in ovulatory cows, and the number of artificial inseminations per conception (P = 0.025) was greater. In conclusion, we found that continuously high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in serum, which may be induced by liver disorders, prevent subsequent ovulation and affect subsequent fertility, even if cows obtain sufficient ovulation-related energy and β-carotene.

  17. Postpartum contraceptive use among women with a recent preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    ROBBINS, Cheryl L.; FARR, Sherry L.; ZAPATA, Lauren B.; D’ANGELO, Denise V.; CALLAGHAN, William M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the associations between postpartum contraception and having a recent preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Population-based data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in nine states were used to estimate postpartum use of highly or moderately effective contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device, implants, shots, pills, patch, and ring) and user-independent contraception (sterilization, implants, and intrauterine device) among women with recent live births (2009–2011). We assessed differences in contraception by gestational age (≤27, 28–33, or 34–36 weeks versus term [≥37 weeks]) and modeled the associations using multivariable logistic regression with weighted data. RESULTS A higher percentage of women with recent extreme preterm birth (≤27 weeks) reported using no postpartum method (31%) compared with all other women (15%–16%). Women delivering extreme preterm infants had decreased odds of using highly or moderately effective methods (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 – 0.6) and user-independent methods (aOR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.7) compared with women having term births. Wanting to get pregnant was more frequently reported as a reason for contraceptive non-use by women with an extreme preterm birth overall (45%) compared with all other women (15%–18%, p<.0001). Infant death occurred in 41% of extreme preterm births and over half (54%) of these mothers reported wanting to become pregnant as the reason for contraceptive non-use. CONCLUSIONS During contraceptive counseling with women who had recent preterm births, providers should address optimal pregnancy interval, and consider that women with recent extreme preterm birth, particularly those whose infants died, may not use contraception because they want to get pregnant. PMID:26003062

  18. Mother-infant interaction in mother and baby unit patients: before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maeve; Conroy, Susan; Pariante, Carmine M; Seneviratne, Gertrude; Pawlby, Susan

    2013-09-01

    Maternal severe mental illness (SMI) disrupts mother-infant interaction in the immediate postpartum and is associated with less than optimal offspring development. In-patient mother and baby units (MBUs) provide the opportunity of supporting mothers with SMI in developing their relationships with their infants in order to minimise this disruption. One way is through an individualised video feedback intervention, delivered as part of a multidisciplinary inpatient treatment package. The present study prospectively measured changes in mother-infant interaction following video feedback intervention, during admission to an MBU (N = 49). Comparisons were made with mother-infant interactions of (1) a community-based ill group of mothers (N = 67) with a mental health diagnosis of similar severity, living at home and without the intervention and (2) a group of healthy mothers (N = 22). Maternal sensitivity and unresponsiveness, and infant cooperativeness and passiveness, were measured from a 3-min videotaped play session, using the CARE-Index. Following admission and the video feedback intervention, the MBU mothers (irrespective of diagnosis) and their infants showed improvements in their interactions. Moreover, on discharge the MBU dyads were significantly more sensitive, cooperative and responsive than the community ill group, and as attuned as the healthy group. While the design of the study does not allow us to conclude unequivocally that the video feedback intervention has effects on the outcome for the mothers and babies independent from the whole inpatient therapeutic package, the results do show that the dyadic interaction of mothers with SMI and their infants improves following the focussed treatment package in a specialised MBU.

  19. Early postpartum maternal morbidity among rural women of Rajasthan, India: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Iyengar, Kirti

    2012-06-01

    The first postpartum week is a high-risk period for mothers and newborns. Very few community-based studies have been conducted on patterns of maternal morbidity in resource-poor countries in that first week. An intervention on postpartum care for women within the first week after delivery was initiated in a rural area of Rajasthan, India. The intervention included a rigorous system of receiving reports of all deliveries in a defined population and providing home-level postpartum care to all women, irrespective of the place of delivery. Trained nurse-midwives used a structured checklist for detecting and managing maternal and neonatal conditions during postpartum-care visits. A total of 4,975 women, representing 87.1% of all expected deliveries in a population of 58,000, were examined in their first postpartum week during January 2007-December 2010. Haemoglobin was tested for 77.1% of women (n=3,836) who had a postnatal visit. The most common morbidity was postpartum anaemia--7.4% of women suffered from severe anaemia and 46% from moderate anaemia. Other common morbidities were fever (4%), breast conditions (4.9%), and perineal conditions (4.5%). Life-threatening postpartum morbidities were detected in 7.6% of women--9.7% among those who had deliveries at home and 6.6% among those who had institutional deliveries. None had a fistula. Severe anaemia had a strong correlation with perinatal death [p<0.000, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-2.99], delivery at home [p<0.000, AOR=1.64 (95% CI 1.27-2.15)], socioeconomically-underprivileged scheduled caste or tribe [p<0.000, AOR=2.47 (95% CI 1.83-3.33)], and parity of three or more [p<0.000, AOR=1.52 (95% CI 1.18-1.97)]. The correlation with antenatal care was not significant. Perineal conditions were more frequent among women who had institutional deliveries while breast conditions were more common among those who had a perinatal death. This study adds valuable knowledge on postpartum

  20. Postpartum Visit Attendance Increases the Use of Modern Contraceptives

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Susan; Charles, RaShel; McGee, Elizabeth; Karjane, Nicole; Hines, Linda; Kornstein, Susan G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Delays in postpartum contraceptive use may increase risk for unintended or rapid repeat pregnancies. The postpartum care visit (PPCV) is a good opportunity for women to discuss family planning options with their health care providers. This study examined the association between PPCV attendance and modern contraceptive use using data from a managed care organization. Methods. Claims and demographic and administrative data came from a nonprofit managed care organization in Virginia (2008–2012). Information on the most recent delivery for mothers with singleton births was analyzed (N = 24,619). Routine PPCV (yes, no) and modern contraceptive use were both dichotomized. Descriptive analyses provided percentages, frequencies, and means. Multiple logistic regression was conducted and ORs and 95% CIs were calculated. Results. More than half of the women did not attend their PPCV (50.8%) and 86.9% had no modern contraceptive use. After controlling for the effects of confounders, women with PPCV were 50% more likely to use modern contraceptive methods than women with no PPCV (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.31, 1.72). Conclusions. These findings highlight the importance of PPCV in improving modern contraceptive use and guide health care policy in the effort of reducing unintended pregnancy rates. PMID:28070422

  1. Postpartum uterine health in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, I M; Dobson, H

    2004-07-01

    Uterine health is often compromised in cattle because postpartum contamination of the uterine lumen by bacteria is ubiquitous, and pathogenic bacteria frequently persist causing clinical disease. The subfertility associated with uterine infection involves perturbation of the hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary, in addition to the direct effects on the uterus, and appears to persist even after clinical resolution of the disease. Absorption of bacterial components from the uterus can prevent the follicular phase LH surge and ovulation. In addition, the first postpartum dominant follicle has a slower growth rate and secretes less estradiol at the end of the growth phase. There are also localised ovarian effects of high uterine bacterial growth density, because fewer first dominant follicles are selected in the ovary ipsilateral than contralateral to the previously gravid uterine horn. Thus, it is important to diagnose and treat uterine disease promptly and effectively. Examination of the contents of the vagina for the presence of pus is the most useful method for diagnosis of endometritis. The character and odor of the vaginal mucus can be scored and this endometritis score is correlated with the growth density of pathogenic bacteria in the uterus, and is prognostic for the likely success of treatment. The challenge for the future is to design prevention and control programs to reduce the incidence of disease, and understand how the immune and endocrine systems are integrated.

  2. [Trace and anxiety of nursing mothers with insufficient and normal breast feeding indicators].

    PubMed

    Aragaki, Ilva Marico Mizumoto; Silva, Isília Aparecida; dos Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and compare the trace and the anxiety state on the 10th day postpartum and the anxiety state on the 30th day postpartum of primiparous and multiparous nursing mothers who present insufficient breast feeding indicators and nursing mothers with normal breast feeding, in order to verify the possible relationships between the anxiety state of the nursing mothers in those two moments with the insufficient breast feeding indicators presented. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, whose data has been gotten from 168 nursing mothers and their children by means of interviews in nursing consultations in the 10th and 30th day postpartum. The results obtained showed that primiparous and multiparous with insufficient breast feeding and primiparous with normal lactation presented higher anxiety state trace than the anxiety state on the 10th and 30th day postpartum. There was remission of the maternal signals of anxiety with the passing of time, which may be caused by the correction of the breast feeding technique and support to the nursing mothers.

  3. Condom Tamponade in the Management of Primary Postpartum Haemorrhage: A Report of three cases in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Maya, Ernest T; Buntugu, Kennedy A; Aki, Lovelace; Srofenyoh, Emmanuel K

    2015-09-01

    Postpartum haemorrhage is one of the major causes of maternal mortality worldwide. The leading cause of primary postpartum haemorrhage is uterine atony and active management of the third stage of labour with oxytocin is recommended for preventing primary postpartum haemorrhage. Parenteral oxytocin is also the drug of choice for medical management of postpartum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony. Condom uterine balloon tamponade is .a low cost technique that can be used as a second-line option for treatment. We report retrospectively three cases of primary PPH secondary to uterine atony which were managed successfully with condom tamponade. Condom tamponade is effective in managing post partum haemorrhage secondary to uterine atony and we advocate for the training of all skilled attendants on how to insert the condom tamponade.

  4. Prolactin response to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among intensively breastfeeding Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Stallings, J F; Worthman, C M; Panter-Brick, C; Coates, R J

    1996-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the association between PRL responses to suckling and maintenance of postpartum amenorrhea among breastfeeding mothers. Three blood spot samples (5, 30, and 50 min following a timed nursing bout) were collected from 71 intensively breastfeeding Nepali women for PRL determination. Maternal age, BMI (weight/height2), menstrual status, caste, infant age, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation were recorded at time of sample collection. Independent and paired t tests, linear regression analyses, and general linear models were used to evaluate differences between cycling (n = 36) and amenorrheic (n = 35) women and associations among variables. Logistic regression analyses were used to relate PRL measures to the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea. Amenorrheic breastfeeding mothers had higher (P < .001) PRL levels at all 3 collection times than cycling breastfeeding mothers, and PRL levels declined with time since birth (P < 0.05). The odds (OR) of having ceased lactational amenorrhea was significantly higher (OR = 5.0, 95% Cl = 1.3-19.9) among mothers with lower PRL levels (< or = 10 ng/mL) at 50 min post-sucking, and PRL at 50 min showed a significant dose response relationship with menstrual status. The association between 50 min PRL levels and lactational amenorrhea appears to be independent of time postpartum, maternal age, BMI, nursing bout length, and duration of supplementation. Among intensively nursing women, maintenance of elevated PRL levels across the interbout interval increases the odds of maintaining lactational amenorrhea.

  5. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  6. Influence of interpersonal violence on maternal anxiety, depression, stress and parenting morale in the early postpartum: a community based pregnancy cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    parenting morale, screening and treatment in the prenatal period could have far-reaching effects on postpartum mental health thus benefiting new mothers and their families in the long term. PMID:23241428

  7. Patterns and trends of postpartum family planning in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria: evidence of missed opportunities for integration.

    PubMed

    Hounton, Sennen; Winfrey, William; Barros, Aluisio J D; Askew, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Background The first 12 months following childbirth are a period when a subsequent pregnancy holds the greatest risk for mother and baby, but also when there are numerous contacts with the healthcare system for postnatal care for mother and baby (immunisation, nutrition, etc.). The benefits and importance of postpartum family planning are well documented. They include a reduction in risk of miscarriage, as well as mitigation of (or protection against) low birth weight, neonatal and maternal death, preterm birth, and anaemia. Objectives The objectives of this paper are to assess patterns and trends in the use of postpartum family planning at the country level, to determine whether postpartum family planning is associated with birth interval and parity, and to identify the health services most closely associated with postpartum family planning after adjusting for socio-economic characteristics. Design Data were used from Demographic and Health Surveys that contain a reproductive calendar, carried out within the last 10 years, from Ethiopia, Malawi, and Nigeria. All women for whom the calendar was completed and who gave birth between 57 and 60 months prior to data collection were included in the analysis. For each of the births, we merged the reproductive calendar with the birth record into a survey for each country reflecting the previous 60 months. The definition of the postpartum period in this paper is based on a period of 3 months postpartum. We used this definition to assess early adoption of postpartum family planning. We assessed variations in postpartum family planning according to demographic and socio-economic variables, as well as its association with various contact opportunities with the health system [antenatal care (ANC), childbirth in facilities, immunisation, etc.]. We did simple descriptive analysis with tabular, graphic, and 'equiplot' displays and a logistic regression controlling for important background characteristics. Results Overall

  8. Postpartum Care and Contraception in Obese Women.

    PubMed

    Maclean, Courtney C; Thompson, Ivana S

    2016-03-01

    Postpartum obese women have an increased risk of breastfeeding difficulties and depression. Retaining the pregnancy weight at 6 months postpartum predicts long-term obesity. Risks for weight retention include excessive gestational weight gain, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, diet, exercise, depression, and duration of breastfeeding. Exercise and reducing total caloric intake promote postpartum weight loss. Intrauterine devices and contraceptive implants are the most effective contraceptives for obese women. Contraceptive pills, patches, and vaginal rings are effective options; however, obese women should be made aware of a potential increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Vasectomy and hysteroscopic sterilization carry the least surgical risk for obese women.

  9. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a postpartum woman

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Pooja R.; Ucchil, Rajesh; Shah, Unmil; Chaudhari, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus infection, a rare disease diagnosed in India and carries a very high mortality. There are no reports of this infection in association with pregnancy or postpartum period in our country. We present a case of a 30-year-old female diagnosed to have hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the postpartum period. We intend to create awareness about this infection and consider it in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction in association with pregnancy and postpartum period. PMID:27688634

  10. Influence of Social Context on Eating, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors of Latina Mothers and their Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Ana C.; Sussner, Katarina M.; Greaney, Mary L.; Peterson, Karen E.

    2009-01-01

    As more U.S. children grow up in Latino families, understanding how social class, culture, and environment influence feeding practices is key to preventing obesity. The authors conducted six focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews among immigrant, low-income Latina mothers in the Northeast United States and classified 17 emergent themes from…

  11. Postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia: the role of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Berhanu, B; Hogan, D

    1998-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey (NFFS) and employing discrete-time hazards models, we examine the effect of weaning, child death, and socioeconomic factors on postpartum amenorrhoea in Ethiopia. The results show that 91 in every 100 mothers breastfed their child for at least 6 months. The median duration of breastfeeding stands at 18 months, and amenorrhoea lasts for a median duration of 12 months. Significant variations in breastfeeding and amenorrhoea duration are also observed among the different categories of breastfeeding women. The median duration of breastfeeding for lactating women is 24 months, 6 months for those who weaned, and 2 months for those whose child died. The median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea is 14 months for breastfeeding women, 12 months for those who weaned, and 6 months for those whose child died. Discrete-time hazard models reveal that child death has the strongest effect on the resumption of menses. Net of other factors, the risk of returning to menses increased 3 times for mothers whose child died. The effect of child death, however, decreases over time. Weaning also has a significant positive effect; and, like child death, its effect diminishes as time passes. The study further shows significant differences in the risk of returning to postpartum menses by socioeconomic characteristics of the women, even though they are breastfeeding.

  12. Postpartum bonding: the impact of maternal depression and adult attachment style.

    PubMed

    Nonnenmacher, N; Noe, D; Ehrenthal, J C; Reck, C

    2016-10-01

    Maternal depression poses a risk for the developing mother-infant relationship. Similarly, maternal insecure attachment styles may limit the ability to adequately connect with the newborn during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maternal depression and insecure attachment (insecure and dual/disorganized) on maternal bonding in a sample of n = 34 women with depression according to DSM-IV and n = 59 healthy women. Maternal depression was assessed 3 to 4 months postpartum with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), bonding with the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire, and maternal attachment style with the Attachment Style Interview. Women with current and lifetime depression as well as women with dual/disorganized attachment style reported lower bonding. Explorative analysis revealed that depression partially mediated the link between dual/disorganized attachment style and bonding with a medium-sized mediation effect. The combination of maternal depression and dual/disorganized attachment style may pose a special risk constellation for the developing mother-infant bond that should be addressed in prevention and early intervention programs.

  13. Development and psychometric testing of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ) for postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaoyu; Lu, Jun; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Ximei; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Yuan; Chen, Gang

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric assessment of the Chinese Postnatal Risk Factors Questionnaire (CPRFQ). There were four phases in this process: (1) the items were generated using a literature review and a focus group, (2) content validity was evaluated by an expert panel, (3) a pilot study was conducted with 45 postpartum women to refine the scale, and (4) a convenience sample of 256 postpartum women in China was recruited to complete the questionnaire. Construct validity was established by exploratory factor analysis; a four-factor structure of the scale was accepted (social and family, personality and relationship, mother and infant, maternal feelings and 'doing the month'). These factors explained 47.46 % of the variance. Pearson's correlation coefficient was conducted to test convergent validity with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) (r = 0.54; p < 0.001). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the four subscales ranged from 0.58 to 0.71. The final 18-item version of the questionnaire is potentially a valuable tool for assessing postnatal risk factors in Chinese postpartum mothers.

  14. Coparenting Behaviors as Mediators between Postpartum Parental Depressive Symptoms and Toddler’s Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Hervé; Favez, Nicolas; Frascarolo, France; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum parental depression, even of mild intensity and short duration, has negative consequences on child development, including increased externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Studies revealed that the links between parental depression and child development are mediated by parenting difficulties. On the other hand, the mediating role of problematic family-level relationships, such as low coparenting support and high conflict between the parents, has rarely been considered, although coparenting difficulties have been linked with both increased depressive symptoms in parents and increased symptoms in toddlers. In the present study, we proposed testing a comprehensive mediation model linking parental depression, coparenting, and child symptoms. At 3 months postpartum, a convenience sample of 69 parental couples completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. In addition, we assessed levels of coparenting support and conflict during a mother–father–infant play situation, the Lausanne Trilogue Play. At 18 months postpartum, both parents assessed child symptoms with the Symptom Checklist Questionnaire. The results showed that coparenting support mediated the links between parental depressive symptoms and child symptoms, but only for mothers: Maternal depressive symptoms were linked with lower coparenting support, which in turn predicted increased psychofunctional symptoms and behavior problems assessed by mothers. Although coparenting conflict behaviors were not predicted by parents’ depressive symptoms, higher conflict was unexpectedly linked with fewer behavior problems assessed by both parents. The present study allowed us to unveil complex pathways between mild parental mood disturbances, family-level relationships, and child development in the first months of the child’s life. PMID:28018259

  15. Partner Roles in Contraceptive Use: What Do Adolescent Mothers Say?

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Dinah A.; Martins, Summer L.; Gilliam, Melissa L.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To examine the role of sexual partners in adolescent mothers’ use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods in the postpartum period. Design/Setting/Participants 40 African American adolescent mothers completed surveys and qualitative interviews during the first postpartum year as part of a larger longitudinal study in Chicago, Illinois. Themes related to contraception and sexual partners were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent mothers’ reports of partners’ roles in the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods (i.e., oral contraceptives, intrauterine contraception, and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate). Results Partners largely supported the use of non-coital dependent contraceptive methods, yet mechanisms of support varied greatly, from advocating for specific methods to facilitating participants’ continuation of their chosen method. Unsupportive partners either expressed concerns about the safety and side effects of specific methods or desired another child in the near future. Participants valued these preferences to different degrees when making their contraceptive decisions. Conclusions Partners of adolescent mothers play varying roles in postpartum contraceptive decisions. They thus have the potential to both inhibit and facilitate the use of non-coital dependent contraception. Quantitative research is needed to further evaluate how partner attitudes and support behaviors, among other factors, affect contraceptive initiation and continuation among adolescent mothers. PMID:23089574

  16. Neutrophil Functions and Cytokines Expression Profile in Buffaloes with Impending Postpartum Reproductive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Manas Kumar; Kumar, Harendra; Nandi, Sukdeb

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted to correlate the periparturient immune status in terms of neutrophil functions and cytokine expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cell culture with impending postpartum reproductive disorders in buffaloes. Forty pregnant buffaloes were observed for occurrence of postpartum reproductive disorders (PRD), i.e., metritis, endometritis and delayed uterine involution etc., during one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period. A representative number (n = 6) of buffaloes that did not develop any PRD were included in group I (healthy, control), while the animals which experienced PRD were assigned into group II (PRD, n = 8). The blood samples were collected at weekly interval from one week prepartum to four weeks postpartum period considering the day of calving as ‘d 0’. Differential leucocytes counts, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production activity in isolated neutrophils and the mRNA expression profile of cytokines i.e., IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ in PBMC culture were studied in all the samples. A higher total leucocytes, neutrophil and band cells count along with impaired neutrophil functions i.e., lowered level of production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide before parturition and during early postpartum period were observed in buffaloes developing PRD. Further, a lower expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 mRNA in PBMC culture was observed at calving in buffaloes that subsequently developed PRD at later postpartum. Thus, suppression in neutrophil function and cytokine expression at prepartum to early postpartum period predisposes the buffaloes to develop postpartum reproductive disorders. Hence, monitoring of neutrophils function and cytokine expression profile would be effective to predict certain reproductive disorders at late pregnancy or immediately after parturition in buffaloes. In future, this may be a novel approach for determining suitable management and therapeutic decisions for prevention of commonly occurring

  17. Susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of postpartum dairy cows to antibiotic and environmental bacteriophages. Part II: In vitro antimicrobial activity evaluation of a bacteriophage cocktail and several antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Santos, T M A; Gilbert, R O; Caixeta, L S; Machado, V S; Teixeira, L M; Bicalho, R C

    2010-01-01

    The use of pathogenic-specific antimicrobials, as proposed by bacteriophage therapy, is expected to reduce the incidence of resistance development. Eighty Escherichia coli isolated from uteri of Holstein dairy cows were phenotypically characterized for antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, spectinomycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline by broth microdilution method. The lytic activity of a bacteriophage cocktail against all isolates was performed by a similar method. Additionally, the effect of different concentrations of antimicrobials and multiplicities of infections (MOI) of the bacteriophage cocktail on E. coli growth curve was measured. Isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin (33.7%), ceftiofur (1.2%), chloramphenicol (100%), and florfenicol (100%). All strains were resistant to at least 2 of the antimicrobial agents tested; multidrug resistance (>or=3 of 7 antimicrobials tested) was observed in 35% of E. coli isolates. The major multidrug resistance profile was found for ampicillin-chloramphenicol-florfenicol, which was observed in more than 96.4% of the multidrug-resistant isolates. The bacteriophage cocktail preparation showed strong antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Multiplicity of infection as low as 10(-4) affected the growth of the E. coli isolates. The ratio of 10 bacteriophage particles per bacterial cell (MOI=10(1)) was efficient in inhibiting at least 50% of all isolates. Higher MOI should be tested in future in vitro studies to establish ratios that completely inhibit bacterial growth during longer periods. All isolates resistant to florfenicol were resistant to chloramphenicol and, because florfenicol was recently introduced into veterinary clinics, this finding suggests that the selection pressure of chloramphenicol, as well as other antimicrobials, may still play a relevant role in the emergence and dissemination of florfenicol resistance in E. coli. The bacteriophage

  18. What Patterns of Postpartum Psychological Distress Are Associated with Maternal Concerns about Their Children's Emotional and Behavioural Problems at the Age of Three Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benzies, Karen; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Tough, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Mothers experiencing psychological distress in the postpartum period may have difficulties parenting their children. Inconsistent and unresponsive parenting may increase the risk of later emotional and behavioural problems in children. The purpose of this study was to identify how maternal psychological characteristics cluster at eight weeks…

  19. Exploring the roles of family members in women's decision to use postpartum healthcare services from the perspectives of women and health care providers.

    PubMed

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Khalaf, Inaam

    2014-01-01

    Although the postpartum period is a significant time in a family's life, few studies have addressed the lack of continuity of care and service use during the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to explore the roles of family members in Jordanian women's decision to use postpartum health care services. An exploratory qualitative design was employed to elicit the perspectives of 24 women and 30 health care providers through six focus groups discussions conducted in April 2006. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated to English, and analyzed using an inductive content analysis approach. In our study, three roles of family members influencing Jordanian women's decision to use postpartum health care services emerged: supporter role, opponent role, and active participant in care role. Findings supported the need for a family-centered approach when providing postpartum care to enhance positive family roles and limit negative ones to promote continuity of healthcare services use during the postpartum period.

  20. Longitudinal association of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period and child obesity at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Oken, Emily; Peterson, Karen E; Gortmaker, Steven L; Gillman, Matthew W; Taveras, Elsie M

    2011-10-01

    The effect of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period on later child weight has not been explored. Among 1,044 mother-infant pairs in Project Viva, we estimated longitudinal associations of maternal attempt to lose weight during the postpartum period with child weight and adiposity at age 3 years and examined differences in associations by type of weight loss strategy used. Using covariate-adjusted linear and logistic regression models, we estimated associations before and after adjusting for maternal weight-related variables including prepregnancy BMI. At 6 months postpartum, 53% mothers were trying to lose weight. At age 3 years, mean (s.d.) child BMI z-score was 0.44 (1.01) and 8.9% of children were obese. Children whose mothers were trying to lose weight at 6 months postpartum had higher BMI z-scores (0.30 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.18, 0.42)) and were more likely to be obese (3.0 (95% CI 1.6, 5.8)) at 3 years of age. Addition of maternal prepregnancy BMI to the models attenuated but did not eliminate the associations seen for BMI z-score (0.24 (95% CI 0.12, 0.36) and obesity (2.4 (95% CI 1.2, 4.7)). Attempting to lose weight by exercising alone was the only weight loss strategy that consistently predicted higher child BMI z-score (0.36 (95% CI 0.14, 0.58)) and odds of obesity (6.0 (95% CI 2.2, 16.5)) at age 3 years. In conclusion, we observed an association between maternal attempt to lose weight at 6 months postpartum, particularly through exercise alone, measured using a single item and child adiposity at age 3 years. This association should be thoroughly examined in future studies.

  1. Sheehan's syndrome presenting as postpartum seizures.

    PubMed

    Jain, G; Singh, D; Kumar, S

    2010-05-01

    We report a case where a patient presented with generalised tonic-clonic seizures secondary to nausea, vomiting and dehydration. She had suffered a postpartum haemorrhage six months previously. On laboratory assessment hyponatraemia and low hormone concentrations suggested pituitary failure. The diagnosis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging of the head, which showed a partially empty sella turcica. Given the severity of the morbidity in this case we emphasise that Sheehan's syndrome should be suspected in women presenting with postpartum seizures.

  2. Maternal cortisol in late pregnancy and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity to psychosocial stress postpartum in women.

    PubMed

    Meinlschmidt, Gunther; Martin, Cyrill; Neumann, Inga D; Heinrichs, Markus

    2010-03-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity is altered postpartum and has been associated with several puerperal disorders. However, little is known about the association of maternal HPA activity during pregnancy with maternal HPA responsiveness to stress after parturition. Within a longitudinal study with an experimental component, we assessed in 22 women the salivary cortisol awakening response (CAR) at the 36th week of gestation and 6 weeks postpartum, as well as pituitary-adrenal and emotional responses to a psychosocial laboratory stressor at 8 weeks postpartum. CAR in late pregnancy negatively predicted maternal adrenocorticotropin (ACTH; ss = - 0.60; P = 0.003), plasma cortisol (ss = - 0.69, P < 0.001), and salivary cortisol (ss = - 0.66; P = 0.001) but not emotional stress reactivity (all P>0.05) at 8 weeks postpartum, whereas CAR at 6 weeks postpartum failed to predict hormonal (ACTH: ss = 0.02; P = 0.933, plasma cortisol: ss = - 0.23; P = 0.407, salivary cortisol: ss = - 0.15; P = 0.597) or emotional (all P>0.05) stress responses at 8 weeks postpartum. The activity of the HPA axis during pregnancy is associated with maternal HPA responsiveness to stress postpartum. Putative biological underpinnings warrant further attention. A better understanding of stress-related processes peripartum may pave the way for the prevention of associated puerperal disorders.

  3. A New Mother-Child Play Activity Program to Decrease Parenting Stress and Improve Child Cognitive Abilities: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Fukushima, Ai; Saito, Hitomi; Yoneyama, Satoshi; Ushida, Kazuo; Yoneyama, Susumu; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Background We propose a new play activity intervention program for mothers and children. Our interdisciplinary program integrates four fields of child-related sciences: neuroscience, preschool pedagogy, developmental psychology, and child and maternal psychiatry. To determine the effect of this intervention on child and mother psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and on the children's cognitive abilities, we performed a cluster randomized controlled trial. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were 238 pairs of mothers and typically developing preschool children (ages 4–6 years old) from Wakakusa kindergarten in Japan. The pairs were asked to play at home for about 10 min a day, 5 days a week for 3 months. Participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group by class unit. The Parenting Stress Index (PSI) (for mothers), the Goodenough Draw-a-Man intelligence test (DAM), and the new S-S intelligence test (NS-SIT) (for children) were administered prior to and 3 months after the intervention period. Pre–post changes in test scores were compared between the groups using a linear mixed-effects model analysis. The primary outcomes were the Total score on the child domain of the PSI (for child psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), Total score on the parent domain of the PSI (for maternal psychosocial problems related to parenting stress), and the score on the DAM (for child cognitive abilities). The results of the PSI suggested that the program may reduce parenting stress. The results of the cognitive tests suggested that the program may improve the children's fluid intelligence, working memory, and processing speed. Conclusions/Significance Our intervention program may ameliorate the children's psychosocial problems related to parenting stress and increase their cognitive abilities. Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000002265 PMID:22848340

  4. Mother's stress, mood and emotional involvement with the infant: 3 months before and 3 months after childbirth.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Barbara; Costa, Raquel

    2009-06-01

    Adverse effects of maternal anxiety and depression are well documented, namely on the foetus/child behaviour and development, but not as much attention has been given to the mother's emotional involvement with the offspring. To study mother's prenatal and postpartum stress, mood and emotional involvement with the infant, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale were filled in and cortisol levels were measured, 3 months before and 3 months after childbirth, in a sample of 91 Portuguese women. From pregnancy to the postpartum period, mother's cortisol levels, anxiety and emotional involvement toward the child decrease. No significant change was observed regarding mother's depression. Mother's depression predicted a worse emotional involvement before childbirth, while mother's anxiety predicted a worse emotional involvement with the infant after childbirth. Additionally, pregnant women with a worse emotional involvement with the offspring are at risk of poorer emotional involvement with the infant and higher anxiety and depression at 3 months postpartum. It should be given more attention to mother's poor emotional involvement with the offspring during pregnancy, as it interferes with her emotional involvement with the infant and her psychological adjustment 3 months after childbirth.

  5. Co-Parenting Relationship Experiences of Black Adolescent Mothers in Active Romantic Partnerships With the Fathers of Their Children.

    PubMed

    Nelson, LaRon E; Thach, Chia T; Shelton, Melissa M; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2015-08-01

    We conducted an interpretive description of co-parenting relationship experiences of romantically involved Black adolescent mothers and fathers with shared biological children. The study was conducted in Brooklyn, New York, using data from individual in-depth interviews with adolescent mothers and fathers (n = 10). Four themes were identified: (a) putting our heads together; (b) balancing childhood and parenthood; (c) less money, more problems; and (d) if we use condoms, it is for contraception. The co-parenting couples managed very complex relationships, but their mutual interest in the welfare of their children was a relational asset. Co-parents had sparse financial resources but used a moral economy strategy to provide mutual support. Future research is needed that focuses on identifying other co-parent relationship assets and integrating and evaluating their utility for enhancing interventions for adolescent families.

  6. Child Immunization Status among a Sample of Adolescent Mothers: Comparing the Validity of Measurement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Clarissa; Cota-Robles, Sonia; Knight, Margaret; Francis, Judith; Phillips, Elizabeth; Mazerbo, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    This study of adolescent mothers sought to identify whether a single general question asked by phone or a detailed, vaccine-specific question asked in a self-report questionnaire best captured infant immunization status at 6 months postpartum, by comparing them with immunization record books. Responses to a global question about whether infants…

  7. Long-Term Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Mothers of Infants with Congenital Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Grønning Dale, Maria T.; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Eskedal, Leif T.; Landolt, Markus A.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between the severity of infants’ congenital heart defects (CHD) and their mothers’ symptoms of depression and anxiety from pregnancy to 18 months postpartum. Methods Mothers of infants with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 162) and mothers (n = 44 400) within the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed with an eight-item short version (SCL-8) of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 at the 30th week of gestation and at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Results Only the postpartum mental health trajectory of mothers of infants with severe CHD deviated from the mental health trajectory of the cohort at 6 and 18 months postpartum, showing significantly elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms. Conclusions The results elucidate the relationship between infants’ CHD severity and maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, possibly identifying a specifically vulnerable patient dyad in need of postoperative interventions. PMID:20558484

  8. Mother-Infant Dyadic State Behaviour: Dynamic Systems in the Context of Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coburn, Shayna S.; Crnic, Keith A.; Ross, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic systems methods offer invaluable insight into the nuances of the early parent-child relationship. This prospective study aimed to highlight the characteristics of mother-infant dyadic behavior at 12?weeks post-partum using state space grid analysis (total n?=?322). We also examined whether maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and…

  9. Early postpartum gastric band slippage after bariatric surgery in an adolescent obese girl

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Françoise; Topart, Philippe; Salle, Agnès; Sentilhes, Loïc; Bouhours-Nouet, Natacha; Coutant, Régis; Weil, Dominique; Podevin, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    We report here a case of a rarely described complication of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), slippage during the postpartum period, after LAGB had been performed in an adolescent obese girl. The LAGB had been placed after one year of clinical survey initiated at the age of 16. Maximal pre-operative body mass index (BMI) was 48.5 kg.m−2 and obesity was associated with insulin resistance. Before pregnancy, there was a loss of 17 Kg (final BMI = 41.5 kg.m−2) and a resolution of insulin resistance. The patient became pregnant 21 months after LAGB, and whole pregnancy and delivery were uneventful for both mother and fetus. Six weeks after delivery, the patient suddenly complained for total food intolerance, due to a band slippage, leading to removal of the band. Slippage is now a rare complication of LAGB, but can happen during pregnancy and the postpartum period as well. PMID:27619323

  10. Effects of postpartum anxiety disorders and depression on maternal self-confidence.

    PubMed

    Reck, Corinna; Noe, Daniela; Gerstenlauer, Jakob; Stehle, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Low maternal self-confidence may damage the early mother-infant relationship and negatively influence infant development. The goal of this study was to test whether a current and previous history of DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders is associated with maternal self-confidence two weeks after delivery. Postpartum anxiety disorder and depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria in a community sample of 798 women. The data showed a significant link between current postpartum anxiety and depressive disorders and maternal self-confidence. Furthermore, women with a depression or anxiety disorder in their previous psychiatric history scored lower in maternal self-confidence. There is a need for appropriate preventive programmes to promote maternal self-confidence. With such programmes it is possible to prevent infant developmental disorders which might result from reduced feelings of maternal self-confidence and associated maternal interaction behaviour.

  11. Family Health Climate and Adolescents’ Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Cross-Sectional Study with Mother-Father-Adolescent Triads

    PubMed Central

    Niermann, Christina Y. N.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Renner, Britta; Woll, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The importance of the family environment for children’s and adolescents’ health behavior has been demonstrated, the underlying mechanisms of this influence remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between family environmental and individual determinants. It was hypothesized that the Family Health Climate (FHC) is associated with adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior and that intrinsic motivation mediates this association. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 198 families (mother, father, and child) using questionnaires. Perceptions of FHC of mothers, fathers, and their children were assessed using the FHC-scales for physical activity (FHC-PA) and nutrition (FHC-NU). The adolescents also rated their intrinsic motivation for exercise and healthy eating, their physical activity and consumption of healthful food. A structural equation model was analyzed and a bootstrapping procedure was used to test direct and indirect effects. Results The FHC-PA was related to the amount of weekly physical activity and the FHC-NU to the consumption of fruit, vegetables and salad. These effects were mediated by adolescents’ intrinsic motivation; the indirect effects were significant for both behaviors. Discussion These results emphasize the importance of the FHC in shaping adolescents’ physical activity and dietary behavior. Individual motivational factors are potential mediators of family and parental influences. Considering family-level variables and their interaction with individual factors contributes to the understanding of adolescents’ health behavior. PMID:26606157

  12. Perpetration and Victimization of Intimate Partner Aggression Among Rural Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Schwab Reese, Laura M.; Harland, Karisa; Smithart, Kelsey

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intimate partner aggression is a leading cause of injury among women of child-bearing age. Research suggests that pregnancy and the postpartum period are times of increased vulnerability to aggression. Since rural women are at an increased risk of intimate partner aggression, research is needed to examine the role of pregnancy and the presence of children on intimate partner aggression among this vulnerable population. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between young children and intimate partner aggression victimization and perpetration among a rural sample. This analysis utilized data from biologic females of child-bearing age from the Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a cohort study of over 1,000 rural families conducted from 1994 to 2011. Crude and adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between having a young child and experiencing four forms of intimate partner aggression: verbal aggression perpetration, verbal aggression victimization, physical aggression perpetration, and physical aggression victimization. Having young children was significantly associated with increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression but not victimization of verbal aggression or perpetration and victimization of physical aggression. This significant relationship persisted after adjustment for education, employment, or location of residence but not age or marital status. The increased odds of perpetrating verbal aggression among mothers in a rural area highlight the need for interventions designed for rural parents. One method of reducing intimate partner aggression may be to incorporate intimate partner aggression prevention activities into existing child abuse intervention activities. PMID:27626037

  13. "I can't stop worrying about everything"—experiences of rural Bangladeshi women during the first postpartum months.

    PubMed

    Edhborg, Maigun; Nasreen, Hashima E; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2015-01-01

    Over recent years, researchers have found evidence which indicates that the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms crosses cultural boundaries and is reported to be at least as high in non-Western countries as in Western countries. However, qualitative studies about new mothers' experiences from non-Western countries, such as Bangladesh, are rare, particularly in rural areas. This study aims to describe the experiences and concerns of rural Bangladeshi mothers with postpartum depressive symptoms. Open narrative interviews were conducted with 21 mothers with depressive symptoms 2-3 months postpartum, consecutively selected from a longitudinal study about prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depressive symptoms. Inductive content analysis was used to analyse data and three themes emerged: family dynamics, living at the limits of survival, and role of the cultural context after childbirth. These themes were based on six categories and 15 subcategories. The findings show that troublesome family relationships, including intimate partner violence and violence in the family, influenced the mothers' mental well-being. They and their families lived at the limit of survival and the mothers expressed fear and worries about their insecure situation regarding economic difficulties and health problems. They felt sorry for being unable to give their infants a good start in life and sad because they could not always follow the traditional norms related to childbirth. Thus, it is important to focus on the depressive symptoms among new mothers and offer counselling to those showing depressive symptoms, as the cultural traditions do not always alleviate these symptoms in the changing Bangladeshi society today.

  14. Myocardial calcium-independent nitric oxide synthase activity is present in dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and postpartum cardiomyopathy but not in ischaemic or valvar heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    de Belder, A. J.; Radomski, M. W.; Why, H. J.; Richardson, P. J.; Martin, J. F.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine the activity of the calcium-dependent constitutive (cNOS) and calcium-independent inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) synthases in heart tissue from patients with different cardiac diseases. PATIENTS AND DESIGN--Endomyocardial biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with dilated hearts (by echocardiography and ventriculography) and normal coronary arteries (by selective angiography). Recognised clinical, radiological, and histopathological criteria were used to diagnose non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n = 6), inflammatory cardiomyopathy (ICM) (n = 5), and peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) (n = 3). Comparative groups were chosen with similarly dilated hearts caused by ischaemic (n = 5) or valvar disease (n = 4), and, in addition, non-dilated hearts with ischaemic (n = 5) and valvar (n = 3) disease. Venous blood was taken at the time of myocardial biopsy for assay of plasma tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). RESULTS--Myocardial tissue from patients with DCM, ICM, and PPCM showed considerable iNOS activity (16.8 (2.7) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min) with little or no cNOS activity (1.3 (0.9) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min). In contrast, myocardial tissue from patients with both dilated and non-dilated hearts of ischaemic or valvar aetiology showed cNOS and little, if any, iNOS activity (dilated--cNOS 11.7 (2.4) and iNOS 0.8 (0.6) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min; non-dilated--cNOS 12.1 (1.8) and iNOS 1.4 (0.8) pmol citrulline/mg protein/min). Plasma TNF alpha was detectable only in patients with inflammatory DCM. CONCLUSIONS--These results support the hypothesis the generation of nitric oxide by iNOS accounts for some of the dilatation and impaired contractility associated with inflammatory and non-inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and peripartum cardiomyopathy. PMID:7488459

  15. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

    PubMed Central

    Badiee, Zohreh; Faramarzi, Salar; MiriZadeh, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC). This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group). Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001). Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers. PMID:25371871

  16. Postpartum Loss to HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among Previously Diagnosed HIV-Infected Women with a Live Birth in New York State

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in the United States has been greatly reduced, with clear benefits for the child. However, little is known about factors that predict maternal loss to HIV care in the postpartum year. This retrospective cohort study included 980 HIV-positive women, diagnosed with HIV at least one year before pregnancy, who had a live birth during 2008–2010 in New York State. Women who did not meet the following criterion in the 12 months after the delivery-related hospital discharge were considered to be lost to HIV care: two or more laboratory tests (CD4 or HIV viral load), separated by at least 90 days. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of postpartum loss to HIV care were identified with Poisson regression, solved using generalized estimating equations. Having an unsuppressed (>200 copies/mL) HIV viral load in the postpartum year was also evaluated. Overall, 24% of women were loss to HIV care during the postpartum year. Women with low participation in HIV care during preconception were more likely to be lost to HIV care during the postpartum year (aRR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.09–3.49). In contrast, having a low birth weight infant was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of loss to HIV care (aRR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53–0.98). While 75% of women were virally suppressed at the last viral load before delivery only 44% were continuously suppressed in the postpartum year; 12% had no viral load test reported in the postpartum year and 44% had at least one unsuppressed viral load test. Lack of engagement in preconception HIV-related health care predicts postpartum loss to HIV care for HIV-positive parturient women. Many women had poor viral control during the postpartum period, increasing the risk of disease progression and infectivity. PMID:27513953

  17. Postpartum Loss to HIV Care and HIV Viral Suppression among Previously Diagnosed HIV-Infected Women with a Live Birth in New York State.

    PubMed

    Swain, Carol-Ann; Smith, Lou C; Nash, Denis; Pulver, Wendy P; Lazariu, Victoria; Anderson, Bridget J; Warren, Barbara L; Birkhead, Guthrie S; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Mother-to-child-transmission of HIV in the United States has been greatly reduced, with clear benefits for the child. However, little is known about factors that predict maternal loss to HIV care in the postpartum year. This retrospective cohort study included 980 HIV-positive women, diagnosed with HIV at least one year before pregnancy, who had a live birth during 2008-2010 in New York State. Women who did not meet the following criterion in the 12 months after the delivery-related hospital discharge were considered to be lost to HIV care: two or more laboratory tests (CD4 or HIV viral load), separated by at least 90 days. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for predictors of postpartum loss to HIV care were identified with Poisson regression, solved using generalized estimating equations. Having an unsuppressed (>200 copies/mL) HIV viral load in the postpartum year was also evaluated. Overall, 24% of women were loss to HIV care during the postpartum year. Women with low participation in HIV care during preconception were more likely to be lost to HIV care during the postpartum year (aRR: 2.70; 95% CI: 2.09-3.49). In contrast, having a low birth weight infant was significantly associated with a decreased likelihood of loss to HIV care (aRR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.53-0.98). While 75% of women were virally suppressed at the last viral load before delivery only 44% were continuously suppressed in the postpartum year; 12% had no viral load test reported in the postpartum year and 44% had at least one unsuppressed viral load test. Lack of engagement in preconception HIV-related health care predicts postpartum loss to HIV care for HIV-positive parturient women. Many women had poor viral control during the postpartum period, increasing the risk of disease progression and infectivity.

  18. The impact of integrated obstetric and neonatal services on utilization of postpartum maternal health care services

    PubMed Central

    Vural, Fisun; Yildirim, Filiz; Vural, Birol

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Postnatal care is an important issue in maintaining and promoting maternal and neonatal health. However, utilization of postpartum maternal health care services is at a low rate in many countries. This study was aimed to investigate the impact of integrated obstetric and neonatal services on utilization rates of postnatal health care service among mothers. METHODS: This study was performed among a total of 4193 mothers who gave birth at Maternity Unit of Golcuk Necati Celik State Hospital of Kocaeli Province between 2010 and 2013. All mothers were called back to postnatal care clinic (PNC) for newborn hearing test (NHT) screenings, neonatal and maternal care within two weeks after delivery. The deliveries after, (n=3093) and before (n=1100) utilization of integrated services were compared as for postnatal service utilization rates. RESULTS: Utilization rates of neonatal health care, NHT and postpartum maternal health care services significantly increased after implementation of integrated services (p<0.0001). Especially maternal service utilization rates increased from 34% to 99 percent. CONCLUSION: Integration of newborn and maternal health care services as a unit increases the utilization of PNC services. PMID:28058353

  19. Stressful Events During Pregnancy and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Diop, Hafsatou; Declercq, Eugene; Cabral, Howard J.; Fox, Matthew P.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the influence of perinatal stressors on the prevalence of postpartum depressive symptoms (PDS) and help-seeking for PDS using surveillance data can inform service provision and improve health outcomes. Methods: We used Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (MA-PRAMS) 2007–2010 data to evaluate associations between selected perinatal stressors and PDS and with subsequent help-seeking behaviors. We categorized 12 stressors into 4 groups: partner, traumatic, financial, and emotional. We defined PDS as reporting “always” or “often” to any depressive symptoms on PRAMS Phase 5, or to a composite score ≥10 on PRAMS Phase 6 depression questions, compared with women reporting “sometimes,” “rarely” or “never” to all depressive symptoms. The median response time to MA-PRAMS survey was 3.2 months (interquartile range, 2.9–4.0 months). We estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using modified Poisson regression models, controlling for socioeconomic status indicators, pregnancy intention and prior mental health visits. Results: Among 5,395 participants, 58% reported ≥1 stressor (partner=26%, traumatic=16%, financial=29% and emotional=30%). Reporting of ≥1 stressor was associated with increased prevalence of PDS (PR=1.68, 95% CI: 1.42–1.98). The strongest association was observed for partner stress (PR=1.90, 95% CI: 1.51–2.38). Thirty-eight percent of mothers with PDS sought help. Mothers with partner-related stressors were less likely to seek help, compared with mothers with other grouped stressors. Conclusions: Women who reported perinatal common stressors—particularly partner-related stressors—had an increased prevalence of PDS. These data suggest that women should be routinely screened during pregnancy for a range of stressors and encouraged to seek help for PDS. PMID:25751609

  20. Optimistic Outlook Regarding Maternity Protects Against Depressive Symptoms Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Robakis, Thalia K.; Williams, Katherine E.; Crowe, Susan; Kenna, Heather; Gannon, Jamie; Rasgon, Natalie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The transition to motherhood is a time of elevated risk for clinical depression. Dispositional optimism may be protective against depressive symptoms; however the arrival of a newborn presents numerous challenges that may be at odds with initially positive expectations, and which may contribute to depressed mood. We have explored the relative contributions of antenatal and postnatal optimism regarding maternity to depressive symptoms in the postnatal period. Methods 98 pregnant women underwent clinician interview in the third trimester to record psychiatric history, antenatal depressive symptoms, and administer a novel measure of optimism towards maternity. Measures of depressive symptoms, attitudes to maternity, and mother-to-infant bonding were obtained from 97 study completers at monthly intervals through three months postpartum. Results We found a positive effect of antenatal optimism, and a negative effect of postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, on depressive mood postnatally. Postnatal disconfirmation, but not antenatal optimism, was associated with more negative attitudes toward maternity postnatally. Antenatal optimism, but not postnatal disconfirmation, was associated with reduced scores on a mother-to-infant bonding measure. The relationships between antenatal optimism, postnatal disconfirmation of expectations, and postnatal depression held true among primigravidas and multigravidas, as well as among women with prior histories of mood disorders, although antenatal optimism tended to be lower among women with mental health histories. Conclusions We conclude that cautious antenatal optimism, rather than immoderate optimism or frank pessimism, is the approach that is most protective against postnatal depressive symptoms, and that this is true irrespective of either mood disorder history or parity. Factors predisposing to negative cognitive assessments and impaired mother-to-infant bonding may be substantially different than those associated

  1. Maternal postpartum depressive symptoms predict delay in non-verbal communication in 14-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Emiko; Takagai, Shu; Takei, Nori; Itoh, Hiroaki; Kanayama, Naohiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji J

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the potential relationship between maternal depressive symptoms during the postpartum period and non-verbal communication skills of infants at 14 months of age in a birth cohort study of 951 infants and assessed what factors may influence this association. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and non-verbal communication skills were measured using the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories, which include Early Gestures and Later Gestures domains. Infants whose mothers had a high level of depressive symptoms (13+ points) during both the first month postpartum and at 10 weeks were approximately 0.5 standard deviations below normal in Early Gestures scores and 0.5-0.7 standard deviations below normal in Later Gestures scores. These associations were independent of potential explanations, such as maternal depression/anxiety prior to birth, breastfeeding practices, and recent depressive symptoms among mothers. These findings indicate that infants whose mothers have postpartum depressive symptoms may be at increased risk of experiencing delay in non-verbal development.

  2. Measuring patient satisfaction with postpartum teaching methods used by nurses within the interaction model of client health behavior.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Debra L; Bear, Mary; Davidson, Nangela S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between new mothers' interaction with nurses using different teaching methods to provide postpartum discharge teaching and their satisfaction with nursing care. Cox's Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior (IMCHB) provided the framework for this study. This study used a quasi-experimental posttest design with two groups to examine patient satisfaction with different teaching methods used by nurses to provide postpartum education. The Modified Client Satisfaction Tool measured satisfaction with discharge teaching. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square, Kendall's tau, and Mann-Whitney U tests. The data showed high satisfaction scores for new mothers receiving both methods of discharge teaching, indicating that new mothers who received the traditional method of discharge instruction provided by nurses were just as satisfied as those who received the demonstration/return demonstration method of discharge instructions provided by nurses. Providing individualized care, based on the expressed needs of the patient, was demonstrated in this study to result in high satisfaction with nursing care using both methods of providing postpartum discharge teaching.

  3. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based healthful eating and physical activity intervention for postpartum women who are low income.

    PubMed

    Ebbeling, Cara B; Pearson, Meredith N; Sorensen, Glorian; Levine, Rachel A; Hebert, James R; Salkeld, Judith A; Peterson, Karen E

    2007-01-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors that confer risk for chronic disease are prominent among women from varying ethnic and racial groups who are low income. Conceptualization and development of a theory-based behavioral intervention to address their unique needs during the first year following childbirth comprised four steps: (a) translating public health guidelines and emerging epidemiologic data into specific intervention messages; (b) developing practical strategies to operationalize theoretical constructs, in the context of a social ecological framework; (c) stating achievement-based objectives and writing scripts for five home visits; and (d) conducting formative research. Focus group participants expressed a desire for a "health mentor," not somebody who "nags" or "stresses you out." Paraprofessionals from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) were directly involved in pretesting the intervention and remain involved as health mentors. This intervention can serve as a basis for future organizational partnerships to benefit the health of populations who are low income.

  4. Relationship Satisfaction Among Mothers of Children With Congenital Heart Defects: A Prospective Case-Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Solberg, Øivind; Holmstrøm, Henrik; Landolt, Markus A.; Eskedal, Leif T.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the level of partner relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with different severity of congenital heart defects (CHD) compared with mothers in the cohort. Methods Mothers of children with mild, moderate, or severe CHD (n = 182) and a cohort of mothers of children without CHD (n = 46,782) from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were assessed at 5 time points from pregnancy to 36 months postpartum. A 5-item version of the Relationship Satisfaction scale was used, and relevant covariates were explored. Results The trajectories of relationship satisfaction among mothers of children with varying CHD severity did not differ from the trajectories in the cohort. All women in the cohort experienced decreasing relationship satisfaction from 18 months after delivery up to 36 months after delivery. Conclusions Having a child with CHD, regardless of severity, does not appear to exacerbate the decline in relationship satisfaction. PMID:23792348

  5. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    PubMed

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (p<0.001). Exclusive breastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  6. The intricacies of induced lactation for same-sex mothers of an adopted child.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Erica; Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Chetwynd, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    The definition of a modern family is changing. In this case study, we describe the breastfeeding experience of a child receiving human milk from all 3 of his mothers: his 2 adoptive mothers, who induced lactation to nurse him, and his birth mother, who shared in his early feeding during the open adoption process and continued to pump and send milk to him for several months. We review the lactation protocol used by his adoptive mothers and the unique difficulties inherent in this multi-mother family dynamic. Both adoptive mothers successfully induced moderate milk production using a combination of hormonal birth control, domperidone, herbal supplements, and a schedule of breast pumping. However, because of the increased complexity of the immediate postpartum period and concerns with defining parental roles in a same-sex marriage, maintenance of milk production was difficult.

  7. PCB concentrations and dioxin-like activity in blood samples from Danish school children and their mothers living in urban and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai; Mathiesen, Line; Nielsen, Flemming; Siersma, Volkert D; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva C; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2014-07-01

    Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is of major concern due to a diversity of adverse effects from prolonged exposure and bioaccumulation. Manufacturing of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a subgroup of POPs, has been prohibited for many decades; however, human exposure still occurs due to the persistent nature of the chemicals. The concentrations of the dioxin-like PCB congeners 105, 118 and 156 and the non-dioxin-like PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDT, HCB and β-HCH as well as the dioxin-like activity using the AhR transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were significantly higher in schoolchildren living in the urban area compared with the rural, and for AhR-TEQ, a strong correlation between the mothers and children was observed. We found a significant negative correlation between BMI and PCB concentrations in the children. Finally, in the mothers, there was a positive association between age and PCB concentration. These results show that both PCBs and dioxin-like activity can be measured as biomarkers of exposure and effects in blood samples from children and women. The results indicate that people living in urban areas may be exposed to higher concentrations of PCBs, dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, which may lead to a greater risk of adverse effects for urban populations.

  8. Vigour in West African Dwarf kids within the first 24 h post-partum.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, I I; Bernard, A

    2017-03-01

    One hundred and fifty West African Dwarf (WAD) kids were tested at the National Goats Breeding Station to determine the effects of some neonatal factors on their vigour levels within the first 24 h post-partum. The kids were also tested to establish the relationship between maternal weight, rectal temperature, times of first standing and sucking, sucking period and vigour. The distance covered (in meters) by a kid towards its mother during a 5-min test period was considered as vigour trait. Vigour levels increased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing age within the first 24 h post-partum. Kids born to second parity mothers had higher (p < 0.05) vigour than those born to first parity mothers. Similarly, high birth weight kids had higher (p < 0.05) vigour levels than low birth weight kids. Weak positive and negative correlations (p < 0.05), respectively, were found between vigour and rectal temperature, and vigour and the time of first successfully standing. However, there was moderate positive correlation (p < 0.01) between vigour and sucking period. The time it took for the newborn kid to stand up for the first time also correlated weakly and negatively (p < 0.01) with the duration of sucking by the newborn within the first 5 min of accessing the teat. Vigour within the first 24 h post-partum in WAD kids increased with increasing age, parity and birth weight and might be responsible for the earlier and longer sucking time and periods, respectively, in high birth weight kids and those dropped by multiparous does.

  9. Prevalence of Anaemia among Postnatal Mothers in Coastal Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwan, Darshan; Kumar, Ashwini; Kamath, Asha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Postpartum is the most neglected period in reproductive cycle of woman. Prevalence of anaemia in developing countries ranges from 50-95%. Aim To estimate the prevalence of anaemia among postnatal mothers. Setting and design A community based cross-sectional study among recently delivered mothers residing in field practice area of Department of Community Medicine, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal, India. Materials and Methods The study sample included 401 respondents who were selected using stratified random sampling with proportionate allocation from all rural health centres. Data was collected by personal interviews followed by haemoglobin estimation by indirect cyanomethaemoglobin method. Results The prevalence of postnatal anaemia was 26.5% (Anaemia = Hb<12gm/dl). There were no cases of severe anaemia. Postnatal anaemia was predominantly seen in mothers of age < 20 years and half of the mothers with inter-pregnancy intervals less than two years were found to be anaemic. Illiteracy was identified as a significant variable (OR=11.23, 95% CI = 1.90-65.08) for postpartum anaemia. Conclusion The prevalence of anaemia was significantly lower in the present study; however sustained efforts have to be made to further lower the prevalence of postnatal anaemia in order to promote the health and well-being of women. PMID:26894096

  10. Chronic Gestational Stress Leads to Depressive-Like Behavior and Compromises Medial Prefrontal Cortex Structure and Function during the Postpartum Period

    PubMed Central

    Leuner, Benedetta; Fredericks, Peter J.; Nealer, Connor; Albin-Brooks, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum depression, which affects approximately 15% of new mothers, is associated with impaired mother-infant interactions and deficits in cognitive function. Exposure to stress during pregnancy is a major risk factor for postpartum depression. However, little is known about the neural consequences of gestational stress. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a brain region that has been linked to stress, cognition, maternal care, and mood disorders including postpartum depression. Here we examined the effects of chronic gestational stress on mPFC function and whether these effects might be linked to structural modifications in the mPFC. We found that in postpartum rats, chronic gestational stress resulted in maternal care deficits, increased depressive-like behavior, and impaired performance on an attentional set shifting task that relies on the mPFC. Furthermore, exposure to chronic stress during pregnancy reduced dendritic spine density on mPFC pyramidal neurons and altered spine morphology. Taken together, these findings suggest that pregnancy stress may contribute to postpartum mental illness and its associated symptoms by compromising structural plasticity in the mPFC. PMID:24594708

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Pregnant and Postpartum Women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Vesga-Lopez, Oriana; Blanco, Carlos; Keyes, Katherine; Olfson, Mark; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT Psychiatric disorders and substance use during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. Information about the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders and substance use in this population is lacking. OBJECTIVE To examine sociodemographic correlates, rates of DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders, substance use and treatment-seeking among past-year pregnant and postpartum women in the United States. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Face-to-face interviews were conducted in the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 43,093). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Prevalence of 12-month DSM-IV Axis I psychiatric disorders, substance use, and treatment seeking. RESULTS There were no significant differences in the 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders between past-year pregnant (25.3%), postpartum women (27.5%), and non-pregnant women of child-bearing age (30.1%), except for the significantly higher prevalence of major depressive disorder in postpartum women (9.3%) than in non-pregnant women (8.1%) (OR 1.59, 95% CI=1.15–2.20). Past-year pregnant and postpartum women had significantly lower rates of alcohol use disorders, and any substance use, except illicit drug use, than non-pregnant women. Age, marital status, health status, stressful life events, and history of traumatic experiences were all significantly associated with higher risk of psychopathology in pregnant and postpartum women. Most women with a current psychiatric disorder did not receive any mental health care in the 12-months prior to the survey regardless of pregnancy status. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy per se is not associated with increased risk of mental disorders, though the risk of major depressive disorder may be increased during the postpartum period. Young, unmarried women with recent stressful life events, complicated pregnancies, and poor overall health were at significantly increased risk of mental disorders during pregnancy

  12. Vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-I and platelet-derived growth factor levels in human milk of mothers with term and preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Ozgurtas, Taner; Aydin, Ibrahim; Turan, Ozden; Koc, Esin; Hirfanoglu, Ibrahim Murat; Acikel, Cengiz Han; Akyol, Mesut; Erbil, M Kemal

    2010-05-01

    Human milk is a complex biological fluid. It contains many nutrients, anti-infectious and biologically active substance. Human milk also contains many angiogenic polypeptides. We have determined four of these: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), insulin-like growth factor- I (IGF-I) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of VEGF, b-FGF, IGF-I and PDGF in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term neonates. Human milk samples were collected from 29 mothers of preterm (<37 weeks) and from 29 mothers of term (38>weeks) infants at days 3, 7 and 28 postpartum. Milk samples were analyzed for VEGF, b-FGF and PDGF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and IGF-I was measured by radioimmunoassay method. Human milk levels of VEGF, IGF-I and b-FGF were significantly higher (p<0.001). Furthermore, within-preterm group concentrations of VEGF, IGF-I and PDGF significantly differed during postpartum days 3-7-28 (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for b-FGF concentrations. In term groups, concentrations of IGF-I and VEGF significantly differed (p<0.05, p<0.001, respectively), but did not do so for concentrations of b-FGF and PDGF. This is the first report of simultaneous measurements of four major angiogenic factors in human milk collected from mothers with preterm and term. Our results suggest that three of four angiogenic factors, VEGF, b-FGF and IGF-I, are higher concentration in human milk which collected from preterm mothers than those of terms.

  13. Post-partum acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Pahwa, Naresh; Bharani, Rajesh; Kumar, Ravindra

    2014-11-01

    To determine the risk factors, course of hospital stay and mortality rate among women with post-partum acute kidney injury (AKI), we studied (of 752 patients with AKI admitted to a tertiary care center during the study period between November 2009 and August 2012) 27 (3.59%) women with post-partum AKI. The data regarding age, parity, cause of renal failure, course of hospital stay and requirement of dialysis were recorded. Sepsis was the major cause (70.3%) of post-partum AKI. Other causes included disseminated intravascular coagulation (55.5%), pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (40.7%), ante- and post-partum hemorrhage (40.7% and 22.2%) and hemolytic anemia and elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome (29.6%); most patients had more than one cause of AKI. We found a very high prevalence (18.5%) of cortical necrosis in our study patients. A significant correlation was also found between the creatinine level on admission and the period of onset of disease after delivery. In conclusion, several factors are involved in causing post-partum AKI in our population, and sepsis was the most common of them.

  14. Incidence and Duration of Breastfeedings in Active Duty Military Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    mothers who breastfeed their babies to 75% in the early postpartum period and increase the number of mothers who nurse for up to six months to fifty...n=429,840) of the 720,000 women sampled were breastfeeding in the hospital (Ryan, 1997). At 6 months postpartum , 21.6% (n=155,520) of the women...responses to a postpartum questionnaire sent to mothers. Comparing rates of breastfeeding in 1989 to the rates in 1995, breast-feeding initiation increased

  15. Residential substance abuse treatment for pregnant and postpartum women and their children: treatment and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Clark, H W

    2001-01-01

    In FY 1993 and FY 1995, the federal government awarded 27 five-year grants that supported 35 residential treatment projects for substance-abusing pregnant and postpartum women and their children. These projects provided comprehensive culturally and gender-specific treatment. Preliminary aggregated data collected in a national cross-site evaluation of 24 of these projects are encouraging with respect to infant mortality and morbidity, treatment retention and completion rates, and behavioral changes in the participating mothers at six months postdischarge. Local evaluations reflect other benefits of treatment. Cost data are expected to demonstrate the efficiencies and benefits of these projects compared to no treatment.

  16. Validation of the breastfeeding experience scale in a sample of Iranian mothers.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Forough; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ (2)/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers.

  17. Validation of the Breastfeeding Experience Scale in a Sample of Iranian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Chaman, Reza; Khosravi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to validate the breastfeeding experience scale (BES) in a sample of Iranian mothers. Methods. After translation and back translation of the BES, an expert panel evaluated the items by assessing the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI). 347 of mothers visiting health centers completed the Farsi version of the BES in the first month postpartum. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed to indicate the scale constructs. Reliability was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results. CVR and CVI scores for the BES were 0.96 and 0.87, respectively. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the BES was 0.83. The results of the EFA revealed a new 5-factor model. The results of the CFA for the BES indicated a marginally acceptable fit for the proposed model and acceptable fit for the new model (RMSEA = 0.064, SRMR = 0.064, χ2/df = 2.4, and CFI = 0.95). Mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the first month postpartum had less breastfeeding difficulties score (30.3 ± 7.6) than mothers who were on partial breastfeeding (36.7 ± 11.3) (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The Farsi version of the BES is a reliable and valid instrument to assess postpartum breastfeeding difficulties in Iranian mothers. PMID:24963304

  18. [Use of modified intrauterine device (IUD) TCu 380 with chromium filaments in the immediate postpartum].

    PubMed

    Hernández Valencia, M; Becerril Flores, L C

    2000-02-01

    Postpartum insertion of the intrauterine device (IUD) can provide an effective and convenient means of contraception. As a result, the use of IUD's has steadily increased, and the Family Planning Program recommends it because it offers many advantages. However, a major risk associated with the use of IUD's is the possibility of its expulsion, which ranges from 4 to 60%. Furthermore, 20% of women who expelled IUD's were unaware that it occurred, thus increasing their susceptibility to unwanted pregnancies. IUD's modified by the addition of biodegradable strands of chromic suture at time of implantation are thought to be less likely to be expelled, as the sutures anchor the IUD more firmly to the endometrium, and it is possible that the use of these sutures may decrease the risk of expulsion. Therefore we determined if the chromic extension to IUD enhance retention and decreased the rate of expulsion. In one year of study, 150 women received a modified IUD (TCu 380) with chromic catgut number 0 (ccO) in the transversal arm within 10 minutes of delivery of the placenta. However, only 84 women completed the follow-up study. To evaluate IUD expulsion, exploratory examinations were conducted during the immediate postpartum, at 7 days postpartum and at 6 weeks after delivery. We determined the presence or expulsion of the IUD in these three periods postpartum. Other parameters such as parity, age and marital status were also considered. A total of 14 modified IUD's (16.6%) were expelled. This represents a similar frequency of expulsion both during the immediate postpartum and the 7 days postpartum period. There was no significant difference in the rate of expulsion between the two periods. Moreover, there was no expulsion at 6 weeks postpartum. The primiparity women had the highest percentage of expulsion (22.8%). Single mothers either living with or without their sexual partner had expulsion rates of 20.6 and 20.5%, respectively. The highest rate of expulsion when we

  19. Mother-baby friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1996-01-01

    In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center.

  20. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension presenting as postpartum headache

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Mariam; Salahuddin, Ayesha; Mathew, Namitha R.; Nandhagopal, Ramachandiran

    2016-01-01

    Postpartum headache is described as headache and neck or shoulder pain during the first 6 weeks after delivery. Common causes of headache in the puerperium are migraine headache and tension headache; other causes include pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, post-dural puncture headache, cortical vein thrombosis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome, brain tumor, cerebral ischemia, meningitis, and so forth. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a rare cause of postpartum headache. It is usually associated with papilledema, headache, and elevated intracranial pressure without any focal neurologic abnormality in an otherwise healthy person. It is more commonly seen in obese women of reproductive age group, but rare during pregnancy and postpartum. We present a case of IIH who presented to us 18 days after cesarean section with severe headache and was successfully managed. PMID:26818168

  1. The association between diabetes and postpartum depression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Emily S; Peri, Marisa R; Gossett, Dana R

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to estimate if diabetic women were more likely to experience postpartum depression symptoms than women without diabetes. This was a prospective cohort of women who received prenatal care at a hospital-affiliated prenatal clinic serving low-income women in Chicago, Illinois. For the primary analysis, women were divided by diabetes status (i.e., no diabetes or either gestational diabetes or pre-pregnancy diabetes). Postpartum depression was defined as a positive screen on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Rates of postpartum depression were compared, stratified by diabetic status. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to control for potential confounders. A planned secondary analysis compared women with pre-pregnancy diabetes to those without pre-pre-pregnancy diabetes. Three hundred and five women consented to participate of whom 100 (30.5 %) had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 33 (10.8 %) had pre-pregnancy diabetes. Compared to women without any diabetes, women with diabetes (either GDM or pre-pregnancy diabetes) had similar rates of antenatal [(OR) 0.69, 95 % CI) 0.44-1.08] and postpartum depression (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.33-1.66). However, postpartum depression was more common among women with pre-pregnancy diabetes (34.8 %) compared to non-diabetic women (16.7 %) (OR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-6.78). This association persisted even after adjusting for potential confounders (aOR 2.67, 95 % CI 1.05-9.79). Gestational diabetes was not associated with increased rates of depression. However, women with pre-pregnancy diabetes are more likely to experience postpartum depression compared to women without pre-pregnancy diabetes, even after adjusting for related comorbidities.

  2. Physical Activity, TV Watching Time, Sleeping, and Risk of Obesity and Hyperglycemia in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China. PMID:28120866

  3. Physical Activity, TV Watching Time, Sleeping, and Risk of Obesity and Hyperglycemia in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1–5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72–2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33–3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0–6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45–1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28–0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0–11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42–1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23–0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China.

  4. [Social representations on the diet of nursing mothers].

    PubMed

    Marques, Emanuele Souza; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre; Botelho, Maria Izabel Vieira; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Araújo, Raquel Maria Amaral

    2011-10-01

    This is a qualitative study that sought to establish the significance attributed by women to adequate eating habits with respect to prohibited, permitted and breastmilk-enhancing products during breastfeeding. It was based on the Theory of Social Representations described by Moscovici (2003) and Minayo (2006). 58 mothers of children up to 2 years of age living in the city of Coimbra in Minas Gerais state participated in the survey. Comprehensive analysis of feeding revealed that the new mothers interviewed understood the need for a special diet during postpartum based on healthy, fortified and lactose-rich food, as well as the need for ingesting liquids. Breatfeeding mothers appreciated the need to avoid hot, creamy and fatty food. In this perspective, feeding during this physiological phase implies an understanding of cultural, social and historical aspects which dictate eating habits. This assists in understanding customs and beliefs in order to provide professional assistance geared to the group being assisted in its proper context.

  5. Obesity epidemic: impact from preconception to postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hind N; Alrais, Mesk A; Leon, Mateo G; Abbas, Elizabeth L; Sibai, Baha M

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is on the rise throughout the USA and the world. Not only does it affect the general population but it also specifically poses unique threats to a woman’s life in the antepartum, peripartum and postpartum periods. An increased BMI is associated with worse perinatal outcomes, including higher rates of preeclampsia (and other hypertensive disorders), macrosomia, other neonatal morbidities and gestational diabetes. Isolated maternal obesity and additional maternal diabetes predispose the infant to potential adult disease through fetal programming. This review of the literature examines the effects of obesity on a woman’s life, outlining complications beginning with preconception through the postpartum period. PMID:28031980

  6. Use of psychotropic medication during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Pearlstein, Teri

    2013-11-01

    Women with active psychiatric disorders who become pregnant face treatment dilemmas. Although results from studies are inconsistent, small but significant, risks on birth outcomes occur with exposure to untreated disorders, as well as to psychotropic medications. Prenatal antidepressant medication exposure may increase the risk for spontaneous miscarriage, preterm birth, cardiac malformations, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and postnatal adaptation syndrome. The use of valproate is contraindicated during pregnancy due to teratogenicity and neurocognitive delay and deficits. This review of selected studies will highlight some of the current issues with the use of psychotropic medications during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  7. Mothers and Mothers-in-Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Lucy Rose

    1983-01-01

    Indicated how a shift in the structure of kinship networks created changes in both the content and balance of kinship relationships. Compared the mother-daughter and the mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationships. The shift in their kin network consisted of the birth of the daughter(in-law)'s child. (Author/RC)

  8. Neonate-Mother Interaction during Breast-Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Evelyn B.; And Others

    Using a modified time-sampling procedure, 20 primiparous and 20 multiparous mothers were observed while breast-feeding their 48-hour old infants. In comparison with multiparous mothers, primiparous mothers (1) spend more time in non-feeding activities, (2) spend more time feeding male infants, (3) change activity more frequently, (4) provide more…

  9. Kangaroo mother care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Sarah

    2012-05-01

    Kangaroo mother care is a safe, simple method to care for low birth weight infants. This article looks at its origins, what is involved in kangaroo mother care and reviews the evidence for improved outcomes resulting from its implementation.

  10. Antecedents and consequences of caregiving structure on young mothers and their infants.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Anna; Lewis, Jessica; Maximovich, Alexey; Ickovics, Jeannette; Kershaw, Trace

    2011-10-01

    This study describes the multigenerational caregiving structure of infants born to young women, the prenatal predictors of caregiving structure, and the effects of caregiving structure on the health of young mothers and their infants 6 months postpartum. The sample consisted of 784 young mothers involved in a longitudinal study in two U.S. cities. Women were classified into eight caregiving structure groups based on the mother's report of herself as a caregiver and her selection of the baby's father and/or grandparents as caregivers. ANCOVA analyses identified predictors and 6 month postpartum outcomes of caregiving structure. Planned comparisons explored the relationships among caregiving structure groups. A majority of women reported caregiving structures other than herself and the father as caregivers (87.1%). Grandparents were indicated as caregivers by most women (62.2%). Postpartum caregiving groups differed on prenatal social support, self-esteem, attachment avoidance and anxiety, relationship status, and living with the baby's father. While mother's self esteem significantly predicted father involvement, there were no differences on predictors between when the mother and father were caregivers, versus when the mother and grandparents were caregivers. Differences existed between groups on mother and child outcomes, including parenting stress, distress, and child dysfunction. Women reported significantly less parenting stress, child dysfunction, and negative child emotions when she and the father were caregivers, versus when she and grandparents were caregivers. The family system and the intergenerational dynamics within a multigenerational caregiving structure are critical to the health and well-being of both mothers and their children.

  11. Postpartum ovarian follicular dynamics in primiparous and pluriparous Mediterranean Italian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Presicce, Giorgio Antonio; Bella, Antonino; Terzano, Giuseppina Maria; De Santis, Giuseppe; Senatore, Elena Maria

    2005-03-15

    the one bearing the gravidic CL. A balance in the number of such follicles was reached toward the end of the first month. In conclusion, although some follicular activity was recorded in the ovaries of all buffaloes, true postpartum resumption of cyclicity in the months of increasing daylight hours was delayed in the majority of animals.

  12. Mental health treatment need among pregnant and postpartum women/girls entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H

    2012-06-01

    Substance use during pregnancy is widely acknowledged as a major public health concern with detrimental effects on both mother and unborn child. Mental health issues often co-occur with substance use and may trigger continued use during pregnancy or relapse to use postpartum, though little is known about the extent of these issues in pregnant and postpartum women entering substance abuse treatment. The purpose of this study is: (a) to examine self-reported mental health in a population of women and girls who were pregnant in the past year and are entering substance abuse treatment, and (b) to determine whether disparity exists in mental health treatment received across groups by race and age if a treatment need is present. Secondary data analysis was conducted with Global Appraisal of Individual Needs (GAIN) data from 502 female adolescents and adults who reported having been pregnant in the past year and who completed the GAIN upon entry into substance abuse treatment. Participants were compared on demographic, diagnostic, and problem severity variables by race and age. Results indicate that mental health treatment need is high among the whole pregnant and postpartum sample, but African American and Hispanic women and girls are receiving less mental health treatment than other groups despite having a need for it. No mental health treatment acquisition disparity was found by age.

  13. Infant formula samples: perinatal sources and breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum.

    PubMed

    Thurston, Amanda; Bolin, Jocelyn H; Chezem, Jo Carol

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to describe sources of infant formula samples during the perinatal period and assess their associations with breast-feeding outcomes at 1 month postpartum. Subjects included expectant mothers who anticipated breast-feeding at least 1 month. Infant feeding history and sources of formula samples were obtained at 1 month postpartum. Associations between sources and breast-feeding outcomes were assessed using partial correlation. Of the 61 subjects who initiated breast-feeding, most were white (87%), married (75%), college-educated (75%), and planned exclusive breast-feeding (82%). Forty-two subjects (69%) continued breast-feeding at 1 month postpartum. Subjects received formula samples from the hospital (n = 40; 66%), physician's office (n = 10; 16%), and mail (n = 41; 67%). There were no significant correlations between formula samples from the hospital, physician's office, and/or mail and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month (P > .05). In addition to the hospital, a long-standing source of formula samples, mail was also frequently reported as a route for distribution. The lack of statistically significant associations between formula samples and any or exclusive breast-feeding at 1 month may be related to small sample size and unique characteristics of the group studied.

  14. Psychiatric Morbidity and Correlates in Postpartum Women in a Tertiary Care Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narendra; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore; Koudike, Umashree; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of psychological disorders occur in women in the postpartum period apart from the traditional blues, postpartum depression and psychosis. These include obsession of infanticide, PTSD, morbid preoccupations regarding child birth and disorders of mother-infant relationships, though they are under emphasized. Methods: it is a cross-sectional study conducted in the tertiary maternity care hospital. A total of 152 study subjects were interviewed on MINI (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and GAF (Global Assessment of Functioning) within 2 weeks after delivery. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was seen in 67 (44%) of the study subjects. About 26% of subjects had Depressive disorder NOS. Obsessive harm to the child, Panic disorder, Social phobia were the other disorders identified. There were no cases of Mania, Bipolar disorder, psychosis, post traumatic stress disorder or substance use disorder diagnosed across the sample. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) score averaged 87.8. Statistically significant association was seen to be present between psychiatric illness and number of previous still births and dead children before this delivery (P = 0.045). Conclusions: The study reveals that psychiatric co-morbidity is very common in the postpartum period and can be detected as early as first week after delivery. Social phobia identified as a common association is a new finding and needs further replication. It needs a larger sample with a prospective assessment to generalize the findings of our study. PMID:27570341

  15. Obstetric, Sociodemographic, and Psychosocial Problems of Postpartum Adolescents of Huambo, Angola

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Hamilton dos Prazeres; Tavares, Suelma Beatriz Marques Prata; Capingana, Daniel Pires; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira; da Silva, Luiz Guilherme Pessoa

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to establish a profile of teenage pregnancy (<20 years) at a hospital in Huambo, Angola. Subjects were categorized into two age groups, 10–16 and 17–19 years. We interviewed 381 mothers in the postpartum maternity ward of the Central Hospital of Huambo. Statistical analysis then followed two stages, a descriptive analysis of the study population and analysis through a bivariate 2 × 2 table, using a chi-squared test to evaluate the hypothesis of homogeneity of proportions with a significance level of 5%. Comparing the two groups revealed a more frequent occurrence of problems among mothers under 17 years of age, including a higher frequency of involvement with unemployed parents, more often not living with parents, and fewer prenatal consultations. PMID:27226740

  16. Maternal postpartum corticosterone and fluoxetine differentially affect adult male and female offspring on anxiety-like behavior, stress reactivity, and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gobinath, Aarthi R; Workman, Joanna L; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) affects approximately 15% of mothers, disrupts maternal care, and can represent a form of early life adversity for the developing offspring. Intriguingly, male and female offspring are differentially vulnerable to the effects of PPD. Antidepressants, such as fluoxetine, are commonly prescribed for treating PPD. However, fluoxetine can reach offspring via breast milk, raising serious concerns regarding the long-term consequences of infant exposure to fluoxetine. The goal of this study was to examine the long-term effects of maternal postpartum corticosterone (CORT, a model of postpartum stress/depression) and concurrent maternal postpartum fluoxetine on behavioral, endocrine, and neural measures in adult male and female offspring. Female Sprague-Dawley dams were treated daily with either CORT or oil and fluoxetine or saline from postnatal days 2-23, and offspring were weaned and left undisturbed until adulthood. Here we show that maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased anxiety-like behavior and impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis negative feedback in adult male, but not female, offspring. Furthermore, maternal postpartum fluoxetine increased the density of immature neurons (doublecortin-expressing) in the hippocampus of adult male offspring but decreased the density of immature neurons in adult female offspring. Maternal postpartum CORT blunted HPA axis negative feedback in males and tended to increase density of immature neurons in males but decreased it in females. These results indicate that maternal postpartum CORT and fluoxetine can have long-lasting effects on anxiety-like behavior, HPA axis negative feedback, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis and that adult male and female offspring are differentially affected by these maternal manipulations.

  17. Neonatal Behavior of Infants of Adolescent Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Robert J., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The infants of the adolescent mothers were found to be significantly less capable of responding to social stimuli, to be less alert, and to be less able to control motor behavior and to perform integrated motor activities than were the infants of older mothers. Journal availability: J. B. Lippincott Co., E. Washington Sq., Philadelphia, PA 19105.…

  18. Mother-Child Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Joseph Chilton

    1994-01-01

    Examines the nature of mother-child bonding from the prenatal stage through early infancy, discussing how the mother's actions, even before birth, stimulate her child's senses. Explains the crucial role that physical contact, breastfeeding, and visual stimuli have on mother-child bonding in human and animal newborns. (MDM)

  19. Amygdala Response to Mother

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, Nim; Shapiro, Mor; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2012-01-01

    In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of…

  20. Differences in parenting stress between married and single first time mothers at six to eight weeks after birth.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Debra; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2005-01-01

    Parenting stress has been shown to affect relationships between mothers and their infants. Single mothers may experience more parenting stress due to exposure to stressors that are unique to their environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the differences between married and single first-time mothers on the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF Abidin, 1995). A convenience sample of 22 single and 52 married first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum units in two large metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States. During hospitalization, participants completed a demographic sheet and at six weeks postpartum, were mailed the PSI/SF. T-tests were assessed for differences between mean scores. Study findings indicate significant differences between single and married first-time mothers on the Parental Distress subscale (t = -3.468, p = .001), the Difficult Child subscale (t = -2.032, p = .046), and Defensive Responding subscale (t = -3.720, p = .000), with single mothers consistently scoring higher than married mothers; however, there was not a significant statistical difference between mothers on the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale (t = -1.290, p = .201). Overall, single mothers scored higher on the Total Parenting Stress scores of the PSI/SF than married mothers (t = -2.858, p = .005), suggesting that single women experience more stress as a new mother than married new mothers. It is important to understand the specific stressors of new, single mothers and to develop nursing interventions that decrease parenting stress in single mothers.