Science.gov

Sample records for active mountain building

  1. Active mountain building in Taiwan in comparison to the early postcollisional evolution of the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustaszewski, K.; Suppe, J.; Wu, Y.-M.; Huang, S.-T.

    2009-04-01

    Taiwan represent the subaerial part of an active, bivergent thrust belt resulting from the oblique collision between the Luzon island arc of the Philippine Sea Plate and the passive margin of the Eurasian Plate since about 4 to 6.5 Ma. This collision followed the initially intraoceanic subduction of the South China Sea lithosphere below the Philippine Sea Plate, which commenced c. 15 Ma ago and which still prevails south of Taiwan in the Manila accretionary wedge. Considering the collision between Eurasia and the Luzon island arc as one between a large continental plate and a microplate, many analogies can be inferred between currently ongoing mountain building processes in Taiwan and those that occurred in the Alps following closure of the Alpine Tethys in the late Palaeogene. Based on new crustal-scale cross-sections and high-resolution earthquake tomography, we provide an overview of Taiwan's kinematics and compare this to the late Palaeogene evolution of the Alps, a time that marked its transition from an accretionary to a collisional, bivergent orogen. The Taiwan fold-and thrust belt is characterised by actively growing topography, crustal accretion by thrust propagation towards the foreland, a subsiding foreland basin and ongoing tectonic exhumation of metamorphosed continental basement and cover in the retrowedge. Exhumation is controlled by the development of a crustal-scale backfold that overprints earlier fabrics related to foreland-facing transport. Backthrusts within the Eurasian basement that were active at greenschist-facies conditions facilitated exhumation. 40Ar/39Ar ages on synkinematically deformed biotites suggest that backthrusting started as early as between ca. 3-4 Ma, i.e. shortly after or concomitant with the onset of collision between Eurasian passive margin and Luzon island arc. At the internal side of the backfold, blueschist-facies units that likely represent subducted forearc lithosphere are preserved. This structural setting bears some

  2. Active mountain building and the distribution of core Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  3. Earthquake-Driven Erosion and Mountain Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G.; West, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides are thought to play a major role in the erosion budget of mountainous topography in tectonically active regions, but the long-term topographic effects of seismically-driven denudation over multiple seismic cycles remain to be fully explored. In this work, we focus on the Longmen Shan range along the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, where the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake triggered tens of thousands of landslides. We assess regional erosion rates from decadal to millennial to Myr timescales, using pre-Wenchuan and post-Wenchuan hydrological gauging data, cosmogenic ages, and thermal cooling rates, respectively. We use these data to evaluate the magnitude and proportion of erosion associated with the Wenchuan event, and we then use this case study along with earthquake Mw-frequency relations to consider earthquake-driven erosion over multiple earthquake cycles. We find that, as long as rivers are capable of removing landslide debris within the timescale of earthquake return times, focused denudation along an orogenic margin such as the eastern edge of the Tibetan plateau can be explained by repeated earthquake events, without explicit need for a strong climatic driver of focused erosion. We develop a generalized 2-D model that accounts for both seismically-induced denudation and uplift (co-seismic uplift, visco-elastic relaxation and flexural-isostatic responses). This model can explain, through repeated seismic events, the development and maintenance of high topography as seen along the eastern Tibetan plateau. We consider the implications of this model for simulating mountain growth in various tectonic settings, contributing to better understanding of the role of earthquakes in mountain building.

  4. Active mountain building and the distribution of “core” Maxillariinae species in tropical Mexico and Central America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen H.

    2011-01-01

    The observation that southeastern Central America is a hotspot for orchid diversity has long been known and confirmed by recent systematic studies and checklists. An analysis of the geographic and elevation distribution demonstrates that the most widespread species of “core” Maxillariinae are all adapted to life near sea level, whereas the most narrowly endemic species are largely distributed in wet highland environments. Drier, hotter lowland gaps exist between these cordilleras and evidently restrict the dispersal of the species adapted to wetter, cooler conditions. Among the recent generic realignments of “core” Maxillariinae based on molecular phylogenetics, the Camaridium clade is easily the most prominent genus in Central America and is largely restricted to the highlands of Costa Rica and Panama, indicating that this region is the ancestral home of this genus and that its dispersal limits are drier, lowland cordilleran gaps. The mountains of Costa Rica and Panama are among the geologically youngest topographic features in the Neotropics, reflecting the complex and dynamic interactions of numerous tectonic plates. From consideration of the available geological evidence, I conclude that the rapid growth of the mountain ranges in Costa Rica and Panama during the late Cenozoic times created, in turn, very rapid ranges in ecological life zones and geographic isolation in that part of the isthmus. Thus, I suggest that these recent geologic events were the primary drivers for accelerated orchid evolution in southeastern Central America.

  5. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  6. 1. SOUTH FACADE, BUILDING 742 IN BACKGROUND. Rocky Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH FACADE, BUILDING 742 IN BACKGROUND. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 1. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 3. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 321. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Boiler Plant-Central Gas Heat Plant, 1022 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 525 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 3. NORTH FACADE OF BUILDING 742A. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH FACADE OF BUILDING 742-A. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Tank House, Quadrant 1, approximately 1000 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 1. BUILDING 411A. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 411A. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sulfur Monochloride & Dichloride Manufacturing, 1003 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 412 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. Oceanic plateaus, the fragmentation of continents, and mountain building

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, A.; Ben-Avraham, Z.

    1982-05-10

    Many anomalous rises in today's oceans may be submerged continental fragments detached from previous continents, ancient island arcs, or basaltic piles formed by hot spots and spreading centers. These rises are embedded in their respective moving oceanic plates and are fated to be consumed at active margins. Where such rises are being consumed at present, e.g., the Nazca Ridge, they cause cessation of volcanism, disruption of the downgoing slab, and possible shifts in plate boundary configuration. Many past rises, including numerous continental fragments have been recognized within mountain belts as allochthonous terranes. They constitute a large portion of the orogenic belts in the North Pacific from Mexico through western North America, Alaska, east Siberia, Japan and in New Zealand. The orogenic deformation in these belts is possibly the result of the accretion of the allochtronous terranes. Many terranes have been accreted with substantial deformation also in the Alpine chain, well before major continent-continent collisions. It is suggested, therefore, that the accretion of fragments may be the common process of the deformation phase of mountain building. Subduction of normal oceanic crust may be insufficient for deformation, whereas full continent-continent collision may be necessary. The general validity of this conclusion depends critically on whether allochthonous terranes caused orogenic deformation in the Andes or not. Most of the accreted fragments with continental affinites in the Mesozoic-Cenozoic orogenic belts of the world can be traced back to the breakup of Gondwana, beginning with a Pacifica domain in the Permian through a larger India domain in the early Mesozoic and continuing through the separation of the Somalia plate in the near future. The reasons for this 250 million year breakup process are not known, but some kind of thermal process, possible of mantle-wide scale, is implied.

  13. Glaciation as a destructive and constructive control on mountain building.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Stuart N; Brandon, Mark T; Tomkin, Jonathan H; Reiners, Peter W; Vásquez, Cristián; Wilson, Nathaniel J

    2010-09-16

    Theoretical analysis predicts that enhanced erosion related to late Cenozoic global cooling can act as a first-order influence on the internal dynamics of mountain building, leading to a reduction in orogen width and height. The strongest response is predicted in orogens dominated by highly efficient alpine glacial erosion, producing a characteristic pattern of enhanced erosion on the windward flank of the orogen and maximum elevation controlled by glacier equilibrium line altitude, where long-term glacier mass gain equals mass loss. However, acquiring definitive field evidence of an active tectonic response to global climate cooling has been elusive. Here we present an extensive new low-temperature thermochronologic data set from the Patagonian Andes, a high-latitude active orogen with a well-documented late Cenozoic tectonic, climatic and glacial history. Data from 38° S to 49° S record a marked acceleration in erosion 7 to 5 Myr ago coeval with the onset of major Patagonian glaciation and retreat of deformation from the easternmost thrust front. The highest rates and magnitudes of erosion are restricted to the glacial equilibrium line altitude on the windward western flank of the orogen, as predicted in models of glaciated critical taper orogens where erosion rate is a function of ice sliding velocity. In contrast, towards higher latitudes (49° S to 56° S) a transition to older bedrock cooling ages signifies much reduced late Cenozoic erosion despite dominantly glacial conditions here since the latest Miocene. The increased height of the orogenic divide at these latitudes (well above the equilibrium line altitude) leads us to conclude that the southernmost Patagonian Andes represent the first recognized example of regional glacial protection of an active orogen from erosion, leading to constructive growth in orogen height and width.

  14. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  15. Mountain building long after plate collision. Possible mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyushkov, Eugene; Chekhovich, Peter; Korikovsky, Sergei; Massonne, Hans-Joachim

    2016-04-01

    It is commonly believed that mountain building occurs synchronously to plate collision. However, it was well known long ago that in most cases mountain building began 10-100 Ma later. For example, in the Middle and Southern Urals collision occurred from the Late Devonian and until the Early Permian. The shortened regions remained covered by a shallow sea. High mountains began to form rapidly 10 Ma after the termination of collision. The Verkhoyansk Range in Northeastern Asia was strongly shortened at mid-Cretaceous time. It remained at a low altitude for 100 Ma and rose by 2 km in the Pleistocene. Compressive stresses most probably were acting in the Urals during all the epoch of collision. Strong shortening however occurred only as several impulses 1-2 Ma long. This can be explained by temporary weakening of the lithosphere due to a change in the mechanism of creep under infiltration of fluids from the mantle. To sustain a thickened crust at a low altitude, a density increase in the lithosphere was necessary. A possible cause could be metamorphism in crustal rocks, both mafic and felsic, under a pressure increase during collision. Rapid uplift of the shortened crust long after collision and establishment of a new temperature distribution indicates a density decrease in the lithosphere. Thus, on the Precambrian cratons which cover about 70% of continental areas collision terminated ≥ 500 Ma ago. However, during the last several Ma most of them underwent the uplift ranging from 100-200 m to 1000-1500 m. This occurred on the African continent, in central and eastern Australia, East Siberia, East Antarctica and in many other regions. Preservation of thick mantle roots precluded delamination of the lowermost lithosphere as a mechanism for the uplift. Due to a strong denudation of cratons deeply metamorphosed rocks of the lower crust emerged to a shallow depth. Under dry conditions for a long time they remained metastable. Recent inflow of fluid from the mantle

  16. Detrital record of mountain building: Provenance of Jurassic foreland basin to the Dabie Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng

    2010-08-01

    The Huangshi foreland basin developed on the southern margin of the Dabie Mountains as a result of tectonic loading during Triassic collisional suturing between the North China and South China cratons. Modal and detrital zircon data for Jurassic samples within the basin suggest a multicomponent source with input from both the South China Craton and Dabie Orogen. Samples are predominantly quartz arenites derived, on the basis of framework compositions, from a recycled orogen source. Detrital zircons range in age from Archean to Triassic with a dominant component in the late Paleoproterozoic between 1.9-1.7 Ga and subsidiary components at 2.6-2.2 Ga, 0.8-0.7 Ga, 0.5-0.4 Ga, and 0.33-0.2 Ga. Age data integrated with cathodoluminescence and trace element data for the zircons indicate that the Archean and Proterozoic detritus was derived from igneous and metamorphic sources that overlap with time-equivalent pulses of such activity within the South China Craton. Phanerozoic zircon ages overlap the times of the Ordovician, Carboniferous and Triassic high-pressure metamorphism in the Dabie Mountains. The provenance record, integrated with paleocurrent and regional relations, enables a paleogeographic reconstruction in which the Huangshi Basin was fed by a major axial flowing trunk river system carrying detritus from eastern and southern sources within the South China Craton and was also fed by short south flowing tributaries supplying some detritus from the evolving Dabie Orogen. The dominance of cratonic-derived detritus within the provenance record of the Huangshi Basin contrasts with that of the Hefei foreland basin that lies to the north of the Dabie Mountains, which is dominated by Neoproterozoic - Mesozoic detritus derived directly from the Dabie Mountains and lacks any significant older Paleoproterozoic or Archean components. Easterly extensions of the Dabie-Sulu collisional suture and of the resultant Huangshi Basin occur in Korea and Japan over an along strike

  17. Common Mountain-Building Processes on Ceres and Pluto?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, Mark V.; Bland, Michael; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Feldman, William; Hoffmann, Martin; Hughson, Kynan; Jaumann, Ralf; King, Scott; LeCorre, Lucille; Li, Jian-Yang; Mest, Scott; Natheus, Andreas; O'Brien, David; Platz, Thomas; Prettyman, Thomas; Raymond, Carol; Reddy, Vishnu; Reusch, Ottaviano; Russell, Christopher T.; Schenk, Paul; Sizemore, Hanna; Schmidt, Britney; Travis, Bryan

    2015-11-01

    The Dawn Framing Camera has revealed a unique feature on the surface of Ceres, popularly referred to as the “pyramid.” It is a roughly conical and flat-topped feature with an elevation of ~5 km and base diameter of ~20 km. The side slopes are roughly consistent with an angle of repose one expects of particulate material on Earth (which may change with gravity). The pyramid is also notable for its striations down its side over half of its circumference. These striations sharply terminate at the base of the cone without a distinctive talus deposit, including an adjacent crater. Recently released images of Norgay Montes and a second mountain chain in Tombaugh Regio on Pluto by the New Horizons mission reveal mountains with strikingly similar morphologies with the Ceres pyramid. They are of similar size to within a factor of a few. We investigate the hypothesis that there may be a common mechanism giving rise to these features on the two dwarf planets. Given their significantly different heliocentric distances, the remarkable ongoing widespread processing of the surface of Pluto and increasing evidence of relatively recent activity in some areas of Ceres, interior processes such as plume activity or tectonics may be responsible. A comparative study of uplift morphology on the two dwarf planets may also lend insights into heat production and retention on such bodies throughout the solar system.

  18. Linking Quaternary Climate Changes to Mountain Building in Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, C. A.; Enkelmann, E.; Allen, W. K.; Ridgway, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Chugach-St. Elias Mountains in southeastern Alaska exhibit extreme topography as a result of the subduction and collision of the Yakutat microplate with the North American plate. Extensive glaciation in the area, coupled with the active tectonics, makes the Chugach-St. Elias Mountains the ideal site to investigate the resulting spatial and temporal variations in exhumation. The St. Elias Mountains have experienced three major climate changes including the start of regional glaciation at ~5.5 Ma, the onset of glaciation in the Northern Hemisphere during the Plio-Pleistocene Transition to colder temperatures at 2.5 Ma, and a change in global climate cyclicity during the mid-Pleistocene Transition from 1.2-0.7 Ma. Our goal is to determine whether these climate changes result in shifts in the rates and patterns of regional exhumation due to the intensification of glacial erosion. We investigate the late Cenozoic sediments from five boreholes that were drilled by IODP Expedition 341 along a transect crossing the Yakutat shelf (offshore Bering glacier) and into the deep-sea Surveyor Fan in the Gulf of Alaska. Magnetostratigraphy and biostratigraphy on these sediments establish an up to 10 Ma depositional history in the boreholes. To study rock exhumation of the sediment source over time, 17 detrital samples from various depths in the cores were dated using zircon fission track thermochronology. Single grain cooling ages range from 302.8 Ma to 0.2 Ma, and contain composite age populations with peaks coinciding with major regional tectonic events providing information on sediment provenance and exhumation. All single grains were also double dated using U-Pb dating to identify and eliminate volcanic grains from the sample. Common U-Pb age populations are 53, 62, 70, and 98 Ma with minor populations of 117, 154, and 170 Ma. These ages are being used to better constrain sediment provenance and reconstruct past glacial catchments.

  19. 5. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 1. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 2. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 6. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 3. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 4. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. Rocky Mountain Arsenal, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. On the extent and significance of Oligocene mountain building in eastern Tibet (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, E.; Furlong, K. P.; Cook, K. L.; Ouimet, W. B.; Shi, X.; Wang, E.; Kamp, P. J.; Hodges, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    High topography in the region north and east of the Indo-Asian collision zone is typically considered to have developed in Miocene time, potentially in response to outward flow of weak lower crust from beneath the Tibetan Plateau. Much of the evidence for an increase in surface elevation in eastern Tibet is inferential and relies on the onset of rapid cooling and deep exhumation in the great river valleys along the plateau margin as recorded in low-temperature thermochronometers. Recently, detailed reconstruction of thermal/exhumational histories along the Longmen Shan, adjacent to the Sichuan Basin, reveals a pre-Miocene phase of mountain building (Wang et al., 2012). However, whether this event is confined to the Longmen Shan or whether it reflects widespread mountain building in the region remains unknown. Here, we synthesize emerging thermochronologic evidence from studies that utilize higher-temperature systems which are sensitive to deeper exhumation and that span various regions of the plateau margin. In the western Longmen Shan, late Oligocene - early Miocene zircon (U-Th)/He (zHe) ages from the summit of the Xuelongbao Massif (~5500m) require that mountain building was well underway along this margin by Oligocene time. In the Danba region, farther south, biotite and muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages of samples from both fault zones and the surrounding rocks indicate that the faults were active at about 25- 30 Ma. Combined with structural and regional thermochronology data, this suggests that folding and exhumation of the Danba Anticlinorium began in mid-Tertiary time. Even farther south, along the Yalong River, biotite 40Ar/39Ar ages and zHe ages along an age-elevation transect reveal that the onset of rapid exhumation began around the same time, at ca. 30 Ma. Our results, in conjunction with existing data on the timing of deformation along the Aliao-Shan/Red River shear zone, implies that the onset of mountain building in eastern Tibet was widespread in late

  6. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  7. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bland, Michael; McKinnon, William B

    2016-01-01

    Jupiter’s volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io’s lithosphere has been investigated in detail1, 2, 3, 4; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic–plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io’s mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io’s lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io’s mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  8. Mountain building on Io driven by deep faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland, Michael T.; McKinnon, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Jupiter's volcanic moon Io possesses some of the highest relief in the Solar System: massive, isolated mountain blocks that tower up to 17 km above the surrounding plains. These mountains are likely to result from pervasive compressive stresses induced by subsidence of the surface beneath the near-continual emplacement of volcanic material. The stress state that results from subsidence and warming of Io's lithosphere has been investigated in detail; however, the mechanism of orogenesis itself and its effect on regional tectonism and volcanism has not been firmly established. Here we present viscoelastic-plastic finite element simulations demonstrating that Io's mountains form along deep-seated thrust faults that initiate at the base of the lithosphere and propagate upward. We show that faulting fundamentally alters the stress state of Io's lithosphere by relieving the large volcanism-induced subsidence stresses. Notably, in the upper portion of the lithosphere, stresses become tensile (near-zero differential stress). A number of processes are therefore altered post-faulting, including magma transport through the lithosphere, interactions with tidal stresses and potentially the localization of mountain formation by thermoelastic stresses. We conclude that Io's mountains form by a unique orogenic mechanism, compared with tectonic processes operating elsewhere in the Solar System.

  9. Turtle Mountain Faculty Helps Build Model Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yellow Bird, Dorreen

    1999-01-01

    Describes the assessment plan developed by Turtle Mountain Community College to better respond to the needs of its growing student body. Includes a description of the survey instrument administered to graduating students, which was used to assess the institution's effectiveness. (VWC)

  10. Mountain building processes in intraplate, intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Altai, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.

    2012-04-01

    The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Palaeozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Palaeozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region are locally thrust reactivated in the NE Gobi Altai, but elsewhere appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The diffuse historical seismicity in the region coupled with a complex system of interacting faults showing evidence for Quaternary movements, suggests that faults may be dormant for long periods and then reactivate. Large earthquakes may be episodic and spatially

  11. Building Better Buildings: Sustainable Building Activities in California Higher Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowell, Arnold; Eichel, Amanda; Alevantis, Leon; Lovegreen, Maureen

    2003-01-01

    This article outlines the activities and recommendations of California's sustainable building task force, discusses sustainable building activities in California's higher education systems, and highlights key issues that California is grappling with in its implementation of sustainable building practices. (EV)

  12. Extreme landscape disequilibrium and slow erosion during rapid mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouimet, W. B.; Byrne, T. B.; Huang, C.; Bierman, P. R.; Lee, Y. H.; Hsu, W. H.; Hsieh, M. L.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examine topography and erosion in Taiwan, where high rates of tectonic convergence, easily erodible bedrock, and a highly erosive climate have produced some of the steepest landscapes and highest erosion rates in the world. Through a combined analysis of topography throughout the Central Range and cosmogenic radionulcide 10Be erosion rates measured in quartz purified from river sediment, we show that Taiwan preserves broad (up to 10-20 km2) areas of anomalous, low slope, low relief terrain and exhibits a wide range of short-term (103-104 yr) 10Be erosion rates (0.1 to ~10 mm/yr) within topography that has been exhuming at 3-5 mm/yr for at least the past 1.5 Ma. The extreme landscape disequilibrium observed in Taiwan highlights the variation in erosion and morphology that mountain belts can exhibit despite strong tectonic forcing and a highly erosive climate. The wide range in cosmogenic erosion rates observed in Taiwan is a direct consequence of the presence of low slope, low relief topography within a rapid uplifting and exhuming orogen. Low relief, slowly eroding areas are consistently found at high elevations near the main topographic divide of the Central Range and in the upstream headwaters where it is more likely to preserve relict topography. Their existence in combination with constant, rapid background exhumation suggest that Taiwan has seen large scale shifts in mean elevation over the last 2 Ma, a conclusion that challenges classic notion of orogeny evolution in Taiwan, the archetype example of arc-continent collision and rapid mountain around the world. Conversely, because Taiwan exhibits rapid rock uplift, frequent landslides and high rates of erosion, it may be the type landscape where dynamic landscape process of river capture and in situ formation of low relief landscape allow for the highest range of millennial scale erosion rates anywhere in the world. Either way, this study highlights that spatial variation erosion rate and

  13. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  14. Phylogeographical pattern correlates with pliocene mountain building in the alpine scree weta (Orthoptera, anostostomatidae).

    PubMed

    Trewick, S A; Wallis, G P; Morgan-Richards, M

    2000-06-01

    Most research on the biological effects of Pleistocene glaciation and refugia has been undertaken in the northern hemisphere and focuses on lowland taxa. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I, we explored the intraspecific phylogeography of a flightless orthopteran (the alpine scree weta, Deinacrida connectens) that is adapted to the alpine zone of South Island, New Zealand. We found that several mountain ranges and regions had their own reciprocally monophyletic, deeply differentiated lineages. Corrected genetic distance among lineages was 8.4% (Kimura 2-parameter [K2P]) / 13% (GTR + I + Gamma), whereas within-lineage distances were only 2.8% (K2P) / 3.2% (GTR + I + Gamma). We propose a model to explain this phylogeographical structure, which links the radiation of D. connectens to Pliocene mountain building, and maintenance of this structure through the combined effects of mountain-top isolation during Pleistocene interglacials and ice barriers to dispersal during glacials.

  15. Building Technologies Program Key Activities

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    The Building Technologies Program (BTP) employs a balanced approach to making buildings more energy efficient. The three pillars of our program, research and development (R&D), market stimulation, and building and equipment standards, help meet our strategic vision.

  16. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  17. Mountain Building Triggered Late Cretaceous North American Megaherbivore Dinosaur Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Terry A.; Prieto-Márquez, Albert; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior studies of Mesozoic biodiversity document a diversity peak for dinosaur species in the Campanian stage of the Late Cretaceous, yet have failed to provide explicit causal mechanisms. We provide evidence that a marked increase in North American dinosaur biodiversity can be attributed to dynamic orogenic episodes within the Western Interior Basin (WIB). Detailed fossil occurrences document an association between the shift from Sevier-style, latitudinally arrayed basins to smaller Laramide-style, longitudinally arrayed basins and a well substantiated decreased geographic range/increased taxonomic diversity of megaherbivorous dinosaur species. Dispersal-vicariance analysis demonstrates that the nearly identical biogeographic histories of the megaherbivorous dinosaur clades Ceratopsidae and Hadrosauridae are attributable to rapid diversification events within restricted basins and that isolation events are contemporaneous with known tectonic activity in the region. SymmeTREE analysis indicates that megaherbivorous dinosaur clades exhibited significant variation in diversification rates throughout the Late Cretaceous. Phylogenetic divergence estimates of fossil clades offer a new lower boundary on Laramide surficial deformation that precedes estimates based on sedimentological data alone. PMID:22876302

  18. Exhumation history of the Mindoro, Philippine and its implication to mountain building process.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Exhumation history of the Mindoro, Philippine and its implication to mountain building process Chung-Wei Shiu1,Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Reuy-juin Rau2, Toto Bacolcol3 Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung-Cheng university, Taiwan Department of earth science, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan Department of science and technology, Philippine institute of volcanology and seismology The Mindoro orogenic belt is result from the collision between the Palawan continental crust and Philippine Mobile zone. In this study we report the zircon fission track ages to identify the timing of rapid exhumation of Mindoro orogenic belt. The NNW striking East Mindoro fault (EMF) separates the mountain belt and Luzon arc block. The highest mountain reaches to 2500m on hanging wall of the EMF. In the western side of the EMF the mountain belt can be separate into two blocks by NW trending Mindoro suture zone. To the north and south are Mindoro block and north Palawan block, respectively. The Mindoro block is major comprised of unmetamorphic Eocene strata and Mindoro metamorphic complex. The oldest zircon reset fission track ages shows 4-5 Ma in eastern and western side of the Mindoro metamorphic complex which infers the timing of rapid exhumation since ca. 5Ma which indicate the timing of collision between the Palawan block and Luzon arc.

  19. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  20. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  1. Alternative configurations for the waste-handling building at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    1990-08-01

    Two alternative configurations of the waste-handling building have been developed for the proposed nuclear waste repository in tuff at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. One configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 2 (no monitored retrievable storage facility, no consolidation), and the other configuration is based on criteria and assumptions used in Case 5 (consolidation at the monitored retrievable storage facility) of the Monitored Retrievable Storage System Study for the Repository. Desirable waste-handling design concepts have been selected and are included in these configurations. For each configuration, general arrangement drawings, plot plans, block flow diagrams, and timeline diagrams are prepared.

  2. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  3. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  4. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  6. DISPOSAL OF RESIDUES FROM BUILDING DECONTAMINATION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a building has gone through decontamination activities from a chemical attack there will be a significant amount of building decontamination residue that will need to undergo disposal. This project consists of a fundamental study to investigate the desorption of simulated c...

  7. Mountain building and mantle dynamics: a journey through the Tethyan belt (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    The style of mantle convection beneath large oceanic plates is rather well established. On the other hand, we still have a loose grasp of what happen beneath continental plate, especially beneath mobile and convergent margins, where we expect to have vigorous convection. Here, I present some considerations about the style and evolution of mantle convection beneath convergent/collisional zones as constrained by geological - seismological data and modelling. I will consider the Alpine-Tethyan belt as a case study, exploring the idea that the style of mountain building can be used as a proxy to reconstruct mantle dynamics. The Tertiary evolution of the Tethyan belt indeed offers a unique opportunity to discuss about mountain building and mantle dynamics, as it include region such as the Mediterranean, where collision is still in its incipient stage producing Apennines style orogen, to the Himalayan-Tibetan belt, where collisional process reaches its extreme consequence. We classified those two belts as end members of a wide range of orgen. On one side, the of "slab pull" orogen, where subduction is mainly confined to the upper mantle, and rollback trench motion lead to moderately thick crustal stacks and reduced topographic signal, such as in the Mediterranean. On the other side, the "slab suction" orogen, where whole-mantle convection cells ("conveyor belts") lead to the more extreme expressions of orogeny, such as the largely thickened crust and high plateaus of present-day Tibet. For the slab suction type, deep mantle convection produces the unique conditions to drag plates toward each other, irrespective of their nature and other boundary conditions. Based on mantle circulation modeling and tectonic reconstructions, we surmise that the forces necessary to sustain slab-suction mountain building in those orogens derive, after transient slab ponding, from the mantle drag induced upon slab penetration into the lower mantle, and from an associated surge of mantle

  8. Mountain building processes in intracontinental oblique deformation belts: Lessons from the Gobi Corridor, Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dickson

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the Quaternary-Recent deformation field and mountain building processes within the Gobi Corridor region of Central Asia, which includes the North Tibetan foreland, Beishan, Gobi Altai and easternmost Tien Shan. The region can be considered the ‘soft core' of Central Asia which has been reactivated due to the continuing Indo-Eurasia collision to the south. Favourable preconditions for reactivation of Gobi Corridor basement include a mechanically weak Palaeozoic terrane collage sandwiched between rigid Precambrian basement blocks to the north and south, thermally weakened crust due to Jurassic-Miocene volcanism and widespread Palaeozoic-Mesozoic granitic magmatism with associated high radiogenic heat production, and crustal thinning due to widespread Cretaceous rift basin development. The network of Quaternary-Recent faults within the entire region defines a diffuse sinistral transpressional deformation field that has generated a transpressional basin and range physiographic province. Typically, thrust and oblique-slip thrust faults are WNW-striking and reactivate basement faults and fabrics, whereas left-lateral strike-slip faults are ENE-striking and cut across basement trends. The angular relationship between SHmax and pre-existing basement structural trends is the fundamental control on the kinematics of Late Cenozoic deformation. Along-strike and across-strike growth and coalescence of restraining bends, other transpressional ranges and thrust ridges is an important mountain building process. Thrust faults throughout the region are both NNE and SSW directed and thus there is no common structural vergence, nor orogenic foreland or hinterland. Root structures appear to be vertical faults, not low-angle decollements and flower structure fault geometries within individual ranges are common. Published earthquake and geodetic data are consistent with a diffusely deforming continental interior region with tectonic loading shared

  9. Holocene glacier activity in the British Columbia Coast Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.

    2015-11-01

    The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.

  10. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cline; F. Perry; G. Valentine; E. Smistad

    2005-05-26

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10{sup -8} be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the

  11. Lithosphere buckling: a model for mountain building and basin development in Iberia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lozano, J.; Sokoutis, D.; Willingshoffer, E.; de Vicente, G.; Cloetingh, S.

    2009-04-01

    The N-S convergence between Africa and Iberia during the Pyrenean stage of the Alpine Orogeny is responsible for fault reactivation and surface uplift. The Cainozoic deformation accommodated within the Iberian microplate may be explained by lithospheric buckling. It resulted in the development of fault corridors that transferred the deformation from the Pyrenees-Cantabrian Mountains to the plate interior leading to inversion of Mesozoic rift basins. The spatial distribution of the mountain ranges represented by upper crustal pop-ups are the main agents advocating buckling. Analogue modelling has been deployed to study the structural and surface expression of buckling of the continental lithosphere in order to evaluate its explanatory power as underlying mechanism for mountain building and basin development in intraplate settings such as the Iberian Peninsula. The rheological stratification of the model lithosphere consists of a brittle upper crust, a ductile lower crust and a ductile upper mantle consistent with the interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Dry K-feldspar sand represents the brittle crust, while two different types of silicone mixture were used for the ductile crust and viscous upper mantle respectively, floating on a low viscosity, high density fluid corresponding to the experimental asthenosphere. Scaled velocities are in the order of 0.5 cm/h which correspond to 7mm/y for 20% of shortening assumed for whole Iberia. The experiments have been conducted within a Plexiglas tank under normal gravity conditions. The experimental results show that the consequence to the velocity increase is that the strength of the ductile crust and upper ductile mantle increases, leading to an increase in fold wavelength(s). As a consequence upper crustal thrusts and pop-up structures are wider spaced in the case of high convergence rates suggesting that the process of folding exerts a primary control on spacing between the thrusts and the morphology of intra

  12. Factors limiting microbial activity in volcanic tuff at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T.L.; Kovacik, W.P.; Taylor, J.

    1996-09-01

    Samples of tuff aseptically collected from 10 locations in the Exploratory Shaft Facility at the site of the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site were analyzed for microbiological populations, activities, and factors limiting microbial activity. Radiotracer assays ({sup 14}C-labeled organic substrate mineralization), direct microscopic counts, and plate counts were used. Radiolabeled substrates were glucose, acetate, and glutamate. Radiotracer experiments were carried out with and without moisture and inorganic nutrient amendments to determine factors limiting to microbial activities. Nearly all samples showed the presence of microorganisms with the potential to mineralize organic substrates. Addition of inorganic nutrients stimulated activities in a small number of samples. The presence of viable microbial communities within the tuff has implications for transport of contaminants.

  13. Southern Alaska as an Example of the Long-Term Consequences of Mountain Building Under the Influence of Glaciers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meigs, Andrew; Sauber, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    setting of active deformation and by the feedback between shortening and uplift, glacial erosion, and orographic effects on climate accompanying mountain building.

  14. Active control of buildings during earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vance, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an overview of the different types of control systems used in buildings, to discuss the problems associated with current active control mechanisms, and to show the cost-effectiveness of applying active control to buildings. In addition, a small case study investigates the feasibility and benefits of using embedded actuators in buildings. Use of embedded actuators could solve many of the current problems associated with active control by providing a wider bandwidth of control, quicker speed of response, increased reliability and reduced power requirement. Though embedded actuators have not been developed for buildings, they have previously been used in space structures. Many similarities exist between large civil and aerospace structures indicating that direct transfer of concepts between the two disciplines may be possible. In particular, much of the Controls-Structures Interaction (CSI) technology currently being developed could be beneficially applied to civil structures. While several buildings with active control systems have been constructed in Japan, additional research and experimental verification are necessary before active control systems become widely accepted and implemented.

  15. Local flow control for active building facades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaligotla, Srikar; Chen, Wayne; Glauser, Mark

    2010-11-01

    Existing building facade designs are for a passive and an impermeable shell to prevent migration of outdoor air into the building and to control heat transfers between the exterior environment and the building interior. An active facade that can respond in real time to changing environmental conditions like wind speed and direction, pollutant load, temperature, humidity and light can lower energy use and maximize occupant comfort. With an increased awareness of cost and environmental effects of energy use, cross or natural ventilation has become an attractive method to lower energy use. Separated flow regions around such buildings are undesirable due to high concentration of pollutants, especially if the vents or dynamic windows for cross ventilation are situated in these regions. Outside pollutant load redistribution through vents can be regulated via flow separation control to minimize transport of pollutants into the building. Flow separation has been substantially reduced with the application of intelligent flow control tools developed at Syracuse University for flow around "silo" (turret) like structures. Similar flow control models can be introduced into buildings with cross ventilation for local external flow separation control. Initial experiments will be performed for turbulent flow over a rectangular block (scaled to be a mid-rise building) that has been configured with dynamic vents and unsteady suction actuators in a wind tunnel at various wind speeds.

  16. Spacing of Rocky Mountain foreland arches and Laramide magmatic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.J.; Evans, J.P.; Fletcher, R.C.; Spang, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    First-order Late Cretaceous and Paleocene folds in the Rocky Mountain foreland have a spacing (S) ranging from 45 to 300 km. Spacing of folds and major mountain flank thrusts was controlled in part by the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). Analysis of folding of a brittle layer of thickness H above a ductile substrate suggests S/H approx. = 4-6. Experimental data indicate that the BDT in quartz rich rock occurs at 300/sup 0/ +/- 50/sup 0/C and therefore its depth depends on geothermal gradient. Regions with high Laramide geothermal gradients should have had a shallower depth to the BDT and a shorter spacing of first-order folds than regions with low gradients. A regional compilation for the Montana and Wyoming foreland shows a correlation between the value of S and syntectonic magmatic activity. The mean S value for southwestern Montana, where Late Cretaceous and Paleocene magmatic activity was widespread, is 65 km. This value of S indicates a relatively shallow (11-16 km) depth of the BDT and suggests a relatively high (16-32/sup 0/C/km) Laramide geothermal gradient. The mean S value for the Wyoming foreland, where no syntectonic magmatic activity is indicated, is 150 km. Measurements of S may allow some predictions of depth to rheologically-controlled mid-crustal decoupling zones. They may also indicate areas where the depth to the BDT was not a major control on S. Structures with S < 40 km correspond to inadmissably shallow BDT zones and were probably controlled by other factors such as preexisting fault zones or basement lithology.

  17. Analysing Trust Building in Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farini, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to offer both a theoretical contribution and examples of practices of trust building in peace education; the article presents an empirical analysis of videotaped interactions in the context of peace education activities in international groups of adolescents. The analysis aims to understand if and in which ways peace education is…

  18. Team Building Activities for Young Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Team building activities are an excellent way to challenge students and teach them the critical communication and problem solving skills that encourage trust, empathy, and ability to work together. They create an atmosphere that enhances the ability to meet fitness and skill goals because students, regardless of skill level, will possess increased…

  19. ASBESTOS RELEASE DURING BUILDING DEMOLITION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) monitored block-wide building demolition and debris disposal activities at Santa Cruz and Watsonsville, California following the 1989 earthquake; an implosion demolition of a 26-story bu...

  20. Mountain building along a passive margin: Late Neogene tectonism in southeastern Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, John A.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Kapostasy, Dan; Bremar, Kathy A.; Fabel, Derek

    2011-01-01

    The Hoddle Ranges (maximum elevation of ~ 750 m above sea level) lie along the southeastern Australian passive margin. Detailed geological/geomorphological studies of the southern margin of the ranges, focusing on a fault block of Oligocene-Miocene sedimentary rocks, have constrained the landscape evolution. In the mid-Cretaceous, this area changed from a subduction zone accumulating volcanogenic sediments to a passive, low-relief margin, which was crossed by north-flowing rivers. In the Paleocene, the eruption of basaltic volcanics formed a low divide which diverted these rivers towards the northeast, so that sediments deposited on either side of the divide contain different heavy mineral assemblages. In the middle Late Miocene-Early Pliocene the area was subjected to a period of relatively rapid mountain building, the Kosciuszko Uplift, as broadly NW-SE oriented compression created the Hoddle Ranges at an uplift rate of ~ 0.15 mm/a. Uplift was not uniform; a small southern block was uplifted only ~ 200 m, and its surface has acted as a local base level for the Agnes River which flows across it, with a major knickpoint on the southern side. The Southeastern Highlands to the north were uplifted by up to 700-1000 m during the Kosciuszko Uplift, similar to the maximum increase in elevation of the Hoddle Ranges (~ 600 m). The Kosciuszko Uplift tectonism occurred at rates greater than typical of passive margins, and belies Australia's reputation as a tectonically stable continent.

  1. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  2. The role of rift inheritance during Cenozoic mountain building of the central Pyrenees and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filleaudeau, P.-Y.; Mouthereau, F.; Lacombe, O.; Pik, R.; Fellin, M. G.

    2012-04-01

    Providing accurate estimates of shortening, as well as the duration and vertical amplitudes of tectonic events in collisional orogens is critical to better understanding the retroactions between the distribution of crustal deformation and surface processes during mountain building. However, structural and bedrock geochronological constraints are usually lacking accuracy for the early stages of convergence that are generally overprinted by complex deformation patterns and synorogenic burial. In this aim, we present new detrital low-temperature thermochronometry (detrital AFT dating, zircon (U-Th)/He ages) and geochronology (zircon U/Pb ages) on both flanks of the Pyrenean orogen. Combined with available in-situ thermochronometric constraints we examine the role of rift inheritance on the early stages of orogenesis. Together with foreland tectono-stratigraphic constraints and re-appraisal of the distribution of crustal deformation in the central Pyrenees, these new data offer the unique opportunity to precisely determine the kinematics on both sides of the Pyrenean mountain belt from Late Cretaceous to Miocene. Intermediate restorations are then produced for well-suited and key time intervals (Early Oligocene, Middle Eocene, Cretaceous-Paleogene transition, Late Campanian and Late Santonian) in order to examine the mass balance within the orogenic wedge. This study shows that during the initial stage of contraction (83-68 Ma) exhumation rates were accommodated by a limited amount of underthrusting. Acceleration of plate convergence in the Late Cretaceous, as inferred from plate reconstructions, is supported an exhumational event at ~65 Ma. At this time, the North Pyrenean flysch basins were inverted on top of an inherited S-dipping crustal detachment that previously exposed lithospheric mantle (Pyrenean Lherzolites) to the surface during the mid-Cretaceous extension phase . The amount of accreted material from the Iberian crust increased significantly after the

  3. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both footprints are presented in this AMR. In addition, the

  4. Strike fault links mountain building from top to deep: evidence from the deep seismic reflection profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, R.; Wang, H.; Lu, Z.; Wang, C.; Klemperer, S. L.; Yin, A.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of mountains was influenced by large-scale strike-slip faults in Tibet. At the south and north borders of the Tibetan Plateau, the Karakorum and Kunlun strike-slip faults cut the Himalayas and the Kunlun Mountains crust respectively. Based on the detection results of deep seismic reflection profiles, we report the structures of these strike-slip faults and shear deformation depth. The Karakoram fault and Indus-Yarlung suture (IYS) zone are two important structures in southwest and south Tibet, associated with the collision between India and Eurasia. SinoProbe has acquired two deep seismic reflection profiles with 210 km length. The northwestern profile spans 120 km and crosses the southeast part of the Karakoram fault where dextrally sheared mylonite and mylonitized gneiss-granite are exposed along the fault. The southeastern profile spans 90km and crosses the ophiolite belt of the western IYS. Our preliminary images show: Moho reflections appear at ~ 24 s (TWT) beneath both lines. Flower-structures imaged at the Karakoram fault zone are suggestive of strike-slip structure. There are significant differences in lower-crustal structure between the two lines. Many north and south dipping reflections in the lower crust form v-shaped structures along the northwest line. On the southeastern line, there are many north-dipping but few south-dipping reflections in the lower crust. Kunlun seismic profile crosses the active left-slip Kunlun fault, which is ~1000-km long and was inferred to merge downward with a continental subduction zone. The fault was initiated at 15-8 Ma, moved at a rate of 5-16 mm/year, and has a total slip of 65-120 km. The results of our seismic-reflection study across northeastern Tibet show that the actively deforming middle Tibetan crust is dominated by discrete sub-horizontal simple-shear zones that terminate the subvertical, left-slip Kunlun fault above. The flat shear zones appear to act as roof and floor thrusts of large duplex

  5. Vernal Point and Seismic Activity in Tibet Mountains and Andes Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez-Sumarriva, Israel; Chavez-Campos, Teodosio; Chavez S, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    The gravitational influence of the sun and moon on the equatorial bulges of the mantle of the rotating earth causes the precession of the earth. The retrograde motion of the vernal point through the zodiacal band is 26,000 years and passes through each constellation in an average of 2000 years (Milankovitch subcycle). The vernal point retrogrades one precessional degree approximately in 72 years (Gleissberg-cycle), and approximately enters into the Aquarius constellation (declination 11.5° S) on March 20, 1940. On earth this entry was verify through: a) stability of the magnetic equator in the south central zone of Peru and in the north zone of Bolivia (11.5º South latitude) since 1940 b) the greater intensity of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) in Peru and Bolivia since 1940. Besides, there was a long history of studies of coupling between earthquake-ionosphere. In IUGG (Italy-2007), Cusco was proposed as a prime meridian that was based on: (1) the new prime meridian (72º W == 0º) was parallel to the Andes and its projection the meridian (108° E == 180º) intersects the Tibetan plate (Asia). (2) On earth these two areas present the greatest thickness of the crust with an average depth of 70 kilometers. The aim was to synchronize the earth sciences phenomena (e.g. geology, geophysics, etc.). The coordinate system had the vernal point from meridian (72º W== 0º) and March 20, 1940. The retrograde movement of the vernal point was the first precessional degree (2012 = 1940 + 72). The west coast of South America (parallel to meridian 72º W== 0º) was a segment of the circum-pacific seismic belt where more than two thirds of major earthquakes in the world happened. During the first precessional degree (1940 +72 ==2012) seismic activity were: (a) near the new prime meridian (72° W == 0°) occurs in: (a1) Haiti (18.4° N, 72.5° W), January 12, 2010 with magnitude of 7.0 Mw. (a2) Chile (36.28° S, 73.23° W), February 27, 2010 with Magnitude of 8.8 Mw. (a3) Chile (35

  6. Exhumation History of an Oblique Plate Boundary: Investigating Kaikoura Mountain-building within the Marlborough Fault System, NE South Island New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collett, C.; Duvall, A. R.; Flowers, R. M.; Tucker, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Kaikoura Mountains stand high as topographic anomalies in the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone known as the Marlborough Fault System (MFS), NE South Island New Zealand. The base of both the Inland and Seaward Kaikoura Ranges are bound on the SE by major, steeply NW-dipping, right lateral, active strike-slips (Clarence and Hope faults of the MFS, respectively). Previous geologic mapping, observations of predominantly horizontal fault slip at the surface from GPS and offset Quaternary deposits, and uplift of marine terraces, provide evidence for shortening and mountain-building via distributed deformation off of the main MFS strike-slip faults. However, quantitative estimates of the magnitude and spatial patterns of exhumation and of the timing of mountain-building in the Kaikouras are needed to understand more fully the nature of oblique deformation in the MFS. We present new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He ages from opposite sides of the Hope and Clarence faults, spanning over 2 km of relief within the Kaikoura Mountains to identify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates in relation to the adjacent faults. Young (~3 Ma) apatite He ages and rapid (potentially > 1 mm/yr) exhumation rates from opposite sides of the faults are consistent with previously mentioned evidence of recent, regional, distributed deformation off of the main MFS faults. Moreover, early Miocene zircon He ages imply that parts of this region experienced an earlier phase of fault-related exhumation. Large changes in zircon He ages across the faults from ~20 Ma to > 100 Ma support hypotheses that portions of the Marlborough Faults may be re-activated, early Miocene thrusts. The zircon data are also consistent with the hypothesis of an early Miocene initiation of the oblique Pacific-Australian plate boundary in this region. Evidence for this comes from a change in sedimentation during this time from fine marine sediments to coarse, terrigenous conglomerates. Observing more

  7. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  8. Continent-continent collision at the Pacific/Australian plate boundary: Lithospheric deformation, mountain building, and subsequent scientific endeavors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D. A.; Stern, T. A.; Davey, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    Continental collision occurs at strike-slip plate boundaries where transform motion and oblique convergence create processes of surficial mountain building and deformation within the deeper crust and lithospheric mantle. The Pacific/Australian transform plate boundary in South Island, New Zealand, is characterized by active oblique continent-continent collision with an associated Southern Alps orogen that exhibits both high exhumation rates and rapid strike-slip movement. Beginning in the 1990s, this system was the focus of a decade-long collaborative USA-New Zealand multi-disciplinary study to understand lithospheric structure and processes involved in this transpression. Funded primarily by the NSF Continental Dynamics program and the New Zealand Science Foundation, this project known as SIGHT (South Island Geophysical Transect) with its companion SAPSE (Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment) included the following disciplines that involved substantial field observation experiments: seismic reflection, explosion refraction, onshore-offshore wide-angle reflection/refraction, regional and teleseismic passive seismology, magnetotellurics, laboratory petrophysics, gravity, regional geological investigations, and rheological analyses. More than fifty scientists and students from both nations participated in the combined set of studies that have led to over forty-five journal publications, an AGU Monograph, and a dozen graduate theses. Primary results of the project indicate the Pacific-Australian strike-slip plate boundary (Alpine fault) is not vertical but is eastward dipping and rheologically weak based on diverse geophysical data. Most deformation is within the Pacific plate that hosts the Southern Alps orogen. High mantle seismic velocities vertically disposed beneath the orogen suggest Pacific and perhaps Australian mantle lithosphere contribute to a zone of plate-boundary-parallel distributed mantle shortening. The crustal root of the overlying Southern Alps

  9. Scenarios constructed for basaltic igneous activity at Yucca Mountain and vicinity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, G.E.; Dunn, E.; Dockery, H.; Barnard, R.; Valentine, G.; Crowe, B.

    1993-08-01

    Basaltic volcanism has been identified as a possible future event initiating a release of radionuclides from a potential repository at the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level waste repository site. The performance assessment method set forth in the Site Characterization Plan (DOE, 1988) requires that a set of scenarios encompassing all significant radionuclide release paths to the accessible environment be described. This report attempts to catalogue the details of the interactions between the features and processes produced by basaltic volcanism in the presence of the presumed groundwater flow system and a repository structure, the engineered barrier system (EBS), and waste. This catalogue is developed in the form of scenarios. We define a scenario as a well-posed problem, starting from an initiating event or process and proceeding through a logically connected and physically possible combination or sequence of features, events, and processes (FEPs) to the release of contaminants.

  10. Major Fault Systems and Mountain Building Processes in the Tibetan Foreland and Beishan Region, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, D.; Zhang, J.

    2012-04-01

    In regions north of Tibet, active deformation associated with the Indo-Eurasia collision is diffusely distributed within large areas of NW China, Mongolia and S and SE Siberia. These regions are dominated by intraplate strike-slip and transpressional reactivation of Palaeozoic terrane collages. Because of relatively low historical seismicity, the Beishan region immediately north of Tibet is generally regarded as tectonically uninteresting from a neotectonic standpoint. However, our preliminary work in the region coupled with satellite image analysis indicates that the region is cut by at least five major sinistral strike-slip fault systems that are potentially active and which parallel the Altyn Tagh fault which bounds northern Tibet directly to the south. These fault systems generate localised uplifts within the Beishan and show typical geomorphological characteristics of active intracontinental deforming belts such as sharply defined mountain fronts, Quaternary alluvial fan complexes and tilted Cretaceous peneplain remnants. Specifically, the Yushi Shan and Mazong Shan are Late Cenozoic restraining bends that show clear evidence for Quaternary thrusting and uplift. Other minor localised uplifts also appear fault-controlled. However, at first-order, regional Beishan topography is difficult to explain by Late Cenozoic upper crustal faulting, unlike Tibet to the south and the Gobi Altai to the north. Directly adjacent to Tibet's northern margin, the Sanweishan and Nanjieshan blocks are thrust-bound basement-cored uplifts that interrupt the Tibetan sedimentary foreland in the Dunhuang-Anxi region. The faults that cut and bound these minor ranges appear to define an evolving transpressional duplex with north-directed thrusting, but perhaps surprisingly, also south-directed thrusting back towards the high Plateau. As noted by others, the Altyn Tagh Fault defines a profound topographic and structural boundary in Central Asia with significant differences in contractional

  11. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Phillip; Chouet, Bernard; Pitt, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10-3 to 7.9 × 10-3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10-4 to 3.4 × 10-3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜25-1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  13. Tomographic image of a seismically active volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Phillip B.; Chouet, Bernard A.; Pitt, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP/VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California, using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (5.1 × 109 to 5.9 × 1010m3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ∼2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α = 1.6 × 10−3 to 7.9 × 10−3 (crack-like pores) and mean gas volume fraction ϕ = 8.1 × 10−4 to 3.4 × 10−3. The pore density parameter κ = 3ϕ/(4πα) = na3=0.11, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to be 4.6 × 109 to 1.9 × 1011 kg. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 500 tons day−1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ∼25–1040 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  14. Tomographic Image of a Seismically Active Volcano: Mammoth Mountain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Chouet, B. A.; Pitt, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    High-resolution tomographic P wave, S wave, and VP /VS velocity structure models are derived for Mammoth Mountain, California using phase data from the Northern California Seismic Network and a temporary deployment of broadband seismometers. An anomalous volume (˜50 km3) of low P and low S wave velocities is imaged beneath Mammoth Mountain, extending from near the surface to a depth of ˜2 km below sea level. We infer that the reduction in seismic wave velocities is primarily due to the presence of CO2 distributed in oblate-spheroid pores with mean aspect ratio α ˜8 x 10-4 (crack-like pores) and gas volume fraction φ ˜4 x 10-4. The pore density parameter κ = 3φ / (4πα) = na3 = 0.12, where n is the number of pores per cubic meter and a is the mean pore equatorial radius. The total mass of CO2 is estimated to range up to ˜1.6 x 1010 kg if the pores exclusively contain CO2, although he presence of an aqueous phase may lower this estimate by up to one order of magnitude. The local geological structure indicates that the CO2 contained in the pores is delivered to the surface through fractures controlled by faults and remnant foliation of the bedrock beneath Mammoth Mountain. The total volume of CO2 contained in the reservoir suggests that given an emission rate of 5 x 105 kg day-1, the reservoir could supply the emission of CO2 for ˜8 to ˜90 years before depletion. Continued supply of CO2 from an underlying magmatic system would significantly prolong the existence of the reservoir.

  15. Active control of transmitted sound in buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompsett, Russell Harvey George

    The problem of noise from neighbours has increased dramatically over the last few years. Many of the noise complaints are due to the high level, low frequency noise from modern stereo equipment, and are often described in terms of the low frequency characteristics of the music; the repetitive, booming, bass beat. The objective of this research was to establish the feasibility of applying active noise control to alleviate this problem. The initial approach was to evaluate the possibility of exploiting the dominance of individual modes in the response of rooms at low frequency to effect global control. However, initial investigations using a modal model of the sound field revealed that this would be difficult due to the contribution of many acoustic modes excited off resonance. This conclusion was supported by measurements of acoustic room responses in typical buildings, illustrating a non-resonant characteristic. Consequently, attention was turned to the feasibility of using local active control systems to create zones of quiet by concentrating control at a specific location near the observers ears, for example in a seat headrest, or near the pillows of a bed. The lack of a reference signal in either approach requires the use of a feedback control strategy. With a typically non-resonant system, the predictability in the disturbance necessary for successful feedback control must be contained in the primary excitation, namely the music. Examples of different music styles were investigated and of those with the potential to be a nuisance surprisingly few were significantly more predictable than a random disturbance. As expected the most encouraging control performance simulations were found for modern dance music, with a strong repetitive beat. A real-time, local controller was demonstrated in the laboratory with such a disturbance signal and the properties of the quiet zone were measured. The subjective response when hearing the controller in operation was found to be

  16. Cainozoic deformation of Iberia: a model for intraplate mountain building and basin development based on analogue modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoutis, D.; Fernández-Lozano, J.; Willingshofer, E.; de Vicente, G.; Cloetingh, S.

    2009-12-01

    Inferences from analogue models support lithospheric folding as the primary response to large-scale shortening manifested in the present-day topography of Iberia. This process was active from the Eocene to the Late Oligocene-Lower Miocene during the Alpine Orogeny and was facilitated by the reactivation of inherited Variscan faults and mechanical discontinuities. The modelling results illustrate the dependence of fold wavelength on convergence rate and hence the strength of the layers of the lithosphere such that fold wavelength is greatest for fast convergence rates favouring whole lithosphere folding. Folding is associated with the formation of narrow mountain ranges represented by upper crustal pop-ups forming the main topographic relief. The wavelengths of the topographic uplifts, both, in model and nature suggest mechanical decoupling between crust and mantle. From the models it is inferred that the obliquity of structures can be related to the opening of the King’s trough in the north-western corner of the Atlantic Iberian margin, which acts like an indenter on the north-western part of Iberia. The effect of this indenter, together with an increase on the convergence rate produced more complex brittle structures. These results show close similarities to observations on the general shape and distribution of mountain ranges and basins in Iberia, including the Spanish Central System, Toledo Mountains and Sierra Morena.

  17. Mountain building and rift-inheritance in the Pyrenees: insights from a new balanced cross-section and detrital thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filleaudeau, P.; Mouthereau, F.; Lacombe, O.; Pik, R.; Fellin, M.

    2011-12-01

    Providing accurate estimates of shortening, as well as the duration and vertical amplitudes of tectonic events in collisional belts is critical to better understanding the retroactions between the mechanics of crustal deformation and surface processes during mountain building. However, structural and bedrock geochronological constraints are usually lacking accuracy for the early stages of convergence that are generally overprinted by complex deformation patterns and synorogenic burial. As a consequence, new detrital low-temperature thermochronometry (detrital AFT dating, (U-Th)/He on zircons) and geochronology (U/Pb ages on zircons) provided on both flanks of the Pyrenean orogen are combined with in-situ thermochronometric constraints to fill the lack of accuracy for the early stages of orogenesis. Together with the exceptional constraints on the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Pyrenean thrust fronts, these new data offer the unique opportunity to precisely determine the kinematics on both sides of the Pyrenean mountain belt from Late Cretaceous to Miocene. Based on these recent constrains and the re-appraisal of local structural cross-sections, we propose a new crustal cross-section of the central Pyrenees. Intermediate restorations are then produced for well-suited and key time intervals (Early Oligocene, Middle Eocene, Cretaceous-Paleogene transition, Late Campanian and Late Santonian) in order to discuss the kinematic evolution within the orogenic wedge and mass balance. This study shows that the initial stage of plate convergence accommodated very limited subduction. Mountain building in the central Pyrenees produced the inversion of North Pyrenean flysh basins on top of reactived of S-dipping crustal detachment that previously exposed mantle to the floor of the basin during the extension phase (Pyrenean Lherzolites) and inversion of the south-central Mesozoic Organyà basin. The amount of accreted material from the Iberian crust increased significantly

  18. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26... COMMUNITY Specific Sector Provisions for Medical Devices § 26.37 Confidence building activities. (a) At the beginning of the transitional period, the Joint Sectoral Group will establish a joint confidence...

  19. The Chi-Chi Earthquake and the Seismic Cycle Associated with Mountain Building in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    avouac, j; avouac, j; dominguez, s; Michel, R.

    2001-12-01

    , in a direction imposed by the convergence azimuth across the range, takes place below the high topography of the Central Range where ductile deformation is enhanced by relatively high crustal temperatures while the frontal thrust faults remain locked. GPS measurements indicate that this shear zone was creeping at 35-45 mm/yr. before the Chi-Chi earthquake. This process leads to elastic strain and stress build up along the front of the range, triggering micro-seismic activity. On the long term, deformation is accommodated by overthrusting along the foothills, the strain transfer being the results of large earthquakes such as the Chi-Chi earthquake. Surface displacements during the Chi-Chi earthquake indicate however that, the décollement connecting the ramp with the creeping zone is a zone of slip deficit. Because sufficiently large post-seismic slip there seems improbable this zone probably also breaks during large earthquakes. Finally earthquakes must also occasionally break the most frontal Changhua fault, lying parallel to the Chelungpu fault. Assuming that these range bounding faults are associated with typically M=7 to 7.5 magnitude earthquakes, they would produce such an event every about 150-250 yr. activating either the Changhua, the Chelungpu faults, or the décollement at depth. There is however a variety of possible scenarii of strain transfer through earthquakes that may invoke infrequent larger earthquakes.

  20. Building Big with David Macaulay. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, James; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Curtis, Paul

    This activity guide is designed for educators and features suggestions for possible activity paths for different amounts of available time and survival tips for activity leaders. Each activity is divided into two sections--educator ideas and activity handouts. Activity sections include: (1) Foundations; (2) Bridges; (3) Domes; (4) Skyscrapers; (5)…

  1. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  2. Patriotic Acts: Five Activities for Identity Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soetoro-Ng, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Building a personal identity is a lifelong, thoughtful process that takes into account not only one's race and ethnicity, but also life experiences, relationships, and communities. The process of exploring and evolving one's identity deserves a place in the classroom. Educators can play a key role in supporting their students' in this process by…

  3. Chemical weathering in active mountain belts controlled by stochastic bedrock landsliding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emberson, Robert; Hovius, Niels; Galy, Albert; Marc, Odin

    2016-01-01

    A link between chemical weathering and physical erosion exists at the catchment scale over a wide range of erosion rates. However, in mountain environments, where erosion rates are highest, weathering may be kinetically limited and therefore decoupled from erosion. In active mountain belts, erosion is driven by bedrock landsliding at rates that depend strongly on the occurrence of extreme rainfall or seismicity. Although landslides affect only a small proportion of the landscape, bedrock landsliding can promote the collection and slow percolation of surface runoff in highly fragmented rock debris and create favourable conditions for weathering. Here we show from analysis of surface water chemistry in the Southern Alps of New Zealand that weathering in bedrock landslides controls the variability in solute load of these mountain rivers. We find that systematic patterns in surface water chemistry are strongly associated with landslide occurrence at scales from a single hillslope to an entire mountain belt, and that landslides boost weathering rates and river solute loads over decades. We conclude that landslides couple erosion and weathering in fast-eroding uplands and, thus, mountain weathering is a stochastic process that is sensitive to climatic and tectonic controls on mass wasting processes.

  4. Three dimensional visualization in support of Yucca Mountain Site characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Brickey, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    An understanding of the geologic and hydrologic environment for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is a critical component of site characterization activities. Conventional methods allow visualization of geologic data in only two or two and a half dimensions. Recent advances in computer workstation hardware and software now make it possible to create interactive three dimensional visualizations. Visualization software has been used to create preliminary two-, two-and-a-half-, and three-dimensional visualizations of Yucca Mountain structure and stratigraphy. The three dimensional models can also display lithologically dependent or independent parametric data. Yucca Mountain site characterization studies that will be supported by this capability include structural, lithologic, and hydrologic modeling, and repository design.

  5. Signatures of mountain building: Detrital zircon U/Pb ages from northeast Tibet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lease, Richard O.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Gehrels, George E.; Wang, Zhicai; Yuan, Daoyang

    2007-01-01

    Although detrital zircon has proven to be a powerful tool for determining provenance, past work has focused primarily on delimiting regional source terranes. Here we explore the limits of spatial resolution and stratigraphic sensitivity of detrital zircon in ascertaining provenance, and we demonstrate its ability to detect source changes for terranes separated by only a few tens of kilometers. For such an analysis to succeed for a given mountain, discrete intrarange source terranes must have unique U/Pb zircon age signatures and sediments eroded from the range must have well-defined depositional ages. Here we use ∼1400 single-grain U/Pb zircon ages from northeastern Tibet to identify and analyze an area that satisfies these conditions. This analysis shows that the edges of intermontane basins are stratigraphically sensitive to discrete, punctuated changes in local source terranes. By tracking eroding rock units chronologically through the stratigraphic record, this sensitivity permits the detection of the differential rock uplift and progressive erosion that began ca. 8 Ma in the Laji Shan, a 10-25-km-wide range in northeastern Tibet with a unique U/Pb age signature.

  6. Change in biochemical and morphological characteristics of Lonicera caerulea in tectonically active zone of the Dzhazator River Valley (Altai Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyarskikh, I. G.; Khudyaev, S. A.; Platonova, S. G.; Kolotukhin, S. P.; Shitov, A. V.; Kukushkina, T. A.; Chankina, O. V.

    2012-12-01

    Local geophysical and geochemical anomalies affect the polymorphism of taste variations, berry shape, and content of some biologically active substances in Lonicera caerulea leaves in the tectonically active Altai Mountains (Dzhazator River basin).

  7. Geologic evolution of the Jemez Mountains and their potential for future volcanic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Burton, B.W.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical and geochemical data and the geologic history of the Rio Grande rift and the vicinity of the Jemez Mountains are summarized to determine the probability of future volcanic activity in the Los Alamos, New Mexico area. The apparent cyclic nature of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains may be related to intermittent thermal inputs into the volcanic system beneath the region. The Jemez lineament, an alignment of late Cenozoic volcanic centers that crosses the rift near Los Alamos, has played an important role in the volcanic evolution of the Jemez Mountains. Geophysical data suggest that there is no active shallow magma body beneath the Valles caldera, though magma probably exists at about 15 km beneath this portion of the rift. The rate of volcanism in the Jemez Mountains during the last 10 million years has been 5 x 10/sup -9//km/sup 2//y. Lava or ash flows overriding Laboratory radioactive waste disposal sites would have little potential to release radionuclides to the environment. The probability of a new volcano intruding close enough to a radioactive waste disposal site to effect radionuclide release is 2 x 10/sup -7//y.

  8. Mountain building, from subduction to collision and erosion: insights from 30 years of field and analog modeling studies (Stephan Mueller Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malavieille, J.

    2012-04-01

    Through a rapid overview of my research career, I will outline the role of the primary mechanisms and processes, which exert a strong control on mountain building. Field observations (both from structural geology on-land and marine geophysical surveys at sea), and analog modeling are the two main approaches that I used and developed during more than 30 years of research studying mountain belts at Montpellier University. The substantial contributions made through collaborations and exchanges with colleagues and students will be acknowledged. As mountain belts are long lived structures, their evolution involves numerous processes that interact since the early history, beginning during oceanic subduction and ending during the late orogenic evolution which leads to erosion and the ultimate destruction of topography. Most orogens form in subduction settings due to plate convergence involving large horizontal shortening and strong deformation of the crust developing into an overall wedge shape during their evolution. I will focus on orogens caused by subduction of a continental margin lower-plate under an oceanic or continental upper-plate following oceanic subduction, a process also commonly known as collision. After development of a sedimentary accretionary prism and closure of the oceanic domain, continuous subduction of the lithospheric mantle induces deformation of the continental crust and controls the structural asymmetry of the mountain belt. Since the pioneer works by Dahlen, Davis and Suppe in the Eighties, mountain belts have been often considered by geologists as crustal scale accretionary wedges whose deformation mechanisms can be satisfactorily described by a Coulomb behavior. The theory offers a simple mechanical framework allowing a division into different tectonic regimes depending on wedge stability : critical, undercritical, overcritical. Since then, it has been shown that orogens commonly adopt a distinct geometry with a low-tapered pro-wedge facing

  9. ACTIVE SOIL DEPRESSURIZATION (ASD) DEMONSTRATION IN A LARGE BUILDING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the feasibility of implementing radon resistant construction techniques -- especially active soil depressurization (ASD) -- in new large buildings in Florida. Indoor radon concentrations and radon entry were monitored in a finished bui...

  10. Predicting mountain lion activity using radiocollars equipped with mercury tip-sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janis, Michael W.; Clark, Joseph D.; Johnson, Craig

    1999-01-01

    Radiotelemetry collars with tip-sensors have long been used to monitor wildlife activity. However, comparatively few researchers have tested the reliability of the technique on the species being studied. To evaluate the efficacy of using tip-sensors to assess mountain lion (Puma concolor) activity, we radiocollared 2 hand-reared mountain lions and simultaneously recorded their behavior and the associated telemetry signal characteristics. We noted both the number of pulse-rate changes and the percentage of time the transmitter emitted a fast pulse rate (i.e., head up) within sampling intervals ranging from 1-5 minutes. Based on 27 hours of observations, we were able to correctly distinguish between active and inactive behaviors >93% of the time using a logistic regression model. We present several models to predict activity of mountain lions; the selection of which to us would depend on study objectives and logistics. Our results indicate that field protocols that use only pulse-rate changes to indicate activity can lead to significant classification errors.

  11. Landscape patterns as habitat predictors: Building and testing models for cavity-nesting birds in the Uinta Mountains of Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawler, J.J.; Edwards, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to predict species occurrences quickly is often crucial for managers and conservation biologists with limited time and funds. We used measured associations with landscape patterns to build accurate predictive habitat models that were quickly and easily applied (i.e., required no additional data collection in the field to make predictions). We used classification trees (a nonparametric alternative to discriminant function analysis, logistic regression, and other generalized linear models) to model nesting habitat of red-naped sapsuckers (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), northern flickers (Colaptes auratus), tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), and mountain chickadees (Parus gambeli) in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. We then tested the predictive capability of the models with independent data collected in the field the following year. The models built for the northern flicker, red-naped sapsucker, and tree swallow were relatively accurate (84%, 80%, and 75% nests correctly classified, respectively) compared to the models for the mountain chickadee (50% nests correctly classified). All four models were more selective than a null model that predicted habitat based solely on a gross association with aspen forests. We conclude that associations with landscape patterns can be used to build relatively accurate, easy to use, predictive models for some species. Our results stress, however, that both selecting the proper scale at which to assess landscape associations and empirically testing the models derived from those associations are crucial for building useful predictive models.

  12. Aspects of igneous activity significant to a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, D. J.; Perry, F. V.

    2004-01-01

    Location, timing, volume, and eruptive style of post-Miocene volcanoes have defined the volcanic hazard significant to a proposed high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a low-probability, high-consequence event. Examination of eruptive centers in the region that may be analogueues to possible future volcanic activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining and evaluating the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption above a repository. The probability of a future event intersecting a repository at Yucca Mountain has a mean value of 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. This probability comes from the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) completed in 1996 and updated to reflect change in repository layout. Since that time, magnetic anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified fiom magnetic surveys; however these potential buried centers only slightly increase the probability of an event intersecting the repository. The proposed repository will be located in its central portion of Yucca Mountain at approximately 300m depth. The process for assessing performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain has identified two scenarios for igneous activity that, although having a very low probability of occurrence, could have a significant consequence should an igneous event occur. Either a dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, or a volcanic eruption through the repository could result in release of radioactive material to the accessible environment. Ongoing investigations are assessing the mechanisms and significance of the consequence scenarios. Lathrop Wells Cone ({approx}80,000 yrs), a key analogue for estimating potential future volcanic activity, is the youngest surface expression of apparent waning basaltic volcanism in the region. Cone internal structure, lavas, and ash-fall tephra have been examined to estimate eruptive volume

  13. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M. Keith; Barnett, Russell

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  14. Building biologically active nucleic acid nanocomplexes.

    PubMed

    Smith, C I Edvard; Lundin, Karin E; Simonson, Oscar E; Moreno, Pedro M D; Svahn, Mathias G; Wenska, Malgorzata; Strömberg, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The Bioplex technology allows the hybridization of functional entities to various forms of nucleic acids by the use of synthetic nucleic acid analogs. Such supramolecular assemblies can be made in a predetermined fashion and can confer new properties. The Zorro technology is based on a novel construct generated to simultaneously bind to both DNA strands. Such compounds may have gene silencing activity.

  15. Activities That Build the Young Child's Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gellens, Suzanne R.

    This book presents 350 classroom-tested activities for use with children to create an environment that will stimulate young children's brains. Designed to be used by families, classroom teachers, family childcare providers, or others caring for young children, the book includes information on current brain research and describes interest areas in…

  16. Tracking small mountainous river derived terrestrial organic carbon across the active margin marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childress, L. B.; Blair, N. E.; Orpin, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Active margins are particularly efficient in the burial of organic carbon due to the close proximity of highland sources to marine sediment sinks and high sediment transport rates. Compared with passive margins, active margins are dominated by small mountainous river systems, and play a unique role in marine and global carbon cycles. Small mountainous rivers drain only approximately 20% of land, but deliver approximately 40% of the fluvial sediment to the global ocean. Unlike large passive margin systems where riverine organic carbon is efficiently incinerated on continental shelves, small mountainous river dominated systems are highly effective in the burial and preservation of organic carbon due to the rapid and episodic delivery of organic carbon sourced from vegetation, soil, and rock. To investigate the erosion, transport, and burial of organic carbon in active margin small mountainous river systems we use the Waipaoa River, New Zealand. The Waipaoa River, and adjacent marine depositional environment, is a system of interest due to a large sediment yield (6800 tons km-2 yr-1) and extensive characterization. Previous studies have considered the biogeochemistry of the watershed and tracked the transport of terrestrially derived sediment and organics to the continental shelf and slope by biogeochemical proxies including stable carbon isotopes, lignin phenols, n-alkanes, and n-fatty acids. In this work we expand the spatial extent of investigation to include deep sea sediments of the Hikurangi Trough. Located in approximately 3000 m water depth 120 km from the mouth of the Waipaoa River, the Hikurangi Trough is the southern extension of the Tonga-Kermadec-Hikurangi subduction system. Piston core sediments collected by the National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA, NZ) in the Hikurangi Trough indicate the presence of terrestrially derived material (lignin phenols), and suggest a continuum of deposition, resuspension, and transport across the margin

  17. Building for the Future by Expatiating the Past: High Drama from the Summit of China's Learning Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boshier, Roger; Huang, Yan

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale learning initiative, the Chinese Communist Party has declared Lushan to be a "learning mountain". There have been people learning at Lushan Mountain for 2000 years. In 1959 there was a Central Committee meeting at Lushan, where Mao Zedong purged his widely respected comrade Peng Dehuai for daring to say people were…

  18. Knowledge-Building Activity Structures in Japanese Elementary Science Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Jun; Oshima, Ritsuko; Murayama, Isao; Inagaki, Shigenori; Takenaka, Makiko; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Yamaguchi, Etsuji; Nakayama, Hayashi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to refine Japanese elementary science activity structures by using a CSCL approach to transform the classroom into a knowledge-building community. We report design studies on two science lessons in two consecutive years and describe the progressive refinement of the activity structures. Through comparisons of student…

  19. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  20. Extrusion vs. duplexing models of Himalayan mountain building 2: The South Tibet detachment at the Dadeldhura klippe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Larson, Kyle P.; Schmitt, Axel K.

    2016-01-01

    Himalayan mountain building has been dominantly explained by two types of models: extrusion and duplexing. To elucidate possible roles of these mechanisms during emplacement of the Himalayan crystalline core, we investigate an area speculated to contain the southern leading edge of the crystalline core: the northeastern margin of the Dadeldhura klippe, western Nepal. We found an ~ 700 m thick, primarily top-to-the-north shear zone within the klippe; we term this as the Tila shear zone. The shear zone occurs within a right-way-up metamorphic field gradient, and separates footwall gneiss from hanging wall schist. Similarly, deformation temperatures estimated from quartz and feldspar microstructures and quartz c-axis fabrics indicate a right-way-up thermal gradient of ~ 77-189 °C/km. U-Pb zircon dating of post-kinematic leucogranite dikes suggests that ductile shearing along the Tila shear zone occurred prior to ~ 17-14 Ma. We correlate the Tila shear zone to the South Tibet detachment (STD) on the basis of consistent structural fabrics (shear sense), lithologies, metamorphism, and deformation timing. This interpretation, in combination with regional constraints, indicates southwards-increasing proximity of the STD (Tila shear zone) and the Main Central thrust (MCT). These two shear zones are separated by ~ 3 km of structural section in the northern portion of our study area, and become close to within ~ 1 km of separation, in the southern portion. Interpolation suggests that the STD (Tila shear zone) and MCT merge 15 ± 10 km southwest of our study area. The increasing-to-south proximity and potential merger of the two shear zones suggest that the STD formed as a backthrust from the MCT. This interpretation contrasts with the long-standing normal fault interpretation of the STD. Because the STD and MCT bound the Himalayan crystalline core, these findings document crystalline core emplacement at depth via tectonic wedging. This kinematic evolution is consistent with

  1. Intraplate mountain building in response to continent continent collision—the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (North America) and inferences drawn from the Tien Shan (Central Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Patricia Wood

    2003-04-01

    The intraplate Ancestral Rocky Mountains of western North America extend from British Columbia, Canada, to Chihuahua, Mexico, and formed during Early Carboniferous through Early Permian time in response to continent-continent collision of Laurentia with Gondwana—the conjoined masses of Africa and South America, including Yucatán and Florida. Uplifts and flanking basins also formed within the Laurentian Midcontinent. On the Gondwanan continent, well inboard from the marginal fold belts, a counterpart structural array developed during the same period. Intraplate deformation began when full collisional plate coupling had been achieved along the continental margin; the intervening ocean had been closed and subduction had ceased—that is, the distinction between upper versus lower plates became moot. Ancestral Rockies deformation was not accompanied by volcanism. Basement shear zones that formed during Mesoproterozoic rifting of Laurentia were reactivated and exerted significant control on the locations, orientations, and modes of displacement on late Paleozoic faults. Ancestral Rocky Mountain uplifts extend as far south as Chihuahua and west Texas (28° to 33°N, 102° to 109°W) and include the Florida-Moyotes, Placer de Guadalupe-Carrizalillo, Ojinaga-Tascotal and Hueco Mountain blocks, as well as the Diablo and Central Basin Platforms. All are cored with Laurentian Proterozoic crystalline basement rocks and host correlative Paleozoic stratigraphic successions. Pre-late Paleozoic deformational, thermal, and metamorphic histories are similar as well. Southern Ancestral Rocky Mountain structures terminate along a line that trends approximately N 40°E (present coordinates), a common orientation for Mesoproterozoic extensional structures throughout southern to central North America. Continuing Tien Shan intraplate deformation (Central Asia) has created an analogous array of uplifts and basins in response to the collision of India with Eurasia, beginning in late

  2. Lithospheric Expressions of the Precambrian Shield, Mesozoic Rifting, and Cenozoic Subduction and Mountain Building in Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Masy, J.; Niu, F.

    2013-05-01

    The Caribbean (CAR)-South American (SA) plate boundary in Venezuela is a broad zone of faulting and diffuse deformation. GPS measurements show the CAR moving approximately 2 cm/yr relative to SA, parallel to the strike slip fault system in the east, with more oblique convergence in the west (Weber et al., 2001) causing the southern edge of the Caribbean to subduct beneath northwestern South America. The west is further complicated by the motion of the triangular Maracaibo block, which is escaping northeastward relative to SA along the Bocono and Santa Marta Faults. In central and eastern Venezuela, plate motion is accommodated by transpression and transtension along the right lateral San Sebastian- El Pilar strike-slip fault system. The strike-slip system marks the northern edge of coastal thrust belts and their associated foreland basins. The Archean-Proterozoic Guayana Shield, part of the Amazonian Craton, underlies southeastern and south-central Venezuela. We used the 87 station Venezuela-U.S. BOLIVAR array (Levander et al., 2006) to investigate lithospheric structure in northern South America. We combined finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography with Ps and Sp receiver functions to determine lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) depth. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities from 45 earthquakes in the period band 20-100s. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D shear velocity structure on a 0.5 by 0.5 degree grid. Crustal thickness for the starting model was determined from active seismic experiments and receiver function analysis. The resulting 3D shear velocity model was then used to determine the depth of the LAB, and to CCP stack Ps and Sp receiver functions from ~45 earthquakes. The receiver functions were calculated in several frequency bands using iterative deconvolution and inverse filtering. Lithospheric thickness varies by more a factor of 2.5 across Venezuela. We can divide the lithosphere into several distinct provinces, with LAB depth

  3. Foreland sedimentary record of Andean mountain building during advancing and retreating subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Brian K.

    2016-04-01

    As in many ocean-continent (Andean-type) convergent margins, the South American foreland has long-lived (>50-100 Myr) sedimentary records spanning not only protracted crustal shortening, but also periods of neutral to extensional stress conditions. A regional synthesis of Andean basin histories is complemented by new results from the Mesozoic Neuquén basin system and succeeding Cenozoic foreland system of west-central Argentina (34-36°S) showing (1) a Late Cretaceous shift from backarc extension to retroarc contraction and (2) an anomalous mid-Cenozoic (~40-20 Ma) phase of sustained nondeposition. New detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results from Jurassic through Neogene clastic deposits constrain exhumation of the evolving Andean magmatic arc, retroarc thrust belt, foreland basement uplifts, and distal eastern craton. Abrupt changes in sediment provenance and distal-to-proximal depositional conditions can be reconciled with a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of extension, post-extensional thermal subsidence, punctuated tectonic inversion involving thick- and thin-skinned shortening, alternating phases of erosion and rapid accumulation, and overlapping igneous activity. U-Pb age distributions define the depositional ages of several Cenozoic stratigraphic units and reveal a major late middle Eocene-earliest Miocene (~40-20 Ma) hiatus in the Malargüe foreland basin. This boundary marks an abrupt shift in depositional conditions and sediment sources, from Paleocene-middle Eocene distal fluviolacustrine deposition of sediments from far western volcanic sources (Andean magmatic arc) and subordinate eastern cratonic basement (Permian-Triassic Choiyoi igneous complex) to Miocene-Quaternary proximal fluvial and alluvial-fan deposition of sediments recycled from emerging western sources (Malargüe fold-thrust belt) of Mesozoic basin fill originally derived from basement and magmatic arc sources. Neogene eastward advance of the fold-thrust belt involved thick

  4. Drainage reorganization during mountain building in the river system of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struth, Lucía; Babault, Julien; Teixell, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    The Eastern Cordillera of Colombia is a thick-skinned thrust-fold belt that is characterized by two topographic domains: (1) the axial zone, a high altitude plateau (the Sabana de Bogotá, 2500 masl) with low local relief and dominated by longitudinal rivers, and (2) the Cordillera flanks, where local relief exceeds 1000 m and transverse rivers dominate. On the basis of an analysis of digital topography and river parameters combined with a review of paleodrainage data, we show that the accumulation of shortening and crustal thickening during the Andean orogeny triggered a process of fluvial reorganization in the Cordillera. Owing to a progressive increase of the regional slope, the drainage network evolves from longitudinal to transverse-dominated, a process that is still active at present. This study provides the idea of progressive divide migration toward the inner part of the mountain belt, by which the area of the Sabana de Bogotá plateau is decreasing, the flanks increase in area, and ultimately transverse rivers will probably dominate the drainage of the Cordillera.

  5. Human activities impact on mountain river channels (case study of Kamchatka peninsula rivers)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakova, Aleksandra S.

    2010-05-01

    Human-induced driving factors along with natural environmental changes greatly impact on fluvial regime of rivers. On mountain and semi-mountain territories these processes are developed in the most complicated manner due to man-made activities diversity throughout river basins. Besides these processes are significantly enhanced because of the disastrous natural processes (like volcanic and mud-flow activity) frequent occurrences in mountainous regions. On of the most striking example on the matter is Kamchatka peninsula which is located at the North-West part of Russian Federation. This paper contributes to the study of human activities impact on fluvial systems in this volcanic mountain region. Human effects on rivers directly alter channel morphology and deformations, dynamics of water and sediment movement, aquatic communities or indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water and sediment into the channel. In case study of Kamchatka peninsula human activities affect fluvial systems through engineering works including construction of bridges, dams and channel diversions and placer mining. These processes are characterized by spatial heterogeneity because of irregular population distribution. Due to specific natural conditions of the peninsula the most populated areas are the valleys of big rivers (rivers Kamchatka, Avacha, Bistraya (Bolshaya), etc) within piedmont and plain regions. These rivers are characterized by very unstable channels. Both with man-made activities this determines wide range of fluvial system changes. Firstly bridges construction leads to island and logjam formation directly near their piers and intensification of channels patterns shifts. Furthermore rivers of the peninsula are distinguished for high water flow velocities and water rate. Incorrect bridge constructions both with significant channel deformations lead to the destructions of the bridges themselves due to intensive bank erosion. Secondly, intensive water flow

  6. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY...

  7. 21 CFR 26.37 - Confidence building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Confidence building activities. 26.37 Section 26.37 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... during the transition period; (4) Joint training exercises; and (5) Observed inspections. (c) During...

  8. Timing of Accretion and Mountain-Building in The Northern Andes of Colombia through Low-Temperature Thermochonology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinasco, C. J.; Restrepo-Moreno, S. A.; Marín, M. I.; Botero, M.; Bermudez, M. A.; Min, K. K.; Foster, D. A.; Noriega, S., Sr.; Montoya, E., Sr.; Londoño, L., Sr.; Bernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    Orogenic configuration of the Northern Andes is closely associated to accretional processes since the Upper Cretaceous. In Colombia, the regional boundary between a Paleozoic continental domain to the east and Cretaceous accreted terrenes to the west is well exposed in several E-W sections near Medellin City and along the Cauca River, which occupies a major depression located between the Central and Western cordilleras. The area is dominated by the N-S trending Romeral Fault System (RFS) that can be traced to southern Ecuador. Relationships between the RFS and W-SW verging thrust system are unknown, although they represent key components of a transpressional orogeny. To understand timing of accretion and associated mountain building processes, we performed (U-Th)/He and fission track dating on samples derived from vertical profiles in cordilleran massifs. Samples were collected along four vertical profiles on two distinct litho-tectonic units: (1) three vertical profiles in the older eastern realm corresponding to metamorphic basement rocks of the Paleozoic Paleo-continental margin and associated Cretaceous intrusives, and (2) one vertical profile in the Mande batholith, Eocene in age at the eastern portion of the Panama Chocó Block (PCB) . The resulting zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) ages show a clear contrast between the ancient eastern realm (~50-60 Ma) and the Mande Batholith (~30-40 Ma). Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) ages also show a strong contrast with 23-42 Ma for the eastern realm and a well defined cluster at ~4 Ma for the Mande Batholith. These preliminary results suggest distinctive cooling histories for the two litho-tectonic blocks. The Mande batholith (western block) records both the late Eocene and Pliocene events whereas the ancient eastern block does not preserve any of these events. The Paleocene events recorded by the eastern block are probably related to the Laramic orogenetic phase. Finally, elevation-invariable ZHe ages from the ancient eastern block

  9. TOSPAC calculations in support of the COVE 2A benchmarking activity; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, J.H.; Zieman, N.B.; Miller, W.B.

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of the the Code Verification (COVE) 2A benchmarking activity is to assess the numerical accuracy of several computer programs for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project of the Department of Energy. This paper presents a brief description of the computer program TOSPAC and a discussion of the calculational effort and results generated by TOSPAC for the COVE 2A problem set. The calculations were performed twice. The initial calculations provided preliminary results for comparison with the results from other COVE 2A participants. TOSPAC was modified in response to the comparison and the final calculations included a correction and several enhancements to improve efficiency. 8 refs.

  10. MULTIPLE EPISODES OF IGNEOUS ACTIVITY, MINERALIZATION, AND ALTERATION IN THE WESTERN TUSHAR MOUNTAINS, UTAH.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, Charles G.; Steven, Thomas A.; Campbell, David L.; Naeser, Charles W.; Pitkin, James A.; Duval, Joseph S.

    1984-01-01

    The report outlines the complex history of igneous activity and associated alteration and mineralization in the western Tushar Mountains, Utah and pointss out implciations for minerals exploration. The area has been subjected to recurrent episodes of igneous intrusion, hydrothermal alteration, and mineralization, and the mineral-resource potential of the different mineralized areas is directly related to local geologic history. The mineral commodities to be expected vary from one hydrothermal system to another, and from one depth to another within any given system. Uranium and molybdenum seem likely to have the greatest economic potential, although significant concentrations of gold may also exist.

  11. Building structure-activity insights through patent mining.

    PubMed

    Tu, Meihua; Pfefferkorn, Jeffrey A; Guzman-Perez, Angel; Filipski, Kevin J

    2012-11-01

    One gap in current patent-mining practice is the lack of tools to build SAR knowledge. Here, we report a novel technique that enabled us to derive useful SAR information from the exemplified structures of a series of patents. In our approach, exemplified chemical structures were extracted from patent documents. They were grouped into structural series based on similarity and binding mode, after which the R-group table was generated. By analyzing R-group usages over time, we were able to build insights into SAR of a structural series, even though the biological activities were not available.

  12. Capacity-building activities in the Arab States.

    PubMed

    El Sioufi, M

    1996-03-01

    The UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat) Training and Capacity-Building Section has been active in several of the Arab States. Beginning in 1995, Belgium funded a 3-year project, "Localising Agenda 21: Action Planning for Sustainable Urban Development," in Essaouira, Morocco. A local team was established, and an Action Planning Consultation Workshop was held in January 1996. Local participants, Belgian experts, and the UNCHS Training and Capacity-Building Section attended the workshop, the goal of which was to guide the town in achieving sustainable development. The experiences from this project will be disseminated throughout the region. In Egypt, the Training and Capacity Building Section has initiated the "Sustainable Ismailia Project," a training program, which may be expanded nationally, for locally elected leadership. The Egyptian government will be responsible for the majority of the implementation funding; training materials are being prepared, and training should begin in 1996. The Palestinian Authority (Gaza Strip), Jordan, Mauritania, and Yemen have requested capacity-building programs. The "Urban Settlements and Management Programme" has requested a training program for Somalia after the country stabilizes. "A Regional Capacity-Building Programme" is being designed for national training institutions in the Arab States; the program will focus on the training of trainers, urban managers, and elected leadership. UNCHS training materials and handbooks are being translated into Arabic. This training was requested by Member States during the 15th session of the Commission on Human Settlements.

  13. Bat activity in harvested and intact forest stands in the allegheny mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, S.F.; Menzel, M.A.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.; Menzel, J.M.; Chapman, B.R.; Wood, P.B.; Miller, K.V.

    2004-01-01

    We used Anabat acoustical monitoring devices to examine bat activity in intact canopy forests, complex canopy forests with gaps, forests subjected to diameter-limit harvests, recent deferment harvests, clearcuts and unmanaged forested riparian areas in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia in the summer of 1999. We detected eight species of bats, including the endangered Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis). Most bat activity was concentrated in forested riparian areas. Among upland habitats, activity of silver-haired bats (Lasionycteris noctivagans) and hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) was higher in open, less cluttered vegetative types such as recent deferment harvests and clearcuts. Our results suggest that bat species in the central Appalachians partially segregate themselves among vegetative conditions based on differences in body morphology and echolocation call characteristics. From the standpoint of conserving bat foraging habitat for the maximum number of species in the central Appalachians, special emphasis should be placed on protecting forested riparian areas.

  14. The Effects of Site Characterization Activities on the Abundance of Ravens (Corvus corax) in the Yucca Mountain Area

    SciTech Connect

    P.E. Lederle

    1998-05-08

    In response to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) developed and is implementing the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Raven abundance was measured from August 1991 through August 1995 along treatment and control routes to evaluate whether site characterization activities resulted in increased raven abundance at Yucca Mountain. This study fulfills the requirement set forth in the incidental take provisions of the Biological Opinion that DOE monitor the abundance of ravens at Yucca Mountain. Ravens were more abundant at Yucca Mountain than in the control area, and raven abundance in both areas increased over time. However, the magnitude of differences between Yucca Mountain and control surveys did not change over time, indicating that the increase in raven abundance observed during this study was not related to site characterization activities. Increases over time on both Yucca Mountain and control routes are consistent with increases in raven abundance in the Mojave Desert reported by the annual Breeding Bird Survey of the US. Fish and Wildlife Service. Evidence from the Desert Tortoise Monitoring Program at Yucca Mountain suggests that ravens are not a significant predator of small tortoises in this locale. Carcasses of small tortoises (less than 110 mm in length) collected during the study showed little evidence of raven predation, and 59 radiomarked hatchlings that were monitored on a regular basis were not preyed upon by ravens. Overall, no direct evidence of raven predation on tortoises was observed during this study. Small tortoises are probably encountered so infrequently by ravens that they are rarely exploited as a food source. This is likely due to the relatively low abundance of both desert tortoises and ravens in the Yucca Mountain area.

  15. Seismic activity in the Transantarctic Mountains recorded by the TAMSEIS seismic array.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anandakrishnan, S.; Stapley, N.; Lawrence, J. F.; Winberry, J. P.; Shore, P. J.; Voigt, D. E.; Wiens, D.; Nyblade, A.

    2004-12-01

    To investigate the links between glaciation and tectonics, we conducted a large-scale seismic deployment in Antarctica that measured local and regional seismicity of both the glaciated terrain of East Antarctica and the non-glaciated Transantarctic Mountains (TAM). The TAM are hypothesized to have formed by rift-flank uplift of the southwestern margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. Active extension of this rift and/or continued uplift of the TAM would likely result in relatively high levels of seismicity along the mountain front. In addition to seismicity from tectonic activity, we suggest that the flow of glaciers, particularly where they accelerate through the TAM, could result in glacier-induced seismicity. We recorded relatively high levels of local seismicity in the TAM. The majority of the seismicity was close to and slightly west of the TAM, beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. We used the double-difference hypocenter location method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000; Waldhauser 2001) to better image clusters of events. Many of the events are shallow and cluster beneath the David Glacier (which leads to the Drygalski Ice Tongue) and the Darwin Glacier. We suggest that these events are due to fracture at the base of the glaciers, as they steepen towards the coast. We continue to investigate the possibility of surface crevassing and TAM uplift-induced seismicity (along faults which the glaciers have exploited) as the cause of the seismicity.

  16. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  17. Climate and lithological control on fluvial bedrock incision in an active mountain belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartshorn, K.; Hovius, N.; Dade, W. B.; Slingerland, R.

    2003-04-01

    Of all geomorphological processes, the creation of mountain landscapes is among the most spectacular. Tectonic uplift, climate, and denudation of active mountain belts are in themselves large-scale processes, but the link between these, bedrock river channel incision, can be measured at the rate of millimetres per year. Fluvial bedrock incision creates relief, controls local base-level, and drives mass wasting of adjacent hillslopes. Key questions in the study of fluvial bedrock incision include the mechanisms and processes driving fluvial bedrock incision, and how bedrock incision shapes relief and affects local hillslopes. The focus of this study is on precise real-time measurement of bedrock incision rates, observation of wear styles, processes and distribution in bedrock channels, and connection between bedrock channel erosion and the surrounding landscapes. Erosion rates were measured in three lithologies over two wet seasons and two dry seasons in a catchment in the eastern Central Mountain Range in Taiwan. As well as keeping pace with longer-term estimations of uplift and denudation, our results show variable patterns of wear style and distribution under different flow conditions. Rare, large floods tend to widen the channel, while common low to moderate flows incise and deepen the channel. We also observe a strong lithological control on process and style of wear, which in turn affects the resulting geometry of the bedrock channel. Narrower, steeper channels tend to be associated with massive lithologies, and wider channels with foliated or jointed lithologies. Both of these observations have implications for connection of the bedrock channel to the adjacent hillslopes, and therefore control in some part the process of hillslope mass-wasting.

  18. Polysaccharides from Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain and immunomodulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Du, Yi-Qun; Liu, Yong; Wang, Jun-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Umbilicaria esculenta cultivated in Huangshan Mountain (HSSE) is precious edible and medicinal lichen. In this study, four polysaccharide fractions designated as UEP1, UEP2, UEP3, and UEP4 were isolated from HSSE with water extraction at different temperature. The physico-chemical properties and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharide fractions were investigated. The results indicated that UEP1, UEP2, UEP3 and UEP4 were acid polysaccharide with 0.50%, 0.62%, 0.63%, and 0.83% of uronic acid contents, respectively. Four polysaccharide fractions were mainly composed of glucose, galactose and mannose with different molar ratio. In the in vitro immunomodulatory assay, all the polysaccharide fractions (20-500 μg/mL) could increase the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrated that the polysaccharides from HSSE could be used as potential biological response modifier. PMID:25316425

  19. Environmental monitoring for uranium and neptunium at Yucca Mountain using epithermal neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Riggle, K.J.

    1992-12-31

    Epithermal Neutron Activation Analysis (ENAA) is investigated as an analysis method for uranium and neptunium in environmental samples from Yucca Mountain. The design and construction of a facility for this technique are described. Theoretical improvement in sensitivity for ENAA over thermal NAA (TNAA) is discussed and compared to experimental results for different sample types. Uranium is analyzed in eight different sample matrices, including samples from Yucca Mountain. Neptunium has been studied only in AGV-1 Granite. As predicted by theory, uranium shows a high experimental sensitivity improvement factor (average = 7.76), while neptunium has a factor of only 0.49. Detection limits for uranium using ENAA range from 6 to 52 ppb by weight (2.6 to 17 ng in sample) for the different matrices. Neptunium shows a detection limit of 57 ppb by weight (6.2 ng in sample) in AGV-1 Granite using ENAA. Using TNAA, neptunium can be analyzed to 35 ppb by weight (3.4 ng in sample).

  20. Yucca Mountain program summary of research and technical review activities, July 1988--June 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    The Desert Research Institute (DRI), through its Water Resources Center (WRC), since 1984 has supported the State of Nevada Nuclear Waste Project Office`s activities related to the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). This effort is directed at providing the State Office with an unbiased evaluation of the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) investigations performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The overall objective is to determine independently whether or not the site meets the performance criteria defined by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and amendments for isolating and containing the wastes during emplacement and the proposed life of the repository. A particularly important area of concern with the proposed repository is the site`s hydrology. The faculty of the DRI have long been involved with research throughout the State and have particular expertise in groundwater studies related to radionuclide migration and hydrologic safety of underground nuclear testing by DOE and predecessor agencies. In addition, we utilize laboratory personnel for chemical and isotopic analyses in both of the DRI-WMC water chemistry laboratories.

  1. Mobilizing citizen science to build human and environmental resilience: a synthesis study of four remote mountain communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkafli, Zed; Buytaert, Wouter; Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Dewulf, Art; Gurung, Praju; Regmi, Santosh; Pandeya, Bhopal; Isaeva, Aiganysh; Mamadalieva, Zuura; Perez, Katya; Alemie, Tilashwork C.; Grainger, Sam; Clark, Julian; Hannah, David M.

    2015-04-01

    Communities that are the most vulnerable to environmental change and hazards, also tend to be those with the least institutional and financial resilience and capacity to cope with consequent impacts. Relevant knowledge generation is a key requisite for empowering these communities and developing adaptation strategies. Technological innovations in data collection, availability, processing, and exchange, are creating new opportunities for knowledge co-generation that may benefit vulnerable communities and bridge traditional knowledge divides. The use of open, web-based technologies and ICT solutions such as mobile phone apps is particularly promising in this regard, because they allow for participation of communities bypassed by traditional mechanisms. Here, we report on efforts to implement such technologies in a citizen science context. We focus on the active engagement of multiple actors (international and local scientists, government officials, NGOs, community associations, and individuals) in the entire process of the research. This ranges from problem framing, to identifying local monitoring needs, to determining the mode of exchange and forms of knowledge relevant for improving resilience related to water dependency. We present 4 case studies in arid, remote mountain regions of Nepal, the Kyrgyz Republic, Peru, and Ethiopia. In these regions, livelihoods depend on the water and soil systems undergoing accelerated degradation from extreme climates, poor agricultural management practices, and changing environmental conditions. However, information on the interlinkages of these processes with people's livelihoods is typically poor and there lies the opportunity for identifying novel forms of joint-creation and sharing of knowledge. Using a centrally-coordinated but locally-adaptable methodological framework comprising of field visits, systematic reviews of white and grey literature, focus group discussions, household questionnaires, semi-structured interviews

  2. Determining importance and grading of items and activities for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeKlever, R.; Verna, B.

    1993-12-31

    Raytheon Services Nevada (RSN), in support of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Yucca Mountain Project, has been responsible for the Title 2 designs of the initial structures, systems, and components for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), and the creation of the design output documents for the Surface-Based Testing (SBT) programs. The ESF and SBT programs are major scientific contributors to the overall site characterization program which will determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain to contain a proposed High Level Nuclear Waste (HLNW) repository. Accurate, traceable and objective characterization and testing documentation that is germane to the protection of public health and safety, and the environment, and that satisfies all the requirements of 10 CFR Part 60(1), must be established, evaluated and accepted. To assure that these requirements are satisfied, specific design functions and products, including items and activities depicted within respective design output documents, are subjected to the requirements of an NRC and DOE-approved Quality Assurance (QA) program. An evaluation (classification) is applied to these items and activities to determine their importance to radiological safety (ITS) and waste isolation (ITWI). Subsequently, QA program controls are selected (grading) for the items and activities. RSN has developed a DOE-approved classification process that is based on probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and that uses accident/impact scenarios. Results from respective performance assessment and test interference evaluations are also integrated into the classification analyses for various items. The methodology and results of the RSN classification and grading processes, presented herein, relative to ESF and SBT design products, demonstrates a solid, defensible methodological basis for classification and grading.

  3. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  4. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Sun, Han-Ju; Zha, Xueqiang

    2015-10-20

    In this paper, a polysaccharide fraction (FMPS) was purified from the floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain for the first time. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of FMPS were investigated. FMPS had an average molecular weight of 7.2×10(5)Da and was composed of glucose. On the basis of FT-IR, NMR and methylation analysis, the repeating unit of FMPS was established as (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl backbone with 1-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl branches substituted at O-6 position of (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. The advanced structure studies indicated that FMPS was a triple-helical polysaccharide. The main hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of FMPS was 23.4nm and it could form a stable system with water in 1.2×10(-2)g/mL solutions. In addition, FMPS exhibited high DPPH radical scavenging activities (79.46% at 5mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (74.18% at 5mg/mL), as well as Fe(2+)chelating activities and ABTS radical scavenging activities to some extent. PMID:26256181

  5. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharide from floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Hui; Xu, Jin-Long; Zhang, Jing-Cheng; Liu, Yong; Sun, Han-Ju; Zha, Xueqiang

    2015-10-20

    In this paper, a polysaccharide fraction (FMPS) was purified from the floral mushroom cultivated in Huangshan Mountain for the first time. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of FMPS were investigated. FMPS had an average molecular weight of 7.2×10(5)Da and was composed of glucose. On the basis of FT-IR, NMR and methylation analysis, the repeating unit of FMPS was established as (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl backbone with 1-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl branches substituted at O-6 position of (1→3)-linked β-d-glucopyranosyl residues. The advanced structure studies indicated that FMPS was a triple-helical polysaccharide. The main hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of FMPS was 23.4nm and it could form a stable system with water in 1.2×10(-2)g/mL solutions. In addition, FMPS exhibited high DPPH radical scavenging activities (79.46% at 5mg/mL) and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (74.18% at 5mg/mL), as well as Fe(2+)chelating activities and ABTS radical scavenging activities to some extent.

  6. Intracaldera volcanic activity, Toledo caldera and embayment, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Stix, J.; Shafiqullah, M.; Garcia, S.; Hagan, R.

    1986-02-10

    The Toledo caldera was formed at 1.47 +- 0.06 Ma during the catastrophic eruption of the lower member, Bandelier Tuff. The caldera was obscured at 1.12 +- 0.03 Ma during eruption of the equally voluminous upper member of the Bandelier Tuff that led to formation of the Valles caldera. Earlier workers interpreted a 9-km-diameter embayment, located NE of the Valles caldera (Toledo embayment), to be a remnant of the Toledo caldera. Drill hole data and new K-Ar dates of Toledo intracaldera domes redefine the position of Toledo caldera, nearly coincident with and of the same dimensions as the younger Valles caldera. the Toledo embayment may be of tectonic origin or a small Tschicoma volcanic center caldera. This interpretation is consistent with distribution of the lower member of the Bandelier Tuff and with several other field and drilling-related observations. Explosive activity associated with Cerro Toledo Rhyolite domes is recorded in tuff deposits located between the lower and upper members of the Bandelier Tuff on the northeast flank of the Jemez Mountains. Recorded in the tuff deposits are seven cycles of explosive activity. Most cycles consists of phreatomagmatic tuffs that grade upward into Plinian pumice beds. A separate deposit, of the same age and consisting of pyroclastic surges and flows, is associated with Rabbit Mountain, located on the southeast rim of the Valles-Toledo caldera complex. These are the surface expression of what may be a thicker, more voluminous intracaldera tuff sequence. The combined deposits of the lower and upper members of the Bandelier Tuff, Toledo and Valles intracaldera sediments, tuffs, and dome lavas form what we interpret to be a wedge-shaped caldera fill. This sequence is confirmed by deep drill holes and gravity surveys.

  7. Riverine Particulate Organic Carbon From a Pristine, Active Mountain Belt: The Importance of Vegetation and Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2005-12-01

    The erosion and transfer of terrestrial organic carbon is an important component in the carbon cycle. The sequestration of this material in sedimentary basins may influence global climate. Mountain rivers play a crucial role in the routing of Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) because they have high sediment production rates, small storage potential and tendency to discharge sediment to the oceans at very high concentrations. We present new constraints on the sourcing and transfer of POC in the tectonically active Southern Alps of New Zealand, where anthropogenic disturbance is minimal. Riverine POC can be derived from bedrock (in the form of sedimentary kerogen), standing biomass and soils. In active mountain belts, landsliding dominates sediment production and transfer of POC from hillslopes to river channels. Landslide debris fans, river suspended load and bedload, and bedrock were sampled in catchments draining the rapidly eroding western Southern Alps, in order to assess the sourcing and transfer of POC. Samples were analyzed for percent organic carbon (Corg), percent nitrogen (N_ {org) and δ13C. Using C/N and δ13C as source proxies, we have determined the main sources of the POC. Landslide debris has Corg ~ 0.15% to 2.77%. The sand, silt and clay fractions of this material all have C/N ~ 10 to 40 and δ13C ~ -20‰ to -28‰. This indicates that POC in landslide debris is dominated by soil carbon (C/N ~ 16 to 25) mixed with hillslope vegetation (C/N ~ 40+) and diluted by bedrock (Corg = 0.01%, C/N = 4.7). Variations in the vegetation type of the pre-slide hillslopes and the depth of failure (i.e. volume of bedrock) give rise to variability of carbon concentration and source signature between landslides. In river suspended load, Corg ~ 0.5%, C/N ~ 15.6 and δ13C ~ - 23.5‰ at mean flow. These values are relatively uniform along the mountain belt. C_ {org} decreases with increasing suspended sediment concentration. We conclude that the bulk of the suspended

  8. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  9. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  10. The upper Pleistocene on the northern face of the Guadarrama Mountains (central Spain): Palaeoclimatic phases and glacial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullón, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    The present paper provides new information on Pleistocene glacial activity in a mountainous area of the Iberian Central System. A sediment analysis associated with Pleistocene modelling was carried out using: (1) granulometric and morphometric procedures, (2) quartz grain microtexture techniques (SEM) to discriminate between glacial and no glacial origins of sediments, (3) clay X-ray diffraction study to determine intra-Pleistocene climate variability, and (4) optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) absolute dating. The results show that the sediments were formed in two different phases associated with glacial dynamics, one of them was 35-30 ky BP and another was 25-20 ky BP, separated by a short intermediate warm-wet period. Identification of glacial phenomena is new for the northern slopes of the Guadarrama Mountains (facing the north Meseta, Duero basin), although they are not unusual within the general context of the Iberian Central System. From the data provided, we deduce that glaciation in these mountains was much more intense and widespread than had previously been thought because, on the northern slopes, glaciers occupied large areas reaching the base of the mountains. The evidence favours new interpretations of Pleistocene morphology in the centre of the Iberian Peninsula and, by extension, on the southwestern edge of Europe; it also highlights the sensitivity of mountainous areas with regard to Quaternary climate changes.

  11. Cytotoxic activity of Alpinia murdochii Ridl.: A mountain ginger species from Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Kae Shin; Ibrahim, Halijah; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Syamsir, Devi Rosmy; Awang, Khalijah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alpinia murdochii (Zingiberaceae) is a wild ginger species restricted to mountain areas of Peninsular Malaysia. Due to rapid development and deforestation activities, this species is becoming rare. This is the first report of the cytotoxic activity of A. murdochii. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii against selected human cancer cell lines by using in vitro cytotoxicity assay. Materials and Methods: The leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii were extracted in hexane, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), and methanol (MeOH) prior to cytotoxic activity assessment against selected human cancer cell lines, namely MCF7 (hormone dependent breast carcinoma cell line), HT29 (colon carcinoma cell line), and SKOV-3 (ovarian cancer cell line) by using in vitro neutral red cytotoxicity assay. Results: The hexane and CH2Cl2 extracts of both leaves and rhizomes exhibited remarkable cytotoxic effect against SKOV-3 cells with the IC50 values in the range of 5.2-16.7 μg/ml. Conclusion: Based on the preliminary data obtained in the present study, the leaves and rhizomes of A. murdochii may be viable therapeutic or preventive candidates for the treatment of ovarian cancer. PMID:24695515

  12. Mountains: A Drama Exploration. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauernschub, Mary Beth

    This lesson plan for grade 3 intends for students to use creative dramatics to demonstrate an understanding of three ways a mountain can be formed; students will also explore the effects of elevation on plant and animal life and on weather in the regions on both sides of a mountain. The lesson should take two to four days to implement. It provides…

  13. Effects of Recurring Droughts on Extracellular Enzyme Activity in Mountain Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchslueger, L.; Bahn, M.; Kienzl, S.; Hofhansl, F.; Schnecker, J.; Richter, A.

    2015-12-01

    Water availability is a key factor for biogeochemical processes and determines microbial activity and functioning, and thereby organic matter decomposition in soils by affecting the osmotic potential, soil pore connectivity, substrate diffusion and nutrient availability. Low water availability during drought periods therefore directly affects microbial activity. Recurring drought periods likely induce shifts in microbial structure that might be reflected in altered responses of microbial turnover of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. To study this we measured a set of potential extracellular enzyme activity rates (cellobiohydrolase CBH; leucine-amino-peptidase LAP; phosphatase PHOS; phenoloxidase POX), in grassland soils that were exposed to extreme experimental droughts during the growing seasons of up to five subsequent years. During the first drought period after eight weeks of rain exclusion all measured potential enzyme activities were significantly decreased. In parallel, soil extractable organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations increased and microbial community structure, determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, changed. In soils that were exposed to two and three drought periods only PHOS decreased. After four years of drought again CBH, PHOS and POX decreased, while LAP was unaffected; after five years of drought PHOS and POX decreased and CBH and LAP remained stable. Thus, our results suggest that recurring extreme drought events can cause different responses of extracellular enzyme activities and that the responses change over time. We will discuss whether and to what degree these changes were related to shifts in microbial community composition. However, independent of whether a solitary or a recurrent drought was imposed, in cases when enzyme activity rates were altered during drought, they quickly recovered after rewetting. Overall, our data suggest that microbial functioning in mountain grassland is sensitive to drought, but highly

  14. Earthquake cluster activity beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan: Migration of hypocenters and low stress drop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.; Yukutake, Y.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake cluster activity was observed beneath the Tanzawa Mountains region, Japan with a depth of 20 km in the end of January, 2012. Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) determined hypocenters of 76 earthquakes with M > 2 in the area within 50 hours. Five of them had magnitudes greater than 4 and the largest one was 5.4. Four out of the five earthquakes had the reverse-type focal mechanisms with the P axis in the NW-SE direction. First we relocated hypocenters of the activity following the method of Yukutake et al. (2012). We estimated relative arrival times of P and S waves by calculating the coefficients of the cross correlation and relocated hypocenters with the double-difference relocation method (Waldhauser and Ellsworth, 2000). We found that the cluster activity showed a migration from the first earthquake of the activity. The parabolic migration speed was consistent with the migration speed of the deep tremor sources (Ide et al., 2010) for which the fluid activity would play an important role. We then analyzed stress drops of 17 earthquakes with M > 3.5 that occurred from January, 2000 to June, 2012 in the area of the cluster activity. We calculated empirical Green's functions from waveforms of earthquakes with magnitudes of 3.0 to 3.2 and estimated stress drops of the earthquakes assuming that the source spectra can be expressed as the omega-squared model. We found that earthquakes of the cluster activity had smaller stress drops by an order of magnitude than the values of earthquakes that occurred in the same area before the cluster activity. These results suggest that the fluid played an important role for the earthquake cluster activity. That is, the fluid increased the pore pressure, decreased the effective normal stress and triggered the cluster activity. The difference of the rupture speed and the change of the rigidity might also be candidates that account for our results. They, however, can hardly explain the results quantitatively. Fig

  15. Analysis of the neutron component at high altitude mountains using active and passive measurement devices.

    PubMed

    Hajek, M; Berger, T; Schoner, W; Vana, N

    2002-01-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv/a. On an average, this value is exceeded by aircrew members. Roughly half of the radiation exposure at flight altitudes is caused by cosmic ray-induced neutrons. Active (6LiI(Eu)-scintillator) and passive (TLDs) Bonner sphere spectrometers were used to determine the neutron energy spectra atop Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m) and Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m). Further measurements in a mixed radiation field at CERN as well as in a proton beam of 62 MeV at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, confirmed that not only neutrons but also charged particles contribute to the readings of active detectors, whereas TLD-600 and TLD-700 in pair allow the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Unfolding of the detector data obtained atop both mountains shows two relative maxima around 1 MeV and 85 MeV, which have to be considered for the assessment of the biologically relevant dose equivalent. By convoluting the spectra with appropriate conversion functions the neutron dose equivalent rate was determined to be 150 +/- 15 nSv/h. The total dose equivalent rate determined by the HTR-method was 210 +/- 15 nSv/h. The results are in good agreement with LET-spectrometer and Sievert counter measurements carried out simultaneously.

  16. Analysis of the neutron component at high altitude mountains using active and passive measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Schöner, W.; Vana, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Council directive 96/29/Euratom requires dosimetric precautions if the effective dose exceeds 1 mSv/a. On an average, this value is exceeded by aircrew members. Roughly half of the radiation exposure at flight altitudes is caused by cosmic ray-induced neutrons. Active ( 6LiI(Eu)-scintillator) and passive (TLDs) Bonner sphere spectrometers were used to determine the neutron energy spectra atop Mt. Sonnblick (3105 m) and Mt. Kitzsteinhorn (3029 m). Further measurements in a mixed radiation field at CERN as well as in a proton beam of 62 MeV at Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland, confirmed that not only neutrons but also charged particles contribute to the readings of active detectors, whereas TLD-600 and TLD-700 in pair allow the determination of the thermal neutron flux. Unfolding of the detector data obtained atop both mountains shows two relative maxima around 1 MeV and 85 MeV, which have to be considered for the assessment of the biologically relevant dose equivalent. By convoluting the spectra with appropriate conversion functions the neutron dose equivalent rate was determined to be 150±15 nSv/h. The total dose equivalent rate determined by the HTR-method was 210±15 nSv/h. The results are in good agreement with LET-spectrometer and Sievert counter measurements carried out simultaneously.

  17. Palaeo-pollution from mining activities in the Vosges Mountains: 1000 years and still bioavailable.

    PubMed

    Mariet, Anne-Lise; de Vaufleury, Annette; Bégeot, Carole; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Gimbert, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    Mining and smelting activities have contaminated the environment with trace metals (TMs) at a worldwide scale for at least two millennia. A combination of chemical approaches and active biomonitoring was performed to analyse the environmental availability and bioavailability of TM palaeo-pollution in a former PbAg mining district in the Vosges Mountains, France. Along a soil TM contamination gradient that covered eight stations, including two archaeological mining sites, the toxicokinetics of six TMs (Pb, Cd, As, Ag, Co, Sb) in the snail Cantareus aspersus revealed that palaeo-pollution from the studied sites remains bioavailable. This study provides the first data on the accumulation kinetics of Ag and Co for C. aspersus. The environmental availability of the TMs was estimated with three chemical extraction methods (aqua regia, EDTA 50 mM, CaCl2 10 mM). Univariate regression analyses showed that EDTA extraction is the best method for estimating the bioavailability of Pb, As, Ag, Co and Sb to snails. None of the three extractants was efficient for Cd. A multivariate analysis of bioaccumulation data revealed that TM bioavailability and transfer were modulated by exposure sources (soil, humus and vegetation) rather than by soil physico-chemical characteristics. Hence, although the deposition of mining wastes dates back several centuries, these wastes still represent a source of contamination that must be considered to develop relevant site management and environmental risk assessment.

  18. Active layer thermal monitoring of a Dry Valley of the Ellsworth Mountains, Continental Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto; Michel, Roberto; Souza, Karoline; Senra, Eduardo; Bremer, Ulisses

    2015-04-01

    The Ellsworth Mountains occur along the southern edge of the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and are subdivided by the Minnesota Glacier into the Heritage Range to the east and the Sentinel Range to the West. The climate of the Ellsworth Mountains is strongly controlled by proximity to the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf and elevation. The mean annual air temperature at the 1,000 m level is estimated to be -25°C, and the average annual accumulation of water-equivalent precipitation likely ranges from 150 to 175 mm yr-1 (Weyant, 1966). The entire area is underlain by continuous permafrost of unknown thickness. Based on data collected from 22 pits, 41% of the sites contained dry permafrost below 70 cm, 27% had ice-cemented permafrost within 70 cm of the surface, 27% had bedrock within 70 cm, and 5% contained an ice-core (Bockheim, unpublished; Schaefer et al., 2015). Dry-frozen permafrost, which may be unique to Antarctica, appears to form from sublimation of moisture in ice-cemented permafrost over time. Active-layer depths in drift sheets of the Ellsworth Mountains range from 15 to 50 cm (Bockheim, unpublished); our understanding of Antarctic permafrost is poor, especially at the continent. The active layer monitoring sites were installed at Edson Hills, Ellsworth_Mountains, in the summer of 2012, and consist of thermistors (accuracy ± 0.2 °C) installed at 1 m above ground for air temperature measurements at two soil profiles on quartzite drift deposits, arranged in a vertical array (Lithic Haplorthel 886 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm and Lithic Anyorthel 850 m asl, 5 cm, 10 cm, 30 cm). All probes were connected to a Campbell Scientific CR 1000 data logger recording data at hourly intervals from January 2nd 2012 until December 29th 2013. We calculated the thawing days (TD), freezing days (FD); isothermal days (ID), freeze thaw days (FTD), thawing degree days (TDD) and freezing degree days (FDD); all according to Guglielmin et al. (2008). Temperature at 5 cm reaches a maximum

  19. Active Disaster Response System for a Smart Building

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T.-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W. S.

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  20. Active disaster response system for a smart building.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chun-Yen; Chu, Edward T-H; Ku, Lun-Wei; Liu, Jane W S

    2014-01-01

    Disaster warning and surveillance systems have been widely applied to help the public be aware of an emergency. However, existing warning systems are unable to cooperate with household appliances or embedded controllers; that is, they cannot provide enough time for preparedness and evacuation, especially for disasters like earthquakes. In addition, the existing warning and surveillance systems are not responsible for collecting sufficient information inside a building for relief workers to conduct a proper rescue action after a disaster happens. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a proof of concept prototype, named the active disaster response system (ADRS), which automatically performs emergency tasks when an earthquake happens. ADRS can interpret Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) messages, published by an official agency, and actuate embedded controllers to perform emergency tasks to respond to the alerts. Examples of emergency tasks include opening doors and windows and cutting off power lines and gas valves. In addition, ADRS can maintain a temporary network by utilizing the embedded controllers; hence, victims trapped inside a building are still able to post emergency messages if the original network is disconnected. We conducted a field trial to evaluate the effectiveness of ADRS after an earthquake happened. Our results show that compared to manually operating emergency tasks, ADRS can reduce the operation time by up to 15 s, which is long enough for people to get under sturdy furniture, or to evacuate from the third floor to the first floor, or to run more than 100 m. PMID:25237897

  1. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  2. Recent faulting and active shortening of the Middle Atlas Mountains, Morocco, within the diffuse African-Eurasian plate boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigby, M.; Gomez, F.; Zakir, A.; Hahou, Y.; Jabour, N.

    2007-12-01

    The NE-SW trending Middle Atlas Mountains are an active intracontinental mountain belt within the diffuse African - Eurasian plate boundary. The mountain belt is obliquely oriented to the NNW-SSE direction of Late Cenozoic plate convergence. Both shear and compressional features are exhibited with apparent slip partitioning: Folding and thrusting is concentrated in the Folded Middle Atlas, whereas strike-slip dominates in the Tabular Middle Atlas. In the central part of the Folded Middle Atlas, fault scarps of Quaternary alluvium, including a 4.5 meter (probably composite) scarp and a 1 meter (possibly single event) scarp, attest to recent faulting along the mountain front. Detailed topographic mapping of the scarps provides a basis for geomorphic analysis and degradation modeling. Furthermore, the reconstruction of longitudinal stream terrace profiles helps constrain a long term deformation history. Radiocarbon and pending cosmogenic dates provide age constraints on the faulted surfaces and the multiple stream terraces in the area. To place these active tectonic observations in a larger context, the fault and fold geometry has been assessed by completing a 10 km structural transect across the frontal thrust, providing basis for the construction of a balanced cross-section. By combining the structural geometry with the uplift rate, a minimum estimate of the rate of horizontal shortening in the Middle Atlas can be evaluated. Preliminary results suggest the Middle Atlas may accommodate 5 - 10 percent of the total 4.5 mm/yr convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. These results demonstrate that the Middle Atlas Mountains are a integral part of the diffuse plate boundary, as well as suggesting a modest level of earthquake hazard in the region.

  3. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  4. Late Quaternary tectonic activity and crustal shortening rate of the Bogda mountain area, eastern Tian Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuanyong; Wu, Guodong; Shen, Jun; Dai, Xunye; Chen, Jianbo; Song, Heping

    2016-04-01

    The Bogda mountain range is the highest range among the northern Tian Shan mountains. Based on geologic and geomorphologic field surveys, trench excavation and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, we targeted the active Fukang fault along the Bogda mountain range and identified the late Quaternary deformation characteristics of this area. We found that the Fukang fault dislocated different geomorphic surfaces of the northern Bogda piedmont. The vertical fault displacement corresponds to the topographic relief of the Bogda over long time scales. Since the late Quaternary, the crustal shortening rate was estimated to be 0.90 ± 0.20 mm/yr, which is less than that of the western segment of the northern Tian Shan. We interpret the Bogda fold and thrust belt to be a thick-skinned structure, since a high angle thrust fault bounds the Bogda mountain range and the foreland basin. The deformation characteristics of this region have been dominated by vertical uplift, and the component of propagation toward the basin has been very limited. This tectonic deformation is evidenced as vertical growth. Although the deformation rate is small, the uplift amplitude is very significant in this region.

  5. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Eupatilin, a lipophilic flavonoid from mountain wormwood ( Artemisia umbelliformis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Giangaspero, Anna; Ponti, Cristina; Pollastro, Federica; Del Favero, Giorgia; Della Loggia, Roberto; Tubaro, Aurelia; Appendino, Giovanni; Sosa, Silvio

    2009-09-01

    Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is the major lipophilic flavonoid from Artemisia umbelliformis Lam. and Artemisia genipi Weber, two mountain wormwoods used for the production of the celebrated alpine liqueur genepy. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of eupatilin was investigated using the inhibition of the Croton-oil-induced dermatitis in the mouse ear as the end point. The oedematous response and the leukocyte infiltration were evaluated up to 48 h after the induction of phlogosis, comparing eupatilin with hydrocortisone and indomethacin as representatives of steroid and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. At maximum development, eupatilin significantly reduced edema in a dose-dependent manner (ID(50) = 0.28 micromol/cm(2)), showing an anti-inflammatory potency comparable to that of indomethacin (ID(50) = 0.26 micromol/cm(2)) and only 1 order of magnitude lower than that of hydrocortisone (ID(50) = 0.03 micromol/cm(2)). Within 48 h, eupatilin (0.30 micromol/cm(2)) caused a global inhibition of the oedematous response (42%) higher than that of an equimolar dose of indomethacin (18%) and fully comparable to that of 0.03 micromol/cm(2) of hydrocortisone (55%). Moreover, the effect of eupatilin on the granulocytes infiltrate (32% inhibition) was similar to that of indomethacin (35% inhibition) and comparable to that of hydrocortisone (42% reduction), as confirmed by histological analysis. When our results are taken together, they show that eupatilin is endowed with potent in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity, qualitatively similar to that of hydrocortisone and intermediate in terms of potency between those of steroid and non-steroid drugs.

  6. Threshold bedrock channels in tectonically active mountains with frequent mass wasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korup, O.; Hayakawa, Y. S.; Codilean, A.; Oguchi, T.

    2013-12-01

    Models of how mountain belts grow and erode through time largely rely on the paradigm of fluvial bedrock incision as the main motor of response to differences in rock uplift, thus setting base levels of erosion in tectonically active landscapes. Dynamic feedbacks between rock uplift, bedrock river geometry, and mass wasting have been encapsulated within the concept of threshold hillslopes that attain a mechanically critical inclination capable of adjusting to fluvial incision rates via decreased stability and commensurately more frequent landsliding. Here we provide data that challenge the widely held view that channel steepness records tectonic forcing more faithfully than hillslope inclination despite much robust empirical evidence of such links between bedrock-river geometry and hillslope mass wasting. We show that the volume mobilized by mass wasting depends more on local topographic relief and the sinuosity of bedrock rivers than their mean normalized channel steepness. We derive this counterintuitive observation from an unprecedented inventory of ~300,000 landslides covering the tectonically active Japanese archipelago with substantial differences in seismicity, lithology, vertical surface deformation, topography, and precipitation variability. Both total landslide number and volumes increase nonlinearly with mean local relief even in areas where the fraction of steepest channel segments attains a constant threshold well below the maximum topographic relief. Our data document for the first time that mass wasting increases systematically with preferential steepening of flatter channel segments. Yet concomitant changes in mean channel steepness are negligible such that it remains a largely insensitive predictor of landslide denudation. Further, minute increases in bedrock-river sinuosity lead to substantial reduction in landslide abundance and volumes. Our results underline that sinuosity (together with mean local relief) is a key morphometric variable for

  7. Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building gene expression signatures indicative of transcription factor activation to predict AOP modulation Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are a framework for predicting quantitative relationships between molecular initiatin...

  8. Climate effect on soil enzyme activities and dissolved organic carbon in mountain calcareous soils: a soil-transplant experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puissant, Jérémy; Cécillon, Lauric; Mills, Robert T. E.; Gavazov, Konstantin; Robroek, Bjorn J. M.; Spiegelberger, Thomas; Buttler, Alexandre; Brun, Jean-Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Mountain soils store huge amounts of carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) which may be highly vulnerable to the strong climate changes that mountain areas currently experience worldwide. Climate modifications are expected to impact microbial activity which could change the rate of SOM decomposition/accumulation, thereby questioning the net C source/sink character of mountain soils. To simulate future climate change expected in the 21st century in the calcareous pre-Alps, 15 blocks (30 cm deep) of undisturbed soil were taken from a mountain pasture located at 1400 m a.s.l. (Marchairuz, Jura, Switzerland) and transplanted into lysimeters at the same site (control) and at two other sites located at 1000 m a.s.l. and 600 m a.s.l. (5 replicates per site). This transplantation experiment which started in 2009 simulates a climate warming with a temperature increase of 4° C and a decreased humidity of 40 % at the lowest site. In this study, we used soil extracellular enzyme activities (EEA) as functional indicators of SOM decomposition to evaluate the effect of climate change on microbial activity and SOM dynamics along the seasons. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was also measured to quantify the assimilable carbon for microorganism. In autumn 2012, a first sampling step out of four (winter, spring and summer 2013) has been realized. We extracted 15 cm deep soil cores from each transplant (x15) and measured (i) DOC and (ii) the activities of nine different enzymes. Enzymes were chosen to represent the degradation of the most common classes of biogeochemical compounds in SOM. β-glucosidase, β-D-cellubiosidase, β-Xylosidase, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, lipase, phenoloxidase respectively represented the degradation of sugar, cellulose, hemicellulose, chitin, protein, lipid and lignin. Moreover, the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was used to provide an estimate of global microbial activity and phosphatase was used to estimate phosphorus

  9. [Effects of Different Land Uses on Soil Active Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Fractions in Jinyun Mountain].

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin; Jiang, Chang-sheng; Hao, Qing-ju; Li, Jian-lin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we take Jinyun Mountain where located in Beibei district of Chongqing as the research object and explore the effect of different ways of land use on soil active organic carbon, nitrogen components by collecting the soil samples from 0 to 60 cm depth in subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (hereinafter referred to as the forest), abandoned land, orchard, farmland and measuring the content of MBC, MBN, DOC and DON. The research results show that the contents of soil MBC, MBN, DOC, DON are reduced with the increase of soil depth in four types of land using soils. Variance analysis of the single factor shows that four kinds of land uses have no significant difference in the contents of MBC, MBN and DON, but the DOC content of the abandoned land is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It shows that the different ways of land use have no obvious effects on soil MBC, MBN and DON but the abandonment of slope cropland can significantly increase the content of soil DOC. There is no significant difference among the distribution ratio of MBN, DOC, DON in forest, abandoned land, orchard and farmland within the soil from 0 to 60 cm, but the distribution ratio of slope MBC is significantly higher than that of other three kinds. It means farmland soil organic carbon has a higher biological activity, this could due to the application of green manure, farmland manure and other organic fertilizers. Under different land utilizations, DOC/DON is the highest, MBC/MBN is the second, and SOC/TN is the lowest. It means the biological solidification of dissolved organic matter is the strongest, and the mineralization of soil organic matter is the most obvious. Under the four kinds of land uses, there are the lowest ratios in SOC/TN, MBC/MBN and DOC/DON in the farmland. And all the ratios are less than 20, which suggest that the mineralization of farmland soil organic matter is stronger and it's easy to cause the loss of soil carbon.

  10. Science Support: The Building Blocks of Active Data Curation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillory, A.

    2013-12-01

    While the scientific method is built on reproducibility and transparency, and results are published in peer reviewed literature, we have come to the digital age of very large datasets (now of the order of petabytes and soon exabytes) which cannot be published in the traditional way. To preserve reproducibility and transparency, active curation is necessary to keep and protect the information in the long term, and 'science support' activities provide the building blocks for active data curation. With the explosive growth of data in all fields in recent years, there is a pressing urge for data centres to now provide adequate services to ensure long-term preservation and digital curation of project data outputs, however complex those may be. Science support provides advice and support to science projects on data and information management, from file formats through to general data management awareness. Another purpose of science support is to raise awareness in the science community of data and metadata standards and best practice, engendering a culture where data outputs are seen as valued assets. At the heart of Science support is the Data Management Plan (DMP) which sets out a coherent approach to data issues pertaining to the data generating project. It provides an agreed record of the data management needs and issues within the project. The DMP is agreed upon with project investigators to ensure that a high quality documented data archive is created. It includes conditions of use and deposit to clearly express the ownership, responsibilities and rights associated with the data. Project specific needs are also identified for data processing, visualization tools and data sharing services. As part of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) and National Centre for Earth Observation (NCEO), the Centre for Environmental Data Archival (CEDA) fulfills this science support role of facilitating atmospheric and Earth observation data generating projects to ensure

  11. Effect of lunar phase on diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain Elk (Cervus Elaphus Nelsonii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) are important components in many ecosystems across the western US and are integral with both Native American and contemporary western culture. They are prized by hunters and are the object of countless works of art. These magnificent creatures are studi...

  12. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  13. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  14. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  15. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  16. 43 CFR 15.3 - Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. 15.3 Section 15.3 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior KEY LARGO CORAL REEF PRESERVE § 15.3 Dredging, filling, excavating and building activities. No dredging, excavating,...

  17. Does glaciation act to limit the topography of active mountain belts? Evidence from the Patagonian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, S. N.

    2003-04-01

    Fission-track thermochronological analysis of the Patagonian Andes of southern Chile, particularly in the region of the major intra-arc Liquiñe-Ofqui transpressional fault zone (42° to 46°S), has revealed a complex pattern of late Cenozoic accelerated cooling. The fault zone has been the focus of localised enhanced cooling, attributed to denudation, since ca. 16 to 10 Ma. Several fault blocks can be identified, differentiated by their different cooling histories and total amounts of late Cenozoic cooling. The transpressional nature of this fault zone implies that enhanced cooling was caused by the preferential erosion of variably uplifting fault blocks that formed part of a large, possibly crustal scale "transpressional flower structure". Despite the spatially variable cooling rates and apparent differential denudation across the different fault blocks, the topography (particularly mean and maximum elevation) across these fault blocks is relatively uniform. This implies that this landscape is close to topographic steady-state, such that denudation has managed to approximately balance transpression related rock uplift, despite the spatial variability of the latter during the late Cenozoic. The most dominant denudation process in the Patagonian Andes is glacial erosion. Late Cenozoic glaciation in Patagonia is well known from studies made on the Patagonian ice fields (the third largest in the World). For example, values for the mean equilibrium line altitude (the altitude where annual glacial accumulation and ablation are the same - roughly equivalent to the snowline) can be cited for both the present day and the last glacial maximum. Incorporating these values in to a quantitative analysis of the topography across the different fault blocks using DEM data supports ideas outlined by Brozovic et al. (1997) who quote that where active mountain belts intersect the snowline, the high rates of glacial erosion processes can act at rates sufficient to place a limit on

  18. Building an interface between providers and users of climate change knowledge in mountain and coastal areas in the U.S. and Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnott, J. C.; Brasseur, G. P.; Jäger, J.; Katzenberger, J.; Martinez, G.; Orbach, M. K.; Schaller, M.

    2013-12-01

    As the impacts of climate change become more immediate, informed responses to these changes is a greater area of interest and concern among resource managers, planners, and other stakeholders at multiple scales. In spite of progress in the scientific understanding of climate change, a significant area for advancement is to found in developing, translating, and disseminating usable knowledge to inform both individual and collective actions, especially at local levels of decision making, on activities related to both mitigation and adaptation. As part of this, increased emphasis has been placed on fostering sustained engagement between research communities and users of climate information. Additionally, the documentation of case studies as well as the development of networks that include researchers, practitioners, decision-makers, and stakeholders has been identified as helpful mechanisms to support a growing number of communities developing climate change adaptation strategies. In view of these challenges, we look at experiences in four case regions in mountain and coastal areas: 1) German Baltic Sea Coast; 2) U.S. East Coast (Chesapeake Bay and North Carolina); 3) Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado, and 4) European Alps. With gathered insight on adaptation and mitigation strategies across research and practitioner communities gained through a series of structured dialogues held in the United States and Germany during spring and summer 2013, we present an analysis of successful strategies, similarities, and differences between adaptation practice and the science-policy interface in the U.S. and Europe and mountain and coastal areas. We also report on broader conclusions from this effort in regard to strategies that may further the success of the science-policy interface for action on adaptation and mitigation at community to regional levels in the future. The diversity of institutions, cultures, political economies and biophysical and societal impacts included in these

  19. Inheritance of Jurassic rifted margin architecture into the Apennines Neogene mountain building: a case history from the Lucretili Mts. (Latium, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollati, Andrea; Corrado, Sveva; Marino, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    The western Lucretili Mts. in the central Apennines (Latium, Italy) have been recently re-mapped in great detail and are the subject of combined stratigraphic, sedimentological and structural investigations. In this paper, we present a new stratigraphic interpretation of the Jurassic paleogeography of western Lucretili Mts., where a rift-derived intrabasinal paleo-high of the Alpine Tethys has been identified for the first time by means of facies analysis and biostratigraphic dating. Recognised facies associations, combined with dated stratigraphic sections, allow to define the morphology of the structural paleo-high and to identify the associated gravity-driven deposits (olistoliths) accumulated in the surrounding basin. Furthermore, we investigated the modes of interaction between Jurassic extensional structures and the subsequent contractional patterns developed during the Tertiary mountain building. In detail, the role played during Apennines tectonics by the paleo-escarpments bounding the paleo-high and by the surrounding olistoliths has been analysed. The paleo-escarpments either acted as focussing features for ENE-directed frontal thrust ramp localisation and were offset with small shortening amounts or reactivated as NNE striking high angle transpressional faults or preserved the original geometries as a result of variable orientation of paleo-escarpments with respect to the Neogene compressive stress field (with ENE oriented sigma1). Newly formed ENE striking tear faults connect these either inherited or neo-formed discontinuities. This complex stratigraphic and structural pattern is substantially different from the previous interpretations of this portion of the central Apennines based on a hypothesised layer-cake stratigraphy deformed by neo-formed Neogene thrusts. This contribution strengthens the importance of integrating facies analyses and structural investigations to detect the influence of pre-orogenic structures on compressive structural patterns

  20. Activity Theory as a Framework for Analysing Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Aalst, Jan; Hill, Cher M.

    2006-01-01

    Content analyses of computer databases parsed into notes or ideas do not shed adequate light on the role of collaboration and the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning environment in knowledge building; analysis of what is happening in the classroom and how students interpret that is also needed. This study used ethnographic methods to explore…

  1. Freedom To Fly: 101 Activities for Building Self-Worth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris

    A sense of self-worth and trust in oneself provides the will to survive, the desire to create, the ability to learn, and the courage to reach out and connect with another human being. This guide provides a self-worth building model based on the acronym SELF: (1) Sensing; (2) Expressing; (3) Learning; and (4) Forming. The self-worth model focuses…

  2. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  3. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). Design A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Methods Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Results Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. Conclusions We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training. PMID:27706260

  4. Igneous activity and related ore deposits in the western and southern Tushar Mountains, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    PART A: Igneous activity in the Marysvale volcanic field of western Utah can be separated into many episodes of extrusion, intrusion, and hydrothermal activity. The rocks of the western Tushar Mountains, near the western part of the volcanic field, include intermediate-composition, calc-alkalic volcanic rocks erupted from scattered volcanoes in Oligocene through earliest Miocene time and related monzonitic intrusions emplaced 24-23 m.y. ago. Beginning 22-21 m.y. ago and extending through much of the later Cenozoic, a bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblage was erupted widely throughout the volcanic field. Only volcanic and intrusive rocks belonging to the rhyolitic end member of this bimodal assemblage are present in the western Tushar Mountains; most of these rocks either fill the Mount Belknap caldera (19 m.y. old) or are part of the rhyolite of Gillies Hill (9---8 m.y. old). Episodic hydrothermal activity altered and mineralized rocks at many places in the western Tushar Mountains during Miocene time. The earliest activity took place in and adjacent to monzonitic calcalkalic intrusions emplaced in the vicinity of Indian Creek and Cork Ridge. These rocks were widely propylitized, and gold-bearing quartz-pyrite-carbonate veins formed in local fractures. Hydrothermal activity associated with the Mount Belknap caldera mobilized and redeposited uranium contained in the caldera-fill rocks and formed primary concentrations of lithophile elements (including molybdenum and uranium) in the vicinity of intrusive bodies. Hydrothermal activity associated with the rhyolite of Gillies Hill altered and mineralized rocks at several places along the fault zone that marks the western margin of the Tushar Mountains; the zoned alunite and gold deposits at Sheep Rock, the gold deposit at the Sunday Mine, and an alunite deposit near Indian Creek were thus produced. Resetting of isotopic ages suggests that another center of hydrothermally altered rocks associated with a buried pluton about

  5. Mountain building at ocean-continent margins - linking mass flux, mechanics, and earthquakes at the Andean margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncken, O.

    2015-12-01

    Deformation at convergent plate boundaries involves various styles of mass flux and of backarc shortening. For the Andes, patterns appear obvious. Long-term mass flux style - i.e. accretionary versus erosive - shows a distinct relationship with forearc as well as backarc deformation mode. Neogene surface deformation exhibits tectonically uplifting areas along the coast driven by interseismically active reverse faulting. Moreover, seismic-cycle vertical displacement is not coincident with long-term vertical motion that probably is superseded by slow basal underplating (southern Chile) or tectonic erosion (northern Chile). Reconstruction clearly indicates that the Central Andean trench has always been underfilled with less than 500 m of sediment. In southern Chile, our data illustrate a similar trend during most of the Cenozoic with a shift around some 6-7 Ma to substantial sediment influx from glaciation of the Patagonian part of the Andean Cordillera. As a consequence, backarc shortening stopped at this latitude, while shortening velocity in the Central Andes was still accelerating. Using latitudinal evolution and variations of shortening rate, orogenic strain accumulation and deformation partitioning in the Andes can be shown to be dominated by distinct factors. The Altiplano-Puna plateaux are characterized by a complete cycle of initial lateral spreading of deformation followed by subsequent localization and acceleration of bulk shortening rate. Estimates of strength evolution based on force balance calculations and critical wedge analysis suggest significant backarc weakening driving this change. Lithosphere-scale failure from strain weakening beyond a critical strain threshold (c. 20%) and fault coalescence with formation of a weak detachment in shales (μeff < 0.1) played a key role in the evolution of the Central Andes. Strain-related lithosphere weakening dominated over the impact of external forcing mechanisms, such as variations of plate convergence

  6. Magnetostratigraphy of the Neogene Chaka basin and its implications for mountain building processes in the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, H.-P.; Craddock, W.H.; Lease, R.O.; Wang, W.-T.; Yuan, D.-Y.; Zhang, P.-Z.; Molnar, P.; Zheng, D.-W.; Zheng, W.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary rock deposited in the Chaka basin (north-eastern Tibetan Plateau) indicates a late Miocene onset of basin formation and subsequent development of the adjacent Qinghai Nan Shan. Sedimentation in the basin initiated at ~11Ma. In the lower part of the basin fill, a coarsening-upward sequence starting at ~9Ma, as well as rapid sedimentation rates, and northward paleocurrents, are consistent with continued growth of the Ela Shan to the south. In the upper section, several lines of evidence suggest that thrust faulting and topographic development of the Qinghai Nan Shan began at ~6.1Ma. Paleocurrent indicators, preserved in the basin in the proximal footwall of the Qinghai Nan Shan, show a change from northward to southward flow between 6.5 and 3.8Ma. At the same location, sediment derived from the Qinghai Nan Shan appears at 6.1Ma. Finally, the initiation of progressively shallowing dips observed in deformed basin strata and a change to pebbly, fluvial deposits at 6.1Ma provide a minimum age for the onset of slip on the thrust fault that dips north-east beneath the Qinghai Nan Shan. We interpret a decrease in sediment accumulation rates since ~6Ma to indicate a reduction in Chaka basin accommodation space due to active faulting and folding along the Qinghai Nan Shan and incorporation of the basin into the wedge-top depozone. Declination anomalies indicate the beginning of counter-clockwise rotation since 6.1Ma, which we associate with local deformation, not regional block rotation. The emergence of the Qinghai Nan Shan near the end of the Miocene Epoch partitioned the once contiguous Chaka-Gonghe and Qinghai basin complex. In a regional framework, our study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread initiation and/or reactivation of fault networks during the late Miocene across the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. ?? 2011 The Authors. Basin Research ?? 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd, European Association of Geoscientists

  7. Batholith Construction In Actively Deforming Crust, Coast Mountains Batholith, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Woodsworth, G. J.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Structural, thermobarometric and geochronologic data from the central part of the Coast Mountains Batholith help define the state of the crust during widespread magmatism from ~100-50 Ma. Deformation, metamorphism and magmatism occurred during and after final accretion of the Insular terrane (Alexander terrane) against the Yukon-Tanana terrane (YTT) in the orogen core and, farther east, Stikinia. From ~100 to ~75 Ma, the magmatic front migrated eastward at 2.0-2.7 km/m.y. and deformation was widespread; metamorphism was restricted to YTT and westernmost Stikinia. YTT metamorphism began after burial of Late Jurassic sedimentary rocks, and involved rocks with U/Pb zircon ages of 103.5 ± 1.4 Ma and 92.9 ± 1.6 Ma. Thermobarometric analyses show P~ 7 kb and T~ 650-750°C; peak conditions were likely slightly higher. Hornblende Ar-Ar ages are 66-85 Ma; biotite are 53-78 Ma (T. Spell, UNLV). NE-SW crustal shortening produced NW-trending folds and SW-directed thrusts. Deformation and metamorphism ended by 87 Ma in the southern part of the YTT and rocks cooled ~40°C/m.y. Gneisses in the north cooled more slowly (~20-25°C/m.y.) and metamorphism and deformation continued until ~75 Ma. Al-in-hornblende pressures are 4-6 kb, suggesting magmatism continued after exhumation began. Exhumation occurred along a newly recognized SW-directed reverse fault separating the Alexander and Yukon-Tanana terranes. Exposed for >100 km along strike, this ductile shear zone is ~3-15 km wide, strikes NW and dips steeply NE. The shear zone is marked by patchy exposures of mylonites, the transition from bedded rocks of the Alexander terrane to gneisses in the YTT, and local differences in pluton emplacement pressures and Ar-Ar cooling rates. Displacement was >9 km. The age of the shear zone is bracketed by a 104 Ma tonalitic mylonite and abundant 80-90 Ma syn- to post-kinematic plutons. These events mark the final accretion of the Insular terrane and are coeval with dextral transpression in

  8. The biological activity of chernozems in the Central Caucasus Mountains (Terskii variant of altitudinal zonality), Kabardino-Balkaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedgafova, F. V.; Uligova, T. S.; Gorobtsova, O. N.; Tembotov, R. Kh.

    2015-12-01

    Some parameters of the biological activity (humus content; activity of hydrolytic enzymes invertase, phosphatase, urease; and the intensity of carbon dioxide emission) were studied in the chernozems of agrocenoses and native biogeocenoses in the foothills of the Caucasus Mountains representing the Terskii variant of the altitudinal zonality. The statistically significant differences were revealed between the relevant characteristics of the soils of the agrocenoses and of the native biogeocenoses. The integral index of the ecological-biological state of the soils was used to estimate changes in the biological activity of the arable chernozems. The 40-60% decrease of this index in the cultivated chernozems testified to their degradation with a decrease in fertility and the disturbance of ecological functions as compared to these characteristics in the virgin chernozems.

  9. Active folding and thrusting in North Africa: A framework for a seismotectonic model of the Atlas Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha; Maouche, Said; Timoulali, Youssef; Bouhadad, Youcef; Bouaziz, Samir

    2013-04-01

    Large earthquakes in the Atlas Mountains of North Africa are often generated on thrust or reverse faults. For inland faults, surface ruptures and long-term active tectonics appear as a thrust escarpment and fold-related faulting visible in the field and using remote sensing images, or measured using space-borne geodesy (GPS or INSAR). For coastal faults, major uplifts of late Quaternary marine terraces and folding with steplike morphology are exposed indicating the incremental development of coastal active deformation. We have investigated the similarities and differences between different active fault-related folding along the Africa - Eurasia convergent plate boundary. These active structures are seismogenic and the striking case studies are the 1960 Agadir (Mw 5.9), the 1954 Orleansville (Mw 6.7), the 1980 El Asnam (Mw 7.3), the 1992 Gafsa (Mw 5.3), the 1999 Ain Temouchent (Mw 6.0), and the 2003 Zemmouri (Mw 6.8) earthquakes. From paleoseismic investigations the El Asnam active fold shows 0.6 to 1.0 mm/yr uplift rate. West of Algiers on the Sahel anticline, the levelling of uplifted successive coastal benches and notches document the incremental folding uplift with ~ 0.84 - 1.2 mm/yr uplift rate in the last 120-140 ka. The relatively fast folding growth during late Pleistocene and Holocene in the Atlas Mountains attests for the significance of earthquake activity and the importance of convergent movements between Africa and Eurasia in the Western Mediterranean. This work is prepared in the framework of the UNESCO (SIDA) - IGCP Project 601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa".

  10. [Microbial community and its activities in canopy- and understory humus of two montane forest types in Ailao Mountains, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-jie; Liu, Wen-yao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Han-bo; Wang, Gao-sheng

    2010-09-01

    Mid-montane moist evergreen broadleaved forest (MMF) and top-montane dwarf mossy forest (DMF) are the two major natural forest types in subtropical mountainous area of Ailao Mountains, Northwest China. In this paper, a comparative study was made on the microbial composition, quantity, biochemical activity, metabolic activity, and their seasonal dynamics in the canopy- and understory humus of the two forest types. The composition, quantity, and metabolic activity of the microbes in the canopy humus of dominant tree species in MMF and DMF were also analyzed. In the canopy humus of the two forest types, the amounts of fungi and actinomycetes, microbial biomass C and N, and intensities of nitrogen fixation and cellulose decomposition were significantly higher than those in understory humus. Meanwhile, the amount of cellulose-decomposing microbes (ACDM), cellulose decomposition intensity, microbial biomass C and N, and metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF were significantly higher than those of DMF. The amounts of bacteria, fungi, and aerobic nitrogen-fixing bacteria (ANFB) and the metabolic activity in the canopy humus of MMF and DMF were significantly higher in wet season than in dry season, while a contradictory trend was observed on the amount of actinomycetes. No significant difference was observed on the amount of ACDM between wet season and dry season. For the two forest types, the amounts of microbes and their biochemical activities in canopy humus had a larger seasonal variation range than those in understory humus. There was a significant difference in the amounts of the microbes in canopy humus among the dominant tree species in MMF and DMF, especially in wet season. The microbes in canopy humus played important roles in maintaining the biodiversity of epiphytes in the canopy, and in supplying the needed nutrients for the vigorous growth of the epiphytes.

  11. A Case Study Analysis of a Constructionist Knowledge Building Community with Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Chee S.; Zaphiris, Panayiotis; Wilson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how activity theory can help research a constructionist community. We present a constructionist activity model called CONstructionism Through ACtivity Theory (CONTACT) model and explain how it can be used to analyse the constructionist activity in knowledge building communities. We then illustrate the model through its…

  12. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  13. Isolation, diversity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi harboured in Huperzia serrata from Jinggang Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Lai, Zheng; Li, Xi-Xi; Yan, Ri-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Hui-Lin; Zhu, Du

    2016-02-01

    Huperzia serrata has many important medicinal properties with proven pharmacological potential. Some of these properties may be mediated by its endophytic fungi. To test this hypothesis, in the present study, we provided a first insights into evaluating the species composition and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of the culturable endophytic fungi of H. serrata from the regional at Jinggang Mountain in southeastern China. A total number of 885 fungal isolates distributed across 44 genera and 118 putative species were obtained from 1422 fragments of fine H. serrata roots, stems and leaves base on ITS-rDNA sequences BLAST analysis. The endophytic fungi were phylogenetically diverse and species-rich, with high rate of colonization and isolation. The assemble of endophytic fungi consisted mainly of Ascomycota (97.15%), followed by Basidiomycota (1.92%) and unknown fungal species (0.90%). Colletotrichum (64.29%), Phyllosticta (3.39%), Hypoxylon (2.81%), Xylaria (2.25%) and Nigrospora (2.04%) were the most abundant genera, whereas the remaining genera were infrequent groups. Although, roots yielded low abundance strains, the diverse and species-rich were both higher than that of stems and leaves. In addition, out of the 247 endophytic fungi strains determinated, 221 fungal extracts showed AChE inhibition activities in vitro. Among them, 22 endophytic fungi strains achieved high inhibitory activity (≥50%) on AChE which belongs to 13 genera and five incertae sedis strains. Four endophytic fungi designated as JS4 (Colletotrichum spp.), FL14 (Ascomycota spp.), FL9 (Sarcosomataceae spp.) and FL7 (Dothideomycetes spp.) were displayed highly active (≥80%) against AChE, which the inhibition effects were even more intense than the positive control. Our findings highlight that H. serrata grown in Jinggang Mountain harbors a rich and fascinating endophytic fungus community with potential AChE inhibitory activity, which could further broaden the natural

  14. Factors Limiting Microbial Growth and Activity at a Proposed High-Level Nuclear Repository, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Kieft, T. L.; Kovacik, W. P.; Ringelberg, D. B.; White, D. C.; Haldeman, D. L.; Amy, P. S.; Hersman, L. E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nev., as a potential repository for high-level nuclear waste, volcanic tuff was analyzed for microbial abundance and activity. Tuff was collected aseptically from nine sites along a tunnel in Yucca Mountain. Microbial abundance was generally low: direct microscopic cell counts were near detection limits at all sites (3.2 x 10(sup4) to 2.0 x 10(sup5) cells g(sup-1) [dry weight]); plate counts of aerobic heterotrophs ranged from 1.0 x 10(sup1) to 3.2 x 10(sup3) CFU g(sup-1) (dry weight). Phospholipid fatty acid concentrations (0.1 to 3.7 pmol g(sup-1)) also indicated low microbial biomasses; diglyceride fatty acid concentrations, indicative of dead cells, were in a similar range (0.2 to 2.3 pmol g(sup-1)). Potential microbial activity was quantified as (sup14)CO(inf2) production in microcosms containing radiolabeled substrates (glucose, acetate, and glutamic acid); amendments with water and nutrient solutions (N and P) were used to test factors potentially limiting this activity. Similarly, the potential for microbial growth and the factors limiting growth were determined by performing plate counts before and after incubating volcanic tuff samples for 24 h under various conditions: ambient moisture, water-amended, and amended with various nutrient solutions (N, P, and organic C). A high potential for microbial activity was demonstrated by high rates of substrate mineralization (as much as 70% of added organic C in 3 weeks). Water was the major limiting factor to growth and microbial activity, while amendments with N and P resulted in little further stimulation. Organic C amendments stimulated growth more than water alone. PMID:16535670

  15. Fecal progesterone metabolites and ovarian activity in cycling and pregnant mountain gazelles (Gazella gazella).

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Osama B; Green, Daphne I; Holt, William V

    2011-02-01

    Fecal reproductive progestagen monitoring in the mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella) provided a non-invasive method for tracking reproductive cycling, estimating age of sexual maturity and diagnosing pregnancy in this species of gazelle. Fresh fecal samples were collected from eight female mountain gazelle (Gazella gazella) for a period of two months. Two of the animals were pregnant while the other six were not. Using the progestagen profile the luteal phase, interluteal (follicular) phase and estrous cycle in adult female gazelles were determined to be 12.5 ± 1.2, 5.9 ± 0.59 and 18.8 ± 0.98 days respectively. Significant inter-animal differences in fecal progestagen concentration were observed in both the luteal and follicular phases. Significant differences were observed in the levels of fecal progestagen between cycling females and females in late pregnancy. Low concentrations of fecal progestagen in females aged less than 18 months old indicated that sexual maturity in captivity is not attained before that age. PMID:21074833

  16. Earthquakes: Megathrusts and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, Rich

    2016-05-01

    Coastlines above subduction zones slowly emerge from the sea despite repeated drowning by great, shallow earthquakes. Analysis of the Chilean coast suggests that moderate-to-large, deeper earthquakes may be responsible for the net uplift.

  17. Subcontracted activities related to TES for building heating and cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The subcontract program elements related to thermal energy storage for building heating and cooling systems are outlined. The following factors are included: subcontracts in the utility load management application area; life and stability testing of packaged low cost energy storage materials; and development of thermal energy storage systems for residential space cooling. Resistance storage heater component development, demonstration of storage heater systems for residential applications, and simulation and evaluation of latent heat thermal energy storage (heat pump systems) are also discussed. Application of thermal energy storage for solar application and twin cities district heating are covered including an application analysis and technology assessment of thermal energy storage.

  18. Essential oil composition, phytotoxic and antifungal activities of Ruta chalepensis L. leaves from High Atlas Mountains (Morocco).

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, Sana; Romane, Abderrahmane; Benyamna, Abdennaji; Amri, Ismail; Hanana, Mohsen; Hamrouni, Lamia; Romdhane, Mehrez

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at the determination of chemical composition of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation, and to evaluate their phytotoxic and antifungal activities. Leaves of Ruta chalepensis L. were collected from the region of Tensift Al Haouz (High Atlas Mountains) Marrakech, Morocco. The essential oil (oil yield is 0.56%) was analysed by GC-FID and GC/MS. Twenty-two compounds were identified and accounted for 92.4% of the total oil composition. The major components were undecan-2-one (49.08%), nonan-2-one (33.15%), limonene (4.19%) and decanone (2.71%). Antifungal ability of essential oils was tested by disc agar diffusion against five plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium polyphialidicum. The oils were also tested in vitro for herbicidal activity by determining their influence on the germination and the shoot and root growth of two weed species, Triticum durum and Phalaris canariensis L.

  19. Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Building predictive gene signatures through simultaneous assessment of transcription factor activation and gene expression Exposure to many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals can cause adverse outcomes. These adverse outcomes, such as cancer, have been linked to mol...

  20. Workplace building design and office‐based workers' activity: a study of a natural experiment

    PubMed Central

    McGann, Sarah; Creagh, Robyn; Blackford, Krysten D.; Howat, Peter; Tye, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This opportunistic natural study investigated the effects of relocation of office workers from a 30‐year‐old building to a new purpose‐built building. The new building included an attractive central staircase that was easily accessed and negotiated, as well as breakout spaces and a centralised facilities area. The researchers aimed to determine the impact of the purpose‐built office building on the office workers' sedentariness and level of physical activity. Method: In 2013, a natural pre‐post study was undertaken with office‐based workers in their old conventional 1970s building and on relocating to a new purpose‐built ‘activity permissive’ building. Objective movement data was measured using accelerometers. Anthropometric and demographic data was also collected. Results: Forty‐two office‐based workers significantly decreased their percentage of daily sitting time (T1 = 84.9% to T2=79.7%; p<0.001) and increased their percentage of daily standing time (T1=11.2% to T2 17.0%; p<0.001) in the new building. Moderate activity significantly declined (T1=3.9% to 3.2%=T2; p=0.038). There was a significant decrease in mean minutes of sitting time (19.62 minutes; p<0.001) and increase in standing time (22.03 minutes; p<0.001). Conclusions: The design of a building can influence activity. This opportunistic study on the impact of workplace relocation on office‐based workers' activity showed modest positive outcomes in sitting and standing. Evidence is required to inform building design policy and practice that supports physical activity and reduces levels of sedentariness in the workplace. PMID:26455349

  1. 23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM ROOF OF TON CONTAINER RECONDITIONING BUILDING, SHOWING FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING AT FOREGROUND AND BUILDING 741, 742 AND 743 AT CENTER BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. Primary succession of soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial communities along the chronosequence of Tianshan Mountains No. 1 Glacier, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Lou, Kai; Eusufzai, Moniruzzaman Khan; Zhang, Tao; Lin, Qing; Shi, Ying-Wu; Yang, Hong-Mei; Li, Zhong-Qing

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the primary successions of soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial communities at the forefields of the Tianshan Mountains No. 1 Glacier by investigating soil microbial processes (microbial biomass and nitrogen mineralization), enzyme activity and community-level physiological profiling. Soils deglaciated between 1959 and 2008 (0, 5, 17, 31 and 44 years) were collected. Soils >1,500 years in age were used as a reference (alpine meadow soils). Soil enzyme activity and carbon-source utilization ability significantly increased with successional time. Amino-acid utilization rates were relatively higher in early, unvegetated soils (0 and 5 years), but carbohydrate utilization was higher in later stages (from 31 years to the reference soil). Discriminant analysis, including data on microbial processes and soil enzyme activities, revealed that newly exposed soils (0-5 years) and older soils (17-44 years) were well-separated from each other and obviously different from the reference soil. Correlation analysis revealed that soil organic carbon, was the primary factor influencing soil enzyme activity and heterotrophic microbial community succession. Redundancy analysis suggested that soil pH and available P were also affect microbial activity to a considerable degree. Our results indicated that glacier foreland soils have continued to develop over 44 years and soils were significantly affected by the geographic location of the glacier and the local topography. Soil enzyme activities and heterotrophic microbial communities were also significantly influenced by these variables. PMID:25472706

  3. Oblique view to south OvertheHorizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view to south - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Mountain Home Air Force Operations Building, On Desert Street at 9th Avenue Mountain Home Air Force Base, Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  4. Get Kids Moving: Simple Activities To Build Gross-Motor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the importance of activities to build gross motor skills and provides hints for encouraging such activities. Specific areas of activities presented are: (1) running and jumping; (2) music games; (3) action games; (4) races; (5) bed sheets or parachutes; (6) hula hoops; (7) balls; (8) batting; (9) balance; and (10) creative movement. (SD)

  5. 101 Activities for Building More Effective School-Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy; Mattox, Beverly

    This booklet contains a collection of more than 100 activities designed to promote school-home and school-community relations. Activities are organized into seven categories: (1) communicating word from home to school, (2) people to people, (3) educational events, (4) volunteers--hands on in the classroom, (5) utilizing community resources, (6)…

  6. How Does Physical Activity Help Build Healthy Bones?

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight-bearing physical activities include: Walking, jogging, or running Playing tennis or racquetball Playing field hockey Climbing stairs Jumping rope and other types of jumping Playing basketball Dancing Hiking Playing soccer Lifting weights Swimming and bicycling are not weight- ...

  7. The Timber Mountain magmato-thermal event: An intense widespread culmination of magmatic and hydrothermal activity at the southwestern Nevada volcanic field

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, M.R. Jr.

    1988-05-01

    Eruption of the Rainier Mesa and Ammonia Tanks Members Timber Mountain Tuff at about 11.5 and 11.3 Ma, respectively, resulted in formation of the timber Mountain (TM) caldera; new K-Ar ages show that volcanism within and around the TM caldera continued for about 1 m.y. after collapse. Some TM age magmatic activity took place west and southeast of the TM caldera in the Beatty -- Bullfrog Hills and Shoshone Mountain areas, suggesting that volcanic activity at the TM caldera was an intense expression of an areally extensive magmatic system active from about 11.5 to 10Ma. Epithermal Au-Ag, Hg and fluorite mineralization and hydrothermal alteration are found in both within and surrounding the Timber Mountain -- Oasis Valley caldera complex. New K-Ar ages date this hydrothermal activity between about 13 and 10 Ma, largely between about 11.5 and 10 Ma, suggesting a genetic relation of hydrothermal activity to the TM magmatic system.

  8. Endocrine assessment of ovarian cycle activity in wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Habumuremyi, Sosthene; Stephens, Colleen; Fawcett, Katie A; Deschner, Tobias; Robbins, Martha M

    2016-04-01

    Variability of fertility (i.e. number of births per female per year) has been reported in females of many primate species but only a few studies have explored the associated physiological and behavioral patterns. To investigate the proximate mechanisms of variability in fertility of wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), we quantified the occurrence of ovulation, matings, and successful pregnancies among females. We examined the profiles of immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (iPdG) for sixteen females (seven nulliparous and nine parous females, including one geriatric female; average sampling period for fecal sample collection and behavioral observations per female=175 days; SD=94 days, range=66-358 days) monitored by the staff of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. We quantified ovarian cycles from iPdG profiles using an algorithm that we developed by adjusting the method of Kassam et al. (1996) to the characteristics of ovarian cycle profiles based on fecal hormone measurements. The mean length of ovarian cycles was 29±4 days (median: 28 days, N=13 cycles), similar to ovarian cycle lengths of other great apes and humans. As expected, we found that female mountain gorillas exhibit longer follicular phases (mean±SD: 21±3 days, N=13 cycles) than luteal phases (mean±SD: 8±3 days, N=13 cycles). We also found that the frequency of ovarian cycles was greater in parous females (i.e. 20 ovarian cycles across 44 periods of 28 days; 45.5%) than in nulliparous females (i.e. two ovarian cycles across 34 periods of 28 days; 6%). However, the frequency of days on which matings were observed did not differ significantly between parous and nulliparous females, nor between pregnant and non-pregnant females. Five pregnancies were detected with iPdG levels, but only three resulted in live births, indicating miscarriages of the other two. In sum, this study provides information on the underlying

  9. Endocrine assessment of ovarian cycle activity in wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Habumuremyi, Sosthene; Stephens, Colleen; Fawcett, Katie A; Deschner, Tobias; Robbins, Martha M

    2016-04-01

    Variability of fertility (i.e. number of births per female per year) has been reported in females of many primate species but only a few studies have explored the associated physiological and behavioral patterns. To investigate the proximate mechanisms of variability in fertility of wild female mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei), we quantified the occurrence of ovulation, matings, and successful pregnancies among females. We examined the profiles of immunoreactive pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (iPdG) for sixteen females (seven nulliparous and nine parous females, including one geriatric female; average sampling period for fecal sample collection and behavioral observations per female=175 days; SD=94 days, range=66-358 days) monitored by the staff of the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center in Parc National des Volcans, Rwanda. We quantified ovarian cycles from iPdG profiles using an algorithm that we developed by adjusting the method of Kassam et al. (1996) to the characteristics of ovarian cycle profiles based on fecal hormone measurements. The mean length of ovarian cycles was 29±4 days (median: 28 days, N=13 cycles), similar to ovarian cycle lengths of other great apes and humans. As expected, we found that female mountain gorillas exhibit longer follicular phases (mean±SD: 21±3 days, N=13 cycles) than luteal phases (mean±SD: 8±3 days, N=13 cycles). We also found that the frequency of ovarian cycles was greater in parous females (i.e. 20 ovarian cycles across 44 periods of 28 days; 45.5%) than in nulliparous females (i.e. two ovarian cycles across 34 periods of 28 days; 6%). However, the frequency of days on which matings were observed did not differ significantly between parous and nulliparous females, nor between pregnant and non-pregnant females. Five pregnancies were detected with iPdG levels, but only three resulted in live births, indicating miscarriages of the other two. In sum, this study provides information on the underlying

  10. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development.

  11. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  12. Boundary Breakers: A Team Building Guide for Student Activity Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, John

    Boundary breakers, the modern term for "icebreakers," tear down barriers that sometimes form within student groups and organizations, and offer a low-risk way for group members to become better acquainted. This document is a "hands on" booklet that covers such boundary-breaking activities as "Send a Letter,""The Lap Game,""One-Minute Interview,"…

  13. Building a better mousetrap (exergame) to increase youth physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been us...

  14. Subway construction activity influence on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fine particles: Comparison with a background mountainous site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Qi; Yin, Yan; Li, Li; Chen, Kui; Liu, Dantong; Yuan, Liang; Pang, Xiaobing

    2015-07-01

    Intensive construction activities worsened the surrounding atmospheric environment in China. Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fine particles (PM2.5) were collected at a subway construction site (SC) of Nanjing and compared with a regional background mountainous site (BM) to examine the influence of anthropogenic activities on concentrations, sources and health risks of PAHs. Average PAH concentrations at SC were higher than BM at a factor of about 5.9. All PAH species at SC were higher than BM, with the SC/BM ratios ranging from 1.3 (NaP) to 10.3 (BaP). PAH profiles differed for the two sites. The SC site had higher mass fractions of PAHs from coal combustion and vehicle emission, while the BM site held higher mass percentages of PAHs from long-range transported wood combustion and industrial activities. Lower temperature at BM may lead to the higher mass percentages of low ring PAHs. Coal combustion, traffic emissions and biomass burning were the common sources for PAHs at both SC and BM. Construction workers were exposed to higher BaPeq concentrations, nearly ten times of the background site and their lifetime cancer risk reached to 0.6 per 1,000,000 exposed worker, owing to the influence of coal combustion, vehicle emission and industrial activities at the surroundings of SC.

  15. Waning buoyancy in the crustal roots of old mountains.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Karen M

    2002-06-27

    When mountains form through the collision of lithospheric plates, uplift of the Earth's surface is accompanied by thickening of the crust, and the buoyancy of these deep crustal roots (relative to the surrounding mantle) is thought to contribute to the support of mountain topography. Once active tectonism ceases, continuing erosion will progressively wear away surface relief. Here I provide new constraints on how crustal roots respond to erosional unloading over very long timescales. In old collisional mountain belts, ratios of surface relief to the thickness of the underlying crustal root are observed to be smaller than in young mountains. On the basis of gravity data, this trend is best explained by a decrease in the buoyancy of the crustal root with greater age since the most recent mountain-building episode which is consistent with metamorphic reactions produced by long-term cooling. An approximate balance between mountain and root mass anomalies suggests that the continental lithosphere remains weak enough to permit exhumation of crustal roots in response to surface erosion for hundreds of millions of years. The amount of such uplift, however, appears to be significantly reduced by progressive loss of root buoyancy.

  16. QSAR study on the antibacterial activity of some sulfa drugs: building blockers of Mannich bases.

    PubMed

    Mandloi, Dheeraj; Joshi, Sheela; Khadikar, Padmakar V; Khosla, Navita

    2005-01-17

    Sulfa drugs are building blockers of several types of Mannich bases. Consequently, the antibacterial activities of sulfa drugs are reported in this paper, which will help in explaining and understanding antibacterial activities of Mannich bases. Reported QSAR is carried out using distance-based topological indices and discussed critically on the basis of statistical parameters.

  17. Capacity Building as a Tool for Assessing Training and Development Activity: An Indian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krishnaveni, R.; Sripirabaa, B.

    2008-01-01

    In recognition of its increasing importance, many organizations make periodic assessments of their training and development activity. The objective of the present study was to extend the concept of capacity building to the assessment of training and development activity in an automobile component manufacturing organization, using a developed and…

  18. Generating Effective Facilitation Questions for Team-Building/Personal-Challenge Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbei, Ritchie

    2004-01-01

    Team-building/personal-challenge (TB/PC) activities have become popular ways to address students' interpersonal and intrapersonal skills and abilities associated with the affective domain. The outcomes associated with TB/PC activities are often best experienced and learned through the use of indirect methods of instruction. Typically, many…

  19. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2003-12-17

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigates the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. This topical report describes the demonstration of the model-based predictive optimal control for active and passive building thermal storage inventory in a test facility in real-time using time-of-use differentiated electricity prices without demand charges. The laboratory testing findings presented in this topical report cover the second of three project phases. The novel supervisory controller successfully executed a three-step procedure consisting of (1) short-term weather prediction, (2) optimization of control strategy over the next planning horizon using a calibrated building model, and (3) post-processing of the optimal strategy to yield a control command for the current time step that can be executed in the test facility. The primary and secondary building mechanical systems were effectively orchestrated by the model-based predictive optimal controller in real-time while observing comfort and operational constraints. The findings reveal that when the optimal controller is given imperfect weather fore-casts and when the building model used for planning control strategies does not match the actual building perfectly, measured utility costs savings relative to conventional building operation can be substantial. This requires that the facility under control lends itself to passive storage utilization and the building model

  20. Influence of human activities on the historical and current distribution of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengliang; Wang, Xiaowei; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Zhao, Haitao; Wei, Wei; Li, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Due to their rich animal diversity and the presence of rare and endemic species, the Qinling Mountains are listed as a significant global biodiversity area. The Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) has been distributed in this area since the Middle Pleistocene. Due to the gradual encroachment of humans into their habitat, both the distribution range and population sizes of R. roxellana have significantly decreased. Based on literature research as well as field and questionnaires, we investigated the influence of human activities on R. roxellana distribution in the Qinling Mountains. Human activity within the habitat of R. roxellana began in the Stone and Bronze Ages, though initially it had no significant influence on its populations. When China entered the Iron Age, however, different historical and social periods had a considerable impact on R. roxellana distribution. Although national and provincial level governments introduced strict protection policies with the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, human activities continued to influence R. roxellana distribution. Since the launch of the Natural Forest Protection Project across the Qinling Mountains in 1999, the quality of R. roxellana habitat has shown marked improvement. This research will help promote the survival and conservation of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains. PMID:25612509

  1. Responses of Fraxinus excelsior L. seedlings to ambient ozone exposure in urban and mountain areas based on physiological characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Parvanova, Petya; Tzvetkova, Nikolina; Bratanova-Doncheva, Svetla; Chipev, Nesho; Fikova, Radka; Donev, Evgeni

    2013-07-01

    Effects of ozone on the sensitive tree species Fraxinus excelsior L. exposed to ambient air were investigated. The dynamics of photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal conductance and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in three-year-old ash seedlings were studied during a four-month period (June-September). Seedlings were exposed to ambient ozone in an urban (the Central City Park of Sofia - Borisova Gradina) and a mountain (Plana Mountain) area in Bulgaria. The sites were located near climate monitoring stations, providing data on ozone concentrations and meteorological parameters. Ozone exposure at the mountain site (AOT40) was more than two times higher compared to the urban site. Significantly higher values of sun radiation, transpiration, stomatal conductance and enzyme activity at the mountain site were also observed. At the urban site higher values of temperature and air humidity were registered. Effects of the measured variables on ash seedlings were complex and interdependent. No direct effect of ozone concentration in ambient air on the leaf physiology and biochemistry could be proved. However, intensified SOD and CAT activity in the presence of elevated ozone suggested antioxidant reaction in response to ozone uptake. PMID:23760537

  2. Building inhabitant feedback: Creating a reflective practice for environmental design using activity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dara Suzanne

    The way buildings are designed now, there is little feedback from use involved in the design process. Attempts to correct this problem have been made in the form of Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) for 50-years but have largely failed. POEs are the accepted method for environmental designers to collect feedback about buildings in use. They are infrequently conducted, after the building is built, in a one-time only evaluation, and not funded as part of the build process. Other products receive feedback about the design in use from online critiques. Online critiques could provide a platform for feedback from actors engaged with buildings in use for environmental designers to utilize in developing reflective design rationale to avoid adverse consequences in future designs or correct consequences in past and current designs. Since buildings constitute such a large part of the human environment, it's important to research the effects of buildings on their inhabitants. In order for environmental designers to act on feedback from situated use, designers need to have access to that feedback and all actors interacting with the building design need to have an easy, inexpensive, and accessible method to submit feedback. These needs can be addressed by utilizing modern networked and mobile computing to collect and access building feedback. The analysis presented in this dissertation is informed by a thorough evaluation of the theory of reflective practice, activity theory, environmental design, and cognitive science research. From this analysis, I developed the following contributions. First, I expanded Schon's reflective practice by combining his theory with a modified version of activity theory, using activity theory to enrich reflective practice and create Reflective Activity Systems Theory (RAST), which provides a new framework to develop design rationale based on feedback from use and a focus on the activity. Second, I suggest the design of an activity information system

  3. Active tectonics of the Devils Mountain Fault and related structures, northern Puget Lowland and eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca region, Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Mosher, David C.; Blakely, Richard J.; Childs, Jonathan R.

    2001-01-01

    Information from marine high-resolution and conventional seismic-reflection surveys, aeromagnetic mapping, coastal exposures of Pleistocene strata, and lithologic logs of water wells is used to assess the active tectonics of the northern Puget Lowland and eastern Strait of Juan de Fuca region of the Pacific Northwest. These data indicate that the Devils Mountain Fault and the newly recognized Strawberry Point and Utsalady Point faults are active structures and represent potential earthquake sources.

  4. Building a beverage for recovery from endurance activity: a review.

    PubMed

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-11-01

    Recovery beverages are commonly used by endurance and team-sport athletes during the time between exercise sessions. Practical recommendations on the optimal nutrient composition of these drinks and timing of their consumption are therefore needed. This article summarizes research to date on the use of recovery beverages after aerobic activities and provides the following recommendations for practitioners on the optimal formula and timing of use for endurance and team-sport athletes. Current evidence suggests that, to maximize glycogen resynthesis, athletes should consume about 1.2 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight as glucose and sucrose immediately after exercise and each hour thereafter for 4-6 hours postexercise. Alternatively, they may consume 0.8 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) in combination with 0.4 g·kg(-1)·h(-1) amino acids or protein. Liquids provide valuable fluids for rehydration, and an ideal recovery beverage should not only contain carbohydrate and protein but also contain electrolytes, including about 0.3-0.7 g sodium·per liter fluid to help restore sodium lost through sweat. Commercial beverages with this type of nutrient composition are effective, and recent work indicates that chocolate milk may be as effective as or superior to these in promoting recovery. Research regarding the effects of specific types of amino acids and antioxidants on recovery is mixed; thus, further investigation is needed before specific recommendations about these nutrients can be made. Future studies that include women and athletes representing a variety of sports, ages, and training levels and that use consistent methodology will lead to a better understanding of the effects of postexercise intake on recovery.

  5. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  6. Inventory of U.S.-led International Activities on Building Energy Efficiency Initial Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Alison; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-04-01

    Several U.S. Government agencies promote energy efficiency in buildings internationally. The types and scope of activities vary by agency. Those with the largest role include the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the U.S. Department of State and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Both USAID and the Department of State have a substantial presence overseas, which may present some complementarities with the Department of Energy’s efforts to reach out to other countries. Generally speaking, USAID focuses on capacity building and policy issues; the Department of State focuses on broad diplomatic efforts and some targeted grants in support of these efforts, and EPA has more targeted roles linked to ENERGY STAR appliances and a few other activities. Several additional agencies are also involved in trade-related efforts to promote energy efficiency in buildings. These include the Department of Commerce, the Export-Import Bank, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation and the Trade and Development Agency (TDA). This initial synthesis report is designed to summarize broad trends and activities relating to international cooperation on energy efficiency in buildings, which can help the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in developing its own strategy in this area. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will develop a more complete synthesis report later in 2010 as it populates a database on international projects on building energy efficiency.

  7. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  8. Experimental investigation on seismic response control of adjacent buildings using semi-active MR dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yi-Qing; Liu, H. J.; Ko, Jan Ming

    2002-06-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on semi-active seismic response control of adjacent building structures using magneto-rheological (MR) dampers. A 1:15 scaled adjacent structural system consisting of a 12-story building model and an 8-story building model was tested on shaking table with MR damper passive and semi-active control. An MR damper with large stroke is specifically designed for this study. After experimentally identifying dynamic characteristics of the individual MR damper and the uncontrolled structural models, the two building models are interconnected with the MR damper at different floors and semi-active control is implemented using the dSPACE DS1005 real-time control system. The structures are excited on their base by a shaking table imposing sweep sine excitation and El Centro earthquake excitation. A stochastic optimal control strategy proposed by the authors is applied through the dSPACE system and its MATLAB environment to accomplish real-time semi-active control from the measurement of displacement and velocity responses at each floor. This control strategy results in a dissipative energy control with its feedback control force being a nonlinear generalized damping force. The structural response under semi-active control is compared with that by using the MR damper as a passive device without voltage input. Different MR damper installation locations are addressed in the experimental study to search for maximum response mitigation capability.

  9. SOME NATURAL CONDUIT ANALOGUES FOR POTENTIAL IGNEOUS ACTIVITY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    SciTech Connect

    D.J. Krier; G.N. Keating; G.A. Valentine

    2005-08-26

    Eruptive conduit geometry has direct relation to number of waste packages that would be damaged if a new volcano were to form at the proposed Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository, and therefore is a key factor in predicting the consequences of such an eruption. Current risk calculations treat conduits as having circular plan view and range from a few meters to 150 m diameter at repository depths ({approx}300 m). We present new observations of shallow basaltic plumbing at analog sites aimed at testing these parameter values. East Grants Ridge. NM, is a remnant of a {approx}2.6 Ma alkali basaltic volcano with a chain of 2-3 vents that fed {approx}10-km long lava flows. The south side of the ridge exposes a plug of vertically jointed, dense basalt that intruded rhyolitic tuffs. The plug is exposed vertically for {approx}125 m, including 40 m beneath the paleosurface, and has a relatively constant width of {approx}135 m with no indication of downward narrowing. The size of the plug in the third dimension is not well known but could extend laterally up to {approx}1.5 km beneath the chain of vents. Paiute Ridge, NV, is an 8.6 Ma alkali basalt intrusion into Paleozoic carbonate and shale and Miocene silicic tuffs and includes extrusive equivalents. Dikes, small sills and lopoliths, scoria, and flows are exposed in a 2 km-wide graben. Depth of intrusion has been estimated at 100-250 m beneath the paleosurface. Dikes range from 3-20 m in width and produced limited contact vitrophyre in the host tuff. At least one sub-volcanic neck is preserved. The top of the plug is {approx}27 m lower than the base of related basalt flows 1 km distant. This neck is irregularly shaped by intersection of feeder dikes and has a sheath of mixed basaltic magma and host tuff (with both breccia and fluidal textures). The basalt interior of the plug is {approx}100 m x 70 m in map view but inclusion of the mixed zone increases this to {approx}220 m x 110 m. Basalt Ridge, NV, contains two

  10. Recognition of human activities using depth images of Kinect for biofied building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Ami; Mita, Akira

    2015-03-01

    These days, various functions in the living spaces are needed because of an aging society, promotion of energy conservation, and diversification of lifestyles. To meet this requirement, we propose "Biofied Building". The "Biofied Building" is the system learnt from living beings. The various information is accumulated in a database using small sensor agent robots as a key function of this system to control the living spaces. Among the various kinds of information about the living spaces, especially human activities can be triggers for lighting or air conditioning control. By doing so, customized space is possible. Human activities are divided into two groups, the activities consisting of single behavior and the activities consisting of multiple behaviors. For example, "standing up" or "sitting down" consists of a single behavior. These activities are accompanied by large motions. On the other hand "eating" consists of several behaviors, holding the chopsticks, catching the food, putting them in the mouth, and so on. These are continuous motions. Considering the characteristics of two types of human activities, we individually, use two methods, R transformation and variance. In this paper, we focus on the two different types of human activities, and propose the two methods of human activity recognition methods for construction of the database of living space for "Biofied Building". Finally, we compare the results of both methods.

  11. Building an Understanding of Functions: A Series of Activities for Pre-Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Olivia M.

    2008-01-01

    Building block toys can be used to illustrate various concepts connected with functions including graphs and rates of change of linear and exponential functions, piecewise functions, and composition of functions. Five brief activities suitable for a pre-calculus course are described.

  12. 45 CFR 2520.30 - What capacity-building activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AmeriCorps members perform should enhance the mission, strategy, skills, and culture, as well as systems, infrastructure, and human resources of an organization that is meeting unmet community needs. Capacity-building activities help an organization gain greater independence and sustainability. (a) The AmeriCorps members...

  13. Essential Learnings in Environmental Education--A Database for Building Activities and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Melissa, Comp.; Pandya, Mamata, Comp.

    The purpose of this book is to provide building blocks for designing and reviewing environmental education programs and activities. This handbook provides 600 basic concepts needed to attain the environmental education goals outlined at the Tbilisi, USSR, conference and generally agreed to be the fundamental core of quality environmental…

  14. T & I--Building Construction, Safety. Kit No. 1. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building construction safety are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  15. A Mountain Child: An Active Learning Pack for 9-13 Year Olds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyle, Sue; Jenkins, Alyson

    This resource packet includes a teacher's guide, reproducible student activity sheets, a simulation game: "Life with the Incas", and a poster. The resource presents a cross-curricular thematic approach to the United Kingdom's National Curriculum. The materials look at the Andes and the Andean people, the Quechuan, who live in the Peruvian…

  16. [Vertical distribution of soil active carbon and soil organic carbon storage under different forest types in the Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Wang, Di; Geng, Zeng-Chao; She, Diao; He, Wen-Xiang; Hou, Lin

    2014-06-01

    Adopting field investigation and indoor analysis methods, the distribution patterns of soil active carbon and soil carbon storage in the soil profiles of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Matoutan Forest, I), Pinus tabuliformis (II), Pinus armandii (III), pine-oak mixed forest (IV), Picea asperata (V), and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata (Xinjiashan Forest, VI) of Qinling Mountains were studied in August 2013. The results showed that soil organic carbon (SOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and easily oxidizable carbon (EOC) decreased with the increase of soil depth along the different forest soil profiles. The SOC and DOC contents of different depths along the soil profiles of P. asperata and pine-oak mixed forest were higher than in the other studied forest soils, and the order of the mean SOC and DOC along the different soil profiles was V > IV > I > II > III > VI. The contents of soil MBC of the different forest soil profiles were 71.25-710.05 mg x kg(-1), with a content sequence of I > V > N > III > II > VI. The content of EOC along the whole soil profile of pine-oak mixed forest had a largest decline, and the order of the mean EOC was IV > V> I > II > III > VI. The sequence of soil organic carbon storage of the 0-60 cm soil layer was V > I >IV > III > VI > II. The MBC, DOC and EOC contents of the different forest soils were significanty correlated to each other. There was significant positive correlation among soil active carbon and TOC, TN. Meanwhile, there was no significant correlation between soil active carbon and other soil basic physicochemical properties.

  17. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  18. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  19. Monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities in mountain lakes: a case of the Fifth Triglav Lake in the Julian Alps.

    PubMed

    Ravnikar, Tina; Bohanec, Marko; Muri, Gregor

    2016-04-01

    The Fifth Triglav Lake is a remote mountain lake in the Julian Alps. The area of the Julian Alps where the lake is situated is protected by law and lies within the Triglav National Park. Mountain lakes in Slovenia were considered for a long time as pristine, unpolluted lakes, but analyses in the last decade revealed considerable human impact even in such remote places. Eutrophication or excessive accumulation of nutrients is the main problem of most lakes in the temperate climatic zone, also in Slovenia. Since the introduction of fish in 1991, the lake is going through a series of changes for which we do not know exactly where they lead, so the monitoring and assessment of anthropogenic activities are of great importance. For this purpose, a qualitative multiattribute decision model was developed with DEX method to assess ecological effects on the lake. The extent of the ecological effects on the lake is assessed using four main parameters: the trophic state, lake characteristics, environmental parameters, and anthropogenic stressors. Dependence of environmental impact on various external factors beyond human control, such as temperature, precipitation, retention time, and factors on which we have influence, such as the amount of wastewater and the presence of fish in the lake, were also evaluated. The following data were measured: chlorophyll a, nutrients, TP, oxygen, C/N ratio, nutrients in sediment, temperature, precipitation, retention time, and volume. We made assumptions about fish and wastewater, which we could not measure. The main contributions of this work are the designed model and the obtained findings for the Fifth Triglav Lake that can help not only scientists in understanding the complexity of lake-watershed systems and interactions among system components but also local authorities to manage and monitor the lake aquatic environment in an effective and efficient way. The model is flexible and can be also used for other lakes, assuming that the used

  20. Soil Microbial Biomass, Basal Respiration and Enzyme Activity of Main Forest Types in the Qinling Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  1. Soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of main forest types in the Qinling Mountains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Peng, Xiaobang; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Jie; Zhong, Chonggao; Cheng, Yalong; Cui, Cui; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2013-01-01

    Different forest types exert essential impacts on soil physical-chemical characteristics by dominant tree species producing diverse litters and root exudates, thereby further regulating size and activity of soil microbial communities. However, the study accuracy is usually restricted by differences in climate, soil type and forest age. Our objective is to precisely quantify soil microbial biomass, basal respiration and enzyme activity of five natural secondary forest (NSF) types with the same stand age and soil type in a small climate region and to evaluate relationship between soil microbial and physical-chemical characters. We determined soil physical-chemical indices and used the chloroform fumigation-extraction method, alkali absorption method and titration or colorimetry to obtain the microbial data. Our results showed that soil physical-chemical characters remarkably differed among the NSFs. Microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) was the highest in wilson spruce soils, while microbial biomass nitrogen (Nmic) was the highest in sharptooth oak soils. Moreover, the highest basal respiration was found in the spruce soils, but mixed, Chinese pine and spruce stands exhibited a higher soil qCO2. The spruce soils had the highest Cmic/Nmic ratio, the greatest Nmic/TN and Cmic/Corg ratios were found in the oak soils. Additionally, the spruce soils had the maximum invertase activity and the minimum urease and catalase activities, but the maximum urease and catalase activities were found in the mixed stand. The Pearson correlation and principle component analyses revealed that the soils of spruce and oak stands obviously discriminated from other NSFs, whereas the others were similar. This suggested that the forest types affected soil microbial properties significantly due to differences in soil physical-chemical features. PMID:23840671

  2. Characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge during the beginning of snowmelt in volcanically active mountainous environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouri, Goro; Ros, Faizah Che; Chalov, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    To better understand instream suspended sediment delivery and transformation processes, we conducted field measurements and laboratory experiments to study the natural function of spatial and temporal variation, sediment particles, stable isotopes, particle size, and aspect ratio from tributary to mainstream flows of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River catchment at the beginning of and during snowmelt. The Sukhaya Elizovskaya River is located in the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and is surrounded by active volcanic territory. The study area has a range of hydrological features that determine the extreme amounts of washed sediments. Sediment transported to the river channels in volcanic mountainous terrain is believed to be strongly influenced by climate conditions, particularly when heavy precipitation and warmer climate trigger mudflows in association with the melting snow. The high porosity of the channel bottom material also leads to interactions with the surface water, causing temporal variability in the daily fluctuations in water and sediment flow. Field measurements revealed that suspended sediment behaviour and fluxes decreased along the mainstream Sukhaya Elizovskaya River from inflows from a tributary catchment located in the volcanic mountain range. In laboratory experiments, water samples collected from tributaries were mixed with those from the mainstream flow of the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River to examine the cause of debris flow and characteristics of suspended sediment in the mainstream. These findings and the geological conditions of the tributary catchments studied led us to conclude that halloysite minerals likely comprise the majority of suspended sediments and play a significant role in phosphate adsorption. The experimental results were upscaled and verified using field measurements. Our results indicate that the characteristics of suspended sediment and river discharge in the Sukhaya Elizovskaya River can be attributed primarily to the beginning of

  3. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  4. Response of soil microbial activity and community structure to land use changes in a mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthast, Karin; Hamer, Ute; Makeschin, Franz

    2010-05-01

    Over the past several decades the mountain rainforest region of Southern Ecuador, a hotspot of biodiversity, is undergoing a rapid conversion to pastureland through slash and burn practice. Frequently this pastureland is invaded by the tropical bracken fern. When the bracken becomes dominant on the pasture sites the productivity decreases and the sites are abandoned. To assess the effect of these land use changes on nutrient turnover and on ecosystem functioning, a study was conducted in the area of the German research station Estación Científica San Francisco (ECSF) in Southern Ecuador. At 2000 m above sea level three adjacent sites were selected: a mountain rainforest site, an active pasture site dominated by the grass species Setaria sphacelata and an abandoned pasture site overgrown by bracken. Mineral soil samples of all three sites (0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm) as well as samples from the organic layer (Oi and Oa) of the natural forest site were taken to analyze biogeochemical properties. Besides pH-value, total organic C and N contents, the amounts of microbial biomass (CFE-method), microbial activity (basal respiration, net N mineralization (KCl-extraction); gross N mineralization (15N dilution technique) rates) and microbial community structure (PLFA-analysis) were determined. 17 years after pasture establishment, twofold higher stocks of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and nitrogen (Nmic) as well as significant lower C:N ratios were determined compared to the natural forest including the 11 cm thick organic layer. 10 years after bracken invasion and pasture abandonment the microbial biomass (Cmic) decreased and the C:N ratio increased again to forest levels. Generally, land use change from forest to pasture and from pasture to abandoned pasture induced shifts in the soil microbial community structure. The relative abundance of the fast growing copiotrophic Gram(-) bacteria was positively correlated with the amounts of readily available organic carbon

  5. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  6. Radioprotective effects of active compounds from Acanthopanax senticosus of Lesser Khingan Mountain in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weihong; Sun, Yeqing; Shi, Jinming

    Bioactive compounds including polysaccharides, flavones, syringin and eleutheroside E were extracted from wild Acanthopanax senticosus and purified by chromatography. In vitro and in vivo anti-radiation activities of the compounds were compared. In vitro radical scavenging results showed that polysaccharides and flavones were more effective than syringin and eleutheroside E in In vivo study proved that polysaccharides and flavones were effective in protecting mice from heavy ion radiation induced oxidative damages. Also, the activity of polysaccharides and flavones in repressing expression changes of radiation response proteins including heat shock protein, disulfide-isomerase and glutathione S-transferase were also found by our results. Moreover, the radioprotective effects were more significant when polysaccharides and flavones were used together.

  7. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased.

  8. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

  9. A measurement routine to determine 137Cs activities at steep mountain slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaub, Monika; Konz, Nadine; Meusburger, Katrin; Alewell, Chrstine

    2010-05-01

    Caesium-137 (137Cs) is a common tracer for soil erosion. So far, in-situ measurements in steep alpine environments have not often been done. Most studies have been carried out in arable lands and with Ge detectors. However, the NaI detector system is a good priced, easy to handle field instrument. A comparison of laboratory measurements with GeLi detector and in-situ measurements with NaI detector of 137Cs gamma soil radiation has been done in an alpine catchment (Urseren Valley, Swizerland). The aim of this study was to calibrate the in-situ NaI detector system for application at steep alpine slopes. Replicate samples from an altitudinal transect through the Urseren Valley were measured ex situ in the laboratory with a GeLi detector, and compared to in situ NaI detector measurements. Ex situ soil samples showed a big variability in 137Cs activities at a meter-scale. This large, small scale heterogeneity determined with the GeLi detector is smoothed out by uncollimated in-situ measurements with the NaI detector, which provide integrated estimates of 137Cs within the field of view of each measurement (3.1 m2). There was no dependency of 137Cs on pH, clay content and carbon content. However, a close relationship was determined between 137Cs and soil moisture. Thus, in-situ data must be corrected for soil moisture. Close correlation (R2 = 0.86) was found for 137Cs activities (in Bq kg-1) estimated with both, in-situ (NaI detector) and laboratory (GeLi detector) methods which proves the validity of the in-situ measurements with the NaI detector system. This paper describes the calibration of the NaI detector system for field application under elevated 137Cs activities originating from Chernobyl fallout.

  10. Rocky Mountain futures: An ecological perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.

    2002-01-01

    The United Nations has proclaimed 2002 as the International Year of Mountains to increase international awareness of the global importance of mountain ecosystems. The case-based multidisciplinary approach of this book constitutes an important new model for understanding the implications of land-use practices and economic activity on mountains, and will serve a vital role in improving decisionmaking both in the Rocky Mountains and in other parts of the world that face similar challenges.

  11. Impacts of direct human activity and climate change on north Ethiopian mountain landscapes over 140 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyssen, Jan; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Hurni, Hans; Descheemaeker, Katrien; Ritler, Alfons; Crummey, Donald; Nievergelt, Bernhard; Moeyersons, Jan; Munro, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Studies on recent environmental change in tropical areas are generally conducted over limited time scales. This study makes a multi-scale assessment over a time span of 140 years, in one of the world's most degraded areas: the highlands of Northern Ethiopia. 300 landscapes, pictured on historical photographs, starting 1868, were re-photographed and environmental changes apparent on the paired photographs were analysed through expert rating. General tendencies appearing include an improved vegetation cover nowadays as compared to any period of the last 140 years, with a second optimum in the early 20th century. In the uppermost areas (above 3500 m a.s.l.) an upward shift of the upper tree line (Erica arborea) is observed, demonstrating that global warming takes also place in this region. At lower elevations, increased vegetation cover is the result of 25 years of intense rehabilitation activities. Physical soil and water conservation follows the same trend. Regional variations occurring in these trends are observed and discussed. The findings are substantiated by field investigations. The positive changes that result from these conservation activities in the north Ethiopian highlands are an issue of global concern as they show that (1) in our study area direct human impact on the environment is overriding and (2) severe land degradation should not always be irreversible.

  12. Active vibration suppression through positive acceleration feedback on a building-like structure: An experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enríquez-Zárate, J.; Silva-Navarro, G.; Abundis-Fong, H. F.

    2016-05-01

    This work deals with the structural and dynamic analysis of a building-like structure consisting of a three-story building with one active vibration absorber. The base of the structure is perturbed using an electromagnetic shaker, which provides forces with a wide range of excitation frequencies, including some resonance frequencies of the structure. One beam-column of the structure is coupled with a PZT stack actuator to reduce the vibrations. The overall mechanical structure is modeled using Euler-Lagrange methodology and validated using experimental modal analysis and Fine Element Method (FEM) techniques. The active control laws are synthesized to actively attenuate the vibration system response via the PZT stack actuator, caused by excitation forces acting on the base of the structure. The control scheme is obtained using Positive Acceleration Feedback (PAF) and Multiple Positive Acceleration Feedback (MPAF) to improve the closed-loop system response. Some experimental results are included to illustrate the overall system performance.

  13. Seismic response of torsionally coupled building with passive and semi-active stiffness dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevada, Snehal V.; Jangid, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The seismic response of single-storey, one-way asymmetric building with passive and semi-active variable stiffness dampers is investigated. The governing equations of motion are derived based on the mathematical model of asymmetric building. The seismic response of the system is obtained by numerically solving the equations of motion using state-space method under different system parameters. The switching and resetting control laws are considered for the semi-active devices. The important parameters considered are eccentricity ratio of superstructure, uncoupled lateral time period and ratio of uncoupled torsional to lateral frequency. The effects of these parameters are investigated on peak lateral, torsional and edge displacements and accelerations as well as on damper control forces. The comparative performance is investigated for asymmetric building installed with passive stiffness and semi-active stiffness dampers. It is shown that the semi-active stiffness dampers reduce the earthquake-induced displacements and accelerations significantly as compared to passive stiffness dampers. Also, the effects of torsional coupling on effectiveness of passive dampers in reducing displacements and accelerations are found to be more significant to the variation of eccentricity as compared to semi-active stiffness dampers.

  14. Predictive Optimal Control of Active and Passive Building Thermal Storage Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Gregor P. Henze; Moncef Krarti

    2005-09-30

    Cooling of commercial buildings contributes significantly to the peak demand placed on an electrical utility grid. Time-of-use electricity rates encourage shifting of electrical loads to off-peak periods at night and weekends. Buildings can respond to these pricing signals by shifting cooling-related thermal loads either by precooling the building's massive structure or the use of active thermal energy storage systems such as ice storage. While these two thermal batteries have been engaged separately in the past, this project investigated the merits of harnessing both storage media concurrently in the context of predictive optimal control. To pursue the analysis, modeling, and simulation research of Phase 1, two separate simulation environments were developed. Based on the new dynamic building simulation program EnergyPlus, a utility rate module, two thermal energy storage models were added. Also, a sequential optimization approach to the cost minimization problem using direct search, gradient-based, and dynamic programming methods was incorporated. The objective function was the total utility bill including the cost of reheat and a time-of-use electricity rate either with or without demand charges. An alternative simulation environment based on TRNSYS and Matlab was developed to allow for comparison and cross-validation with EnergyPlus. The initial evaluation of the theoretical potential of the combined optimal control assumed perfect weather prediction and match between the building model and the actual building counterpart. The analysis showed that the combined utilization leads to cost savings that is significantly greater than either storage but less than the sum of the individual savings. The findings reveal that the cooling-related on-peak electrical demand of commercial buildings can be considerably reduced. A subsequent analysis of the impact of forecasting uncertainty in the required short-term weather forecasts determined that it takes only very simple

  15. 31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SOUTH PLANT NORTHERN EDGE, SHOWING CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT LEFT, LABORATORY (BUILDING 241) AT CENTER AND CAUSTIC FUSION PLANT (BUILDING 254) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. Nest building activity and bioturbation of the ant Lasius niger (L.).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tůma, Jiří; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The ants are called ecosystem engineers as they represents a significant group of bioturbation organisms in the soil. The ants can relocate considerable amount of soil material during their nest building activity. We can then record different soil properties inside and outside of the ant nest and thus ants contribute on mediating soil fertility. The ants are group of social insects with complex behavioural patterns which are self-organized. If we want to know which factors are determining these patterns in the nest building activity, we must study the construction process of the nest itself. Here, we are presenting the results of the nest building experiment with the ant Lasius niger (L.) in artificial formicaria with various combinations of materials. We found a negative effect of the fine material on building the underground structures. The width of the one-way tunnels was positively correlated with the maximum spread of the ant antennae. There was proportionally more excavated volume represented by chambers than by tunnels. The volume of excavated space decreased with the depth of the formicaria. We discuss here the relocation of the material in both vertical directions in our experiment. The ants excavated 56,17 cm3 of the space on the average, which represents 17,38 % of the total volume of the material in the formicaria. Finally, the volume of the excavated space correlated positively with the maximal reached depth of the formicaria as well as with the life span of the ant colony.

  17. Metabolic activity of moulds as a factor of building materials biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Gutarowska, Beata

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the effect of building materials on the growth and metabolic activity of moulds. In cultures of Aspergillus and Penicillium moulds grown on a model medium with the addition of building materials, the biomass of mycelium, its cellular components--glucan, chitin, ergosterol and the spectrum of enzymes and organic acids produced in the medium were investigated. It was found that on the medium with wallpaper moulds produced more biomass and extracellular enzymes, mainly glycolytic ones. On medium with mortar the growth of mycelium was impeded, production of biomass was 60% smaller, the quantity of chitin, glucan and ergosterol decreased 13-41%, and the activity of most enzymes was reduced; however the moulds intensively produced organic acids: malic, succinic and oxalic acid. The largest acid production activity was found in medium with addition of mortar; moulds produced the greatest variety of acids and in greater quantities than in the control medium. Metabolic activity of the moulds depends on the type of building material, and may lead to biodeterioration of these materials.

  18. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  19. Prediction of landslide activation at locations in Beskidy Mountains using standard and real-time monitoring methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarczyk, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The paper presents landslide monitoring methods used for prediction of landslide activity at locations in the Carpathian Mountains (SE Poland). Different types of monitoring methods included standard and real-time early warning measurement with use of hourly data transfer to the Internet were used. Project financed from the EU funds was carried out for the purpose of public road reconstruction. Landslides with low displacement rates (varying from few mm to over 5cm/year) had size of 0.4-2.2mln m3. Flysch layers involved in mass movements represented mixture of clayey soils and sandstones of high moisture content and plasticity. Core sampling and GPR scanning were used for recognition of landslide size and depths. Laboratory research included index, IL oedometer, triaxial and direct shear laboratory tests. GPS-RTK mapping was employed for actualization of landslide morphology. Instrumentation consisted of standard inclinometers, piezometers and pore pressure transducers. Measurements were carried 2006-2011, every month. In May 2010 the first in Poland real-time monitoring system was installed at landslide complex over the Szymark-Bystra public road. It included in-place uniaxial sensors and 3D continuous inclinometers installed to the depths of 12-16m with tilt sensors every 0.5m. Vibrating wire pore pressure and groundwater level transducers together with automatic meteorological station analyzed groundwater and weather conditions. Obtained monitoring and field investigations data provided parameters for LEM and FEM slope stability analysis. They enabled prediction and control of landslide behaviour before, during and after stabilization or partly stabilization works. In May 2010 after the maximum precipitation (100mm/3hours) the rates of observed displacements accelerated to over 11cm in a few days and damaged few standard inclinometer installations. However permanent control of the road area was possible by continuous inclinometer installations. Comprehensive

  20. Coupling Fluvial Processes and Landslide Distribution Toward Geomorphological Hazard Assessment: Cases in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges in Taiwan and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, C. Y.; Chigira, M.; Matsushi, Y.; Arai, N.; Chen, S. C.; Feng, Z. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale destabilization of mountain slopes, which are affected by long-term river incision, give rise to the risk of catastrophic failures in tectonically active ranges. We found deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DGSDs) induced by these processes in the Chishan River and Dahan River in the Central Range in Taiwan and the Kumano River in the Kii Mts. in Japan. These areas comprise paleosurface remnants with moderate relief at higher elevations and incised V-shaped inner gorges below them, which were made by the recession of knickpoints. Our studies include field surveys, mapping of DGSD and landslide scars, and cosmogenic nuclide exposure dating of several landform surfaces. In the Dahan River catchment, rims of paleosurfaces, which have a minimum age of ca. 150 kyr, are distributed up to 600 m above the present river bed, acting as a proxy of fluvial dissection associated with phases of river incision since the middle to late Pleistocene. The relationships between slope movements and the topography modified by the river incision show that about 53% of all DGSDs, or all large DGSDs (>106 m2) and catastrophic landslides occurred on slopes along the rims of paleosurfaces, suggesting they could be fundamentally controlled by long-term river incision. Catastrophic landslides observed along or below the rims of paleosurfaces were preceded by buckling of alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone on parallel or underdip cataclinal slopes dipped at 50° to 58°. This suggests that the peripheral zones of the paleosurfaces may be most susceptible to future catastrophic landslides, particularly on parallel or underdip cataclinal slopes comprising alternating beds of sandstone and mudstone dipping at 50° to 60°. The 2009 Typhoon Morakot-induced Shiaolin landslide along the Chishan River and the 2011 Typhoon Talas-induced catastrophic landslides along the Kumano River also occurred on the gravitationally deformed slopes along the rims of paleosurfaces.

  1. The 1989 earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain, California: an initial look at the 4 May through 30 September activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a 50 000- to 200 000-yr-old cumulovolcano standing on the southwestern rim of Long Valley in eastern California. On 4 May 1989, two M=1 earthquakes beneath the south flank of the mountain marked the onset of a swarm that has continued for more than 6 months. In addition to its longevity, noteworthy aspects of this persistent swarm are described. These aspects of the swarm, together with its location along the southern extension of the youthful Mono-Inyo volcanic chain, which last erupted 500 to 600 yr ago, point to a magmatic source for the modest but persistent influx of strain energy into the crust beneath Mammoth Mountain. -from Authors

  2. Remediation of the site of a former active handling building at UKAEA- Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Armitage, Jack; Brown, Nick; Cornell, Rowland; Jessop, Gareth

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the decommissioning of the former Active Handling Building, A59 at Winfrith, Dorset, United Kingdom (UK) under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, (UKAEA). The building contained two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements and other supporting facilities which have all been decontaminated ready to permit building demolition. The demolition of the building structure and the removal of one cave line was completed during 2006 and the second cave line was demolished by March 2007. The remaining operations to be completed concern removal of the building slab and remediation of underlying soils to the final end point, free for unrestricted use without planning or nuclear regulatory control. Within the building base slab there are a range of contaminated items including secondary drain pipes, filter pits, storage hole liners and ventilation ducts which all have to be recovered for disposal along with around 4,000 m{sup 3} of surrounding concrete. In order to characterise the slab before its removal, supporting information has been obtained from site investigation work including a collimated low resolution, high sensitivity gamma survey using the GroundhogTM system of the foundation slab and the recovery and analysis of 27 cores obtained by drilling through the slab into the underlying soil. During removal of the slab it will be necessary to employ a variety of monitoring techniques to locate and remove the contaminated sections and then expose and monitor the underlying soil for evidence of any residual radioactivity. (authors)

  3. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  4. Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Activities of the Private Sector of the Building Community and Its Perceived Needs Relative to Increased Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Committee on Solar Energy in the Heating and Cooling of Buildings.

    This report is essentially a collection of information gathered from a broad cross-section of the building community that provides a description of the state of affairs existing mid-1974 through mid-1975 in the private sector of the building community with regard to solar heating and cooling of buildings. The report additionally contains…

  5. The relative influences of climate and volcanic activity on Holocene lake development inferred from a mountain lake in central Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Self, A. E.; Klimaschewski, A.; Solovieva, N.; Jones, V. J.; Andrén, E.; Andreev, A. A.; Hammarlund, D.; Brooks, S. J.

    2015-11-01

    A sediment sequence was taken from a closed, high altitude lake (informal name Olive-backed Lake) in the central mountain range of Kamchatka, in the Russian Far East. The sequence was dated by radiocarbon and tephrochronology and used for multi-proxy analyses (chironomids, pollen, diatoms). Although the evolution of Beringian climate through the Holocene is primarily driven by global forcing mechanisms, regional controls, such as volcanic activity or vegetation dynamics, lead to a spatial heterogeneous response. This study aims to reconstruct past changes in the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and to separate the climate-driven response from a response to regional or localised environmental change. Radiocarbon dates from plant macrophytes gave a basal date of 7800 cal yr BP. Coring terminated in a tephra layer, so sedimentation at the lake started prior to this date, possibly in the early Holocene following local glacier retreat. Initially the catchment vegetation was dominated by Betula and Alnus woodland with a mosaic of open, wet, aquatic and semi-aquatic habitats. Between 7800 and 6000 cal yr BP the diatom-inferred lake water was pH 4.4-5.3 and chironomid and diatom assemblages in the lake were initially dominated by a small number of acidophilic/acid tolerant taxa. The frequency of Pinus pumila (Siberian dwarf pine) pollen increased from 5000 cal yr BP and threshold analysis indicates that P. pumila arrived in the catchment between 4200 and 3000 cal yr BP. Its range expansion was probably mediated by strengthening of the Aleutian Low pressure system and increased winter snowfall. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions show that after an initial period of low pH, pH gradually increased from 5500 cal yr BP to pH 5.8 at 1500 cal yr BP. This trend of increasing pH through the Holocene is unusual in lake records, but the initially low pH may have resulted directly or indirectly from intense regional volcanic activity during the mid-Holocene. The chironomid

  6. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  7. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S&ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriat e distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S&ER analyses.

  8. Impact of soil characteristics on piping activity in a mountainous area under a temperate climate (Polish Bieszczady Mts., Eastern Carpathians)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernatek, Anita; Kacprzak, Andrzej; Stolarczyk, Mateusz

    2015-04-01

    Piping leads to the formation of subsurface channels (pipes) by concentrated flowing water, which may result in the collapse of soil surface and formation of discontinuous gullies. The significance of piping in gully erosion with the recognition of favourable soil properties is widely described in badlands with dispersive materials and in loess-covered hilly regions. Piping conditions in other regions - without dispersive materials or without loess - draw hardly any attention. Therefore, this research aims at a better understanding of the role of soil characteristics in piping activity in a mountainous area with Flysch-derived soils under a temperate climate. The survey was carried out in the Tyskowa catchment, in the Polish Bieszczady Mts. (Eastern Carpathians), where pipes develop at a depth ranging from 0.70 to 1.30 m. We focused on soil characteristics that can impact erodibility, including particle size distribution, structure, consistency, and bulk density. These characteristics as well as selected chemical properties (pH, exchangeable cations, sodium absorption ratio - SAR) were studied in detail for 4 soil profiles with a different position in relation to collapsed pipes (CPs): on a slope with abundant CPs and on one lacking CPs, in the axis of a pipe (above it) and in a piping sinkhole. We tested a hypothesis that soil properties control the occurrence of pipes and we checked if there is any difference in soil properties on slopes with and without CPs. Moreover, we compared soil profiles within the slope with CPs. As to the hypothesis, no clear difference in soils characteristics was observed between the slope with high piping activity and the one without it. At both sites typical Cambisols profiles were developed with high clay-silt content (% silt: mean A=60, standard deviation SD=6.55; % clay: A=27, SD=8.07), which potentially enhances piping. However, the profiles at the site above CPs (in the axis of a pipe, where potentially a pipe will develop) and

  9. Completion of the decommissioning of a former active handling building at UKAEA Winfrith

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, N.; Parkinson, S.J.; Cornell, R.M.; Staples, A.T.

    2007-07-01

    Since July 2000, NUKEM Limited has been carrying out the full decommissioning of a former Active Handling Building A59 at Winfrith in Dorset under contract from the nuclear site licence holder, UKAEA. Work has generally centred upon clearance and decontamination of the two heavily shielded suites of caves originally used to carry out remote examination of irradiated nuclear fuel elements although a number of other supporting facilities are also involved. This work has proceeded successfully to completion following extensive decontamination of the caves and associated facilities and has been followed by the recent demolition of the main containment building structure. This has permitted a start to be made on the demolition of the two heavily shielded suites of caves which is to be followed by removal of the building slab and restoration of the site. This paper reviews some of the significant tasks undertaken during the past year in preparation for the building and cave line demolition operations. It also reviews the building structure removal and recent progress made with the demolition of the two heavily reinforced concrete cave lines. The procedure used for monitoring the concrete debris from the cave lines has had to be revised during these operations and the reasons for this and a temporary delay in the cave line demolition will be discussed in the context of the remaining sections of the programme. This decommissioning programme has been achieved throughout by the employment of a non-adversarial team working approach between client and contractor. This has been instrumental in developing cost-effective and safe solutions to a range of problems during the programme, demonstrating the worth of adopting this co-operative approach for mutual benefit. (authors)

  10. Luminescence ages for alluvial-fan deposits in Southern Death Valley: Implications for climate-driven sedimentation along a tectonically active mountain front

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohn, M.F.; Mahan, S.A.; Knott, J.R.; Bowman, D.D.

    2007-01-01

    Controversy exists over whether alluvial-fan sedimentation along tectonically active mountain fronts is driven by climatic changes or tectonics. Knowing the age of sedimentation is the key to understanding the relationship between sedimentation and its cause. Alluvial-fan deposits in Death Valley and throughout the arid southwestern United States have long been the subjects of study, but their ages have generally eluded researchers until recently. Most mapping efforts have recognized at least four major relative-age groupings (Q1 (oldest), Q2, Q3, and Q4 (youngest)), using observed changes in surface soils and morphology, relation to the drainage net, and development of desert pavement. Obtaining numerical age determinations for these morphologic stages has proven challenging. We report the first optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages for three of these four stages deposited within alluvial-fans along the tectonically active Black Mountains of Death Valley. Deposits showing distinct, remnant bar and swale topography (Q3b) have OSL ages from 7 to 4 ka., whereas those with moderate to poorly developed desert pavement and located farther above the active channel (Q3a) have OSL ages from 17 to 11 ka. Geomorphically older deposits with well-developed desert pavement (Q2d) have OSL ages ???25 ka. Using this OSL-based chronology, we note that alluvial-fan deposition along this tectonically active mountain front corresponds to both wet-to-dry and dry-to-wet climate changes recorded globally and regionally. These findings underscore the influence of climate change on alluvial fan deposition in arid and semi-arid regions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

  11. Assessment of alpha activity of building materials commonly used in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    This paper, reports for the first time, an extensive study of alpha activity of all widely used building materials (plaster of Paris, stone chips, marble, white cement, mosaic stone, limestone, sand, granite, cement brick, asbestos, red brick, cement tile, ceramic tile and ceramics) in West Bengal, India. The alpha activities have been measured using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The samples were collected from local markets of Kolkata. The measured average alpha activities ranged from 22.7+/-2.5 to 590.6+/-16.8Bqkg(-1). The alpha activity of ceramic tiles was highest and provides additional data to estimate the effect of environmental radiation exposure on human health.

  12. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  13. Semi-active friction damper for buildings subject to seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantilla, Juan S.; Solarte, Alexander; Gomez, Daniel; Marulanda, Johannio; Thomson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Structural control systems are considered an effective alternative for reducing vibrations in civil structures and are classified according to their energy supply requirement: passive, semi-active, active and hybrid. Commonly used structural control systems in buildings are passive friction dampers, which add energy dissipation through damping mechanisms induced by sliding friction between their surfaces. Semi-Active Variable Friction Dampers (SAVFD) allow the optimum efficiency range of friction dampers to be enhanced by controlling the clamping force in real time. This paper describes the development and performance evaluation of a low-cost SAVFD for the reduction of vibrations of structures subject to earthquakes. The SAVFD and a benchmark structural control test structure were experimentally characterized and analytical models were developed and updated based on the dynamic characterization. Decentralized control algorithms were implemented and tested on a shaking table. Relative displacements and accelerations of the structure controlled with the SAVFD were 80% less than those of the uncontrolled structure

  14. Geometry, Timing, and Rates of Active Northeast Tilting Across the Southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Langenheim, V. E.; McNabb, J. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Coachella Valley occupies an important transition along the San Andreas fault (SAF) from strong transpression in the north to transtension and lithospheric rupture in the south. The deformation processes and crustal architecture that accommodate this transition are not well understood. Geomorphic, stratigraphic, and gravity data support a hypothesis for northeast tilting of a large tilt block in the southern Coachella Valley and Santa Rosa Mountains, between the San Jacinto fault zone on the SW (dated in other studies at ~1.2 Ma) and the SAF on the NE. The Santa Rosa fault (SRF) is a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone that marks the steep SW flank of the Santa Rosa Mts and merges with the Clark fault beneath Clark Valley. The SRF is an active normal fault with well developed triangular facets, steeply SW-dipping fault zone with brittle gouge and microfaults, and narrow footwall canyons that feed steep alluvial fans in the hanging wall (east side of Clark Valley). Pliocene marine deposits have been raised by Quaternary uplift in the footwall of the SRF to ~625 m elevation in the Santa Rosa Mts (King et al., 2002). The subsurface Clark basin is ~4 km deep, and the pre-SRF West Salton detachment fault projects ~1.5 km above the valley floor in the Santa Rosa Mts. A steep linear gravity gradient reveals combined vertical separation of ~5.5 km across the SRF and Clark fault, for an average slip rate of ~4.5 mm/yr across the two faults. The NE side of the Santa Rosa Mts has a gentler surface gradient and no large-offset active faults. The ratio of alluvial fan area to catchment area is 0.5-0.6 for fan-catchment pairs along the SRF, compared to an average of ~1.1-1.2 on the NE slope of the Santa Rosa Mts. The different ratios suggest rapid subsidence in the hanging wall of the SRF and relatively slow subsidence in the NE-tilting footwall (cf. Allen and Hovius, 1998). The depth of the southern Coachella Valley increases from the SW side, where sediments onlap

  15. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line.

    PubMed

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  16. Integrated passive/active vibration absorber for multi-story buildings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee-Glauser, Gina J.; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Horta, Lucas G.

    1995-01-01

    Passive isolator, active vibration absorber, and an integrated passive/active (hybrid) control are studied for their effectiveness in reducing structural vibration under seismic excitations. For the passive isolator, a laminated rubber bearing base isolator which has been studied and used extensively by researchers and seismic designers is considered. An active vibration absorber concept, which can provide guaranteed closed-loop stability with minimum knowledge of the controlled system, is used to reduce the passive isolator displacement and to suppress the top floor vibration. A three-story building model is used for the numerical simulation. The performance of an active vibration absorber and a hybrid vibration controller in reducing peak structural responses is compared with the passively isolated structural response and with absence of vibration control systems under the N00W component of El Centro 1940 and N90W component of the Mexico City earthquake excitation records. The results show that the integrated passive/active vibration control system is most effective in suppressing the peak structural acceleration for the El Centro 1940 earthquake when compared with the passive or active vibration absorber alone. The active vibration absorber, however, is the only system that suppresses the peak acceleration of the structure for the Mexico City 1985 earthquake.

  17. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  18. 1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 471 WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 471 WITH BUILDING 472 IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thionyl Chloride Reaction-Drum Loading Building, 1190 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. SOUTH PLANT MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 729) FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  1. Response to"Analysis of the Treatment, by the U.S. Department of Energy, of the FEP Hydrothermal Activity in the Yucca Mountain Performance Assessment" by Yuri Dublyansky

    SciTech Connect

    Houseworth, J.E.; Hardin, E.

    2008-11-17

    This paper presents a rebuttal to Dublyansky (2007), which misrepresents technical issues associated with hydrothermal activity at the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository and their importance to the long-term performance of the repository. In this paper, questions associated with hydrothermal activity are reviewed and the justification for exclusion of hydrothermal activity from performance assessment is presented. The hypothesis that hydrothermal upwelling into the present-day unsaturated zone has occurred at Yucca Mountain is refuted by the unambiguous evidence that secondary minerals and fluid inclusions in the unsaturated zone formed in an unsaturated environment from downward percolating meteoric waters. The thermal history at Yucca Mountain, inferred from fluid inclusion and isotopic data, is explained in terms of the tectonic extensional environment and associated silicic magmatism. The waning of tectonic extension over millions of years has led to the present-day heat flux in the Yucca Mountain region that is below average for the Great Basin. The long time scales of tectonic processes are such that any effects of a resumption of extension or silicic magmatism on hydrothermal activity at Yucca Mountain over the 10,000-year regulatory period would be negligible. The conclusion that hydrothermal activity was incorrectly excluded from performance assessment as asserted in Dublyansky (2007) is contradicted by the available technical and regulatory information.

  2. Recent drought induced increase of non-photosynthetically active vegetation cover in the aspen forests of southern Rocky Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Anderegg, W.

    2011-12-01

    Severe droughts in concert with rising temperatures have triggered widespread of forest mortality across multiple tree species worldwide. Tree die-off would produce a significant amount of additional non-photosynthetically active vegetation (NPV), which is the major source of carbon (C) emissions to ecosystems. Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) is the most widely distributed tree species in North America and arguably among the largest known organisms in the world, reaching 6000 Mg in a single clone and storing a substantial amount of C in the system. A recent widespread aspen forest mortality (known as sudden aspen decline [SAD]) occurred in the last decade and its ramifications on C cycles of aspen forests and the impact on regional C budgets are not well known. Here we carry out a landscape scale assessment of NPV dynamics across 1186 km2 of aspen forests in southwestern Colorado, USA, which suffered some of the most severe forest biomass loss of the continent. We compared time-series (2000 [the pre-drought condition], 2002 [the driest period] and 2009 [the current condition]) projected NPV derived from summer Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images using an automated, probability based spectral mixture analysis model (AutoMCU) with aid from contemporary in-situ field observations conducted in 2009 and 2010. We found that SAD produced 40.3% more of NPV cover comparing to the pre-drought condition (mean ± standard deviation = 23.0 ± 15.8% in 2000 and 32.3 ± 19.0% in 2002) due to the senescence of top canopy aspen leaves that equated to additional 110.3 km2 of NPV cover increase in the region during the driest period. This NPV "ramp-up" also resulted in 22% decrease of green vegetation (mean ± standard deviation = 65.7 ± 18.0% in 2000 and 50.1 ± 18.8% in 2002) and 9.7% increase of visible albedo (3.7 ± 2.4% in 2000 and 4.1 ± 2.3% in 2002), which were also computed from TM images using AutoMCU and a Landsat-based albedo model, respectively. These rapid

  3. 77 FR 60373 - Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and Piute...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Forest Service Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project Fishlake National Forest; Sevier and... alternatives, within the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project area. The purpose of the Monroe Mountain Aspen Ecosystems Restoration Project is to implement land management activities that...

  4. Global Cooperation in the Capacity Building Activities on Sun-Earth Connection Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, Nat; Davila, Joseph; Luebken, Franz-Josef; Shepherd, Marianna; Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2012-07-01

    The importance of global cooperation in Sun-Earth connection studies can be readily seen in the formation of a number of international collaborative programs such as the Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System (CAWSES) by SCOSTEP* and the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI). ISWI is the continuation of the successful International Heliophysical Year (IHY) program. These programs have brought scientists together to tackle issues of solar-terrestrial phenomena. An important element of these organizations is capacity building activities, which include deployment of low-cost ground based instruments for Sun-Earth connection studies and training young people (scientists and graduate students) from developing countries to operate these instruments and become members of the international solar-terrestrial scientific community. The training also helps young people to make use of data from the vast array of space and ground based instruments currently available for Sun-Earth connection studies. This paper presents a summary of CAWSES and ISWI activities that promote space Sun-Earth connection studies via complementary approaches in international scientific collaborations, capacity building, and public outreach. *Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) is an Interdisciplinary Body of the International Council for Science with representations from COSPAR, IAU, IUGG/IAGA, IUPAP, IAMAS, SCAR, and URSI (http://www.yorku.ca/scostep)

  5. Building a Trail, Building Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elgie, Bill; MacLean, Ross; Dykstra, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    In Grade 9, Upper Canada College (UCC) students participate in a week-long outdoor education program in Halton Region, west of Toronto. This week is the culmination of over 60 days of total outdoor education programming between Senior Kindergarten and Grade 9. Activities during the expedition include moving water canoeing, mountain biking, hiking,…

  6. Discrimination of volcano activity and mountain-associated waves using infrasonic data and a backpropagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, Fredric M.; Leeney, Thomas A.; Canady, Heather M.; Wheeler, Joseph C.

    1999-03-01

    An integral part of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty monitoring is an international infrasonic monitoring network that is capable of detecting and verifying nuclear explosions. Reliable detection of such events must be made from data that may contain other sources of infrasonic phenomena. Infrasonic waves can also result from volcanic eruptions, mountain associated waves, auroral waves, earthquakes, meteors, avalanches, severe weather, quarry blasting, high-speed aircraft, gravity waves, and microbaroms. This paper shows that a feedforward multi-layer neural network discriminator, trained by backpropagation, is capable of distinguishing between two unique infrasonic events recorded from single station recordings with a relatively high degree of accuracy. The two types of infrasonic events used in this study are volcanic eruptions and a set of mountain associated waves recorded at Windless Bight, Antarctica. An important element for the successful classification of infrasonic events is the preprocessing techniques used to form a set of feature vectors that can be used to train and test the neural network. The preprocessing steps used in our analysis for the infrasonic data are similar to those techniques used in speech processing, specifically speech recognition. From the raw time-domain infrasonic data, a set of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and their associated derivatives for each signal are used to form, a set of feature vectors. These feature vectors contain the pertinent characteristics of the data that can be used to classify the events of interest as opposed to using the raw data. A linear analysis was first performed on the feature vector space to determine the best combination of mel-frequency cepstral coefficients and derivatives. Then several simulations were run to distinguish between two different volcanic events, and mountain associated waves versus volcanic events, using their infrasonic characteristics.

  7. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings

    PubMed Central

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  8. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings.

    PubMed

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  9. Surface activity and radiation field measurements of the TMI-2 reactor building gross decontamination experiment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C V

    1983-10-01

    Surface samples were collected from concrete and metal surfaces within the Three Mile Island Unit 2 Reactor Building on December 15 and 17, 1981 and again on March 25 and 26, 1982. The Reactor Building was decontaminated by hydrolasing during the period between these dates. The collected samples were analyzed for radionuclide concentration at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The sampling equipment and procedures, and the analysis methods and results are discussed. The measured mean surface concentrations of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr on the 305-ft elevation floor before decontamination were, respectively, 3.6 +- 0.9 and 0.17 +- 0.04 ..mu..Ci/cm/sup 2/. Their mean concentrations on the 347-ft elevation floor were about the same. On both elevations, walls were found to be considerably less contaminated than floors. The fractions of the core inventories of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 90/Sr, and /sup 129/I deposited on Reactor Building surfaces prior to decontamination were calculated using their mean concentrations on various types of surfaces. The calculated values for these three nuclides are 3.5 +- 0.4 E-4, 2.4 +- 0.8 E-5, and 5.7 +- 0.5 E-4, respectively. The decontamination operations reduced the /sup 137/Cs surface activity on the 305- and 347-ft elevations by factors of 20 and 13, respectively. The /sup 90/Sr surface activity reduction was the same for both floors, that being a factor of 30. On the whole, decontamination of vertical surfaces was not achieved. Beta and gamma exposure rates that were measured during surface sampling were examined to determine the degree to which they correlated with measured surface activities. The data were fit with power functions of the form y = ax/sup b/. As might be expected, the beta exposure rates showed the best correlation. Of the data sets fit with the power function, the set of December 1981 beta exposure exhibited the least scatter. The coefficient of determination for this set was calculated to be 0.915.

  10. Republic of Kazakhstan: Capacity Building through the Increasing of Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, G.

    Currently, a new space policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan is being formulated. Basic directions are: Adherence to principal agreements of the International Space Law. Optimal utilization and modernization of the Baikonur spaceport launch infrastructure. Creation of the national satellite communication system In accordance with the above listed goals and objectives, the following priority actions should be taken in national level: Increasing of the National activities in COPUOS Developing of the National space activities Program and Space activities Act; Funding of a new and upgraded facilities at the Baikonur spaceport; Creating of the educational and training system for national space industry In 2004 Kazakhstan-Russia cooperation in space activities has entered to a new perspectives. Both countries proceeded to develop joint projects in the field of space activities connected to modernization of existing space infrastructure of the Baikonur spaceport for launchers that meet requirements of ecological security. Three relevant bilateral agreements were signed. All signed documents ensure more wide participation of the Republic of Kazakhstan in realization of space programs and projects implemented at the Baikonur spaceport through shared financing and realization jointly with Russia of projects on building of the space missile complex ``Baiterek'' and launching of geostationary communication satellite. It opens great opportunities for Kazakhstan in terms of capacity building. Implementation of the mentioned two projects will allow to use the available scientific, technical and intellectual potential of the Republic of Kazakhstan in the field of space activities, and to utilize effectively the infrastructure of Baikonur complex, to get affordable access to space technologies, to create conditions for development, test and operation of space facilities, new science --capacity technologies that will lead to close integration with Russian space industry and with

  11. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  12. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  13. 78 FR 47677 - DOE Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... With Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000... implementation of state residential and commercial building energy efficiency codes (42 U.S.C. 6833(d))....

  14. 78 FR 55245 - Activities and Methodology for Assessing Compliance With Building Energy Codes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... process by which DOE will utilize and make available to states to evaluate compliance with building energy... Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Office, Mailstop...

  15. Late Cenozoic transpressional mountain building directly north of the Altyn Tagh Fault in the Sanweishan and Nanjieshan, North Tibetan Foreland, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dickson; Zhang, Jin; Li, Yanfeng

    2016-09-01

    For many tectonicists, the structural development of the northern Tibetan Plateau stops at the Altyn Tagh Fault (ATF). This study challenges that assumption. Structural field observations and remote sensing analysis indicate that the Sanweishan and Nanjieshan basement cored ridges of the Archean Dunhuang Block, which interrupt the north Tibetan foreland directly north of the ATF, are bound and cut by an array of strike-slip, thrust and oblique-slip faults that have been active in the Quaternary and remain potentially active. The Sanweishan is a SE-tilted block that is bound on its NW margin by a steep south-dipping thrust fault that has also accommodated sinistral strike-slip displacements. The Nanjieshan consists of parallel, but offset basement ridges that record NNW and SSE thrust displacements and sinistral strike-slip. Regional folds characterize the extreme eastern Nanjieshan and appear to have formed above blind thrust faults which break the surface further west. Previously published magnetotelluric data suggest that the major faults of the Sanweishan and Nanjieshan ultimately root to the south within conductive zones that are inferred to merge into the ATF. Therefore, although the southern margin of the Dunhuang Block focuses significant deformation along the ATF, the adjacent cratonic basement to the north is also affected. Collectively, the ATF and structurally linked Sanweishan and Nanjieshan fault array represent a regional asymmetric half-flower structure that is dominated by non-strain partitioned sinistral transpression. The NW-trending Dengdengshan thrust fault system near Yumen City appears to define the northeastern limit of the Sanweishan-Nanjieshan block, which may be regionally viewed as the most northern, but early-stage expression of Tibetan Plateau growth into a slowly deforming, mechanically stiff Archean craton.

  16. [Temporal variations of soil microbial biomass and enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in Changbai Mountains of Northeast].

    PubMed

    Hu, Song; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Hui; Xu, Hui

    2013-02-01

    By the method of space-for-time Substitution, and taking the matured (>200 years old) and over-matured (>200 years old) primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests and, their secondary forests at different succession stages (20-, 30-, 50-, 80-, and 100 years old Betula platphylla forests) in Changbai Mountains of Northeast China as test objects, this paper studied the temporal variations of soil organic carbon, soil microbial biomass, and soil enzyme activities during the secondary succession of primary broadleaved-Pinus koraiensis forests in the Mountains. Under the 20- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests, the soil organic carbon content in humus layer was the highest (154.8 and 154.3 g.kg-1, respectively); while under the matured and over-matured primary broad-leaved-Pinus koraiensis forests, this organic carbon content was relatively low, being 141. 8 and 133. 4 g.kg , respectively. The soil microbial biomass carbon and microbial quotient and the activities of soil cellulase, peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and cellobiase under the 50- and 80 years old B. platphylla forests were the highest, but the activity of soil polyphenol oxidase was the lowest, which revealed that under middle-aged and matured B. platphylla forests, soil organic carbon had a faster turnover rate, and was probably in a stronger accumulation phase. Statistical analysis showed that the soil microbial biomass carbon had significant positive correlations with the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus (r = 0.943, 0. 963, and 0.953, respectively;

  17. The effects of micro-gravity on hornet's nest building and activity.

    PubMed

    Ishay, J S; Megory, E; Glickman, B; Geadah, M

    1994-05-01

    Principal scientific objectives: 1.) Comb building by hornet workers in micro-G: randomness of orientation, structural integrity, delay or rapidity of construction, all as a function of developmental state of the hornet. 2.) Dark-light effects on building hornets--will light provide building cues? 3.) Effect of domicile geometry on building practices--will the hornets build in spherical, domed or cube-shaped containers? 4.) Semiconductive properties of hornet cuticle and comb--will these be different than in the controls? Will the yellow granules developed in space be physico-chemically different from control granules? 5.) Post flight experiments--Will the hornets returned from space--build and oviposit as usual? Will the laid eggs embryonate? Will the comb be orientated as usual? How about other parameters of orientation (geotaxis) and social behavior (thigmotaxis)? Will there be any changes in the dominant gut microflora of returned hornets?

  18. Review of activities and plans for solar energy in Federal buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Federal Buildings program and plans regarding the use of solar energy are reported. Recommendations concerning the solar Federal Buildings Program's plan are given, specifically an analysis of agencies' Ten Year Buildings construction, leasing and retrofit plans to provide visibility for and detailed knowledge of Federal agencies planning regarding solar and other renewable resources. Statistical information regarding planned solar projects, and recommendations concerning the SFBP plans are presented.

  19. International Collaboration on Building Local Technical Capacities for Monitoring Volcanic Activity at Pacaya Volcano, Guatemala.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar-Wolf, R. P.; Chigna, G.; Morales, H.; Waite, G. P.; Oommen, T.; Lechner, H. N.

    2015-12-01

    Pacaya volcano is a frequently active and potentially dangerous volcano situated in the Guatemalan volcanic arc. It is also a National Park and a major touristic attraction, constituting an important economic resource for local municipality and the nearby communities. Recent eruptions have caused fatalities and extensive damage to nearby communities, highlighting the need for risk management and loss reduction from the volcanic activity. Volcanic monitoring at Pacaya is done by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), instrumentally through one short period seismic station, and visually by the Parque Nacional Volcan de Pacaya y Laguna de Calderas (PNVPLC) personnel. We carry out a project to increase the local technical capacities for monitoring volcanic activity at Pacaya. Funding for the project comes from the Society of Exploration Geophysicists through the Geoscientists Without Borders program. Three seismic and continuous GPS stations will be installed at locations within 5 km from the main vent at Pacaya, and one webcam will aid in the visual monitoring tasks. Local educational and outreach components of the project include technical workshops on data monitoring use, and short thesis projects with the San Carlos University in Guatemala. A small permanent exhibit at the PNVPLC museum or visitor center, focusing on the volcano's history, hazards and resources, will also be established as part of the project. The strategy to involve a diverse group of local collaborators in Guatemala aims to increase the chances for long term sustainability of the project, and relies not only on transferring technology but also the "know-how" to make that technology useful. Although not a primary research project, it builds on a relationship of years of joint research projects at Pacaya between the participants, and could be a model of how to increase the broader impacts of such long term collaboration partnerships.

  20. Building novel Ag/CeO{sub 2} heterostructure for enhancing photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Leng, Qiang; Yang, Dezhi; Yang, Qi; Hu, Chenguo; Kang, Yue; Wang, Mingjun; Hashim, Muhammad

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag nanoparticle is designed to building Schottky heterojunction on CeO{sub 2} nanocube. • The photocatalytic activity of Ag/CeO{sub 2} heterostructure is much enhanced. • 95.33% of MB can be effectively degraded within half an hour. • Ag as acceptor of photoelectrons blocks the recombination of electron–hole pairs. - Abstract: Stable and recyclable photocatalysts with high efficiency to degrade organic contamination are important and widely demanded under the threat of the environment pollution. Ag/CeO{sub 2} heterostructure is designed as a photocatalyst to degrade organic dye under the simulated sunlight. The catalytic activity of CeO{sub 2} nanocubes (NCs) to degrade methylene blue (MB) is obviously enhanced when Ag nanoparticles (NPs) are deposited on the surface of them. The weight ratio of Ag and CeO{sub 2} in forming high efficiency catalyst, the amount of Ag/CeO{sub 2} catalyst used in degradation process, and the dye concentration and pH value of the initial MB solution are examined systematically. 95.33% of MB can be effectively degraded within half an hour when 50 mg of Ag/CeO{sub 2} catalyst in an optimal weight ratio of 1:3, is added to the 100 mL of MB solution (c{sub 0} = 1 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1}, pH 6.2). The mechanism of the enhanced catalytic activity of Ag/CeO{sub 2} heterostructure is discussed. The photocatalytic degradation rate is found to obey pseudo-first-order kinetics equations according to Langmuir–Hinshelwood model. The intermediate products in different stages during the degradation of MB are analyzed.

  1. Mountain building processes in the Central Andes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloom, A. L.; Isacks, B. L.

    1986-01-01

    False color composite images of the Thematic Mapper (TM) bands 5, 4, and 2 were examined to make visual interpretations of geological features. The use of the roam mode of image display with the International Imaging Systems (IIS) System 600 image processing package running on the IIS Model 75 was very useful. Several areas in which good comparisons with ground data existed, were examined in detail. Parallel to the visual approach, image processing methods are being developed which allow the complete use of the seven TM bands. The data was organized into easily accessible files and a visual cataloging of the quads (quarter TM scenes) with preliminary registration with the best available charts for the region. The catalog has proved to be a valuable tool for the rapid scanning of quads for a specific investigation. Integration of the data into a complete approach to the problems of uplift, deformation, and magnetism in relation to the Nazca-South American plate interaction is at an initial stage.

  2. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  3. Labs in the field? Rocky mountain biological stations in the early twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Biological field stations proliferated in the Rocky Mountains region of the western United States during the early decades of the twentieth century. This essay examines these Rocky Mountain field stations as hybrid lab-field sites from the perspective of the field side of the dichotomy: as field sites with raised walls rather than as laboratories whose walls with the natural world have been lowered. Not only were these field stations transformed to be more like laboratories, but they were also embedded within the particular regional environmental and institutional context of the Rocky Mountains. Using the University of Colorado's Mountain Laboratory at Tolland and other contemporaneous sites as examples, this essay analyzes key features of these sites, including their location within transportation networks, buildings, equipment, personnel, scheduling, recreational and social activities, and other material and social practices on the ground. Considering both the distinctive and shared characteristics of the Rocky Mountain field stations in comparison to other types of field stations provides a more complete picture of the diversity and range of lab-field hybrid sites in the biological sciences in the early twentieth-century United States. PMID:21858531

  4. A Hands-On Activity to Build Mastery of Intermolecular Forces and Its Impacts on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    The intermolecular forces activity presented in this article is designed to foster concept-building through students' use of concrete, manipulative objects, and it was developed to be pedagogically sound. Data analysis via pre- and posttesting and subsequent exam questions indicated that students who had the opportunity to participate in the…

  5. Agriculture--Ornamental Horticulture. Building Model Greenhouse and Growing Plants. Kit No. 41. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Wesley

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building a model greenhouse and growing plants are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture (ornamental horticulture). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven…

  6. U.S. Mountaineering Libraries: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiser, Virginia; Lockerby, Robert

    Over a 3-year period (1985-1987) site visits were made to selected U.S. libraries that focus on climbing or mountaineering as a specific area for comprehensive collection building to survey their monographic holdings, serial holdings, and special collections. The monographic collections were compared to two lists of outstanding mountaineering…

  7. The STS-91 crew walks out of the O&C Building during TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-91 crew walks out of the Operations and Checkout Building to board a van which will take them to Launch Complex 39A during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities. The TCDT is a dress rehearsal for launch. STS-91 is scheduled to be launched on June 2 with a launch window opening around 6:10 p.m. EDT. The mission will feature the ninth Shuttle docking with the Russian Space Station Mir, the first Mir docking for Discovery, the conclusion of Phase I of the joint U.S.-Russian International Space Station Program, and the first flight of the new Space Shuttle super lightweight external tank. The STS-91 flight crew includes Commander Charles Precourt; Pilot Dominic Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence; Franklin Chang-Diaz, Ph.D.; Janet Kavandi, Ph.D.; and Valery Ryumin, with the Russian Space Agency. Andrew Thomas, Ph.D., will be returning to Earth with the crew after living more than four months aboard Mir.

  8. Intrinsic Optical Activity and Environmental Perturbations: Solvation Effects in Chiral Building Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemler, Paul M.; Vaccaro, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The non-resonant interaction of electromagnetic radiation with an isotropic ensemble of chiral molecules, which causes the incident state of linear polarization to undergo a signed rotation, long has served as a metric for gauging the enantiomeric purity of asymmetric syntheses. While the underlying phenomenon of circular birefringence (CB) typically is probed in the condensed phase, recent advances in ultrasensitive circular-differential detection schemes, as exemplified by the techniques of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP), have permitted the first quantitative analyses of such processes to be performed in rarefied media. Efforts to extend vapor-phase investigations of CB to new families of chiral substrates will be discussed, with particular emphasis directed towards the elucidation of intrinsic (e.g., solvent-free) properties and their mediation by environmental perturbations (e.g., solvation). Specific species targeted by this work will include the stereoselective building blocks phenylpropylene oxide and α-methylbenzyl amine, both of which exhibit pronounced solvent-dependent changes in measured optical activity. The nature of chiroptical response in different environments will be highlighted, with quantum-chemical calculations serving to unravel the structural and electronic provenance of observed behavior.

  9. Storytelling Dramas as a Community Building Activity in an Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Cheryl; Diener, Marissa L.; Kemp, Jacqueline Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Healthy social-emotional development is promoted by building a safe, secure and respectful environment in an early childhood setting with positive and consistent relationships among adults, children, and their peers. This study explored storytelling dramas as an opportunity to build community within the context of one early childhood classroom.…

  10. 77 FR 56868 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; YouthBuild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...; YouthBuild Impact Evaluation, Youth Follow-Up Surveys ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting the Employment and Training Administration (ETA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) proposal titled, ``YouthBuild Impact Evaluation, Youth Follow-Up Surveys,'' to the Office...

  11. Building a Better You. Final Report, 1985-86 and Classroom Activities. 1985-86.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutheran Social Mission Society, Philadelphia, PA. Lutheran Settlement House.

    This guide is intended for using in helping students build their self-esteem, self-confidence, and communications, decision-making, and problem-solving skills. The materials, which were originally developed to build self-esteem among older adults and were redesigned to help single female heads of households aged 25 to 50, may be used within the…

  12. [Effects of grazing disturbance on soil active organic carbon in mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper reaches of Minjiang River].

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Xing-Hua; Gong, Yuan-Bo; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yan; Yin, Yan-Jie; Ma, Jin-Song; Guo, Ting

    2014-02-01

    Effects of grazing disturbance on the soil carbon contents and active components in the four vegetations, i.e., artificial Robinia pseudoacacia plantation, artificial poplar plantation, Berberis aggregate shrubland and grassland, were studied in the mountain forest-arid valley ecotone in the upper Minjiang River. Soil organic carbon and active component contents in 0-10 cm soil layer were greater than in 10-20 cm soil layer at each level of grazing disturbance. With increasing the grazing intensity, the total organic carbon (TOC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and easily oxidized carbon (LOC) contents in 0-10 cm soil layer decreased gradually in the artificial R. pseudoacacia plantation. The LFOC content decreased, the POC content increased, and the TOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the artificial poplar plantation. The POC content decreased, and the TOC, LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the B. aggregate shrubland. The POC and TOC contents decreased, and the LFOC and LOC contents decreased initially and then increased with increasing the grazing intensity in the grassland. The decreasing ranges of LOC, LFOC and POC contents were 0.1-7.9 times more than that of TOC content. There were significant positive relationships between TOC and LOC, LFOC and POC, suggesting that the active organic carbon components could reflect the change of soil total carbon content.

  13. Geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain 7.5 minute quadrangle, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic map and digital database of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle are products of a regional geologic mapping effort undertaken in the eastern Transverse Ranges in and around Joshua Tree National Park. This investigation, part of the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP), is conducted in cooperation with the California Geologic Survey and the National Park Service. In line with the goals of the National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program (NCGMP), mapping of the Pinto Mountain and other quadrangles has been directed toward generating a multipurpose digital geologic map database that is applicable to land-related investigations in the earth and biological sciences. This mapping is conducted to further understanding of bedrock geology and surficial processes in the region and to document evidence for seismotectonic activity in the eastern Transverse Ranges. It is also intended to serve as a base layer suitable for ecosystem and mineral resource assessment and for building a hydrogeologic framework for Pinto Basin. Initial investigations span Pinto Basin from the Hexie and Eagle Mountains northward into the Pinto Mountains. Quadrangles mapped include the Conejo Well 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001a), the Porcupine Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2001b), the Pinto Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, and the San Bernardino Wash 7.5-minute quadrangle (Powell, 2002). Parts of the Pinto Mountain quadrangle had been mapped previously at a variety of scales (Weir, and Bader, 1963; Hope, 1966, 1969; Jennings, 1967; Powell, 1981, 1993).

  14. Transnational Strategies for the Promotion of Physical Activity and Active Aging: The World Health Organization Model of Consensus Building in International Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek; Schwingel, Andiara

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on an examination of the four-step process adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) in its systematic campaign to promote physically active lifestyles by older adults across the 193 WHO member states. The four steps adopted by the WHO include (1) Building Consensus Among Professionals; (2) Educating the…

  15. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  16. An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)

    SciTech Connect

    Barley, D.

    2001-05-21

    This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.

  17. Solar load ratio method applied to commercial building active solar system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.; Hunn, B.D.; Williamson, K.D. III

    1981-01-01

    The hourly simulation procedure is the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program. It is capable of calculating the loads and of simulating various control strategies in detail for both residential and commercial buildings and yet is computationally efficient enough to be used for extensive parametric studies. In addition, to a Building Service Hot Water (BSHW) System and a combined space heating and hot water system using liquid collectors for a commercial building analyzed previously, a space heating system using an air collector is analyzed. A series of runs is made for systems using evacuated tube collectors for comparison to flat-plate collectors, and the effects of additional system design parameters are investigated. Also, the generic collector types are characterized by standard efficiency curves, rather than by detailed collector specifications. (MHR)

  18. 76 FR 5612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; YouthBuild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... assessment. The ETA provides all grantees with a YouthBuild management information system to use for... information, see the related notice published in the Federal Register on September 15, 2010 (75 FR...

  19. 77 FR 23280 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; YouthBuild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... performance assessment. The ETA provides all grantees with a YouthBuild management information system to use... Register on September 8, 2011 (76 FR 55707). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the...

  20. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  1. A novel isopimarane diterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from Nepeta sorgerae, an endemic species to the Nemrut Mountain.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Anil; Cağlar, Pinar; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Nezhun; Topçu, Gülaçti

    2012-06-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Nepeta sorgerae, the isolation and structure elucidation are now reported of a new isopimarane diterpenoid, named sorgerolone, and two known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and the isolated terpenoids was determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition (beta-carotene bleaching) methods. Anticholinesterase activity of the extracts and isolates was investigated by Ellman's method against AChE and BChE enzymes. Although the antioxidant activity results were low, the AChE enzyme inhibition of the extracts and terpenoids was very promising.

  2. A novel isopimarane diterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity from Nepeta sorgerae, an endemic species to the Nemrut Mountain.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Anil; Cağlar, Pinar; Dirmenci, Tuncay; Gören, Nezhun; Topçu, Gülaçti

    2012-06-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of Nepeta sorgerae, the isolation and structure elucidation are now reported of a new isopimarane diterpenoid, named sorgerolone, and two known triterpenoids, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Antioxidant activity of the extracts and the isolated terpenoids was determined by the DPPH free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition (beta-carotene bleaching) methods. Anticholinesterase activity of the extracts and isolates was investigated by Ellman's method against AChE and BChE enzymes. Although the antioxidant activity results were low, the AChE enzyme inhibition of the extracts and terpenoids was very promising. PMID:22816286

  3. What's Under Your Feet? Activity Book. Earth Science for Everyone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Penni; Robbins, Eleanora I.

    This profusely illustrated activity book helps students understand systems and cycles, how years change the look of the Earth, and how students can protect resources. The sections (and activities) in this book are: (1) The Earth (Introduction--View, Soil & Dirt); (2) Forces (Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Mountain Building, Erosion, Volcanoes,…

  4. Any Way You Cut It! Molehills Out of Mountains. A Resource and Activity Guide for the Developmentally Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barringer, M. D.; Kosal-Smither, C.

    A resource and activity guide for the developmentally disabled that focuses on fine motor skills is presented. Attention is directed to fine motor behavior during the first year (vision, grasp, and release and reaching), and behaviors developing at 13 months (the interaction of fine motor and cognitive skills). An introductory section considers…

  5. Sulfide oxidation and acid mine drainage formation within two active tailings impoundments in the Golden Quadrangle of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania.

    PubMed

    Sima, Mihaela; Dold, Bernhard; Frei, Linda; Senila, Marin; Balteanu, Dan; Zobrist, Jurg

    2011-05-30

    Sulfidic mine tailings have to be classified as one of the major source of hazardous materials leading to water contamination. This study highlights the processes leading to sulfide oxidation and acid mine drainage (AMD) formation in the active stage of two tailings impoundments located in the southern part of the Apuseni Mountains, in Romania, a well-known region for its long-term gold-silver and metal mining activity. Sampling was undertaken when both impoundments were still in operation in order to assess their actual stage of oxidation and long-term behavior in terms of the potential for acid mine drainage generation. Both tailings have high potential for AMD formation (2.5 and 3.7 wt.% of pyrite equivalent, respectively) with lesser amount of carbonates (5.6 and 3.6 wt.% of calcite equivalent) as neutralization potential (ABA=-55.6 and -85.1 tCaCO(3)/1000 t ) and showed clear signs of sulfide oxidation yet during operation. Sequential extraction results indicate a stronger enrichment and mobility of elements in the oxidized tailings: Fe as Fe(III) oxy-hydroxides and oxides (transformation from sulfide minerals, leaching in oxidation zone), Ca mainly in water soluble and exchangeable form where gypsum and calcite are dissolved and higher mobility of Cu for Ribita and Pb for Mialu. Two processes leading to the formation of mine drainage at this stage could be highlighted (1) a neutral Fe(II) plume forming in the impoundment with ferrihydrite precipitation at its outcrop and (2) acid mine drainage seeping in the unsaturated zone of the active dam, leading to the formation of schwertmannite at its outcrop. PMID:21316846

  6. The impact of human activities on land use and land cover changes and environmental processes in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians) in the past 50 years.

    PubMed

    Bucała, Anna

    2014-06-01

    The role of human impact on the natural environment was studied in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchments in the Gorce Mountains (Western Polish Carpathians). Analysis of land use and land cover changes using GIS techniques and cartographic materials between 1954 and 2004 indicates an increase in forest area by 11.5% and 18.5%, respectively, at the expense of arable land and grassland areas. Agricultural abandonment often occurred on steep slopes (above 10°) with skeletal (shallow) soils at higher elevations (above 800 m a.s.l.). In addition, the density of dirt roads decreased from 6.97 km/km(2) in 1981 to 4.3 km/km(2) in 2008. In former agricultural areas, long expanses of terraces have either disappeared or experienced shallow mass movements. The statistical reports and questionnaire survey indicate reduced income from farm activities in this region. As a result of LULC changes and stream transformation, the Jaszcze and Jamne stream channels were shortened, straightened, and narrowed, with tendency to incision estimated at 1 cm per year over the past 40 years. The changes observed in the environment under human impact, accelerated following 1989, are representative of the Western Polish Carpathians. PMID:24565936

  7. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content.

  8. [Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity and soil available phosphorus content in subtropical forests in Dinghushan Mountain].

    PubMed

    Li, Yin; Zeng, Shu-cai; Huang, Wen-juan

    2011-03-01

    An in situ field experiment was conducted to study the effects of simulated nitrogen (N) deposition on soil acid phosphomonoesterase activity (APA) and soil available phosphorous (AP) content in Pinus massoniana forest (PF), coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (MF), and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in Dinghushan Mountain. In PF and MF, three treatments were installed, i.e., CK (0 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), low N (50 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)), and medium N (100 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)); in MEBF, four treatments were installed, i.e., CK, low N, medium N, and high N (150 kg N x hm(-2) x a(-1)). The soil APA and soil AP content decreased with soil depth. The soil APA was the highest in MEBF, while the AP content had no significant difference in the three forests. The effects of N addition on soil APA differed with forest types. In MEBF, the APA was the highest (19.52 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1)) in low N treatment; while in PF and MF, the APA was the highest (12.74 and 11.02 micromol x g(-1) x h(-1), respectively) in medium N treatment. In the three forests, soil AP content was the highest in low N treatment, but had no significant differences among the N treatments. There was a significant positive correlation between soil APA and soil AP content. PMID:21657017

  9. 3. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BOILERS IN BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BOILERS IN BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1602. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Paint Storage, 40 feet North of Road EW-2; 2900 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Instruction Building, 200 feet North Road EW-1; 60 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1705. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Instruction Building, 200 feet North Road EW-1; 60 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 3. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laundry Service Building, 690 feet South of December Seventh Avenue, 60 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 2. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laundry Service Building, 690 feet South of December Seventh Avenue, 60 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 314. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laundry Service Building, 690 feet South of December Seventh Avenue, 60 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 2. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Acetylene Generator Building, 1650 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1050 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 451. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Production Filling & Storage Building, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 980 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 459. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Acetylene Generator Building, 1650 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1050 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR DETAIL OF BUILDING 1607, SHOWING BOMBS AND CRATES. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. BOMBS IN CRATE IN BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1601. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1613. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1613. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Storage Building-Explosive Unpacking, 510 feet South of Road EW-3; adjacent to Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 365. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Explosives Blending Building, 2180 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 3. SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 4. DETAIL OF EQUIPMENT AT SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 1703. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF EQUIPMENT AT SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR DETAIL OF ELECTRICAL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 20. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 15. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 16. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 22. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 11. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 18. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 13. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 14. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 19. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1606. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO EAST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 1. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 6. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 5. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 4. EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EAST SIDE OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 4. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 112. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 112. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Communication Building, 75 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 2400 feet East of C Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 313, SHOWING LABORATORY. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Laboratory Building, 510 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 175 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 728 FROM CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 728 FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Mustard Filling & Storage Building, 280 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2130 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING GANTRY HOIST IN FOREGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING GANTRY HOIST IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING STRUCTURAL COLUMNS AND ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 242, SHOWING STRUCTURAL COLUMNS AND ROOF TRUSSES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. 6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND 243 (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 23. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1607. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 4. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR DETAIL OF CONTROL PANEL IN BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTH. Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 1611. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building-Tail Fin Storage & Assembly, 2750 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3480 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 472. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 472. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thionyl Chloride Refridgeration Building, 1250 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1090 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 5. INTERIOR OF FRONT SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR OF FRONT SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO EAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  20. 2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 329. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 329. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Gasoline Pump Building, 1300 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 840 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pesticide Filling & Storage Building, 390 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 532. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pesticide Filling & Storage Building, 390 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 200 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 1. SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 541. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 541. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, White Phosphorous Filling Acetylene Building, 850 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1300 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. 2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND EAST SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. 3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  9. Past soil erosion history recorded by lake sediments in mountain areas (north and south French Alps): complex interactions with climatic and human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giguet-Covex, C.; Poulenard, J.; Arnaud, F.; Disnar, J.-R.; Sabatier, P.; Wilhelm, B.; Jouffroy-Bapicot, I.; Rey, P.-J.; David, F.; Malet, E.

    2012-04-01

    Erosion rates and patterns are influenced both by hydrological activity and the evolution of soil-vegetation cover. This soil-vegetation cover is in turn impacted by climatic changes and human activities through deforestation, grazing and agriculture. Such land uses are reported in mountain areas since several millennia (the Neolithic or Bronze Age in the Alps). The effects of these activities and climatic changes on erosion and above all on soil cover are relatively few documented. However, a good knowledge of these processes is important to better evaluate the future evolution of soils and the sustainability for agricultural practices, in the context of global change. Because lakes act as traps of erosion products, lake sediments represent interesting continuous archives of past soil evolution and erosion. They provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct at high resolution the soil history over long time periods and thus to determine the timing of changes in response to climate and/or anthropogenic pressures. As a result of the Pygmalion research program, we present the study of two small mountain catchment in north (Lake Anterne, 2063 m asl) and south French Alps (Lake Lauzanier, 2285 m asl), covering the Holocene and the last 1000 years, respectively. To trace the past soil erosion erosion history and bring arguments about the origin of changes, mineral and organic geochemical analyses were performed and combined with quantitative reconstructions of terrigenous inputs. To emphasize our assumptions about the origins of recorded changes, a pluridisciplinary approach (palynology, archaeology...) was also adopted. The study of Lake Anterne shows the second half of the Holocene is characterized by four important phases of erosion. These phases are underlined by high flood frequencies and different geochemical composition of sediments. These geochemical signatures reveal changes of sediment sources related to different erosion patterns. In particular, the first phase

  10. Magmatic carbon dioxide emissions at Mammoth Mountain, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Neil, John M.; Howle, James F.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) of magmatic origin is seeping out of the ground in unusual quantities at several locations around the flanks of Mammoth Mountain, a dormant volcano in Eastern California. The most recent volcanic activity on Mammoth Mountain was steam eruptions about 600 years ago, but seismic swarms and long-period earthquakes over the past decade are evidence of an active magmatic system at depth. The CO2 emission probably began in 1990 but was not recognized until 1994. Seismic swarms and minor ground deformation during 1989, believed to be results of a shallow intrusion of magma beneath Mammoth Mountain, probably triggered the release of CO2, which persists in 1998. The CO2 gas is at ambient temperatures and emanates diffusely from the soil surface rather than flowing from distinct vents. The CO2 has collected in the soil by displacing air in the pore spaces and reaches concentrations of greater than 95 percent by volume in places. The total area affected by high CO2 concentrations and high CO2 flux from the soil surface was estimated at 60 hectares in 1997. Coniferous forest covering about 40 hectares has been killed by high CO2 concentrations in the root zone. In more than 300 soil-gas samples collected from depths of 0.5 to 2 m in 1995, CO2 concentrations ranged from background levels (less than 1 percent) to greater than 95 percent by volume. At 250 locations, CO2 flux was measured using a closed chamber in 1996; values, in grams per square meter per day, ranged from background (less than 25) to more than 30,000. On the basis of these data, the total emission of magmatic CO2 in 1996 is estimated to be about 530 megagrams per day. Concentrations of CO2 exceeding Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards have been measured in pits dug in soil and snow, in poorly ventilated buildings, and in below-ground valve-boxes around Mammoth Mountain. CO2 concentrations greater than 10 percent in poorly ventilated spaces are not uncommon on some parts

  11. Normal faulting along the western side of the Matese Mountains: Implications for active tectonics in the Central Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncio, Paolo; Dichiarante, Anna Maria; Auciello, Eugenio; Saroli, Michele; Stoppa, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We provide new field data from geologic mapping and bedrock structural geology along the western side of the Matese Mts in central Italy, a region of high seismicity, strain rates among the highest of the entire Apennines (4-5 mm/yr GPS-determined extension), and poorly constrained active faults. The existing knowledge on the Aquae Iuliae normal fault (AIF) was implemented with geometric and kinematic data that better constrain its total length (16.5 km), the minimum long-term throw rate (0.3-0.4 mm/yr, post-late glacial maximum, LGM), and the segmentation. For the first time, we provide evidence of post-350 ka and possibly late Quaternary activity of the Ailano - Piedimonte Matese normal fault (APMF). The APMF is 18 km long. It is composed of a main 11 km-long segment striking NW-SE and progressively bending to the E-W in its southern part, and a 7 km-long segment striking E-W to ENE-WSW with very poor evidence of recent activity. The available data suggest a possible post-LGM throw rate of the main segment of ≳0.15 mm/yr. There is no evidence of active linkage in the step-over zone between the AIF and APMF (Prata Sannita step-over). An original tectonic model is proposed by comparing structural and geodetic data. The AIF and APMF belong to two major, nearly parallel fault systems. One system runs at the core of the Matese Mts and is formed by the AIF and the faults of the Gallo-Letino-Matese Lake system. The other system runs along the western side of the Matese Mts and is formed by the APMF, linked to the SE with the Piedimonte Matese - Gioia Sannitica fault. The finite extension of the APMF might be transferred to the NW towards the San Pietro Infine fault. The nearly 2-3 mm/yr GPS-determined extension rate is probably partitioned between the two systems, with a ratio that is difficult to establish due to poor GPS coverage. The proposed model, though incomplete (several faults/transfer zones need further investigations), aids in the seismotectonic

  12. Building and Activating Students' Background Knowledge: It's What They Already Know That Counts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy; Lapp, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Students enter the middle grades with varying amounts of background knowledge. Teachers must assess student background knowledge for gaps or misconceptions and then provide instruction to build on that base. This article discusses effective strategies for assessing and developing students' background knowledge so they can become independent…

  13. Experiential Team Building for Student Leaders in Union Activities and Residence Halls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Don; And Others

    This guide offers college or university student union and housing office personnel assistance in developing experiential team building workshops for student leaders. The rationale for providing such training is discussed in terms of the following: (1) resident assistants are usually vital compus leaders, with the potential to be vital student…

  14. Differences in activity budgets and diet between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of the endangered Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Alami, Abderrazak; Van Lavieren, Els; Rachida, Aboufatima; Chait, Abderrahman

    2012-03-01

    The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus is a very adaptable primate species occupying a wide range of habitats in Morocco and Algeria. Several groups of this endangered macaque can be found in tourist sites, where they are affected by the presence of visitors providing food to them. We compare the activity budgets and the diet of semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of Barbary macaques in the central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco from February to August 2008. We used instantaneous scan sampling at 15-min intervals. The behaviors included in the activity budget were feeding, moving, foraging, resting, and aggressive display. Food items were grouped into seven categories. We found no differences between the two groups in the daily percentages of records attributed to feeding. The semiprovisioned group spent significantly more time engaged in resting and aggressive behavior, and foraged and moved significantly less than the wild-feeding group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in time spent eating leaves, fruits, or roots and bark. The semiprovisioned group, however, spent significantly less time per day feeding on herbs, seeds, and acorns than the wild-feeding group. Human food accounted for 26% of the daily feeding records for the semiprovisioned group and 1% for the wild-feeding group. Our findings agree with previous studies and indicate that in the tourist site, where food is highly clumped, macaques decreased foraging time yet showed higher levels of contest competition. Our results support the common claim that the diet of the Barbary macaque is highly flexible, differing among its varied habitats. Conservation efforts for the Barbary macaques should take into account the changes in behavior that human-modified environments may cause. PMID:24006539

  15. Differences in activity budgets and diet between semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of the endangered Barbary macaque (Macaca sylvanus) in the central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco.

    PubMed

    El Alami, Abderrazak; Van Lavieren, Els; Rachida, Aboufatima; Chait, Abderrahman

    2012-03-01

    The Barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus is a very adaptable primate species occupying a wide range of habitats in Morocco and Algeria. Several groups of this endangered macaque can be found in tourist sites, where they are affected by the presence of visitors providing food to them. We compare the activity budgets and the diet of semiprovisioned and wild-feeding groups of Barbary macaques in the central High Atlas Mountains of Morocco from February to August 2008. We used instantaneous scan sampling at 15-min intervals. The behaviors included in the activity budget were feeding, moving, foraging, resting, and aggressive display. Food items were grouped into seven categories. We found no differences between the two groups in the daily percentages of records attributed to feeding. The semiprovisioned group spent significantly more time engaged in resting and aggressive behavior, and foraged and moved significantly less than the wild-feeding group. There was no significant difference between the two groups in time spent eating leaves, fruits, or roots and bark. The semiprovisioned group, however, spent significantly less time per day feeding on herbs, seeds, and acorns than the wild-feeding group. Human food accounted for 26% of the daily feeding records for the semiprovisioned group and 1% for the wild-feeding group. Our findings agree with previous studies and indicate that in the tourist site, where food is highly clumped, macaques decreased foraging time yet showed higher levels of contest competition. Our results support the common claim that the diet of the Barbary macaque is highly flexible, differing among its varied habitats. Conservation efforts for the Barbary macaques should take into account the changes in behavior that human-modified environments may cause.

  16. Building the Next Generation of Scientific Explorers through Active Engagement with STEM Experts and International Space Station Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Vanderbloemen, L.; Higgins, M.; Stefanov, W. L.; Rampe, E.

    2015-01-01

    Connecting students and teachers in classrooms with science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experts provides an invaluable opportunity for all. These experts can share the benefits and utilization of resources from the International Space Station (ISS) while sharing and "translating" exciting science being conducted by professional scientists. Active engagement with these STEM experts involves students in the journey of science and exploration in an enthralling and understandable manner. This active engagement, connecting classrooms with scientific experts, helps inspire and build the next generation of scientific explorers in academia, private industry, and government.

  17. 2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EMPIRE STATE MINE. VIEW OF COLLAPSED BUILDINGS AT MINE WITH TAILINGS ON RIGHT. CAMERA POINTED SOUTHWEST. COLLAPSED ADIT APPROXIMATELY 25 YARDS UPHILL TO THE LEFT OF FAR BUILDING. TIP TOP AND ONTARIO ARE LOCATED OUT OF THE PICTURE TO THE RIGHT. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Empire State Mine, West side of Florida Mountain, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  18. Ride with Abandon: Practical Ideas to Include Mountain Biking in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Cycling and mountain biking are among the most popular fitness activities in America. Considering that the purpose of physical education is to encourage lifelong activity for all, it is logical to include lifetime activities such as mountain biking in physical education programs. Many perceived barriers to adding mountain biking in physical…

  19. Effects of animal activity and air temperature on methane and ammonia emissions from a naturally ventilated building for dairy cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngwabie, N. M.; Jeppsson, K.-H.; Gustafsson, G.; Nimmermark, S.

    2011-12-01

    Knowledge of how different factors affect gas emissions from animal buildings can be useful for emission prediction purposes and for the improvement of emission abatement techniques. In this study, the effects of dairy cow activity and indoor air temperature on gas emissions were examined. The concentrations of CH 4, NH 3, CO 2 and N 2O inside and outside a dairy cow building were measured continuously between February and May together with animal activity and air temperature. The building was naturally ventilated and had a solid concrete floor which sloped towards a central urine gutter. Manure was scraped from the floor once every hour in the daytime and once every second hour at night into a partly covered indoor pit which was emptied daily at 6 a.m. and at 5 p.m. Gas emissions were calculated from the measured gas concentrations and ventilation rates estimated by the CO 2 balance method. The animal activity and emission rates of CH 4 and NH 3 showed significant diurnal variations with two peaks which were probably related to the feeding routine. On an average day, CH 4 emissions ranged from 7 to 15 g LU -1 h -1 and NH 3 emissions ranged from 0.4 to 1.5 g LU -1 h -1 (1 LU = 500 kg animal weight). Mean emissions of CH 4 and NH 3 were 10.8 g LU -1 h -1 and 0.81 g LU -1 h -1, respectively. The NH 3 emissions were comparable to emissions from tied stall buildings and represented a 4% loss in manure nitrogen. At moderate levels, temperature seems to affect the behaviour of dairy cows and in this study where the daily indoor air temperature ranged from about 5 up to about 20 °C, the daily activity of the cows decreased with increasing indoor air temperature ( r = -0.78). Results suggest that enteric fermentation is the main source of CH 4 emissions from systems of the type in this study, while NH 3 is mainly emitted from the manure. Daily CH 4 emissions increased significantly with the activity of the cows ( r = 0.61) while daily NH 3 emissions increased

  20. Multi-phase inversion tectonics related to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault activity, Zagros Mountains, SW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazem Shiroodi, Sadjad; Ghafoori, Mohammad; Faghih, Ali; Ghanadian, Mostafa; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Hafezi Moghadas, Naser

    2015-11-01

    Distinctive characteristics of inverted structures make them important criteria for the identification of certain structural styles of folded belts. The interpretation of 3D seismic reflection and well data sheds new light on the structural evolution and age of inverted structures associated to the Hendijan-Nowrooz-Khafji Fault within the Persian Gulf Basin and northeastern margin of Afro-Arabian plate. Analysis of thickness variations of growth strata using "T-Z plot" (thickness versus throw plot) method revealed the kinematics of the fault. Obtained results show that the fault has experienced a multi-phase evolutionary history over six different extension and compression deformation events (i.e. positive and negative inversion) between 252.2 and 11.62 Ma. This cyclic activity of the growth fault was resulted from alteration of sedimentary processes during continuous fault slip. The structural development of the study area both during positive and negative inversion geometry styles was ultimately controlled by the relative motion between the Afro-Arabian and Central-Iranian plates.

  1. Interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief of the Inner Cottians Alps (Western Alps): preliminary morphotectonic map.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacenetti, Marco; Morelli, Michele; Cadoppi, Paola; Giardino, Marco; Perotti, Luigi; Perrone, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    Possible interactions between recent tectonic activity and the evolution of mountain relief have been investigated at the regional (1:50,000) and local (1:5,000) scale in the Germanasca Valley (Cottian Alps, NW-Italy) through an integrated, multidisciplinary approach combining Structural analysis, Quaternary Geology, Geomorphology and Geomatics. The inner edge of the Cottians Alps and the adjacent Po Plain are among the most densely populated portions of the Piemonte Region (NW-Italy). This area corresponds to the junction between the Alpine and Apennine chains and it is affected by a diffuse low- to moderate- seismicity (Ml<5) and hypocenters at a shallow crustal level (< 20 Km). Available apatite fission track data indicate that this sector reached shallow crustal levels, where brittle deformation mechanisms prevail since Late Oligocene times. Historical earthquakes (e.g. Prarostino's earthquakes, 1808 Ml=5.5; Cumiana's earthquakes, 1980 Ml=4.8) caused both material and social damage in the area. Since faults activity is often associated with characteristic geomorphological features, linear valleys, ridgelines, slope-breaks, steep slopes of uniform aspect, regional anisotropy and tilt of terrain, have been detected in the area. Analysis of digital elevation models, by means of numerical geomorphology, provides a tool to recognize linear features and characterizing the tectonics of an area in a quantitative way. Geomorphology and morphotectonic analyses have been performed using digital orthophotos (AGEA Orthophoto 2009), aerial stereo couples and DEMs (LiDAR5x5 meters, Regione Piemonte 2009). The morphotectonic lineament analysis was conducted using TerraExplorer® Software Systems, Inc. For the field mapping activities, it was used an application called "SRG2" (Support to Geological / Geomorphological Surveys), an extension for ArcPad (ESRI mobile GIS). Into ArcPad, the SRG2 application adds a toolbar made up of several functions for a useful mapping and

  2. Magmatic Trigger for Extensional Collapse? Character and Significance of Pre-Extensional Volcanic Activity in the Whipple Mountains Region, Lower Colorado River Extensional Corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidler, M. K.; Gans, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The character and timing of voluminous Miocene volcanic activity associated with regional crustal extension in the lower Colorado River Extensional Corridor (CREC) shed light on the interplay between tectonic and magmatic processes in the area. New 40Ar/39Ar ages from holocrystaline groundmass separates of mafic lava flows and phenocrystic plagioclase, biotite, hornblende, and sanidine from silicic extrusive rocks, combined with LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of zircon from the more altered intermediate to silicic rocks provide important new constraints on the ages of pre-, syn-, and post-extensional volcanic sequences in the vicinity of the Whipple Mountains metamorphic core complex. Local eruptive activity began ~20.5 Ma and persisted for 1.5 million years prior to the inception of major extensional faulting and tilting at ~19 Ma, as recorded by upper plate tilt blocks. The pre-extensional sequences are homoclinal, steeply tilted, and disconformably overlie older arkosic sedimentary rocks. There is no compelling evidence for angular unconformities or growth faulting during this earliest pre-extensional volcanic activity. These early erupted units are dominantly mafic, forming ≥1 km thick sections of olivine-basalt and olv-cpx-plag basaltic andesite lava flows punctuated by rare aphyric to crystal poor dacite ignimbrites. Plag±pyx±bio±hbl dacite lava flows and domes with associated pyroclastic deposits appear late in the pre-extensional sequence, immediately prior to and during the onset of major extensional faulting. These crystal-poor to aphyric silicic rocks show abundant evidence of magma mingling and may represent hybridized partial melts generated by the influx of basaltic magma into the crust. The pre-extensional sequence is locally overlain by ~18.5 to 18.8 Ma syn- and post-extensional volcanic and sedimentary rocks along a pronounced 30-60° angular unconformity, indicating very rapid extension during the early stages of the CREC's development. This overall

  3. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for

  4. An overview of worldwide development activity in building-integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, S.J.

    1995-12-31

    The last two decades have brought significant charges to the design profession. Architects with vision have come to understand it is no longer the goal of good design to simply create a building that is pleasing; buildings of the future must be environmentally responsive as well. Increased levels of thermal insulation, healthier interiors, higher-efficiency lighting, better glazings and HVAC equipment, air to air heat exchangers and heat recovery ventilation systems are important steps in the right direction. However, more needs to be done and the area of photovoltaics is one of the most promising renewable energy technologies. This paper is a country by country description of component and system development along with selected examples of Solar Electric architecture. Countries described include Japan, Germany, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Spain, Sweden, Italy, Canada, Norway.

  5. Analysis of Radioactive Releases During Proposed Demolition Activities for the 224-U and 224-UA Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Droppo, James G.

    2009-03-31

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling has been conducted in support of the demolition of the 224-U and 224-UA buildings using estimated release rates to provide information on the location and levels of radioactive contamination that may be expected. The facilities surrounding the UO3 plant have the potential to affect dispersion patterns through various meteorological phenomena, including building wake effects. Hourly meteorological data collected over a 5-year period were used to examine the effects of wind speed, direction, and stability on projected concentrations of contaminants in air and deposited on nearby surfaces. The modeling results indicate that the radiological exposures from the planned demolition efforts will be below the designated limits for air and soil exposures.

  6. Project ISIAH - Experiment on the effects of micro-gravity on hornets' nest building and activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brull, Lily

    1992-10-01

    An Israel Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISIAH) aimed at determining whether hornets are capable of retaining their unique ability of orientation under microgravity conditions is described. The Oriental Hornets used in the experiment are capable of building combs in the direction of the gravitational vector and detecting minute changes in gravitational force. Data obtained may be used to facilitate human adaptation to space conditions as well as rehabilitation after returning to earth.

  7. Latest Pleistocene-Holocene debris flow activity, Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona; Implications for modern debris-flow hazards under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youberg, Ann M.; Webb, Robert H.; Fenton, Cassandra R.; Pearthree, Philip A.

    2014-08-01

    Hazard mitigation for extreme events such as debris flows requires geologic mapping and chronologic information, particularly for alluvial fans near mountain fronts in the southwestern United States. In July 2006, five consecutive days of monsoonal storms caused hundreds of debris flows in southeastern Arizona, particularly in the southern Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson. Before 2006, no historical debris flows from the Santa Catalina Mountains reached the populated mountain front, although abundant evidence of prehistoric debris flows is present on downslope alluvial fans. We used a combination of surficial geologic mapping and 10Be exposure dating to produce a debris-flow history for Pima and Finger Rock Canyons. The largest debris flows, of latest Pleistocene to early Holocene age, covered much of the apices of alluvial fans formed at the mouths of these canyons and extended up to 3 km downslope. These debris-flow deposits were inset against higher and older alluvial surfaces with few debris-flow deposits of late Pleistocene age. The 10Be ages in this study have considerable scatter for surfaces believed to be of uniform age, indicating the dual possibilities of inheritance from previous cosmic-ray exposure, as well as the potential for composite deposits derived from numerous debris flows. We then used an empirical inundation model, LAHARZ, to assess probable magnitudes of the older debris flows to evaluate possible initiation mechanisms. In-channel and terrace storage within the canyons is not sufficient to generate volumes likely needed to produce the larger late Pleistocene to early Holocene debris-flow deposits. The abundance of latest Pleistocene and early Holocene deposits suggests that large debris flows were generated during the instability associated with climate and vegetation changes at the Pleistocene-Holocene transition. Under present watershed conditions with limited sediment supplies, modern debris-flow hazards are generally limited to

  8. [Influence of different slope position and profile in Disporopsis pernyi forest land on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in southwest Karst mountain of China ].

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua-Jun; He, Bing-Hui; Zhao, Xuan-chi; Li, Yuan; Mao, Wen-tao; Zeng, Qing-ping

    2014-09-01

    Soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity are important parameters to evaluate the quality of the soil environment. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of different slope position and section in Disporopsis pernyi forest land on the soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in southwest Karst Mountain. In this study, we chose the Dip forest land at Yunfo village Chengdong town Liangping country Chongqing Province as the study object, to analyze the influence of three different slope positions [Up Slope(US), Middle Slope(MS), Below Slope(BS)] and two different sections-upper layer(0-15 cm) and bottom layer(15-30 cm) on the soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN), microbial carbon entropy (qMBC), microbial nitrogen entropy (qMBN) , catalase(CAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK), urease(URE), and invertase(INV). The results showed that the same trend (BS > MS > US) was found for SMBC, SMBN, qMBC, qMBN, CAT and INV of upper soil layer, while a different trend (BS > US > MS) was observed for ALK. In addition, another trend (MS > US > BS) was observed for URE. The same trend (BS > MS >US) was observed for SMBN, qMBN, CAT, ALK, URE and INV in bottom layer, but a different trend (MS > BS > US) was observed for SMBC and qMBC. The SMBC, SMBN, CAT, ALK, URE and INV manifested as upper > bottom with reduction of the section, while qMBC and qMBN showed the opposite trend. Correlation analysis indicated that there were significant (P <0.05) or highly significant (P < 0.01) positive correlations among SMBC in different slope position and section, soil enzyme activity and moisture. According to the two equations of regression analysis, SMBC tended to increase with the increasing CAT and ALK, while decreased with the increasing pH. Then SMBN tended to increase with the increasing URE and INV. PMID:25518682

  9. 20. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING (BUILDING 543) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AT CENTER. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 22. SOUTH PLANT FROM ROOF OF FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SOUTH PLANT FROM ROOF OF FACILITIES MAINTENANCE BUILDING, SHOWING WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AND WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 542) AT LEFT CENTER. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. FIELD ACTIVITIES AND PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM THE INVESTIGATION OF WESTERN AIRBORNE CONTAMINANTS IN TWO HIGH ELEVATION WATERSHEDS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Park Service initiated the Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project (WACAP) in 2002 to determine if airborne contaminants from long-range transport and/or regional sources are having an impact on remote western ecosystems, including AK. Rocky Mountain Nation...

  12. Building Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisner, Mary J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Defines school-business partnerships and reviews changes in such partnerships over the past 25 years. Provides steps to building effective partnerships for school-to-work activities: review the school's mission; select partners that will bring strength to the relationship; set clearly defined, realistic goals; maintain the partnership; and…

  13. Mountain torrents: Quantifying vulnerability and assessing uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    Totschnig, Reinhold; Fuchs, Sven

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment for elements at risk is an important component in the framework of risk assessment. The vulnerability of buildings affected by torrent processes can be quantified by vulnerability functions that express a mathematical relationship between the degree of loss of individual elements at risk and the intensity of the impacting process. Based on data from the Austrian Alps, we extended a vulnerability curve for residential buildings affected by fluvial sediment transport processes to other torrent processes and other building types. With respect to this goal to merge different data based on different processes and building types, several statistical tests were conducted. The calculation of vulnerability functions was based on a nonlinear regression approach applying cumulative distribution functions. The results suggest that there is no need to distinguish between different sediment-laden torrent processes when assessing vulnerability of residential buildings towards torrent processes. The final vulnerability functions were further validated with data from the Italian Alps and different vulnerability functions presented in the literature. This comparison showed the wider applicability of the derived vulnerability functions. The uncertainty inherent to regression functions was quantified by the calculation of confidence bands. The derived vulnerability functions may be applied within the framework of risk management for mountain hazards within the European Alps. The method is transferable to other mountain regions if the input data needed are available. PMID:27087696

  14. Carbon Nanotube Thin Films for Active Noise Cancellation, Solar Energy Harvesting, and Energy Storage in Building Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shan

    This research explores the application of carbon nanotube (CNT) films for active noise cancellation, solar energy harvesting and energy storage in building windows. The CNT-based components developed herein can be integrated into a solar-powered active noise control system for a building window. First, the use of a transparent acoustic transducer as both an invisible speaker for auxiliary audio playback and for active noise cancellation is accomplished in this work. Several challenges related to active noise cancellation in the window are addressed. These include secondary path estimation and directional cancellation of noise so as to preserve auxiliary audio and internal sounds while preventing transmission of external noise into the building. Solar energy can be harvested at a low rate of power over long durations while acoustic sound cancellation requires short durations of high power. A supercapacitor based energy storage system is therefore considered for the window. Using CNTs as electrode materials, two generations of flexible, thin, and fully solid-state supercapacitors are developed that can be integrated into the window frame. Both generations consist of carbon nanotube films coated on supporting substrates as electrodes and a solid-state polymer gel layer for the electrolyte. The first generation is a single-cell parallel-plate supercapacitor with a working voltage of 3 Volts. Its energy density is competitive with commercially available supercapacitors (which use liquid electrolyte). For many applications that will require higher working voltage, the second-generation multi-cell supercapacitor is developed. A six-cell device with a working voltage as high as 12 Volts is demonstrated here. Unlike the first generation's 3D structure, the second generation has a novel planar (2D) architecture, which makes it easy to integrate multiple cells into a thin and flexible supercapacitor. The multi-cell planar supercapacitor has energy density exceeding that of

  15. A semi-active H∞ control strategy with application to the vibration suppression of nonlinear high-rise building under earthquake excitations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings. PMID:27462501

  16. A semi-active H∞ control strategy with application to the vibration suppression of nonlinear high-rise building under earthquake excitations.

    PubMed

    Yan, Guiyun; Chen, Fuquan; Wu, Yingxiong

    2016-01-01

    Different from previous researches which mostly focused on linear response control of seismically excited high-rise buildings, this study aims to control nonlinear seismic response of high-rise buildings. To this end, a semi-active control strategy, in which H∞ control algorithm is used and magneto-rheological dampers are employed for an actuator, is presented to suppress the nonlinear vibration. In this strategy, a modified Kalman-Bucy observer which is suitable for the proposed semi-active strategy is developed to obtain the state vector from the measured semi-active control force and acceleration feedback, taking into account of the effects of nonlinearity, disturbance and uncertainty of controlled system parameters by the observed nonlinear accelerations. Then, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is applied to the ASCE 20-story benchmark building when subjected to earthquake excitation and compared with the other control approaches by some control criteria. It is indicated that the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy provides much better control performances by comparison with the semi-active MPC and Clipped-LQG control approaches, and can reduce nonlinear seismic response and minimize the damage in the buildings. Besides, it enhances the reliability of the control performance when compared with the active control strategy. Thus, the proposed semi-active H∞ control strategy is suitable for suppressing the nonlinear vibration of high-rise buildings.

  17. State Park Directors' Perceptions of Mountain Biking

    PubMed

    SCHUETT

    1997-03-01

    / This study intended to explore the perceptions of mountain bikingmanagement through a mail survey of state park directors in all 50 states.With a 100% response rate, it was found that 47 states permit mountainbiking in their state parks, however, few state parks have formalized plansto manage this outdoor activity. The management policies that do exist arenot followed on a statewide basis but vary within each state and at eachstate park. Many states have worked cooperatively with local mountain bikingclubs to develop and maintain mountain bike trails, promote rider education,and provide volunteer patrols on trails. The issue of user conflict surfacedwith almost three-fourths of the managers responding that conflict existedbetween mountain bikers and other trail users. This preliminary study shouldprompt further research with on-site managers focusing on the use ofmanagement plans for mountain biking, cooperation between managers and usergroups, and user conflict. It is recommended that an Internet-basedinformation clearinghouse or discussion group be made available to landmanagers by a national bicycling organization.KEY WORDS: Mountain biking; State parks; State park directors;Recreation resource management

  18. Writing through Modeling: Using Various Scholarship Enhancement Programs and Activities To Build Writing Interest and Skill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Les M.

    This paper focuses on the efforts at Gardner-Webb University in North Carolina to extend the writing efforts of a writing across the curriculum (WAC) retreat into a greater matrix of scholarly activity, not only in the classroom but outside as well. Noting that the initial idea was that an intensive year of emphasizing scholastic activity could…

  19. Math Strategies You Can Count On: Tools & Activities to Build Math Appreciation, Understanding & Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsten, Char

    2005-01-01

    This book offers classroom-tested activities designed to make even the most reluctant learners crazy about math. Appealing to everyone from sports fans to readers, future fashion designers to budding musicians, the activities presented in this book offer ways to develop a deep-rooted love and appreciation of math in every student. Teachers are…

  20. Analysis of Radioactive Releases During Proposed Demolition Activities for the 224-U and 224-UA Buildings - Addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Droppo, James G.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2010-12-21

    A post-demolition modeling analysis is conducted that compares during-demolition atmospheric concentration monitoring results with modeling results based on the actual meteorological conditions during the demolition activities. The 224-U and 224-UA Buildings that were located in the U-Plant UO3 complex in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site were demolished during the summer of 2010. These facilities converted uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH), a product of Hanford’s Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, into uranium trioxide (UO3). This report is an addendum to a pre-demolition emission analysis and air dispersion modeling effort that was conducted for proposed demolition activities for these structures.

  1. Active Fault Near-Source Zones Within and Bordering the State of California for the 1997 Uniform Building Code

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Toppozada, Tousson R.; Cao, T.; Cramer, C.H.; Reichle, M.S.; Bryant, W.A.

    2000-01-01

    The fault sources in the Project 97 probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the state of California were used to construct maps for defining near-source seismic coefficients, Na and Nv, incorporated in the 1997 Uniform Building Code (ICBO 1997). The near-source factors are based on the distance from a known active fault that is classified as either Type A or Type B. To determine the near-source factor, four pieces of geologic information are required: (1) recognizing a fault and determining whether or not the fault has been active during the Holocene, (2) identifying the location of the fault at or beneath the ground surface, (3) estimating the slip rate of the fault, and (4) estimating the maximum earthquake magnitude for each fault segment. This paper describes the information used to produce the fault classifications and distances.

  2. Quantifying structural controls of rockfall activity on alpine limestone cliffs: a LiDAR-based geological approach in the Wetterstein Mountains, Bavarian Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Benjamin; Krautblatter, Michael

    2016-04-01

    In mountainous regions, rockfall represents one of the most hazardous processes potentially threatening human life and infrastructure. For risk assessment and dimensioning rockfall mitigation, a thorough understanding of rockfall processes is crucial. Here, the rate of backweathering and rockfall supply are key factors for sediment budget assessment in rock slope environments. However, recent LiDAR approaches do not cover the entire spectrum of rockfall magnitudes (e.g. small fragmental rockfall, rare large events) and many former rockfall studies do not address geological and geotechnical factors controlling rockfall. The test setup was deliberately chosen to reduce the degrees of freedom for rockfall-controlling factors. Lithology, aspect, slope gradient and porosity were kept uniform but scan sites were chosen vary bedding orientation and joint density systematically along a 600 m high limestone rock face. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) was used to detect and quantify rockfall activity (mm/a) at five selected rock walls of the north-facing rock slopes of the Reintal Valley over the course of one year. Additionally, structural data were obtained by traditional scanline measurements and TLS-based analysis. The compatibility of TLS methods was tested by validating the data with existing rockfall inventories obtained by direct measurements by Krautblatter et al. (2012). The results show a high discrepancy of seasonal rockfall activity between summer months (0.001 to 0.022 mm/a) and autumn to spring (0.021 to 0.364 mm/a) as well as between favorable bedding orientation (0.015 mm/a) and daylighted bedding (max. 0.264 mm/a). A significant effect of joint spacing on rockfall activity is not evident in the data or overlain by the bedding orientation effect. Nevertheless, the differences in estimated block sizes between the observed rock walls is clearly visible in the TLS derived particle size distribution. The latter was adduced to extrapolate rockfall magnitudes

  3. Floods in mountain environments: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffel, Markus; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Marston, Richard A.

    2016-11-01

    Floods are a crucial agent of geomorphic change in the channels and valley floors of mountains watercourses. At the same time, they can be highly damaging to property, infrastructure, and life. Because of their high energy, mountain watercourses are highly vulnerable to environmental changes affecting their catchments and channels. Many factors have modified and frequently still tend to modify the environmental conditions in mountain areas, with impacts on geomorphic processes and the frequency, magnitude, and timing of floods in mountain watercourses. The ongoing climate changes vary between regions but may affect floods in mountain areas in many ways. In many mountain regions of Europe, widespread afforestation took place over the twentieth century, considerably increasing the amounts of large wood delivered to the channels and the likelihood of jamming bridges. At the same time, deforestation continues in other mountain areas, accelerating runoff and amplifying the magnitude and frequency of floods in foreland areas. In many countries, in-channel gravel mining has been a common practice during recent decades; the resultant deficit of bed material in the affected channels may suddenly manifest during flood events, resulting in the failure of scoured bridges or catastrophic channel widening. During the past century many rivers in mountain and foreland areas incised deeply; the resultant loss of floodplain water storage has decreased attenuation of flood waves, hence increasing flood hazard to downstream river reaches. On the other hand, a large amount of recent river restoration activities worldwide may provide examples of beneficial changes to flood risk, attained as a result of increased channel storage or reestablished floodplain water storage. Relations between geomorphic processes and floods operate in both directions, which means that changes in flood probability or the character of floods (e.g., increased wood load) may significantly modify the morphology

  4. Recreational mountain biking injuries.

    PubMed

    Aitken, S A; Biant, L C; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2011-04-01

    Mountain biking is increasing in popularity worldwide. The injury patterns associated with elite level and competitive mountain biking are known. This study analysed the incidence, spectrum and risk factors for injuries sustained during recreational mountain biking. The injury rate was 1.54 injuries per 1000 biker exposures. Men were more commonly injured than women, with those aged 30-39 years at highest risk. The commonest types of injury were wounding, skeletal fracture and musculoskeletal soft tissue injury. Joint dislocations occurred more commonly in older mountain bikers. The limbs were more commonly injured than the axial skeleton. The highest hospital admission rates were observed with head, neck and torso injuries. Protective body armour, clip-in pedals and the use of a full-suspension bicycle may confer a protective effect. PMID:20659880

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. ... Saunders; 2014:chap 212. Walker DH, Blaton LS. Rickettsia rickettsii and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (Rocky ...

  6. Tunneling on the Yucca Mountain Project: Progress and lessons learned

    SciTech Connect

    Hansmire, W.H.; Rogers, D.J.; Wightman, W.D.

    1996-06-01

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is the US`s effort to confirm the technical acceptability of Yucca Mountain as a repository for high-level nuclear waste. A key part of the site characterization project is the construction of a 7.8-km-long, 7.6-m-diameter tunnel for in-depth geologic and other scientific investigations. The work is governed in varying degrees by the special requirements for nuclear quality assurance, which imposes uncommon and often stringent limitations on the materials which can be used in construction, the tunneling methods and procedures used, and record-keeping for many activities. This paper presents the current status of what has been learned, how construction has adapted to meet the requirements, and how the requirements were interpreted in a mitigating way to meet the legal obligations, yet build the tunnel as rapidly as possible. With regard to design methodologies and the realities of tunnel construction, ground support with a shielded Tunnel Boring Machine is discussed. Notable lessons learned include the need for broad design analyses for a wide variety of conditions and how construction procedures affect ground support.

  7. Thrombosis at mountain altitudes.

    PubMed

    Cucinell, S A; Pitts, C M

    1987-11-01

    Victims of high-altitude pulmonary edema often have clots obstructing the pulmonary vessels. This, together with an apparent high incidence of thrombophlebitis and cerebral emboli at altitude suggests that mountain travel may predispose to hypercoagulability. A critical analysis of the available data suggests that, although thrombosis may be a late event complicating various forms of mountain sickness, the laboratory techniques of characterizing hypercoagulability are not sufficient to define and characterize the mechanism.

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  9. A first landslide inventory in the Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Liesbet; Dewitte, Olivier; Poesen, Jean; Sekajugo, John; Maes, Jan; Mertens, Kewan; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-04-01

    Landslides have significant impacts in many equatorial regions, particularly in the East-African highlands characterized by mountainous topography, intense rainfalls, deep weathering profiles, high population density and high vulnerability to geohazards. With its exceptionally steep topography, wet climate and active faulting, landslides can be expected to occur in the Rwenzori region as well. Whether or not this region is prone to landsliding is however unclear due to a lack of scientific studies and representation of this region in global landslide databases. In order to address this question, a first landslide inventory based on archive information is built. In total, 48 landslide and flashflood events, or combinations of these, are found. They caused 56 fatalities, considerable damage to road infrastructure, buildings and cropland, and rendered over 14,000 persons homeless. These numbers indicate that the Rwenzori Mountains are landslide-prone and that the impact of these events is significant. This archive inventory provided the basis for a thorough field inventory executed in three sub-regions of each 40-50 km² situated in the three districts of the Rwenzori Mountains and covering the main lithological units. Over 300 landslides were mapped in the field. Various contrasting mass wasting processes occur among which translational debris and soil slides, debris avalanches, debris flows and rotational soil slides. Landslides occur on almost all lithological groups present in the Rwenzori (Gneiss, Schists and Miocene to recent sediments), with the exception of Amphibolite, which does not appear to be susceptible to landslides. The majority of events are triggered by intense rainfall, although also earthquake-triggered landslides are identified, mostly related to the Mw 6.2 earthquake of 1994. The field inventory will be complemented and validated using very high resolution remotely sensed data and aerial photographs. This multi-temporal landslide inventory will

  10. Integrating psychological research on girls with feminist activism: a model for building a liberation psychology in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kathryn E; Finkelstein, Jo-Ann S; Lyons, Aoife L

    2003-03-01

    A liberation psychology is needed to bridge the gap between psychology's focus on individual distress and broad social forces that foster such distress. We offer a model for bridging this gap by focusing on a specific area of psychology (psychological research on girls) and a specific social movement (feminist activism). Psychological research on girls and feminist activism share the common goal of improving the lives of girls and women. However, both have fallen short of this goal. This is due, in part, to the weaknesses associated with each endeavor and to the fact that the complementary strengths of each have remained isolated from the other. In this paper, we propose a common language and shared framework to integrate psychological research with feminist activism. First, we review the basic strengths and weaknesses associated with psychological research and feminist activism, with a particular focus on how they are distinct from one another. Second, we provide a taxonomic framework for integrating these two areas on the basis of the stress paradigm, with specific examples provided from our recent reviews of the literature and our own empirical work with adolescent girls. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future work needed to integrate psychological research on girls with feminist activism toward the goal of building a liberation psychology in the United States.

  11. Suppression of mechanical vibrations in a building-like structure using a passive/active autoparametric absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abundis-Fong, H. F.; Silva-Navarro, G.

    2014-03-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out on a system consisting of a primary structure coupled with a passive/active autoparametric vibration absorber. The primary structure consists of a building-like mechanical structure, it has three rigid floors connected by flexible columns made from aluminium strips, while the absorber consists of a cantilever beam with a PZT patch actuator actively controlled through an acquisition card. The whole system, which is a coupled non-linear oscillator, is subjected to sinusoidal excitation obtained from an electromechanical shaker in the neighborhood of internal resonances. The natural frequency of the absorber is tuned to be one-half of any of the natural frequencies of the main system. With the addition of a PZT actuator, the autoparametric vibration absorber is made active, thus enabling the possibility to control the effective stiffness associated to the passive absorber and, as a consequence, the implementation of an active vibration control scheme able to preserve, as possible, the autoparametric interaction as well as to compensate varying excitation frequencies. This active vibration absorber employs feedback information from an accelerometer on the primary structure, an accelerometer on the tip of the beam absorber and a strain gage on the base of the beam, feedforward information from the excitation force and on-line computations from the nonlinear approximate frequency response, parameterized in terms of a proportional gain provided by a voltage input to the PZT actuator, thus providing a mechanism to asymptotically track an optimal, robust and stable attenuation solution on the primary system.

  12. Rocky Mountain acidification study

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, J.H.; Galloway, J.N.; Schofield, C.; McFee, W.; Johnson, R.; McCarley, S.; Dise, N.; Herzog, D.

    1983-10-01

    The objectives of this report were to determine the sensitivity of watersheds characteristic of the Rocky Mountain Region and the relationship of watershed sensitivity to geology and soils; to evaluate the extent of current acidification and the potential for increasing acidification with increasing deposition of nitrate and sulfate; to evaluate the results of the preceding in terms of impacts on fish populations; and to develop recommendations for assessment of future trends in both changing water chemistry and impacts on fish populations. Areas selected for study included the Rocky Mountain National Ppark and Yellowstone National Park, exemplifying two different geologic types that are representative of a large portion of the Rocky Mountain region. Rocky Mountain National Park is primarily underlain by granite and Yellowstone National Park by volcanic materials. Sensitivity is primarily determined by bedrock geology and varies inversely with elevation. High-elevation lakes and streams in the central Rocky Mountain region are very sensitive to acidic deposition. With respect to fish populations there is currently no evidence of chronic acidification and thus no apparent impact on fisheries. However, the very low base cation concentration observed in the headwater drainages of Rocky Mountain National Park suggests extreme sensitivity to acidification. Waters in volcanic areas such as Yellowstone National Park are generally of high alkalinity and do not represent potentially sensitive habitats. 109 references, 31 figures, 24 tables.

  13. Undecylenic acid: a valuable and physiologically active renewable building block from castor oil.

    PubMed

    Van der Steen, Marijke; Stevens, Christian V

    2009-01-01

    A lot of attention is currently being paid to the transition to a biobased economy. In this movement, most efforts concentrate on the development of bioenergy applications including bioethanol, biodiesel, thermochemical conversion of biomass, and others. However, in the energy sector other nonbiomass alternatives are known, whereas no valuable alternatives are available when thinking about chemical building blocks. Therefore, it is also essential to develop new routes for the synthesis of bio-based chemicals and materials derived thereof. Such intermediates can originate either from plants or from animals. Castor oil is a non-edible oil extracted from the seeds of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), which grows in tropical and subtropical areas. Globally, around one million tons of castor seeds are produced every year, the leading producing areas being India, PR China, and Brazil.2 10-Undecenoic acid or undecylenic acid is a fatty acid derived from castor oil that, owing to its bifunctional nature, has many possibilities to develop sustainable applications.

  14. The Building Blocks of Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Betty O.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses teaching techniques for teaching about rocks, minerals, and the differences between them. Presents a model-building activity that uses plastic building blocks to build crystal and rock models. (YDS)

  15. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method. PMID:23798709

  16. Comparison of active and passive methods for radon exhalation from a high-exposure building material.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, A; Mirekhtiary, F

    2013-12-01

    The radon exhalation rates and radon concentrations in granite stones used in Iran were measured by means of a high-resolution high purity Germanium gamma-spectroscopy system (passive method) and an AlphaGUARD model PQ 2000 (active method). For standard rooms (4.0 × 5.0 m area × 2.8 height) where ground and walls have been covered by granite stones, the radon concentration and the radon exhalation rate by two methods were calculated. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra in the selected granite samples ranged from 3.8 to 94.2 Bq kg(-1). The radon exhalation rate from the calculation of the (226)Ra activity concentration was obtained. The radon exhalation rates were 1.31-7.86 Bq m(-2)h(-1). The direction measurements using an AlphaGUARD were from 218 to 1306 Bq m(-3) with a mean of 625 Bq m(-3). Also, the exhalation rates measured by the passive and active methods were compared and the results of this study were the same, with the active method being 22 % higher than the passive method.

  17. Constructive Play: Building Symbolic Competence through Physical Activity and Social Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennel, Linda

    Whether physical activity and verbal communication would affect kindergarten students' scores on the Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) was investigated. Twenty subjects were administered Level I of the MRT when they entered kindergarten. For 5 days per week for 4 weeks, the 10 subjects in the experimental group worked at constructive play tasks…

  18. Citizenship Education in Ukraine and Russia: Reconciling Nation-Building and Active Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janmaat, Jan Germen; Piattoeva, Nelli

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the discourses framing citizenship education in Ukraine and Russia from "perestroika" to the present and assesses the role of the Council of Europe in promoting democratic citizenship in both countries. We argue that there is a tension between the discourses of active citizenship, strongly disseminated by international agencies…

  19. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  20. Playwise: 365 Fun-Filled Activities for Building Character, Conscience, and Emotional Intelligence in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Denise Chapman; Weston, Mark S.

    Noting that we are raising our children in a morally ambiguous world and we have to do more than just discipline them and hope for the best, this book is a manual for raising children who are emotionally and intellectually capable and confident, by means of play activities that imbue a sense of right and wrong. Each chapter of the manual begins…

  1. Building Early Literacy and Language Skills: A Resource and Activity Guide for Preschool and Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Lucy Hart; Noble, Linda Attridge; Jepson, Stacia; van den Pol, Rick

    This book is a resource and activity guide for early childhood educators and care providers that helps to enhance the development of early and emerging literacy skills in young children. Its philosophy is based on the premise that both language and literacy development begin at birth and that educators and caretakers of young children have a…

  2. 45 CFR 2520.30 - What capacity-building activities may AmeriCorps members perform?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... volunteers have a high-quality experience; and (v) Assisting an organization in reaching out to individuals... directly in support of service activities; and (vi) Supporting staff and board education. (4) Developing... government agencies; (iv) Institutions of higher education; and (v) Local education agencies or organizations....

  3. Nobody Says No: Student Self-Censorship in a Collaborative Knowledge Building Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Alan; Nason, Rod

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores student self-censorship within an online learning environment. Self-censorship in group activity can be seen as a two-edged sword. While it can be advantageous that a student censor personal frustration and angst when working with others, if the self-censorship impacts on the cognitive contribution a student makes then this may…

  4. Using Phenomenography to Build an Understanding of How University People Conceptualise Their Community-Engaged Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kim; Shephard, Kerry; Warren, David; Hesson, Gala; Fleming, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions are seeking greater community engagement through academic, social and civic activity. In response, researcher attention has turned to impacts on students' education, and benefits to both university and community partners. This phenomenographic study examines how a diverse group of teachers, researchers and…

  5. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  6. Shift and adjustment of fluvial distributary systems in the foreland of tectonically-active and cyclically-glaciated mountain belts: insights from the Piave River megafan in the southern Eastern Alps (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozzi, P.

    2015-12-01

    The development of large fluvial distributary systems at the foot of mountain belts depends from the efficiency of sediment production and routing from the uphill catchments. Valley glaciers reaching the foreland during Pleistocene glaciations were very efficient conveyors of sediments to alluvial basins, as demonstrated by megafan progradation in the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) along the southern margin of the European Alps. In our study, stratigraphy of alluvial deposits, coupled by sand petrography and OSL and radiocarbon dating, allow to reconstruct the early aggradation of the Piave River megafan between 40 and 30 kyr BP, in response to the starting of ice accumulation in the higher Alpine catchments at the end of MIS 3. A lateral shift of 12 km of the megafan apex across the uplifting thrust-ramp anticline of the Montello hill has been framed at around 28 kyr BP. The river switched from a water gap to the neighboring one several times since the Lower Pleistocene, leading to the formation of 7 strath terraces at the western end of the Montello Hill. Our research indicates that the last river diversion took place at the onset of full glacial environmental conditions of the LGM. River shift had basin-scale impact on the overall distribution of both gravels and finer-grained sediments within 60 km from the mountain front. This suggests that abrupt changes of facies distribution and geometry of sedimentary bodies in alluvial basins, at the front of tectonically-active and cyclically-glaciated mountain chains, may primarily reflect climatically-driven fluctuations of sediment delivery from the highland glaciers, rather than variations in tectonic uplift, even if the river cuts through active and seismogenic (as for the Montello thrust) structures.

  7. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research. PMID:26244595

  8. Building Zebrafish Neurobehavioral Phenomics: Effects of Common Environmental Factors on Anxiety and Locomotor Activity.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Adam Michael; Kaluyeva, Alexandra A; Poudel, Manoj K; Nguyen, Michael; Song, Cai; Kalueff, Allan V

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are emerging as an important model organism for neurobehavioral phenomics research. Given the likely variation of zebrafish behavioral phenotypes between and within laboratories, in this study, we examine the influence and variability of several common environmental modifiers on adult zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity. Utilizing the novel tank paradigm, this study assessed the role of various laboratory factors, including experimenter/handling, testing time and days, batch, and the order of testing, on the behavior of a large population of experimentally naive control fish. Although time of the day, experimenter identity, and order of testing had little effect on zebrafish anxiety and locomotor activity levels, subtle differences were found for testing days and batches. Our study establishes how zebrafish behaviors are modulated by common environmental/laboratory factors and outlines several implications for zebrafish neurobehavioral phenomics research.

  9. How to build an "active" patient? The work of AIDS associations in France.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Janine

    2006-02-01

    "What is an "active" patient?" is a question that arises in most medicine and illness-related social science research. This article examines the normative work carried out by AIDS associations in France to define an "active" patient in healthcare and research. While the fight against AIDS is often presented as being homogenous, we look at the diversity of opinion between different associations (Aides, Act Up-Paris, Actions Traitements and Positifs). We find four different cases: the patient as manager of his illness, the empowerment of patients, the science-wise patient and the experimenter. Systematic comparison of these cases shows that these perceptions of the "active" patient, in terms of the same pathology, are based upon different ways of seeing: the nature of the relationships between the different types of knowledge of the illness (scientific knowledge, clinical knowledge, experience of the illness) and the distribution of roles and powers among the various actors in the healthcare system (the government, pharmaceutical companies, the medical profession, the patients). This article highlights the historical dynamics which allow us to have a better understanding of these differences, especially the major distinction between two generations of associations, which adopted different positions with regard to their public identity.

  10. Towards Responsive Building Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayfield, John

    A synthesis of ideas and proposals that have emerged in the course of recent Programme on Educational Building activities places emphasis on issues relating to the economic management of existing building resources. In recent years the development and administration of educational building policies have been affected by changes in the organization…

  11. 5 CFR 734.406 - Participation in political activities while on duty, in uniform, in any room or building occupied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... while on duty, in uniform, in any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties, or... on duty, in uniform, in any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties, or using a... any room or building occupied in the discharge of official duties by an individual employed or...

  12. Geology of the Yucca Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stuckless, J.S.; O'Leary, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began ca. 10 Ma and continued as recently as ca. 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, ???10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Building neuroscientific evidence and creating best practices for Active and Healthy Aging through ubiquitous exergaming and Living Labs.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-08-01

    Ageing is a major global demographic trend, which seems to be intensified. The earlier detection of risks associated with ageing, can enable earlier intervention to ameliorate their negative consequences. Many of these recent efforts are associated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the stemming from them innovations in the fight against this age related decline and frailty. Ubiquitous unobtrusive monitoring and training (recently much blended by means of exergames) has become reality due to the availability of new mobile sensors and devices and the emergence of new technologies and services. The current piece of work presents the different milestones we have achieved as best practices during the past seven years of piloting training and exergaming ICT components in an effort to support Active and Healthy Aging. Our impact verification and results validation methodologies are revisited here in an effort to outline best practices and build up neuroscientific evidence. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the construction of an Active and Healthy Aging Living Lab was materialised in an attempt to gauge evidence based research in the field of active and health aging. PMID:26738090

  14. Building neuroscientific evidence and creating best practices for Active and Healthy Aging through ubiquitous exergaming and Living Labs.

    PubMed

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is a major global demographic trend, which seems to be intensified. The earlier detection of risks associated with ageing, can enable earlier intervention to ameliorate their negative consequences. Many of these recent efforts are associated with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and the stemming from them innovations in the fight against this age related decline and frailty. Ubiquitous unobtrusive monitoring and training (recently much blended by means of exergames) has become reality due to the availability of new mobile sensors and devices and the emergence of new technologies and services. The current piece of work presents the different milestones we have achieved as best practices during the past seven years of piloting training and exergaming ICT components in an effort to support Active and Healthy Aging. Our impact verification and results validation methodologies are revisited here in an effort to outline best practices and build up neuroscientific evidence. Finally, this paper demonstrates how the construction of an Active and Healthy Aging Living Lab was materialised in an attempt to gauge evidence based research in the field of active and health aging.

  15. Synthesis and biological activity of chiral tetrahydrofuranyl amino acids as building moieties of pamamycin analogues.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Velthusen, E; Jütten, P; Grigoriev, P A; Gräfe, U

    2002-01-01

    A new synthetic route to chiral tetrahydrofuranyl amino acids is described starting with D-glucose. The 17-step and a 20-step procedures, respectively, furnished compounds of the general formulas 1 and 2 mimicking the dimethylamino carboxylic acid part of pamamycin (3). In comparison with the absolute stereochemistry of 3 the acyclic compounds 1a-c and 2a-c are enantiomers. Despite of the presence of a dimethylamino function they showed neither antibacterial activity nor protonophoric effects on an artificial bilayer membrane suggesting that the macrodiolide ring of 3 forms an indispensable prerequisite for the known interaction of this antibiotic with biological systems.

  16. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  17. Scaffolded Active Learning: Nine Pedagogical Principles for Building a Modern Veterinary Curriculum.

    PubMed

    May, Stephen A; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary discipline experts unfamiliar with the broader educational literature can find the adoption of an evidence-based approach to curriculum development challenging. However, greater societal and professional demands for achieving and verifying Day One knowledge and skills, together with continued progress in information generation and technology, make it all the more important that the defined period for initial professional training be well used. This article presents and discusses nine pedagogical principles that have been used in modern curricular development in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States: (1) outcomes-based curriculum design; (2) valid and reliable assessments; (3) active learning; (4) integrated knowledge for action; (5) tightly controlled core curriculum; (6) "just-in-time" rather than "just-in-case" knowledge; (7) vertical integration, the spiral curriculum, and sequential skills development; (8) learning skills support; and (9) bridges from classroom to workplace. Crucial to effective educational progress is active learning that embraces the skills required by the modern professional, made possible by tight control of curricular content. In this information age, professionals' ability to source information on a "just-in-time" basis to support high quality reasoning and decision making is far more important than the memorization of large bodies of increasingly redundant information on a "just-in-case" basis. It is important that those with responsibility for veterinary curriculum design ensure that their programs fully equip the modern veterinary professional for confident entry into the variety of roles in which society needs their skills. PMID:26421513

  18. Scaffolded Active Learning: Nine Pedagogical Principles for Building a Modern Veterinary Curriculum.

    PubMed

    May, Stephen A; Silva-Fletcher, Ayona

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary discipline experts unfamiliar with the broader educational literature can find the adoption of an evidence-based approach to curriculum development challenging. However, greater societal and professional demands for achieving and verifying Day One knowledge and skills, together with continued progress in information generation and technology, make it all the more important that the defined period for initial professional training be well used. This article presents and discusses nine pedagogical principles that have been used in modern curricular development in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the United States: (1) outcomes-based curriculum design; (2) valid and reliable assessments; (3) active learning; (4) integrated knowledge for action; (5) tightly controlled core curriculum; (6) "just-in-time" rather than "just-in-case" knowledge; (7) vertical integration, the spiral curriculum, and sequential skills development; (8) learning skills support; and (9) bridges from classroom to workplace. Crucial to effective educational progress is active learning that embraces the skills required by the modern professional, made possible by tight control of curricular content. In this information age, professionals' ability to source information on a "just-in-time" basis to support high quality reasoning and decision making is far more important than the memorization of large bodies of increasingly redundant information on a "just-in-case" basis. It is important that those with responsibility for veterinary curriculum design ensure that their programs fully equip the modern veterinary professional for confident entry into the variety of roles in which society needs their skills.

  19. Resprout and Survival of Willow ( Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, F.; Labonne, S.

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow ( Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45 %. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56 %) than brush layers (37 %). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51 % cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  20. Resprout and Survival of Willow (Salix) Cuttings on Bioengineering Structures in Actively Eroding Gullies in Marls in a Mountainous Mediterranean Climate: A Large-Scale Experiment in the Francon Catchment (Southern Alps, France).

    PubMed

    Rey, F; Labonne, S

    2015-10-01

    Improving the understanding of the role of vegetation and bioengineering structures on erosion and sedimentation control, especially in torrent-prone catchments in a mountainous Mediterranean climate, has become a key issue today for the scientific community working in ecological engineering and restoration ecology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of willow (Salix) cuttings in resprouting and survival on bioengineering structures in actively eroding gullies in marls and to identify the factors influencing this performance. Measurements were taken from 2008 to 2011 on 336 bioengineering structures, namely brush layers on wooden sills (BL) and brush layers with brush mats on wooden sills (BLM), using 8890 cuttings of Salix purpurea and Salix incana. These structures were built in 18 gullies of the Francon Catchment in marls (73 ha) in the Southern French Alps. After four growing seasons, the results revealed a total cutting survival rate of 45%. They also demonstrated that in BLM, brush mats provided better survival (56%) than brush layers (37%). In BL, brush layers alone showed 51% cutting survival. Cutting resprout and survival were observed for all structure aspects. They were positively related to increasing gully size and vegetation cover on gully sides. The results of this large-scale experiment clarified previous data obtained on a limited sample of bioengineering structures, providing further detail and showing that it is possible to use such structures made of willow cuttings to revegetate actively eroding gullies in marls within a mountainous Mediterranean climate.

  1. Active Tectonics of the western Mediterranean: GPS evidence for roll back of a delaminated subcontinental lithospheric slab beneath the Rif Mountains, Morocco.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernant, P.; Fadil, A.; McClusky, S.; Reilinger, R.; Gomez, F.; Ben Sari, D.; Mourabit, T.; Feigl, K.; Barazangi, M.

    2005-12-01

    The location and character of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary in the western Mediterranean remain equivocal. Miocene to present extension of the interplate Alboran domain occurs within the context of ongoing Africa-Eurasia convergence. Ideas to explain the apparently synchronous subsidence of the Alboran Sea and uplift of the adjacent Betic and Rif mountain belts are still widely debated. To understand better the tectonics of this region, we determine the surface deformation in Morocco from five years of GPS survey observations of a 22-station survey network, 4 continuously recording GPS stations, and 4 IGS stations in Iberia. In addition to the expected Africa-Eurasia relative motion, the results indicate roughly southward motion (~3 mm/yr) of the Rif Mountains, Morocco relative to stable Africa. The associated crustal shortening of the Rif is balanced by extension and opening of the adjacent Alboran Sea. Motion of the Rif is approximately normal to the direction of Africa-Eurasia relative motion, and is difficult to relate to deformation induced by plate boundary interactions. We suggest that Rif-Alboran deformation is the combination of the differential plate motion between Iberia and Africa, and sub-lithospheric dynamic processes. The continental crust characterizing the Alboran region and the N-S asymmetry of the observed deformation (i.e., no evidence for north-directed shortening in the Betic Mountains north of the Alboran Sea) suggests that delamination and south-directed roll back of the African lithospheric mantle under the Rif/Alboran domain is driving the recent geologic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean region.

  2. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  3. Giving and taking: Representational building blocks of active resource-transfer events in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Tatone, Denis; Geraci, Alessandra; Csibra, Gergely

    2015-01-01

    Active resource transfer is a pervasive and distinctive feature of human sociality. We hypothesized that humans possess an action schema of giving specific for representing social interactions based on material exchange, and specified the set of necessary assumptions about giving events that this action schema should be equipped with. We tested this proposal by investigating how 12-month-old infants interpret abstract resource-transfer events. Across eight looking-time studies using a violation-of-expectation paradigm we found that infants were able to distinguish between kinematically identical giving and taking actions. Despite the surface similarity between these two actions, only giving was represented as an object-mediated social interaction. While we found no evidence that infants expected the target of a giving or taking action to reciprocate, the present results suggest that infants interpret giving as an inherently social action, which they can possibly use to map social relations via observing resource-transfer episodes. PMID:25614012

  4. Knowledge formalization of intelligent building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žáček, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This article aim is understanding the basic knowledge about an intelligent building. The notion of the intelligent building can be called any building equipped with computer and communication technology, which can automatically respond to internal or external stimuli. The result of the intelligent building is an automated and foreseeing of activities that enable to reduce operating costs and increase comfort. The best way to use the intelligent building is for a low-energy building, a passive building, or for building with high savings. The output of this article is the formalization of basic knowledge of the intelligent building by RDF graph.

  5. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-01-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent. PMID:27353861

  6. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-01-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent. PMID:27353861

  7. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-01

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  8. Mantle Subduction and Uplift of Intracontinental Mountains: A Case Study from the Chinese Tianshan Mountains within Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyi; Zhang, Jin; Zhao, Xixi; Jiang, Mei; Li, Yaping; Zhu, Zhixin; Feng, Qianwen; Wang, Lijia; Sun, Guihua; Liu, Jianfeng; Yang, Tiannan

    2016-06-29

    The driving mechanism that is responsible for the uplift of intracontinental mountains has puzzled geologists for decades. This study addresses this issue by using receiver function images across the Chinese Tianshan Mountains and available data from both deep seismic profiles and surface structural deformation. The near-surface structural deformation shows that the Tianshan crust experienced strong shortening during the Cenozoic. The receiver function image across the Tianshan Mountains reveals that the lithosphere of the Junggar Basin to the north became uncoupled along the Moho, and the mantle below the Moho subducted southwards beneath the northern part of the Tianshan Mountains, thereby thickening the overlying crust. Similar deep structures, however, are not observed under the Tarim Basin and the adjacent southern Tianshan Mountains. This difference in the deep structures correlates with geomorphological features in the region. Thus, a new model of mantle subduction, herein termed M-type subduction, is proposed for the mountain-building processes in intracontinental compressional settings. The available geomorphological, geological and seismic data in the literatures show that this model is probably suitable for other high, linear mountains within the continent.

  9. Education and the Mountain Centres. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drasdo, Harold

    The outdoor education literature reveals little on the values of outdoor education activities. The values of aesthetic education can readily be ascribed to values of an outdoor mountain experience--visual, plastic, musical, kinetic, verbal, and constructive. These values are related through senses, muscles, speech, and thought to form expression.…

  10. WILSON MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromfield, Calvin S.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The Wilson Mountains Wilderness consists of about 68 sq mi in the San Miguel Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Based on a mineral survey two areas in the wilderness have a probable mineral-resource potential. One area is on the east margin of the area in the Trout Lake mining district, and the other is near the center of the area, the Mount Wilson mining district. Both areas have had a modest base and (or) precious metal production from narrow veins and have a probable potential for the occurrence of similar deposits. Of more significance is a probable mineral-resource potential for disseminated copper mineralization in the Mount Wilson mining district.

  11. Himalayan Mountain Range, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Snow is present the year round in most of the high Himalaya Mountain Range (33.0N, 76.5E). In this view taken at the onset of winter, the continuous snow line can be seen for hundreds of miles along the south face of the range in the Indian states of Punjab and Kashmir. The snow line is at about 12,000 ft. altitude but the deep Cenab River gorge is easily delineated as a break along the south edge of the snow covered mountains. '

  12. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  13. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  14. Asia High Mountain Glacier Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shum, C. K.; Su, X.; Shang, K.; Cogley, J. G.; Zhang, G.; Howat, I. M.; Braun, A.; Kuo, C. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Asian High Mountain encompassing the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has the largest glaciated regions in the world outside of Greenland and Antarctica. The Tibetan Plateau is the source or headwater of many major river systems, which provide water resources to more than a billion people downstream. The impact of climate change on the Tibetan Plateau physical processes, including mountain glacier wastage, permafrost active layer thickening, the timing and the quantity of the perennial snowpack melt affecting upstream catchments, river runoffs, land-use, have significant effects on downstream water resources. Exact quantification of the Asian High Mountain glacier wastage or its mass balance on how much of the melt water contributes to early 21st century global sea-level rise, remain illusive or the published results are arguably controversial. The recent observed significant increase of freshwater storage within the Tibetan Plateaus remains a limitation to exactly quantify mountain glacier wastage. Here, we provide an updated estimate of Asia high mountain glacier mass balance using satellite geodetic observations during the last decade, accounting for the hydrologic and other processes, and validated against available in situ mass balance data.

  15. Outreach and capacity building activities for engaging youth and public in Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We report to the COSPAR Panel on Education and relevant community on activities, pilot projects and results relevant for outreach and engagement in exploration. Number of activities were developed in the frame of the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) including the participation of students in lunar symposia, space conferences or ICEUM International Conferences on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon* ILEWG with support from various space agencies, universities and institutions has organized events for young professionals with a wide background (including scientist, engineers, humanistic, law, art students) a Moon academy, lunar and planetary students work-shops, technical training workshops, international observe the Moon sessions. ILEWG has organised or sponsored participants to a series of field training and research campaigns in Utah desert research station, Eifel volcanic park, Iceland, Rio Tinto, La Reunion island. Education and outreach projects used space missions data (SMART-1 views of the Moon, Earth views from space, Mars views, Mars crowdsourcing games, astronomy data analysis) to engage the public in citizen science and exploration. Artistic and sociological projects (e.g. "social lunar telescope, lunar zen garden, Moon academy, MoonLife, MoonLife concept store, Moon republic, artscience projects, space science in the arts, artists in residence, artists in MoonMars base") were also initiated with artists to engage the wide public in exploration. A number of projects have been developed with support from ITACCUS IAF committee. We shall discuss how these pilot projects could be expanded for the benefit of future space projects, young professionals, the space community and the public. Acknowledgements: we thank collaborators from ILEWG community and partner institutes for the different projects mentioned http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/ http://sci.esa.int/ilewg/47170-gluc-iceum11-beijing-2010lunar-declaration/ Foing B., Stoker C

  16. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of east elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  17. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of north elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  18. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of south elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  19. Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1057, Experiment Station Assistant’s Residence, view of west elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1057, Chapman Road, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  20. Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of west elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1053, Chapman Avenue, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  1. Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of north elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1053, Chapman Avenue, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  2. Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of south elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1053, Chapman Avenue, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  3. Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 1053, Experiment Station Director’s Residence, view of east elevation - Wind River Administrative Site, Building No. 1053, Chapman Avenue, near Lookout Mountain Road, Carson, Skamania County, WA

  4. The Sources of Carbon and Nitrogen in Mountain Lakes and the Role of Human Activity in Their Modification Determined by Tracking Stable Isotope Composition.

    PubMed

    Gąsiorowski, Michał; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2013-04-01

    We studied the isotopic composition of organic matter in the sediments of eight mountain lakes located in the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland). The sediments of the lakes were fine and course detritus gyttja, mud, and sand. The total organic carbon content varied from 0.5 to 53 %. The C/N ratio indicated that in-lake primary production is the major source of the organic matter in the lakes located above the treeline, whereas terrestrial plant fragments are the major organic compounds in the sediments of dystrophic forest lakes. We also found that a clear trend of isotopic curves toward lower values of δ (13)C and δ (15)N (both ~3 ‰) began in the 1960s. This trend is a sign of the deposition of greater amounts of NO x from the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly by vehicle engines. The combustion of fossil fuels in electric plants and other factories had a smaller influence on the isotopic composition. This trend has been weaker since the 1990s. Animal and human wastes from pastures and tourism had a surprisingly minor effect on lake environments. These data are contrary to previous data regarding lake biota and suggest the high sensitivity of living organisms to organic pollution. PMID:23576824

  5. The Sources of Carbon and Nitrogen in Mountain Lakes and the Role of Human Activity in Their Modification Determined by Tracking Stable Isotope Composition.

    PubMed

    Gąsiorowski, Michał; Sienkiewicz, Elwira

    2013-04-01

    We studied the isotopic composition of organic matter in the sediments of eight mountain lakes located in the Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland). The sediments of the lakes were fine and course detritus gyttja, mud, and sand. The total organic carbon content varied from 0.5 to 53 %. The C/N ratio indicated that in-lake primary production is the major source of the organic matter in the lakes located above the treeline, whereas terrestrial plant fragments are the major organic compounds in the sediments of dystrophic forest lakes. We also found that a clear trend of isotopic curves toward lower values of δ (13)C and δ (15)N (both ~3 ‰) began in the 1960s. This trend is a sign of the deposition of greater amounts of NO x from the combustion of fossil fuels, mainly by vehicle engines. The combustion of fossil fuels in electric plants and other factories had a smaller influence on the isotopic composition. This trend has been weaker since the 1990s. Animal and human wastes from pastures and tourism had a surprisingly minor effect on lake environments. These data are contrary to previous data regarding lake biota and suggest the high sensitivity of living organisms to organic pollution.

  6. Accuracy of Perception of Body Size Among Overweight Latino Preadolescents After A 6-Month Physical Activity Skills Building Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Scott, Theresa A.; Barkin, Shari L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that overweight Latino children underestimate their body size. Erroneous perception of body size may have important health and behavioral implications and serve as a significant barrier to weight control. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether children’s perceptions of their body size became more accurate following a pediatric obesity intervention focused on increasing physical activity. Design/Methods This analysis includes 61 overweight (body mass index ≥85%) Latino children (aged 8–11 years) parent-child dyads who completed a pilot randomized control trial. Results After the intervention, 40.7% (11/27) of children in the intervention group rated their body size accurately compared to 21.2% (7/33) in the control group. The difference indicates a trend towards significance (P = .09). Conclusions Participating in monthly physical activity skill building sessions may increase children’s accuracy in body size perception. This may be an important first step towards behavior modification. PMID:19605865

  7. FLARE ENERGY BUILD-UP IN A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION NEAR A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Golub, Leon; Schmieder, Brigitte; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Guo, Yang; Huang Guangli

    2009-10-10

    A B1.7 two-ribbon flare occurred in a highly non-potential decaying active region near a coronal hole at 10:00 UT on 2008 May 17. This flare is 'large' in the sense that it involves the entire region, and it is associated with both a filament eruption and a coronal mass ejection. We present multi-wavelength observations from EUV (TRACE, STEREO/EUVI), X-rays (Hinode/XRT), and Halpha (THEMIS, BBSO) prior to, during and after the flare. Prior to the flare, the region contained two filaments. The long J-shaped sheared loops corresponding to the southern filament were evolved from two short loop systems, which happened around 22:00 UT after a filament eruption on May 16. Formation of highly sheared loops in the southeastern part of the region was observed by STEREO 8 hr before the flare. We also perform nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling for the region at two times prior to the flare, using the flux rope insertion method. The models include the non-force-free effect of magnetic buoyancy in the photosphere. The best-fit NLFFF models show good fit to observations both in the corona (X-ray and EUV loops) and chromosphere (Halpha filament). We find that the horizontal fields in the photosphere are relatively insensitive to the present of flux ropes in the corona. The axial flux of the flux rope in the NLFFF model on May 17 is twice that on May 16, and the model on May 17 is only marginally stable. We also find that the quasi-circular flare ribbons are associated with the separatrix between open and closed fields. This observation and NLFFF modeling suggest that this flare may be triggered by the reconnection at the null point on the separatrix surface.

  8. 33. SOUTH PLANT NORTH RAILROAD SPUR, WITH LABORATORY (BUILDING 241) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. SOUTH PLANT NORTH RAILROAD SPUR, WITH LABORATORY (BUILDING 241) AT RIGHT AND CELL BUILDING (BUILDING 242) AT CENTER. VIEW TO EAST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  9. 120. NORTH PLANT GB BULK STORAGE BUILDING AND AMMUNITION DEMOLITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    120. NORTH PLANT GB BULK STORAGE BUILDING AND AMMUNITION DEMOLITION FACILITY AT CENTER AND CASE FILLING PLANT/CLUSTER ASSEMBLY BUILDING (BUILDING 1601/1606) IN BACKGROUND, FROM GB MANUFACTURING PLANT. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 87. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. EAST SECTION OF SOUTH PLANT, SHOWING MUSTARD FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 728) AT LEFT AND INCINERATOR/PRECIPITATOR (BUILDING 724) AT CENTER, FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 37. SOUTH PLANT SOUTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 315) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. SOUTH PLANT SOUTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 315) AT LEFT AND VEHICLE MAINTENANCE BUILDING (BUILDING 317) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO EAST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 42. SOUTH PLANT NORTHCENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 542) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SOUTH PLANT NORTH-CENTER RAILROAD SPUR, WITH WAREHOUSE (BUILDING 542) AT LEFT AND WHITE PHOSPHOROUS FILLING BUILDING (BUILDING 541) AT RIGHT. VIEW TO WEST - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  14. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  15. Rocky Mountain High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes Colorado's Eagle Rock School, which offers troubled teens a fresh start by transporting them to a tuition- free campus high in the mountains. The program encourages spiritual development as well as academic growth. The atmosphere is warm, loving, structured, and nonthreatening. The article profiles several students' experiences at the…

  16. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  17. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  18. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  19. Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards, North Mountain, Phoenix, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reavis, K. J.; Wasklewicz, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban sprawl in many western U.S. cities has expanded development onto alluvial fans. In the case of metropolitan Phoenix, AZ (MPA), urban sprawl has led to an exponential outward growth into surrounding mountainous areas and onto alluvial fans. Building on alluvial fans places humans at greater risk to flooding and debris flow hazards. Recent research has shown debris flows often supply large quantities of material to many alluvial fans in MPA. However, the risk of debris flows to built environments is relatively unknown. We use a 2D debris flow modeling approach, aided by high-resolution airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) topographic data, to examine debris flow behavior in a densely populated portion of the MPA to assess the risk and vulnerability of debris flow damage to the built infrastructure. A calibrated 2D debris flow model is developed for a "known" recent debris flow at an undeveloped site in MPA. The calibrated model and two other model scenarios are applied to a populated area with historical evidence of debris flow activity. Results from the modeled scenarios show evidence of debris flow damage to houses built on the alluvial fan. Debris flow inundation is also evident on streets on the fan. We use housing values and building damage to estimate the costs assocaited with various modeled debris flow scenarios.

  20. Building blocks for actively-aligned micro-optical systems in rapid prototyping and small series production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttger, Gunnar; Queisser, Marco; Arndt-Staufenbiel, Norbert; Schröder, Henning; Lang, K.-D.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been considerable progress in utilizing fully automated machines for the assembly of microoptical systems. Such systems integrate laser sources, optical elements and detectors into tight packages, and efficiently couple light to free space beams, waveguides in optical backplanes, or optical fibers for longer reach transmission. The required electrical-optical and optical components are placed and aligned actively in more than one respect. For one, all active components are actually operated in the alignment process, and, more importantly, the placing of all components is controlled actively by camera systems and power detectors with live feedback for an optimal coupling efficiency. The total number of optical components typically is in the range of 5 to 50, whereas the number of actors with gripping tools for the actual handling and aligning is limited, with little flexibility in the gripping width. The assembly process therefore is strictly sequential and, given that an automated tool changing has not been established in this class of machines yet, there are either limitations in the geometries of components that may be used, or time-consuming interaction by human operators is needed. As a solution we propose and present lasered glass building blocks with standardized gripping geometries that enclose optical elements of various shapes and functionalities. These are cut as free form geometries with green short pulse and CO2 lasers. What seems to add cost at first rather increases freedom of design and adds an economical flexibility to create very hybrid assemblies of various micro-optical assemblies also in small numbers.