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Sample records for active mountain belt

  1. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  2. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground

  3. Unravelling genetics at the top: mountain islands or isolated belts?

    PubMed Central

    García-Fernández, Alfredo; Segarra-Moragues, Jose Gabriel; Widmer, Alex; Escudero, Adrian; Iriondo, José María

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In mountain plant populations, local adaptation has been described as one of the main responses to climate warming, allowing plants to persist under stressful conditions. This is especially the case for marginal populations at their lowest elevation, as they are highly vulnerable. Adequate levels of genetic diversity are required for selection to take place, while high levels of altitudinal gene flow are seen as a major limiting factor potentially precluding local adaptation processes. Thus, a compromise between genetic diversity and gene flow seems necessary to guarantee persistence under oncoming conditions. It is therefore critical to determine if gene flow occurs preferentially between mountains at similar altitudinal belts, promoting local adaptation at the lowest populations, or conversely along altitude within each mountain. Methods Microsatellite markers were used to unravel genetic diversity and population structure, inbreeding and gene flow of populations at two nearby altitudinal gradients of Silene ciliata, a Mediterranean high-mountain cushion plant. Key Results Genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients were similar in all populations. Substantial gene flow was found both along altitudinal gradients and horizontally within each elevation belt, although greater values were obtained along altitudinal gradients. Gene flow may be responsible for the homogeneous levels of genetic diversity found among populations. Bayesian cluster analyses also suggested that shifts along altitudinal gradients are the most plausible scenario. Conclusions Past population shifts associated with glaciations and interglacial periods in temperate mountains may partially explain current distributions of genetic diversity and population structure. In spite of the predominance of gene flow along the altitudinal gradients, local genetic differentiation of one of the lower populations together with the detection of one outlier locus might support the existence

  4. Creating and destroying mountain belts in a sandbox (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.

    2009-12-01

    M. Hernandez-1, L. Cruz-1, G. Hilley-1, J. Malinski-1, W.A. Take-2 1-Department of Geological and Environmental Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 2-Department of Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada This study uses a new experimental approach to model the kinematic response of the Aconcagua fold-and-thrust belt to erosion using a deforming sand wedge that is eroded according to a fluvial bedrock incision rule. Our objective is to thoroughly examine the impact that erosion may have had on the kinematics of this fold-and-thrust belt and test the applicability of our approach. Our experimental apparatus allows for a variety of boundary conditions to be applied to the wedge, including constant displacement rate, time-varying displacement rate, constant loading, and time-varying loading. This setting also includes three digital cameras that are connected to the apparatus to monitor the top and one side of the experimental sandbox. In this new experimental approach, as we deform the sand wedge, or mountain belt, we select specific time intervals to calculate, using a Matlab code, the topographic slope derived from our erosion rule. We then use a linear laser to project the calculated topographic slope into the sand wedge and remove any excess of sand with a vacuum cleaner. We then let the wedge continue to deform and repeat the above process. After the end of each experiment, we use Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) techniques to analyze the movement of the sand particles throughout the experiment. The use of PIV requires the images from all three cameras to be corrected due to lens distortion. We use available software, such as Photoshop, to correct and crop the images. The results of our constant-displacement rate experiments indicate, based on geometric comparisons against natural topographic measurements, that our erosional rule could be satisfactorily applied to sandbox simulations. Each of the main deformational stages identified in the

  5. Crustal structure of central Syria: The intracontinental Palmyride mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali; Barazangi, Muawia; Best, John A.; Chaimov, Thomas A.

    1992-07-01

    Along a 450-km transect across central Syria seismic reflection data, borehole information, potential field data and surface geologic mapping have been combined to examine the crustal structure of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria. The transect is surrounded by the major plate boundaries of the Middle East, including the Dead Sea transform fault system along the Levantine margin to the west, the Bitlis suture and East Anatolian fault to the north, and the Zagros collisional belt to the northeast and east. Three main tectonic provinces of the northern Arabian platform in Syria are crossed by this transect from south to north: the Rutbah uplift, the Palmyra fold-thrust belt, and the Aleppo plateau. The Rutbah uplift in southern Syria is a broad, domal basement-cored structure with a thick Phanerozoic (mostly Paleozoic) cover of 6-7 km. Isopachs based on well and seismic reflection data indicate that this region was an early Paleozoic depocenter. The Palmyra fold-thrust belt, the northeastern arm of the Syrian Arc, is a northeast-southwest-trending intracontinental mountain belt that acts as a mobile tectonic zone between the relatively stable Rutbah uplift to the south and the less stable Aleppo plateau to the north. Short-wavelength en-echelon folds characterized by relatively steep, faulted southeast flanks dominate in the southwest, most strongly deformed segment of the belt, while a complex system of deeply rooted faults and broad folds characterize the northeastern region, described in this study. The Aleppo plateau lies immediately north of the Palmyride belt, with a combined Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary section that averages 4-5 km in thickness. Although this region appears relatively undeformed on seismic reflection data when compared to Palmyride deformation, a system of near-vertical, probable strike-slip faults crosscut the region in a dominantly northeasterly direction. Gravity and magnetic modeling constrains the deep crustal structure

  6. Map showing sampled radiolarian localities in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt, Klamath Mountains, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.; Jones, David L.; Blome, Charles D.

    1982-01-01

    The western Paleozoic and Triassic belt, the largest of several major subdivisions of the Klamath Mountains geologic province, extends 300 km northward from the south end of the province in California to the north end of the province in Oregon (see inset map). The rocks of the belt are mainly sedimentary and volcanic, including tuff, cherty tuff, chert, argillite, limestone, and volcanic flows and breccia. They are of oceanic and island arc facies and are highly disarranged tectonically. The southern part of the belt is subdivided into three tectonostratigraphic terranes --- the North Fork, Hayfork, and Rattlesnake Creek terranes. The central and northern parts of the belt are undevided. 

  7. Arsenic in groundwaters in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt: a review of patterns and processes.

    PubMed

    Peters, Stephen C

    2008-07-29

    Naturally occurring arsenic in the bedrock of the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt was first recognized in the late 19th century. The knowledge of the behavior of arsenic in groundwater in this region has lagged behind nearly a century, with the popular press reporting on local studies in the early 1980s, and most peer-reviewed research articles on regional patterns conducted and written in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research reports have shown that within this high arsenic region, between 6% and 22% of households using private drinking water wells contain arsenic in excess of 10 microg/L, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level. In nearly all reports, arsenic in drinking water was derived from naturally occurring geologic sources, typically arsenopyrite, substituted sulfides such as arsenian pyrite, and nanoscale minerals such as westerveldite. In most studies, arsenic concentrations in groundwater were controlled by pH dependent adsorption to mineral surfaces, most commonly iron oxide minerals. In some cases, reductive dissolution of iron minerals has been shown to increase arsenic concentrations in groundwater, more commonly associated with anthropogenic activities such as landfills. Evidence of nitrate reduction promoting the presence of arsenic(V) and iron(III) minerals in anoxic environments has been shown to occur in surface waters, and in this manuscript we show this process perhaps applies to groundwater. The geologic explanation for the high arsenic region in the Northern Appalachian Mountain belt is most likely the crustal recycling of arsenic as an incompatible element during tectonic activity. Accretion of multiple terranes, in particular Avalonia and the Central Maine Terrane of New England appear to be connected to the presence of high concentrations of arsenic. Continued tectonic activity and recycling of these older terranes may also be responsible for the high arsenic observed in the Triassic rift

  8. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  9. Tectonic and climatic controls on fan systems: The Kohrud mountain belt, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Stuart J.; Arzani, Nasser; Allen, Mark B.

    2014-04-01

    Late Pleistocene to Holocene fans of the Kohrud mountain belt (Central Iran) illustrate the problems of differentiating tectonic and climatic drivers for the sedimentary signatures of alluvial fan successions. It is widely recognised that tectonic processes create the topography that causes fan development. The existence and position of fans along the Kohrud mountain belt, NE of Esfahan, are controlled by faulting along the Qom-Zefreh fault system and associated fault zones. These faults display moderate amounts of historical and instrumental seismicity, and so may be considered to be tectonically active. However, fluvial systems on the fans are currently incising in response to low Gavkhoni playa lake levels since the mid-Holocene, producing incised gullies on the fans up to 30 m deep. These gullies expose an interdigitation of lake deposits (dominated by fine-grained silts and clays with evaporites) and coarse gravels that characterise the alluvial fan sediments. The boundaries of each facies are mostly sharp, with fan sediments superimposed on lake sediments with little to no evidence of reworking. In turn, anhydrite-glauberite, mirabilite and halite crusts drape over the gravels, recording a rapid return to still water, shallow ephemeral saline lake sedimentation. Neither transition can be explained by adjustment of the hinterland drainage system after tectonic uplift. The potential influence in Central Iran of enhanced monsoons, the northward drift of the Intertopical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and Mediterranean climates for the early Holocene (~ 6-10 ka) point to episodic rainfall (during winter months) associated with discrete high magnitude floods on the fan surfaces. The fan sediments were deposited under the general influence of a highstand playa lake whose level was fluctuating in response to climate. This study demonstrates that although tectonism can induce fan development, it is the sensitive balance between aridity and humidity resulting from changes in

  10. Landscape pattern characteristics of northern foothill belts along Tianshan mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Weiming; Zhou, Chenghu; Zhu, Axing; Li, Jianxin

    2003-07-01

    This paper investigates the oasis expansion and land use changes in arid Manas River Valley using imageries of Landsat MSS, TM and ETM, land use and topographic maps. Over last 50 years, oasis area increased from 156.385km2 in 1949 to 5042.440 km2 in 2001. Oasis expansion process over last 50 years can be divided into oasization and urbanization stages according to the rate of increase. Farmland quickly increased from 156.4 km2 in 1949 to 3639.5 km2 in 1976 during the oasization stage with an annual increase rate of 129.004 km2/a. In urbanization stage from 1976 to 2001, urban area increased from 22.481 km2 to 75.257 km2 with an annual increase rate of 2.111 km2/a. The driving-force analysis reveals that human activities of reclamation and population growth played a major role in oasis expansion in Manas River Valley. With the oasis expansion, a series of eco-environment problems such as sand invasion, pasture degeneration, soil saltization and land abandonment have become more and more seriously. The issues of how to improve the efficiency of water resource usage, protect mountain and desert environments, deal with saltization problems in oasis have become the most important research topics of oasis expansion and sustainable development over these oasis.

  11. The Rwenzori Mountains, a Palaeoproterozoic crustal shear belt crossing the Albertine rift system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehn, D.; Link, K.; Sachau, T.; Passchier, C. W.; Aanyu, K.; Spikings, A.; Harbinson, R.

    2016-09-01

    This contribution discusses the development of the Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt in the Rwenzori Mountains and its influence on the western part of the East African Rift System in Uganda. The Buganda-Toro belt is composed of several thick-skinned nappes consisting of Archaean Gneisses and Palaeoproterozoic cover units that are thrusted northwards. The high Rwenzori Mountains are located in the frontal unit of this belt with retrograde greenschist facies gneisses towards the north, which are unconformably overlain by metasediments and amphibolites. Towards the south, the metasediments are overthrust by the next migmatitic gneiss unit that belongs to a crustal-scale nappe. The southwards dipping metasedimentary and volcanic sequence in the high Rwenzori Mountains shows an inverse metamorphic grade with greenschist facies conditions in the north and amphibolite facies conditions in the south. Early D1 deformation structures are overgrown by cordierite, which in turn grows into D2 deformation, representing the major northwards directed thrusting event. We argue that the inverse metamorphic gradient develops because higher grade rocks are exhumed in the footwall of a crustal-scale nappe, whereas the exhumation decreases towards the north away from the nappe leading to a decrease in metamorphic grade. The D2 deformation event is followed by a D3 E-W compression, a D4 with the development of steep shear zones with a NNE-SSW and SSE-NNW trend including the large Nyamwamba shear followed by a local D5 retrograde event and D6 brittle reverse faulting. The Palaeoproterozoic Buganda-Toro belt is relatively stiff and crosses the NNE-SSW running rift system exactly at the node where the highest peaks of the Rwenzori Mountains are situated and where the Lake George rift terminates towards the north. Orientation of brittle and ductile fabrics show some similarities indicating that the cross-cutting Buganda-Toro belt influenced rift propagation and brittle fault development

  12. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  13. Mountain building and mantle dynamics: a journey through the Tethyan belt (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    The style of mantle convection beneath large oceanic plates is rather well established. On the other hand, we still have a loose grasp of what happen beneath continental plate, especially beneath mobile and convergent margins, where we expect to have vigorous convection. Here, I present some considerations about the style and evolution of mantle convection beneath convergent/collisional zones as constrained by geological - seismological data and modelling. I will consider the Alpine-Tethyan belt as a case study, exploring the idea that the style of mountain building can be used as a proxy to reconstruct mantle dynamics. The Tertiary evolution of the Tethyan belt indeed offers a unique opportunity to discuss about mountain building and mantle dynamics, as it include region such as the Mediterranean, where collision is still in its incipient stage producing Apennines style orogen, to the Himalayan-Tibetan belt, where collisional process reaches its extreme consequence. We classified those two belts as end members of a wide range of orgen. On one side, the of "slab pull" orogen, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks and reduced topographic signal, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other side, the "slab suction" orogen, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle

  14. Proterozoic to mesozoic mobile-belt geology, Pensacola Mountains, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, D. L.

    The Pensacola Mountains consist of four unconformable sequences of: (1) graywacke (oldest), (2) platform, (3) molasses, and (4) continental (youngest) deposits. The first sequence of Middle Proterozoic graywacke deposits (Patuxent Formation) consists of turbidite quartzbearing sandstone and slate and volcanic rocks. The second sequence consist of extensive platform deposits of Lower Cambrian archaeocyathidbearing limestone and Middle Cambrian trilobitebearing limestone (Nelson Limestone) that are overlain by shale (Wiens Formation), and silicic volcanic rocks (Gambacorta Formation) including rhyolitic ignimbrite of caldera origin. The third sequence, The pre-Devonian Neptune Group consists of of basal orogenic conglomerate and more than 1,500 m of quartz-sandstone molasse that resulted from the erosion of the early Paleozoic mountains of the Ross orogeny. The fourth sequence of continental deposits of the Beacon Supergroup consists of Devonian quartz sanstone (Dover Sandstone), Permian glacial tillite (Gale Mudstone), and Permian siltstone and shale (Pecora Formation) containing glossopterid-bearing coal beds. During Early and Middle Jurassic time, and Transantarctic continental rift extensionally split the East Antarctic craton from West Antarctica as Gondwanaland began to break up. The continental rifting was shortly followed, during Late Jurassic time, by more vigorous extension resulting from major transform faulting.

  15. Deep crustal imaging of thick-skinned foreland fold and thrust belts: The Rocky Mountains and the Sierras Pampeanas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, A.; Anderson, M. L.; Alvarado, P. M.; Beck, S. L.; Erslev, E.; Gilbert, H. J.; Miller, K. C.; Ridgway, K. D.; Worthington, L. L.; Yeck, W. L.; Zandt, G.

    2013-05-01

    Foreland mountain belts consisting of basement-involved arches are major features of many modern and ancient contractional orogens. They occur most prominently during low-angle subduction (e.g., the Rocky Mountains of North America and Sierras Pampeanas of South America) and continental collision. The dissimilarity between thick-skinned, arch-dominated and more thin-skinned fold and thrust belts as well as their placement far from active tectonic boundaries prompts the following question: do these arches form due to the lithospheric rheology inherent to the zone between mobile belts and cratons, or are they driven by deeper processes such as low-angle subduction? Previous geologic studies have shown that the upper crustal geometries bounding these arches are broadly similar, however the manifestation of shortening at depth and the rheology of the lower crust and upper mantle has been uncertain due to the absence of detailed geophysical imaging. This situation is changing rapidly, as foreland arches are the target of deep seismological investigations in both North and South America. In this presentation we will compare and contrast recent results from seismological experiments in the Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina and the Bighorn Mountains in Wyoming, USA. Late Cretaceous to Early Eocene Laramide orogenesis produced the Bighorn arch, deforming a sequence of platformal sediments which can be used as stratigraphic markers in tectonic reconstructions. The Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) took place in 2009-10 and included a passive-source seismic experiment, a crustal-scale active-source seismic experiment, a hybrid active-passive experiment, and kinematic investigations. The Pampean flat-slab region of Argentina and Chile is considered a modern analogue for Laramide flat-slab subduction of North America. The Sierras de Cordoba is one of the largest arches comprising the Sierras Pampeanas, lacks much platformal sediment to define deformation geometries, and is

  16. On predicting debris flows in arid mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolle, Amelie; Langer, Maria; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Korup, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    The use of topographic metrics for estimating the susceptibility to, and reconstructing the characteristics of, debris flows has a long research tradition, although largely devoted to humid mountainous terrain. The exceptional 2010 monsoonal rainstorms in the high-altitude mountain desert of Ladakh and Zanskar, NW India, were a painful reminder of how susceptible arid regions are to rainfall-triggered flash floods, landslides, and debris flows. The rainstorms of August 4-6 triggered numerous debris flows, killing 182 people, devastating 607 houses, and more than 10 bridges around Ladakh's capital of Leh. The lessons from this disaster motivated us to revisit methods of predicting (a) flow parameters such as peak discharge and maximum velocity from field and remote sensing data, and (b) the susceptibility to debris flows from catchment morphometry. We focus on quantifying uncertainties tied to these approaches. Comparison of high-resolution satellite images pre- and post-dating the 2010 rainstorm reveals the extent of damage and catastrophic channel widening. Computations based on these geomorphic markers indicate maximum flow velocities of 1.6-6.7 m s- 1 with runout of up to ~ 10 km on several alluvial fans that sustain most of the region's settlements. We estimate median peak discharges of 310-610 m3 s- 1, which are largely consistent with previous estimates. Monte Carlo-based error propagation for a single given flow-reconstruction method returns a variance in discharge similar to one derived from juxtaposing several different flow reconstruction methods. We further compare discriminant analysis, classification tree modelling, and Bayesian logistic regression to predict debris-flow susceptibility from morphometric variables of 171 catchments in the Ladakh Range. These methods distinguish between fluvial and debris flow-prone catchments at similar success rates, but Bayesian logistic regression allows quantifying uncertainties and relationships between potential

  17. Oroclines - a century of discourse about curved mountain belts (Petrus Peregrinus Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van der Voo, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Exactly a century ago, in early 2014, a discussion appeared in the Journal of Geology by William H. Hobbs entitled "Mechanics of formation of arcuate mountains". In it, he notes how the concept of nappes "has now overcome all opposition in Switzerland" and, presumably in other countries just as much. With horizontal transport so central to the nappe concept, this must have paved the way for the idea that emplacement of trust sheets may have involved rotations. Where such rotations form a coherent regional pattern, a curved mountain belt may be the result. While the paper by Hobbs does not mention the word orocline, and while the dynamics of the situation is not yet illuminated, one must give credit to him for his foresights. The term "orocline" was introduced by S. Warren Carey of Tasmania in 1955, as part of a kinematic analysis of rhomb- and triangle-shaped basins and curved mountain belts. When the displacements involved in the analysis are undone, as he did, for instance, in the western Mediterranean, a grand scheme of simple convergent and divergent patterns emerges. Noteworthy is, of course, the fact that this mobilistic analysis preceded plate tectonics by more than a decade. From Carey (although not exactly in his words) we have inherited the definition of orocline, as "a thrust belt or orogen that is curved in map-view due to it having been bent or buckled about a vertical axis of rotation". Because oroclinal bending involves rotations, the declinations of paleomagnetic studies can be utilized to support and quantify them, and early efforts were already made in the 1960's and early 1970's to do so (e.g., Krs in the Carpathians; Ries & Shackleton in Cantabria; Roy, Opdyke & Irving in the Central Appalachians; Packer & Stone in Alaska). Curved mountain belts everywhere were subsequently investigated, and typically shown by paleomagnetists to be of the oroclinal variety. Few curved belts turned out to be curved from the start. Because these studies were

  18. Intensity of geomorphological processes in NW sector of Pacific rim marginal mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Shvarev, Sergey; Gotvansky, Veniamin

    2014-05-01

    Continental marginal mountains, including the mountain belts of Russian Far East, are characterized by supreme terrain contrast, mosaic structure of surface and crust, and rich complex of modern endogenous processes - volcanism, seismicity, and vertical movements. Unstable state of geomorphological systems and activity of relief forming processes here is caused also by deep dissected topography and the type and amount of precipitation. Human activities further stimulate natural processes and increase the risk of local disasters. So these territories have high intensity (or tension) of geomorphological processes. Intensity in the authors' understanding is willingness of geomorphological system to be out of balance, risk of disaster under external and internal agent, both natural and human. Mapping with quantitative accounting of intensity of natural and human potential impact is necessary for indication the areal distribution trends of geomorphological processes intensity and zones of potential risk of disasters. Methods of map drowning up are based on several criteria analyzing: 1) total terrain-form processes and their willingness to be a hazard-like, 2) existence, peculiarity and zoning of external agents which could cause extreme character of base processes within the territory, 3) peculiarity of terrain morphology which could cause hazard way of terrain-form processes. Seismic activity is one of the most important factors causing activation of geomorphological processes and contributing to the risk of dangerous situations. Earthquake even small force can provoke many catastrophic processes: landslides, mudslides, avalanches and mudflows, tsunami and others. Seismic gravitational phenomenons of different scale accompany almost all earthquakes of intensity 7-8 points and above, and some processes, such as avalanches, activated by seismic shocks intensity about 1-3 points. In this regard, we consider it important selection of high intensity seismic zones in

  19. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  20. Visoelastic relaxation of Venusian coronae and mountain belts: Constraints on global heat flow and tectonism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, I.; Leith, A.

    1992-01-01

    Venus differs from Earth in that water is essentially absent and its surface temperatures are about 470 K higher. The competing effects of high surface temperature and dry lithologies on the long-term history of surface topography have been studied using the finite-element method. The relaxation history of surface topographic features, such as coronae and mountain belts, is a function of thermal gradient, crustal thickness and lithology, regional stresses, and basal tractions applied to the lithosphere. In this study, we have examined the relative effects of these factors over a period of 500 Ma (presumed to be the mean age of the venusian surface).

  1. Experimental modeling of role of gravity and lateral shortening in Zagros mountain belt

    SciTech Connect

    Koyi, H.

    1988-11-01

    Dynamically scaled analogs of the geologic structures of the Zagros mountain belt are used to argue that different parts of the Zagros Mountains of Iran record different combinations of the effects of a gravity-driven overturn and a southwest-northeast lateral shortening superimposed on the Zagros overturn. Partially scaled material models have been used to simulate the Zagros geodynamics, which involve layer-parallel compression of a 6 to 7 km-thick Phanerozoic carbonate cover containing a pattern of preshortening diapirs. The folds in the Zagros form rapidly (1.5 mm/yr in a 20 to 30 km-wide zone), reactivate some of the preshortening diapirs, and generate new synshortening listric diapirs. A third set of postshortening diapirs rises from the Hormuz decollement behind the fold-thrust front. Model buckle folds superimposed on diapirs or pillows tend to avoid and curve around preshortening diapirs, which flatten in the synclines. Model profiles show that lateral shortening induces residual salt at depth to flow toward and rise through the anticlinal cores as synshortening or postshortening diapirs. The author suggests that any salt pillows in currently diapir-free zones of the Zagros fold-thrust belt may surface as diapirs through the anticlines in the future. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  2. The gabbro-eclogite phase transition and the elevation of mountain belts on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namiki, Noriyuki; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Among the four mountain belts surrounding Lakshmi Planum, Maxwell Montes is the highest and stands up to 11 km above the mean planetary radius and 7 km above Lakshmi Planum. The bulk composition and radioactive heat production of the crust on Venus, where measured, are similar to those of terrestrial tholeiitic basalt. Because the thickness of the low-density crust may be limited by the gabbro-garnet granulite-eclogite phase transitions, the 7-11 km maximum elevation of Maxwell Montes is difficult to understand except in the unlikely situation that the crust contains a large volume of magma. A possible explanation is that the base of the crust is not in phase equilibrium. It has been suggested that under completely dry conditions, the gabbro-eclogite phase transition takes place by solid-state diffusion and may require a geologically significant time to run to completion. Solid-state diffusion is a strongly temperature-dependent process. In this paper we solve the thermal evolution of the mountain belt to attempt to constrain the depth of the gabbro-eclogite transition and thus to assess this hypothesis quantitatively. The one-dimensional heat equation is solved numerically by a finite difference approximation. The deformation of the horizontally shortening crustal and mantle portions of the thermal boundary layer is assumed to occur by pure shear, and therefore the vertical velocity is given by the product of the horizontal strain rate and depth.

  3. Late-Cainozoic climate change, erosion, and relief of mountain belts: 20 years of chickens and eggs (Ralph Alger Bagnold Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Over the last two decades, the geoscience community has realized that surface erosion, considered for over a century to respond passively to tectonic forcing, in fact strongly interacts with tectonic processes to produce the variety of deformation styles and relief forms observed in nature. Multiple feedbacks between tectonics, climate and erosion have been identified. In particular, it has been proposed that Cainozoic uplift of mountain belts such as the Himalaya led to global cooling due to CO2 drawdown from the atmosphere by efficient silicate weathering and organic carbon burial. At the same time, however, late-Cainozoic climate change, characterized by overall cooling and increased climatic variability, has been suggested to be responsible for increased erosion rates as well as uplift of mountain peaks through the isostatic response to erosion. Some active mountain belts have even been argued to respond to late-Cainozoic climate change by tectonic reorganisation. Thus, the relative strengths of the tectonic and climatic controls on mountain-belt relief and erosion rates, and how to discriminate between these, have arisen as central questions in tectonic geomorphology since the start of this century. Pliocene-Pleistocene (post-5 Ma) increases in sediment flux have been reported from many major mountain belts such as the Himalaya and the European Alps. It has been suggested this is a global signal in response to increased climatic instability since the Pliocene, although recent work suggests that at least part of the signal may be intrinsic to the nature of the sedimentary record. Analysis of in-situ thermochronology data from the Alps appeared to support the Pliocene increase in erosion rates, which have been linked to increased precipitation subsequent to the Messinian Salinity Crisis and/or the onset of Gulf-Stream circulation. However, recent more detailed work, based on numerical inverse modelling and the use of new high-resolution thermochronometers

  4. Geology of the Flat Swamp Mountain caldera and related rocks, Carolina slate belt, central North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.R. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Flat Swamp Member (FSM) of the Cid Formation (Late Proterozoic) and related volcanogenic deposits in the Carolina slate belt of central North Carolina constitute a submarine caldera complex, mildly deformed and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. The intracaldera facies, including mudflow breccias, ashfall tuffs, pyroclastic flows and lava flows, are 1.2 to 1.8 km thick in the Denton area. The FSM thins abruptly near Badin, passing laterally into extracaldera facies less than 150 m thick of coarse- to fine-grained crystal-rich ashfall tuffs with an upper unit of extremely fine-grained devitrified vitric tuffs. The thickness and average grainsize decrease to the south and east, until the FSM merges with adjacent mudstones. The Morrow Mountain Rhyolite includes bodies of homogeneous rhyolite as much as several km across emplaced within the FSM and stratigraphically lower units, interpreted to be shallow intrusions and some surface-breaking lava domes, emplaced at depths from 0 to 3 km within the caldera and along the ring-fractures. The FSM has been mapped over an area of about 2,400 km[sup 2], and it forms a time-constant layer useful in elucidating slate belt stratigraphy.

  5. Crustal mechanics control the geometry of mountain belts. Insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Katharina; Matenco, Liviu; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2017-02-01

    Continental collision forms mountain ranges that have shaped much of Earth's topography. Yet, the process by which material is transported and redistributed in collision zones remains debatable. Here we present a series of two-dimensional thermo-mechanical experiments on continent-continent collision zones to investigate the role of crustal strength in terms of geometry, deformation and exhumation. Depending on the crustal rheology, rate of collision and initial temperature distribution, continental collision may form double vergent orogens or result in continental subduction. Double vergent orogens are characterized by subduction of the lithospheric mantle, diffuse fore- and highly localized retro-shears, elevated topographies, and exhumation of high grade metamorphic rocks. In contrast, continental subduction results in subduction of lower continental crust, the formation of a wedge shaped Moho, a foreland propagating deformation zone, "lower" topographic build-up and exhumation of low grade metamorphic rocks. It is the combination of strength variations and ambient conditions that determines the geometry of mountain belts. Strong rheological coupling of upper and lower crust forms double vergent orogens; low rheological coupling of upper and lower crust results in continental subduction.

  6. Antarctic NAT PSC Belt of June 2003: Observational Validation of the Mountain Wave Seeding Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckermann, S. D.; Hoffmann, L.; Hoepfner, M.; Wu, D. L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite observations of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) over Antarctica in June 2003 revealed small nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) particles forming suddenly along the vortex edge. Models suggest the trigger was mountain waves over the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) forming ice for NAT nucleation. We test this hypothesis by analyzing perturbations in stratospheric radiances from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). AIRS data show mountain waves over the AP on 10-14 June, with no resolved wave activity before or after. Peak wave temperature amplitudes derived from independent 40 hPa channels all return values of 10-12 K, in agreement with values used to model this NAT event. These observations support a NAT wake from a small region of mountain wave activity over the AP as the source of this circumpolar NAT outbreak.

  7. From gullies to mountain belts: A review of sediment budgets at various scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinderer, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    This paper reviews the state of the art in the concept as well as in the application of sediment budgets in sedimentary research. Sediments are a product of mass dispersal at the Earth surface and take part in global cycles. Sediment budgets aim at quantifying this mass transfer based on the principle of mass conservation and are the key to determine ancient fluxes of solid matter at the earth surface. This involves fundamental questions about the interplay of uplift, climate and denudation in mountain belts and transfer of sediments from the continents to the oceans as well as applied issues such as soil and gully erosion, reservoir siltation, and coastal protection. First, after introducing basic concepts, relevant scales and methodologies, the different components of Quaternary routing systems from erosion in headwaters, river systems, glacial and paraglacial systems, lakes, deltas, estuaries, coasts, shelves, epicontinental seas, and deep-sea fans are discussed in terms of their sediment budget. Most suitable are sedimentologically closed or semi-closed depositional environments e.g. alluvial fans, lakes, deltas and deep-sea fans. In a second step, the dynamics of passive, active, and collisional tectonic settings and sediment budgets in related sedimentary basins are explored and new concepts of sediment portioning at large geodynamic scales are introduced. Ancient routing systems are more or less incomplete and may be intensively fragmented or destroyed in active tectonic settings. In terms of sedimentary basin types, rifts, intracontinental and epicontinental settings are preferred objects of sediment budgets, because of their persistence and relatively simple overall sedimentary architecture. However, closing basins, such as foreland, forearc, retroarc, piggy-back and wedge-top basins may provide excellent snapshots of orogenic sediment fluxes. In a third step, the large long-lived routing systems of the Amazon, the Ganges-Brahmaputra, and the Rhine are

  8. Active Asteroids: Main-Belt Comets and Disrupted Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Henry H.

    2016-10-01

    The study of active asteroids has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years since the recognition of main-belt comets (which orbit in the main asteroid belt, but exhibit comet-like activity due to the sublimation of volatile ices) as a new class of comets in 2006, and the discovery of the first disrupted asteroids (which, unlike MBCs, exhibit comet-like activity due to a physical disruption such as an impact or rotational destabilization, not sublimation) in 2010. In this paper, I will briefly discuss key areas of interest in the study of active asteroids.

  9. FCaZm intelligent recognition system for locating areas prone to strong earthquakes in the Andean and Caucasian mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvishiani, A. D.; Dzeboev, B. A.; Agayan, S. M.

    2016-07-01

    The fuzzy clustering and zoning method (FCAZm) of systems analysis is suggested for recognizing the areas of the probable generation of the epicenters of significant, strong, and the strongest earthquakes. FCAZm is a modified version of the previous FCAZ algorithmic system, which is advanced by the creation of the blocks of artificial intelligence that develop the system-forming algorithms. FCAZm has been applied for recognizing areas where the epicenters of the strongest ( M ≥ 73/4) earthquakes within the Andes mountain belt in the South America and significant earthquakes ( M ≥ 5) in the Caucasus can emerge. The reliability of the obtained results was assessed by the seismic-history type control experiments. The recognized highly seismic zones were compared with the ones previously recognized by the EPA method and by the initial version of the FCAZ system. The modified FCAZm system enabled us to pass from simple pattern recognition in the problem of recognizing the locations of the probable emergence of strong earthquakes to systems analysis. In particular, using FCAZm we managed to uniquely recognize a subsystem of highly seismically active zones from the nonempty complement using the exact boundary.

  10. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  11. Isotopic data for Late Cretaceous intrusions and associated altered and mineralized rocks in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Unruh, Daniel M.; Hofstra, Albert H.

    2017-03-07

    The quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith and the concentrically zoned intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy constitute the principal Late Cretaceous igneous intrusions hosted by Mesoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of the Newland Formation in the Big Belt Mountains, Montana. These calc-alkaline plutonic masses are manifestations of subduction-related magmatism that prevailed along the western edge of North America during the Cretaceous. Radiogenic isotope data for neodymium, strontium, and lead indicate that the petrogenesis of the associated magmas involved a combination of (1) sources that were compositionally heterogeneous at the scale of the geographically restricted intrusive rocks in the Big Belt Mountains and (2) variable contamination by crustal assimilants also having diverse isotopic compositions. Altered and mineralized rocks temporally, spatially, and genetically related to these intrusions manifest at least two isotopically distinct mineralizing events, both of which involve major inputs from spatially associated Late Cretaceous igneous rocks. Alteration and mineralization of rock associated with the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy requires a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium than that characteristic of the associated igneous rocks. However, the source of such a component was not identified in the Big Belt Mountains. Similarly, altered and mineralized rocks associated with the quartz monzodiorite of Mount Edith include a component characterized by significantly more radiogenic strontium and lead, particularly as defined by 207Pb/204Pb values. The source of this component appears to be fluids that equilibrated with proximal Newland Formation rocks. Oxygen isotope data for rocks of the intrusive suite of Boulder Baldy are similar to those of subduction-related magmatism that include mantle-derived components; oxygen isotope data for altered and mineralized equivalents are slightly lighter.

  12. Crustal structure of mountain belts and basins: Industry and academic collaboration at Cornell

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, R.; Barazangi, M.; Brown, L.

    1995-08-01

    Interdisciplinary investigations of the large-scale structure and evolution of key basins and orogenic belts around the world are the focal point of academic-industry interaction at Cornell. Ongoing and new initiatives with significant industry involvement include: Project INDEPTH (Interdisciplinary Deep Profiling of Tibet and the Himalayas), a multinational effort to delineate deep structure across the type example of active continent-continent collision. 300 km of deep reflection profiling was collected across the Himalaya: and southern Tibet Plateau in 1992 and 1994. CAP (Cornell Andes Project), a long-standing interdisciplinary effort to understand the structure and evolution of the Andes, with a focus on Argentina, Chile and Bolivia. A deep reflection profile is tentatively planned for 1997. Intra-plate Orogeny in the Middle East and North Africa is the focus of multidisciplinary regional syntheses of existing seismic reflection and other databases in Syria (Palmyrides)and Morocco (Atlas), with an emphasis on reactivation and inversion tectonics. Project URSEIS (Urals Reflection Seismic Experiment and Integrated Studies) is a collaboration with EUROPROBE to collect 500 km of vibroseis and dynamite deep reflection profiling across the southern Urals in 1995. Project CRATON, an element in COCORP`s systematic exploration of the continental US, is a nascent multi-disciplinary effort to understand the buried craton of the central US and the basins built upon it. Global Basins Research Network (GBRN) is a diversified observational and computational effort to image and model the movement of pore fluids in detail and on a regional scale for a producing oil structure in the Gulf of Mexico.

  13. Measurement of tectonic surface uplift rate in a young collisional mountain belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, L.D.; Silver, E.A.; Anderson, R. Scott; Smith, R.; Ingle, J.C.; Kling, S.A.; Haig, D.; Small, E.; Galewsky, J.; Sliter, W.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the rate of tectonically driven surface uplift is crucial to a complete understanding of mountain building dynamics. The lack of a suitable rock record typically prevents determination of this quantity, but the unusual geology of Papua New Guinea's Finisterre mountains makes measurement of this rate possible. The tectonic surface uplift rate at the Finisterre range is 0.8-2.1 mm yr-1, approximately that expected to arise from crustal thickening.

  14. A New Look at the Lithospheric Structure of the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Cheyenne Belt Suture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpfhuber, E.; Keller, G.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    We have used the Southern Rocky Mountains and the Cheyenne belt suture as a test bed for integrating tectonic scale controlled- and passive-source seismic datasets. The CD-ROM 1999 experiment in the western U.S. was an example of a multi-discipline geoscientific experiment, including a 1000 km long controlled-source seismic line that extended from central Wyoming to central New Mexico. In addition, two passive source seismic transacts focusing on the Cheyenne belt and the Jemez lineament were deployed for one year along the controlled-source seismic (CSS) line. For the large-scale refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic dataset, we applied a new picking strategy and forward-modeled and inverted the resulting seismic picks for a 2-D velocity and interface model of the area. Furthermore, we identified and picked the S-wave phases that were present, and established an independent S-wave velocity model, which allowed us to construct the Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. We calculated teleseismic receiver functions for the area based on northern passive seismic transect, which targeted the Cheyenne belt. We then applied a slant stacking technique to determine crustal thickness and Vp/Vs ratios, as well as common conversion point (CCP) stacking and migration techniques, which provide us with additional two-dimensional images of the target area. Only the joint interpretation of both the CSS and receiver function results enabled us to undertake a detailed interpretation of the Cheyenne belt area, which constitutes the transition zone between the 2.7 Ga Archean Wyoming craton to the north and the Proterozoic terranes to the south. The crustal structure is distinctively different between these two areas. A strong mid-crustal layer underneath the Wyoming craton was confirmed, which was identified in the earlier Deep Probe seismic experiment. Furthermore, this layer terminates at depth ~100 km north of the Cheyenne belt, which represents the surface expression of the suture. Our

  15. Evolution of fold-thrust belts and Cenozoic uplifting of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the Kuqa region, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Lei; Li, Yue-Jun; Zhang, Guang-Ya; Tian, Zuo-Ji; Peng, Geng-Xin; Qiu, Bin; Huang, Zhi-Bin; Luo, Jun-Cheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt is accompanied with the Cenozoic uplifting of South Tianshan Mountain range. The critical Coubomb wedge theory can be well applied to the structural evolution of the Kuqa fold-thrust belt where the décollement structures are well developed. Following the initial hypotheses of this theory, with the base of the taper wedge (not the sea level) as the reference level, we propose a geometric relationship between the evolution of fold-thrust belt and tectonic uplifting of orogen, and deduce a calculation formula between orogen tectonic uplifting amount (very different from the topographic uplifting) (∂H), fold-thrust belt extending distance (∂S) and crustal shortening amount (∂L): ∂H = (∂S - ∂L) ∗ tan(α + ∂α) + [tan(α + ∂α)/tanα - 1] ∗ H0. In this paper we select two representative seismic profiles across the Kuqa fold-thrust belt to reconstruct the structural evolution, and use the calculation formula to get the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in Kuqa region during two geological periods. The results showed: during the end of Miocene to the end of Pliocene, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM1) is 4.1 km; during the end of Pliocene to the present, the uplifting amount of the South Tianshan Mountain range in the middle segment of Kuqa (∂HM2) is 4.7 km, and in the east segment of Kuqa (∂HE) is 5.0 km.

  16. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    1987-01-01

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  17. The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex, Barberton mountain belt - A section through 3.5 Ga oceanic crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wit, Maarten J.; Hart, Roger A.; Hart, Rodger J.

    The Jamestown Ophiolite Complex of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, is investigated, and the intrusive nature of mafic-ultramafic units from the Komati and Kromberg formations into overlying pillow lavas and sediments is documented. Evidence is presented for multiple intrusive events within the igneous sections, including crosscutting intrusives, multiple injection of magma in the Komati section, and sheeted intrusions in the Kromberg section. The thinness of the Jamestown complex suggests that, locally at least, the ca 3.5 Ga oceanic crust was also thin, consistent with the regionally extensive metasomatic alteration.

  18. The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields: Pleistocene hot spot volcanism in the Anahim Volcanic Belt, west-central British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Christian; Guest, Bernard; Russell, James K.; Benowitz, Jeff A.

    2015-03-01

    The Satah Mountain and Baldface Mountain volcanic fields (SMVF, BMVF) comprise more than three dozen small volcanic centers and erosional remnants thereof. These fields are located in the Chilcotin Highland of west-central British Columbia, Canada, and are spatially associated with the Anahim Volcanic Belt (AVB), a linear feature of alkaline to peralkaline plutonic and volcanic centers of Miocene to Holocene ages. The AVB has been postulated to be the track of a hot spot passing beneath the westward moving Cordilleran lithosphere. We test the AVB hot spot model by applying whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar geochronology ( n = 24) and geochemistry. Whole-rock chemical compositions of volcanic rock samples ( n = 59) from these two fields suggest a strong geochemical affinity with the nearby Itcha Range shield volcano; however, SMVF and BMVF centers are mostly small in volume (<1 km3) and differ in composition from one another, even where they are in close spatial proximity. Trace element and REE patterns of mafic AVB lavas are similar to ocean island basalts (OIB), suggesting a mantle source for these lavas. The age ranges for the SMVF ( n = 11; ~2.21 to ~1.43 Ma) and BMVF ( n = 7; ~3.91 to ~0.91 Ma) are largely coeval with the Itcha Range. The distribution of volcanoes in these two volcanic fields is potentially consistent with the postulated AVB hot spot track. Eruption rates in the SMVF were high enough to build an elongated ridge that deviates from the E-W trend of the AVB by almost 90°. This deviation might reflect the mechanisms and processes facilitating magma generation and ascent through the lithosphere in this tectonically complex region and may also indicate interaction of the potential hot spot with (pre)existing fracture systems in vicinity of the Itcha Range.

  19. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  20. Extreme events from hundreds years to glacial cycle: insights from Quaternary terraces across the Taiwan mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Chan, Y. C.; Chang, Q. M.; Siame, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Based on different age determinations on Quaternary fluvial terraces distributed across the Taiwan mountain belt, we provide insights on possible and intriguing extreme events, tectonic and/or climate, at different time scales from hundreds years to glacial cycles (i.e., hundreds of thousands years). First in the foreland foothills of western Taiwan, based on Be10 cosmogenic and C14 dating the Puakua tableland reveals a recurrent time of about 100-120 Ka of terrace deposits, which are characterized by 4-5 levels of lateritic terraces, with a long-term uplift rate of 1.5-2 mm/yr in the last 450 Ka. Secondly in the eastern Central Range of the Hsinwulyu River, based on linear tilting model and GPS short-term geodetic rate, it exhibits 8-10 levels of recurrent river terrace deposits occurred about every 5 thousands years in the past 50 Ka or so, under a regional uplift rate of 2-8 mm/yr. Finally in the Longitudinal Valley, a plate suture between the rapid moving Philippine Sea plate and the stable Eurasian plate, based on the C14 dating and abundant geodetic data, including leveling, GPS and creep meter, we infer a recurrent time of about 400-600 years for 8-10 levels of uplifted fluvial terraces on the hanging wall of the Longitudinal Valley fault with an uplift rate of 2-3 cm/yr during the past 5-6 Ka. It is still too early to draw any conclusion on scientific explanations for these three types of possible extreme events at a recurrent time of 0.5 ka, 5 ka and 11 ka, respectively. However, possible scenario and causative mechanisms might be anticipated, for instance the global climate influence such as glacial cycle, or regional tectonic effect such as cluster of mega earthquakes in different areas of the Taiwan mountain belt. On the other hand, comparing the terraces in the three different geological/tectonic setting, we found that the recurrent time of terrace deposits shows an inverse proportional relationship to the uplift rate in the local areas, which requires

  1. The gabbro-eclogite phase transition and the elevation of mountain belts on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Namiki, Noriyuki; Solomon, Sean C.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis is explored that the crust-mantle boundary of Venus is not in phase equilibrium but rather is rate-limited by the temperature-dependent volume diffusion of the slowest ionic species. The 1D thermal evolution problem is solved assuming that the mountains formed by uniform horizontal shortening of the crust and the lithospheric mantle at a constant rate. The time-dependent density structure and surface elevation are calculated by assuming a temperature-dependent reaction rate and local Airy isostatic compensation. For a horizontal strain rate of 10 exp -15/s or greater, the temperature increase at the base of the crust during mountain formation is modest to negligible, the deepening lower crust is metastable, and the surface elevation increases as the crust thickens. For strain rates less than 10 exp -16/s, crustal temperature increases with time because of internal heat production and the lower crust is more readily transformed to the dense eclogite assemblage. For such models, a maximum elevation is reached during crustal shortening.

  2. Bouguer gravity trends and crustal structure of the Palmyride Mountain belt and surrounding northern Arabian platform in Syria

    SciTech Connect

    Best, J.A.; Barazangi, M. ); Al-Saad, D.; Sawaf, T.; Gebran, A. )

    1990-12-01

    This study examines the crustal structure of the Palmyrides and the northern Arabian platform in Syria by two- and three-dimensional modeling of the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Results of the gravity modeling indicate that (1) western Syria is composed of at least two different crustal blocks, (2) the southern crustal block is penetrated by a series of crustal-scale, high-density intrusive complexes, and (3) short-wavelength gravity anomalies in the southwest part of the mountain belt are clearly related to basement structure. The crustal thickness in Syria, as modeled on the gravity profiles, is approximately 40{plus minus}4 km, which is similar to crustal thicknesses interpreted from refraction data in Jordan and Saudi Arabia. The different crustal blocks and large-scale mafic intrusions are best explained, though not uniquely, by Proterozoic convergence and suturing and early Paleozoic rifting, as interpreted in the exposed rocks of the Arabian shield. These two processes, combined with documented Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic transpression, compose the crustal evolution of the northern Arabian platform beneath Syria.

  3. Ouachita Mountain thrust front: An integrated approach to prospect analysis in thrust belts

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L. ); Keeling, M.A. ); Cassiani, D. )

    1990-05-01

    The thrust front of the Ouachita Mountains in western Arkansas is defined by the prominent asymmetric Washburn anticline. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburn anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations suggested the presence of the imbrication in the core of the structure, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the backthrust and duplex geometry difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the backthrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Ouachita thrust front as a delta structure has aided in subsurface data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

  4. Discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks along the Battle Mountain-Eureka, Nevada, mineral belt using Landsat images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis; Abrams, Michael J.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) images of the northwestern part of the Battle Mountain-Eureki, Nevada mineral belt were evaluated for distinguishing hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper and disseminated gold deposits. Detection of altered rocks from Landsat is based on the distinctive spectral reflectance of limonite present at coatings on weathered surfaces Some altered rocks are visible as bleached areas in individual MSS bands; however, they cannot be consistently distinguished from unaltered rocks with high albedo nor from bright areas resulting .from topographic slope. Black-and-white ratio images were generated to subdue .topographic effects, and three ratio images were composited in color to portray spectral radiance differences, forming an image known as a color-ratio composite (CRC). The optimum CRC image for this area has MSS 4/5 as blue, MSS 4/6 as yellow, and MSS 6/7 as magenta, and differs in two respects from most CRC images of arid areas. First, as a result of the increased vegetation cover in the study area, MSS 5/6 was replaced by MSS 4/6 as the yellow layer. Second, 70 mm positive transparencies were replaced by large format images (64 cm), thereby improving the internal registration of the CRC image and the effective spatial resolution. The pattern of limonitic rocks depicted in the CRC closely agrees with the mapped pattern of the alteration zones at the Copper Canyon and Copper Basin porphyry copper deposits. Certain west-facing topographic slopes in the altered areas are depicted as unaltered in the CRC, apparently due to atmospheric scattering, and illustrate the need for atmospheric correction. The disseminated gold deposits at Gold Acres and Tenabo are poorly represented in the CRC because of the general absence of limonite on these deposits. The presence of unaltered limonitic sedimentary and volcanic rocks is the largest obstacle to discriminating altered areas within the mineral belt. Reflectance spectra, made

  5. [Features of the life cycles of Pterostichus montanus (Motschulsky, 1844) and Carabus loschnikovi (Fischer-Waldheim, 1822) (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in conditions of the mountain taiga belt in the Eastern Sayan].

    PubMed

    Sharova, I Kh; khobrakova, L Ts

    2005-01-01

    We studied the seasonal dynamics and demographic structure of abundant ground beetle species from the mountain taiga belt in the Eastern Sayan. Data on the dynamics of the sexual and age structure of the populations as well as on the reproductive capacity of females in the biotopes on the slopes with different exposure and height were obtained. Life cycles with one- and two-year development were revealed for the ground beetles typical for the mountain taiga belt. As an example, data on the life cycles of Pterostichus montanus (Motschulsky, 1844) with one-year spring development and Carabus loschnikovi (Fischer-Waldheim, 1822) with two-year polyvariant multiseasonal development are given for the first time. Two strategies were revealed in the life cycles of ground beetles under alpine conditions: an accelerated population development in spring one-year species and a two-year development with pronounced polyvariance in two intrapopulation groups of ground beetles of the Carabus genus. The seasonal dynamics of the activity and reproduction periods proved to vary for these species on the slopes along the height gradient.

  6. An oxygen isotope and geochemical study of meteoric-hydrothermal systems at Pilot Mountain and selected other localities, Carolina slate belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.; Criss, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Several epigenetic mineral deposits in the Carolina slate belt are intimately related to meteoric-hydrothermal systems of late Precambrian and early Paleozoic age. At Pilot Mountain, low 18O rocks correlate well with zones of strong silicic alteration and alkali leaching accompanied by high alumina minerals (sericite, pyrophyllite, andalusite ?? topaz) and anomalous concentrations of Cu, Mo, Sn, B, and Au. A magmatic source for much of the sulfur and metal is likely, and a subordinate magmatic water component in the fluid of the central zone is possible. This central zone is surrounded by a >30 km2 peripheral zone of low 18O sericite schists, chlorite-sericite schists, and andesitic volcanic rocks. Reconnaissance studies of other alteration zones in the Carolina slate belt have so far disclosed the involvement of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids at the Snow Camp pyrophyllite deposit, at the Hoover Hill and Sawyer Au mines, and probably at the Haile and Brewer Au mines. -from Authors

  7. Thermobarometric constraints on mid-Cretaceous to late Cretaceous metamorphic events in the western metamorphic belt of the Coast Mountains complex near Petersburg, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Himmelberg, Glen R.; Brew, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The western metamorphic belt is part of the Coast Mountains Complex of southeastern Alaska and western Canada. This complex formed as a result of mid-Cretaceous through middle Eocene crustal shortening between the previously amalgamated Wrangellia and Alexander terranes (Insular superterrane) and previously accreted terranes of the North American continental margin (Intermontane superterrane). The western metamorphic belt, which ranges from a few kilometers to several tens of kilometers in width, records a complex sequence of contact-metamorphic and regional metamorphic events, the most significant of which are designated M1R, M2C-R, and M3R. The M1R regional metamorphic event ranged in grade from subgreenschist to greenschist facies and was overprinted by the M2C-R and M3R metamorphic events. The M2C-R metamorphic event is recorded in discrete contact-metamorphic aureoles and regional metamorphic-mineral assemblages related to tonalite-granodiorite plutons of the Admiralty-Revillagigedo plutonic belt. The M3R metamorphic belt, which is adjacent to the M2C-R belt, is characterized by regional Barrovian isograds of garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and sillimanite. Using the THERMOCALC program, pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions for the M2C-R metamorphic event are estimated to be in the ranges 5.3-7.5 kbars and 525-640 deg.C and for the M3R metamorphic event in the ranges 9.4-12.6 kbars and 730-895 deg.C. The M2C-R metamorphic event occurred at approximately 90 Ma, but the timing of the M3R metamorphic event is poorly documented and uncertain. On the basis of an 40Ar/39Ar age on actinolitic amphibole and a Sm-Nd age on garnet core, the timing of metamorphism might be constrained between 90+/-1 and 80+/-9 Ma, although the Sm-Nd age of 80+/-9 m.y. possibly reflects postpeak growth. Thermobarometric data suggest that the two events occurred at different crustal levels and followed different P-T paths. No evidence exists that M2C-R metamorphic-mineral assemblages were

  8. Are crustal thickness variations in old mountain belts like the Appalachians a consequence of lithospheric delamination

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, K.D. )

    1992-06-01

    Comparison of Moho geometry and reflection character of active collision zones, like the Alps, with those of fossil collision zones, like the Appalachians, lends support for the view that lithospheric delamination is both a common and fundamentally important component of collisional orogeny. In particular, the relative crustal thinning commonly observed beneath the internides of old collisional orogens is an expected consequence of delamination. Neither precollisional crustal thickness variations nor an unrelated postcollision extensional event is required to produce this feature. Acceptance of the delamination hypothesis, in turn, fundamentally alters one's view of the tectonic evolution of old collisional orogens. In the case of the Appalachians, delamination has direct implications for the interpretation of Alleghanian granites, the direction of subduction leading to final closure between Laurentia and Gondwana, and the thermal state of the lithosphere at the onset of Atlantic rifting. A corollary of the delamination hypothesis is that lateral reflectivity variations cannot be used to define paleogeographic terranes in the deep crust of old orogens. Conversely, the observation that delamination leaves a distinctive geophysical imprint on the crust itself provides an important additional clue for deciphering the tectonic evolution of such regions.

  9. Spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment in contrasted mountainous watersheds (Mexican transvolcanic belt and French Southern Alps) combining river gauging, elemental geochemistry and fallout radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Navratil, O.; Gratiot, N.; Némery, J.; Duvert, C.; Ayrault, S.; Lefèvre, I.; Legout, C.; Bonté, P.; Esteves, M.

    2009-12-01

    In mountainous environments, an excessive fine sediment supply to the rivers typically leads to an increase in water turbidity, contaminant transport and a rapid filling of reservoirs. This situation is particularly problematic in regions where water reservoirs are used to provide drinking water to large cities (e.g. in central Mexico) or where stream water is used to run hydroelectric power plants (e.g. in the French Southern Alps). In such areas, sediment source areas first need to be delineated and sediment fluxes between hillslopes and the river system must be better understood before implementing efficient erosion control measures. In this context, the STREAMS (« Sediment Transport and Erosion Across MountainS ») project funded by the French National Research Agency (ANR) aims at understanding the spatial and temporal dynamics of sediment at the scale of mountainous watersheds (between 500 - 1000 km2) located in contrasted environments. This 3-years study is carried out simultaneously in a volcanic watershed located in the Mexican transvolcanic belt undergoing a subhumid tropical climate, as well as in a sedimentary watershed of the French Southern Alps undergoing a transitional climate with Mediterranean and continental influences. One of the main specificities of this project consists in combining traditional monitoring techniques (i.e. installation of river gauges, turbidimeters and sediment samplers in several sub-catchments) and sediment fingerprinting using elemental geochemistry (measured by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis - INAA - and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry - ICP-MS) and fallout radionuclides (measured by gamma spectrometry). In the French watershed, geochemical analysis allows outlining different sediment sources (e.g. the contribution of calcareous vs. marl-covered sub-watersheds). Radionuclide ratios (e.g.Be-7/Cs-137) allow identifying the dominant erosion processes occurring within the watershed. Areas mostly

  10. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  11. Changing mechanical response during continental collision: Active examples from the foreland thrust belts of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Dan M.; Lillie, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    We have used data from teleseismic, seismic reflection and field geologic studies, along with both geomechanical and gravity modeling to contrast the tectonics of four active orogenic wedges in Pakistan: the Kashmir Himalaya, the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau foldbelt, the Sulaiman Range and the Makran accretionary wedge. In Makran, oceanic crust is still being subducted, and a thick pile of sediments is being accreted and underplated. Undercompaction and excess pore pressures can explain the narrow cross-sectional taper and frontal aseismicity of this wedge. Beneath the Sulaiman wedge, continental crust is just starting to be underthrust. Indirect evidence suggests that fine-grained carbonate rocks found in abundance deep in the stratigraphic section may be deforming ductilely at the base of the Sulaiman wedge and provide a zone of ductile detachment. The collision has proceeded to a much more mature stage in the Salt Range-Potwar Plateau foldbelt and the Kashmir Himalaya. Isostatic response to underthrusting of continental crust has kept the sedimentary pile quite thin in both of these wedges, so in that respect the two foldbelts are similar. However, thick Eocambrian salt beneath the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau permits that foldbelt to be much wider in map view, with a thinner cross-sectional taper and a mixture of thrust vergence directions. A major normal fault in basement causes the Salt Range to rise in front of the mildly deformed molasse basin of the southern Potwar Plateau. Much of the diversity among these mountain belts can be understood in terms of differences in the maturity of the collision process in each area, the resulting thickness of the sedimentary pile encountered at the deformation front, and the presence or absence of large contrasts in strength between the various layers of the stratigraphic section and basement relief.

  12. Vernal Point and Seismic Activity in Tibet Mountains and Andes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel; Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years and passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years (Milankovitch subcycle). The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle), and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation (declination 11.5° S) on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia (11.5º South latitude) since 1940 b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. Besides, there was a long history of studies of coupling between earthquake-ionosphere. In IUGG (Italy-2007), Cusco was proposed as a prime meridian that was based on: (1) the new prime meridian (72º W == 0º) was parallel to the Andes and its projection the meridian (108° E == 180º) intersects the Tibetan plate (Asia). (2) On earth these two areas present the greatest thickness of the crust with an average depth of 70 kilometers. The aim was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). The coordinate system had the vernal point from meridian (72º W== 0º) and March 20, 1940. The retrograde movement of the vernal point was the first precessional degree (2012 = 1940 + 72). The west coast of South America (parallel to meridian 72º W== 0º) was a segment of the circum-pacific seismic belt where more than two thirds of major earthquakes in the world happened. During the first precessional degree (1940 +72 ==2012) seismic activity were: (a) near the new prime meridian (72° W == 0°) occurs in: (a1) Haiti (18.4° N, 72.5° W), January 12, 2010 with magnitude of 7.0 Mw. (a2) Chile (36.28° S, 73.23° W), February 27, 2010 with Magnitude of 8.8 Mw. (a3) Chile (35

  13. Eruptions in space and time: durations, intervals, and comparison of world's active volcanic belts

    SciTech Connect

    Simkin, T.; McClelland, L.

    1986-07-01

    A computerized data bank, compiled over the last 12 years at the Smithsonian Institution, allows summaries to be made of Holocene volcanism. The Scientific Event Alert Network tracks current volcanic activity. However, the record of most volcanoes is poor before the last 100 years, and some eruptions still pass unreported. The time interval since the previous eruption can be calculated for 4835 of the 5564 compiled eruptions. The median interval is 5.0 years, but much longer intervals commonly precede unusually violent eruptions. For the 25 most violent eruptions in the file (with known preceding interval), the medium interval is 865 years. Of the historic eruptions in this group, 50% resulted in fatalities. The interval between an eruption's start and its most violent paroxysm may be measured in months or years, but it is usually short. Of the 205 larger eruptions for which data are available, 92 had the paroxysmal event within the first day of the eruption, allowing little time for emergency preparations after the eruption's opening phase. To compare the recent vigor of different volcanic belts, they calculated the number of years in which each volcano was active in the last 100 years, summed these for each belt, and divided by belt length. Another index of recent vigor is the number of recognized Holocene volcanoes divided by belt length. A third index is the number of large explosive eruptions (volcanic explosive index greater than or equal to 3) of the last 100 years, again normalized by belt length. These three measures correlate reasonably well, serving to contrast vigorous belts such as Kamchatka, Central America, and Java with relatively quiet belts such as the Cascades, South Sandwich Islands, Greece, and southern Chile.

  14. A comparison of species composition and community assemblage of secondary forests between the birch and pine-oak belts in the mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Zongzheng

    2016-01-01

    The mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains in China was once dominated by birch and pine-oak belts but are now mainly covered by secondary growth following large-scale deforestation. Assessing the recovery and sustainability of these forests is essential for their management and restoration. We investigated and compared the tree species composition and community assemblages of secondary forests of the birch and pine-oak belts in the Huoditang forest region of the Qinling Mountains after identical natural recoveries. Both types of belts had rich species compositions and similar floristic components but clearly different community structures. Tree diversity was significantly higher for the birch than the pine-oak belt. Niche and neutral processes simultaneously influenced the species distribution and community dynamics of the belts, and these forests were able to maintain stable development during natural recoveries. The conservation and management of these forests should receive more attention to protect biodiversity and the forest resources in the Qinling Mountains. PMID:27123377

  15. A comparison of species composition and community assemblage of secondary forests between the birch and pine-oak belts in the mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Zongzheng; Wang, Dexiang

    2016-01-01

    The mid-altitude zone of the Qinling Mountains in China was once dominated by birch and pine-oak belts but are now mainly covered by secondary growth following large-scale deforestation. Assessing the recovery and sustainability of these forests is essential for their management and restoration. We investigated and compared the tree species composition and community assemblages of secondary forests of the birch and pine-oak belts in the Huoditang forest region of the Qinling Mountains after identical natural recoveries. Both types of belts had rich species compositions and similar floristic components but clearly different community structures. Tree diversity was significantly higher for the birch than the pine-oak belt. Niche and neutral processes simultaneously influenced the species distribution and community dynamics of the belts, and these forests were able to maintain stable development during natural recoveries. The conservation and management of these forests should receive more attention to protect biodiversity and the forest resources in the Qinling Mountains.

  16. [Altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation within mountainous regions of the Sayan Mountains: a model of ecological second-order phase transitions ].

    PubMed

    Sukhovol'skiĭ, V G; Ovchinnikova, T M; Baboĭ, S D

    2014-01-01

    As a description of altitude-belt zonality of wood vegetation, a model of ecological second-order transitions is proposed. Objects of the study have been chosen to be forest cenoses of the northern slope of Kulumyss Ridge (the Sayan Mauntains), while the results are comprised by the altitude profiles of wood vegetation. An ecological phase transition can be considered as the transition of cenoses at different altitudes from the state of presence of certain tree species within the studied territory to the state of their absence. By analogy with the physical model of second-order, phase transitions the order parameter is introduced (i.e., the area portion occupied by a single tree species at the certain altitude) as well as the control variable (i.e., the altitude of the wood vegetation belt). As the formal relation between them, an analog of the Landau's equation for phase transitions in physical systems is obtained. It is shown that the model is in a good accordance with the empirical data. Thus, the model can be used for estimation of upper and lower boundaries of altitude belts for individual tree species (like birch, aspen, Siberian fir, Siberian pine) as well as the breadth of their ecological niches with regard to altitude. The model includes also the parameters that describe numerically the interactions between different species of wood vegetation. The approach versatility allows to simplify description and modeling of wood vegetation altitude zonality, and enables assessment of vegetation cenoses response to climatic changes.

  17. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  18. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  19. A cross section of the Los Angeles Area: Seismically active fold and thrust belt, The 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake, and earthquake hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Thomas L.; Namson, Jay; Yerkes, Robert F.

    1989-07-01

    Retrodeformable cross sections across the Los Angeles area interpret the Pliocene to Quaternary deformation to be a developing basement-involved fold and thrust belt. The fold and thrust belt is seismically active as evidenced by the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake (ML = 5.9) and the 1971 San Fernando earthquake (MW = 6.6). The structural geology of the Los Angeles area is dominated by three major compressional uplift trends: (1) the Palos Verdes anticlinorium and western shelf, (2) the Santa Monica Mountains anticlinorium, and (3) the Verdugo Mountains-San Rafael Hills and the San Gabriel Mountains. These trends result from major thrust ramps off a detachment(s) at 10-15 km depth. Thrusts of the Verdugo Mountains-San Rafael Hills and the San Gabriel Mountains reach the surface; the other two uplifts are associated with blind thrusts. Compressional seismicity is concentrated along these thrust ramps. The 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake probably occurred on the Elysian Park thrust which underlies the Santa Monica Mountains anticlinorium. The thrust interpretation accounts for the geometry of the anticlinorium, the seismological characteristics of the earthquake, and the geometry of coseismic uplift. The earthquake and aftershocks occurred within a structurally complex, narrow zone of Miocene and Pliocene northwest trending faults that cross the anticlinorium at a high angle. These northwest trending faults are interpreted to be reactivated faults now behaving as tears in the Elysian Park thrust and not the result of active right-lateral deformation extending into the Whittier Narrows area. Our analysis suggests the Whittier Narrows earthquake sequence occurred within a structurally weakened zone along the Elysian Park thrust. We also suggest that the Whittier fault is not an important Quaternary structure and may not be seismogenic. The regional cross section is a nonunique solution, and other possible solutions are considered. Multiple solutions arise from the

  20. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  1. Active prompting to decrease cell phone use and increase seat belt use while driving.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads to 2,600 U.S. fatalities each year. An active prompting procedure was employed to increase seat belt use and decrease cell phone use among drivers exiting a university parking lot. A multiple baseline with reversal design was used to evaluate the presentation of two signs: "Please Hang Up, I Care" and "Please Buckle Up, I Care." The proportion of drivers who complied with the seat belt prompt was high and in line with previous research. The proportion of drivers who hung up their cell phones in response to the prompt was about equal to that of the seat belt prompt. A procedure that reduces cell phone use among automobile drivers is a significant contribution to the behavioral safety literature.

  2. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  4. Muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR), and the effects of a pelvic belt on the ASLR and on treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hai; Meijer, Onno G; van Dieën, Jaap H; Hodges, Paul W; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Strijers, Rob L; Nanayakkara, Prabath W; van Royen, Barend J; Wu, Wenhua; Xia, Chun

    2010-02-10

    Women with pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain (PPP), or athletes with groin pain, may have trouble with the active straight leg raise (ASLR), for which a pelvic belt can be beneficial. How the problems emerge, or how the belt works, remains insufficiently understood. We assessed muscle activity during ASLR, and how it changes with a pelvic belt. Healthy nulligravidae (N=17) performed the ASLR, and walked on a treadmill at increasing speeds, without and with a belt. Fine-wire electromyography (EMG) was used to record activity of the mm. psoas, iliacus and transversus abdominis, while other hip and trunk muscles were recorded with surface EMG. In ASLR, all muscles were active. In both tasks, transverse and oblique abdominal muscles were less active with the belt. In ASLR, there was more activity of the contralateral m. biceps femoris, and in treadmill walking of the m. gluteus maximus in conditions with a belt. For our interpretation, we take our starting point in the fact that hip flexors exert a forward rotating torque on the ilium. Apparently, the abdominal wall was active to prevent such forward rotation. If transverse and oblique abdominal muscles press the ilia against the sacrum (Snijders' "force closure"), the pelvis may move as one unit in the sagittal plane, and also contralateral hip extensor activity will stabilize the ipsilateral ilium. The fact that transverse and oblique abdominal muscles were less active in conditions with a pelvic belt suggests that the belt provides such "force closure", thus confirming Snijders' theory.

  5. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  6. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F. V.; Valentine, G. A.; Smistad, E.

    2005-12-01

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgement, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 X 10-8 per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 X 10-8 be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered; 1) igneous intrusion-groundwater transport case and 2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the contents of

  7. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cline; F. Perry; G. Valentine; E. Smistad

    2005-05-26

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10{sup -8} be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the

  8. Measuring active deformation of the Yakima fold and thrust belt using GPS and InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalzle, G. M.; Baker, M. S.; McCaffrey, R.; King, R. W.; Osmanoglu, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Yakima fold-thrust belt (YFTB; also known as Yakima Fold Belt), forming the distinct geomorphology of northernmost Oregon and south-central Washington, is one of the few actively deforming fold and thrust belts in the conterminous United States. Although controversial, currently available data suggest that the YFTB is "thick-skinned", i.e., its faults penetrate the seismogenic layer, allowing for large (~M7) earthquakes. The YFTB is bisected by the Olympic-Wallowa Lineament (OWL) that runs from eastern Washington into the highly populated Puget Sound. Together, the YFTB and OWL make up the boundary between the clockwise rotating Oregon block and eastern Washington, which is largely moving with the North American plate. Paleomagnetic data suggest that Oregon has been rotating at its present (GPS-derived) rate for more than 15 million years with the predicted consequence of a long history of shortening across the YFTB. GPS data obtained over the past ~20 years indicate a NE-directed shortening strain rate of about 9 x 10^-9 /yr, but how this strain is partitioned across the YFTB is unclear due to the sparse locations of GPS sites. We use Global Positioning System (GPS) and Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data to examine the degree to which strain rates are localized or distributed within this continental thrust belt, shedding light on the controversy regarding the behavior of the continental lithosphere under contraction. These data are compared to local seismicity, gravity surveys, recent high-resolution aeromagnetic work and paleoseismic studies.

  9. Factors limiting microbial activity in volcanic tuff at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Kovacik, W.P.; Taylor, J.

    1996-09-01

    Samples of tuff aseptically collected from 10 locations in the Exploratory Shaft Facility at the site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site were analyzed for microbiological populations, activities, and factors limiting microbial activity. Radiotracer assays ({sup 14}C-labeled organic substrate mineralization), direct microscopic counts, and plate counts were used. Radiolabeled substrates were glucose, acetate, and glutamate. Radiotracer experiments were carried out with and without moisture and inorganic nutrient amendments to determine factors limiting to microbial activities. Nearly all samples showed the presence of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize organic substrates. Addition of inorganic nutrients stimulated activities in a small number of samples. The presence of viable microbial communities within the tuff has implications for transport of contaminants.

  10. Pelvic Belt Effects on Pelvic Morphometry, Muscle Activity and Body Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Soisson, Odette; Lube, Juliane; Germano, Andresa; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Josten, Christoph; Sichting, Freddy; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.; Hammer, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is frequently involved in low back and pelvic girdle pain. However, morphometrical and functional characteristics related to SIJ pain are poorly defined. Pelvic belts represent one treatment option, but evidence still lacks as to their pain-reducing effects and the mechanisms involved. Addressing these two issues, this case-controlled study compares morphometric, functional and clinical data in SIJ patients and healthy controls and evaluates the effects of short-term pelvic belt application. Methods Morphometric and functional data pertaining to pelvic belt effects were compared in 17 SIJ patients and 17 controls. Lumbar spine and pelvis morphometries were obtained from 3T magnetic resonance imaging. Functional electromyography data of pelvis and leg muscles and center of pressure excursions were measured in one-leg stance. The numerical rating scale was used to evaluate immediate pain-reducing effects. Results Pelvic morphometry was largely unaltered in SIJ patients and also by pelvic belt application. The angle of lumbar lateral flexion was significantly larger in SIJ patients without belt application. Muscle activity and center of pressure were unaffected by SIJ pain or by belt application in one-leg stance. Nine of 17 patients reported decreased pain intensities under moderate belt application, four reported no change and four reported increased pain intensity. For the entire population investigated here, this qualitative description was not confirmed on a statistical significant level. Discussion Minute changes were observed in the alignment of the lumbar spine in the frontal plane in SIJ patients. The potential pain-decreasing effects of pelvic belts could not be attributed to altered muscle activity, pelvic morphometry or body balance in a static short-term application. Long-term belt effects will therefore be of prospective interest. PMID:25781325

  11. Discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks along the Battle Mountain-Eureka, Nevada mineral belt using LANDSAT images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. D.; Abrams, M. J.; Rowan, L. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Limonitic alteration halos associated with two copper prophyry deposits were successfully mapped at Battle Mountain. Alteration halos from both a hypogene system at Copper Canyon and a supergene system at Copper Basin are recognizable in the composite. Both copper porphyry deposits are located in sedimentary rock units that commonly have ferruginous coatings; yet, in most cases, the hydrothermally derived limonite was distinguishable in the CRC from sedimentary limonite. Large format playback images with pixel sizes from 200 to 400 micron m provided details of spatial resolution and color separation unachievable on enlargements from 70 mm film chips. Details of the alteration halos could be resolved only in the large format images. Two aspects of the alteration halos of the porphyry copper deposits were not mapped on the CRC. The optimum CRC image for the area studied consists of MSS 4/5 as blue, MSS 4/6 as yellow, and MSS 6/7 as magenta using diazo films. The disseminated gold deposits at Gold Acres are not depicted in the CRC image.

  12. The prediction of filter belt press dewatering efficiency for activated sludge by experimentation on filtration compression cells.

    PubMed

    Olivier, J; Vaxelaire, J

    2004-12-01

    The filter belt press is commonly used to dewater activated sludge. However, little research has been done on this process and the prediction of its efficiency. Experimentation has been carried out in a filtration compression cell (FCC) and in a pilot scale filter belt press. It offers a way of determining filter belt press efficiency thanks to simple laboratory research. The pressure distribution around the pressing roller was measured inside the pilot scale filter belt press. It showed progressive increase (up to a certain maximum value: plateau), which was followed by a rapid decrease. The impact of the progressive increase of applied pressure onto the dry solid sludge content was observed in FCC. Similar dry solid contents were obtained from both the above laboratory devices when the application of the pressure is comparable (in time and increasing rate).

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE MAIN BELT OBJECT P/2012 F5 (GIBBS): A POSSIBLE IMPACTED ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, R.; Kramer, E. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

    2012-11-10

    In this work, we characterize the recently discovered active main belt object P/2012 F5 (Gibbs), which was discovered with a dust trail >7' in length in the outer main belt, 7 months prior to aphelion. We use optical imaging obtained on UT 2012 March 27 to analyze the central condensation and the long trail. We find B-band and R-band apparent magnitudes of 20.96 {+-} 0.04 mag and 19.93 {+-} 0.02 mag, respectively, which give an upper limit on the radius of the nucleus of 2.1 km. The geometric scattering cross-section of material in the trail was {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m{sup 2}, corresponding to a mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} kg. Analysis of infrared images taken by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in 2010 September reveals that the object was below the detection limit, suggesting that it was less active than it was during 2012, or possibly inactive, just six months after it passed through perihelion. We set a 1{sigma} upper limit on its radius during this time of 2.9 km. P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) is dynamically stable in the outer main belt on timescales of {approx}1 Gyr, pointing toward an asteroidal origin. We find that the morphology of the ejected dust is consistent with it being produced by a single event that occurred on UT 2011 July 7 {+-} 20 days, possibly as the result of a collision with a small impactor.

  14. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    PubMed

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  15. 3D Fault modeling of the active Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, D. E.; Hubbard, J.; Akhter, S. H.; Shamim, N.

    2013-12-01

    The Chittagong-Myanmar fold belt (CMFB), located in eastern Bangladesh, eastern India and western Myanmar, accommodates east-west shortening at the India-Burma plate boundary. Oblique subduction of the Indian Plate beneath the Burma Plate since the Eocene has led to the development of a large accretionary prism complex, creating a series of north-south trending folds. A continuous sediment record from ~55 Ma to the present has been deposited in the Bengal Basin by the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna rivers, providing an opportunity to learn about the history of tectonic deformation and activity in this fold-and-thrust belt. Surface mapping indicates that the fold-and-thrust belt is characterized by extensive N-S-trending anticlines and synclines in a belt ~150-200 km wide. Seismic reflection profiles from the Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, indicate that the anticlines mapped at the surface narrow with depth and extend to ~3.0 seconds TWTT (two-way travel time), or ~6.0 km. The folds of Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts are characterized by doubly plunging box-shaped en-echelon anticlines separated by wide synclines. The seismic data suggest that some of these anticlines are cored by thrust fault ramps that extend to a large-scale décollement that dips gently to the east. Other anticlines may be the result of detachment folding from the same décollement. The décollement likely deepens to the east and intersects with the northerly-trending, oblique-slip Kaladan fault. The CMFB region is bounded to the north by the north-dipping Dauki fault and the Shillong Plateau. The tectonic transition from a wide band of E-W shortening in the south to a narrow zone of N-S shortening along the Dauki fault is poorly understood. We integrate surface and subsurface datasets, including topography, geological maps, seismicity, and industry seismic reflection profiles, into a 3D modeling environment and construct initial 3D surfaces of the major faults in this

  16. SUBLIMATION-DRIVEN ACTIVITY IN MAIN-BELT COMET 313P/GIBBS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, Henry H.; Hainaut, Olivier; Novaković, Bojan; Bolin, Bryce; Denneau, Larry; Haghighipour, Nader; Kleyna, Jan; Meech, Karen J.; Schunova, Eva; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Kokotanekova, Rosita; Snodgrass, Colin; Lacerda, Pedro; Micheli, Marco; Moskovitz, Nick; Wasserman, Lawrence; Waszczak, Adam

    2015-02-10

    We present an observational and dynamical study of newly discovered main-belt comet 313P/Gibbs. We find that the object is clearly active both in observations obtained in 2014 and in precovery observations obtained in 2003 by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, strongly suggesting that its activity is sublimation-driven. This conclusion is supported by a photometric analysis showing an increase in the total brightness of the comet over the 2014 observing period, and dust modeling results showing that the dust emission persists over at least three months during both active periods, where we find start dates for emission no later than 2003 July 24 ± 10 for the 2003 active period and 2014 July 28 ± 10 for the 2014 active period. From serendipitous observations by the Subaru Telescope in 2004 when the object was apparently inactive, we estimate that the nucleus has an absolute R-band magnitude of H{sub R} = 17.1 ± 0.3, corresponding to an effective nucleus radius of r{sub e} ∼ 1.00 ± 0.15 km. The object’s faintness at that time means we cannot rule out the presence of activity, and so this computed radius should be considered an upper limit. We find that 313P’s orbit is intrinsically chaotic, having a Lyapunov time of T{sub l} = 12,000 yr and being located near two three-body mean-motion resonances with Jupiter and Saturn, 11J-1S-5A and 10J+12S-7A, yet appears stable over >50 Myr in an apparent example of stable chaos. We furthermore find that 313P is the second main-belt comet, after P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS), to belong to the ∼155 Myr old Lixiaohua asteroid family.

  17. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    . The model is then applied to a high resolution (5-10 m) digital elevation model of the Poerua catchment in New Zealand which has been impacted by the effect of a large landslide during the last 15 years. We investigate several plausible Alpine Faults earthquake scenarios to study the propagation of the sediment along a complex river network. We characterize and quantify the sediment pulse export time and mechanism for this river configuration and show its impact on the alluvial plain evolution. Our findings have strong implications for the understanding of aggradation rates and the temporal persistence of induced hazards in the alluvial plain as well as of sediment transfers in active mountain belts.

  18. Muscle activation patterns are bilaterally linked during split-belt treadmill walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Massaad, F.; Bruijn, S. M.; Duysens, J.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that human locomotion is controlled by flexibly combining a set of basic muscle activity patterns. To explore how these patterns are modified to cope with environmental constraints, 10 healthy young adults 1st walked on a split-belt treadmill at symmetric speeds of 4 and 6 km/h for 2 min. An asymmetric condition was then performed for 10 min in which treadmill speeds for the dominant (fast) and nondominant (slow) sides were 6 and 4 km/h, respectively. This was immediately followed by a symmetric speed condition of 4 km/h for 5 min. Gait kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Electromyography (EMG) was collected from 12 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the EMG signals bilaterally and unilaterally to obtain basic activation patterns. A cross-correlation analysis was then used to quantify temporal changes in the activation patterns. During the early (1st 10 strides) and late (final 10 strides) phases of the asymmetric condition, the patterns related to ankle plantar flexor (push-off) of the fast limb and quadriceps muscle (contralateral heel contact) of the slow limb occurred earlier in the gait cycle compared with the symmetric conditions. Moreover, a bilateral temporal alignment of basic patterns between limbs was still maintained in the split-belt condition since a similar shift was observed in the unilateral patterns. The results suggest that the temporal structure of these locomotor patterns is shaped by sensory feedback and that the patterns are bilaterally linked. PMID:24478155

  19. Geomorphic signature of active tectonics in the southern Abruzzi Periadriatic hilly belt (Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racano, Simone; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Centamore, Ernesto; Dramis, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The geo-structural setting of the southern Abruzzi hilly belt that stretches from the northeastern front of the Maiella Massif to the Adriatic coast is characterized by deep-seated northeast verging thrusts masked by a thick cover of Late Pliocene-Middle Pleistocene marine deposits. Most authors consider this area tectonically inactive while only few of them support the hypothesis of its recent activity from the analysis of the river network pattern. Geological and geomorphological investigations carried out in the area have clearly shown the occurrence of surface deformations resulting from the continued activity of compressive tectonics up to recent times. The analysis of the study area by of a 10 m resolution DTM (using the open-source QGIS software) confirmed and supplemented field observations. Particularly significant in this context is the topographic setting of the alluvial strath terraces in the river valleys that develop transversally to the buried thrusts. In correspondence of these structures, topographic highs have grown up displacing the middle-Pleistocene planation surface developed on top of the hilly belt, from the Maiella piedmont to the coastal zone, and diverting laterally the river courses uphill. In the same places, as along the Alento and Foro rivers that cross by antecedence the grown up topographic highs, the long profiles of terraces bend eastward and the height difference between the terrace orders, essentially related all around the area to the Quaternary regional uplift, strongly increases. In some cases, surficial faults have lowered the terraces into graben troughs or have displaced them until assuming an uphill trend. This recent tectonic activity should be taken in account in assessing the seismic hazard of the study area.

  20. Hand, belt, pocket or bag: Practical activity tracking with mobile phones

    PubMed Central

    Antos, Stephen A.; Albert, Mark V.; Kording, Konrad P.

    2013-01-01

    For rehabilitation and diagnoses, an understanding of patient activities and movements is important. Modern smartphones have built in accelerometers which promise to enable quantifying minute-by-minute what patients do (e.g. walk or sit). Such a capability could inform recommendations of physical activities and improve medical diagnostics. However, a major problem is that during everyday life, we carry our phone in different ways, e.g. on our belt, in our pocket, in our hand, or in a bag. The recorded accelerations are not only affected by our activities but also by the phone’s location. Here we develop a method to solve this kind of problem, based on the intuition that activities change rarely, and phone locations change even less often. A Hidden Markov Model (HMM) tracks changes across both activities and locations, enabled by a static Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier that probabilistically identifies activity-location pairs. We find that this approach improves tracking accuracy on healthy subjects as compared to a static classifier alone. The obtained method can be readily applied to patient populations. Our research enables the use of phones as activity tracking devices, without the need of previous approaches to instruct subjects to always carry the phone in the same location. PMID:24091138

  1. WATER-ICE-DRIVEN ACTIVITY ON MAIN-BELT COMET P/2010 A2 (LINEAR)?

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, F.; Ortiz, J. L.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Augusteijn, T.; Liimets, T.; Lindberg, J. E.; Pursimo, T.; RodrIguez-Gil, P.; Vaduvescu, O.

    2010-08-01

    The dust ejecta of Main-Belt Comet P/2010 A2 (LINEAR) have been observed with several telescopes at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on La Palma, Spain. Application of an inverse dust tail Monte Carlo method to the images of the dust ejecta from the object indicates that a sustained, likely water-ice-driven, activity over some eight months is the mechanism responsible for the formation of the observed tail. The total amount of the dust released is estimated to be 5 x 10{sup 7} kg, which represents about 0.3% of the nucleus mass. While the event could have been triggered by a collision, this cannot be determined from the currently available data.

  2. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both footprints are presented in this AMR. In addition, the

  3. Landscape evolution due to river incision in active mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavé, L.; Attal, A.

    2003-04-01

    It is commonly accepted that fluvial network incision control the local base level for hillslopes and therefore controls the rate of landscape denudation, and thus the way the landscape will respond to tectonic or climatic forcings. For that reason, many studies have focused for the last ten years in quantifying fluvial incision rates and the mechanisms of fluvial incision into bedrock. In many morphotectonic settings the shear stress model has been widely used and provided satisfactory first order description of the river incision in active mountains. Across the Siwaliks range in front of the Himalaya, the shear stress model (that also includes bedload mean pebble size and explicit channel width variations), provides a good proxy to estimate incision and uplift rate, that can be measured independently from fluvial terraces studies. By transposition and after calibration to more resistant crystalline lithologies, this model helped to define the incision rate profiles across the whole Himalayan ranges. These profiles were found coherent with current seismotectonic model, sediment budget, fluvial terrace studies and geochronology results. More importantly, the incision model was found to provide good results in two other active regions: across the Nanga Parbat massif in Pakistan, and in the San Gabriel Ranges in California, with only minor required changes of the erodibility coefficient despite very different hydroclimatic setting. However, this semi-empirical model is not mechanically satisfying: in many settings, river bedload fluxes exert an important control on incision rates, by limiting bedrock exposure or by providing an efficient tool for river mechanical abrasion. A reappraisal of the former examples as thus conducted in order to test different models including the role of sediment fluxes. General results and models will be first discussed in light of their physical consistency with field and experimental data on pebble and bedrock abrasion, and second in

  4. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF ACTIVE BODIES IN THE MAIN BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, James M.; Mainzer, A. K.; Masiero, Joseph R.; Blauvelt, Erin K.; Cherry, De'Andre; Grav, Tommy; Walker, Russell G.; McMillan, Robert S.; Scotti, James V.; Fernandez, Yan R.; Kramer, Emily; Meech, Karen J.; Tholen, David J.; Riesen, Timm; Urban, Laurie; Khayat, Alain; Lisse, Carey M.; Cutri, Roc M.; Dailey, John W.; Pearman, George; Collaboration: WISE Team; and others

    2012-03-01

    We report results based on mid-infrared photometry of five active main belt objects (AMBOs) detected by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft. Four of these bodies, P/2010 R2 (La Sagra), 133P/Elst-Pizarro, (596) Scheila, and 176P/LINEAR, showed no signs of activity at the time of the observations, allowing the WISE detections to place firm constraints on their diameters and albedos. Geometric albedos were in the range of a few percent, and on the order of other measured comet nuclei. P/2010 A2 was observed on 2010 April 2-3, three months after its peak activity. Photometry of the coma at 12 and 22 {mu}m combined with ground-based visible-wavelength measurements provides constraints on the dust particle mass distribution (PMD), dlog n/dlog m, yielding power-law slope values of {alpha} = -0.5 {+-} 0.1. This PMD is considerably more shallow than that found for other comets, in particular inbound particle fluence during the Stardust encounter of comet 81P/Wild 2. It is similar to the PMD seen for 9P/Tempel 1 in the immediate aftermath of the Deep Impact experiment. Upper limits for CO{sub 2} and CO production are also provided for each AMBO and compared with revised production numbers for WISE observations of 103P/Hartley 2.

  5. Effects of the pelvic compression belt on gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and lumbar multifidus activities during side-lying hip abduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus medius (GM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and lumbar multifidus (LM) during side-lying hip abduction. Thirty-one volunteers (15 men and 16 women) with no history of pathology volunteered for this study. Subjects were instructed to perform hip abduction in side-lying position with and without applying the pelvic compression belt. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with the stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands. Surface EMG data were collected from the GM, QL, and LM of the dominant limb. Significantly decreased EMG activity in the QL (without the pelvic compression belt, 60.19±23.66% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; with the pelvic compression belt, 51.44±23.00% MVIC) and significantly increased EMG activity in the GM (without the pelvic compression belt, 26.71±12.88% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 35.02±18.28% MVIC) and in the LM (without the pelvic compression belt, 30.28±14.60% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 37.47±18.94% MVIC) were found when the pelvic compression belt was applied (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences of the EMG activity between male and female subjects. The findings suggest that the pelvic compression belt may be helpful to prevent unwanted substitution movement during side-lying hip abduction, through increasing the GM and LM and decreasing the QL.

  6. TOMORROW: Information Session to Discuss Cleanup Activities at the Smokey Mountain Smelters Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (05/25/15)- ATLANTA - The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) will host an Open House to answer questions regarding cleanup activities at the Smokey Mountain Smelter

  7. The Last Glacial Maximum in the Northern European loess belt: Correlations between loess-paleosol sequences and the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Römer, Wolfgang; Klasen, Nicole; Pirson, Stéphane; Schulte, Philipp; Zeeden, Christian; Sirocko, Frank; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The D1 project of the CRC 806 "Our way to Europe" focusses on Central Europe as a destination of modern human dispersal out of Africa. The paleo-environmental conditions along the migration areas are reconstructed by loess-paleosol sequences and lacustrine sediments. Stratigraphy and luminescence dating provide the chronological framework for the correlation of grain size and geochemical data to large-scale climate proxies like isotope ratios and dust content of Greenland ice cores. The reliability of correlations is improved by the development of precise age models of specific marker beds. In this study, we focus on the (terrestrial) Last Glacial Maximum of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial which is supposed to be dominated by high wind speeds and an increasing aridity. Especially in the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE), this period is linked to an extensive erosion event. The disconformity is followed by an intensive cryosol formation. In order to support the stratigraphical observations from the field, luminescence dating and grain size analysis were applied on three loess-paleosol sequences along the northern European loess belt to develop a more reliable chronology and to reconstruct paleo-environmental dynamics. The loess sections were compared to newest results from heavy mineral and grain size analysis from the Dehner Maar core (Eifel Mountains) and correlated to NGRIP records. Volcanic minerals can be found in the Dehner Maar core from a visible tephra layer at 27.8 ka up to ~25 ka. They can be correlated to the Eltville Tephra found in loess section. New quartz luminescence ages from Romont (Belgium) surrounding the tephra dated the deposition between 25.0 + 2.3 ka and 25.8 + 2.4 ka. In the following, heavy minerals show an increasing importance of strong easterly winds during the second Greenland dust peak (~24 ka b2k) correlating with an extensive erosion event in the LRE. Luminescence dating on quartz bracketing the following soil formation yielded ages of

  8. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  9. Threshold bedrock channels in tectonically active mountains with frequent mass wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Codilean, A.; Oguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of how mountain belts grow and erode through time largely rely on the paradigm of fluvial bedrock incision as the main motor of response to differences in rock uplift, thus setting base levels of erosion in tectonically active landscapes. Dynamic feedbacks between rock uplift, bedrock river geometry, and mass wasting have been encapsulated within the concept of threshold hillslopes that attain a mechanically critical inclination capable of adjusting to fluvial incision rates via decreased stability and commensurately more frequent landsliding. Here we provide data that challenge the widely held view that channel steepness records tectonic forcing more faithfully than hillslope inclination despite much robust empirical evidence of such links between bedrock-river geometry and hillslope mass wasting. We show that the volume mobilized by mass wasting depends more on local topographic relief and the sinuosity of bedrock rivers than their mean normalized channel steepness. We derive this counterintuitive observation from an unprecedented inventory of ~300,000 landslides covering the tectonically active Japanese archipelago with substantial differences in seismicity, lithology, vertical surface deformation, topography, and precipitation variability. Both total landslide number and volumes increase nonlinearly with mean local relief even in areas where the fraction of steepest channel segments attains a constant threshold well below the maximum topographic relief. Our data document for the first time that mass wasting increases systematically with preferential steepening of flatter channel segments. Yet concomitant changes in mean channel steepness are negligible such that it remains a largely insensitive predictor of landslide denudation. Further, minute increases in bedrock-river sinuosity lead to substantial reduction in landslide abundance and volumes. Our results underline that sinuosity (together with mean local relief) is a key morphometric variable for

  10. Belt-driven conveyor belts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    An intermediate belt drive system offers a number of advantages over conventional systems, including lower power requirements and the ability to use lower quality, cheaper, conveyor belts. The advantages of a correctly designed belt conveyor with end pulley drives are included.

  11. Active fault systems and tectono-topographic configuration of the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szynkaruk, Ewa; Graduño-Monroy, Víctor Hugo; Bocco, Gerardo

    2004-07-01

    The central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) reflects the interplay between three regional fault systems: the NNW-SSE to NW-SE striking Taxco-Querétaro fault system, the NE-SW striking system, and the E-W striking Morelia-Acambay fault system. The latter is the youngest and consists of fault scarps up to 500 m high, whose formation caused structural and morphological reorganization of the region. In this paper, we investigate possible activity of the three systems within the central TMVB, and assess the role that they play in controlling the tectono-topographic configuration of the area. Our study is based on DEM-derived morphometric maps, longitudinal river profiles, geomorphologic mapping, and structural field data concerning recent faulting. We find that all three regional fault systems are active within the central TMVB, possibly with different displacement rates and/or type of motion; and that NNW-SSE and NE-SW striking faults control the major tectono-topographic elements that build up the region, which are being re-shaped by E-W striking faults. We also find that tectonic information can be deciphered from the topography of the youthful volcanic arc in question, regardless its complexity.

  12. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R.; Valentine, G.; Crowe, B.

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  13. Morphotectonic aspects of active folding in Zagros Mountains (Fin, SE of Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roustaei, M.; Abbasi, M.

    2008-05-01

    Active deformation in Iran, structural province of Zagros is a result of the convergence between the Arabian & Eurasian plates. The Zagros Mountains in southern Iran are one of the seismically active region & is introduced as fold-thrust belt trending NW-SE within the Arabian plate. Fin lies in Hormozgan province; the south of Iran. The vastness is surrounded by central Iran in the north, High Zagros in the North West and west, Folded Zagros in the east, Makran in the south east and Persian Gulf in the south. The study area is determined by complex structures, alternation of folding, salt diapers and faulting. The surface geology mainly comprises Neogene; Marls, Conglomerate, Sandstones (Mishan, Aghajari, Bakhtiyari formations), old fans and alluvium as syncline that Shur River cuts its north limb and passes from the middle of core .The older formations( Ghachsaran, Rzak and Guri member) folded into prominent anticlines. The fold axes mostly follow the parallel trends .Folds trending are NW-SE (Tashkend anticline), NE-SW (Khur anticline), E-W (Guniz & Handun anticline) and the trend of axes Baz fold in the main part is E-W. Hormoz salt also outcrops in the cores of many whaleback anticlines. Thus, anticlines may be cored with evaporates, even though no salt is currently exposed at the surface. Reason of selecting this area as an example referred to active seismcity. Release of energy is gradually in every events, this seismic character cusses that there was not earthquake with high magnitude in the area but it can not be a role. Answer to the question concerning relationship between folding of the crust layer and faulting at depth is more difficult. There is 2 terms to describe this relationship; "detachment folds" and" forced folds". In this paper, we try to analysis of different satellite imagery; Aster, spot and digital elevation model with high resolution (10 m) in order to detect geomorphic indicators which can help us to find a relationship between faulting

  14. [Vertical zonation of mountain landscape: a review].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran-Hao; Chen, Li-Ding; Zhang, Bai-Ping; Fu, Bo-Jie

    2009-07-01

    Vertical gradient of mountain landscape is about 1000 times of its horizontal gradient, and hence, only using landscape pattern index is quite difficult to reflect the landscape regularity along vertical gradient. Mountain altitudinal belt is a kind of classic geographic models representing the vertical differentiation of landscape, being of significance in geographic and ecological researches. However, the discrete expression pattern and the inaccuracy of the borderlines of mountain vertical belts limit the roles of mountain vertical belt in accurately describing landscape pattern in regional scale and in explaining ecological processes. This paper reviewed the research progress and existing problems on mountain altitudinal belt, put forward a suggestion of using modern information technology to establish a comprehensive and continuous mountain landscape information chart, and discussed the framework and prospect of the establishment of the chart, which would have reference value for accurately describing mountain landscape pattern and explaining specific ecological processes, and promote the further improvement of the methodology for mountain ecological research.

  15. Discovery and characteristics of the rapidly rotating active asteroid (62412) 2000 SY178 in the main belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2015-02-01

    We report a new active asteroid in the main belt of asteroids between Mars and Jupiter. Object (62412) 2000 SY178 exhibited a tail in images collected during our survey for objects beyond the Kuiper Belt using the Dark Energy Camera on the CTIO 4 m telescope. We obtained broadband colors of 62412 at the Magellan Telescope, which, along with 62412's low albedo, suggests it is a C-type asteroid. 62412's orbital dynamics and color strongly correlate with the Hygiea family in the outer main belt, making it the first active asteroid known in this heavily populated family. We also find 62412 to have a very short rotation period of 3.33 ± 0.01 hours from a double-peaked light curve with a maximum peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.45 ± 0.01 mag. We identify 62412 as the fastest known rotator of the Hygiea family and the nearby Themis family of similar composition, which contains several known main belt comets. The activity on 62412 was seen over one year after perihelion passage in its 5.6 year orbit. 62412 has the highest perihelion and one of the most circular orbits known for any active asteroid. The observed activity is probably linked to 62412's rapid rotation, which is near the critical period for break-up. The fast spin rate may also change the shape and shift material around 62412's surface, possibly exposing buried ice. Assuming 62412 is a strengthless rubble pile, we find the density of 62412 to be around 1500 kg m{sup −3}.

  16. Connecting the Yakima fold and thrust belt to active faults in the Puget Lowland, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Sherrod, B.L.; Weaver, C.S.; Wells, R.E.; Rohay, A.C.; Barnett, E.A.; Knepprath, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys of the Cascade Range and Yakima fold and thrust belt (YFTB), Washington, provide insights on tectonic connections between forearc and back-arc regions of the Cascadia convergent margin. Magnetic surveys were measured at a nominal altitude of 250 m above terrain and along flight lines spaced 400 m apart. Upper crustal rocks in this region have diverse magnetic properties, ranging from highly magnetic rocks of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group to weakly magnetic sedimentary rocks of various ages. These distinctive magnetic properties permit mapping of important faults and folds from exposures to covered areas. Magnetic lineaments correspond with mapped Quaternary faults and with scarps identified in lidar (light detection and ranging) topographic data and aerial photography. A two-dimensional model of the northwest striking Umtanum Ridge fault zone, based on magnetic and gravity data and constrained by geologic mapping and three deep wells, suggests that thrust faults extend through the Tertiary section and into underlying pre-Tertiary basement. Excavation of two trenches across a prominent scarp at the base of Umtanum Ridge uncovered evidence for bending moment faulting possibly caused by a blind thrust. Using aeromagnetic, gravity, and paleoseismic evidence, we postulate possible tectonic connections between the YFTB in eastern Washington and active faults of the Puget Lowland. We suggest that faults and folds of Umtanum Ridge extend northwestward through the Cascade Range and merge with the Southern Whidbey Island and Seattle faults near Snoqualmie Pass 35 km east of Seattle. Recent earthquakes (MW ≤ 5.3) suggest that this confluence of faults may be seismically active today.

  17. Activation lateralization in human core, belt, and parabelt auditory fields with unilateral deafness compared to normal hearing

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Harold; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy; Agato, Alvin; Uchanski, Rosalie M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied activation magnitudes in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex in adults with normal hearing (NH) and unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using an interrupted, single-event design and monaural stimulation with random spectrographic sounds. NH patients had one ear blocked and received stimulation on the side matching the intact ear in UHL. The objective was to determine whether the side of deafness affected lateralization and magnitude of evoked blood oxygen level-dependent responses across different auditory cortical fields (ACFs). Regardless of ear of stimulation, NH showed larger contralateral responses in several ACFs. With right ear stimulation in UHL, ipsilateral responses were larger compared to NH in core and belt ACFs, indicating neuroplasticity in the right hemisphere. With left ear stimulation in UHL, only posterior core ACFs showed larger ipsilateral responses, suggesting that most ACFs in the left hemisphere had greater resilience against reduced crossed inputs from a deafferented right ear. Parabelt regions located posterolateral to core and belt auditory cortex showed reduced activation in UHL compared to NH irrespective of RE/LE stimulation and lateralization of inputs. Thus, the effect in UHL compared to NH differed by ACF and ear of deafness. PMID:22502976

  18. Activation lateralization in human core, belt, and parabelt auditory fields with unilateral deafness compared to normal hearing.

    PubMed

    Burton, Harold; Firszt, Jill B; Holden, Timothy; Agato, Alvin; Uchanski, Rosalie M

    2012-05-15

    We studied activation magnitudes in core, belt, and parabelt auditory cortex in adults with normal hearing (NH) and unilateral hearing loss (UHL) using an interrupted, single-event design and monaural stimulation with random spectrographic sounds. NH patients had one ear blocked and received stimulation on the side matching the intact ear in UHL. The objective was to determine whether the side of deafness affected lateralization and magnitude of evoked blood oxygen level-dependent responses across different auditory cortical fields (ACFs). Regardless of ear of stimulation, NH showed larger contralateral responses in several ACFs. With right ear stimulation in UHL, ipsilateral responses were larger compared to NH in core and belt ACFs, indicating neuroplasticity in the right hemisphere. With left ear stimulation in UHL, only posterior core ACFs showed larger ipsilateral responses, suggesting that most ACFs in the left hemisphere had greater resilience against reduced crossed inputs from a deafferented right ear. Parabelt regions located posterolateral to core and belt auditory cortex showed reduced activation in UHL compared to NH irrespective of RE/LE stimulation and lateralization of inputs. Thus, the effect in UHL compared to NH differed by ACF and ear of deafness.

  19. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. 10 Ma of Igneous Activity in the Transmexican Volcanic Belt: Tectonic and Geomagnetic Implications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martinez, V. C.; Osete, M. L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-05-01

    A total of 51 sites with geochronological control were sampled in the central and western segments of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Together with other previously published 69 sites from the eastern segment, they span the spatial and temporal activity of the TMVB. Using now the same reference directions and methodologies, they are analyzed in order (i) to determine the possible occurrence and significance (spatially and temporally) of vertical axis crustal block rotations that have been reported in this region; and (ii) to study the geomagnetic Paleo Secular Variation during the last 10 Ma; to check the previously suggested existence of a "Pacific Dipole Window" extending to Mexico. Paleomagnetic results, backed by statistical tests performed according to their geographical distribution (3 structural segments) or according to their ages (Late Miocene, Pliocene or Quaternary), do not support the notion that large vertical axis block rotations (paleomagnetically detectable) occurred in this arc after Late Miocene times. They suggest that the TMVB could be considered paleomagnetically as an unique tectonic domain under a transtensional regime, where its extension component prevails over its left-lateral component. The mean paleomagnetic directions, obtained in the age ranges 10-5 Ma and 5-0 Ma, do not differ from their respective reference directions. In both datasets, VGPs have been selected using quality Fisher's precision parameters and optimum cutoff angles. This results in a circularly symmetrical data distribution with statistically indistinguishable antipodal normal and reverse polarities. VGP dispersions are consistent with those from globally distributed observations at Mexican latitudes for the Miocene and the Plio- Quaternary. An analysis of all the published paleomagnetic data from the TMVB, when combined all together and selected in the same terms, do not support neither the existence of large crustal block rotations nor the persistence of a

  1. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Pitt, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ∼2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10−3 to 7.9 × 10−3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10−4 to 3.4 × 10−3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day−1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ∼25–1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  2. Tomographic Image of a Seismically Active Volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Chouet, B. A.; Pitt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP /VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (˜50 km3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is primarily due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate-spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α ˜8 x 10-4 (crack-like pores) and gas volume fraction φ ˜4 x 10-4. The pore density parameter κ = 3φ / (4πα) = na3 = 0.12, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to range up to ˜1.6 x 1010 kg if the pores exclusively contain CO2, although he presence of an aqueous phase may lower this estimate by up to one order of magnitude. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 5 x 105 kg day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜8 to ˜90 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  3. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard; Pitt, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10-3 to 7.9 × 10-3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10-4 to 3.4 × 10-3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜25-1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  4. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  5. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  6. Active Fault Mapping of Naga-Disang Thrust (Belt of Schuppen) for Assessing Future Earthquake Hazards in NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.

    2014-12-01

    We observe the geodynamic appraisal of Naga-Disang Thrust North East India. The Disang thrust extends NE-SW over a length of 480 km and it defines the eastern margin of Neogene basin. It branches out from Haflong-Naga thrust and in the NE at Bulbulia in the right bank of Noa Dihing River, it is terminated by Mishmi thrust, which extends into Myanmar as 'Sagaing fault,which dip generally towards SE. It extends between Dauki fault in the SW and Mishmi thrust in the NE. When the SW end of 'Belt of Schuppen' moved upwards and towards east along the Dauki fault, the NE end moved downwards and towards west along the Mishmi thrust, causing its 'S' shaped bending. The SRTM generated DEM is used to map the topographic expression of the schuppen belt, where these thrusts are significantly marked by topographic break. Satellite imagery map also shows presence lineaments supporting the post tectonic activities along Naga-Disang Thrusts. The southern part of 'Belt of Schuppen' extends along the sheared western limb of southerly plunging Kohima synform, a part of Indo Burma Ranges (IBR) and it is seismically active.The crustal velocity at SE of Schuppen is 39.90 mm/yr with a azimuth of 70.780 at Lumami, 38.84 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Senapati and 36.85 mm/yr (Azimuth 54.09) at Imphal. The crustal velocity at NW of Schuppen belt is 52.67 mm/yr (Azimuth 57.66) near Dhauki Fault in Meghalaya. It becomes 43.60 mm/yr (Azimuth76.50) - 44.25 (Azimuth 73.27) at Tiding and Kamlang Nagar around Mishmi thrust. The presence of Schuppen is marked by a change in high crustal velocity from Indian plate to low crustal velocity in Mishmi Suture as well as Indo Burma Ranges. The difference in crustal velocities results in building up of strain along the Schuppen which may trigger a large earthquake in the NE India in future. The belt of schuppean seems to be seismically active, however, the enough number of large earthquakes are not recorded. These observations are significant on Naga

  7. Atmospheric Research and Public Outreach Activities at Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, B.; Pope, J.; Kelly, G.; Sherman, J. P.; Taubman, B.

    2012-12-01

    Promoting scientific and public understanding of mountain meteorological processes, particularly in the context of climate variability and change, remains a formidable challenge. Mountain environments present considerable difficulties in the collection of surface and atmospheric observations due to complex topography and resulting high spatial and temporal variability of the atmospheric processes. A collaborative partnership between Appalachian State University (ASU) and the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation (GMSF) in the southern Appalachian Mountains of North Carolina has provided an outstanding opportunity to integrate atmospheric research and outreach activities. The NASA-funded Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach (CAN-DOO) project directly supports the research and education activities and places them in the context of climate variability and change. This paper introduces the manual observations and citizen science activities, automated meteorological measurements, and public outreach initiatives on Grandfather Mountain and presents preliminary findings. In support of project objectives, GMSF staff makes daily measurements of precipitation, snow water equivalent, snow depth, and aerosol optical depth, while also encouraging citizen scientists to participate in the daily meteorological measurements. Team members have developed real-time displays of meteorological conditions for the two main visitor's centers and website, and have also created interactive climate science public displays. ASU scientists and GMSF staff have worked together to install and operate two research-quality meteorological stations at 1609 m asl that measure temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, pressure, precipitation, and present weather. Preliminary results of research activities suggest that extreme wind gusts >50 m s -1 and severe icing due to riming and freezing rain are a frequent occurrence on Grandfather Mountain

  8. The Mountain West and the World: International Connections and Alternative Futures. A Handbook of 15 Activities for Secondary Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.; Bienstock, Eric M.

    Activities to supplement secondary school global or future studies courses in the 10 state Mountain West region are presented in this teacher handbook. Material is divided into 3 sections. Section 1, an introduction to international connectedness, contains 7 activities focusing on the Mountain West's interdependence with the rest of the world. A…

  9. Effect of lunar phase on summer activity budgets of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) exist in a complex biological and social environment that is marked by necessary diurnal activities such as foraging, ruminating, and resting. It has long been understood that elk demonstrate circadian rhythms. One of the most predictable variables that could af...

  10. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  11. Provenance of Marine Sediment in the Gulf of Alaska, IODP Expedition 341: Links Between Sediment Derivation, Glacial Systems, and Exhumation of the Coastal Mountain Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, W. K.; Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Ridgway, K.; Colliver, L.

    2015-12-01

    Provenance analysis of Neogene sand and diamict beds from marine boreholes drilled by the IODP Expedition 341 provides a marine sedimentary record of the interactions between tectonics, climate and sediment deposition along a glaciated convergent margin. The 341 boreholes represent a cross-margin transect that sampled the continental shelf, slope, and deep sea Surveyor Fan of the Gulf of Alaska. Our dataset currently consists of ~ 650 detrital zircons selected for double dating method utilizing both detrital zircon fission track (FT) and U-Pb analysis from sand and diamict beds, as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology and apatite FT from igneous and gneissic clasts. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of sand records dominant peak ages of 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. Most of these ages can be correlated to primary igneous sources in the Coast Plutonic Complex, the Chugach Metamorphic Complex, the plutonic rocks of Wrangellia, and the Sanak-Baranoff plutonic belt. All samples analyzed to date, covering a 10 Myr range, share nearly identical detrital zircon populations suggesting similar primary sediment sources and reworking of sediment in thrust belts and accretionary prisms along this convergent margin. Plutonic and gneissic clasts collected from the boreholes on the shelf have already been double dated. These clasts have general U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of 52-54 Ma and apatite fission track cooling ages of 10-12 Ma. These results, along with previous published studies, indicate that these clasts were derived from the Chugach Metamorphic Complex and were eroded and transported by the Bagley Ice Field and Bering Glacier. Future results using this approach should allow us to pinpoint which parts of the exhumed onshore ranges and which glacial systems provided sediment to marine environments in the Gulf of Alaska.

  12. Incipient Crustal Stretching across AN Active Collision Belt: the Case of the Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (central Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, S.; Tortorici, G.; Romagnoli, G.; Pavano, F.

    2012-12-01

    In the Central Mediterranean, the differential roll-back of the subducting Nubia Plate caused the Neogene-Quaternary extrusion of the Calabrian arc onto the oceanic Ionian slab, and the opening of the oceanic Tyrrhenian Basin, in the overriding Eurasia Plate. The differential motion at the edges of the arc was largely accommodated along transform faults that propagated across the orogenic belt. Since the Late Quaternary, the southern edge of the arc has been replaced by the roughly N-S oriented Siculo-Calabrian Rift Zone (SCRZ) that formed as the NNW-directed normal faults of NE Sicily, crossing the orogenic belt, have linked the NNE-oriented Tyrrhenian margin of southern Calabria with the NNW-trending Africa-Ionian boundary of southeastern Sicily. Our study focused on the Sicily shoulder of the SCRZ, where the transition zone between the extensional belt and the still active Nubia-Eurasia convergent margin is characterized by two distinct mobile crustal wedges, both lying on an upwarped Mantle, where a re-orientations of the σ1 is combined with volcanism (e.g. Etna, Aeolian islands) and a huge tectonic uplift. In southeastern Sicily, the Hyblean-Etnean region evolved, since about 0.85 Ma, as an indipendent crustal wedge, moving towards the NNW and pointing to the active Mt. Etna volcano. A local ENE crustal stretching accompanied the traslation of the block and pre-dated the ESE-oriented extension governing the propagation of the southernmost branch of the SCR, which started at about 330 ka B.P.. Similarly, the Peloritani-Aeolian region, flanked by the 125 ka-old NE-Sicily branch of the rift zone, represents a mostly submerged crustal wedge that migrates towards the NE, diverging from the rest of the Sicily collision zone and pointing to the Stromboli volcano. The Peloritani-Aeolian block is characterized by the occurrence of a wide central NE-oriented collapsed basin contoured by an actively uplifting region, whose tectonic boundaries are evidenced by a sharp

  13. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10/sup -9//km/sup 2//y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10/sup -7//y.

  14. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study.

  15. A mantle conveyor belt beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2011-12-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone, leading to stacking of crustal slices during indentation. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic, generating the highest mountain belts on Earth (Argand, 1924). While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing in spite of large collisional resisting forces. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale upwelling is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  16. Feedback between erosion and active deformation: geomorphic constraints from the frontal Jura fold-and-thrust belt (eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madritsch, Herfried; Fabbri, Olivier; Hagedorn, Eva-Marie; Preusser, Frank; Schmid, Stefan M.; Ziegler, Peter A.

    2010-10-01

    A regional tectono-geomorphic analysis indicates a Pliocene to recent rock uplift of the outermost segment of the Jura fold-and-thrust belt, which spatially coincides with the intra-continental Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone. Elevated remnants of the partly eroded Middle Pliocene Sundgau-Forêt de Chaux Gravels identified by heavy mineral analyses allow for a paleo-topographic reconstruction that yields minimum regional Latest Pliocene to recent rock uplift rates of 0.05 ± 0.02 mm/year. This uplift also affected the Pleistocene evolution of the Ognon and Doubs drainage basins and is interpreted as being tectonically controlled. While the Ognon River was deflected from the uplifted region the Doubs deeply incised into it. Focused incision of the Doubs possibly sustained ongoing deformation along anticlines which were initiated during the Neogene evolution of the thin-skinned Jura fold-and-thrust belt. At present, this erosion-related active deformation is taking place synchronously with thick-skinned tectonics, controlling the inversion of the Rhine-Bresse Transfer Zone. This suggests local decoupling between seismogenic basement faulting and erosion-related deformation of the Mesozoic cover sequences.

  17. Predicting mountain lion activity using radiocollars equipped with mercury tip-sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.; Johnson, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry collars with tip-sensors have long been used to monitor wildlife activity. However, comparatively few researchers have tested the reliability of the technique on the species being studied. To evaluate the efficacy of using tip-sensors to assess mountain lion (Puma concolor) activity, we radiocollared 2 hand-reared mountain lions and simultaneously recorded their behavior and the associated telemetry signal characteristics. We noted both the number of pulse-rate changes and the percentage of time the transmitter emitted a fast pulse rate (i.e., head up) within sampling intervals ranging from 1-5 minutes. Based on 27 hours of observations, we were able to correctly distinguish between active and inactive behaviors >93% of the time using a logistic regression model. We present several models to predict activity of mountain lions; the selection of which to us would depend on study objectives and logistics. Our results indicate that field protocols that use only pulse-rate changes to indicate activity can lead to significant classification errors.

  18. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  19. Correlation of the Applegate Group in the Oregon Klamath Mountains with terranes of the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt in California

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.G.; Tomlinson, S.L. . Dept. of Geosciences); Donato, M.M. )

    1993-04-01

    F.G. Wells' 1955 definition (U.S.G.S map MF-38) of the Applegate Group encompasses all metamorphic rocks in the western Paleozoic and Triassic belt (TrPz) in Oregon. In an attempt to understand the nature and origin of the Applegate Group, the authors have mapped two adjacent areas in southernmost Oregon and have geochemically analyzed representative metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. They recognize two lithologic units within the Applegate Group: (1) interbedded volcanogenic metasandstone and argillite, and (2) block-on-block ophiolitic melange that contains metaserpentinite, marble, metabasite, metagabbro, and siliceous metasedimentary rocks. In the Bolan Lake area, the volcanogenic rocks structurally overlie ophiolitic melange along a thrust fault and occupy a N-S trending graben that developed prior to 153 Ma. In both areas the volcanogenic units are characterized by crystal-lithic arenites and conglomerates. Plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and brown hornblende occurs as phenocrysts in lithic clasts and as individual detrital grains. Low-Ca pyroxene is absent. They interpret the volcanogenic units to represent submarine fan deposits on the basis of graded bedding, partial Bouma sequences, rip-up clasts, and channelized conglomerates. Geochemical compositions of the volcanogenic rocks from both areas are identical, with higher Zr/Ti and P/Ti ratios than those of the orphiolitic melange. The volcanogenic rocks are lithologically and compositionally identical to the western Hayfork terrane, which structurally overlies the Rattlesnake Creek terrane in California. The lithology and geochemistry of the ophiolitic melange are identical to those of the Rattlesnake Creek terrane in California. Therefore they correlate the Applegate Group south of approximately 42 [degree] 15[prime]N with these terranes in the TrPz in California.

  20. The Presence of a Stable Block bounded by Active Zones (Mobile Belts) in the southwestern North American Proterozoic craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodell, P.; Martinez P, C.; Mahar, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Bouguer gravity data, initial Sr isotope values, zircon U-Pb, and multiple occurrences of felsic Proterozoic rocks, have revealed an elevated, less deformed, felsic cratonic block in the northern Mexico. The block is situated in western Chihuahua and is bounded by active zones or mobile belts on three sides, and is here referred to as the Western Chihuahua Cratonic Block (WCCB). Bouguer gravity data clearly indicate a region of a highly negative anomaly (< -200 mgal) in contrast to adjoining areas. The region is large and the anomaly is relatively smooth over broad areas; the WCCB appears as a smaller version of the Colorado Plateau. The block is characterized by high initial Sr isotope ratios (<0.706). Several occurrences of Proterozoic rocks are located within or next to the WCCB, and they reveal the character of the Bouguer anomaly. On the east, at Los Filtros, Proterozoic rocks crop out in a basement cored uplift interpreted to having been derived from the WCCB during the Ouachita orogeny. At Sierra La Mojina boulders of 1.1 Ga granites are found in Permian conglomerates. And at Basasiachic, xenoliths of 1.1 Ga granites are present in ash flow tuffs. Establishment of the Precambrian character of the WCCB is of importance, and these multiple occurrences are evidence. Prior studies of the Sierra Madre Occidental suggest that the region was uplifted because of a vast Cenozoic batholith presumed to lie under the SLIP (Silicic Large Igneous Province), the Upper Volcanic Series. The present study challenges that conclusion and maintains the SMO is underlain by Proterozoic silicic crust. The geology of age dated samples supports this. The WCCB is surrounded on three sides by Active Zones or Mobile Belts, which have been active extensional and translational zones periodically over a long period of time. On the east are the Paleozoic Pedrogosa Basin, Mesozoic Chihuahua Trough and Cenozoic Rio Grande Rift, the first two of which also continue around the northern border

  1. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, D. J.; Perry, F. V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone ({approx}80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume

  2. Antiviral activity of polyporoid mushrooms (higher Basidiomycetes) from Altai Mountains (Russia).

    PubMed

    Teplyakova, Tamara V; Psurtseva, Nadezhda V; Kosogova, Tatiana A; Mazurkova, Natalia A; Khanin, Viacheslav A; Vlasenko, Viacheslav A

    2012-01-01

    Antiviral activity against type A influenza virus of birds A/chicken/Kurgan/05/2005 (H5N1) and humans A/Aichi/2/68 (H3N2) was investigated for aqueous extracts from mycelium of 11 basidial fungi species collected in the Altai Mountains (Altai Republic, Russia). The most perspective strains for producing antiviral medicines are studied strains Daedaleopsis confragosa, Datronia mollis, Ischnoderma benzoinum, Trametes gibbosa, T. versicolor, Laricifomes officinalis, and Lenzites betulina.

  3. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  4. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  5. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  6. Mushrooms collected from deogyu mountain, muju, Korea and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Jung, Yun-A; Yeom, Ji-Hee; Ki, Dae-Won; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Jin, Yong-Ju; Seok, Soon-Ja; Yun, Bong-Sik

    2012-06-01

    Mushrooms collected from Deogyu mountain, Korea, in 2011, were identified as four classes, four orders, 13 families, 22 genera, and 33 species. In particular, agaricales was most abundant and comprised more than 70%. Their antioxidant activities were estimated using three different bioassay methods, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. As a result, the methanol extracts of Stereum ostrea, Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus, and Tyromyces sambuceus exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all bioassays tested.

  7. Mushrooms Collected from Deogyu Mountain, Muju, Korea and Their Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung; Jung, Yun-A; Yeom, Ji-Hee; Ki, Dae-Won; Lee, Myeong-Seok; Song, Ja-Gyeong; Jin, Yong-Ju; Seok, Soon-Ja

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms collected from Deogyu mountain, Korea, in 2011, were identified as four classes, four orders, 13 families, 22 genera, and 33 species. In particular, agaricales was most abundant and comprised more than 70%. Their antioxidant activities were estimated using three different bioassay methods, the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, and reducing power assay. As a result, the methanol extracts of Stereum ostrea, Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus, and Tyromyces sambuceus exhibited potent antioxidant activity in all bioassays tested. PMID:22870057

  8. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  9. The effects of video-based and activity-based instruction on high school students' knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to seat belt use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tudor Griffith, III

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of video-based science instruction and accompanying activity-based instruction on the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions of high school students' use of seat belts. Secondarily, the purpose was to determine order effects and interactions between the two treatments used in the study: video-based instruction and hands-on activity-based instruction. The study used Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of reasoned action to investigate the factors influencing high school students' behavioral intentions regarding seat belt use. This study used a pretest-posttest-posttest treatment design. Data were collected on 194 students in high school introductory biology and chemistry classes in Gainesville, Florida. Ten intact high school science classes (eight treatment and two control) took pretests and posttests measuring physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to and after participating in the two treatments. The treatment group students participated in at least 500 minutes of instructional time divided among five lessons over 10 instructional days. All participants were pretested on physics knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions toward seat belt use prior to two treatments. Treatment A was defined as participating in one 50-minute video-based instructional lesson. Treatment B was defined as participating in four hands-on science activities regarding crash-related physics concepts. Cronbach's coefficient alpha was used for analysis of the researcher-designed instruments, and ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The results of the analyses (p < .004) revealed that students who participated in either treatment showed significant differences in knowledge gains on 75% of the test items. The sequence of treatments did not produce significant differences in groups' posttest 2 knowledge mean scores. Combining the treatments resulted in higher mean knowledge scores than either

  10. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  11. Influence of mechanical activation on the properties of natural zeolites from Tokaj Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzimov, A. Y.; Kulkov, S. N.; Kurovics, E.; Eckl, W.; Pappert, S.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of the influence of mechanical activation on morphology, specific surface area and phase composition of natural zeolite of Tokaj Mountain. During the mechanical activation of zeolites powders with specific surface area of 19-20 square meters per grams, significant changes in chemical and mineralogical compositions can be observed. The laboratory experiments had shown an intensive increase of specific surface area at the beginning of mechanical activation; a further relatively slow decrease and reduction of BET surfaces were observed. By increasing the mechanical activation time the amount of quartz, cristobalite-low, orthoclase mineral components were not stable, and their content have varied not so strongly as a decrease smectite 15 A, clinoptilolite, illite 2M1 or calcite. In addition, during the mechanical activation occurred amorphization, which was increased from 13% to 52%.

  12. Soils and geomorphic evolution of bedrock facets on a tectonically active mountain front, western Sangre de Cristo Mountains, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menges, Christopher M.

    1990-09-01

    Soil profiles, colluvial stratigraphy, and detailed hillslope morphology are key elements used for geomorphic interpretations of the form and long-term evolution of triangular facets on a 1200 m high, tectonically active mountain front. The facets are developed on Precambrian gneisses and Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks along a complexly segmented, active normal-fault zone in the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico. The detailed morphologies of 20- to 350 m high facets are defined by statistical and time-series analyses of 40 field transects that were keyed to observations of colluvium, bedrock, microtopography, and vegetation. The undissected parts of most facets are transport-limited hillslopes mantled with varying thicknesses (0.1 to > 1 m thick) of sand and gravel colluvium between generally sparse (≤10-30%) bedrock outcrops. Facet soils range from (a) thin (≤ 0.2 m) weakly developed soils with cumulic silty A or transitional A/B epipedons above Cox horizons in bedrock or colluvium, to (b) deep (≥0.5-1 m) moderately to strongly developed profiles containing thick cambic (Bw) and/or argillic (Bt) horizons that commonly extend into highly weathered saprolitic bedrock. The presence of strongly weathered profiles and thick colluvium suggests that rates of colluvial transport and hillslope erosion are less than or equal to rates of soil development over at least a large part of the Holocene. The catenary variation of soils and colluvium on selected facet transects indicate that the degree of soil development generally increases and the thickness of colluvium decreases upslope on most facets. This overall pattern is commonly disrupted on large facet hillslopes by irregular secondary soil variations linked to intermediate-scale (20-60 + m long) concave slope elements. These features are interpreted to reflect discontinuous transport and erosion of colluvium down-slope below bedrock outcrops. The degree of weathering in subsurface bedrock commonly

  13. TOSPAC calculations in support of the COVE 2A benchmarking activity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.H.; Zieman, N.B.; Miller, W.B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of the the Code Verification (COVE) 2A benchmarking activity is to assess the numerical accuracy of several computer programs for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project of the Department of Energy. This paper presents a brief description of the computer program TOSPAC and a discussion of the calculational effort and results generated by TOSPAC for the COVE 2A problem set. The calculations were performed twice. The initial calculations provided preliminary results for comparison with the results from other COVE 2A participants. TOSPAC was modified in response to the comparison and the final calculations included a correction and several enhancements to improve efficiency. 8 refs.

  14. MULTIPLE EPISODES OF IGNEOUS ACTIVITY, MINERALIZATION, AND ALTERATION IN THE WESTERN TUSHAR MOUNTAINS, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Campbell, David L.; Naeser, Charles W.; Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    The report outlines the complex history of igneous activity and associated alteration and mineralization in the western Tushar Mountains, Utah and pointss out implciations for minerals exploration. The area has been subjected to recurrent episodes of igneous intrusion, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization, and the mineral-resource potential of the different mineralized areas is directly related to local geologic history. The mineral commodities to be expected vary from one hydrothermal system to another, and from one depth to another within any given system. Uranium and molybdenum seem likely to have the greatest economic potential, although significant concentrations of gold may also exist.

  15. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  16. Bat activity in harvested and intact forest stands in the allegheny mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.; Menzel, J.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, K.V.

    2004-01-01

    We used Anabat acoustical monitoring devices to examine bat activity in intact canopy forests, complex canopy forests with gaps, forests subjected to diameter-limit harvests, recent deferment harvests, clearcuts and unmanaged forested riparian areas in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia in the summer of 1999. We detected eight species of bats, including the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Most bat activity was concentrated in forested riparian areas. Among upland habitats, activity of silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) was higher in open, less cluttered vegetative types such as recent deferment harvests and clearcuts. Our results suggest that bat species in the central Appalachians partially segregate themselves among vegetative conditions based on differences in body morphology and echolocation call characteristics. From the standpoint of conserving bat foraging habitat for the maximum number of species in the central Appalachians, special emphasis should be placed on protecting forested riparian areas.

  17. Influence of traffic activity on heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-05-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals' homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  18. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  19. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  20. active tectonics, incision rate and sedimentation in the subandean belt inferred from the caracteristics of the Pilcomayo river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bécel, D.; Mugnier, J. L.; Granjeon, D.

    2003-04-01

    Simple rationales have generally been used to derive a resultant macroscopic relationship and to relate channel river properties, to the rate of fluvial incision into bedrock. The fluvial shear stress model seems a robust model for the active foothill environment. To use this model, we have therefore collected the parameters of the Pilcomayo river: a) granulometry from field work ; b) drainage area from DEM ; c) slope from 1/50000 topographic maps and GPS measurements ; d) width from field work and topographic maps ; e) water discharge from filled work and bibliography. A comparison between the calculated shear stress and the structure of the subandean zone shows that the shear stress increases at the hanging-wall of 3 thrust faults. These faults show field evidence of recent thrust activity, and we use the ratio of Shield stress through the tertiary sediments at the hanging-wall of these faults to estimate the ratio of activity of these faults. It is found that half of the motion occurs along the Aguarague structure. Considering a 10 mm/yr. mean shortening rate through the subandean belt, the maximum uplift rate is about 6 mm/yr. and the erodability coefficient of the Tertiary is about 40 mm/yr. The shield stress also abruptly increases at the transition between subandean zone and interandean zone, suggesting that this latter develops like a mid-crustal in sequence stack. In the Eastern cordillera, the long term incision is low (1200 m for 3 Ma, i.e. 0.4 mm/yr.) and river presently incises fluvial sediments (Puente Sucre) deposited after 100 000 yr. BP.

  1. Yucca Mountain program summary of research and technical review activities, July 1988--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI), through its Water Resources Center (WRC), since 1984 has supported the State of Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office`s activities related to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This effort is directed at providing the State Office with an unbiased evaluation of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) investigations performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall objective is to determine independently whether or not the site meets the performance criteria defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and amendments for isolating and containing the wastes during emplacement and the proposed life of the repository. A particularly important area of concern with the proposed repository is the site`s hydrology. The faculty of the DRI have long been involved with research throughout the State and have particular expertise in groundwater studies related to radionuclide migration and hydrologic safety of underground nuclear testing by DOE and predecessor agencies. In addition, we utilize laboratory personnel for chemical and isotopic analyses in both of the DRI-WMC water chemistry laboratories.

  2. Evaluation of the US DOE's conceptual model of hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublyansky, Y. V.

    2014-08-01

    A unique conceptual model describing the conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE to keep from considering hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. The evaluation presented in this paper shows that no computational modeling results have yet produced a satisfactory match with the empirical benchmark data, specifically with age and fluid inclusion data that indicate high temperatures (up to ca. 80 °C) in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain. Auxiliary sub-models complementing the DOE model, as well as observations at a natural analog site, have also been evaluated. Summarily, the model cannot be considered as validated. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the appropriateness of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.

  3. Using Digital Topography to Differentiate Erosionally Exhumed and Tectonically Active Mountains Fronts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, K. L.; Pazzaglia, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Mountain ranges in the southern Rocky Mountains have departed on unique landscape evolutionary pathways in the late Cenozoic that are directly dependent upon the degree of post-orogenic tectonic activity they have experienced. The topography of Sierra Nacimiento, a Laramide uplift in west-central New Mexico lacking an active range-front fault, is shaped primarily by erosional exhumation that is continuous, but not steady, being driven by distal base level fall from Rio Grande incision and resultant south to north knickpoint migration. In contrast, the topography of the Taos Range, a rift flank uplift in north-central New Mexico is shaped by contrasting active stream incision and aggradation astride an active range front normal fault. The distinction between exhumation-dominated and tectonically-dominated mountain fronts is best quantified by analyses of a new metric we call the drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (V-A ratio) as well as the gradients of first-order streams. Drainage basin volume and area are calculated by constructing topographic envelope maps from 10 m resolution digital elevation models (DEM). The envelope maps are pinned by the watershed divide and cover the maximum elevations in each drainage basin. Subtracting the original DEM from the maximum elevation envelope map produces a topographic residual map from which area and volume data can be obtained. The erosionally exhumed Sierra Nacimiento has a mean V-A ratio of 88 m while the tectonically active Taos Range has a mean V-A ratio of 140 m. Similarly, there are systematic differences in the gradients of first order streams measured both in the range block and approximately 5 km of adjacent piedmont. Streams were defined and subsequently Strahler ordered by a flow accumulation threshold of 250 water-equivalent grid cell units. First order stream channel long profiles were extracted from the DEM at 30 meter increments and gradients were calculated by a FORTRAN program. Gradients of

  4. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  5. Sources and evolution of cloud-active aerosol in California's Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, G. C.; Corrigan, C.; Noblitt, S.; Creamean, J.; Collins, D. B.; Cahill, J. F.; Prather, K. A.; Collett, J. L.; Henry, C.

    2011-12-01

    To assess the sources of cloud-active aerosol and their influence on the hydrological cycle in California, the CalWater Experiment took place in winter 2011 in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. During this experiment, we coupled the capabilities of demonstrated miniaturized instrumentation - cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), water condensation nuclei (WCN) and microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) - to provide direct chemical measurements of cloud active aerosols. Ion concentrations of CCN droplets attribute the anthropogenic, marine and secondary organic contributions to cloud-active aerosols. Detailed spectra from an Aerosol-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer provide additional information on the sources of aerosol. Storm fronts and changes in atmospheric boundary layer brought aerosol and anions associated with Central Valley pollution to the field site with CCN concentrations reaching several thousand cm-3. Hygroscopicity parameters indicate aging of the organic fraction during aerosol transport from the Central Valley to the mountains. Otherwise, CCN concentrations were low when high pressure systems prevented boundary layer development and intrusion of the Central Valley pollution to the site. MCE results show that nitrates and sulfates comprise most of the fraction of the aerosol anion mass (PM1). During the passage of storm fronts, which transported pollution from the Central Valley upslope, nitrate concentrations peaked at several μ g m-3. Low supersaturation CCN concentrations coincide with increases in aerosol nitrate, which suggests that nitrate has a role in cloud formation of giant CCN and, furthermore, in precipitation processes in the Sierra Nevada. CCN spectra show large variations depending on the aerosol sources and sometimes exhibit bi-modal distributions with minima at 0.3% Sc -- similar to the so-called 'Hoppel minima' associated to number size distributions. During these bi-modal events, sulfate also increases supporting the

  6. Lighting-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) Events versus Geomagnetic Activity: A Probe Tool to Re-Evaluate the Electron Radiation Belt Loss Mechanisms (P16)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, J. H.; Raulin, J.-P.; Correia, E.; Brum, C. G. M.

    2006-11-01

    We present the first results of an incipient attempt to re-model the Van Allen electron radiation belts equilibrium mechanisms. During the 23rd cycle solar minimum period (1995-1997) the Lightning- induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) events (electron precipitation from the geo-space to the upper Earth atmosphere) occurrence at the Antarctica Peninsula region was collected and studied. With statistical techniques we have reproduced the pattern of the events incidence during that period. The year 1998 was also analyzed and two well-defined geomagnetic storms (01-07 May and 26-31 Aug) were studied in association with the Trimpi events data. We have confirmed the narrow relationship between events occurrence rate and geomagnetic activity. The next step, in order to carry on the model, will be the modeling of the solar maximum LEP occurrence and to compute these results in the present radiation belts population models.

  7. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  8. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  9. [Species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountains, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanming; Cao, Tong; Pan, Borong

    2003-06-01

    By means of species similarity coefficient and species diversity index, the characteristics of species diversity of floor bryophyte communities in Bogda Mountain, Xinjiang were studied. The results showed that the bryoflora of Bogda Mountain had the characteristics of richness and complexion. There were 186 floor species (including infraspecies taxa) belonging to 73 genera of 32 families. The species similarity between mountain desert and mountain grassland belt was the highest (0.6809), while that between mountain forest and alpine cushion belt was the lowest (0.1342). The bryophyte community in mountain forest was the ominant one among the floor bryophyte communities. The bryophyte community in mountain forest had the richest species diversity, and the mountain forest was the distribution center of bryophyte diversity and the key area for bryophyte diversity conservation in Bogda Mountain area.

  10. Evaluation of the US DOE's conceptual model of hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dublyansky, Y. V.

    2012-11-01

    A unique conceptual model envisaging conductive heating of rocks in the thick unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada by a silicic pluton emplaced several kilometers away is accepted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an explanation of the elevated depositional temperatures measured in fluid inclusions in secondary fluorite and calcite. Acceptance of this model allowed the DOE not to consider hydrothermal activity in the performance assessment of the proposed high-level nuclear waste disposal facility. Evaluation shows that validation of the model by computational modeling and by observations at a natural analog site was unsuccessful. Due to the lack of validation, the reliance on this model must be discontinued and the scientific defensibility of decisions which rely on this model must be re-evaluated.

  11. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.

  12. Nrf2 activation: a potential strategy for the prevention of acute mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Lisk, Christina; McCord, Joe; Bose, Swapan; Sullivan, Tim; Loomis, Zoe; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Schroeder, Thies; Hamilton, Karyn; Irwin, David C

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during acute high altitude exposure contribute to cerebral vascular leak and development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of greater than 90% of antioxidant genes, but prophylactic treatment with Nrf2 activators has not yet been tested as an AMS therapy. We hypothesized that prophylactic activation of the antioxidant genome with Nrf2 activators would attenuate high-altitude-induced ROS formation and cerebral vascular leak and that some drugs currently used to treat AMS symptoms have an additional trait of Nrf2 activation. Drugs commonly used to treat AMS were screened with a luciferase reporter cell system for their effectiveness to activate Nrf2, as well as being tested for their ability to decrease high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo. Compounds that showed favorable results for Nrf2 activation from our screen and attenuated high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo were further tested in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) to determine if they attenuated hypoxia-induced ROS production and monolayer permeability. Of nine drugs tested, with the exception of dexamethasone, only drugs that showed the ability to activate Nrf2 (Protandim, methazolamide, nifedipine, amlodipine, ambrisentan, and sitaxentan) decreased high-altitude-induced cerebral vascular leak in vivo. In vitro, Nrf2 activation in BMECs before 24h hypoxia exposure attenuated hypoxic-induced hydrogen peroxide production and permeability. Prophylactic Nrf2 activation is effective at reducing brain vascular leak from acute high altitude exposures. Compared to acetazolamide, methazolamide may offer better protection against AMS. Nifedipine, in addition to its known vasodilatory activities in the lung and protection against high altitude pulmonary edema, may provide protection against brain vascular leak as well.

  13. Nrf2 Activation: A potential strategy for the prevention of Acute Mountain Sickness

    PubMed Central

    Lisk, Christina; McCord, Joe; Bose, Swapan; Sullivan, Tim; Loomis, Zoe; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Schroeder, Thies; Hamilton, Karyn; Irwin, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during acute high altitude exposure contributes to cerebral vascular leak and development of acute mountain sickness (AMS). Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that regulates expression of greater than 90% of antioxidant genes, but prophylactic treatment with Nrf2 activators has not yet been tested as an AMS therapy. We hypothesized that prophylactic activation of the antioxidant genome with Nrf2 activators would attenuate high altitude-induced ROS formation and cerebral vascular leak, and that some drugs currently used to treat AMS symptoms have an additional trait of Nrf2 activation. Methods Drugs commonly used to treat AMS were screened with a luciferase reporter cell system for their effectiveness to activate Nrf2, as well as tested for their ability to decrease high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo. Compounds that showed favorable results for Nrf2 activation from our screen and attenuated high altitude cerebral vascular leak in vivo were further tested in brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC) to determine if they attenuated hypoxia-induced ROS production and monolayer permeability. Results Of 9 drugs tested, with the exception of dexamethasone, only drugs that showed the ability to activate Nrf2 (Protandim, methazolamide, nifedipine, amlodipine, ambrisentan, and sitaxentan) decreased high altitude-induced cerebral vascular leak in vivo. In vitro, Nrf2 activation in BMEC prior to 24 h hypoxia exposure attenuated hypoxic-induced hydrogen peroxide production and permeability. Conclusions Prophylactic Nrf2 activation is effective at reducing brain vascular leak from acute high altitude exposures. Compared to acetazolamide, methazolamide may offer better protection against AMS. Nifedipine, in addition to its known vasodilatory activities in the lung and protection against high altitude pulmonary edema, may provide protection against brain vascular leak

  14. Intracaldera volcanic activity, Toledo caldera and embayment, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Stix, J.; Shafiqullah, M.; Garcia, S.; Hagan, R.

    1986-02-10

    The Toledo caldera was formed at 1.47 +- 0.06 Ma during the catastrophic eruption of the lower member, Bandelier Tuff. The caldera was obscured at 1.12 +- 0.03 Ma during eruption of the equally voluminous upper member of the Bandelier Tuff that led to formation of the Valles caldera. Earlier workers interpreted a 9-km-diameter embayment, located NE of the Valles caldera (Toledo embayment), to be a remnant of the Toledo caldera. Drill hole data and new K-Ar dates of Toledo intracaldera domes redefine the position of Toledo caldera, nearly coincident with and of the same dimensions as the younger Valles caldera. the Toledo embayment may be of tectonic origin or a small Tschicoma volcanic center caldera. This interpretation is consistent with distribution of the lower member of the Bandelier Tuff and with several other field and drilling-related observations. Explosive activity associated with Cerro Toledo Rhyolite domes is recorded in tuff deposits located between the lower and upper members of the Bandelier Tuff on the northeast flank of the Jemez Mountains. Recorded in the tuff deposits are seven cycles of explosive activity. Most cycles consists of phreatomagmatic tuffs that grade upward into Plinian pumice beds. A separate deposit, of the same age and consisting of pyroclastic surges and flows, is associated with Rabbit Mountain, located on the southeast rim of the Valles-Toledo caldera complex. These are the surface expression of what may be a thicker, more voluminous intracaldera tuff sequence. The combined deposits of the lower and upper members of the Bandelier Tuff, Toledo and Valles intracaldera sediments, tuffs, and dome lavas form what we interpret to be a wedge-shaped caldera fill. This sequence is confirmed by deep drill holes and gravity surveys.

  15. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Sun, Han-Ju; Zha, Xueqiang

    2015-10-20

    In this paper, a polysaccharide fraction (FMPS) was purified from the floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain for the first time. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of FMPS were investigated. FMPS had an average molecular weight of 7.2×10(5)Da and was composed of glucose. On the basis of FT-IR, NMR and methylation analysis, the repeating unit of FMPS was established as (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl backbone with 1-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl branches substituted at O-6 position of (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. The advanced structure studies indicated that FMPS was a triple-helical polysaccharide. The main hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of FMPS was 23.4nm and it could form a stable system with water in 1.2×10(-2)g/mL solutions. In addition, FMPS exhibited high DPPH radical scavenging activities (79.46% at 5mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (74.18% at 5mg/mL), as well as Fe(2+)chelating activities and ABTS radical scavenging activities to some extent.

  16. The role of EUV/X-ray solar activity and electron precipitations from radiation belts in the climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergey; Voronin, Nikolai; Baranova, Lubov

    The authors associate the recently observed climate warming and carbon dioxide concentration growth in lower atmospheric layers with variations of the solar-geomagnetic activity contribution to global cloud formation and with significant decrease of carbon dioxide accumulation in forests in the process of photosynthesis. The contribution of the greenhouse effect of carbon-bearing gases to global warming turns out to be insignificant. We consider the impact of microwave emissions of the ionosphere disturbed by solar flares and magnetic storms on the troposphere and suggest the radio-optical trigger mechanism of the solar influence on weather and climate of the Earth, which consists of the following three stages: - the ionosphere absorbs the ionizing solar radiation and corpuscles from the radiation belts and transforms these into microwaves through the excitation of Rydberg states by electron impact (ionospheric photoelectron, secondary and Auger electrons); - the rates of formation and destruction of water cluster ions in the troposphere are regulated by the microwave radiation; - the clusters contribute to formation of clouds, which affects the energy flux of solar radiation through the troposphere and the flux of outgoing heat from the underlying surface. All stages of the proposed mechanism were strictly confirmed: amplification of ionospheric microwave radiation during solar flares and magnetic storms was detected; the regulation of humidity at altitude above 2 km by solar microwave emission during solar flares was registered; an influence of solar flares and magnetic storms on the cloudiness is distinctly registered at least in some geographic areas; a direct influence of solar-geomagnetic activity on the global total cloud cover in latest maximum of secular variability (in 1985 - in electromagnetic solar activity, and in 2003 - in geomagnetic activity) was discovered. Basing on analysis of satellite data on global cloud cover and radiation balance the

  17. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  18. The upper Pleistocene on the northern face of the Guadarrama Mountains (central Spain): Palaeoclimatic phases and glacial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The present paper provides new information on Pleistocene glacial activity in a mountainous area of the Iberian Central System. A sediment analysis associated with Pleistocene modelling was carried out using: (1) granulometric and morphometric procedures, (2) quartz grain microtexture techniques (SEM) to discriminate between glacial and no glacial origins of sediments, (3) clay X-ray diffraction study to determine intra-Pleistocene climate variability, and (4) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) absolute dating. The results show that the sediments were formed in two different phases associated with glacial dynamics, one of them was 35-30 ky BP and another was 25-20 ky BP, separated by a short intermediate warm-wet period. Identification of glacial phenomena is new for the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountains (facing the north Meseta, Duero basin), although they are not unusual within the general context of the Iberian Central System. From the data provided, we deduce that glaciation in these mountains was much more intense and widespread than had previously been thought because, on the northern slopes, glaciers occupied large areas reaching the base of the mountains. The evidence favours new interpretations of Pleistocene morphology in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula and, by extension, on the southwestern edge of Europe; it also highlights the sensitivity of mountainous areas with regard to Quaternary climate changes.

  19. Seismic activity during the 1968 test pumping at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Donald B.; Dietrich, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1968 pumping tests at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal disposal welt, the U.S. Geological Survey was responsible for monitoring earthquakes occurring in the area of the arsenal and making chemical analysis of the fluids removed, three criteria were established to suspend the pumping if anomalous earthquake activity occurred during the pumping test. These criteria were based on the frequency, magnitude, and location of the local earthquakes. The pumping program consisted of four tests which occurred between September 3 and October 26, 1968. During periods of pumping, earthquake activity remained within acceptable limits and no suspensions of the pumping were required. After each of the two major pumping periods an increase in the frequency of small earthquakes occurred. During the first of these two periods of high seismic activity the Geological Survey recommended a delay in the start of the next phase of the pumping until the activity subsided. Most of the earthquakes during 1968 occurred northwest of the arsenal; however, in the 2? month period after the start of the test, a larger percent of the earthquakes occurred on the arsenal than in the previous 8-month period. The temperature in the cooled zone at the bottom of the well was 12?F warmer 2 weeks after pumping stopped than it was in January 1968. Preliminary chemical analyses indicate that very little mixing between waste fluids and connate water bas occurred.

  20. Diet and activity budget of Rhinopithecus roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo; Watanabe, Kunio

    2007-10-01

    We collected data on diet and daytime activity budget, and investigated the phenology of food trees and food abundance for a group of Rhinopithecus roxellana on the East Ridge of Yuhuangmiao in the Qinling Mountains from November 2001 to December 2003. We calculated the seasonal activity budget using data collected by scan sampling from 84 full-day observations (winter 16, spring 18, summer 28, autumn 22 days). During scan sampling we recorded behavioral states, and the food items and species consumed. The subjects consumed 84 plant species, including trees and shrubs of 29 families, and lichens. Food species varied seasonally. The overall diet of R. roxellana consisted of 29.4% fruit/seeds, 29.0% lichens, 24.0% leaves, 11.1% bark, 4.2% buds, 1.3% twigs and 1.0% unidentified items. Because the abundance of different food items varied seasonally, the monkeys had to shift their major food items seasonally. The annual activity budget of R. roxellana was 36.2% time spent resting, 35.8% feeding, 22.9% moving, and 5.1% other behavior. Seasonal changes in activity budget were observed. R. roxellana spent more time moving in autumn, when the quality of the food might be highest, and least time moving in winter when the food quality might be lowest. Thus, this type of monkey has a passive foraging strategy.

  1. Influence of wheel size on muscle activity and tri-axial accelerations during cross-country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Howard Thomas; Sinclair, Jonathan; Atkins, Stephen; Rylands, Lee; Metcalfe, John

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of different mountain bike wheel diameters on muscle activity and whether larger diameter wheels attenuate muscle vibrations during cross-country riding. Nine male competitive mountain bikers (age 34.7 ± 10.7 years; stature 177.7 ± 5.6 cm; body mass 73.2 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the study. Riders performed one lap at race pace on 26, 27.5 and 29 inch wheeled mountain bikes. sEMG and acceleration (RMS) were recorded for the full lap and during ascent and descent phases at the gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, biceps brachii and triceps brachii. No significant main effects were found by wheel size for each of the four muscle groups for sEMG or acceleration during the full lap and for ascent and descent (P > .05). When data were analysed between muscle groups, significant differences were found between biceps brachii and triceps brachii (P < .05) for all wheel sizes and all phases of the lap with the exception of for the 26 inch wheel during the descent. Findings suggest wheel diameter has no influence on muscle activity and vibration during mountain biking. However, more activity was observed in the biceps brachii during 26 inch wheel descending. This is possibly due to an increased need to manoeuvre the front wheel over obstacles.

  2. Evidence for Microbial Activity in ~3.5 Ga Pillow Basalts From the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muehlenbachs, K.; Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-05-01

    We have discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of pillow lavas from the Mesoarchean Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa. Over the last decade, bioalteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from in-situ oceanic crust and well-preserved Phanerozoic ophiolites. Much of the debate regarding the biogenicity of purported microfossils of early life centers on the interpretation of the host rocks' protoliths. To date, most protoliths have been interpreted to be of sedimentary origin. Some workers have proposed alternate origins for these substrates, including hydrothermal and even volcanic derivation, to cast doubt on their putative biogenicity. Hence studies documenting evidence for early life have proven to be controversial. Here we document evidence for microbial activity in ~3.5 Ga subaqueous volcanic rocks that represent a new, unambiguous geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. The BGB magmatic sequence is dominated by mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3480- to 3220-million-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. The BGB pillow lavas are exceptionally well-preserved and represent unequivocal evidence that these rocks were erupted in a subaqueous environment. The formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas contain micron-sized, microbially generated, tubular structures consisting of titanite. These structures are interpreted to have formed during microbial etching of the originally glassy pillow rims and were subsequently mineralized by titanite during greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration. Overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates from the pillow lavas suggest this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas on the seafloor. X-ray mapping has revealed the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially altered BGB

  3. Effects of Recurring Droughts on Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Mountain Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Bahn, M.; Kienzl, S.; Hofhansl, F.; Schnecker, J.; Richter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Water availability is a key factor for biogeochemical processes and determines microbial activity and functioning, and thereby organic matter decomposition in soils by affecting the osmotic potential, soil pore connectivity, substrate diffusion and nutrient availability. Low water availability during drought periods therefore directly affects microbial activity. Recurring drought periods likely induce shifts in microbial structure that might be reflected in altered responses of microbial turnover of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. To study this we measured a set of potential extracellular enzyme activity rates (cellobiohydrolase CBH; leucine-amino-peptidase LAP; phosphatase PHOS; phenoloxidase POX), in grassland soils that were exposed to extreme experimental droughts during the growing seasons of up to five subsequent years. During the first drought period after eight weeks of rain exclusion all measured potential enzyme activities were significantly decreased. In parallel, soil extractable organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations increased and microbial community structure, determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, changed. In soils that were exposed to two and three drought periods only PHOS decreased. After four years of drought again CBH, PHOS and POX decreased, while LAP was unaffected; after five years of drought PHOS and POX decreased and CBH and LAP remained stable. Thus, our results suggest that recurring extreme drought events can cause different responses of extracellular enzyme activities and that the responses change over time. We will discuss whether and to what degree these changes were related to shifts in microbial community composition. However, independent of whether a solitary or a recurrent drought was imposed, in cases when enzyme activity rates were altered during drought, they quickly recovered after rewetting. Overall, our data suggest that microbial functioning in mountain grassland is sensitive to drought, but highly

  4. Analysis of the neutron component at high altitude mountains using active and passive measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Schöner, W.; Vana, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv/a. On an average, this value is exceeded by aircrew members. Roughly half of the radiation exposure at flight altitudes is caused by cosmic ray-induced neutrons. Active ( 6LiI(Eu)-scintillator) and passive (TLDs) Bonner sphere spectrometers were used to determine the neutron energy spectra atop Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m) and Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m). Further measurements in a mixed radiation field at CERN as well as in a proton beam of 62 MeV at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, confirmed that not only neutrons but also charged particles contribute to the readings of active detectors, whereas TLD-600 and TLD-700 in pair allow the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Unfolding of the detector data obtained atop both mountains shows two relative maxima around 1 MeV and 85 MeV, which have to be considered for the assessment of the biologically relevant dose equivalent. By convoluting the spectra with appropriate conversion functions the neutron dose equivalent rate was determined to be 150±15 nSv/h. The total dose equivalent rate determined by the HTR-method was 210±15 nSv/h. The results are in good agreement with LET-spectrometer and Sievert counter measurements carried out simultaneously.

  5. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    PubMed

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment.

  6. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  7. Winter Westerly Disturbance Activity in High Mountain Asia: A Wave Tracking Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, F.; Carvalho, L. V.; Jones, C.; Norris, J.

    2014-12-01

    Extra-tropical cyclones, including Winter Westerly Disturbances (WWD) over central Asia, are fundamental features of the atmosphere that maintain energy, momentum, and moisture at global scales while intimately linking large-scale circulation to regional-scale meteorology. Within High Mountain Asia (HMA), there is no mechanism that is more important in contributing to water supply during winter, and therefore it is important that we create a baseline climatology of these disturbances and further explore variability over time. Eulerian methods of investigating variance of fields related to WWD at synoptic scales are typically employed as a general measure of storm track activity. However, Eulerian statistics cannot convey important information regarding the specifics of individual systems, nor can the attributes of a cyclone be taken directly. Thus, a Lagrangian method of automatically tracking WWD, which can provide complementary information about individual systems and allows us to investigate track activity, is desired. Currently, there is no technique that adequately captures WWD, which often propagate along relatively low latitudes, encounter highly variable topography, exhibit strong tropical influences, and are highly asymmetric. In this study, we utilize the atmospheric wave signature of WWD in upper-level geopotential height to identify individual systems responsible for HMA precipitation and track their life cycles. This provides a valuable link between the large-scale climate, transient disturbances, and hydrologic processes within HMA, and allows us to evaluate WWD on a per-case basis while considering all factors that relate these systems to precipitation in the mountains. This framework enables us to consider the relative contribution of dynamically forced orographic precipitation in HMA associated with cyclone intensity and wind speed, as well as the contribution of convective instability, which may facilitate heavy precipitation with weak mechanical

  8. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  9. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  10. Differential structural and geomorphic mountain-front evolution in an active continental collision zone: the NW Pamir, southern Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Coutand, I.

    2002-12-01

    Western, central, and eastern segments of the Trans Alai mountain front in the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan have accommodated varying degrees of approachment of the Pamir orogen with respect to the Tien Shan mountains to the north. Ongoing collision between the northwestern corner of the Indian indenter and Eurasia has resulted in closure of the intramontane Alai Valley, which separates the Tien Shan and Trans Alai (Pamir) ranges. The different segments highlight the processes of shaping tectonically active mountain fronts in a semi-arid environment. In this study, we have characterized this variation in processes with compilations of regional tectonic information, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps, topographic analyses, and interpretation of seismic reflection data. Along the sinuous western segment of the mountain front, dextrally oblique thrusting has created a wide (>500m) zone of highly erodible fault gouge. This fault zone impinges on the southern Tien Shan, but complete basin closure is prevented by erosion of the westward-flowing Kyzilsu River; the Kyzilsu valley forms the only outlet and is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin linking the Tarim Basin of China with the Tadjik Depression in the west. Numerous large landslides rooted in the fault zone have covered the trace of the active fault, which is partially undercut by the Kyzilsu River. Older, large landslides in this setting are associated with different levels of fluvial terraces of the former or present course of the Kyzilsu River, suggesting a causative relation between lateral fluvial scouring, failure of mechanically weak mountain fronts, ongoing faulting, and mass transfer. Along the linear central segment, deformation is confined to a narrow single south-dipping thrust fault that juxtaposes Pliocene/Pleistocene and Holocene conglomerates. In this sector, the mountain front has numerous Holocene offsets. This prevailing structural style and the long-term deformation are

  11. Differential structural and geomorphic mountain-front evolution in an active continental collision zone: the NW Pamir, southern Kyrgyzstan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Hilley, G. E.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Coutand, I.

    2003-04-01

    Western, central, and eastern segments of the Trans Alai mountain front in the northern Pamir of Kyrgyzstan have accommodated varying degrees of approachment of the Pamir orogen with respect to the Tien Shan mountains to the north. Ongoing collision between the northwestern corner of the Indian indenter and Eurasia has resulted in closure of the intramontane Alai Valley, which separates the Tien Shan and Trans Alai (Pamir) ranges. The different segments highlight the processes of shaping tectonically active mountain fronts in a semi-arid environment. In this study, we have characterized this variation in processes with compilations of regional tectonic information, detailed geologic and geomorphic maps, topographic analyses, and interpretation of seismic reflection data. Along the sinuous western segment of the mountain front, dextrally oblique thrusting has created a wide (>500m) zone of highly erodible fault gouge. This fault zone impinges on the southern Tien Shan, but complete basin closure is prevented by erosion of the westward-flowing Kyzilsu River; the Kyzilsu valley forms the only outlet and is the vestige of a formerly contiguous sedimentary basin linking the Tarim Basin of China with the Tadjik Depression in the west. Numerous large landslides rooted in the fault zone have covered the trace of the active fault, which is partially undercut by the Kyzilsu River. Older, large landslides in this setting are associated with different levels of fluvial terraces of the former or present course of the Kyzilsu River, suggesting a causative relation between lateral fluvial scouring, failure of mechanically weak mountain fronts, ongoing faulting, and mass transfer. Along the linear central segment, deformation is confined to a narrow single south-dipping thrust fault that juxtaposes Pliocene/Pleistocene and Holocene conglomerates. In this sector, the mountain front has numerous Holocene offsets. This prevailing structural style and the long-term deformation are

  12. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  13. Eliciting antibiotics active against the ESKAPE pathogens in a collection of actinomycetes isolated from mountain soils.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hua; Swierstra, Jasper; Wu, Changsheng; Girard, Geneviève; Choi, Young Hae; van Wamel, Willem; Sandiford, Stephanie K; van Wezel, Gilles P

    2014-08-01

    The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens poses a major threat for human health. In recent years, genome sequencing has unveiled many poorly expressed antibiotic clusters in actinomycetes. Here, we report a well-defined ecological collection of >800 actinomycetes obtained from sites in the Himalaya and Qinling mountains, and we used these in a concept study to see how efficiently antibiotics can be elicited against MDR pathogens isolated recently from the clinic. Using 40 different growth conditions, 96 actinomycetes were identified - predominantly Streptomyces - that produced antibiotics with efficacy against the MDR clinical isolates referred to as ESKAPE pathogens: Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and/or Enterobacter cloacae. Antimicrobial activities that fluctuated strongly with growth conditions were correlated with specific compounds, including borrelidin, resistomycin, carbomethoxy-phenazine, and 6,7,8- and 5,6,8-trimethoxy-3-methylisocoumarin, of which the latter was not described previously. Our work provided insights into the potential of actinomycetes as producers of drugs with efficacy against clinical isolates that have emerged recently and also underlined the importance of targeting a specific pathogen.

  14. The elevational pattern of microbial community and enzyme activity along the northern slop of Changbai Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Yu, Guirui; Zhang, Xinyu; Ge, Jianpin; He, Nianpeng; Wang, Qiufeng; Wang, Dan

    2014-05-01

    we present a comprehensive analysis of soil microbial community structure, enzyme activities and their role in soil organic matter mineralization along six elevations representing five typical vegetation types from forest to alpine tundra in Changbai Mountain, China. The results showed that the microbial PLFAs presented hump-shaped patterns along the elevation with the total microbial PLFAs highest in Ermans birch forest soil. The fungi to bacteria and gram positive to negative bacteria ratios increased along the elevation with the lowest values in Broad leaved forest and Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest soil, respectively. The soil microbial community structures showed a biogeography distribution pattern in vertical direction with microbial community structures in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest different from other four sites. The soil enzyme activities in Broad leaved forest and Mixed coniferous broad leaved forest were significantly higher than in other four elevations. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed substantial differences in soil microbial community composition among study sites, appeared to be driven primarily by MAT, MAP, soil temperature and content of silt & clay on the first principal component (PC1) which accounted for 87.1 % of the total sample variance. However, soil nutrients mainly responsible for the variation of soil enzyme activities. The soil organic matter mineralization rates tended to be highest in Ermans birch forest site and lowest in Dark-coniferous spruce-fir forest site and showed positive relationship with total microbial, bacterial and actinomycetes PLFAs. These findings could be used to facilitate interpretation of soil microbial community and ecological function in latitude forests ecosystem especially in volcanic forest ecosystem.

  15. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J.; Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  16. Active fold-thrust belts in the foreland of eastern Tibet, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines in Sichuan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Chan, Yu-Chang; Lu, Chia-Yu; Chen, Chih-Tung; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Liu, Yuiping; Li, Jianzhong

    2016-04-01

    The 2008 M7.9 Wenchuan earthquake ruptured from the Longmenshan fault system, which is the frontal thrust system in eastern Tibet. Further east toward the foreland area in the Sichuan basin, it sits two anticlinal structures, the Longquan and Xiongpu anticlines, which trends sub-parallel to the Longmenshan range with a distance of about 70-100 km to the mountain front. It is widely considered that these two anticlinal features are attributed to propagation of the eastward extrusion of the eastern Tibetan plateau, similar to the stress system the Wenchuan earthquake. In this study, we carried out field investigations on these two active anticlinal structures in order to characterize the bulk deformation of the anticlines. We also conducted fracture analysis and fault-slip data analysis, in an attempt to characterize the fracture developments of the rock and the paleostress states related to the faulting events associated growth of the anticlines. We thus constructed a series of geological cross sections along these two anticlines. Our results show that the Longquan anticline is characterized by pop up structure with a dominant west-vergent thrust (i.e., backthrust) on the western limb. On the other hand to the eastern limb, an east-vergent thrust only well developed in the middle part of the anticline and die out toward the north and the south. For the Xiongpu anticline, it is characterized by a pre-dominant west-vergent backthrust system without developing an east-vergent thrust. A strike-slip fault and a series of N-S-trending pop-up thrusts cut across the Xiongpu anticline indicate a rather complex stress system with two dominant compression directions, NW-SE and E-W, subsequently or alternatively affected the area. Finally, the fracture analysis revealed that 2-3 pre-dominant bedding-perpendicular fracture sets are commonly developed in the massive sandstone layers. Most of them seemingly are of the characteristics of the mode I open joint, without clear

  17. Cenozoic stratigraphy and basin tectonics of the Andes Mountains, 20/sup 0/-28/sup 0/ south latitude

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.E.; Alonso, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    Clastic sedimentary basins have evolved during the past 40 m.y. in the central Andes (lat. 20/sup 0/-28/sub 0/S) in response to shifting patterns of magmatism and deformation. The distribution of these basins and their genetic relations to uplifted areas are analogous to the basins and mountain belts of the North American Rocky Mountains during the Late Cretaceous and early Cenozoic. Petroleum exploration has focused on zones underlying the upper Cenozoic strata along the eastern margin of the Andes mountain belt. Between about 40 and 25 Ma, a nonmarine basin extended across the region that is now the Andes Mountains. Between about 25 and 10 Ma, the western part of the former basin became the site of a volcanic arc; sediment accumulation continued in the east, where marine intercalations demonstrate the low elevation of the basin. After 10 Ma, the volcanic arc remained active and locally widened, and crustal shortening caused regionally important thrust and reverse faulted ranges. During the past 10 m.y., up to 4000 m of coarse clastic debris accumulated in a foreland basin on the eastern flank of the mountains; meanwhile in the interior of the mountains, over 4,0000 m of fine-grained strata and evaporites accumulated in local depocenters. 8 figures.

  18. The effects of plate margin inhomogeneity on the deformation pattern within west-Central Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malekzade, Zaman; Bellier, Olivier; Abbassi, Mohammad Reza; Shabanian, Esmaiel; Authemayou, Christine

    2016-12-01

    Zagros Folded and thrust Belt (ZFTB) is a Cenozoic mountain belt in SSW of Iran and northeast of Arabia that resulted from closure of Neo-Tethys and collision between Arabia passive margin and Central Iran active margin. At this tectonic grain of Alp-Himalayan chain, change of the tectonic regime, degree of basement involvement, and character of accommodation of the deformation, in time and space, has been under debate. The results show that the deformation along the Zagros is not uniformly accommodated. Although the researchers have already paid attention to basement involvement in addition to the sedimentary cover rocks, little has been shown on the role of the basement's rigidity and lower crust's rheology on the deformation pattern along and across the belt. This study tries to address these questions in terms of inversion of slip vector of basement earthquakes, measurement of fault-slip data on the cover rocks, geomorphic and field observations, and existing geodetic and gravity data, with especial focus on Dezful embayment and surrounding area. The results show the Dezful embayment plays an indenter role. It, with the other reentrants, changes the obliquity of Arabian plate convergence, facilitates the escape of the upper crust toward free mechanical boundaries in salients, controls the slip-rate of Zagros Main Recent Fault at the rear of the belt and contributes in forming Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt as an orocline. The viscous lower crust helps the strain partitioning by providing a ductile shear base under the rigid upper crust.

  19. Magma ascent pathways associated with large mountains on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Kirchoff, Michelle R.; White, Oliver L.; Schenk, Paul M.

    2016-07-01

    While Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, the largest mountains seen on Io are created by tectonic forces rather than volcanic construction. Pervasive compression, primarily brought about by subsidence induced by sustained volcanic resurfacing, creates the mountains, but at the same time inhibits magma ascent in vertical conduits (dikes). We superpose stress solutions for subsidence, along with thermal stress, (both from the "crustal conveyor belt" process of resurfacing) in Io's lithosphere with stresses from Io mountain-sized loads (in a shallow spherical shell solution) in order to evaluate magma ascent pathways. We use stress orientation (least compressive stress horizontal) and stress gradient (compression decreasing upwards) criteria to identify ascent pathways through the lithosphere. There are several configurations for which viable ascent paths transit nearly the entire lithosphere, arriving at the base of the mountain, where magma can be transported through thrust faults or perhaps thermally eroded flank sections. The latter is consistent with observations of some Io paterae in close contact with mountains.

  20. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-09

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  1. Geologic map of the Yucca Mountain region, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Potter, Christopher J.; Dickerson, Robert P.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.; Taylor, Emily M.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; San Juan, Carma A.; Day, Warren C.

    2002-01-01

    , southeast, and south. The vertical to overturned strata of the Striped Hills are hypothesized to result from successive stacking of three south-vergent thrust ramps, the lowest of which is the Specter Range thrust. The CP thrust is interpreted as a north-vergent backthrust that may have been roughly contemporaneous with the Belted Range and Specter Range thrusts. The southwest Nevada volcanic field consists predominantly of a series of silicic tuffs and lava flows ranging in age from 15 to 8 Ma. The map area is in the southwestern quadrant of the southwest Nevada volcanic field, just south of the Timber Mountain caldera complex. The Claim Canyon caldera, exposed in the northern part of the map area, contains thick deposits of the 12.7-Ma Tiva Canyon Tuff, along with widespread megabreccia deposits of similar age, and subordinate thick exposures of other 12.8- to 12.7-Ma Paintbrush Group rocks. An irregular, blocky fault array, which affects parts of the caldera and much of the nearby area, includes several large-displacement, steeply dipping faults that strike radially to the caldera and bound south-dipping blocks of volcanic rock. South and southeast of the Claim Canyon caldera, in the area that includes Yucca Mountain, the Neogene fault pattern is dominated by closely spaced, north-northwest- to north-northeast-striking normal faults that lie within a north-trending graben. This 20- to 25-km-wide graben includes Crater Flat, Yucca Mountain, and Fortymile Wash, and is bounded on the east by the 'gravity fault' and on the west by the Bare Mountain fault. Both of these faults separate Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in their footwalls from Miocene volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. Stratigraphic and structural relations at Yucca Mountain demonstrate that block-bounding faults were active before and during eruption of the 12.8- to 12.7-Ma Paintbrush Group, and significant motion on these faults continued unt

  2. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.

  3. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s.

  4. Lateral ramps in the folded Appalachians and in overthrust belts worldwide; a fundamental element of thrust-belt architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, Howard A.

    2000-01-01

    Lateral ramps are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level along strike; they differ from frontal ramps, which are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level perpendicular to strike. In the Appalachian Mountains, the surface criteria for recognizing the subsurface presence of lateral ramps include (1) an abrupt change in wavelength or a termination of folds along strike, (2) a conspicuous change in the frequency of mapped faults or disturbed zones (extremely disrupted duplexes) at the surface, (3) long, straight river trends emerging onto the coastal plain or into the Appalachian Plateaus province, (4) major geomorphic discontinuities in the trend of the Blue Ridge province, (5) interruption of Mesozoic basins by cross-strike border faults, and (6) zones of modern and probable ancient seismic activity. Additional features related to lateral ramps include tectonic windows, cross-strike igneous intrusions, areas of giant landslides, and abrupt changes in Paleozoic sedimentation along strike. Proprietary strike-line seismic-reflection profiles cross three of the lateral ramps that were identified by using the surface criteria. The profiles confirm their presence and show their detailed nature in the subsurface. Like frontal ramps, lateral ramps are one of two possible consequences of fold-and-thrust-belt tectonics and are common elements in the Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt. A survey of other thrust belts in the United States and elsewhere strongly suggests that lateral ramps at depth can be identified by their surface effects. Lateral ramps probably are the result of thrust sheet motion caused by continued activation of ancient cratonic fracture systems. Such fractures localized the transform faults along which the continental segments adjusted during episodes of sea-floor spreading.

  5. Magma ascent pathways associated with large mountains on Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGovern, P. J.; Kirchoff, M. R.; White, O. L.; Schenk, P.

    2013-12-01

    While Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system, the largest mountains seen on Io are created by tectonic forces rather than volcanic construction. Pervasive compression, brought about by subsidence induced by sustained volcanic resurfacing and aided by thermal stress, creates the mountains, but at the same time inhibits magma ascent in vertical conduits (dikes). We superpose stress solutions for subsidence and thermal stress (from the 'crustal conveyor belt' resurfacing) in Io's lithosphere with stresses from Io mountain-sized loads (in a shallow spherical shell solution) in order to evaluate magma ascent pathways. We use stress orientation (least compressive stress horizontal) and stress gradient (compression decreasing upwards) criteria to identify ascent pathways through the lithosphere. For nominal 'conveyor belt' stress states, the ascent criteria are satisfied only in a narrow (5 km or so), roughly mid-lithosphere band. Superposed stresses from loading of a 150-km wide mountain (comparable to Boösaule Mons) on a lithosphere with thickness Te = 50 km results in a thickening of the ascent-favorable (AF) zone beneath the center of the edifice, with a total thickness of 38 km for an 18 km tall (post-flexure) edifice. Most of the thickening is upward, although some is downward. Widening the edifice to 200 km produces a 'U-shaped' AF zone, thin and depressed at r = 0 but intersecting the surface at distances of about 20 to 40 km from the center. Increasing edifice width increases the radial distance at which the AF zone intersects the surface. Thinner lithospheres create generally thinner AF zones, and U-shaped AF zones for narrower edifices. There are several configurations for which viable ascent paths transit nearly the entire lithosphere, arriving at the base of the mountain, where magma can be transported through thrust faults or perhaps thermally erode flank sections, the latter consistent with observations of paterae in

  6. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur, Amos; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    1982-05-01

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments, have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochthonous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may not be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinities in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  7. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  8. Climate effect on soil enzyme activities and dissolved organic carbon in mountain calcareous soils: a soil-transplant experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Jérémy; Cécillon, Lauric; Mills, Robert T. E.; Gavazov, Konstantin; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Brun, Jean-Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Mountain soils store huge amounts of carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) which may be highly vulnerable to the strong climate changes that mountain areas currently experience worldwide. Climate modifications are expected to impact microbial activity which could change the rate of SOM decomposition/accumulation, thereby questioning the net C source/sink character of mountain soils. To simulate future climate change expected in the 21st century in the calcareous pre-Alps, 15 blocks (30 cm deep) of undisturbed soil were taken from a mountain pasture located at 1400 m a.s.l. (Marchairuz, Jura, Switzerland) and transplanted into lysimeters at the same site (control) and at two other sites located at 1000 m a.s.l. and 600 m a.s.l. (5 replicates per site). This transplantation experiment which started in 2009 simulates a climate warming with a temperature increase of 4° C and a decreased humidity of 40 % at the lowest site. In this study, we used soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) as functional indicators of SOM decomposition to evaluate the effect of climate change on microbial activity and SOM dynamics along the seasons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also measured to quantify the assimilable carbon for microorganism. In autumn 2012, a first sampling step out of four (winter, spring and summer 2013) has been realized. We extracted 15 cm deep soil cores from each transplant (x15) and measured (i) DOC and (ii) the activities of nine different enzymes. Enzymes were chosen to represent the degradation of the most common classes of biogeochemical compounds in SOM. β-glucosidase, β-D-cellubiosidase, β-Xylosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, lipase, phenoloxidase respectively represented the degradation of sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and lignin. Moreover, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was used to provide an estimate of global microbial activity and phosphatase was used to estimate phosphorus

  9. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  10. [Effects of Different Land Uses on Soil Active Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions in Jinyun Mountain].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju; Li, Jian-lin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we take Jinyun Mountain where located in Beibei district of Chongqing as the research object and explore the effect of different ways of land use on soil active organic carbon, nitrogen components by collecting the soil samples from 0 to 60 cm depth in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (hereinafter referred to as the forest), abandoned land, orchard, farmland and measuring the content of MBC, MBN, DOC and DON. The research results show that the contents of soil MBC, MBN, DOC, DON are reduced with the increase of soil depth in four types of land using soils. Variance analysis of the single factor shows that four kinds of land uses have no significant difference in the contents of MBC, MBN and DON, but the DOC content of the abandoned land is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It shows that the different ways of land use have no obvious effects on soil MBC, MBN and DON but the abandonment of slope cropland can significantly increase the content of soil DOC. There is no significant difference among the distribution ratio of MBN, DOC, DON in forest, abandoned land, orchard and farmland within the soil from 0 to 60 cm, but the distribution ratio of slope MBC is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It means farmland soil organic carbon has a higher biological activity, this could due to the application of green manure, farmland manure and other organic fertilizers. Under different land utilizations, DOC/DON is the highest, MBC/MBN is the second, and SOC/TN is the lowest. It means the biological solidification of dissolved organic matter is the strongest, and the mineralization of soil organic matter is the most obvious. Under the four kinds of land uses, there are the lowest ratios in SOC/TN, MBC/MBN and DOC/DON in the farmland. And all the ratios are less than 20, which suggest that the mineralization of farmland soil organic matter is stronger and it's easy to cause the loss of soil carbon.

  11. Effect of lunar phase on diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsonii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) are important components in many ecosystems across the western US and are integral with both Native American and contemporary western culture. They are prized by hunters and are the object of countless works of art. These magnificent creatures are studi...

  12. Application of High Resolution Topography and Remote Sensing: Imagery to the Kinematics of Fold-and-Thrust Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Charles

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes one year of funding for NASA contract NAGW-3691, Application of High Resolution Topography and Remote Sensing: Imagery to the Kinematics of Fold-and-Thrust Belts. I never received year three from NASA. The funds were to support on going tectonic and topographic studies along the front of the central Transverse Ranges and expand the topographic studies to the north. Below are results from the first two years of actual funds that I received from NASA (see attached Federal Cash Transaction Reports). The main focus of this contract was to define and understand the major tectonic processes affecting the formation and evolution of the topography in convergent tectonic settings. The results will be used to test ongoing space-based geodetic measurements and will be compared with present-day seismicity in the central Transverse Ranges and adjacent basins. Two major factors that controls topography in active regions are (1) tectonic uplift due to fault-normal compression and (2) subsequent erosion. The central Transverse and Temblor Ranges are excellent regions for these focused topographic studies. The tectonic processes leading to the mountain building are relatively straightforward and thus are easy to model. Available evidence suggests that the topography in this region is relatively young, - 3.5 Ma or less. In addition,, erosional processes may be relatively easier to model compared to larger and more ancient mountain belts. For example, in larger mountain belts, topographic relief may cause significant orographic effects and high elevation may result in part of the topography located above snowline. Both factors complicate interpretation of erosional processes that may be controlled by elevation. Mountain ranges that are significantly older may have experienced a much wider variety of erosional or climatic conditions over their lifetime. While erosion rates have certainly not been consistent in the Transverse or Temblor ranges over its 3.5 Ma

  13. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  14. To Belt or Not To Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) is in the midst of the first school-bus crash tests in more than 10 years. Its report is expected in June 2000, and those on both sides of the seat-belt debate are waiting to see what NHTSA will recommend on passenger restraints in large school buses. A sidebar lists sources…

  15. Acute mountain sickness, antacids, and ventilation during rapid, active ascent of Mount Rainier.

    PubMed

    Roach, R C; Larson, E B; Hornbein, T F; Houston, C S; Bartlett, S; Hardesty, J; Johnson, D; Perkins, M

    1983-05-01

    A double-blind randomized study of 45 climbers on Mt. Rainier was conducted to test the effectiveness of antacids in preventing acute mountain sickness. All 45 climbed to 3353 m, and 31 continued to the summit. Ten climbers listed acute mountain sickness as the reason for not attaining the summit. Of symptoms monitored throughout the climb, neither headache, nausea, dizziness, pounding heart, nor shortness of breath differed in severity between antacid-treated and placebo-treated groups. In both groups vital capacity decreased significantly with ascent (p less than 0.05), while peak flow (p less than 0.005) and minute ventilation (p less than 0.001) increased significantly. The 7 climbers with the most severe AMS symptom scores above 4000 m had significantly lower peak flow at sea level prior to ascent compared with the other 25 climbers who completed sea level tests (p less than 0.005). The results of this study fail to document efficacy for antacid use for the prevention of acute mountain sickness.

  16. Greenstone belts: Their boundaries, surrounding rock terrains and interrelationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Percival, J. A.; Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts are an important part of the fragmented record of crustal evolution, representing samples of the magmatic activity that formed much of the Earth's crust. Most belts developed rapidly, in less than 100 Ma, leaving large gaps in the geological record. Surrounding terrains provide information on the context of greenstone belts. The effects of tectonic setting, structural geometry and evolution, associated plutonic activity and sedimentation are discussed.

  17. Intermediate decollement activation in response to the basal friction variation and its effect on folding style in the Zagros fold-thrust belt, an analogue modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzipour-Saein, Ali; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-09-01

    Although the role of various basal and intermediate decollement levels on structural style is well documented individually in many folded terrains, the interaction between basal and intermediate decollements is poorly constrained. This study uses results of two scaled sand-box models shortened from one end to study the variation in structural development in response to varying basal friction and its consequent interaction with intermediate decollement horizons. Two models with similar incompetent intermediate decollement, but with different basal friction (with and without a thick basal decollement), were prepared analogous for the eastern and the western parts of the Razak basement fault in the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt (ZFTB). Combined results of scaled models with geological observations are used to argue that the basal decollement friction characteristics govern propagation of deformation front. In addition, model results, analogues to north-south direction, show that deformation complexity and disharmonic folding exist in the section where the intermediate decollement has been activated in response to the shortening without the basal decollement (throughout the western part of the Razak basement fault where less thickness of the Hormuz series as the basal decollement has been documented compared to its eastern part). In other words, the complexity in deformation is less portrayed along sections where basal friction beneath the model decreases (e.g. the eastern part of the Razak basement fault). We argue here that, in addition to other parameters (not presented in this study) interaction of intermediate decollement levels with basal decollement friction characteristics could explain decoupling between structures within the sedimentary column of the Fars Region of the eastern part of the Zagros fold thrust belt.

  18. Late Holocene marine terraces along the northeastern Japan Sea: Evidence of coseismic uplift associated with large earthquakes beneath an active fold and thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiyama, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Shishikura, M.; Echigo, T.; Kamataki, T.; Furusawa, A.; Takada, K.; Suda, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present structural models tightly constrained by tectonic geomorphology, surface geologic mapping, shallow borehole transects, high resolution P wave seismic reflection profiles and well logs to define the kinematic evolution and coseismic growth of the Northern Hokkaido fold and thrust belt (NHFTB). The NHFTB is an active compressive structure that consumes a half of the relative North America - Eurasia plate convergence in northern Japan, and consists of a 150-km-long array of active, west verging reverse faults. Reprocessed industrial seismic reflection data tied with well logs and synthetic seismograms indicate that the NHFTB forms a classical critical wedge composed of upper Cretaceous to Tertiary, forearc basin to shallow marine and terrestrial sedimentary strata above an east dipping basal decollement within or at the base of Cretaceous forearc basin deposits. This thin skinned fold and thrust belt is underlain by an active blind thrust that is expressed as middle Pleistocene to Holocene folded and/or uplifted shallow marine sediments. Drilling investigations across the easterly folded terraces above an east dipping thrust ramp at the leading edge of the NHFTB indicate that shallow marine (i.e., foreshore) deposits are folded and subdued beneath the piggyback basin above the backlimb of the frontal fold. Tephrochronology of volcanic ash found in conformably overlying dune deposits suggests that the shallow marine unit deposited during marine isotope stage 5e, and thus provides minimum uplift rates of 1.0 mm/yr across the forelimb and 0.4 mm/yr across the backlimb of the active fold, respectively. In contrast to folded Pleistocene marine terrace deposits, geomorphic signature of coseismic growth of the NHFTB is expressed by late Holocene marine terraces that are interpreted as produced during large blind-thrust earthquakes. A 1 m-grid digital terrain model obtained by LIDAR illuminates that late Holocene paleo-shorelines elevated up to 4.6, 8.7, and 10.8 m

  19. Does mountain permafrost in Mongolia control water availability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lucas; Kopp, Benjamin; Munkhjargal, Munkhdavaa

    2016-04-01

    In semi-arid Mongolia, continuous and discontinuous permafrost covers wide parts of the mountains, especially in the northwest of the country. Long-term analysis of annual discharge from rivers draining the mountainous parts shows high temporal variability, with some evidence of decreasing trends, accompanied by decreased intra-annual variability. Investigations show that annual precipitation features small changes while annual air temperature significantly increased over the last decades, with warming rates clearly outranging the global average. Widespread and drastic changes in land cover through forest fires in northern Mongolia might have an additional impact on water retention and the stability of permafrost. Hence, there is concern about an increased degradation of mountain permafrost and a possible impact on river discharge and water availability. Decreased water availability from the mountains would have strong socio-economic implications for the population living in the steppe belt downstream the mountains. Therefore, a monitoring program has been conducted in northern Mongolia that aims to improve the understanding of how climate change and forest fires are influencing mountain permafrost and water resources. The study region, Sugnugur valley, is located about 100 km north of Ulaanbaatar and includes the transition belt between the steppe, the boreal zone and the alpine tundra of the Khentii Mountains. Extensive measurements of soil temperatures, soil moisture, discharge and climatic parameters have been carried out along transects which stretch across the Sugnugur river valley and include steppe, boreal forest as well as burnt forest. First results indicate that the environmental conditions show drastic changes after forest fire, with reduced water retention in the headwaters. After forest fires, changing runoff processes above the permafrost table have been observed, where water drains rapidly along preferential flow paths. This eventually leads to

  20. A Finite Element Model for the Active Extension in the Central Part of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt: Control of Subduction on Intra-arc Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, J.

    2005-12-01

    An extensional strain field of normal faults with a preferred E-W orientation dominates the central part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB). Faults lay west of 99 W meridian. These faults tend to form tectonic depressions filled with lake sediments and volcanic rocks. Typically these faults have lengths < 50 km, are disconnected, and are seismically active. The origin of the extension is enigmatic and has been attributed to collapse of the volcanic belt (Suter, 2001), partition of deformation induced by subduction (Alanis et al., 1998), end recently to mantle plumes and rift dynamics (Marquez et al, 1999; Verma, 2002). This work uses a finite element model to explain the origin of the extension based on the dynamical subduction model proposed by Scholz and Campos (1995). These authors demonstrated that resistive forces in the mantle as well as slab pull control the coupling of the plates. They also showed that in some arcs these forces put in tension the interior of the overriding plate leading to back-arc extension. The model used here incorporates an iso-viscous mantle whose flow is forced by subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates; deformation in North America plate (central Mexico) is modeled by an elastic plate; weakening of the elastic plate by heat flow is also considered. Boundary conditions and geometries in the model are constrained by geological observations like convergence rates, geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone, heat-flow measurements, and gravity modeling in central-south Mexico. Two 2D-models are presented: one cutting through the Mexican state of Michoacan, characterized by a high subduction angle, and a second one through Guerrero, in southern Mexico, which has a sub-horizontal angle. Hypocenters of earthquakes, however, indicate that the subducted plate bends under the TMVB, increasing its subduction angle. Results from the model show that mantle corner flow under Michoacan drags downwards the edge of North America, inducing upward

  1. Igneous activity and related ore deposits in the western and southern Tushar Mountains, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    PART A: Igneous activity in the Marysvale volcanic field of western Utah can be separated into many episodes of extrusion, intrusion, and hydrothermal activity. The rocks of the western Tushar Mountains, near the western part of the volcanic field, include intermediate-composition, calc-alkalic volcanic rocks erupted from scattered volcanoes in Oligocene through earliest Miocene time and related monzonitic intrusions emplaced 24-23 m.y. ago. Beginning 22-21 m.y. ago and extending through much of the later Cenozoic, a bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblage was erupted widely throughout the volcanic field. Only volcanic and intrusive rocks belonging to the rhyolitic end member of this bimodal assemblage are present in the western Tushar Mountains; most of these rocks either fill the Mount Belknap caldera (19 m.y. old) or are part of the rhyolite of Gillies Hill (9---8 m.y. old). Episodic hydrothermal activity altered and mineralized rocks at many places in the western Tushar Mountains during Miocene time. The earliest activity took place in and adjacent to monzonitic calcalkalic intrusions emplaced in the vicinity of Indian Creek and Cork Ridge. These rocks were widely propylitized, and gold-bearing quartz-pyrite-carbonate veins formed in local fractures. Hydrothermal activity associated with the Mount Belknap caldera mobilized and redeposited uranium contained in the caldera-fill rocks and formed primary concentrations of lithophile elements (including molybdenum and uranium) in the vicinity of intrusive bodies. Hydrothermal activity associated with the rhyolite of Gillies Hill altered and mineralized rocks at several places along the fault zone that marks the western margin of the Tushar Mountains; the zoned alunite and gold deposits at Sheep Rock, the gold deposit at the Sunday Mine, and an alunite deposit near Indian Creek were thus produced. Resetting of isotopic ages suggests that another center of hydrothermally altered rocks associated with a buried pluton about

  2. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  3. [Aboveground biomass of Tamarix on piedmont plain of Tianshan Mountains south slope].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhenyong; Wang, Ranghui; Zhang, Huizhi; Wang, Lei

    2006-09-01

    Based on the geo-morphological and hydro-geological characteristics, the piedmont plain of Tianshan Mountains south slope was classified into 4 geo-morphological belts, i.e., flood erosion belt, groundwater spill belt, delta belt, and the joining belt of piedmont plain and Tarim floodplain. A field investigation on the Tamarix shrub in this region showed that there was a significant difference in its aboveground biomass among the four belts, ranged from 1428.53 kg x hm(-2) at groundwater spill belt to 111.18 kg x hm(-2) at the joining belt of piedmont plain and Tarim floodplain. The main reason for such a big difference might be the different density of Tamarix shrub on different belts. Both the Tamarix aboveground biomass and the topsoil's salinity were decreased with increasing groundwater level. Groundwater level was the main factor limiting Tamarix growth, while soil salinity was not.

  4. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  5. [Life cycles of ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe in the Eastern Sayan].

    PubMed

    Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.

  6. [Microbial community and its activities in canopy- and understory humus of two montane forest types in Ailao Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-jie; Liu, Wen-yao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Han-bo; Wang, Gao-sheng

    2010-09-01

    Mid-montane moist evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF) and top-montane dwarf mossy forest (DMF) are the two major natural forest types in subtropical mountainous area of Ailao Mountains, Northwest China. In this paper, a comparative study was made on the microbial composition, quantity, biochemical activity, metabolic activity, and their seasonal dynamics in the canopy- and understory humus of the two forest types. The composition, quantity, and metabolic activity of the microbes in the canopy humus of dominant tree species in MMF and DMF were also analyzed. In the canopy humus of the two forest types, the amounts of fungi and actinomycetes, microbial biomass C and N, and intensities of nitrogen fixation and cellulose decomposition were significantly higher than those in understory humus. Meanwhile, the amount of cellulose-decomposing microbes (ACDM), cellulose decomposition intensity, microbial biomass C and N, and metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF were significantly higher than those of DMF. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ANFB) and the metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF and DMF were significantly higher in wet season than in dry season, while a contradictory trend was observed on the amount of actinomycetes. No significant difference was observed on the amount of ACDM between wet season and dry season. For the two forest types, the amounts of microbes and their biochemical activities in canopy humus had a larger seasonal variation range than those in understory humus. There was a significant difference in the amounts of the microbes in canopy humus among the dominant tree species in MMF and DMF, especially in wet season. The microbes in canopy humus played important roles in maintaining the biodiversity of epiphytes in the canopy, and in supplying the needed nutrients for the vigorous growth of the epiphytes.

  7. Active folding and thrusting in North Africa: A framework for a seismotectonic model of the Atlas Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Maouche, Said; Timoulali, Youssef; Bouhadad, Youcef; Bouaziz, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Large earthquakes in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa are often generated on thrust or reverse faults. For inland faults, surface ruptures and long-term active tectonics appear as a thrust escarpment and fold-related faulting visible in the field and using remote sensing images, or measured using space-borne geodesy (GPS or INSAR). For coastal faults, major uplifts of late Quaternary marine terraces and folding with steplike morphology are exposed indicating the incremental development of coastal active deformation. We have investigated the similarities and differences between different active fault-related folding along the Africa - Eurasia convergent plate boundary. These active structures are seismogenic and the striking case studies are the 1960 Agadir (Mw 5.9), the 1954 Orleansville (Mw 6.7), the 1980 El Asnam (Mw 7.3), the 1992 Gafsa (Mw 5.3), the 1999 Ain Temouchent (Mw 6.0), and the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8) earthquakes. From paleoseismic investigations the El Asnam active fold shows 0.6 to 1.0 mm/yr uplift rate. West of Algiers on the Sahel anticline, the levelling of uplifted successive coastal benches and notches document the incremental folding uplift with ~ 0.84 - 1.2 mm/yr uplift rate in the last 120-140 ka. The relatively fast folding growth during late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Atlas Mountains attests for the significance of earthquake activity and the importance of convergent movements between Africa and Eurasia in the Western Mediterranean. This work is prepared in the framework of the UNESCO (SIDA) - IGCP Project 601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa".

  8. Sinkholes, collapse structures and large landslides in an active salt dome submerged by a reservoir: The unique case of the Ambal ridge in the Karun River, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lizaga, Iván

    2016-02-01

    Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillow of Gachsaran Formation with significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220-280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslides with a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.

  9. A population of comets in the main asteroid belt.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Henry H; Jewitt, David

    2006-04-28

    Comets are icy bodies that sublimate and become active when close to the Sun. They are believed to originate in two cold reservoirs beyond the orbit of Neptune: the Kuiper Belt (equilibrium temperatures of approximately 40 kelvin) and the Oort Cloud (approximately 10 kelvin). We present optical data showing the existence of a population of comets originating in a third reservoir: the main asteroid belt. The main-belt comets are unlike the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud comets in that they likely formed where they currently reside and may be collisionally activated. The existence of the main-belt comets lends new support to the idea that main-belt objects could be a major source of terrestrial water.

  10. Belt conveyor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  11. Factors Limiting Microbial Growth and Activity at a Proposed High-Level Nuclear Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Kovacik, W. P.; Ringelberg, D. B.; White, D. C.; Haldeman, D. L.; Amy, P. S.; Hersman, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nev., as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste, volcanic tuff was analyzed for microbial abundance and activity. Tuff was collected aseptically from nine sites along a tunnel in Yucca Mountain. Microbial abundance was generally low: direct microscopic cell counts were near detection limits at all sites (3.2 x 10(sup4) to 2.0 x 10(sup5) cells g(sup-1) [dry weight]); plate counts of aerobic heterotrophs ranged from 1.0 x 10(sup1) to 3.2 x 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) (dry weight). Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations (0.1 to 3.7 pmol g(sup-1)) also indicated low microbial biomasses; diglyceride fatty acid concentrations, indicative of dead cells, were in a similar range (0.2 to 2.3 pmol g(sup-1)). Potential microbial activity was quantified as (sup14)CO(inf2) production in microcosms containing radiolabeled substrates (glucose, acetate, and glutamic acid); amendments with water and nutrient solutions (N and P) were used to test factors potentially limiting this activity. Similarly, the potential for microbial growth and the factors limiting growth were determined by performing plate counts before and after incubating volcanic tuff samples for 24 h under various conditions: ambient moisture, water-amended, and amended with various nutrient solutions (N, P, and organic C). A high potential for microbial activity was demonstrated by high rates of substrate mineralization (as much as 70% of added organic C in 3 weeks). Water was the major limiting factor to growth and microbial activity, while amendments with N and P resulted in little further stimulation. Organic C amendments stimulated growth more than water alone. PMID:16535670

  12. Active mountain building and the distribution of core Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  13. Surface testing and evaluation of the conveyor belt service machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jaspal, J.S.; Miller, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    In underground room-and-pillar mining methods, the sectional conveyor belts are extended or retracted periodically to maintain shuttle car tramming distance to a minimum. A conventional conveyor belt extension or retraction is a heavy, arduous job that, if mechanized, has the potential to improve productivity and safety. This book presents a Bureau of Mines conveyor belt service machine (CBSM) reduced the burden of heavy work of this activity and mechanize it. The CBSM is a self-contained, battery-powered, rubber-tired vehicle capable of handling, storing, and transporting conveyor belting, wire rope, and associated belt structures in seams as low as 48 in. Belt extensions and retractions are accomplished by moving the tailpiece of a belt conveyor with the CBSM to the next position while dispensing or retrieving the belt, wire rope, and associated belt structures. The CBSM improves the belt extensions and retractions by making them easier and faster, and it utilizes fewer workers. The CBSM was surface tested at the Bureau's Mining Equipment Test Facility to evaluate its performance and reliability. Modifications were made to the CBSM to correct deficiencies found during surface testing.

  14. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  15. Mountain ranges and the deformation of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J.

    2007-12-01

    Mountain ranges are the most spectacular manifestation of continental dynamics and a primary locus of geo- hazards. Their geological imprint is ubiquitous since all continents consist of cratonic cores that grew with time through collisions with accreting terrains. Understanding how mountain range form and evolve as a result of the interaction between deep seated tectonic processes, and climate driven surface processes is thus a major issue in earth science. The Himalaya is probably the best place on earth where orogenic processes can be observed at work today and where the geological history of a mountain belt can be compared with its current tectonic processes. We now have a reasonably solid understanding of the structure of the range, of its petro-metamorphic history, and of the kinematics of its active deformation and seismicity. The long-term geological history of the range - from several millions to a few tens of millions of years - has been documented by structural, thermobarometric and thermochronological studies. Morphotectonic investigations have revealed its evolution over the past several thousands or tens of thousands of years. And, finally, geodetic measurements and seismological monitoring have revealed the pattern of strain and stress build-up over several years, or due to single large earthquakes. The presentation will show how the results of these investigations can be assembled into a simple, coherent picture of the structure and evolution of the range. The Himalayan model will be compared to other case examples of active orogeny and some implications regarding continental deformation and the influence of surface processes will be drawn.

  16. Primary succession of soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial communities along the chronosequence of Tianshan Mountains No. 1 Glacier, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Lou, Kai; Eusufzai, Moniruzzaman Khan; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Qing; Shi, Ying-Wu; Yang, Hong-Mei; Li, Zhong-Qing

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the primary successions of soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial communities at the forefields of the Tianshan Mountains No. 1 Glacier by investigating soil microbial processes (microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralization), enzyme activity and community-level physiological profiling. Soils deglaciated between 1959 and 2008 (0, 5, 17, 31 and 44 years) were collected. Soils >1,500 years in age were used as a reference (alpine meadow soils). Soil enzyme activity and carbon-source utilization ability significantly increased with successional time. Amino-acid utilization rates were relatively higher in early, unvegetated soils (0 and 5 years), but carbohydrate utilization was higher in later stages (from 31 years to the reference soil). Discriminant analysis, including data on microbial processes and soil enzyme activities, revealed that newly exposed soils (0-5 years) and older soils (17-44 years) were well-separated from each other and obviously different from the reference soil. Correlation analysis revealed that soil organic carbon, was the primary factor influencing soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial community succession. Redundancy analysis suggested that soil pH and available P were also affect microbial activity to a considerable degree. Our results indicated that glacier foreland soils have continued to develop over 44 years and soils were significantly affected by the geographic location of the glacier and the local topography. Soil enzyme activities and heterotrophic microbial communities were also significantly influenced by these variables.

  17. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  18. Controls on the architecture of the Himalayan thrust belt, NW India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, D. M.; Paul, S. K.; Chambers, J. A.; Kohn, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, the syntaxes at the eastern and western terminations of the orogen connect a 2400 km long thrust belt. If the two syntaxes are locked, the behavior of the thrust belt may be different in the syntaxes than in the central part of the thrust belt. In fact, recent work in the central part of the Himalayan thrust belt reveals shortening estimates of ~700-900 km while closer to the syntaxes, the amount of shortening may be nearly half that (~470 km). Thus, there should be an identifiable region where the character of the thrust belt changes from that of the syntaxes to that of the central part of the thrust belt. In the Himachal Pradesh region of NW India, a transition exists in the architecture of the thrust belt. North of the Kanga reentrant, the high mountains are close to the frontal part of the thrust belt; yet, near the Beas River, ~90 km to the east, and further east still in the Sutlej and Yamuna valleys, the high mountains of the thrust belt are located far into the hinterland. The presence or absence of the Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface appears to control this pattern: when Greater Himalayan rocks are absent at the surface, as near the town of Dharamsala, the thrust belt is very narrow (<20 km) and the high mountains are located near the front of the thrust belt; however, when Greater Himalayan rocks are present, as they are further eastward, the thrust belt is wider (>150 km) and the high mountains are located in the hinterland. The presence/absence of Greater Himalayan rocks at the surface also appears to control where focused erosion is presently occurring and, subsequently, the erosional exposure of Lesser Himalayan rocks. Three models reveal the possible kinematic roles of the Greater Himalayan rocks and its subsequent control of the architecture of the thrust belt: 1) the fault that carries Greater Himalayan rocks may tip out at depth; 2) slip on that fault may continue to the surface; 3) the fault tips out and

  19. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    rock-cooling signatures, stratigraphic age-bracketing, stream channel gradient patterns, and other direct or indirect dating criteria. It follows that many portions of mountain belts undergo unsteady, nonuniform post-orogenic landscape evolution trajectories, with intermittent opportunities for relief reduction. The resulting erosion surfaces remain preserved as signatures of transient landscape evolution regimes. We find that (i) occurrences of planar topography form populations of discrete, insular landscape units, only some of which could be interpreted as fragments of a fluvially dissected, and/or tectonically fragmented, regional peneplain. (ii) The post-orogenic time required for achieving advanced stages of relief reduction is variable, ranging from 3 to 70 Ma. (iii) Partly depending on whether the adjacent sedimentary basins were over- or underfilled, some erosion surfaces may have been controlled by raised base levels and may thus have formed at high elevations; however, in many cases they were disconnected from marine base levels by rapid surface uplift, thus acquiring their elevated positions in recent time. In some cases, subcrustal processes such as asthenospheric anomalies, and/or lithospheric slab tear or breakoff, explain extremely rapid, regional post-orogenic uplift. (iv) Overall, the conditions for achieving surface preservation in steep and tectonically active terrain are predictable but also quite varied and contingent on context.

  20. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  3 ...

  1. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Aerosols over the Appalachian Mountains     View ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired these views of the Appalachian Mountains on March 6, 2000. The image at left is a downward-looking ... location:  United States region:  Eastern United States Order:  2 ...

  2. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  4. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  5. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  6. Moving Belt Radiator technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan, III

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The relative merits of Solid Belt (SBR) Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  7. Moving belt radiator development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  8. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  9. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  10. Subway construction activity influence on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine particles: Comparison with a background mountainous site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Qi; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Chen, Kui; Liu, Dantong; Yuan, Liang; Pang, Xiaobing

    2015-07-01

    Intensive construction activities worsened the surrounding atmospheric environment in China. Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles (PM2.5) were collected at a subway construction site (SC) of Nanjing and compared with a regional background mountainous site (BM) to examine the influence of anthropogenic activities on concentrations, sources and health risks of PAHs. Average PAH concentrations at SC were higher than BM at a factor of about 5.9. All PAH species at SC were higher than BM, with the SC/BM ratios ranging from 1.3 (NaP) to 10.3 (BaP). PAH profiles differed for the two sites. The SC site had higher mass fractions of PAHs from coal combustion and vehicle emission, while the BM site held higher mass percentages of PAHs from long-range transported wood combustion and industrial activities. Lower temperature at BM may lead to the higher mass percentages of low ring PAHs. Coal combustion, traffic emissions and biomass burning were the common sources for PAHs at both SC and BM. Construction workers were exposed to higher BaPeq concentrations, nearly ten times of the background site and their lifetime cancer risk reached to 0.6 per 1,000,000 exposed worker, owing to the influence of coal combustion, vehicle emission and industrial activities at the surroundings of SC.

  11. Multi-phase inversion tectonics related to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault activity, Zagros Mountains, SW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazem Shiroodi, Sadjad; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Faghih, Ali; Ghanadian, Mostafa; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Hafezi Moghadas, Naser

    2015-11-01

    Distinctive characteristics of inverted structures make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles of folded belts. The interpretation of 3D seismic reflection and well data sheds new light on the structural evolution and age of inverted structures associated to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault within the Persian Gulf Basin and northeastern margin of Afro-Arabian plate. Analysis of thickness variations of growth strata using "T-Z plot" (thickness versus throw plot) method revealed the kinematics of the fault. Obtained results show that the fault has experienced a multi-phase evolutionary history over six different extension and compression deformation events (i.e. positive and negative inversion) between 252.2 and 11.62 Ma. This cyclic activity of the growth fault was resulted from alteration of sedimentary processes during continuous fault slip. The structural development of the study area both during positive and negative inversion geometry styles was ultimately controlled by the relative motion between the Afro-Arabian and Central-Iranian plates.

  12. Permian Dollarhide formation, southern Smoky Mountains, south-central Idaho: depositional environment and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K.; Link, P.K.

    1986-08-01

    The Permian Dollarhide formation occurs as an allochthon west of the Big Wood River in the Smoky Mountains of south-central Idaho. It is part of the Idaho Black Shale belt described during pioneering studies by W.E. Hall. The formation contains carbonaceous limestones, fine-grained calcareous sandstones, and carbonaceous, siliceous, or calcareous siltites. The rocks contain high amounts of carbonaceous matter and local concentrations of syngenetic silver, zinc, and lead. The Dollarhide has been contact-metamorphosed by the Cretaceous Idaho batholith. The carbonaceous matter occurs as graphite. However, the possibility exists that unmetamorphosed Dollarhide with petroleum source rock potential occurs outside the Smoky Mountains. It is also possible that other allochthons within the Black Shale belt, if unmetamorphosed, could have petroleum source rock material. Near Willow Creek, SW 1/4 Buttercup Mountain Quadrangle, Blaine and Camas Counties, Idaho, the Dollarhide is 2100 m thick and was deposited in a submarine slope environment. Sandy graded beds with convolute bedding, cross-bedding, synsedimentary folds, and load casts are evidence of turbidite and debris flow deposition. Interbedded laminated and massive siltites, which are more abundant upward, represent pelagic deposition between times of turbidite activity. Stratigraphic marker horizons with anomalously high amounts of carbonaceous material and trace metals represent more euxinic conditions in the basin. These markers serve as valuable correlation lines in the dominantly unfossiliferous strata.

  13. Active Extensional Faulting at the Southern Half-Graben Belt of the Tepic-Zacoalco Rift, Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas-Elguera, J.; Ferrari, L.; Delgado, M.; Uribe, A.; Valdivia, L.; Castillo, R.

    2003-12-01

    In the past decade much debate has centered upon the kinematics and the mechanism of continental deformation in western Mexico and the motion of the Jalisco block relative to North America. Two distinct models have been proposed. The first one suggest a NW-motion of the Jalisco block that would implies a right-lateral faulting along the Tepic-Zacoalco rift (TZR). More recently others authors have documented a N-NE extensional tectonics active since late Miocene and suggested that the continental boundaries of the Jalisco block, are older structures reactivated by plate boundary forces. Studies on the crustal seismicity and the kinematics of Quaternary faults provide another constraint on the direction of motion between the Jalisco block and North America. On November 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1995, one month after the October 09, 1995, Manzanillo earthquake (Mw = 8.0), a swarm of small events was felt in the Amatlan de Ca¤as half-graben and recorded by the regional seismic network of Comision Federal de Electricidad. The coda magnitude of the largest event was Mc = 2.5-3.6 and the events were located depth ranging from 6 to 10 km. This seismic activity provoked that people from Pie de la Cuesta and Yerbabuena villages were evacuated. After that a seismic station equipped with an analogic seismograph MEQ-800 at Pie de la Cuesta was installed for three months. During the same time, October, 1995, some houses distributed along a WNW trend in Ameca city underwent severe damages, they are. The digital elevations model of the Ameca city suggest that several structures tectonics are shorter than 2 km are present in the area. The present direction of motion of the Rivera plate relative to North America plate along Middle America Trench has been estimated between N19° E to N48° E (e.g. Bandy et al., 1996). During the October 09, 1995, subduction-related earthquake (Mw = 8.0) a GPS network recorded a SW motion of the Jalisco block which could be associated to an elastic deformation

  14. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Fillius, R W; McIlwain, C E

    1974-01-25

    Pioneer 10 counted relativistic electrons throughout the magnetosphere of Jupiter, with the greatest fluxes being inside 20 Jupiter radii. The peak flux of electrons with energy greater than 50 million electron volts was 1.3 x 10(7) per square centimeter per second at the innermost penetration of the radiation belts.

  15. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S

    1973-12-07

    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  16. Responses of Fraxinus excelsior L. seedlings to ambient ozone exposure in urban and mountain areas based on physiological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Parvanova, Petya; Tzvetkova, Nikolina; Bratanova-Doncheva, Svetla; Chipev, Nesho; Fikova, Radka; Donev, Evgeni

    2013-07-01

    Effects of ozone on the sensitive tree species Fraxinus excelsior L. exposed to ambient air were investigated. The dynamics of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in three-year-old ash seedlings were studied during a four-month period (June-September). Seedlings were exposed to ambient ozone in an urban (the Central City Park of Sofia - Borisova Gradina) and a mountain (Plana Mountain) area in Bulgaria. The sites were located near climate monitoring stations, providing data on ozone concentrations and meteorological parameters. Ozone exposure at the mountain site (AOT40) was more than two times higher compared to the urban site. Significantly higher values of sun radiation, transpiration, stomatal conductance and enzyme activity at the mountain site were also observed. At the urban site higher values of temperature and air humidity were registered. Effects of the measured variables on ash seedlings were complex and interdependent. No direct effect of ozone concentration in ambient air on the leaf physiology and biochemistry could be proved. However, intensified SOD and CAT activity in the presence of elevated ozone suggested antioxidant reaction in response to ozone uptake.

  17. Influence of human activities on the historical and current distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengliang; Wang, Xiaowei; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Zhao, Haitao; Wei, Wei; Li, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Due to their rich animal diversity and the presence of rare and endemic species, the Qinling Mountains are listed as a significant global biodiversity area. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) has been distributed in this area since the Middle Pleistocene. Due to the gradual encroachment of humans into their habitat, both the distribution range and population sizes of R. roxellana have significantly decreased. Based on literature research as well as field and questionnaires, we investigated the influence of human activities on R. roxellana distribution in the Qinling Mountains. Human activity within the habitat of R. roxellana began in the Stone and Bronze Ages, though initially it had no significant influence on its populations. When China entered the Iron Age, however, different historical and social periods had a considerable impact on R. roxellana distribution. Although national and provincial level governments introduced strict protection policies with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, human activities continued to influence R. roxellana distribution. Since the launch of the Natural Forest Protection Project across the Qinling Mountains in 1999, the quality of R. roxellana habitat has shown marked improvement. This research will help promote the survival and conservation of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains.

  18. Mountain building and mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Conrad, Clinton P.; Husson, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mountain building at convergent margins requires tectonic forces that can overcome frictional resistance along large-scale thrust faults and support the gravitational potential energy stored within the thickened crust of the orogen. A general, dynamic model for this process is still lacking. Here we propose that mountain belts can be classified between two end-members. First, those of "slab pull" type, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks, such as in the Mediterranean. Second, those of "slab suction" type, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet and the Altiplano. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. We support this hypothesis by analyzing the orogenic, volcanic, and convective history associated with the Tertiary formation of the Andes after ~40 Ma and Himalayas after collision at ~55 Ma. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle upwelling beneath Africa. This process started at ~65-55 Ma for Tibet-Himalaya, when the Tethyan slab penetrated into the lower mantle, and ~10 Myr later in the Andes, when the Nazca slab did. This surge of mantle convection drags plates against each other, generating the necessary compressional forces to create and sustain these two orogenic belts. If our model is correct, the available geological records of orogeny can be used to decipher time-dependent mantle convection, with implications for the

  19. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  20. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  1. Large-scale geometry of Montana thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, J.W.; Dolberg, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    Regional plunge of a structural culmination in the Sawtooth Mountains, combined with seismic profiles and borehole data, show that the imbricated faults of the Montana Disturbed belt gather upward to merge into a duplex beneath a large thrust plate dominated by the Precambrian Belt Supergroup. The duplex formed after deposition of the Paleocene St. Mary River Formation. This thrust plate overlies the Lewis, Hoadley, El dorado, Steinbach, and related thrust faults and forms the main ranges of the Montana Rocky Mountains. The plate is shaped like a northeasterly tapering wedge; it is 3 to 4 km (10,000 to 13,000 ft) thick at its leading edge, but thickens to more than 25 km (15 mi) to the southwest. At its leading edge, the plate carries lower parts of the Belt supergroup, including the Greyson, Empire, and Spokane formations. These units and overlying parts of the Belt Supergroup thicken dramatically westward within the plate, and the older, very thick, metamorphosed Prichard Formation emerges along the Purcell and related anticlinoria. The plate forms a south-facing monocline along the Lewis and Clark line. The monocline is corrugated into a series of southeast-plunging en echelon folds of Late Cretaceous age and merges with the southern terminus of the Purcell anticlinorium. Along these folds, metamorphosed Belt strata of the plate plunge systematically beneath Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that are preserved in a regional structural depression at the foot of the monocline. Geometric constructions based on areal geology suggest that the monocline has 25 km (15 mi) of structural relief and overlies a major footwall ramp that continues northward beneath the Purcell anticlinorium. This footwall ramp corresponds to the depositional locus for the easterly tapering belt strata of the plate, suggesting a total northeasterly displacement of about 50 km (30 mi) for the plate.

  2. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Regeneration of Activated Carbon Loaded with Contaminants from Rocky Mountain Arsenal Well Water.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    15 111-7 GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS THERMALLY REACTIVATED CARBON .............. 16 I IV-1 PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM FOR... PROCESSING COST OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL REGENERATION BY SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE PROCESS ........................... 25 l IV-4 SENSITIVITY OF GAC...regenerate adsorbents such as granular activated carbon loaded with a broad variety of organic adsorbates. This regeneration process uses a supercritical

  3. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  4. Non-cylindrical fold growth in the Zagros fold and thrust belt (Kurdistan, NE-Iraq)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Nikolaus; Bretis, Bernhard; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros mountains extends over 1800 km from Kurdistan in N-Iraq to the Strait of Hormuz in Iran and is one of the world most promising regions for the future hydrocarbon exploration. The Zagros Mountains started to form as a result of the collision between the Eurasian and Arabian Plates, whose convergence began in the Late Cretaceous as part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic system. Geodetic and seismological data document that both plates are still converging and that the fold and thrust belt of the Zagros is actively growing. Extensive hydrocarbon exploration mainly focuses on the antiforms of this fold and thrust belt and therefore the growth history of the folds is of great importance. This work investigates by means of structural field work and quantitative geomorphological techniques the progressive fold growth of the Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines located in the NE of the city of Erbil in the Kurdistan region of Northern Iraq. This part of the Zagros fold and thrust belt belongs to the so-called Simply Folded Belt, which is dominated by gentle to open folding. Faults or fault related folds have only minor importance. The mechanical anisotropy of the formations consisting of a succession of relatively competent (massive dolomite and limestone) and incompetent (claystone and siltstone) sediments essentially controls the deformation pattern with open to gentle parallel folding of the competent layers and flexural flow folding of the incompetent layers. The characteristic wavelength of the fold trains is around 10 km. Due to faster erosion of the softer rock layers in the folded sequence, the more competent lithologies form sharp ridges with steeply sloping sides along the eroded flanks of the anticlines. Using an ASTER digital elevation model in combination with geological field data we quantified 250 drainage basins along the different limbs of the subcylindrical Permam, Bana Bawi- and Safeen- Anticlines. Geomorphological indices of the drainage

  5. Active faulting, mountain growth, and erosion at the margins of the Tibetan Plateau constrained by in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    The India-Asia collision zone is a key area for understanding continental plateau formation and mountain building. Two fundamental questions in this context are how the northeastward motion of India is partitioned between strike-slip and thrust faults and how mountain building is counteracted by erosion. Cosmogenic nuclides allow us to address these questions, because they provide age constraints on tectonically offset landforms and constraints on erosion rates. After considerable debate on whether or not major strike-slip faults move at high rates of up to 20-30 mm/yr and absorb most of the continental deformation, it now appears that the three largest faults (Altyn Tagh, Haiyuan, Kunlun) have millennial slip rates of no more than 8-13 mm/yr, consistent with rates of elastic strain accumulation determined by geodetic methods. Furthermore, a significant portion of the lateral slip on these faults is transferred to thrust faults within the collision zone. Both observations indicate that the eastward tectonic escape of material along these faults is less important than often assumed. With respect to mountain building and erosion, cosmogenic nuclide studies show that thrust faults at the northeastern and eastern margins of Tibet (Qilian Shan, Longmen Shan) have vertical slip rates of ~ 0.3 to ~ 2 mm/yr while catchment-wide erosion rates vary from ~ 0.02 to ~ 1.0 mm/yr, with high-relief areas eroding significantly faster than the plateau interior and growing mountains in the foreland. The deeply incised regions have apparently reached an erosional steady-state, in which rock uplift is balanced by erosion. River terraces at active mountain fronts document repeated changes between sediment deposition and fluvial incision. During the Quaternary, incision and terrace formation occurred predominantly at glacial-interglacial transitions but also during interglacial periods. Hence, flights of terraces at the fault-bounded mountain fronts record the interplay between sustained

  6. Active tectonics of the Devils Mountain Fault and related structures, northern Puget Lowland and eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca region, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Mosher, David C.; Blakely, Richard J.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2001-01-01

    Information from marine high-resolution and conventional seismic-reflection surveys, aeromagnetic mapping, coastal exposures of Pleistocene strata, and lithologic logs of water wells is used to assess the active tectonics of the northern Puget Lowland and eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca region of the Pacific Northwest. These data indicate that the Devils Mountain Fault and the newly recognized Strawberry Point and Utsalady Point faults are active structures and represent potential earthquake sources.

  7. Morphometric and meteorological controls on recent snow avalanche distribution and activity at hillslopes in steep mountain valleys in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2014-08-01

    Snow avalanches are common phenomena in Norway. Controlling factors of snow avalanche distribution and activity, and the relative importance of snow avalanches regarding contemporary sedimentary mass transfers were explored within two steep, parabolic-shaped and glacier-connected tributary valleys (Erdalen and Bødalen) in western Norway. Mapping of distribution, extent and the entire path lengths of snow avalanches was combined with spatial data analysis (GIS and DEM computing) of morphometric controls. The timing and frequency of snow avalanches were explored by correlating meteorological data with high-resolution monitoring data of snow avalanche events. Sediment masses annually transferred by snow avalanches along hillslopes and from hillslopes into stream channels were estimated. A high inter-annual variability of avalanche activity and a wide spectrum of avalanche sizes and types ranging from small to extreme-sized events were found for the four-year investigation period 2009-2012. Spatial distribution of snow avalanches is governed by the topographical factors valley orientation, slope aspect, relative slope height and rockwall morphometry whereas timing and frequency of snow avalanches are controlled by snowfall intensity, periods with strong winds combined with a prevalent wind direction or sharp air temperature changes within short time periods. Snow avalanches represent one of the dominant denudational processes and have a high relative importance regarding sedimentary mass transfers within the two mountain valleys Erdalen and Bødalen in western Norway.

  8. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  9. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  10. SOME NATURAL CONDUIT ANALOGUES FOR POTENTIAL IGNEOUS ACTIVITY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Krier; G.N. Keating; G.A. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    Eruptive conduit geometry has direct relation to number of waste packages that would be damaged if a new volcano were to form at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and therefore is a key factor in predicting the consequences of such an eruption. Current risk calculations treat conduits as having circular plan view and range from a few meters to 150 m diameter at repository depths ({approx}300 m). We present new observations of shallow basaltic plumbing at analog sites aimed at testing these parameter values. East Grants Ridge. NM, is a remnant of a {approx}2.6 Ma alkali basaltic volcano with a chain of 2-3 vents that fed {approx}10-km long lava flows. The south side of the ridge exposes a plug of vertically jointed, dense basalt that intruded rhyolitic tuffs. The plug is exposed vertically for {approx}125 m, including 40 m beneath the paleosurface, and has a relatively constant width of {approx}135 m with no indication of downward narrowing. The size of the plug in the third dimension is not well known but could extend laterally up to {approx}1.5 km beneath the chain of vents. Paiute Ridge, NV, is an 8.6 Ma alkali basalt intrusion into Paleozoic carbonate and shale and Miocene silicic tuffs and includes extrusive equivalents. Dikes, small sills and lopoliths, scoria, and flows are exposed in a 2 km-wide graben. Depth of intrusion has been estimated at 100-250 m beneath the paleosurface. Dikes range from 3-20 m in width and produced limited contact vitrophyre in the host tuff. At least one sub-volcanic neck is preserved. The top of the plug is {approx}27 m lower than the base of related basalt flows 1 km distant. This neck is irregularly shaped by intersection of feeder dikes and has a sheath of mixed basaltic magma and host tuff (with both breccia and fluidal textures). The basalt interior of the plug is {approx}100 m x 70 m in map view but inclusion of the mixed zone increases this to {approx}220 m x 110 m. Basalt Ridge, NV, contains two

  11. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Jupiter's radiation belts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N.; Mcdonough, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the production and loss of energetic electrons in Jupiter's radiation belt is presented. It is postulated that the electrons originate in the solar wind and are diffused in toward the planet by perturbations which violate the particles' third adiabatic invariant. At large distances, magnetic perturbations, electric fields associated with magnetospheric convection, or interchange instabilities driven by thermal plasma gradients may drive the diffusion. Inside about 10 Jupiter radii, the diffusion is probably driven by electric fields associated with the upper atmosphere dynamo which is driven by neutral winds in the ionosphere. The diurnal component of the dynamo wind fields produces a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the decimetric radiation from the electrons in the belts, and the lack of obvious measured asymmetries in the decimetric radiation measurements provides estimates of upper limits for these Jovian ionospheric neutral winds.

  13. The levantine amber belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Horowitz, A.

    1992-02-01

    Amber, a fossil resin, is found in Early Cretaceous sanstones and fine clastics in Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. The term "Levantine amber belt" is coined for this amber-containing sediment belt. The amber occurs as small nodules of various colors and frequently contains inclusions of macro- and microorganisms. The Lebanese amber contains Lepidoptera and the amber from southern Israel is rich in fungal remains. The source of the amber, based on geochemical and palynological evidence, is assumed to be from a conifer belonging to the Araucariaceae. The resins were produced by trees growing in a tropical near shore environment. The amber was transported into small swamps and was preserved there together with lignite. Later reworking of those deposits resulted in redeposition of the amber in oxidized sandstones.

  14. Metamorphic belts of Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberhänsli, Roland; Prouteau, Amaury; Candan, Osman; Bousquet, Romain

    2015-04-01

    Investigating metamorphic rocks from high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) belts that formed during the closure of several oceanic branches, building up the present Anatolia continental micro-plate gives insight to the palaeogeography of the Neotethys Ocean in Anatolia. Two coherent HP/LT metamorphic belts, the Tavşanlı Zone (distal Gondwana margin) and the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (proximal Gondwana margin), parallel their non-metamorphosed equivalent (the Tauride Carbonate Platform) from the Aegean coast in NW Anatolia to southern Central Anatolia. P-T conditions and timing of metamorphism in the Ören-Afyon-Bolkardağ Zone (>70?-65 Ma; 0.8-1.2 GPa/330-420°C) contrast those published for the overlying Tavşanlı Zone (88-78 Ma; 2.4 GPa/500 °C). These belts trace the southern Neotethys suture connecting the Vardar suture in the Hellenides to the Inner Tauride suture along the southern border of the Kirşehir Complex in Central Anatolia. Eastwards, these belts are capped by the Oligo-Miocene Sivas Basin. Another HP/LT metamorphic belt, in the Alanya and Bitlis regions, outlines the southern flank of the Tauride Carbonate Platform. In the Alanya Nappes, south of the Taurides, eclogites and blueschists yielded metamorphic ages around 82-80 Ma (zircon U-Pb and phengite Ar-Ar data). The Alanya-Bitlis HP belt testifies an additional suture not comparable to the northerly Tavşanlı and Ören-Afyon belts, thus implying an additional oceanic branch of the Neotethys. The most likely eastern lateral continuation of this HP belt is the Bitlis Massif, in SE Turkey. There, eclogites (1.9-2.4 GPa/480-540°C) occur within calc-arenitic meta-sediments and in gneisses of the metamorphic (Barrovian-type) basement. Zircon U-Pb ages revealed 84.4-82.4 Ma for peak metamorphism. Carpholite-bearing HP/LT metasediments representing the stratigraphic cover of the Bitlis Massif underwent 0.8-1.2 GPa/340-400°C at 79-74 Ma (Ar-Ar on white mica). These conditions compares to the Tav

  15. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  16. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  17. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.

    1999-05-01

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  19. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  20. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  1. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  2. Rocky Mountain futures: An ecological perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2002 as the International Year of Mountains to increase international awareness of the global importance of mountain ecosystems. The case-based multidisciplinary approach of this book constitutes an important new model for understanding the implications of land-use practices and economic activity on mountains, and will serve a vital role in improving decisionmaking both in the Rocky Mountains and in other parts of the world that face similar challenges.

  3. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  4. Morphometric and meteorological controls of snow avalanche distribution and activity at hillslopes in steep mountain valleys in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2013-04-01

    Snow avalanches are common phenomena in Norway due to the interactions between the prevalent climatic factors and local topography. Research on snow avalanches provides insights into possible effects of predicted climate change on avalanche activity and connected sediment transport in mountain areas. This study focuses on (i) controlling factors of avalanche distribution and activity, and (ii) their relative importance regarding mass transfers in two steep, parabolic-shaped and glacier-connected tributary valleys (Erdalen and Bødalen) in western Norway. Mapping of distribution, extension and run-out distances of avalanches is combined with spatial data analysis of morphometric controls. Based on correlation of climate data with monitored avalanche events the timing and frequency of avalanches is explored and debris mass transfer on hillslopes caused by avalanches is estimated. The denudative effect of snow avalanches occurs in two steps: firstly throughout erosion directly on the surface of the rockwall and secondly due to their transport ability which causes significant remobilization and transport of available debris further downslope. The spatial distribution of snow avalanches depends on the valley orientation, slope aspect and rockwall morphometry. Especially distinct laterally convex-shaped leeside upper rockwall areas allow a high accumulation rate of snow during winter which is then released as avalanches during spring. The timing and frequency of avalanches in both valleys depend mainly on snowfall intensity, periods with strong winds combined with a stable wind direction or sudden air temperature changes. Snow avalanche activity leads in some valley areas to significant hillslope-channel coupling because debris is transported far enough by avalanches to reach channels. Snow avalanches represent one of the dominant denudational processes and have a high relative importance regarding mass transfer within the sedimentary budgets of the entire valleys.

  5. A Mountain Child: An Active Learning Pack for 9-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Jenkins, Alyson

    This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student activity sheets, a simulation game: "Life with the Incas", and a poster. The resource presents a cross-curricular thematic approach to the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. The materials look at the Andes and the Andean people, the Quechuan, who live in the…

  6. [Fleas (Siphonaptera) of mammals from the mountain area between the Kuban and Great Laba Rivers].

    PubMed

    Kotti, B K; Kotova, E G

    2014-01-01

    The flea fauna of mammals in the area between the Kuban and Great Laba Rivers contributes 47 species. The majority of mammal fleas parasitize on several hosts. Peculiarities of the species composition and the structure of flea communities dwelling in different altitudinal belts is estimated. The flea Ctenophthalmus wagneri and some other flea species possessing ancient Mediterranean range show the highest dominance indices in foothills. Ctenophthalmus proximus and Leptopsylla taschenbergi, possessing ranges of the Caucasian type, prevail in the middle mountain belt. Megabothris turbidus and some other boreal species dominate among species collected in the high mountain belt.

  7. Soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of main forest types in the Qinling Mountains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features.

  8. Active Seismicity and Tectonics in Central Asia from Seismological Data Recorded in the Pamir and Tien Shan Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sippl, Christian; Schurr, Bernd; Schneider, Felix M.; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mechie, James; Minaev, Vladislav; Abdybachaev, Ulan A.; Gadoev, Mustafo; Oimahmadov, Ilhomjon

    2010-05-01

    Active tectonics in the Pamir mountains in central Asia, the westernmost part of the India-Eurasia collision zone, are controlled by ongoing convergence (about 20 mm/yr), causing substantial crustal shortening and compressional deformation. This leads to high seismicity rates throughout the region. Whereas seismic activity along the rim of the Pamir plateau is mostly compressional and concentrated along the Main Pamir Thrust, the distribution and focal mechanisms of earthquakes in its interior are more diffuse, with extensional events occurring along North-South trending rift zones (Kara Kul, Wachan). Seismicity in the south-western Pamir and in the Hindu Kush features frequent intermediate-depth earthquakes, reaching hypocentral depths of 300 km, which is rare for regions not obviously related to active subduction of oceanic lithosphere. These mantle earthquakes, which are not observed beneath the Himalayas and Tibet further east, form a rather well-defined Wadati-Benioff zone that was readily interpreted as subducted lithosphere present below the current collisional orogen. Earlier seismological studies showed the presence of a northward-dipping lithospheric slab under the Hindu Kush and a southward-dipping one beneath the Pamirs, with a small seismic gap in-between. Different hypotheses concerning the nature of these slabs (oceanic or continental lithosphere) and tectonic geometry in general (two slabs subducting in opposite directions or a single, hugely contorted slab) have been proposed in literature. Political instability in the region in the last two decades hampered on-site studies and field work, leaving many key issues poorly understood. In the framework of the multidisciplinary project TIPAGE (Tien Shan Pamir Geodynamic Programme), for the first time, new field campaigns collecting high quality data have been made possible. Local seismicity in the Pamir and Tien Shan mountain ranges (Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) is currently being recorded by a temporary

  9. Response of soil microbial activity and community structure to land use changes in a mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Over the past several decades the mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador, a hotspot of biodiversity, is undergoing a rapid conversion to pastureland through slash and burn practice. Frequently this pastureland is invaded by the tropical bracken fern. When the bracken becomes dominant on the pasture sites the productivity decreases and the sites are abandoned. To assess the effect of these land use changes on nutrient turnover and on ecosystem functioning, a study was conducted in the area of the German research station Estación Científica San Francisco (ECSF) in Southern Ecuador. At 2000 m above sea level three adjacent sites were selected: a mountain rainforest site, an active pasture site dominated by the grass species Setaria sphacelata and an abandoned pasture site overgrown by bracken. Mineral soil samples of all three sites (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) as well as samples from the organic layer (Oi and Oa) of the natural forest site were taken to analyze biogeochemical properties. Besides pH-value, total organic C and N contents, the amounts of microbial biomass (CFE-method), microbial activity (basal respiration, net N mineralization (KCl-extraction); gross N mineralization (15N dilution technique) rates) and microbial community structure (PLFA-analysis) were determined. 17 years after pasture establishment, twofold higher stocks of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) as well as significant lower C:N ratios were determined compared to the natural forest including the 11 cm thick organic layer. 10 years after bracken invasion and pasture abandonment the microbial biomass (Cmic) decreased and the C:N ratio increased again to forest levels. Generally, land use change from forest to pasture and from pasture to abandoned pasture induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of the fast growing copiotrophic Gram(-) bacteria was positively correlated with the amounts of readily available organic carbon

  10. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Jennan

    2017-01-01

    The tick-borne disease Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) can have deadly outcomes unless treated appropriately, yet nonspecific flu-like symptoms complicate diagnosis. Occupational health nurses must have a high index of suspicion with symptomatic workers and recognize that recent recreational or occupational activities with potential tick exposure may suggest RMSF.

  11. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  12. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  13. Recent rock fall activity in the Wetterstein Mountains revealed by a time series of terrestrial laser scans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöpa, Anne; Baewert, Henning; Cook, Kristen; Morche, David

    2015-04-01

    The north face of the Hochwanner in the Reintal valley, Wetterstein Mountains, southern Germany, has been a site of frequent rock fall activity for the past several hundred years. The so-called 'Steingerümpel' rock fall included an estimated volume of 2.3-2.7 x 106 m3 and led to damming of the Partnach river. This event was dated to 1400-1600 AD. The rock fall left a prominent scar in the rock face where subsequent rock fall activity was concentrated, postulated to be a 'delayed consequence' of the Steingerümpel event. Previous workers used airborne and terrestrial laser scan data to evaluate the volume of the detached material and the deposits on the talus cone at the foot of the slope from the 'delayed consequence' activity between 2006 and 2008 (Heckmann et al., 2012). The largest event during this period was a 5 x 104 m3 rock fall in August 2007. We compared the data of six terrestrial laser scans, which were acquired in June and September 2008, September 2010, June 2011, August 2013, October and November 2014, in order to assess the volumes of detached material after the large rock fall event of 2007. The aim is to investigate the post-event activity at a site of a large rock fall in order to give estimates about the timing when the activity is back to normal conditions in relation to the magnitude of the large event. Although no large rock fall occurred in the observation period, the comparison of the laser scan data indicate that the average rock wall retreat at this site is still higher compared to the mean annual rock wall retreat rate of 0.54 mm/yr for the last millennium in the Reintal valley (Krautblatter et al., 2012). This shows that sites of large rock falls remain active even years after the event. Heckmann, T.; Bimböse, M.; Krautblatter, M.; Haas, F.; Becht, M.; Morche, D. (2012): From geotechnical analysis to quantification and modelling using LiDAR data: a study on rockfall in the Reintal catchment, Bavarian Alps, Germany; Earth Surface

  14. The Overthrust Belt of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Verrall, P.

    1993-02-01

    The Overthrust Belt extends for 5000 mi (8000 km) from the Brooks Range in Alaska to the Sierra Madre Oriental in Mexico. It consists of northeastward vergent thrust and fold structures involving late Precambrian to early Tertiary sedimentary section. These sediments represent deposition off the western rift margin, formed in late Precambrian time, of the North American Precambrian craton. The northeastward thrusting continued throughout the Mesozoic as a response to the convergence of the East Pacific Plate with the North American Plate. This convergence resulted in subduction beneath the North American Plate except at the northwest end (the Brooks Range) where the result was obduction. Convergence ceased when the west edge of the East Pacific Plate reached the subduction zone. The sedimentary section involved in the Thrust Belt contains good Devonian to Cretaceous hydrocarbon source rocks, and Ordovician to traps related to the thrusting (simple thrust sheets, imbricate thrust sheets, folded thrust sheets, step anticlines, footwall cutoffs, footwall anticlines, etc.). Field methods involved in exploration for hydrocarbons include field geological mapping, remote sensing (aerial photography and Landsat imagery), various seismic refraction and seismic reflection techniques (including modern detailed three dimension surveys) and potential field methods such as gravity and magnetic surveying. Studies of the field data include paleontology, source rock and hydrocarbon migration studies, structural and stratigraphic analyses, and the processing of geophysical data. This work has succeeded in two major areas: the Western Canadian Rocky Mountain Foothills, a major gas province producing mainly from Paleozoic reservoirs; and the Wyoming-Idaho-Utah portion of the thrust belt, also a major gas producer from Paleozoic reservoirs and, in addition, a major oil producer from the Jurassic Nugget Sandstone.

  15. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  16. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  17. Of mermaids and mountains. Three decades of prompt activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Morgan, W D

    2000-05-01

    During 1966 to 1972, several laboratories demonstrated the feasibility of measuring the major body elements H, N, Ca, and Cl by prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (PGIVNA). The MERMAID facility in Birmingham, England used a cyclotron-produced pulsed neutron beam, but other groups in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, and New Zealand subsequently developed systems based on radioisotope neutron sources that could measure body nitrogen with a precision of a margin of error of a few percentage points. The accuracy of N measurement was greatly enhanced by Vartsky's internal standardization, using prompt-gamma H as the marker and total body hydrogen (based on total body water and skinfolds) as the reference. Chlorine and extracellular water volume were used in a similar way by the Swansea group to calibrate the prompt-gamma analysis of total body calcium. The PGIVNA technique is most valuable in assessing nutritional status, particularly in relation to body protein.

  18. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  19. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  20. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-27

    is unlimited. 15 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0007 TR-2016-0007 RADIATION BELT DYNAMICS Jay M. Albert, et al. 27 December 2015 Final Report APPROVED FOR... KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this

  1. Growth of the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt and Foreland Basin, Northern Iraq, Kurdistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshnaw, Renas; Horton, Brian; Stockli, Daniel; Barber, Douglas; Ghalib, Hafidh; Dara, Rebwar

    2016-04-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt in the Middle Eastern segment of the Alpine-Himalayan system is among the youngest seismically active continental collision zones on Earth. However, due to diachronous and incremental collision, the precise ages and kinematics of shortening and deposition remain poorly understood. The Kurdistan region of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and foreland basin contains well-preserved Neogene wedge-top and foredeep deposits that include clastic nonmarine fill of the Upper Fars, Lower Bakhtiari, and Upper Bakhtiari Formations. These deposits record significant information about orogenic growth, fold-thrust dynamics, and advance of the deformation front. Thermochronologic and geochronologic data from thrust sheets and stratigraphic archives combined with local earthquake data provide a unique opportunity to address the linkages between surface and subsurface geologic relationships. This research seeks to constrain the timing and geometry of exhumation and deformation by addressing two key questions: (1) Did the northwestern Zagros fold-thrust belt evolve from initial thin-skinned shortening to later thick-skinned deformation or vice-versa? (2) Did the fold-thrust belt advance steadily under critical/supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting or propagate intermittently under subcritical conditions with out-of-sequence deformation? From north to south, apatite (U-Th)/He ages from the Main Zagros Thrust, the Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), and additional frontal thrusts suggest rapid exhumation by ~10 Ma, ~5 Ma, and ~8 Ma respectively. Field observations and seismic sections indicate progressive tilting and development of growth strata within the Lower Bakhtiari Formation adjacent to the frontal thrusts and within the Upper Bakhtiari Formation near the MFF. In the Kurdistan region of Iraq, a regional balanced cross section constrained by new thermochronometric results, proprietary seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake hypocenters

  2. The deep structure of retrowedge thrust belts: New insight from Taiwan and the role of secondary subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Yu-Huan; Suppe, John; Liu, Char-Shine; Carena, Sara

    2016-04-01

    Retrowedge thrust belts commonly develop on the backsides of collisional mountain belts, displaying a vergence opposite to the overall foreland vergence and to the presumed deep-seated subduction polarity. For example, the Southern Alps are a well-known retrowedge whose structures verge southward over the Adria plate, in contrast with the general north vergence of alpine structure over the European foreland. Numerous models have been constructed to explain the deep structure of such bivergent collisional mountain belts in relation to subduction polarity. However, the details of how these upper crustal thrust belts root into the lower crust and link to the subducting mantle lithosphere, defining the fundamental collisional kinematics, remains relatively unconstrained from a direct observational point of view. Here we present a synthesis of new observational constraints on the deep crustal and lithospheric structure of the currently active (~25-30mm/y) retrowedge thrust belt within the larger (90mm/y) Taiwan arc-continent collision between the Philippine Sea plate and the Eurasian stable continental margin. We make use of high-resolution local and global tomography and abundant well-located seismicity to define the deep structure and we use geodesy, surface geology, high-resolution bathymetry and new pre-stack depth migration of reflection profiles in the retrowedge thrust belt to define upper crustal structure and kinematics. The western Taiwan prowedge thrust belt has been converging with Eurasia at ~30mm/y based on geodesy, neotectonic observations (30Ka), and forland basin migration rate (~3-3.5Ma). This equals the long-term subduction rate of Eurasia based on ~450km of subducted slab since the onset of Eurasian subduction at ~15Ma. The remaining ~60mm/y of current plate convergence is taken up by deformation of the edge of the Philippine Sea plate since ~2Ma. Within the upper crust, approximately 60% of this convergence (30-35mm/y) is taken up by west

  3. Geomorphological approach in karstic domain: importance of underground water in the Jura mountains.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Mickael; Sue, Christian; Champagnac, Jean Daniel; Bichet, Vincent; Carry, Nicolas; Eichenberger, Urs; Mudry, Jacques; Valla, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Jura mountain belt is the north-westernmost and one of the most recent expressions of the Alpine orogeny (i.e. Mio-Pliocene times). The Jura has been well studied from a structural framework, but still remains the source of scientific debates, especially regarding its current and recent tectonic activity [Laubscher, 1992; Burkhard and Sommaruga, 1998]. It is deemed to be always in a shortening state, according to leveling data [Jouanne et al., 1998] and neotectonic observations [Madritsch et al., 2010]. However, the few GPS data available on the Jura do not show evidence of shortening, but rather a low-magnitude extension parallel to the arc [Walpersdorf et al., 2006]. Moreover, the traditionally accepted assumption of a collisional activity of the Jura raises the question of its geodynamic origin. The Western Alps are themselves in a post-collisional regime and characterized by a noticeable isostatic-related extension, due to the interaction between buoyancy forces and external dynamics [Sue et al., 2007]. Quantitative morphotectonic approaches have been increasingly used in active mountain belts to infer relationship between climates and tectonics in landscape evolution [Whipple, 2009]. In this study, we propose to apply morphometric tools to calcareous bedrock, in a slowly deformed mountain belt. In particular, we have used watersheds metrics determination and associated river profiles analysis to allow quantifying the degree and nature of the equilibrium between the tectonic forcing and the fluvial erosional agent [Kirby and Whipple, 2001]. Indeed, long-term river profiles evolution is controlled by climatic and tectonic forcing through the following expression [Whipple and Tucker, 1999]: S = (U / K) 1/n Am/n (with U: uplift rate, K: empirical erodibility factor, function of hydrological and geological settings; A: drained area, m, n: empirical parameters). We present here a systematic analysis of river profiles applied to the main drainage system of the

  4. The 1989 earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain, California: an initial look at the 4 May through 30 September activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a 50 000- to 200 000-yr-old cumulovolcano standing on the southwestern rim of Long Valley in eastern California. On 4 May 1989, two M=1 earthquakes beneath the south flank of the mountain marked the onset of a swarm that has continued for more than 6 months. In addition to its longevity, noteworthy aspects of this persistent swarm are described. These aspects of the swarm, together with its location along the southern extension of the youthful Mono-Inyo volcanic chain, which last erupted 500 to 600 yr ago, point to a magmatic source for the modest but persistent influx of strain energy into the crust beneath Mammoth Mountain. -from Authors

  5. The Interdependence of Deformational and Thermal Processes in Mountain Belts

    PubMed

    Huerta; Royden; Hodges

    1996-08-02

    Crustal temperatures within collisional orogens are anomalously high compared with temperatures at comparable depths in stable continents, which is evidence of thermal processes that are fundamental to orogenesis. These temperatures can be explained by the redistribution of crust enriched in heat-producing elements through the accretion of crust from the down-going plate to the upper plate and surface erosion. With the use of geologically reasonable rates, the model results predict high temperatures (over 600°C) and inverted upper-plate geotherms (about 100°C over 20 kilometers) at shallow depths (20 to 40 kilometers) by 25 to 35 million years after collision. This study emphasizes the interdependence of deformational, surficial, and thermal processes.

  6. Distinction of gem spinels from the himalayan mountain belt.

    PubMed

    Malsy, Anna; Klemmb, Leonhard

    2010-01-01

    Gem spinel deposits in Myanmar, Vietnam and Tajikistan have their formation in association with Himalayan orogenesis. Gem-quality orange, pink, red and purple spinels from deposits at Mogok (Myanmar), Luc Yen (Vietnam), and Kuh-i-Lal (Tajikistan) have been investigated by 'standard' gemological testing and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Microscopic examination yielded apatite and calcite inclusions together with octahedral negative crystals to be most frequently present in Mogok spinels. The presence of dislocation systems and titanite inclusions are indicative inclusion features for spinels from Luc Yen. Trace elements such as Ti, Fe, Ni, Zn, Zr and Sn differ slightly in spinels from the sources investigated. A distinction of spinels from these deposits is therefore possible by trace element chemistry. This is especially helpful for gem spinels, which often show few inclusions or completely lack inclusion features.

  7. Multiple Magmatic Events Over 40 Ma in the Fish Creek Mountains, North-central Great Basin, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousens, B.; Henry, C. D.; Stevens, C.; Varve, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Fish Creek Mountains, located in north-central Nevada south of Battle Mountain, is a site of multiple igneous events ranging from ca. 35 Ma to 1 Ma, covering most of the igneous history of the Great Basin of the western United States. Such extended volcanic activity allows for documentation of mantle sources and petrogenetic processes over time. Beginning approximately 50 Ma, the Great Basin experienced a magmatic front that began migrating southwestward across southern Idaho, central Oregon and into northern Nevada and Utah. Intermediate, "arc-like" andesite and dacite dominated volcanic activity in northeastern Nevada between about 45 and 36 Ma. By 34 Ma, a northwest-trending belt of rhyolitic ash-flow calderas began to develop through central Nevada, the "ignimbrite flare-up". Volcanism then migrated westwards towards the Sierra Nevada. In north-central Nevada, the oldest lavas are ca. 35 Ma basaltic andesites through rhyolites that are exposed in the western Shoshone Range, the eastern Tobin Range, and the northern and eastern Fish Creek Mountains. Plagioclase-rich andesites, dacite intrusions, and volcanic breccias occur in a belt along the western side of the Fish Creek Mountains. The bulk of the Fish Creek Mountains is composed of the 24.7 Ma Fish Creek Mountains rhyolitic tuff that is largely confined to an undeformed caldera structure. The caldera and tuff are anomalously young compared to nearby felsic centers such as the Caetano caldera (33.8Ma) and Shoshone Range (39-35 Ma) and relative to the southwest to west magmatic migration. The basal tuff is unwelded, with abundant pumice and lithic (primarily volcanic) fragments but only rare crystals. Sanidine and smoky quartz phenocrysts become more abundant upsection and glassy fiamme (hydrated to devitrified) are common, but the abundance of lithic fragments diminishes. 16-15 Ma volcanic rocks of the Northern Nevada Rift are exposed in the Battle Mountain area, ranging in composition from subalkaine

  8. Libby thrust belt and adjacent structures - new factors to consider in thrust tectonics of northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.E.; Cressman, E.R.

    1985-05-01

    About 40 mi (65 km) west of the Rocky Mountain trench and at least 9 mi (15 km) above the sole detachment of the Rocky Mountain thrust belt is a zone of Cretaceous-Tertiary thrust faults up to 25 mi (40 km) wide in middle Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks. This zone (the Libby thrust belt) extends northward from the Lewis and Clark line to the northwest corner of Montana. Within the Libby thrust belt is a series of complex ramps, horsts, splays, and folds that accommodate a tectonic shortening of about 6.2 mi (10 km). Backsliding has occurred on some listric thrust faults, and middle Tertiary(.) extensional horst-and-graben faults offset or join most thrust faults. On the east, the lead thrust ramps up onto the broad open Purcell anticlinorium. On the west, the Libby thrust belt is overridden in the north by the lead thrust of the Yaak plate (whose central part is the broad, open Sylvanite anticline), and in the south, it is overridden by the Moyie thrust (which trends northwest and also overrides the west edge of the Yaak plate). Geologic cross sections suggest that the Belt rocks have overridden the Cambrian at shallow depths only and that Cambrian and younger Phanerozoic strata probably do not occur at greater depths beneath and west of the Purcell anticlinorium. This interpretation differs significantly from interpretations that suggest intercalation of major wedges of Paleozoic and Belt rocks at depth in this same area.

  9. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  10. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  11. A modelling framework to predict bat activity patterns on wind farms: An outline of possible applications on mountain ridges of North Portugal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Carmen; Cabral, João Alexandre; Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Mário

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide ecological impact assessments of wind farms have gathered relevant information on bat activity patterns. Since conventional bat study methods require intensive field work, the prediction of bat activity might prove useful by anticipating activity patterns and estimating attractiveness concomitant with the wind farm location. A novel framework was developed, based on the stochastic dynamic methodology (StDM) principles, to predict bat activity on mountain ridges with wind farms. We illustrate the framework application using regional data from North Portugal by merging information from several environmental monitoring programmes associated with diverse wind energy facilities that enable integrating the multifactorial influences of meteorological conditions, land cover and geographical variables on bat activity patterns. Output from this innovative methodology can anticipate episodes of exceptional bat activity, which, if correlated with collision probability, can be used to guide wind farm management strategy such as halting wind turbines during hazardous periods. If properly calibrated with regional gradients of environmental variables from mountain ridges with windfarms, the proposed methodology can be used as a complementary tool in environmental impact assessments and ecological monitoring, using predicted bat activity to assist decision making concerning the future location of wind farms and the implementation of effective mitigation measures.

  12. Ninety five percent: an evaluation of law, policy, and programs to promote seat belt use in Washington state.

    PubMed

    Salzberg, Philip M; Moffat, John M

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt use in Washington state was 83% in 2001. In 2002, a series of law, policy, and program initiatives coalesced to produce a dramatic increase in seat belt use. Washington enacted a primary enforcement seat belt, the Chief of the Washington State Patrol made safety belt enforcement one of the core missions of that agency, and Washington participated in the national Memorial Day Click It or Ticket program during May 2002 and continued the program into 2003. Evaluation of these initiatives was accomplished through observation surveys of seat belt use, analysis of seat belt violation data, and analysis of data on traffic deaths of motor vehicle occupants. The major findings were that there was a two- to three-fold increase in enforcement of the seat belt law, belt use rates increased to 93% in 2002 and again to 95% in 2003, and motor-vehicle occupant fatalities decreased by 13%. IMPACT ON PRACTICE AND POLICY: The primary seat belt law and Click It or Ticket program activities were critical factors in increasing belt use in Washington state. Media and enforcement programs targeting seat belt use can be very effective in raising the belt use rate, but a long-term commitment to continuation of these program activities is essential. Other states implementing new primary seat belt laws should consider delivering a Click It or Ticket campaign prior to the effective date of the primary law and continuing these activities during subsequent months and years.

  13. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; Selesnick, Richard; Mazur, Joseph

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented ver-sion of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  14. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick Inner Zone Model (SIZM). The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations from SAMPEX/PET and HEO orbit and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  15. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Mazur, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  16. Loess-paleosol sequences at the northern European loess belt in Germany: Distribution, geomorphology and stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmkuhl, Frank; Zens, Joerg; Krauß, Lydia; Schulte, Philipp; Kels, Holger

    2016-12-01

    Pleistocene loess and loess derivates are distributed along the mountain front of the Central European Mountain Belt in northern and central Germany. Examples from two regions, the Lower Rhine Embayment (LRE) and the Northern foreland of the Harz Mountains (FHM) show that the distribution of loess and the development of loess-paleosol sequences (LPS) are controlled by relief, climate, tectonics, the distance to large river systems, the distance to the Scandinavian ice sheet and the distance to the shelf of the North Sea. In the oceanic LRE higher humidity enhanced the periglacial processes which increased erosion, but also led to preservation in accumulative positions. In contrast, in the more continental FHM the sediments were affected by less intensive periglacial processes and no solifluction can be detected. New loess distribution maps are presented for both key areas, and key sections, especially for the last glacial cycle, are compared and summarized. Both study regions are located in the west - east trending loess belt north of the Central European Mountain belt (in front of the Rhenish Shield = Ardennes-Eifel and Harz Mountains). Finally, a synthesis of typical sediment sequences for both regions is given as an example of paleoenvironmental (landscape) development in northern Central Europe.

  17. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid

  18. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  19. Geomorphic terranes of the central Klamath Mountains: Applications to ecosystem management

    SciTech Connect

    De La Fuente, J.; Biery, E.; Creasy, M.; Elder, D.; Haessig, P.; Laurent, T.; Snavely, W. )

    1993-04-01

    Five geomorphic terranes have been identified in the Dillon Mountain area, about 20 miles southwest of Happy Camp, California. These terranes are defined as lands with similar geologic histories, where modern geomorphic processes are similar, and where soils and biotic communities are similar. They include: (1) slump/earthflow terrane; (2) glacial deposit terrane; (3) mountain slope terrane; (4) headwall terrane (steep, fan-shaped headwaters of first order drainages); and (5) inner gorge terrane (the steep landform which develops adjacent to rapidly downcutting streams). These primary geomorphic terranes are further subdivided on a basis of lithology, slope gradient, and geomorphic setting. Geomorphic terrane maps are derived from primary data layers in a geographic information system (GIS). The primary data layers include field-generated lithology, structure, and geomorphology. Slope gradient information is also used, and is derived from digital terrain data, modified by field observations. The distribution of geomorphic terranes is strongly influenced by local stratigraphy, which includes portions of the Western Jurassic Belt (Galice Formation), and the Western Paleozoic and Triassic Belt (Rattlesnake Creek, and Hayfork terranes). Tectonic and climatic events of the Pleistocene Epoch also played a major role in the formation and distribution of geomorphic terranes. These included rapid uplift, seismic activity, and alternating glacial and interglacial conditions. Work is underway to refine the geomorphic terranes by applying other variables such as bedrock structure, precipitation zones, and elevation zones.

  20. Correlation of the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irwin, William P.

    2003-01-01

    . The sequence shown for the Klamath Mountains is modified from Irwin and Mankinen (1998) and Irwin and Wooden (1999). The episodes are named for the accreting terranes of the Klamath Mountains, but those names may not be suitable for reference to the correlative episodes of the Sierra Nevada. In the figure for each episode, a heavy black line represents the active suture that separated oceanic crustal rocks on the left from the earlier accreted terranes on the right. Plutons are particularly useful for timing the accretionary episodes. The preaccretionary plutons, which commonly represent the roots of oceanic volcanic arcs, are shown in the accreting oceanic crustal rocks to the left of the heavy black line. The accretionary plutons consist of rock that has been subducted and remobilized as magma during the accretionary process and injected into an overlying earlier accreted terrane on the right of the heavy black line. Thus, isotopic dating of the accretionary plutons (preferably U/Pb dates measured on zircon extracted from the plutonic rock) provides a useful basis for assigning ages to the accretionary episodes. Many plutons are rootless at depth, as they tend to be truncated by the subduction zone sutures of younger accreting terranes. Volcanic deposits resulting from accretionary episodes apparently are uncommon except for those deposited on the backstop terranes. In the Klamath Mountains, the Eastern Klamath terrane, which consists of the Yreka, Trinity and Redding subterranes, was the backstop for the Central Metamorphic and younger accretionary episodes, and displays a remarkable record of sedimentation, volcanism and plutonism from Silurian-Devonian to Jurassic time. In the Sierra Nevada, the correlative backstop was the Northern Sierra terrane which shows a similar long record of volcanism in the Taylorsville, Permian, and Jurassic volcanic arc sequences. During some accretionary episodes the subducting oceanic rocks were dynamically metamorphosed to schist

  1. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S&ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriat e distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S&ER analyses.

  2. Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, M.F.; Mahan, S.A.; Knott, J.R.; Bowman, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded researchers until recently. Most mapping efforts have recognized at least four major relative-age groupings (Q1 (oldest), Q2, Q3, and Q4 (youngest)), using observed changes in surface soils and morphology, relation to the drainage net, and development of desert pavement. Obtaining numerical age determinations for these morphologic stages has proven challenging. We report the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages for three of these four stages deposited within alluvial-fans along the tectonically active Black Mountains of Death Valley. Deposits showing distinct, remnant bar and swale topography (Q3b) have OSL ages from 7 to 4 ka., whereas those with moderate to poorly developed desert pavement and located farther above the active channel (Q3a) have OSL ages from 17 to 11 ka. Geomorphically older deposits with well-developed desert pavement (Q2d) have OSL ages ???25 ka. Using this OSL-based chronology, we note that alluvial-fan deposition along this tectonically active mountain front corresponds to both wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet climate changes recorded globally and regionally. These findings underscore the influence of climate change on alluvial fan deposition in arid and semi-arid regions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  3. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  4. What can we learn from fluvial incision in high mountains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Margret; Gloaguen, Richard; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    High and actively deforming mountain ranges attract the attention of geoscientists as they provide natural laboratories of fast evolving process-response systems. Tectonic compressional settings, often linked to perpendicular extension, control the topographic growth and hence, erosion, transport pathways and sedimentation. High altitude differences within short horizontal distances promote material re-organisation and high rates of surface processes. Furthermore, high mountains constitute orographic barriers that affect atmospheric circulations as well as host different climate regimes similar to those of widely separated latitudinal belts. Both cause a high sensitivity of surface processes to changes in climatic conditions. However, feedbacks between climatic and tectonic forcing are complex. Additionally, the dominance of one or the other varies in space and also over time, inheriting various traces of the paleo-morphodynamic conditions to the subsequent process regimes. To unravel the forces driving the evolution of relief in active mountains, numerous studies employ the drainage network of the corresponding mountains as a proxy of landscape evolution. Especially the rates of river incision provide a powerful tool to characterize the surface response and infer causes behind it. Several parameters of river incision are available to describe the fluvial incision at individual sites (e.g. terrace incision rates), along the river course (e.g. longitudinal river profiles, Hack index) and in its perpendicular dimension (e.g. valley cross sections, valley shape ratios). But they require careful interpretation. They are sensitive to both, climatic and tectonic forcing. Therefore, the synopsis of such indices for fluvial incision is essential to evaluate the role of climatic versus tectonic forcing. Here, we use the Panj river system, the major river draining the Pamir mountains of Central Asia, as an example. The Panj experiences high altitude changes of more than 4000

  5. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported.

  6. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  7. Evaluation of Silurian-Niagaran reef belt in Northeastern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S.; Bomar, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Silurian pinnacle reefs have remained the main exploration targets in the Michigan basin over the last decade. Recent discoveries have extended the reef belt into new areas in the western and northeastern parts of Michigan's lower peninsula. Meanwhile, the exploration for these reefs has continued in more developed areas of the belt in northern Michigan, southwestern Ontario, and southern Michigan. The results of exploration activities in northeastern Michigan in Cheboygan, Montmorency, and Presque Isle counties is different from the rest of the northern portion of the belt. A detailed study used the data available from the exploration activities in this area to determine the reef belt characteristics and reserves potential in northeastern Michigan and its extension into Lake Huron. The results indicated some interesting features, including the narrowing of the belt as it approaches Lake Huron. It was concluded that the different depositional environment during the Silurian Age had affected the development of the belt and the hydrocarbon accumulation in the pinnacle reefs in this part of the basin.

  8. D-InSAR to inspect the active fault of Kunlun Mountains on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Fang; Ye, Chengming; Bi, Xiaojia; Wu, Zhenhan; Kong, Xiangsheng; Liu, Rui; Yan, Mingxing

    2007-11-01

    Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (D-InSAR) is a new technology which is capable of detecting the tiny ground deformation and extracting Digital Elevation Model (DEM). This paper introduces the basic principle of D-InSAR. Using of two pass model and SRTM DEM, acquired Kunlun Mountains region surface deformation of Ms8.1 in 2001. The result provides an important reference for Qinghai-Tibet Railway Disaster Prevention.

  9. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  11. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  17. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  18. Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed

    NASA Video Gallery

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'€™s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

  19. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  20. Impact of late Cenozoic extension on Laramide overthrust belt and Diablo Platform margins, northwestern Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. )

    1994-03-01

    Late Cenozoic basins and normal faults were superimposed upon preexisting Tertiary, Mesozoic and older structures of northwestern Trans-Pecos Texas. We analyzed the structural and stratigraphic framework of the region using borehole, seismic, outcrop, and aerial-photograph interpretations; regional cross sections were prepared to record Mesozoic and Cenozoic structural attributes. Laramide thrusting displaced Cretaceous rocks northeastward and produced northwest-trending thrust faults and related normal faults, folds, and monoclines. Cenozoic extension caused normal faulting that produced northwest- and north-northwest-trending, 3 to 30 mile-wide fault-bounded basins and adjacent mountain ranges. Tectonism continues to the present. The pre-late Cenozoic structural grain has at least partly controlled geometries of the late Cenozoic basins and associated faults. The deepest Cenozoic basin of this area developed along the leading edge of the Laramide thrust belt and the southwest margin of the Diablo Plateau, and has as much as 9800 ft of Cenozoic basin fill. The most active Quaternary faults vertically displace middle Pleistocene deposits by about 33 to 105 ft. The 56-mi-long Red Light Bolson, containing more than a 2000 ft of Cenozoic deposits, also formed near the leading edge of the older thrust belt. A northwest-striking Quaternary fault zone bounds this basin on its east margin. Two series of Cenozoic basins also have formed northeast of the overthrust belt. The 50-mi-long Eagle Flat-Green River basin system consists of three basins that contain 900 to more than 2000 ft of basin fill. Late Tertiary-Quaternary tectonism has not been as active there as in the other large basins. The 124-mi-long Salt Basin graben system comprises five basins and marks the east edge of Quaternary faulting in this region. Cenozoic fill is more than 2000 ft thick, and the most active Quaternary faults vertically displace middle Pleistocene deposits by at least 13 to 36 ft.

  1. Is the ecological belt zonation of the Swiss Alps relevant for moth diversity and turnover?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jan; Rüdlinger, Cecil M.; McCain, Christy M.

    2017-04-01

    Mountain ecosystems are traditionally envisioned as elevational belts of homogenous vegetation, separated by intervening ecotones. Recent research has cast doubt on such predictable layering at least in animal communities. We test the link of two a priori defined ecological belt zonations to noctuid moth distributions in the Swiss Alps. Predictions, in particular, were a coincidence of proposed ecotones with increased range endpoint frequencies and with increased species turnover or species richness between equidistant elevational bands. Using >320,000 distributional records for >500 noctuid species, we found no support for these three predictions despite several contrasting analytical approaches. Concurrent with recently published vertebrate data, we conclude that simple ecological belt zonations are unrelated to the moth communities found along mountain slopes. Rather, species are distributed idiosyncratically following their specific niche requirements. Additional rigorous evidence, particularly comparing insect clades spanning a spectrum of host-plant relationships, may be required to support the relevance of the ecological belt concept in structuring mountain ecosystems beyond tree and plant communities.

  2. U-Pb geochronology and geochemistry of the McCoy Mountains Formation, southeastern California: A Cretaceous retroarc foreland basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Jacobson, C.E.; Probst, K.

    2004-01-01

    The timing of deposition of fluvial sediments now forming the >7-km-thick McCoy Mountains Formation is one of the key uncertainties in reconstructing the Mesozoic poleogeography of southern California and western Arizona. Ion-microprobe U-Pb geochronologic data for individual zircons from nine sandstones from the McCoy Mountains type section and six associated igneous rocks provide significant new constraints on the tectonic setting and the timing of deposition within the northwest-trending McCoy basin. U-Pb zircon data from a metavolcanic rock of the underlying Dome Rock sequence in the Palen Mountains confirm that the McCoy Mountains Formation was deposited after regional Middle to Late Jurassic arc magmatism. U-Ph zircon data from a Late Cretaceous granodiorite intruding the formation in the Coxcomb Mountains confirm that the formation was deformed and metamorphosed prior to 73.5 ?? 1.3 Ma. Populations of detrital zircons vary systematically with both rock type and stratigraphic height; lithic arkoses predominantly derived from the west have consistently more abundant younger zircons than do litharenite sandstones predominantly derived from the north, and the youngest zircons yield maximum depositional ages that decrease from 116 Ma near the base to 84 Ma near the top of the section. The detrital-zircon data permit a Late Jurassic age for the basal, comparatively quartz-rich sandstone. However, the data further suggest that >90% of the formation was deposited between middle Early and middle Late Cretaceous time. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the McCoy Mountains Formation represents a retroarc foreland basin, deposited behind the active, evolving Cretaceous Cordilleran continental-margin magmatic arc that lay to the west and in the foreland of the actively deforming Cretaceous Maria fold-and-thrust belt.

  3. The distant Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, B.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, J. M.; Morbidelli, A.; Holman, M.; Loredo, T.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from a series of deep imaging surveys designed to look for very faint objects in the outer solar system. We find roughly 10-20 percent of our detections outside a heliocentric distance of 48 AU, a much larger fraction than all previously published surveys. The implications of this result for the radial structure of the Kuiper Belt will be discussed, as well as how it interacts with various theories regarding the sculpting of the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian region. We find a luminosity function with a continuing steep slope down to the limit of our detections at about 26th magnitude, implying that observations are just on the threshold of reaching the level where the TNO size distribution is exptected to `roll over' to a shallower collisional slope. The size distribution in the observed region is expected to hold information about the time scale and physics of planetesimal building in the early outer Solar System. This work has been supported by a Henri Chretien international research grant (AAS), by NASA Origins grants NAG5-8198 and NAG5-9678, by an ACI Jeune award from the French Research Ministry, and an Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur BQR grant.

  4. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  5. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, C.; Becker, T. W.

    2012-04-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia

  6. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Faccenna, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  7. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  8. The enigmatic Mongol-Okhotsk Belt in NE Mongolia - a preliminary evaluation of the geodynamic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denise, Bussien; Nergui, Martin-Gombojav; Wilfried, Winkler; Quadt Albrecht, Von

    2010-05-01

    -Carboniferous time) show similar subduction related magma production processes in the northern and southern margin. However, the two continental margins of the MOO were presumably active at different periods. Our preliminary data propose that along the northern margin, from Silurian to Early Carboniferous subduction and accretion prevailed, which was re-initiated during the Permian. Reworking of older basement zircons is sparse. The contemporaneous Silurian-Devonian southern margin represented an extensional continental margin showing reworking of Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic zircons from the basement. It presumably turned into an active continental margin with starting arc magmatism in the Carboniferous. Continued subduction is manifested by the occurrence of Permian and Triassic zircons. On both margins Triassic and Jurassic continental sediments unconformably overlie tectonically deformed fore-arc series. In the suture zone in-between, Permo-Triassic and Jurassic samples contain Permian zircon grains, and an irregular mixing with Cambrian to Carboniferous zircons is documented. The pre-Permian zircon age spectra closer compare with the southern margin age distributions. Synsedimentary magmatic activity is documented until Late Triassic-Liassic (≈ 202 Ma). This volcanic source age approximately correlates with the time of closure of the MOO in the Mongolian segment of the mountain belt.

  9. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  10. Chemical composition, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Murraya paniculata leaves from the mountains of Central Cuba.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Elisa Jorge; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo; Heyden, Yvan Vander; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Lerma-García, María Jesús; Saucedo-Hernández, Yanelis; Monteagudo, Urbano; Morales, Yeni; Holgado, Beatriz; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    The essential oil of Murraya paniculata L leaves from the mountains of the Central Region of Cuba, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Eighteen compounds, accounting for 95.1% of the oil were identified. The major component was beta-caryophyllene (ca. 30%). The antioxidant activity of essential oil was evaluated against Cucurbita seed oil by peroxide, thiobarbituric acid and p-anisidine methods. The essential oil showed stronger antioxidant activity than that of butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene, but lower than that of propyl gallate. Moreover, this antioxidant activity was supported by the complementary antioxidant assay in the linoleic acid system and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. The essential oil also showed good to moderate inhibitory effects against Klebsiellapneumoniae and Bacillus subtilis.

  11. Discrimination of volcano activity and mountain-associated waves using infrasonic data and a backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Fredric M.; Leeney, Thomas A.; Canady, Heather M.; Wheeler, Joseph C.

    1999-03-01

    An integral part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring is an international infrasonic monitoring network that is capable of detecting and verifying nuclear explosions. Reliable detection of such events must be made from data that may contain other sources of infrasonic phenomena. Infrasonic waves can also result from volcanic eruptions, mountain associated waves, auroral waves, earthquakes, meteors, avalanches, severe weather, quarry blasting, high-speed aircraft, gravity waves, and microbaroms. This paper shows that a feedforward multi-layer neural network discriminator, trained by backpropagation, is capable of distinguishing between two unique infrasonic events recorded from single station recordings with a relatively high degree of accuracy. The two types of infrasonic events used in this study are volcanic eruptions and a set of mountain associated waves recorded at Windless Bight, Antarctica. An important element for the successful classification of infrasonic events is the preprocessing techniques used to form a set of feature vectors that can be used to train and test the neural network. The preprocessing steps used in our analysis for the infrasonic data are similar to those techniques used in speech processing, specifically speech recognition. From the raw time-domain infrasonic data, a set of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and their associated derivatives for each signal are used to form, a set of feature vectors. These feature vectors contain the pertinent characteristics of the data that can be used to classify the events of interest as opposed to using the raw data. A linear analysis was first performed on the feature vector space to determine the best combination of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and derivatives. Then several simulations were run to distinguish between two different volcanic events, and mountain associated waves versus volcanic events, using their infrasonic characteristics.

  12. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.

    A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.

    The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.

    The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.

    The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.

    The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere

  13. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of…

  14. The Sanfandila earthquake sequence of 1998, Queretaro, Mexico: activation of an undocumented fault in the northern edge of central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zúñiga, F. R.; Pacheco, J. F.; Guzmán-Speziale, M.; Aguirre-Díaz, G. J.; Espíndola, V. H.; Nava, E.

    2003-01-01

    A sequence of small earthquakes occurred in Central Mexico, at the northern edge of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) in the State of Queretaro, during the first 3 months of 1998. Medium to large events in the continental regime of central Mexico are not common, but the seismic history of the region demonstrates that faults there are capable of generating destructive events. The sequence was analyzed using data from a temporary network with the goals of identifying the causative fault and its relation to regional tectonics. Employing a waveform inversion scheme adapted from a method used for regional studies, we found that the source mechanisms conform to the style of faulting (i.e. extension in the E-W direction) representative of the Taxco-San Miguel Allende Fault system. This system has been proposed as the southernmost extension of the Basin and Range (BR) Province. The spatial distribution of hypocenters and source mechanisms indicate that the seismogenic segment was a fault with an azimuth of approximately 334° with almost pure dip slip. Since events which occurred just south from this region show features which are consistent with TMVB tectonics (i.e. extension in an N-S direction), the sequence may mark the boundary between the TMVB and BR stress domains.

  15. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  16. Active mountain building and the distribution of “core” Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  17. Assessing the geomorphological sensitivity of cold climate mountains to climate-driven permafrost degradation: the case of the Russian Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan; Sannel, Britta; Goossens, Rudi; Lehmkuhl, Frank; Babin, Valery; Bourgeois, Jean; Lanckriet, Sil; Frankl, Amaury

    2016-04-01

    In cold regions, climate change related permafrost thawing is causing geomorphic processes to intensify. This is especially the case in mountain regions, where several studies indicate increased geomorphic activity with the recent thawing of permafrost bodies. In addition to the effect on geomorphic processes, permafrost degradation also results in increased CO2 and CH4 emissions. This causes a positive feedback mechanism on climate change processes. For both the intensity of geomorphic processes and rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, little information exists for mountain areas in the permafrost belt worldwide. The Russian Altai Mountains are marginally glaciated and house sporadic and discontinuous permafrost. Due to global warming, temperature and precipitation are changing rapidly in the area, at rates higher than the global average. This result in highly dynamic environmental processes, making the Altai Mountains a potential area to understand the interrelations between geomorphology and permafrost, as influenced by climate change. Due to its marginal nature, permafrost degradation is rapid in the Russian Altai Mountains, and related geomorphological processes (e.g. landslides) are therefore accelerating. Therefore, a geomorphological time-depth analysis will be done focusing on geomorphic permafrost indicators such as rock glaciers, solifluction, permafrost creep, polygon patterned ground, palsas and thermokarst. Mapping the present day situation will be based on fieldwork, existing maps, satellite imagery and ASTER Digital Elevation Models. A specific geomorphological map representing the (peri)glacial geomorphology of the 1960s based on CORONA images will be prepared. In addition, 3D-photomodelling of rock glaciers and solifluction lobes will reveal short-term geomorphic dynamics. To understand the permafrost dynamics (1960s-2100) of the area, a statistical-empirical permafrost model will be used, using topo-climatic factors and temperature data from

  18. Trends in PVC conveyor belting

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The development of mechanical systems of extraction at the coal face necessitated the introduction of efficient methods of mineral transportation in deep-mining operations. The most popular system is the belt conveyor. Originally PVC was being evaluated as a rubber substitute, as in its liquid form it appeared to offer an easier route to fabric coating and impregnation for conveyor belt applications. However, it was not until 1950, when over 200 miners lost their lives due to an underground fire being spread by combustible rubber conveyor belts, that the full significance of the properties of PVC were appreciated. Following this tragedy, an intensive development program to produce a substitute for rubber was initiated. It had to have similar operational characteristics as rubber while incorporating the safety features of resistance to flame propagation and build-up of static electrical charges. It became evident that PVC could be compounded to realize these requirements and belting manufacturers immediately started to produce a new generation of belts based on the previouly proven mechanical characteristics of multiply fabrics, but substituting PVC for the rubber content. The advantages of PVC are discussed.

  19. Silurian-Niagaran reef belt of the Michigan basin: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Aninian, K.; Bomar, R.M.

    1984-09-01

    Exploration of Silurian-Niagaran pinnacle reefs is discussed. Recent discoveries have extended the reef belt into new areas in the western and northeastern parts of Michigan's lower peninsula, and the results of exploration in the northeastern part of the reef belt indicate that some reef characteristics in that area are not similar to those of the rest of the belt. This required a more detailed study, based on recent data available from the drilling activity in the area, to update the reserves potential and the reef belt extension into Lake Huron.

  20. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  1. Uplift and denudation rates of an actively growing mountain range inferred from in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be: the Yumu Shan (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Minxing, T.; Li, X.; Guo, J.

    2009-04-01

    Located in the foreland of the Quilian Shan (NE Tibet), the Yumu Shan is an isolated mountain range bounded by an active NW-SE striking thrust fault. Geomorphic and structural features such as fault scarps and wind gaps suggest that the ~70 km long range is actively growing (Hetzel et al., 2004; Tapponnier et al., 1990), hence the tectonic uplift should exceed the rate of denudation. Here we quantify the rate of these two competing processes using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be. Catchment-wide denudation rates are derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sediments, whereas rock uplift rates are obtained by combining scarp topographic profiles with dating of geomorphic surfaces deformed by active thrust faults at the Yumu Shan mountain front. Both denudation and rock uplift rates integrate over a similar temporal scale (~10-100 ka) and thus over many earthquake cycles. Our data document that catchment wide-denudation rates vary from ~100 to ~400 mm ka-1 as a function of morphology and lithology, while rock uplift takes place at the rate of ~0.7 mm ka-1. The difference between these values confirms that the Yumu Shan is in a topographic pre-steady state and in accordance with geomorphic and structural features. Tectonic features indicate that over few millions of years the Yumu Shan may rise to a similar height as the main ranges of the Qilian Shan farther south, which have peaks with elevations between ~5 and ~5.5 km. References: Hetzel R., Tao M., Niedermann S., Strecker M.R., Ivy-Ochs S., Kubik P.W., Gao B. (2004). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova, 16, 157-162. Tapponnier P., Meyer B., Avouac J.P., Peltzer G., Gaudemer Y., Guo S., Xiang H., Yin K., Chen Z., Cai S., Dai H. (1990). Active thrusting and folding in the Quilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 382-403.

  2. Volcanic Hazards Survey in the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, Michael; Siebe, Claus; Macias, Jose Luis

    1996-01-01

    We have assembled a digital mosaic of 11 Landsat Thematic images to serve as a mapping base for reconnaissance activities within the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt. This will aid us in interpretation and in the evaluation of potential activity of all the volcanic centers there. One result is a volcanic hazards map of the area.

  3. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  4. Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews basic concepts of particle dynamics underlying theoretical aspect of radiation belt modeling and data analysis. We outline the theory of adiabatic invariants of quasiperiodic Hamiltonian systems and derive the invariants of particle motion trapped in the radiation belts. We discuss how the nonlinearity of resonant interaction of particles with small-amplitude plasma waves, ubiquitous across the inner magnetosphere, can make particle motion stochastic. Long-term evolution of a stochastic system can be described by the Fokker-Plank (diffusion) equation. We derive the kinetic equation of particle diffusion in the invariant space and discuss its limitations and associated challenges which need to be addressed in forthcoming radiation belt models and data analysis.

  5. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  6. Low Temperature Paleogene Thermal Evolution of the British Mountains using Apatite U-Th/He Dating, Northern Yukon, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, J. E.; Guest, B.; Schneider, D. A.; Lane, L.

    2014-12-01

    The age and rate of exhumation of the British Mountains is tied to the timing of deformation in the Beaufort Sea, an active site for hydrocarbon exploration. This region contains a large portion of North America's oil and gas reserves. The British Mountains, the eastern extent of the Brooks Range in Alaska, include Paleogene structures that are the onshore portion of the Beaufort fold belt. In the Beaufort Sea, deformation is dominated by thin-skinned folding and thrusting of Paleocene to Oligocene sediments that is sourced from the British Mountains. Onshore, Paleogene deformation overprints multiple older structural events. The low temperature time history of the onshore Paleogene structures will be determined through U-Th/He dating of apatites (AHe). The results will contribute to better understanding of the timing of the maturation and migration of hydrocarbons in the Beaufort Sea. Previous work on the thermal history of northern Yukon and the North Slope of Alaska provides a regional framework for the region's low temperature-time history. These regional studies of the northern Yukon and Alaska yielded Paleocene to Eocene (60Ma - 40Ma) apatite fission track (AFT) cooling ages that progressively young to the north, consistent with geological evidence for northward propagating deformation. The British Mountains consist of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic marine sediments that are intruded by scattered Devonian plutons; both rock types will be included in the study. This study aims to improve the understanding of the Paleogene tectonic activity of the British Mountains and the deformation history of the Beaufort fold belt. The two data sets, existing AFT and new AHe results, will be both be included in the interpretation of the study area. We will present AHe data to better constrain the onshore exhumation and deformation rates at low temperatures (~60-90°C). A sampled transect through the British mountains, along the Firth River valley will provide good

  7. Feasibility demonstration of a novel, flat-belt, continuously variable transmission for automotive and electric-hybrid vehicle application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumm, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The performance of the Kumm Flat Belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) was determined over its design input speed, output torque, and speed ratio range. This report documents both the tests results and the design, fabrication, and assembly activities. A novel flat belt pulley concept is used in the CVT. This arrangement significantly reduces the required width of the pulleys and their actuators as compared to pulleys whose sheaves are moved axially by actuators to vary the belt radius ratio or pulley speed ratio. The operation of the flat belt pulley guideway discs positioning the belt by moving belt drive elements radially is shown.

  8. [Temporal variations of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountains of Northeast].

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Hui; Xu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    By the method of space-for-time Substitution, and taking the matured (>200 years old) and over-matured (>200 years old) primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests and, their secondary forests at different succession stages (20-, 30-, 50-, 80-, and 100 years old Betula platphylla forests) in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China as test objects, this paper studied the temporal variations of soil organic carbon, soil microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in the Mountains. Under the 20- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests, the soil organic carbon content in humus layer was the highest (154.8 and 154.3 g.kg-1, respectively); while under the matured and over-matured primary broad-leaved-Pinus koraiensis forests, this organic carbon content was relatively low, being 141. 8 and 133. 4 g.kg , respectively. The soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient and the activities of soil cellulase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and cellobiase under the 50- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests were the highest, but the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase was the lowest, which revealed that under middle-aged and matured B. platphylla forests, soil organic carbon had a faster turnover rate, and was probably in a stronger accumulation phase. Statistical analysis showed that the soil microbial biomass carbon had significant positive correlations with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus (r = 0.943, 0. 963, and 0.953, respectively;

  9. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Video Gallery

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  10. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of Subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  11. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  12. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  13. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  14. GATES OF THE MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Mitchell W.; Close, Terry J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gates of the Mountains Wilderness and Additions, Montana, have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources. This conclusion is based on detailed investigation of the geology and mineral and fossil fuel resources. Geologic structures of the area, although similar to potential petroleum-bearing structures in other parts of the Rocky Mountains overthrust belt, are open to the surface and probably could not have trapped or held hydrocarbons. Rocks that potentially could have generated petroleum have higher levels of thermal maturity than the range of oil generation but are within the range of dry natural gas generation.

  15. Evidence for Cambrian deformation in the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains terrane, Antarctica: Stratigraphic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duebendorfer, Ernest M.; Rees, Margaret N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains terrane is a large geologically and geophysically defined crustal block that lies between the Transantarctic Mountains and West Antarctica. The Cambrian position of the terrane is controversial, with many workers placing it between East Antarctica and southern Africa and distant from Cambrian orogenic belts. We present structural and stratigraphic evidence for Cambrian deformation in the Heritage Range, Ellsworth Mountains. From our revised stratigraphy and structural history of the Heritage Range, we propose that the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains block was located within the belt of Pan-African deformation, within the Late Cambrian continental arc, and was part of a collage of allochthonous terranes that included the Queen Maud terrane and probably the Bowers terrane of Antarctica. These terranes were situated outboard of Coats Land in the Cambrian and were subsequently translated and accreted to East Antarctica, probably during early Paleozoic time.

  16. Deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone in the eastern Tibetan plateau of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Zhang, G.; Luo, W.; Luo, H.; Cai, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zhang, W.; Qin, Q.

    2012-12-01

    1.Introduction Many researchers (e.g.,Wang et al.,2009) have proposed the relevant knowledge of tectonic evolution and dynamic characteristics of the Longmen Mountain belt as well as the Songpan-Ganzi and Yangtze blocks in the past few decades, the knowledge of shallow thrust nappe tectonic along the belt has then been generally recognized. It's, however, still difficult to image the deep crust and mantle structures and reveal the dynamic mechanism of the crustal formation under the Longmen Mountain. In this study, we carried out the MT experiments along and across the Longmen mountain region and investigated the relationships between the crust structure and seismic activity basing on the latest MT geological results. 2. Field observations We conducted three MT experiment profiles in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. One is along the Mingshan-Guangyuan profile parallel with the structural direction, and another two profiles (Maqu-Gaoliangzhen and Luqu-Hechuan) perpendicular to the Longmen Mountain fault zone. In this study, we use the conventional magnetotelluric (MT) data combine with the long-period magnetotelluric (LMT) data to observe electromagnetic response. The MT and LMT data was observed by using the V8 instrument and LEMI-417, respectively. 3. Conclusion (1) According to the results of MT inversion, we find that the high concentration of stress process along the Songpan-Ganzi block and the Yangtze block colliding zone might result from the deep crust-mantle tough shear Zone of Longmen Mountain expanded to mid-upper crust, and finally leads to a new rupture. This could be one of the focal mechanisms of the Wenchuan earthquake (Ms 8.0) generating. The deep resistivity structure along the Longmen Mountain fault zone can be divided into southern,middle and northern segments from southwest to northeast. The total resistivity of southern segment is lower than the middle and northern portions. We suggest that the upper crust of the Longmen Mountain, south of Dayi

  17. Seismicity in northeast edge of the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), activation of an undocumented fault: the Peñamiller earthquake sequence of 2011, Queretaro, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemente-Chavez, A.; Figueroa-Soto, A.; Zúñiga, F. R.; Arroyo, M.; Montiel, M.; Chavez, O.

    2013-02-01

    The Peñamiller town, in the Queretaro state, Mexico is located at the northeast border of the seismogenic zone known as the Mexican Volcanic Belt (MVB), which covers a central fringe of Mexico with east-west orientation. In this town, a sequence of small earthquakes occurred during the end of 2010 and beginning of 2011. Seismicity frequent in of the continental regimen of central Mexico are not common, however, it is known that there are precedents of large earthquakes (Mw magnitude greater than 6.0) occurring in this zone. In order to enrich seismic information, which has not been analyzed nor documented until this moment, is presented this work. This will contribute to gain more insight into the tectonic situation of the central Mexico region. Twenty-four shallow earthquakes records of the Peñamiller, Queretaro seismic sequence of 2011 were recorded by a provisional accelerograph network from the Universidad Autonoma de Queretaro (UAQ). The data were analysed in order to determine the source locations and for the estimation of the source parameters. The study was carried out through an inversion process and by spectral analysis. The results show that the largest earthquake, occurred on 8 February 2011 at 19:53:48.6 UTC, had a moment magnitude Mw = 3.5, and was located at latitude 21.039° and longitude -99.752°, at a depth of 5.6 km. This zone is located less than 7 km away in south-east direction from downtown Peñamiller. The focal mechanisms are mostly normal faults with a small lateral component. This feature is consistent with the extensional regimen of the southern extension of the Basin and Range (BR) province. The source area of the largest event was estimated to have a radius of 0.5 km, which corresponds to a normal fault with azimuth of 174° and an almost pure dip slip; this caused Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) of up to 100 cm s-2 in the horizontal direction. It is evident that the shallow earthquakes induced by crustal faulting can present a

  18. Beryllium resources of the tin-spodumene belt, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, Wallace R.

    1954-01-01

    Pegmatite dikes in the tin-spodumene belt of North and South Carolina uniformly contain about 0.05 percent BeO. The most abundant minerals in the pegmatite contain from 0. 0001 to 0.01 percent BeO. Beryl, having 12.0 to 12.3 percent BeO, is the only beryllium-rich mineral and contains more than 80 percent of the total beryllium in the rock. Beryl-bearing pegmatite crops out on hillsides near streams that flow through the pegmatite belt. Much of the pegmatite contains spodumene, feldspar, mica, cassiterite, and columbite, as well as beryl, but separating these minerals will require milling. The minable spodumene ore in the Kings Mountain area, above a depth of 300 feet contains about 40,000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 6, 000 tons of BeO, if 80 percent of the BeO is assumed to be in beryl. Other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 238,000 tons of beryl, or 35, 900 tons of BeO. On the basis of the same assumptions the spodumene ore above a depth of 300 feet 1 in the Beaverdam Creek area contains 6, 000 tons of beryl, or 800 tons of BeO, and all other pegmatite in that area contains an additional 13, 000 tons of beryl, or 1, 700 tons of BeO. The entire tin-spodumene belt contains 823, 000 tons of beryl, equivalent to 122,800 tons of BeO. Little beryllium was found in the Piedmont province outside of the tin-spodumene belt.

  19. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  20. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  1. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  2. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  3. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  4. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  5. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  7. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  9. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  13. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  14. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  15. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  18. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  19. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  1. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  4. The Ross Orogen and Lachlan Fold Belt in Marie Byrd Land, Northern Victoria Land and New Zealand: implication for the tectonic setting of the Lachlan Fold Belt in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradshaw, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Correlation of the Cambrian Delamerian Orogen of Australia and Ross Orogen of the Transantarctic Mountains widely accepted but the extension of the adjacent Lachlan Orogen into Antarctica is controversial. Outside the main Ross-Delamerian belt, evidence of this orogeny is preserved at Mt Murphy in Marie Byrd Land and the in Takaka Terrane of New Zealand. In all pre-break- configurations of the SW Pacific, these two areas are far removed from the Ross-Delamerian belt. Evidence from conglomerates in the Takaka Terrane, however, shows that in Late Cambrian times it was adjacent to the Ross Orogen. This indicates major tectonic displacements within Gondwana after the Cambrian and before break-up. The Lachlan Orogen formed in an extensional belt in a supra-subduction zone setting and the Cambrian rocks of Marie Byrd Land and New Zealand are interpreted as parts of a rifted continental ribbon on the outboard side of the Lachlan belt.

  5. Cryogenic processes and fire activity in a high Atlantic mountain area in NW Iberia (Picos de Europa) during the Mid-Late Holocene.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Nieuwendam, Alexandre; Oliva, Marc; Lopes, Vera; Cruces, Anabela; Freitas, Maria Conceição; Janeiro, Ana I; López-Sáez, José Antonio

    2016-12-15

    Mid-Late Holocene environmental changes in the Cantabrian Mountains are a consequence of both climate variability and human activity. A 182cm-long sedimentary sequence was collected from Belbín depression, Western Massif of Picos de Europa (Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain), in order to reconstruct Holocene environmental dynamics and the factors triggering landscape changes in the area. Using multi-proxy analysis of the uppermost 60cm of the sediments (texture, organic matter content, quartz grains microstructures, charcoal deposition) together with three (14)C AMS dates, a sequence of alternating warmer and colder phases has been inferred for the last ca. 6.7kycalBP. Warm stages are defined by low to moderate chemical weathering of the quartz grain particles with relative increases of the C/N ratio, while colder phases show a moderate to intense physical weathering of the quartz grains and lower C/N ratios. Warmer temperatures were recorded in Belbín area between: 6.7-5, 3.7-3, 2.6-1.1, 0.87-0.51 and since 0.01kycalBP. A colder regime occurred between 5-3.7, 3-2.6, 1.1-0.87 and 0.51 to 0.01kycalBP. The increasing organic matter content during the Late Holocene may be associated with increasing temperatures. The charcoal particles do not show a higher or lower concentration during prevailing colder or warmer conditions, and therefore may be linked to human-induced fire management of the landscape. The most intense period with fire activity occurred between 3.5 and 3kycalBP during the Bronze Age.

  6. Helicopter emergency medical service in mountainous areas.

    PubMed

    Tomazin, Iztok

    2009-01-01

    The outcome of patient care can be dramatically improved by bringing rapid rescue-medical treatment to the scene and by rapid transport to a medical facility. In mountainous areas this is usually possible only with the use of helicopters. ICAR MEDCOM suggests international standards for competent and safe response to medical problems in mountainous and wilderness areas. Rescue helicopters should work within the existing emergency medical system with appropriate mountain rescue and medically-trained personnel and with medical and rescue equipment on board. Safety is most important issue in mountain rescue. Activation and approach time should be as short as possible. All persons responsible for activation and realization of a helicopter rescue operation should be aware of all specific problems in the mountains and wilderness.

  7. Aeromagnetic map and interpretation of geophysical data from the Condrey Mountain Roadless Area, Siskiyou County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Elder, W.P.

    1983-01-01

    The western Paleozoic and Triassic belt that nearly surrounds the Condrey Mountain Schist is a melange of sedimentary, volcanic, and ultramafic rocks metamorphosed to amphibolite facies (Coleman and others, 1983). Only two samples of the metamorphic melange were collected near the Condrcy Mountain Road less Area, but extensive sampling of this unit southwest of the roadless area yielded an average sample density of 2.86±0.15 g/cm3 (112 samples) (Jachens and others, 1983).

  8. Chemistry of water collected from an unventilated drift, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, B.D.; Oliver, T.A.; Peterman, Z.E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples (referred to as puddle water samples) were collected from the surfaces of a conveyor belt and plastic sheeting in the unventilated portion of the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift in 2003 and 2005 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The chemistry of these puddle water samples is very different than that of pore water samples from borehole cores in the same region of the Cross Drift or than seepage water samples collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility tunnel in 2005. The origin of the puddle water is condensation on surfaces of introduced materials and its chemistry is dominated by components of the introduced materials. Large CO2 concentrations may be indicative of localized chemical conditions induced by biologic activity. ?? 2007 Materials Research Society.

  9. Chemistry of Water Collected From an Unventilated Drift, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Brian D.; Peterman, Zell E.

    2007-07-01

    Water samples (referred to as puddle water samples) were collected from the surfaces of a conveyor belt and plastic sheeting in the unventilated portion of the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift in 2003 and 2005 at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The chemistry of these puddle water samples is very different than that of pore water samples from borehole cores in the same region of the Cross Drift or than seepage water samples collected from the Exploratory Studies Facility tunnel in 2005. The origin of the puddle water is condensation on surfaces of introduced materials and its chemistry is dominated by components of the introduced materials. Large CO{sub 2} concentrations may be indicative of localized chemical conditions induced by biologic activity. (authors)

  10. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, T.L.; Smith, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  11. Geology of the Idonnappu Belt, central Hokkaido, Japan: Evolution of a Cretaceous Accretionary Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyokawa, Shoichi

    1992-12-01

    The Cretaceous Idonnappu Belt, located along the western Hidaka Mountains of central Hokkaido Island in Japan, records evidence of west to northwest directed underthrusting of oceanic crust. The Idonnappu fault divides the Idonnappu Belt into two subbelts; the western Oku-niikappu (ON) subbelt and the eastern Koiboku (KO) subbelt. The ON subbelt is dominated by a melange facies. It includes various thicknesses of pillow basalts, bedded radiolarian cherts, limestones, and greenish siliceous shales, all of which are intermixed with a highly sheared shaley matrix that displays a scaly cleavage. The KO subbelt is dominated by a thick flysch sequence and alternations of sandstone and shale with thin tectonic melange. The stratigraphic sequences within these belts usually young toward the west and display westward vergent structures. Outcrop- to microscopic-scale structures in the melange zone of the Idonnappu Belt, however, suggest eastward vergence. Detailed biostratigraphic studies show that structural packages young toward the east ranging in age from Lower to Upper Cretaceous. These observations are consistent with an accretionary prism model in which oceanic crust is underthrust toward the west or north west. In the middle Miocene, a change to westward vergence was caused by uplift of the Hidaka Mountains.

  12. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of ...

  13. Tectonics of some Amazonian greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts exposed amid gneisses, granitoid rocks, and less abundant granulites along the northern and eastern margins of the Amazonian Craton yield Trans-Amazonican metamorphic ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga. Early proterozoic belts in the northern region probably originated as ensimatic island arc complexes. The Archean Carajas belt in the southeastern craton probably formed in an extensional basin on older continental basement. That basement contains older Archean belts with pillow basalts and komatiites. Belts of ultramafic rocks warrant investigatijon as possible ophiolites. A discussion follows.

  14. Comparative study on the antioxidant activities of extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops from Kunlun Mountains, Xinjiang, north-western China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xincheng; Gu, Chengzhi; Tian, Liping; Wang, Xinbing; Tang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFs) from the Kunlun Mountains in Xinjing (north-western China) have been used for tea production for about a century. This study aims to assess the antioxidant activities and total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of various solvent extracts of CTF. CTF was extracted using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, 75% aqueous ethanol (AEE) and water. The antioxidant activities of the CTF extracts were investigated through DPPH, ABTS, *OH, *O2(-), total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays. The results showed that n-butanol extract showed the highest contents of total phenols and flavonoids, with DPPH, ABTS and *OH radical-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 134, 90.72 and 13.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. The AEE demonstrated the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 103 and 75.16 μg mL(-1), respectively. Given its high antioxidant effect, CTF is a good source of natural antioxidants or functional food materials.

  15. Lesson 2: Sacred Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson in which the students are divided into four Mountain Study Teams in order to examine a sacred mountain. Explains that the students in each group assume a particular role, such as an historian or scientist. Provides a profile on the four mountains and a definition of the seven student roles. (CMK)

  16. The thrust belt in Southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward T.; Lopez, David A.

    1984-01-01

    The leading edge of the Cordilleran fold and thrust in southwest Montana appears to be a continuation of the edge of the Wyoming thrust belt, projected northward beneath the Snake River Plain. Trces of the thrust faults that form the leading edge of the thrust belts are mostly concealed, but stratigraphic and structural evidence suggests that the belt enters Montana near the middle of the Centennial Mountains, continues west along the Red Rock River valley, and swings north into the Highland Mountains near Butte. The thrust belt in southwest Montana and east-central Idaho includes at least two major plates -- the Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates -- each of which contains a distinctive sequence of rocks, different in facies and structural style from those of the cratonic region east of the thrust belt. The thrust plates are characterized by persuasive, open to tight and locally overturned folds, and imbricate thrust faults, structural styles unusual in Phanerozoic cratonic rocks. The basal decollement zones of the plates are composed of intensely sheared, crushed, brecciated, and mylonitized rocks, the decollement at the base of the Medicine Lodge plate is as much as 300 meters thick. The Medicine Lodge and Grasshopper thrust plates are fringed on the east by a 10- to 50-kilometer-wide zone of tightly folded rocks cut by imbricate thrust fauls, a zone that forms the eastern margin of the thrust belt in southwest Montana. The frontal fold and thrust zone includes rocks that are similar to those of the craton, even though they differ in details of thickness, composition, or stratigraphic sequence. The zone is interpreted to be one of terminal folding and thrusting in cratonic rocks overridden by the major thrust plates from farther west. The cratonic rocks were drape-folded over rising basement blocks that formed a foreland bulge in front of the thrust belt. The basement blocks are bounded by steep faults of Proterozoic ancestry, which also moved as tear

  17. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  18. 33 CFR 142.42 - Safety belts and lifelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lifelines. 142.42 Section 142.42 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES WORKPLACE SAFETY AND HEALTH Personal Protective...

  19. Rootless Mountains and Gravity Lows in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Southern Colorado-Northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevino, L.; Keller, G. R.; Andronicos, C.; Quezada, O.

    2004-12-01

    Gravity lows over large portions of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of the southern Rocky Mountains are a geophysical curiosity. Two very low gravity anomalies in the continental United States are found in southern Colorado, in the San Juan Mountains and in the Colorado Mineral belt. Gravity modeling implies that these gravity lows may be attributed to granitic batholiths emplaced at a shallow depth. However, low gravity anomalies along the Sangre de Cristo Mountains cannot be attributed to subsurface batholiths. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are largely composed of Proterozoic basement and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Exposed and uplifted, this presumably dense, Proterozoic basement in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains should be associated with gravity highs, but this is not the case. In this study, we focused on two gravity lows in northern New Mexico-southern Colorado. One is centered over the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in Colorado and northernmost New Mexico, and the other is located near Mora, New Mexico. The northern low can be attributed to Precambrian rocks being thrust over less dense Paleozoic rocks resulting in a rootless basement. In the Mora area, the low is attributed to unusually low-density Precambrian granitic rocks (the 1.68 Ga Guadalupita pluton) underlying a thick sequence.

  20. Paleomagnetic analysis of curved thrust belts reproduced by physical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Elisabetta; Speranza, Fabio

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for studying the evolution of curved mountain belts by means of paleomagnetic analyses performed on analogue models. Eleven models were designed aimed at reproducing various tectonic settings in thin-skinned tectonics. Our models analyze in particular those features reported in the literature as possible causes for peculiar rotational patterns in the outermost as well as in the more internal fronts. In all the models the sedimentary cover was reproduced by frictional low-cohesion materials (sand and glass micro-beads), which detached either on frictional or on viscous layers. These latter were reproduced in the models by silicone. The sand forming the models has been previously mixed with magnetite-dominated powder. Before deformation, the models were magnetized by means of two permanent magnets generating within each model a quasi-linear magnetic field of intensity variable between 20 and 100 mT. After deformation, the models were cut into closely spaced vertical sections and sampled by means of 1×1-cm Plexiglas cylinders at several locations along curved fronts. Care was taken to collect paleomagnetic samples only within virtually undeformed thrust sheets, avoiding zones affected by pervasive shear. Afterwards, the natural remanent magnetization of these samples was measured, and alternating field demagnetization was used to isolate the principal components. The characteristic components of magnetization isolated were used to estimate the vertical-axis rotations occurring during model deformation. We find that indenters pushing into deforming belts from behind form non-rotational curved outer fronts. The more internal fronts show oroclinal-type rotations of a smaller magnitude than that expected for a perfect orocline. Lateral symmetrical obstacles in the foreland colliding with forward propagating belts produce non-rotational outer curved fronts as well, whereas in between and inside the obstacles a perfect orocline forms

  1. Plant biodiversity patterns on Helan Mountain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yuan; Kang, Muyi; Zhu, Yuan; Xu, Guangcai

    2007-09-01

    A case study was conducted to mountainous ecosystems in the east side of Helan Mountain, located in the transitional zone between steppe and desert regions of China, aiming to reveal the influences of four environmental factors on features of plant biodiversity—the spatial pattern of vegetation types, and the variation of α- and β-diversities in vegetation and flora. Field surveys on vegetation and flora and on environmental factors were conducted, and those field data were analyzed through CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and through Shannon-Weiner index for α-diversity and Sørensen index for β-diversity. The preliminary results are: (1) Ranked in terms of their impacts on spatial patterns of plant biodiversity, the four selected environmental factors would be: elevation > location > slope > exposure. (2) The variation of Shannon-Weiner index along the altitudinal gradient is similar to that of species amount within altitudinal belts spanning 200 m each, which suggests a unimodal relationship between the species richness and the environmental condition with regards to altitudinal factors. Both the Shannon-Weiner index and the species richness within each altitudinal belt reach their maximum at elevation range from about 1700 to 2000 m a.s.l. (3) The altitudinal extent with the highest Shannon-Weiner index is identical to the range, where both the deciduous broad-leaved forest, and the temperate evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest distribute. The altitudinal range from 1700 to 2200 m a.s.l. is the sector with both high level of species richness and diversified vegetation types. (4) The variation of β-diversity along the altitude is consistent with the vegetation vertical zones. According to the Sørensen index between each pair of altitudinal belts, the transition of vegetation spectrum from one zone to another, as from the base horizontal zone, the desert steppe, to the first vertical zone, the mountain open forest and

  2. [Effects of grazing disturbance on soil active organic carbon in mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Gong, Yuan-Bo; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Yin, Yan-Jie; Ma, Jin-Song; Guo, Ting

    2014-02-01

    Effects of grazing disturbance on the soil carbon contents and active components in the four vegetations, i.e., artificial Robinia pseudoacacia plantation, artificial poplar plantation, Berberis aggregate shrubland and grassland, were studied in the mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper Minjiang River. Soil organic carbon and active component contents in 0-10 cm soil layer were greater than in 10-20 cm soil layer at each level of grazing disturbance. With increasing the grazing intensity, the total organic carbon (TOC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and easily oxidized carbon (LOC) contents in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased gradually in the artificial R. pseudoacacia plantation. The LFOC content decreased, the POC content increased, and the TOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the artificial poplar plantation. The POC content decreased, and the TOC, LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the B. aggregate shrubland. The POC and TOC contents decreased, and the LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the grassland. The decreasing ranges of LOC, LFOC and POC contents were 0.1-7.9 times more than that of TOC content. There were significant positive relationships between TOC and LOC, LFOC and POC, suggesting that the active organic carbon components could reflect the change of soil total carbon content.

  3. Ring current and radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  4. [Chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under six Chinese herbal medicines on Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Jun; Geng, Zeng-Chao; Yin, Jin-Yan; Wang, Hai-Tao; Ji, Peng-Fei

    2012-10-01

    This paper studied the chemical properties and enzyme activities of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils in different habitats of six Chinese herbal medicines, including Pyrola decorata, Cephalotaxus fortunei, Polygonatum odoratum, Potentilla glabra, Polygonum viviparum, and Potentilla fruticosa, on the Mt. Taibai of Qinling Mountains. In the rhizosphere soils of the herbs, the contents of soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus and the soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) were higher, presenting an obvious rhizosphere aggregation, and the soil enzyme activities also showed an overall stronger characteristics, compared with those in non-rhizosphere soils. The soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents in the rhizosphere soils had significant positive correlations with soil neutral phosphatase activity, and the soil CEC had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. In the non-rhizosphere soils, the soil organic matter and total nitrogen contents had significant positive correlations with the activities of soil urease, catalase and neutral phosphatase, and the soil CEC showed a significant positive correlation with the activities of soil urease, catalase, neutral phosphatase and acid phosphatase. The comprehensive fertility level of the rhizosphere soils was higher than that of the non-rhizosphere soils, and the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils of P. fruticosa, P. viviparum, and P. glabra had higher comprehensive fertility level than those of P. decorata, P. odoratum and C. fortunei. In the evaluation of the fertility levels of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils under the six Chinese herbal medicines, soil organic matter content and CEC played important roles, and soil neutral phosphatase could be the preferred soil enzyme indicator.

  5. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  6. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  7. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  8. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  9. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a medium wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System.

  10. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  11. Spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Brown, Robert H.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Veeder, Glenn J.

    1998-01-01

    Recent near-infrared spectroscopy of Kuiper Belt objects and Centaurs indicates considerable spectral diversity among them. Some have entirely bland spectra with no discernible spectral features (e.g., Chiron), while 5145 Pholus has a very active spectrum with absorption bands of H2O, CH3OH, and probably the mineral olivine present. In addition, the strong red color of Pholus indicates the presence of organic solids. Among the KBOs, 1993 SC has an active spectrum with the probably presence of hydrocarbons and possibly the ices of H2O and N2. The diversity among these spectra and the implications that such diversity has for models of the formation of the formation of the planets will be discussed.

  12. Response of radiation belt simulations to different radial diffusion coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, A.; Shprits, Y.; Subbotin, D.; Kellerman, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Resonant interactions between Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves and relativistic electrons may violate the third adiabatic invariant of motion, which produces radial diffusion in the electron radiation belts. This process plays an important role in the formation and structure of the outer electron radiation belt and is important for electron acceleration and losses in that region. Two parameterizations of the resonant wave-particle interaction of electrons with ULF waves in the magnetosphere by Brautigam and Albert [2000] and Ozeke et al. [2012] are evaluated using the Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) diffusion code to estimate their relative effect on the radiation belt simulation. The period of investigation includes quiet time and storm time geomagnetic activity and is compared to data based on satellite observations. Our calculations take into account wave-particle interactions represented by radial diffusion transport, local acceleration, losses due to pitch-angle diffusion, and mixed diffusion. We show that the results of the 3D diffusion simulations depend on the assumed parametrization of waves. The differences between the simulations and potential missing physical mechanisms are discussed. References Brautigam, D. H., and J. M. Albert (2000), Radial diffusion analysis of outer radiation belt electrons during the October 9, 1990, magnetic storm, J. Geophys. Res., 105(A1), 291-309, doi:10.1029/1999JA900344 Ozeke, L. G., I. R. Mann, K. R. Murphy, I. J. Rae, D. K. Milling, S. R. Elkington, A. A. Chan, and H. J. Singer (2012), ULF wave derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A04222, doi:10.1029/2011JA017463.

  13. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  14. V-belt assembly for transmitting power

    SciTech Connect

    Okawa, S.; Ogino, I.; Okuwaki, S.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a V-belt assembly trained over V-belt wheels for transmitting power comprising: a flexible endless belt; rigid suspension members secured fixedly to the endless belt perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the endless belt and having pivotal projections extending from opposite sides thereof; substantially U-shaped rigid transmission pieces having holes formed therein wherein the pivotal projections extending from the respective suspension members extend in sidewise directions and into the holes so as to allow for relative movement between each of the pivotal projections and the hole for engaging V-shaped grooves of the V-belt wheels. A center axis of the pivotal projection passes through an approximately central portion of thickness of the endless belt. Each of the suspension members is substantially U-shaped so as to surround one bottom surface and opposite side surfaces of the endless belt and is secured fixedly to the endless belt; and an opposed plate connected to each of the suspension members and positioned against a bottom surface of the endless belt opposite the one bottom surface.

  15. Structural Discordance Between Neogene Detachments and Frontal Sevier Thrusts, Central Mormon Mountains, Southern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernicke, Brian; Walker, J. Douglas; Beaufait, Mark S.

    1985-02-01

    Detailed geologic mapping in the Mormon Mountains of southern Nevada provides significant insight into processes of extensional tectonics developed within older compressional orogens. A newly discovered, WSW-directed low-angle normal fault, the Mormon Peak detachment, juxtaposes the highest levels of the frontal most part of the east-vergent, Mesozoic Sevier thrust belt with autochthonous crystalline basement. Palinspastic analysis suggests that the detachment initially dipped 20-25° to the west and cut discordantly across thrust faults. Nearly complete lateral removal of the hanging wall from the area has exposed a 5 km thick longitudinal cross-section through the thrust belt in the footwall, while highly attenuated remnants of the hanging wall (nowhere more than a few hundred meters thick) structurally veneer the range. The present arched configuration of the detachment resulted in part from progressive "domino-style" rotation of a few degrees while it was active, but is largely due to rotation on younger, structurally lower, basement-penetrating normal faults that initiated at high-angle. The geometry and kinematics of normal faulting in the Mormon Mountains suggest that pre-existing thrust planes are not required for the initiation of low-angle normal faults, and even where closely overlapped by extensional tectonism, need not function as a primary control of detachment geometry. Caution must thus be exercised in interpreting low-angle normal faults of uncertain tectonic heritage such as those seen in the COCORP west-central Utah and BIRP's MOIST deep-reflection profiles. Although thrust fault reactivation has reasonably been shown to be the origin of a very few low-angle normal faults, our results indicate that it may not be as fundamental a component of orogenic architecture as it is now widely perceived to be. We conclude that while in many instances thrust fault reactivation may be both a plausible and attractive hypothesis, it may never be assumed.

  16. Trail Mountain brings people together for better on-the-job performance

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.

    1983-08-01

    About 40 miles outside of Price, UT, is Natomas Trail Mountain Coal Co. Owned and operated by Natomas Coal, Englewood, CO, Trail Mountain Coal is a two section mine using continuous miners, shuttle cars and belt haulage. Seam height averages about seven feet. Until about a year and a half ago, Trail Mountain Coal Co. was not much different from most mines. With about 120 employees, they were faced with the same problems seen throughout the industry such as high absenteeism, inexperience, poor communication and cooperation, and a host of other problems.

  17. Comparing the response of birds and butterflies to vegetation-based mountain ecotones using boundary detection approaches.

    PubMed

    Kent, Rafi; Levanoni, Oded; Banker, Eran; Pe'er, Guy; Kark, Salit

    2013-01-01

    Mountains provide an opportunity to examine changes in biodiversity across environmental gradients and areas of transition (ecotones). Mountain ecotones separate vegetation belts. Here, we aimed to examine whether transition areas for birds and butterflies spatially correspond with ecotones between three previously described altitudinal vegetation belts on Mt. Hermon, northern Israel. These include the Mediterranean Maquis, xero-montane open forest and Tragacanthic mountain steppe vegetation belts. We sampled the abundance of bird and butterfly species in 34 sampling locations along an elevational gradient between 500 and 2200 m. We applied wombling, a boundary-detection technique, which detects rapid changes in a continuous variable, in order to locate the transition areas for bird and butterfly communities and compare the location of these areas with the location of vegetation belts as described in earlier studies of Mt. Hermon. We found some correspondence between the areas of transition of both bird and butterfly communities and the ecotones between vegetation belts. For birds and butterflies, important transitions occurred at the lower vegetation ecotone between Mediterranean maquis and the xero-montane open forest vegetation belts, and between the xero-montane open forest and the mountain steppe Tragacanthic belts. While patterns of species turnover with elevation were similar for birds and butterflies, the change in species richness and diversity with elevation differed substantially between the two taxa. Birds and butterflies responded quite similarly to the elevational gradient and to the shift between vegetation belts in terms of species turnover rates. While the mechanisms generating these patterns may differ, the resulting areas of peak turnover in species show correspondence among three different taxa (plants, birds and butterflies).

  18. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  19. Geophysical interpretations of the Libby thrust belt, northwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleinkopf, M. Dean; with sections by Harrison, Jack Edward; Stanley, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Interpretations of gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data, supplemented by results from two seismic reflection profiles and five magnetotelluric soundings, were used to study buried structure and lithology of the Libby thrust belt of northwestern Montana. The gravity anomaly data show a marked correlation with major structures. The Purcell anticlinorium and the Sylvanite anticline are very likely cored by stacks of thrust slices of dense crystalline basement rocks that account for the large gravity highs across these two structures. Gravity anomaly data for the Cabinet Mountains Wilderness show a string of four broad highs. The principal magnetic anomaly sources are igneous intrusive rocks, major fault zones, and magnetite-bearing sedimentary rocks of the Ravalli Group. The most important magnetic anomalies in the principal study area are five distinct positive anomalies associated with Cretaceous or younger cupolas and stocks.

  20. A novel isopimarane diterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from Nepeta sorgerae, an endemic species to the Nemrut Mountain.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Anil; Cağlar, Pinar; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Nezhun; Topçu, Gülaçti

    2012-06-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Nepeta sorgerae, the isolation and structure elucidation are now reported of a new isopimarane diterpenoid, named sorgerolone, and two known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and the isolated terpenoids was determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition (beta-carotene bleaching) methods. Anticholinesterase activity of the extracts and isolates was investigated by Ellman's method against AChE and BChE enzymes. Although the antioxidant activity results were low, the AChE enzyme inhibition of the extracts and terpenoids was very promising.

  1. 76 FR 18042 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... programs and activities. In addition, seat belt use is difficult to reliably observe in the dark, even in... commenters regarding the fatality-based exclusion. As a general matter, in a survey that covers a...

  2. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  3. [Soil microorganisms, nutrients and enzyme activity of Larix kaempferi plantation under different ages in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province, China].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiao-yun; Sun, Xiao-mei; Chen, Dong-sheng; Zhang, Shou-gong

    2015-09-01

    We studied the community of soil microorganisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients under 11-, 20-, 34-and 47-year-old Larix kaempferi plantations in mountainous region of eastern Liaoning Province to discuss the soil biological properties of L. kaempferi plantations of different stand ages and their relationships with soil nutrients. The results showed that the indexes reflecting soil micro-organisms, enzyme activity and soil nutrients of L. kaempferi plantations were the highest under the 11- or 47-year-old stand and the lowest in the 20- or 34-year-old stand. Soil productivity appeared in a decline trend with the increasing stand age, and the changes of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activity were responsive to soil degradation. The difference of fungi community was more noticeable than that of bacteria community among the plantations with different stand ages. The results of CCA showed soil nutrient and pH had no effect on seasonal difference of community structure, but had effects on community, structure among different stand ages. The total N, organic carbon, C/N, available nitrogen, exchangeable Mg2+ and pH had greater effects on bacteria community, while available P, total K and pH had greater effect on fungi community among different age forests. The main T-RFs of bacteria and fungi had higher correlation with N and P, and the fungi community had higher correlation with organic carbon and K than bacteria community. The microor-ganism community of the 11- and 47-year-old stands had greater correlation with soil nutrients and enzyme activity than that of 20- and 34-year-old stands. Consequently, soil organisms, in particular soil fungi, could be used to indicate soil degradation.

  4. Brittle frictional mountain building: 2. Thermal structure and heat budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Terence D.; Dahlen, F. A.

    1989-04-01

    This paper describes a simple thermal model of an actively deforming critically tapered fold-and-thrust belt. The model determines the steady state temperature distribution and heat flow, as well as the pressure-temperature-time histories of rocks that outcrop at the surface. The main parameters controlling the thermal structure are the accretion and erosion rates, the undisturbed geothermal gradient at the toe, and the amount of frictional heating. Both shear heating on the decollement fault and internal strain heating within the deforming brittle wedge are incorporated in a mechanically consistent manner, and they dominate the effect of radiogenic heating, except in fold-and-thrust belts with significantly overpressured pore fluids. The mean stresses, temperatures, and surface heat flow all increase with an increase in the basal and internal coefficients of friction, and this dependence is used to constrain the level of friction on the decollement fault beneath the steady state fold-and-thrust belt in Taiwan. Rocks outcropping in the core of the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan experience maximum theoretical temperatures in excess of 400° C and maximum mean pressures in excess of 500 MPa if the coefficient of basal friction is μb = 0.5. Qualitatively, these conditions are in good agreement with the observed high greenschist facies metamorphism. The theoretical surface heat flow, which increases from 95 mW/m2 at the front of the fold-and-thrust belt to 240 mW/m2 at the rear, is in excellent agreement with the results of a recent geothermal survey of Taiwan, and theoretical cooling histories are in good agreement with fission track and other geochronologic studies. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that sliding on the basal decollement fault beneath Taiwan is governed by a coefficient of friction in the range of typical laboratory measurements, μb = 0.5 ± 0.2. Approximately 35% of the total surface heat flux of 3 GW is heat conducted into

  5. The performance of automatic sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.C.; Pro, R.W.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines conducted a study to evaluate the effectiveness of automatic water sprinkler systems in the extinguishment of incipient conveyor belt fires under ventilated conditions. Large-scale experiments were conducted using a double strand conveyor belt configuration. Standard response, pendent-type sprinklers, with activation temperatures of 100{degrees}C, were installed above and between the two strands of belting, in accordance with Federal standards for sprinkler system installations in belt drive areas. Experiments at airflows of 1.1 and 4.6 m/s showed that the sprinklers activated later, the peak heat release rate was larger, and more belting was consumed at the higher airflow. In experiments with 74{degrees}C, fast response, directional sprinklers, the sprinklers activated at the same heat release rate for both high and low Wows, but the peak heat release rate and amount of belt consumed was slightly higher at the lower airflow. Experiments were also conducted with 100{degrees}C, standard pendent sprinklers installed above the top belt, in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 123 for sprinkler system installations in conveyor belt drive areas in underground coal mines. In these experiments, the heat release rate and amount of belting consumed was larger at the higher airflow.

  6. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Ficus thonningii Blume (Moraceae) and Lophira alata Banks (Ochnaceae), Identified from the Ethnomedicine of the Nigerian Middle Belt

    PubMed Central

    Falade, M. O.; Akinboye, D. O.; Gbotosho, G. O.; Ajaiyeoba, E. O.; Happi, T. C.; Abiodun, O. O.; Oduola, A. M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum requires that new drugs must be developed. Plants are a potential source for drug discovery and development. Two plants that used to treat febrile illnesses in Nigeria were tested for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity in cancer cell lines. Methanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Ficus thonningii and Lophira alata were active in in vitro assays against P. falciparum NF54 (sensitive) and K1 (multiresistant) strains. Hexane extracts of F. thonningii and L. alata were the most effective extracts in in vitro assays with IC50 of 2.7 ± 1.6 μg/mL and 2.5 ± 0.3 μg/mL for NF54 and 10.4 ± 1.6 μg/mL and 2.5 ± 2.1 μg/mL for K1 strain. All extracts were nontoxic in cytotoxicity assays against KB human cell line with IC50 of over 20 μg/mL, demonstrating selectivity against P. falciparum. In vivo analysis shows that hexane extracts of both plants reduced parasitaemia. At the maximum dose tested, L. alata had a 74.4% reduction of parasitaemia while F. thonningii had a reduction of 84.5%, both extracts prolonged animal survival in mice infected with P. berghei NK65 when compared with vehicle treated controls. The antiplasmodial activity observed justifies the use of both plants in treating febrile conditions. PMID:24955248

  7. Pelvic Belt Effects on Health Outcomes and Functional Parameters of Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Niels; Möbius, Robert; Schleifenbaum, Stefan; Hammer, Karl-Heinz; Klima, Stefan; Lange, Justin S.; Soisson, Odette; Winkler, Dirk; Milani, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a common source of low back pain. However, clinical and functional signs and symptoms correlating with SIJ pain are widely unknown. Pelvic belts are routinely applied to treat SIJ pain but without sound evidence of their pain-relieving effects. This case-control study compares clinical and functional data of SIJ patients and healthy control subjects and evaluates belt effects on SIJ pain. Methods 17 SIJ patients and 17 healthy controls were included in this prospective study. The short-form 36 survey and the numerical rating scale were used to characterize health-related quality of life in patients in a six-week follow-up and the pain-reducing effects of pelvic belts. Electromyography data were obtained from the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, rectus femoris and medial vastus. Alterations of muscle activity, variability and gait patterns were compared in patients and controls along with the belts’ effects in a dynamic setting when walking. Results Significant improvements were observed in the short-form 36 survey of the SIJ patients, especially in the physical health subscores. Minor declines were also observed in the numerical rating scale on pain. Belt-related changes of muscle activity and variability were similar in patients and controls with one exception: the rectus femoris activity decreased significantly in patients with belt application when walking. Further belt effects include improved cadence and gait velocity in patients and controls. Conclusions Pelvic belts improve health-related quality of life and are potentially attributed to decreased SIJ-related pain. Belt effects include decreased rectus femoris activity in patients and improved postural steadiness during locomotion. Pelvic belts may therefore be considered as a cost-effective and low-risk treatment of SIJ pain. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02027038 PMID:26305790

  8. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  9. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  10. Workshop on Techtonic Evolution of Greenstone Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewit, M. J. (Editor); Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: greenstone belt externalities; boundaries; rock terranes; synthesis and destiny; tectonic evolution; rock components and structure; sedimentology; stratigraphy; volcanism; metamorphism; and geophysics.

  11. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  12. The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians) in the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Bucała, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The role of human impact on the natural environment was studied in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchments in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians). Analysis of land use and land cover changes using GIS techniques and cartographic materials between 1954 and 2004 indicates an increase in forest area by 11.5% and 18.5%, respectively, at the expense of arable land and grassland areas. Agricultural abandonment often occurred on steep slopes (above 10°) with skeletal (shallow) soils at higher elevations (above 800 m a.s.l.). In addition, the density of dirt roads decreased from 6.97 km/km(2) in 1981 to 4.3 km/km(2) in 2008. In former agricultural areas, long expanses of terraces have either disappeared or experienced shallow mass movements. The statistical reports and questionnaire survey indicate reduced income from farm activities in this region. As a result of LULC changes and stream transformation, the Jaszcze and Jamne stream channels were shortened, straightened, and narrowed, with tendency to incision estimated at 1 cm per year over the past 40 years. The changes observed in the environment under human impact, accelerated following 1989, are representative of the Western Polish Carpathians.

  13. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  14. Any Way You Cut It! Molehills Out of Mountains. A Resource and Activity Guide for the Developmentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, M. D.; Kosal-Smither, C.

    A resource and activity guide for the developmentally disabled that focuses on fine motor skills is presented. Attention is directed to fine motor behavior during the first year (vision, grasp, and release and reaching), and behaviors developing at 13 months (the interaction of fine motor and cognitive skills). An introductory section considers…

  15. The effects of a pelvic belt on trunk and lower extremity muscles in the bridge position

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Wu, Yan-Ting; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a pelvic belt on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 normal individuals without a history of orthopedic problems. The pelvic compression belt (The Com-Pressor, OPTP, Minneapolis, MN, USA) was an adjustable body belt with four elastic compression bands that provide stabilizing pressure and was designed to adjust the amount of force applied and to alter sites of compression. The body belt was placed below the anterior superior iliac spine, and stabilizing pressure was applied to the belt using the elastic compression bands in the bridge position after confirming the site of compression. [Results] The subjects showed a significant decrease in muscle activation in the erector spinae, oblique internus abdominis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris while wearing the pelvic belt. [Conclusion] The use of a pelvic compression belt with external pelvic compression might improve pelvic joint stability and alter neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh muscles. PMID:28174437

  16. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    PubMed

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  17. Shaping mobile belts by small-scale convection.

    PubMed

    Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W

    2010-06-03

    Mobile belts are long-lived deformation zones composed of an ensemble of crustal fragments, distributed over hundreds of kilometres inside continental convergent margins. The Mediterranean represents a remarkable example of this tectonic setting: the region hosts a diffuse boundary between the Nubia and Eurasia plates comprised of a mosaic of microplates that move and deform independently from the overall plate convergence. Surface expressions of Mediterranean tectonics include deep, subsiding backarc basins, intraplate plateaux and uplifting orogenic belts. Although the kinematics of the area are now fairly well defined, the dynamical origins of many of these active features are controversial and usually attributed to crustal and lithospheric interactions. However, the effects of mantle convection, well established for continental interiors, should be particularly relevant in a mobile belt, and modelling may constrain important parameters such as slab coherence and lithospheric strength. Here we compute global mantle flow on the basis of recent, high-resolution seismic tomography to investigate the role of buoyancy-driven and plate-motion-induced mantle circulation for the Mediterranean. We show that mantle flow provides an explanation for much of the observed dynamic topography and microplate motion in the region. More generally, vigorous small-scale convection in the uppermost mantle may also underpin other complex mobile belts such as the North American Cordillera or the Himalayan-Tibetan collision zone.

  18. Past soil erosion history recorded by lake sediments in mountain areas (north and south French Alps): complex interactions with climatic and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giguet-Covex, C.; Poulenard, J.; Arnaud, F.; Disnar, J.-R.; Sabatier, P.; Wilhelm, B.; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I.; Rey, P.-J.; David, F.; Malet, E.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion rates and patterns are influenced both by hydrological activity and the evolution of soil-vegetation cover. This soil-vegetation cover is in turn impacted by climatic changes and human activities through deforestation, grazing and agriculture. Such land uses are reported in mountain areas since several millennia (the Neolithic or Bronze Age in the Alps). The effects of these activities and climatic changes on erosion and above all on soil cover are relatively few documented. However, a good knowledge of these processes is important to better evaluate the future evolution of soils and the sustainability for agricultural practices, in the context of global change. Because lakes act as traps of erosion products, lake sediments represent interesting continuous archives of past soil evolution and erosion. They provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct at high resolution the soil history over long time periods and thus to determine the timing of changes in response to climate and/or anthropogenic pressures. As a result of the Pygmalion research program, we present the study of two small mountain catchment in north (Lake Anterne, 2063 m asl) and south French Alps (Lake Lauzanier, 2285 m asl), covering the Holocene and the last 1000 years, respectively. To trace the past soil erosion erosion history and bring arguments about the origin of changes, mineral and organic geochemical analyses were performed and combined with quantitative reconstructions of terrigenous inputs. To emphasize our assumptions about the origins of recorded changes, a pluridisciplinary approach (palynology, archaeology...) was also adopted. The study of Lake Anterne shows the second half of the Holocene is characterized by four important phases of erosion. These phases are underlined by high flood frequencies and different geochemical composition of sediments. These geochemical signatures reveal changes of sediment sources related to different erosion patterns. In particular, the first phase

  19. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  20. The role of basement tectonics in the control of sedimentary facies, structural patterns and salt plug emplacements in the Zagros fold belt of southwest Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuillan, Harry

    Extensive field observations over a large tract of continuous rock outcrops in the Zagros Mountain Range of southwest Iran have yielded a wealth of stratigraphic and structural detail. In the region structural anomalies are frequently associated with similar facies distribution patterns. In the eastern portion of the region emergent salt plugs of infra-Cambrian age exhibit the same alignment patterns. Such trends bear no apparent genetic relationship to the Tertiary folding responsible for the present fold belt grain of the Zagros Range but rather indicate affinity with linear basement features which are readily observable on Landsat imagery and air photographs. Superimposed on the eastern region's mode of facies trends and structure are localized variations which are directly attributed to pulses of salt diapiric activity. Thus stratigraphic data acquired from deep sections associated with salt domes can lead to erroneous overviews of regional facies distributions while anomalous dome-shaped structural features associated with elongate fold, so common to the fold belt, can only be attributed to near surface diapiric structures. The recognition of features related to basement tectonics and the realization of their implication in the control and modification of geological processes is an important adjunct to the search for hydrocarbon accumulations in the region. Indeed it can be shown that renewed movements on basement trends directly affect ooil production patterns as a consequence of the enhancement of fracture porosity and permeability in Tertiary carbonate reservoir structures. These constitute some of the world's largest oil-producing fields.

  1. 47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH BACK BELT DROPPING HARDENED NAILS ON THE FRONT BELT TO BE TEMPERED; MOTION STOPPED - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  2. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  3. Electrical Resistivity, Crustal Melting and Strain Localization beneath the Himalayan-Tibetan Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, L.; Gaillard, F.; Champallier, R.; Le Breton, N.; Arbaret, L.; Scaillet, B.

    2012-12-01

    The construction of mountain belts resulting from continental collisions involves crustal thickening, regional deformation and high-grade metamorphism. As observed in many ancient orogenic terrains, elevated temperatures locally induce melting and strain weakening, which may profoundly affect the rheology of the continental crust, its deformation regime and hence the development of these orogens. The Himalaya-Tibetan system is an active collisional belt allowing us to probe the three-dimensional thermo-mechanical distribution of an archetypal continent-continent orogen. Several magnetotelluric and seismic field campaigns (INDEPTH, Hi-CLIMB and HIMPROBE projects) have identified low resistivity layers with well-constrained tops at a depth of 10-15 km in southern Tibet (10 Ω.m) and 20-25 km in northwestern Himalaya (3 Ω.m), coincident with low velocity zones. Such electrical anomalies have been interpreted as evidence of high concentrations of interconnected fluids. Despite numerous field and numerical studies on the Himalayan range, identification and quantification of hydrous melting and potential strain weakening of the crust remains unaddressed by the appropriate experimental studies. Laboratory resistivity and viscosity measurements were performed in a gas-medium deformation apparatus (Paterson press), which was coupled to an impedance spectrometer. These measurements were conducted on natural muscovite-bearing metapelitic samples containing ca. 2 wt% water. Dehydration-melting of muscovite crystals leads to the production of hydrous melts. Electrical measurements show that with increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity decreases dramatically from 1830 Ω.m at 550°C to 8 Ω.m at 850°C. Image and chemical analyses of the partially molten samples after experiments indicate 23 vol.% hydrous melts, which are leucogranitic in composition. Our electrical measurements thus show that geophysical data clearly pinpoint ca. 25 vol.% partial melting at 750-800

  4. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  5. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  6. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2012B to recover interesting objects that will be discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population.

  7. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  8. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  9. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  11. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  13. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  14. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  16. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  18. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  19. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  20. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  1. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  2. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  3. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure.

  4. Pitch difference and belt tooth configuration effect on load distribution of timing belt using FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takanao; Furukawa, Yoshihisa; Tomono, Kiyohisa; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1996-09-01

    A timing belt used for an automotive engine`s camshaft consists of a facing fabric, elastoeric body and glass fiber cords. These materials show significant non-linear characteristics. Therefore, a model of the timing belt was analyzed using ABAQUS (a general non-linear finite element program). As a result, the mechanism that generates the belt load distribution was successfully confirmed by calculation. It was found that the pitch difference existing between the timing belt and pulley, and belt tooth configuration both have a large affect on load distribution of toothed belts. This paper reports the development of an analytical model which shows the effects of pitch difference and pulley tooth configuration on belt contact pressure.

  5. New Mexico structural zone - An analogue of the Colorado mineral belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Stein, H.J.; Finn, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Updated aeromagnetic maps of New Mexico together with current knowledge of the basement geology in the northern part of the state (Sangre de Cristo and Sandia-Manzano Mountains)-where basement rocks were exposed in Precambrian-cored uplifts-indicate that the northeast-trending Proterozoic shear zones that controlled localization of ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt extend laterally into New Mexico. The shear zones in New Mexico coincide spatially with known epigenetic precious- and base-metal ore deposits; thus, the mineralized belts in the two states share a common inherited basement tectonic setting. Reactivation of the basement structures in Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary times provided zones of weakness for emplacement of magmas and conduits for ore-forming solutions. Ore deposits in the Colorado mineral belt are of both Late Cretaceous-Eocene and Mid-Tertiary age; those in New Mexico are predominantly Mid-Tertiary in age, but include Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in southwestern New Mexico. The mineralized belt in New Mexico, named the New Mexico structural zone, is 250-km wide. The northwest boundary is the Jemez subzone (or the approximately equivalent Globe belt), and the southeastern boundary was approximately marked by the Santa Rita belt. Three groups (subzones) of mineral deposits characterize the structural zone: (1) Mid-Tertiary porphyry molybdenite and alkaline-precious-metal deposits, in the northeast segment of the Jemez zone; (2) Mid-Tertiary epithermal precious-metal deposits in the Tijeras (intermediate) zone; and (3) Late Cretaceous porphyry-copper deposits in the Santa Rita zone. The structural zone was inferred to extend from New Mexico into adjacent Arizona. The structural zone provides favorable sites for exploration, particularly those parts of the Jemez subzone covered by Neogene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. ?? 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  6. Global Storm-Time Depletion of the Outer Electron Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.; Millan, R. M.; Kress, B. T.; Fennell, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    The outer radiation belt consists of relativistic (≳0.5 MeV) electrons trapped on closed trajectories around Earth where its magnetic field is nearly dipolar. During increased geomagnetic activity electron intensities in the belt can vary by orders of magnitude at different spatial and temporal scale. The main phase of geomagnetic storms often produces deep depletions of electron intensities over broad regions of the outer belt. Previous studies identified three possible processes that can contribute to the depletions: fully adiabatic inflation of electron drift orbits caused the ring current growth, electron loss into the atmosphere due to pitch-angle scattering by plasma waves (e.g., EMIC and whistler waves), and electron escape through the magnetopause boundary. In this paper we investigate the relative importance of the magnetopause losses to the rapid depletion of the outer belt observed at the Van Allen Probes spacecraft during the main phase of March 17, 2013 storm. The intensities of > 1 MeV electrons were depleted by more that an order of magnitude over the entire radial extent of the belt in less than 6 hours after the sudden storm commencement. For the analysis we used three-dimensional test-particle simulations of global evolution of the outer belt in the Tsyganenko-Sitnov (TS07D) magnetic field model with the inductive electric field. The comparison of the simulation results with electron measurements from the MagEIS experiment shows that the magnetopause losses in the model accounts for most of the observed depletion. The individual electron motion the process is non-adiabatic; the third invariant is violated by global variations of the inner magnetospheric fields caused by the magnetopause compressions and the buildup of ring current, while the second invariant is violated at drift orbit bifurcations. The analysis shows that the observed deep depletion of radiation belt intensities is enabled by the change in the global configuration of magnetic

  7. Functional groups and activities of bacteria in a highly acidic volcanic mountain stream and lake in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Wendt-Potthoff, Katrin; Koschorreck, M

    2002-01-01

    Acidic volcanic waters are naturally occurring extreme habitats that are subject of worldwide geochemical research but have been little investigated with respect to their biology. To fill this gap, the microbial ecology of a volcanic acidic river (pH approximately equal to 0-1.6), Rio Agrio, and the recipient lake Caviahue in Patagonia, Argentina, was studied. Water and sediment samples were investigated for Fe(II), Fe(III), methane, bacterial abundances, biomass, and activities (oxygen consumption, iron oxidation and reduction). The extremely acidic river showed a strong gradient of microbial life with increasing values downstream and few signs of life near the source. Only sulfide-oxidizing and fermentative bacteria could be cultured from the upper part of Rio Agrio. However, in the lower part of the system, microbial biomass and oxygen penetration and consumption in the sediment were comparable to non-extreme aquatic habitats. To characterize similarities and differences of chemically similar natural and man-made acidic waters, our findings were compared to those from acidic mining lakes in Germany. In the lower part of the river and the lake, numbers of iron and sulfur bacteria and total biomass in sediments were comparable to those known from acidic mining lakes. Bacterial abundance in water samples was also very similar for both types of acidic water (around 10(5) mL(-1)). In contrast, Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) reduction potentials appeared to be lower despite higher biogenic oxygen consumption and higher photosynthetic activity at the sediment-water interface. Surprisingly, methanogenesis was detected in the presence of high sulfate concentrations in the profundal sediment of Lake Caviahue. In addition to supplementing microbiological knowledge on acidic volcanic waters, our study provides a new view of these extreme sites in the general context of aquatic habitats.

  8. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. ); Holeman, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  9. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  10. The impact of glacial/interglacial climate changes on fluvial and mass-wasting processes in the Taiwan's mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W. L.; Hsieh, M. L.; Tsui, H. K.; Hsiao, Y. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Taiwan orogenic belt, located in Southeastern Asia, is under monsoon climate, frequently attacked by tropical typhoons, and characterized by rapid tectonic uplift with high seismicity. Researchers have been linking the Taiwan's landscapes to active tectonic uplift. In this study, we show the significance of glacial/interglacial climate changes in shaping the landscapes. We focus on the mountain areas that have never been glaciated. Based on >400 radiocarbon dates (70 of which >12 ka), we find that both the slope and fluvial activities were generally low during the glacial time. Still, extensive alluviation had occurred at certain time periods, forming large debris slopes or alluvial fans (typically along mountain fronts), and causing significant aggradation along some major rivers. In contrast, with numerous landslides and debris flows, river incision has dominated during the postglacial time. Episodic river aggradation with alluvial-terrace development (typically at tributary mouths) also occurred during this time period, but was less extensive than previously. Some huge postglacial alluvial terraces have been proved sourced from the colluviums deposited in the glacial time. We attribute the low landscape activities of the glacial period to the dryness during the period. However, even in this time rare but severe rainfall events must have occurred to trigger some extensive alluviation. In contrast, the increase in both rainfall and typhoon frequency during the postglacial time drastically increased the slope instability and sediment yield. The great stream power, along with the sufficient coarse debris acting as erosion tools, ensured the rapid river incision during this time.

  11. Magmatic Trigger for Extensional Collapse? Character and Significance of Pre-Extensional Volcanic Activity in the Whipple Mountains Region, Lower Colorado River Extensional Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidler, M. K.; Gans, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The character and timing of voluminous Miocene volcanic activity associated with regional crustal extension in the lower Colorado River Extensional Corridor (CREC) shed light on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in the area. New 40Ar/39Ar ages from holocrystaline groundmass separates of mafic lava flows and phenocrystic plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, and sanidine from silicic extrusive rocks, combined with LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of zircon from the more altered intermediate to silicic rocks provide important new constraints on the ages of pre-, syn-, and post-extensional volcanic sequences in the vicinity of the Whipple Mountains metamorphic core complex. Local eruptive activity began ~20.5 Ma and persisted for 1.5 million years prior to the inception of major extensional faulting and tilting at ~19 Ma, as recorded by upper plate tilt blocks. The pre-extensional sequences are homoclinal, steeply tilted, and disconformably overlie older arkosic sedimentary rocks. There is no compelling evidence for angular unconformities or growth faulting during this earliest pre-extensional volcanic activity. These early erupted units are dominantly mafic, forming ≥1 km thick sections of olivine-basalt and olv-cpx-plag basaltic andesite lava flows punctuated by rare aphyric to crystal poor dacite ignimbrites. Plag±pyx±bio±hbl dacite lava flows and domes with associated pyroclastic deposits appear late in the pre-extensional sequence, immediately prior to and during the onset of major extensional faulting. These crystal-poor to aphyric silicic rocks show abundant evidence of magma mingling and may represent hybridized partial melts generated by the influx of basaltic magma into the crust. The pre-extensional sequence is locally overlain by ~18.5 to 18.8 Ma syn- and post-extensional volcanic and sedimentary rocks along a pronounced 30-60° angular unconformity, indicating very rapid extension during the early stages of the CREC's development. This overall

  12. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    contrasting minerals endowment. The Mogok-Mandalay-Mergui (MMM) Belt hosts crustal-melt S-type granites with significant tin-tungsten mineralization, and contains the historically major tungsten deposit of Mawchi. The Wuntho-Popa Arc comprises I-type granites and granodiorites with porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, and includes the world-class Monywa copper mine. Recent U-Pb radiometric age dating has shown the potential for the two belts to be both active from the Late Cretaceous to Eocene. The spatial juxtaposition of these two sub-parallel belts, the implication of contemporary magmatism, and their distinct but consistent metallogenic endowment bears strong similarities to the metallogenic belts of the South American Cordillera. Here we investigate whether they together represent the magmatic and metallogenic expression of an Andean-type setting in Myanmar during the subduction of Neo-Tethys. In this analogue the Wuntho-Popa Arc represents a proximal I-type magmatic belt sited immediately above the eastwards-verging Neo-Tethys subduction zone. Exhibiting porphyry-type copper-gold and epithermal gold mineralization, this would therefore be the Myanmar equivalent of the Andean coastal copper belts. Conversely, the parallel MMM Belt, comprised of more distal crustal-melt S-type tin granites, would have an analogue in the Bolivian tin belt.

  13. Sandbox modeling of evolving thrust wedges with different preexisting topographic relief: Implications for the Longmen Shan thrust belt, eastern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chuang; Jia, Dong; Yin, Hongwei; Chen, Zhuxin; Li, Zhigang; Shen, Li; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Yiquan; Yan, Bin; Wang, Maomao; Fang, Shaozhi; Cui, Jian

    2016-06-01

    To understand the effects of substantial topographic relief on deformation localization in the seismically active mountains, like the Longmen Shan thrust belt in the eastern Tibet, sandbox experiments were performed based on the framework of the critical taper theory. First, a reference experiment revealed that the critical taper angle was 12° for our experimental materials. Subsequently, different proto wedges (subcritical (6° in taper angle), critical (12°), and supercritical (20°)) were introduced to cover the range of natural topographic relief, and we used two setups: setup A considered only across-strike topographic relief, whereas setup B investigated along-strike segmentation of topography, consist of two adjacent proto wedges. In all experiments, thrust wedges grew by in-sequence accretion of thrust sheets. Setup A revealed an alternating mode of slip partitioning on the accreted thrusts, with large-displacement thrust and small-displacement thrust developing in turn. And contrasting wedge evolutions occurred according to whether the proto wedge was subcritical or critical-supercritical. In setup B, the differential deformation along the strike produced transverse structures such as tear fault and lateral ramp during frontal accretion. The observed tear fault and its associated thrust system resemble the seismogenic fault system of the 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake. Our experimental results could also explain first-order deformation features observed in the Longmen Shan. Consequently, we conclude that topographic features, including topographic relief across the range and along-strike segmentation of topography, contribute significantly to the kinematics and deformation localization in such active mountains.

  14. Evidence of Early Cretaceous transpression in the Sulu orogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Su-Chin; Lin, Peijun; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yongtao; Zhang, Haichun

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have documented marine turbidites with syn-sedimentary deformation features in the central Sulu orogenic belt of eastern China. These units preserve essential information on the Late Mesozoic evolution of the Sulu orogenic belt. Referred to as the Baxiandun Formation, the turbidites exhibit similar lithologic characteristics to nearby units such as the Lingshandao Formation that have been well studied even though precise geochronologic constraints are lacking for a more precise correlation. This study reports detrital zircon Usbnd Pb age data that correlate the Baxiandun Formation turbidites of the central Sulu orogenic belt to the Early Cretaceous Lingshandao Formation. We also report Al-in-hornblende emplacement depth estimates for granitic intrusions of the Sulu orogenic belt's Laoshan mountain. A sharp contact between the Laoshan granites and the marine Baxiandun Formation indicates that the Baxiandun basin rapidly subsided to the emplacement depth of the Laoshan plutons. Lateral correlation among the marine turbidites, the Lingshandao and Baxiandun Formations, combined with information established by previous studies indicates initiation of transpressional tectonics at 122-121 Ma. Transpression ceased with the emplacement of the Laoshan granites, whose A1-type composition indicates a return to extensional tectonics at ca. 111 Ma.

  15. Growth and erosion of mountain ranges at the northeastern margin of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetzel, Ralf; Palumbo, Luigi; Giese, Jörg; Guo, Jianming

    2010-05-01

    The hypothesis that mountain belts may reach a steady state, in which rock uplift is balanced by erosion, has been supported by numerous field studies and numerical models. The early evolution of mountain ranges, however, and especially the relation between fault growth and topographic response has received little attention. By using a space-for-time substitution we illustrate how active thrust faults and small, fault-bounded mountain ranges evolve into mature mountain chains that will ultimately be incorporated into the laterally growing Tibetan Plateau. At an early stage of development, when faults propagate laterally, slip rates are constant along strike [1-3]. As long as no significant topographic relief has developed, tectonic uplift is at least an order of magnitude faster than the rate of erosion [2,4]. During progressive relief growth and the establishment of drainage basins, erosion of the rising mountain ranges becomes more important, but the studied ranges are still in a pre-steady state and continue to grow both vertically and laterally [5]. During this stage the rate of erosion is linearly correlated to the mean hillslope gradient and the mean local relief, if differences in lithology or rock strength are negligible [6]. The rate of relief growth may be inferred from the difference between local erosion rates on ridge crests and catchment-wide denudation rates [7] - the latter may be taken as a surrogate for the rate of river incision. As hillslopes approach a threshold value, landsliding becomes the dominant process of mass transport and erosion rates increase non-linearly with slope. Once a steady state has been reached, the erosion rate is equal to the rate of rock uplift. A key problem is how the rate of rock uplift can be quantified in such regions, because the stochastic distribution of landslides causes the denudation rates inferred from 10Be in river sediment to be highly variable [8]. References [1] Hetzel et al. (2004). Implications of the

  16. Latest Pleistocene-Holocene debris flow activity, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; Implications for modern debris-flow hazards under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, Ann M.; Webb, Robert H.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Pearthree, Philip A.

    2014-08-01

    Hazard mitigation for extreme events such as debris flows requires geologic mapping and chronologic information, particularly for alluvial fans near mountain fronts in the southwestern United States. In July 2006, five consecutive days of monsoonal storms caused hundreds of debris flows in southeastern Arizona, particularly in the southern Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. Before 2006, no historical debris flows from the Santa Catalina Mountains reached the populated mountain front, although abundant evidence of prehistoric debris flows is present on downslope alluvial fans. We used a combination of surficial geologic mapping and 10Be exposure dating to produce a debris-flow history for Pima and Finger Rock Canyons. The largest debris flows, of latest Pleistocene to early Holocene age, covered much of the apices of alluvial fans formed at the mouths of these canyons and extended up to 3 km downslope. These debris-flow deposits were inset against higher and older alluvial surfaces with few debris-flow deposits of late Pleistocene age. The 10Be ages in this study have considerable scatter for surfaces believed to be of uniform age, indicating the dual possibilities of inheritance from previous cosmic-ray exposure, as well as the potential for composite deposits derived from numerous debris flows. We then used an empirical inundation model, LAHARZ, to assess probable magnitudes of the older debris flows to evaluate possible initiation mechanisms. In-channel and terrace storage within the canyons is not sufficient to generate volumes likely needed to produce the larger late Pleistocene to early Holocene debris-flow deposits. The abundance of latest Pleistocene and early Holocene deposits suggests that large debris flows were generated during the instability associated with climate and vegetation changes at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Under present watershed conditions with limited sediment supplies, modern debris-flow hazards are generally limited to

  17. Northeast-southwest structural transect: Rocky Mountain foreland, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, D.S.

    1987-08-01

    A northeast-southwest structural transect has been constructed across the Rocky Mountain foreland in Wyoming, a distance of about 400 mi. The line of transect begins in the northern Black Hills and traverses the northern Powder River basin, the Bighorn Mountains from Buffalo to Bonanza, the Big Horn basin from Worland to Hamilton dome, the Owl Creek Mountains, the northern Wind River basin at Maverick Springs, the Wind River Mountains to Pinedale in the Green River basin, the Moxa Arch at Big Piney and Riley Ridge, and into the thrust belt, ending at the Idaho border. In terms of a vertical and horizontal scale of 1 in. = 2000 ft, the section is about 90 ft long (i.e., the section is approximately 409 mi long). The data base for the transect includes published geologic maps, commercial photogeologic mapping, well data, and modern seismic data through critical parts of the basin areas. The data base provides an excellent found for analyzing structural relationships on both a regional and a local scale. Regional horizontal shortening of the foreland has occurred primarily through basement-involved displacements on basin-boundary megathrusts, which separate the mountain ranges from sedimentary basins, and on the smaller, intrabasin thrusts, which produced the anticlinal traps for Paleozoic oil accumulations.

  18. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  19. Neotectonics and structure of the Himalayan deformation front in the Kashmir Himalaya, India: Implication in defining what controls a blind thrust front in an active fold-thrust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Yule, J. D.; Rittenour, T. M.; Malik, M. O. A.

    2014-12-01

    Active tectonics of a deformation front constrains the kinematic evolution and structural interaction between the fold-thrust belt and most-recently accreted foreland basin. In Kashmir, the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) is blind, characterized by a broad fold, the Suruin-Mastargh anticline (SMA), and displays no emergent faults cutting either limb. A lack of knowledge of the rate of shortening and structural framework of the SMA hampers quantifying the earthquake potential for the deformation front. Our study utilized the geomorphic expression of dated deformed terraces on the Ujh River in Kashmir. Six terraces are recognized, and three yield OSL ages of 53 ka, 33 ka, and 0.4 ka. Vector fold restoration of long terrace profiles indicates a deformation pattern characterized by regional uplift across the anticlinal axis and back-limb, and by fold limb rotation on the forelimb. Differential uplift across the fold trace suggests localized deformation. Dip data and stratigraphic thicknesses suggest that a duplex structure is emplaced at depth along the basal décollement, folding the overlying roof thrust and Siwalik-Muree strata into a detachment-like fold. Localized faulting at the fold axis explains the asymmetrical fold geometry. Folding of the oldest dated terrace, suggest that rock uplift rates across the SMA range between 2.0-1.8 mm/yr. Assuming a 25° dipping ramp for the blind structure on the basis of dip data constraints, the shortening rate across the SMA ranges between 4.4-3.8 mm/yr since ~53 ka. Of that rate, ~1 mm/yr is likely absorbed by minor faulting in the near field of the fold axis. Given that Himalaya-India convergence is ~18.8-11 mm/yr, internal faults north of the deformation front, such as the Riasi thrust absorbs more of the Himalayan shortening than does the HFT in Kashmir. We attribute a non-emergent thrust at the deformation front to reflect deformation controlled by pre-existing basin architecture in Kashmir, in which the thick succession

  20. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  1. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  2. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  3. Drainage reorganization during mountain building in the river system of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struth, Lucía; Babault, Julien; Teixell, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is a thick-skinned thrust-fold belt that is characterized by two topographic domains: (1) the axial zone, a high altitude plateau (the Sabana de Bogotá, 2500 masl) with low local relief and dominated by longitudinal rivers, and (2) the Cordillera flanks, where local relief exceeds 1000 m and transverse rivers dominate. On the basis of an analysis of digital topography and river parameters combined with a review of paleodrainage data, we show that the accumulation of shortening and crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny triggered a process of fluvial reorganization in the Cordillera. Owing to a progressive increase of the regional slope, the drainage network evolves from longitudinal to transverse-dominated, a process that is still active at present. This study provides the idea of progressive divide migration toward the inner part of the mountain belt, by which the area of the Sabana de Bogotá plateau is decreasing, the flanks increase in area, and ultimately transverse rivers will probably dominate the drainage of the Cordillera.

  4. Rapid flattening of butterfly pitch angle distributions of radiation belt electrons by whistler-mode chorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chang; Su, Zhenpeng; Xiao, Fuliang; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Funsten, H. O.

    2016-08-01

    Van Allen radiation belt electrons exhibit complex dynamics during geomagnetically active periods. Investigation of electron pitch angle distributions (PADs) can provide important information on the dominant physical mechanisms controlling radiation belt behaviors. Here we report a storm time radiation belt event where energetic electron PADs changed from butterfly distributions to normal or flattop distributions within several hours. Van Allen Probes observations showed that the flattening of butterfly PADs was closely related to the occurrence of whistler-mode chorus waves. Two-dimensional quasi-linear STEERB simulations demonstrate that the observed chorus can resonantly accelerate the near-equatorially trapped electrons and rapidly flatten the corresponding electron butterfly PADs. These results provide a new insight on how chorus waves affect the dynamic evolution of radiation belt electrons.

  5. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes.

    PubMed

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed.

  6. Simulation of high-energy radiation belt electron fluxes using NARMAX-VERB coupled codes

    PubMed Central

    Pakhotin, I P; Drozdov, A Y; Shprits, Y Y; Boynton, R J; Subbotin, D A; Balikhin, M A

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a fusion of data-driven and physics-driven methodologies of energetic electron flux forecasting in the outer radiation belt. Data-driven NARMAX (Nonlinear AutoRegressive Moving Averages with eXogenous inputs) model predictions for geosynchronous orbit fluxes have been used as an outer boundary condition to drive the physics-based Versatile Electron Radiation Belt (VERB) code, to simulate energetic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt environment. The coupled system has been tested for three extended time periods totalling several weeks of observations. The time periods involved periods of quiet, moderate, and strong geomagnetic activity and captured a range of dynamics typical of the radiation belts. The model has successfully simulated energetic electron fluxes for various magnetospheric conditions. Physical mechanisms that may be responsible for the discrepancies between the model results and observations are discussed. PMID:26167432

  7. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  8. Insights on Continental Collisional Processes from GPS Data: Dynamics of the Peri-Adriatic Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metois, Marianne; D'Agostino, Nicola; Avallone, Antonio; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Rabaute, Alain; Duni, Llambro; Kuka, Neki; Koci, Rexhep; Georgiev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in GPS technology and processing strategies make now spatial geodesy a suitable tool to image intra-continental slowly deforming areas such as collisional mountain belts and to get further insights on their kinematics and dynamics. Here, using the peri-Adriatic belts as a test case, we propose a methodology based on accurate GPS velocities to discriminate whether the current day deformation pattern over a mountain belt is controlled at the first order by gravity through gradients of gravitational potential energy. We calculate a new GPS velocity field covering the peri-Adriatic region and the entire Balkan Peninsula, taking advantage of newly available measurements coming from private networks operating since several years in this area. Based on these velocities, we derive the strain rate tensor and an interpolated velocity field using the method of Haines & Holt (1993). Opposite to the commonly accepted hypothesis considering the Balkans as part of the stable Eurasia, we show that the peninsula experiences significant compression across the Dinarides belt and extension toward the Aegean domain South of 44°N. We image a clockwise rotation of the entire peninsula around North Albania, and propose that the lithosphere under the old Scutari-Peck transform zone is weak and acts as a pivot point for this rotation since early Miocene. The Hellenic slab suction and the release of stress in the northern Hellenides subduction zone may favour the southwestward motion of the inner Balkan lithosphere, flowing between the rigid Apulia and Black sea blocks consequently. Because our velocity field is unusually dense in Slovenia and Austria, we picture the Eastern Alps deformation with great details and show that the Austrian Alps are moving eastward together with the Alpine foreland and Bohemian Promontory relative to stable Eurasia. Based on these new GPS data, we investigate the dynamics of the peri-Adriatic mountain belts, in particular of Albania and Eastern

  9. OORT-Cloud and Kuiper-Belt Comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Fred L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper follows the broadly accepted theory that Oort-Cloud Comets originated in the Solar Nebula in the general region where the major planets, Jupiter and Saturn, were formed while the Kuiper-Belt Comets originated farther out where the temperatures were lower. The Oort-Cloud Comets are identified orbitally by long periods and random inclinations and, including the Halley-type comets, comets with a Tisserand Criterion less than 2.0. Kuiper-Belt comets are identified by short periods, usually much less than 200 years, and small inclinations to the ecliptic. Here two criteria for comet activity are found to separate the two classes of comets. These quantities NG1 and NG2, were intended to measure theoretical nongravitaional effects on comet orbits. They are only, mildly successful in correlations with observed cases of measured non-gravitational forces. But, in fact, their variations with perihelion distance separate the two classes of comets. The results are